WorldWideScience

Sample records for garbage collection service

  1. Heavy physical work under time pressure: the garbage collection service--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camada, Ilza Mitsuko de Oliveira; Pataro, Silvana Maria Santos; Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The increased generation of garbage has become a problem in large cities, with greater demand for collection services. The collector is subjected to high workload. This study describes the work in garbage collection service, highlighting the requirements of time, resulting in physical and psychosocial demands to collectors. Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA) - a method focused on the study of work in real situations was used. Initially, technical visits, global observations and unstructured interviews with different subjects of a garbage collection company were conducted. The following step of the systematic observations was accompanied by interviews conducted during the execution of tasks, inquiring about the actions taken, and also interviews about the actions, but conducted after the development of the tasks, photographic records and audiovisual recordings, of workers from two garbage collection teams. Contradictions between the prescribed work and activities (actual work) were identified, as well as the variability present in this process, and strategies adopted by these workers to regulate the workload. It was concluded that the insufficiency of means and the organizational structure of management ensue a situation where the collection process is maintained at the expense of hyper-requesting these workers, both physically and psychosocially.

  2. Household Response to Inadequate Sewerage and Garbage Collection Services in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Ismaila Rimi

    2017-01-01

    Provision of sanitation and garbage collection services is an important and yet challenging issue in the rapidly growing cities of developing countries, with significant human health and environmental sustainability implications. Although a growing number of studies have investigated the consequences of inadequate delivery of basic urban services in developing countries, few studies have examined how households cope with the problems. Using the Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect (EVLN) model, this article explores how households respond to inadequate sewerage and garbage collection services in Abuja, Nigeria. Based on a qualitative study, data were gathered from in-depth interviews with sixty households, complemented with personal observation. The findings from grounded analysis indicated that majority (62%) and about half (55%) of the respondents have utilized the informal sector for sewerage services and garbage collection, respectively, to supplement the services provided by the city. While 68% of the respondents reported investing their personal resources to improve the delivery of existing sewerage services, half (53%) have collectively complained to the utility agency and few (22%) have neglected the problems. The paper concludes by discussing the public health and environmental sustainability implications of the findings.

  3. Making garbage collection independent of the amount of garbage

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlin, Dan

    1987-01-01

    (Appendix to SICS Research Report R86009) This appendix shows in detail how to make the time for the garbage collection algorithm presented in [AHS 86] become proportional to n log n , where n is the number of non-garbage cells. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with [AHS 86] since no further presentation of the notation used is made here. The compaction phase of that algorithm is proportional to the amount of memory, i.e. proportional to the sum of garbage and non-garbage. This is un...

  4. Memoised Garbage Collection for Software Model Checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, V.Y.; Ruys, T.C.; Kowalewski, S.; Philippou, A.

    Virtual machine based software model checkers like JPF and MoonWalker spend up to half of their veri��?cation time on garbage collection. This is no surprise as after nearly each transition the heap has to be cleaned from garbage. To improve this, this paper presents the Memoised Garbage Collection

  5. Garbage collection in the C++ environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zika, Petr

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the thesis is to design and implement a garbage collector within the environment of the C++ programming language, defined by the International Standard ISO/IEC 14882:2003. Analysis of various aspects of automatic memory management in general and in the C++ programming language in particular is presented. A list of requirements on garbage collection implementation is given. The thesis focuses on solving problems of implementing an incremental tracing garbage collector within the li...

  6. Realtime Audio with Garbage Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Matheussen, Kjetil Svalastog

    2010-01-01

    Two non-moving concurrent garbage collectors tailored for realtime audio processing are described. Both collectors work on copies of the heap to avoid cache misses and audio-disruptive synchronizations. Both collectors are targeted at multiprocessor personal computers. The first garbage collector works in uncooperative environments, and can replace Hans Boehm's conservative garbage collector for C and C++. The collector does not access the virtual memory system. Neither doe...

  7. A comparison of three garbage collection algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.

    1990-01-01

    Abstract. The running cost of garbage collection is studied as a function of the amount of available store. A performance model originally proposed by Hoare is modified to support experiments with three garbage collection methods: reference count, mark/scan and two-space copy. By also taking the

  8. Simple concurrent garbage collection almost without synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Lali, M.I.

    We present two simple mark and sweep algorithms, A and B, for concurrent garbage collection by a single collector running concurrently with a number of mutators that concurrently modify shared data. Both algorithms are based on the ideas of Ben-Ari's classical algorithm for on-the-fly garbage

  9. Lock-free parallel garbage collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Gao; J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); W.H. Hesselink (Wim)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstract This paper presents a lock-free parallel algorithm for mark&sweep garbage collection (GC) in a realistic model using synchronization primitives compare-and-swap (CAS) and load-linked/store-conditional (LL/SC) offered by machine architectures. Mutators and collectors can simultaneously

  10. Lock-free parallel garbage collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Groote, J.F.; Hesselink, W.H.; Pan, Y; Chen, D; Guo, M; Cao, JN; Dongarra, J

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a lock-free parallel algorithm for garbage collection in a realistic model using synchronization primitives offered by machine architectures. Mutators and collectors can simultaneously operate on the data structure. In particular no strict alternation between usage and cleaning

  11. The Effect of Garbage Collection on Cache Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zorn, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    .... This paper describes the use of trace-driven simulation to estimate the effect of garbage collection algorithms on cache performance Traces from four large Common Lisp programs have been collected...

  12. ON-THE-FLY GARBAGE COLLECTION FOR SEVERAL MUTATORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONKER, JE

    An algorithm is given for on-the-fly garbage collection in the presence of several mutators. It uses two colours and is a generalization of Ben-Ari's algorithm (1984). The correctness proof is based on the lexical orderings of several tuples of state space functions. It is shown that in a certain

  13. Real-Time "Garbage Collection" for List Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed algorithmic techniques for list processing enable immediate identification of computer memory cells having become inactive through disconnection from active cells, together with addition of these inactive cells to pool of reusable cells. These two "garbage collection" techniques reduce memory requirements of list processors or increase their speed or both. With both techniques, processing continuity maintained, enabling real-time processing.

  14. The derivation of distributed termination detection algorithms from garbage collection schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.; Mattern, F.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the termination detection problem for distributed computations can be modelled as an instance of the garbage collection problem. Consequently, algorithms for the termination detection problem are obtained by applying transformations to garbage collection algorithms. The

  15. Garbage Collection in a Distributed Object-Oriented System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aloke; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm is described in this paper for garbage collection in distributed systems with object sharing across processor boundaries. The algorithm allows local garbage collection at each node in the system to proceed independently of local collection at the other nodes. It requires no global synchronization or knowledge of the global state of the system and exhibits the capability of graceful degradation. The concept of a specialized dump node is proposed to facilitate the collection of inaccessible circular structures. An experimental evaluation of the algorithm is also described. The algorithm is compared with a corresponding scheme that requires global synchronization. The results show that the algorithm works well in distributed processing environments even when the locality of object references is low.

  16. Coordinated garbage collection for raid array of solid state disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillow, David A; Ki, Youngjae; Oral, Hakki S; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2014-04-29

    An optimized redundant array of solid state devices may include an array of one or more optimized solid-state devices and a controller coupled to the solid-state devices for managing the solid-state devices. The controller may be configured to globally coordinate the garbage collection activities of each of said optimized solid-state devices, for instance, to minimize the degraded performance time and increase the optimal performance time of the entire array of devices.

  17. Garbage collection can be made real-time and verifiable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, James H.; Ross, Charles L.

    1988-01-01

    An efficient means of memory reclamation (also known as Garbage Collection) is essential for Machine Intelligence applications where dynamic storage allocation is desired or required. Solutions for real-time systems must introduce very small processing overhead and must also provide for the verification of the software in order to meet the application time budgets and to verify the correctness of the software. Garbage Collection (GC) techniques are proposed for symbolic processing systems which may simultaneously meet both real-time requirements and verification requirements. The proposed memory reclamation technique takes advantage of the strong points of both the earlier Mark and Sweep technique and the more recent Copy Collection approaches. At least one practical implementation of these new GC techniques has already been developed and tested on a very-high performance symbolic computing system. Complete GC processing of all generated garbage has been demonstrated to require as little as a few milliseconds to perform. This speed enables the effective operation of the GC function as either a background task or as an actual part of the application task itself.

  18. A Phase-Adaptive Garbage Collector Using Dynamic Heap Partitioning and Opportunistic Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Yangwoo; Kim, Jaesub; Park, Kyu Ho

    Applications usually have their own phases in heap memory usage. The traditional garbage collector fails to match various application phases because the same heuristic on the object behavior is used throughout the entire execution. This paper introduces a phase-adaptive garbage collector which reorganizes the heap layout and adjusts the invocation time of the garbage collection according to the phases. The proposed collector identifies phases by detecting the application methods strongly related to the phase boundaries. The experimental results show that the proposed phase-adaptive collector successfully recognizes application phases and improves the garbage collection time by as much as 41%.

  19. Lock-free parallel and concurrent garbage collection by mark&sweep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Groote, J. F.; Hesselink, W. H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a lock-free algorithm for mark&sweep garbage collection (GC) in a realistic model using synchronization primitives load-linked/store-conditional (LL/SC) or compare-and-swap (CAS) offered by machine arch i lectures. The algorithm is concurrent in the sense that garbage collection

  20. Type-assisted automatic garbage collection for lock-free data structures

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Albert Mingkun; Wrigstad, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    We introduce Isolde, an automatic garbage collection scheme designed specifically for managing memory in lock-free data structures, such as stacks, lists, maps and queues. Isolde exists as a plug-in memory manager, designed to sit on-top of another memory manager, and use it's allocator and reclaimer (if exists). Isolde treats a lock-free data structure as a logical heap, isolated from the rest of the program. This allows garbage collection outside of Isolde to take place without affecting th...

  1. Urban garbage disposal and management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Kang, Mu-yi; Liu, Zheng; Zhou, Yan-fang

    2003-07-01

    This paper, probing into the present situation of urban domestic garbage by analyzing its growing trend, compositional change and regional difference, reveals the problems existing in its disposal and management in China. Meanwhile, a questionnaire was conducted in five big cities around China for surveying urban residents' attitudes towards garbage disposal and management policies and measures. Results showed the output of urban domestic garbage in Chinese cities is ever increasing, and the recoverable materials and energy in garbage composition are also increasing. The population growth, economic development, and increase of residents' expenditure level are the main factors influencing the growing output and changing composition of the garbage. Information acquired from the questionnaire showed that majority of the urban residents are in favor of the garbage reduction policies and managerial measures and are willing to collaborate with municipal government in battling against garbage. Based on the analysis and questionnaire, some policymaking-oriented suggestions such as operating the garbage disposal from a social welfare service to a sector of profit-gaining enterprises, transferring the garbage management from passive end control to active source control, promoting the classified garbage collection in cities around China, and charging garbage fees for its cleanup and disposal, have also been put forward in the paper.

  2. Optimal Policies for Random and Periodic Garbage Collections with Tenuring Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xufeng; Nakamura, Syouji; Nakagawa, Toshio

    It is an important problem to determine the tenuring threshold to meet the pause time goal for a generational garbage collector. From such viewpoint, this paper proposes two stochastic models based on the working schemes of a generational garbage collector: One is random collection which occurs at a nonhomogeneous Poisson process and the other is periodic collection which occurs at periodic times. Since the cost suffered for minor collection increases, as the amount of surviving objects accumulates, tenuring minor collection should be made at some tenuring threshold. Using the techniques of cumulative processes and reliability theory, expected cost rates with tenuring threshold are obtained, and optimal policies which minimize them are discussed analytically and computed numerically.

  3. A distributed garbage collector for active objects

    OpenAIRE

    Puaut , Isabelle

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces an algorithm that performs garbage collection in distributed systems of active objects (i.e., objects having their own threads of control). The proposed garbage collector is made of a set of local garbage collectors, one per node, loosely coupled to a global garbage collector. The novelties of the proposed garbage collector come from the fact that local garbage collectors need not be synchronized with each other for detecting garbage objects and that faulty communication...

  4. Heart rate and energy expenditure during garbage collection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Luiz A; Ferreira, João A; Damião, Jorginete J

    2007-11-01

    Physiological workload is used to estimate the physical demand of tasks in the workforce, but limited information is available for the various work activities in developing countries. Eighty-three randomly selected male workers participated in the present study, aimed at assessing the physiological workload of garbage collection (GC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Heart rate (HR) was obtained on four consecutive workdays. Energy expenditure (EE) was extrapolated from heart rate data based on individual laboratory-established heart rate/oxygen consumption curve in 70 workers. Mean HR during GC was 104.0 +/- 11.7 bpm (+/- SD), representing 56.9 +/- 7.5% of maximum heart rate. EE was 1608.3 +/- 738.5 kcal for an average of 293.1 +/- 103.9 minutes of work per day. Based on all measurements, work in garbage collection in Rio de Janeiro can be considered excessively heavy. These data emphasize the need to develop appropriate classification of workload to be used in health-related research and in the development of maximum acceptable work time in association with the physiological workload, particularly in developing countries.

  5. 21 CFR 1250.79 - Garbage disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Garbage disposal. 1250.79 Section 1250.79 Food and... SANITATION Servicing Areas for Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.79 Garbage disposal. (a) Water-tight, readily cleanable, nonabsorbent containers with close-fitting covers shall be used to receive and store garbage. (b...

  6. The use of alcohol by workers of the garbage collection service Uso de bebida alcohólica en trabajadores que trabajan recolectando basura Uso de bebidas alcoólicas por trabalhadores do serviço de coleta de lixo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra dos Santos Mabuchi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe the alcohol consumption of a hundred workers of the garbage collection service in the peripheral South region of São Paulo, SP, Brazil. The Transversal Study was adopted as the theoretical-methodological referential. Data were collected through the questionnaire QRCAP, based on the questionnaire AUDIT. The results showed that 94% of the interviewees ingest some kind of alcoholic beverage, while 15% were considered dependents. Peer pressure was pointed as the main reason to initiate the habit (46%. A total of 67% of the interviewees had already felt some symptom as the result of the ingestion of alcohol and 80% reported to be afraid of getting mentally ill due to the vice. External and internal situations were reported as the precursors of alcohol consumption. However, it was evidenced that the lack of orientation and information contributes for the prevalence of this illness.El estudio tuvo como objetivo describir el consumo de alcohol en 100 trabajadores que trabajan recolectando basura en los alrededores de la región sur del municipio de São Paulo. Se utilizó como metodología el estudio transversal. La recolección de datos fue realizada a través del cuestionario QRCAP, el cual sea basa en el cuestionario AUDIT. Los resultados muestran que 94% de los sujetos ingieren algún tipo de bebida alcohólica, de los cuales 15% fueron considerados como dependientes. La influencia de los amigos fue señalada como el mayor motivo para iniciar con el vicio (46%. Sesenta y siete por ciento de los sujetos había sentido algún síntoma como consecuencia del consumo de bebida alcohólica, 80% mencionaron tener miedo adquirir enfermedad mental debido al vicio. Condiciones externas e internas fueron citadas como resultado del uso del alcohol. No obstante, se evidenció que la falta de orientación e información sobre el alcohol contribuye con su prevalencia.O presente estudo teve como objetivo descrever o consumo de

  7. 21 CFR 1250.39 - Garbage equipment and disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Garbage equipment and disposition. 1250.39 Section... SANITATION Food Service Sanitation on Land and Air Conveyances, and Vessels § 1250.39 Garbage equipment and... receive and store garbage. Garbage and refuse shall be disposed of as frequently as is necessary and...

  8. Combinatorial GVNS (General Variable Neighborhood Search Optimization for Dynamic Garbage Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Papalitsas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available General variable neighborhood search (GVNS is a well known and widely used metaheuristic for efficiently solving many NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems. We propose a novel extension of the conventional GVNS. Our approach incorporates ideas and techniques from the field of quantum computation during the shaking phase. The travelling salesman problem (TSP is a well known NP-hard problem which has broadly been used for modelling many real life routing cases. As a consequence, TSP can be used as a basis for modelling and finding routes via the Global Positioning System (GPS. In this paper, we examine the potential use of this method for the GPS system of garbage trucks. Specifically, we provide a thorough presentation of our method accompanied with extensive computational results. The experimental data accumulated on a plethora of TSP instances, which are shown in a series of figures and tables, allow us to conclude that the novel GVNS algorithm can provide an efficient solution for this type of geographical problem.

  9. Trashing the System: Social Movement, Intersectional Rhetoric, and Collective Agency in the Young Lords Organization's Garbage Offensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enck-Wanzer, Darrel

    2006-01-01

    Examining the nascent rhetoric of the Young Lords Organization's (YLO) 1969 "garbage offensive," this essay argues that the long-standing constraints on agency to which they were responding demanded an inventive rhetoric that was decolonizing both in its aim and in its form. Blending diverse forms of discourse produced an intersectional rhetoric…

  10. 9 CFR 166.8 - Vehicles used to transport garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vehicles used to transport garbage. 166.8 Section 166.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... used to transport garbage. Vehicles used by a licensee to transport untreated garbage, except those...

  11. Garbage in, Garbage Out: Data Collection, Quality Assessment and Reporting Standards for Social Media Data Use in Health Research, Infodemiology and Digital Disease Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonsang; Huang, Jidong; Emery, Sherry

    2016-02-26

    Social media have transformed the communications landscape. People increasingly obtain news and health information online and via social media. Social media platforms also serve as novel sources of rich observational data for health research (including infodemiology, infoveillance, and digital disease detection detection). While the number of studies using social data is growing rapidly, very few of these studies transparently outline their methods for collecting, filtering, and reporting those data. Keywords and search filters applied to social data form the lens through which researchers may observe what and how people communicate about a given topic. Without a properly focused lens, research conclusions may be biased or misleading. Standards of reporting data sources and quality are needed so that data scientists and consumers of social media research can evaluate and compare methods and findings across studies. We aimed to develop and apply a framework of social media data collection and quality assessment and to propose a reporting standard, which researchers and reviewers may use to evaluate and compare the quality of social data across studies. We propose a conceptual framework consisting of three major steps in collecting social media data: develop, apply, and validate search filters. This framework is based on two criteria: retrieval precision (how much of retrieved data is relevant) and retrieval recall (how much of the relevant data is retrieved). We then discuss two conditions that estimation of retrieval precision and recall rely on--accurate human coding and full data collection--and how to calculate these statistics in cases that deviate from the two ideal conditions. We then apply the framework on a real-world example using approximately 4 million tobacco-related tweets collected from the Twitter firehose. We developed and applied a search filter to retrieve e-cigarette-related tweets from the archive based on three keyword categories: devices

  12. Garbage collector interface

    OpenAIRE

    Ive, Anders; Blomdell, Anders; Ekman, Torbjörn; Henriksson, Roger; Nilsson, Anders; Nilsson, Klas; Robertz, Sven

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the presented garbage collector interface is to provide a universal interface for many different implementations of garbage collectors. This is to simplify the integration and exchange of garbage collectors, but also to support incremental, non-conservative, and thread safe implementations. Due to the complexity of the interface, it is aimed at code generators and preprocessors. Experiences from ongoing implementations indicate that the garbage collector interface successfully ...

  13. The design and implementation of a garbage truck fleet management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, C. H.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the improvement of cloud computing and mobile computing techniques has led to the availability of a variety of mobile applications (‘apps’ in the app store. For instance, a garbage truck app that can provide the immediate location of a garbage truck, the location of collection points, and forecasted arrival times of garbage trucks would be useful for mobile users. Since the power consumption of apps on mobile devices if of concern to mobile users, an optimised power-saving mechanism for updating messages, which is based on location information, for a proposed garbage truck fleet management system (GTFMS is proposed and implemented in this paper. The GTFMS is a three- component system that includes the on-board units on garbage trucks, a fleet management system, and a garbage truck app. In this study, an arrival time forecasting method is designed and implemented in the fleet management system, so that the garbage truck app can retrieve the forecasted arrival time via web services. A message updating event is then triggered that reports the location of garbage truck and the forecasted arrival time. In experiments conducted on case studies, the results showed that the mean accuracy of predicted arrival time by the proposed method is about 81.45 per cent. As for power consumption, the cost of traditional mobile apps is 2,880 times that of the mechanism proposed in this study. Consequently, the GTFMS can provide the precise forecasted arrival time of garbage trucks to mobile users, while consuming less power.

  14. Teaching Science with Garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Albert; Schatz, Vivian

    This single-concept unit on garbage is a "do-it-yourself" approach to environmental education. The emphasis is on composting or microbial decomposition under controlled conditions since composting appears to be one practical way of handling garbage. More than 30 simple experiments show some of the changes that garbage undergoes. The garbage…

  15. The EMBRACE web service collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettifer, Steve; Ison, Jon; Kalas, Matús; Thorne, Dave; McDermott, Philip; Jonassen, Inge; Liaquat, Ali; Fernández, José M; Rodriguez, Jose M; Pisano, David G; Blanchet, Christophe; Uludag, Mahmut; Rice, Peter; Bartaseviciute, Edita; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Hekkelman, Maarten; Sand, Olivier; Stockinger, Heinz; Clegg, Andrew B; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Salzemann, Jean; Breton, Vincent; Attwood, Teresa K; Cameron, Graham; Vriend, Gert

    2010-07-01

    The EMBRACE (European Model for Bioinformatics Research and Community Education) web service collection is the culmination of a 5-year project that set out to investigate issues involved in developing and deploying web services for use in the life sciences. The project concluded that in order for web services to achieve widespread adoption, standards must be defined for the choice of web service technology, for semantically annotating both service function and the data exchanged, and a mechanism for discovering services must be provided. Building on this, the project developed: EDAM, an ontology for describing life science web services; BioXSD, a schema for exchanging data between services; and a centralized registry (http://www.embraceregistry.net) that collects together around 1000 services developed by the consortium partners. This article presents the current status of the collection and its associated recommendations and standards definitions.

  16. Garbage is a boon to recyclers for the construction of recycling society

    OpenAIRE

    吉村, 忠与志

    2011-01-01

    Garbage is currently incinerated at high temperatures as burning refuse. By collecting and differentiating the garbage, however, it becomes an energy source. The discharge saving of the garbage is possible, if its moisture is decreased at 30% or less. Garbage’s cutwater when disposed is a key point on energy resource. Residential garbage can be recycled by drying. Addition of heavy oil is necessary in order to incinerate the garbage at high temperatures. The exhaustible resource is forbidden ...

  17. A cyclic distributed garbage collector for network objects

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Helena; Jones, Richard

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for distributed garbage collection and outlines its implementation within the Network Objects system. The algorithm is based on a reference listing scheme, which is augmented by partial tracing in order to collect distributed garbage cycles. Processes may be dynamically organised into groups, according to appropriate heuristics, to reclaim distributed garbage cycles. The algorithm places no overhead on local collectors and suspends local mutators only briefly....

  18. The collecting and recycling of organic and inorganic garbage; Situacion de la recogida selectiva y reciclaje de vidrio y papel en Galicia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, M.; Queiruga, B. [Universidad da Caruna (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    Galicia has made in the latest years some intents to a costume people to separate and recycle the different urban solid garbage. There has been different results depending on areas and the population of each village. In the future, Galicia has to improve the quantities of the organic and inorganic garbage that they recycle. (Author) 12 refs.

  19. [The perception of urban garbage collectors of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, regarding the biological risks involved in their work routine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Michelly Angelina; Reis, Cássia Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    There are several occupational risks inherent to urban garbage collection, and the scope of this study was to identify the biological risks to which urban garbage collectors in Dourados/MS are exposed. A qualitative study using the Lefévre and Lefévre Collective Subject Discourse method was used with 42 urban garbage collectors working for the outsourced provider to the Municipal Department of Urban Services. Data were collected from September 2005 to January 2006. The interviews had an average duration of 40 minutes, and were recorded at the company office when the workers arrived to start their working day and subsequently transcribed. The biological risks mentioned by the garbage pickers were accidents with glass, syringes, thorns, dog bites, and contact with substances found in the garbage. Accidents with sharp and jagged instruments are ways for microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi to infect the human body. Virus contamination, like HIV and Hepatitis B and C, can occur in accidents involving inadequate disposal of contaminated needles. The conclusion reached is that biological risks in urban garbage collection can be reduced by educating the population about adequate garbage disposal.

  20. Managing Garbage Can Hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, John F.

    1980-01-01

    Operationalizes garbage-can theory into a stochastic process model for the case of a traditional Weberian bureaucracy. Illustrates how ambiguity may impinge on decision making within a structural setting familiar to classical organization theorists and derives the managerial implications of garbage-can theory. (Author/IRT)

  1. The EMBRACE web service collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettifer, S.; Ison, J.; Kalas, M.

    2010-01-01

    The EMBRACE (European Model for Bioinformatics Research and Community Education) web service collection is the culmination of a 5-year project that set out to investigate issues involved in developing and deploying web services for use in the life sciences. The project concluded that in order...... and its associated recommendations and standards definitions....

  2. Garbage Management: An Important Risk Factor for HPAI-Virus Infection in Commercial Poultry Flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Emily; Linskens, Eric; Umber, Jamie; Culhane, Marie Rene; Halvorson, David; Contadini, Francesca; Cardona, Carol

    2018-01-01

    Garbage management represents a potential pathway of HPAI-virus infection for commercial poultry operations as multiple poultry premises may share a common trash collection service provider, trash collection site (e.g., shared dumpster for multiple premises) or disposal site (e.g., landfill). The types of potentially infectious or contaminated material disposed of in the garbage has not been previously described but is suspected to vary by poultry industry sector. A survey of representatives from the broiler, turkey, and layer sectors in the United States revealed that many potentially contaminated or infectious items are routinely disposed of in the trash on commercial poultry premises. On-farm garbage management practices, along with trash hauling and disposal practices are thus key components that must be considered to evaluate the risk of commercial poultry becoming infected with HPAI virus.

  3. 75 FR 29706 - Interstate Movement of Garbage from Hawaii; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0172] Interstate Movement of Garbage from Hawaii; Availability of... Service relative to a request to allow the interstate movement of garbage from Hawaii to a landfill in the.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The importation and interstate movement of garbage is regulated by the...

  4. Welcome to Garbage Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Introduces the Children's Garbage Museum in southwestern Connecticut and provides pictures as well as descriptions of exhibits. Suggests two activities to heighten students' awareness of recycling and composting and recommends reading materials. (MOK)

  5. Information from the Collection Service

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    As from Thursday 11 March two containers for the collection used NESPRESSO capsules will be at your disposal: One container near Building 133 (Recuperation and Sales Service); One container near Building 904 (Goods Reception). The used capsules will be dispatched to an industrial processing centre for recycling.

  6. Some design constraints required for the use of generic software in embedded systems: Packages which manage abstract dynamic structures without the need for garbage collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles S.

    1986-01-01

    The embedded systems running real-time applications, for which Ada was designed, require their own mechanisms for the management of dynamically allocated storage. There is a need for packages which manage their own internalo structures to control their deallocation as well, due to the performance implications of garbage collection by the KAPSE. This places a requirement upon the design of generic packages which manage generically structured private types built-up from application-defined input types. These kinds of generic packages should figure greatly in the development of lower-level software such as operating systems, schedulers, controllers, and device driver; and will manage structures such as queues, stacks, link-lists, files, and binary multary (hierarchical) trees. Controlled to prevent inadvertent de-designation of dynamic elements, which is implicit in the assignment operation A study was made of the use of limited private type, in solving the problems of controlling the accumulation of anonymous, detached objects in running systems. The use of deallocator prodecures for run-down of application-defined input types during deallocation operations during satellites.

  7. Garbage separation: a livelihood option for poor men and women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-22

    Apr 22, 2016 ... A growing number of “garbage separators” collect, select, and sell “recyclable materials” at different points of the solid-waste management process. They perform this work at the K'ara K'ara municipal garbage dump, in the many containers distributed throughout the urban centre, and along the route taken ...

  8. O uso do geoprocessamento no diagnóstico dos roteiros de coleta de lixo da cidade de Manaus The use of geoprocessing in the diagnosis of the routes of garbage collection in the city of Manaus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Olavo Nogueira Braga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da necessidade de garantir a melhoria continua da Limpeza Pública de Manaus e possibilitar a ampliação da prestação do serviço de coleta de lixo, que atualmente é gerenciado pela Secretaria Municipal de Limpeza Urbana - SEMULSP, e realizado pelas empresas concessionárias de coleta de lixo, utilizou-se o geoprocessamento, com o intuito de analisar o atual sistema. Para analisar o sistema, fez-se um diagnóstico dos roteiros de coleta, onde se mapeou todas as informações identificadas em campo, declividade, ruas sem asfalto e estreitas, lixeiras viciadas, tempo e distâncias dos trechos produtivos e improdutivos, produção de lixo e disposição do trânsito, com o auxílio de receptores GPS.In order to promote the continuous improvement of Public Cleansing System in Manaus as well as the expansion of garbage collection, currently operated by private contractors, the Municipal Secretary of Urban Cleansing - SEMULSP has performed an integrated analyses of the existing collection service design in geoprocessing, so as to identify possible improvements in the system. Aiming the practical evaluation of the present system, an assessment of the collection routes was performed, by collecting, georeferencing and mapping all related features, as slopes, road conditions, dead-end streets, narrow lanes, illegal dumping, time taken and trip distance of productive and unproductive routes, waste quantity and traffic conditions. Most of data were taken by GPS equipments.

  9. Smart Garbage Monitoring System for Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Yusof Norfadzlia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles of rubbish are one of the major problems faced by most people in Malaysia, especially those who live in flats, as the number of bins is limited and shared among all residents. It may cause pollutions, which may lead to sanitary issues and diseases. This project presents the development of a smart garbage monitoring system in order to measure waste level in the garbage bin in real-time and to alert the municipality, in particular cases, via SMS. The proposed system is consisted by the ultrasonic sensor to measure the waste level, the GSM module to send the SMS, and an Arduino Uno which controls the system operation. It supposes to generate and send the warning messages to the municipality via SMS when the waste bin is full or almost full, so the garbage can be collected immediately. Furthermore, it is expected to contribute to improving the efficiency of the solid waste disposal management.

  10. Smart Bin: Internet-of-Things Garbage Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa M.R

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces the design and development of smart green environment of garbage monitoring system by measuring the garbage level in real time and to alert the municipality where never the bin is full based on the types of garbage. The proposed system consisted the ultrasonic sensors which measure the garbage level, an ARM microcontroller which controls system operation whereas everything will be connected to ThingSpeak. This work demonstrates a system that allows the waste management to monitor based on the level of the garbage depth inside the dustbin. The system shows the status of different four types of garbage; domestic waste, paper, glass and plastic through LCD and ThingSpeak in a real time to store the data for future use and analysis, such as prediction of peak level of garbage bin fullness. It is expected that this system can create greener environment by monitoring and controlling the collection of garbage smartly through Internet-of-Things.

  11. Sustainable kerbside recycling in the municipal garbage contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Moe

    2009-12-01

    In an era of global warming, rising energy costs and increasing volumes of wastes destined for landfills and incinerators, communities should set up environmentally sustainable services that are cost-effective for their citizens and revenue generators for municipalities. A win-win garbage collection and kerbside recycling program established more than eight years ago in a small rural community in Ohio, US is still going strong. It is offering a relatively inexpensive way for waste disposal by providing an incentive-based and highly participatory kerbside recycling and at the same time bringing in substantial franchise fees for the municipal coffers. Unlike garbage contracts in most communities that are designed for only residential waste collection, this program extends disposal and recycling services to non-residential establishments. It picks up hard-to-dispose household furniture, appliances and other bulky items without additional costs to the residents. By being creative and assessing local political and socio-economic milieu, public officials can implement a comprehensive service package for taking care of their community throwaways. However, before establishing such programs in partnership with a private firm, city administrators must understand the intricacies of bid specifications customized for municipal wastes and recyclable materials.

  12. Intelligent Garbage Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Rodríguez Novelle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available IGC (Intelligent Garbage Classifier is a system for visual classification and separation of solid waste products. Currently, an important part of the separation effort is based on manual work, from household separation to industrial waste management. Taking advantage of the technologies currently available, a system has been built that can analyze images from a camera and control a robot arm and conveyor belt to automatically separate different kinds of waste.

  13. Iowa DOT library services, collection & technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Assesses the impact of library services on research projects, proposes methods to improve the impact of : library services on research projects, assesses current library technology systems and proposes upgrades, : assesses current library collection ...

  14. Avaliação dos benefícios da coleta de lixo em Palmas, Tocantins: uma aplicação do método de avaliação contingente Evaluation of the garbage collection benefits in Palmas, Tocantins: an application of contingent evaluation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilians dos Santos Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O acesso aos serviços de saneamento ambiental, em especial, a coleta e a disposição final dos resíduos sólidos, é fundamental para a saúde pública e a preservação do meio ambiente, pois com a redução da má disposição do lixo, ocorre uma diminuição das endemias e da contaminação do solo. O investimento em saneamento ambiental é um dos grandes desafios para os gestores públicos, devido a sua ampla relação entre meio ambiente, saúde pública e desenvolvimento local. O presente trabalho visou estimar a máxima disposição a pagar pelo serviço de coleta de lixo para o município de Palmas, em Tocantins, por meio do método de avaliação contingente. Os resultados obtidos indicam que os principais fatores determinantes da disposição a pagar são: o nível de renda e a escolaridade.The access to environmental sanitation services, especially the collection and final disposition of solid residues, is fundamental for the public health and environment preservation, because by reducing the bad garbage disposition, there is a decrease of the endemic diseases and soil contamination. The investment in environmental sanitation is one of the great challenges for public managers, due to its wide relationship among the environment, public health, and local development. The present work sought to esteem the willingness to pay for the garbage collection service for the municipal district of Palmas, in Tocantins, through the contingent evaluation method. The obtained results indicate that the main decisive factors of the willingness to pay are: the level of income and the education.

  15. 77 FR 37907 - Information Collection; Service Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ...), 1275 First Street NE., Washington, DC 20417. ATTN: Hada Flowers/IC 9000-0152, Service Contracting... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [OMB Control No. 9000-0152: Docket 2012-0076; Sequence 16] Information Collection; Service...

  16. Collective Management of Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Cynthia H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a one-year experiment with collective management--i.e., management in which decision-making rests with the department as a whole--in the Oberlin College Library reference department. The planning process, problems, and advantages and disadvantages of this style of management are discussed. Several questions are raised about the…

  17. History and services of culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uruburu, Federico

    2003-06-01

    Microbial culture collections aim at collecting, maintaining and distributing microbial strains among microbiologists, and are considered to be a means to preserve microbial diversity ex situ. This article reviews the early history of culture collections, which were first set up in the late nineteenth century, with the introduction of pure culture techniques. It also describes the international connections between culture collections, which led to the foundation of the World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC) and the International Congress of Culture Collections (ICCC). An overview of the Spanish Type Culture Collection (CECT) is included, as well as a description of the services that culture collections can offer.

  18. [What garbage represents for municipal collectors and recyclers in Fortaleza, State of Ceará (Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Gemmelle Oliveira; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferreira

    2011-08-01

    This study sought to elicit a discussion about the significance of garbage from the standpoint of a group of municipal garbage collectors and garbage recyclers resident in Fortaleza, State of Ceará. Using qualitative methodology and the individual interview technique, this work presents the results of ongoing research that has been conducted together with the employees involved in the collection of household garbage in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, and those working in a plant for separating recyclable materials. During the period under analysis of the "world of garbage" eight interviews were staged. After transcription and interpretation of the interviews, it became clear that the respondents perceive garbage as being prejudicial to health (due to the various diseases it causes) and also as a means of survival (as a result of non-inclusion in the labor market due to lack of study and/or opportunity).

  19. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  20. Garbage Composting for Mushroom Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, S. S.

    1965-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-plant composting of garbage mixtures of newspaper and vegetable waste has demonstrated that garbage can be converted to a medium that produces mushrooms (Agaricus campestris) in good yield. Sewage sludge was less satisfactory than newspaper, gumwood sawdust, or vegetable waste as a compost material for growing mushrooms. A sample of commercially produced compost was found to yield mushrooms in the same quantity as was produced in the laboratory experiments. Images Fig. 3 PMID:14264848

  1. 75 FR 61121 - Interstate Movement of Garbage From Hawaii; Withdrawal of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0172] Interstate Movement of Garbage From Hawaii; Withdrawal of Finding of No Significant Impact AGENCY: Animal and... INFORMATION: Background The importation and interstate movement of garbage is regulated by the Animal and...

  2. Collecting Societies, Competition and the Services Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The market for collective management of copyrights in the EU is in transition and the collecting societies are facing a number of challenges primarily based on the EU rules on competition and the freedom to provide services. Some of the major right holders are withdrawing their rights from...... the system of reciprocal representation agreements which fragments the repertoire. This is partly due to the market evolution and the emergence of new business models but also promoted by the European Commission initiatives intended to introduce a certain degree of competition in the collective management...... the harms to cultural diversity. In addition to the competition law complications, the Services Directive puts significant restrictions on the member states to adopt or maintain national rules for collecting societies and that creates an urgent need for adopting a framework directive for collecting...

  3. Maximizing collections from patient services billing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenstein, Gil C; Kaye, Alan David; Fox, Charles J; Urman, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    The field of medical billing and collections continues to evolve along with current developments in U.S. healthcare reform. Although there has been a significant shift of payment responsibility from third-party payers to patients, many practices are not equipped to handle this change. As patients' financial obligations increase, the physician's ability to collect from patients will become increasingly important. Inability to collect bills receivable can adversely affect the revenue cycle of the practice. Solutions include improvement of the point-of-service collection processes, properly trained office staff, written financial policies, and the use of technology to facilitate online payments. Patients should fully understand their financial responsibilities and options available to them for payment of services rendered.

  4. 21 CFR 1240.75 - Garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Garbage. 1240.75 Section 1240.75 Food and Drugs... Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments § 1240.75 Garbage. (a) A person shall not transport, receive, or cause to be transported or received, garbage in interstate traffic and feed such...

  5. A Distributed Garbage Collector for NeXeme

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Luc; DeRoure, David

    1997-01-01

    The remote service request, a form of remote procedure call, and the global pointer, a global naming mechanism, are two features at the heart of Nexus, a library to build distributed systems. nexeme is an extension of Scheme that fully integrates both concepts in a mostly-functional framework. This short paper describes the distributed garbage collector that we implemented in nexeme.

  6. 78 FR 41305 - Collect on Delivery (COD)-Service Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Collect on Delivery (COD)--Service Features AGENCY: Postal Service... Postal Service will adopt the proposed changes to Collect on Delivery (COD) service features. Summary of... fourth sentences of 12.2.1 as follows:] Any mailer may use collect on delivery (COD) service to mail an...

  7. Mercury Exposure among Garbage Workers in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2012-12-01

    1) To determine mercury levels in urine samples from garbage workers in Southern Thailand, and 2) to describe the association between work characteristics, work positions, behavioral factors, and acute symptoms; and levels of mercury in urine samples. A case-control study was conducted by interviewing 60 workers in 5 hazardous-waste-management factories, and 60 matched non-exposed persons living in the same area of Southern Thailand. Urine samples were collected to determine mercury levels by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometer mercury analyzer. The hazardous-waste workers' urinary mercury levels (10.07 µg/g creatinine) were significantly higher than the control group (1.33 µg/g creatinine) (p garbage workers' hygiene habits can reduce urinary mercury levels. Personal hygiene is important, and should be stressed in education programs. Employers should institute engineering controls to reduce urinary mercury levels among garbage workers.

  8. A Garbage Can Model of the Psychological Research Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joanne

    1981-01-01

    Reviews models commonly used in psychological research, and, particularly, in organizational decision making. An alternative model of organizational decision making is suggested. The model, referred to as the garbage can model, describes a process in which members of an organization collect the problems and solutions they generate by dumping them…

  9. 7 CFR 330.401 - Garbage generated onboard a conveyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garbage generated onboard a conveyance. 330.401...; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Garbage § 330.401 Garbage generated onboard a conveyance. (a) Applicability. This section applies to garbage generated onboard any means of conveyance during international or...

  10. 77 FR 63805 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Service Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... First Street NE., Washington, DC 20417. ATTN: Hada Flowers/IC 9000-0152, Service Contracting... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE...; Information Collection; Service Contracting AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services...

  11. A coleta de lixo domiciliar na cidade do Rio de Janeiro: um estudo de caso baseado na percepção do trabalhador Home garbage collecting in the city of Rio de Janeiro: a case study discloses the sanitation workers point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pimenta Velloso

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa, baseando-se na visão do trabalhador, as condições de riscos e segurança encontradas no processo de trabalho da coleta de lixo domiciliar. A unidade específica de estudo foi a Gerência de Limpeza Leste (LGL-3, situada no bairro do Rio Comprido, da Companhia Municipal de Limpeza Urbana do Rio de Janeiro (COMLURB. O instrumento utilizado na pesquisa foi a entrevista individual e gravada, sendo enriquecida pela observação do pesquisador. O trabalhador percebe que, para melhorar suas condições de trabalho, torna-se necessária uma adaptação do trabalho ao homem, ou seja, não usar o seu próprio corpo apenas como instrumento de carregar o lixo. Além disso, esses trabalhadores demandam a implantação de novos serviços na empresa, tais como: serviços de atenção integral à Saúde e cursos de treinamento para o serviço. Um dos grandes problemas identificados pelos trabalhadores é a sua falta de valorização profissional, tanto pela empresa, quanto pela população.This article discloses the sanitation workers point of view on specific topics such as health risks and unsafe conditions met during home garbage collecting process. Located in Rio Comprido neighbourhood, the choosen workplace unit was the East Cleaning Management District (Gerência de Limpeza Leste, LGL-3, branch of Rio's Street Cleaning Municipal Company (COMLURB. The method employed in this survey consisted of tape recorded single interviews and video recording sanitation workers daily operations, with written notes and comments by the researchers. Instead of being considered merely "garbage carriers", the sanitation workers are now asking for the basic improvements in order to make this particular acitivity more suitable to meet the best of their human expectations. Besides, the sanitation workers are claiming the company implementation of new services like full health coverage and professional training courses. According to sanitation workers

  12. 78 FR 32612 - Collect on Delivery (COD)-Service Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Collect on Delivery (COD)--Service Features AGENCY: Postal Service... Services * * * * * 13.0 Collect on Delivery (COD) * * * * * 13.2 Basic Information 13.2.1 Description... delivery (COD) service to mail an article for which the mailer has not been paid and have its price and the...

  13. Study on the Design of Garbage Removal Products for Alpine Scenic Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenling; Zhao, Junqi; Lyu, Jianhua

    2018-01-01

    Due to the constraints of the alpine terrain and other objective factors, at present, the garbage collection and removal in China's alpine scenic areas are in a relatively backward situation, which makes the garbage removal more difficult, thus leading to the high risk and difficulty for the sanitation workers to operate. By using the unique ropeway facilities in alpine scenic areas, the article makes a tentative plan for the improvement of the garbage removal facilities in alpine scenic areas, and gives the design verification based on the relevant knowledge of mechanical principle and Theory of mechanics.

  14. MODIS Collection 6 Land Product Subsets Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Web Service provides data access capabilities for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 6 land products. The web service...

  15. Heart rate and energy expenditure during garbage collection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Freqüência cardíaca e gasto energético durante a coleta de lixo domiciliar no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Anjos

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Physiological workload is used to estimate the physical demand of tasks in the workforce, but limited information is available for the various work activities in developing countries. Eighty-three randomly selected male workers participated in the present study, aimed at assessing the physiological workload of garbage collection (GC in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Heart rate (HR was obtained on four consecutive workdays. Energy expenditure (EE was extrapolated from heart rate data based on individual laboratory-established heart rate/oxygen consumption curve in 70 workers. Mean HR during GC was 104.0 ± 11.7bpm (± SD, representing 56.9 ± 7.5% of maximum heart rate. EE was 1608.3 ± 738.5kcal for an average of 293.1 ± 103.9 minutes of work per day. Based on all measurements, work in garbage collection in Rio de Janeiro can be considered excessively heavy. These data emphasize the need to develop appropriate classification of workload to be used in health-related research and in the development of maximum acceptable work time in association with the physiological workload, particularly in developing countries.A carga de trabalho fisiológica é utilizada para estimar a demanda física de uma tarefa na população de trabalhadores adultos; no entanto, nos países em desenvolvimento há poucos dados disponíveis sobre as diversas atividades ocupacionais. Oitenta e três trabalhadores masculinos participaram neste estudo, com o objetivo de avaliar a carga fisiológica do trabalho de coleta de lixo domiciliar no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A freqüência cardíaca foi medida em quatro dias de trabalho consecutivos. O gasto energético foi extrapolado a partir da freqüência cardíaca, com base em dados individuais obtidos em laboratório para a curva de freqüência cardíaca/consumo de oxigênio em 70 trabalhadores. A freqüência cardíaca média durante a coleta de lixo era 104,0 ± 11,7bpm, o que representa 56,9 ± 7,5% da freq

  16. Cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices as determinants of birth weight: a cross-sectional study in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegah, Adeladza K; Jaakkola, Jouni Jk; Quansah, Reginald; Norgbe, Gameli K; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli

    2012-10-17

    Effect of indoor air pollution (IAP) on birth weight remains largely unexplored but yet purported as the most important environmental exposure for pregnant women in developing countries due to the effects of second-hand smoke. We investigated the associations between the determinants of indoor air quality in households and birth weight. A cross-sectional study of 592 mothers and their newborns using postnatal services at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital located in Accra, Ghana was conducted in 2010 to collect information on characteristics of indoor environment and other potential determinants of fetal growth. Birth weight was recorded from hospital records. Household cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices were determinants of birth weight. Multivariate linear regression analysis adjusting for age, social class, marital status and gravidity of mothers, and sex of neonate resulted in a 243 g (95% CI: 496, 11) and 178g (95% CI: 421, 65) reduction in birth weight for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. The estimated reductions in birth weight was not statistically significant. Applying the ordinal scale exposure parameter nonetheless revealed a significant exposure-response relationship between maternal exposures from charcoal use and garbage burning, and birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders resulted in a 41% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.62, 3.23) and 195% (RR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.10, 7.92) increase in the risk of low birth weight (LBW) for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. A combination of charcoal use and household garbage burning during pregnancy on fetal growth resulted in a 429 g (95% CI: 259, 599) reduction in birth weight and 316% (RR=4.16; 95% CI: 2.02, 8.59) excess risk of LBW. Sensitivity analysis performed by restricting the analysis to term births produced similar results. Maternal use of charcoal as a cooking fuel during

  17. Cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices as determinants of birth weight: a cross-sectional study in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amegah Adeladza K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effect of indoor air pollution (IAP on birth weight remains largely unexplored but yet purported as the most important environmental exposure for pregnant women in developing countries due to the effects of second-hand smoke. We investigated the associations between the determinants of indoor air quality in households and birth weight. Methods A cross-sectional study of 592 mothers and their newborns using postnatal services at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital located in Accra, Ghana was conducted in 2010 to collect information on characteristics of indoor environment and other potential determinants of fetal growth. Birth weight was recorded from hospital records. Results Household cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices were determinants of birth weight. Multivariate linear regression analysis adjusting for age, social class, marital status and gravidity of mothers, and sex of neonate resulted in a 243g (95% CI: 496, 11 and 178g (95% CI: 421, 65 reduction in birth weight for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. The estimated reductions in birth weight was not statistically significant. Applying the ordinal scale exposure parameter nonetheless revealed a significant exposure-response relationship between maternal exposures from charcoal use and garbage burning, and birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders resulted in a 41% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.62, 3.23 and 195% (RR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.10, 7.92 increase in the risk of low birth weight (LBW for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. A combination of charcoal use and household garbage burning during pregnancy on fetal growth resulted in a 429g (95% CI: 259, 599 reduction in birth weight and 316% (RR=4.16; 95% CI: 2.02, 8.59 excess risk of LBW. Sensitivity analysis performed by restricting the analysis to term births produced similar results

  18. Cairo’s Contested Garbage: Sustainable Solid Waste Management and the Zabaleen’s Right to the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Fahmi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades, the Zabaleen, the traditional waste (garbage collectors of Cairo, have created what is arguably one of the world’s most efficient and sustainable resource-recovery and waste-recycling systems. Yet the continuation of this intricate relationship between community, environment and livelihood is jeopardized by the official privatization of municipal solid waste (MSW services through contracts with technology-intensive multinational corporations which threatens the sustainability of the garbage collectors’ communities by removing access to their chief economic asset, waste or garbage. The situation is exacerbated by an official policy of moving the Zabaleen and their MSW sorting, recovery, trading and recycling activities further out of the city, on the grounds that this will turn their neighbourhoods into cleaner and healthier living environments. The consumption of Cairo’s sites of MSW collection and sorting open new socio-political spaces for conflict between multi-national companies and the Zabaleen’s traditional system. This is further indicated in the way Cairo’s waste materials have been subjected to new claims and conflict, as they are seen as a ‘commodity’ by global capital entrepreneurs and multi-national corporations, and as a source of ‘livelihood’ by the disadvantaged and marginalised Zabaleen population.

  19. IoT-Based Smart Garbage System for Efficient Food Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaekeun

    2014-01-01

    Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT), researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS) is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs) exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%. PMID:25258730

  20. IoT-based smart garbage system for efficient food waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Insung; Park, Sunghoi; Lee, Beomseok; Lee, Jaekeun; Jeong, Daebeom; Park, Sehyun

    2014-01-01

    Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT), researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS) is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs) exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%.

  1. IoT-Based Smart Garbage System for Efficient Food Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insung Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT, researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%.

  2. A New Use for Old Garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Ron

    1981-01-01

    Describes a simulated archaeological dig for a ninth-grade Canadian social studies class. Students role-play archaeological teams in 2180 AD who find well-preserved bags of "garbage." Students classify garbage artifacts, write reports hypothesizing about the households which produced them, and match the contents of their bags to…

  3. Rethinking Recycling: Why Teach about Garbage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearing, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Ties environmental education, via garbage disposal issues, to Oregon's educational reform agenda. Discusses teaching the basics through "garbage" lessons. Includes how to (1) take an interdisciplinary approach; (2) introduce waste management concepts in other lessons; (3) use waste management examples to apply existing concepts; and (4)…

  4. A Semi-Preemptive Garbage Collector for Solid State Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Junghee [ORNL; Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Kim, Jongman [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    NAND flash memory is a preferred storage media for various platforms ranging from embedded systems to enterprise-scale systems. Flash devices do not have any mechanical moving parts and provide low-latency access. They also require less power compared to rotating media. Unlike hard disks, flash devices use out-of-update operations and they require a garbage collection (GC) process to reclaim invalid pages to create free blocks. This GC process is a major cause of performance degradation when running concurrently with other I/O operations as internal bandwidth is consumed to reclaim these invalid pages. The invocation of the GC process is generally governed by a low watermark on free blocks and other internal device metrics that different workloads meet at different intervals. This results in I/O performance that is highly dependent on workload characteristics. In this paper, we examine the GC process and propose a semi-preemptive GC scheme that can preempt on-going GC processing and service pending I/O requests in the queue. Moreover, we further enhance flash performance by pipelining internal GC operations and merge them with pending I/O requests whenever possible. Our experimental evaluation of this semi-preemptive GC sheme with realistic workloads demonstrate both improved performance and reduced performance variability. Write-dominant workloads show up to a 66.56% improvement in average response time with a 83.30% reduced variance in response time compared to the non-preemptive GC scheme.

  5. Assessment of impact on health of children working in the garbage dumping site in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiry, Gargy; Rahman, Tania; Hasan, A K M Mahbub; Dutta, Alak K; Arif, Md; Howlader, Zakir H

    2011-12-01

    Waste dumping is one of the major causes of environment pollution in Bangladesh. This study was designed to assess the impact on health of children working in one of the garbage dumping sites in Dhaka. Blood samples were collected from exposed (n = 20, aged: 8-15 years, exposed to dumped garbage from 6 months to 6 years) and control subjects (n = 15, age matched and never worked in the garbage dumping site). Oxidative stress markers like lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyl content were measured. Alkaline comet assay was performed to assess the possible damage in DNA. To check the consequences of possible toxic exposure, we performed liver function tests of the study subjects. Oxidative stress-mediated damage of macromolecules was found to be significantly increased in the exposed children. Liver function tests were found normal. Thus, the children working in garbage dumping site are in severe health risk.

  6. Garbage collection for reversible functional languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2015-01-01

    deep copying, but there are limitations. Applying a constructor to arguments creates a new node with reference count 1, so pattern matching is by symmetry restricted to nodes with reference count 1. A variant pattern that does not change the reference count of the root node is introduced to allow...... this by using maximal sharing: If a newly constructed node is identical to an already existing node, we return a pointer to the existing node (increasing its reference count) instead of allocating a new node with reference count 1. To avoid searching the entire heap for an identical node, we use hash...

  7. HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in garbage scavengers of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Mohammad Uzair Abdul; Saleem, Muhammad Danish; Anwer, Muhammad Osama; Ahmed, Gulrays; Aziz, Sina; Memon, Muhammad Ashraf

    2013-06-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C, and to study the associated risk factors in garbage scavengers of Karachi. The cross-sectional study was performed in a colony inhabited by low socioeconomic garbage-collecting people. Data was collected from April to December 2011. After informed consent and pre-test counselling, a set of questions were asked from a questionnaire, and 5cc of blood was drawn for pathological testing. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. A total of 141 males agreed to participate in the study with a mean age of 21.33+/-9.28 years. Most of the respondents (n=67; 47.5%) were in the age group 11-20 years; 86 (61%) were single; 89 (63%) were illiterate and 127 (90%) had a monthly income less than Rs.10,000. Prevalence of hepatitis B was 18.8% (n=22), followed by 8.5% (n=10) and 0.85% (n=1) of hepatitis C and HIV respectively. Besides, 108 (77%) collected needles/syringes and 76 (54%) got pricked more than once. Only 23 (16%) wore gloves while collecting garbage. Overall, 79 (56%) had a history of sexual contact; 18 (23%) had three or more partners. The important factors contributing to the high prevalence of hepatitis B and C were needle prick injuries, bare-handed/bare-footed collection of garbage, poor vaccination status, improper garbage disposal system and the site of waste collection.

  8. Hiv, hepatitis b and hepatitis c in garbage scavengers of karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, M.U.; Saleem, M.D.; Anwar, M.O.; Ahmed, G.; Memon, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C, and to study the associated risk factors in garbage scavengers of Karachi. Methods: The cross-sectional study was performed in a colony inhabited by low socioeconomic garbage-collecting people. Data was collected from April to December 2011. After informed consent and pre-test counselling, a set of questions were asked from a questionnaire, and 5cc of blood was drawn for pathological testing. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 141 males agreed to participate in the study with a mean age of 21.33+-9.28 years. Most of the respondents (n=67; 47.5%) were in the age group 11-20 years; 86 (61%) were single; 89 (63%) were illiterate and 127 (90%) had a monthly income less than Rs.10,000. Prevalence of hepatitis B was 18.8% (n=22), followed by 8.5% (n=10) and 0.85% (n=1) of hepatitis C and HIV respectively. Besides, 108 (77%) collected needles/syringes and 76 (54%) got pricked more than once. Only 23 (16%) wore gloves while collecting garbage. Overall, 79 (56%) had a history of sexual contact; 18 (23%) had three or more partners. Conclusion: The important factors contributing to the high prevalence of hepatitis B and C were needle prick injuries, bare-handed/bare-footed collection of garbage, poor vaccination status, improper garbage disposal system and the site of waste collection. (author)

  9. History and services of culture collections

    OpenAIRE

    Uruburu Fernandez, Federico

    2003-01-01

    Microbial culture collections aim at collecting, maintaining and distributing microbial strains among microbiologists, and are considered to be a means to preserve microbial diversity ex situ. This article reviews the early history of culture collections, which were first set up in the late nineteenth century, with the introduction of pure culture techniques. It also describes the international connections between culture collections, which led to the foundation of the World Federation for...

  10. Calligraphy design for coconut garbage use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.; Maulina, M.

    2018-03-01

    Coconut trees have contributed to the social life of mankind, ranging from basic personal needs such as food to the need to manage the environment. Human life requires not only food, but requires an artistic need. Certain art affects social life psychologically, and the human psychological condition is also influenced by the environment of life, especially garbage. A few of calligraphy art is designed based on using the garbage. Therefore, this paper aims to propose the calligraphy based on the use of natural garbage from coconut trees.

  11. Two year follow-up of a garbage collector with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmers, H; Huber, H; Baur, X

    2000-04-01

    Separate collection of biodegradable garbage and recyclable waste is expected to become mandatory in some western countries. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and separation might become endangered by high loads of bacteria and fungi. Case history and examination A 29 year old garbage collector involved in emptying so-called biological garbage complained of dyspnea, fever, and flu-like symptoms during work beginning in the summer of 1992. Chest x-ray showed streaky shadows near both hili reaching into the upper regions. IgE- and IgG-antibodies (CAP, Pharmacia, Sweden) were strongly positive for Aspergillus fumigatus with 90.5 kU/L and 186%, respectively. Total-IgE was also strongly elevated with 5430 kU/L. Bronchial challenge testing with commercially available Aspergillus fumigatus extract resulted in an immediate-type asthmatic reaction. Two years later he was still symptomatic and antibodies persisted at lower levels. Our diagnosis was allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) including asthmatic responses as well as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) due to exposure to moldy household waste. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and handling are exposed and at risk to develop sensitization to fungi due to exposure to dust of biodegradable waste. Further studies are necessary to show if separate collection of biodegradable waste increases the health risks due to exposure to bacteria and fungi in comparison to waste collection without separation. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Local Reasoning about a Copying Garbage Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Smith, Noah; Birkedal, Lars; Reynolds, John C.

    2008-01-01

    We present a programming language, model, and logic appropriate for implementing and reasoning about a memory management system. We state semantically what is meant by correctness of a copying garbage collector, and employ a variant of the novel separation logics to formally specify partial...... correctness of Cheney’s copying garbage collector in our program logic. Finally, we prove that our implementation of Cheney’s algorithm meets its specification using the logic we have given and auxiliary variables. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  13. Collectors of survival: the “living material” in the scene of garbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio de Souza Moraes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to discuss the identity of the garbage collector in the present time, and analyze what led this person to engage in such activity. Thus, we carried out an essentially qualitative methodology (based on field observations and interviews with 10 collectors that could provide the knowledge concerning their life story and garbage collection. Results indicate that these workers are mostly men, with low level of education, age group between 40 and 81 years, with former devaluated and depreciated occupations and no informal economic activities. In this in case, one cannot ignore the inherent factors to the activity: low wages, precarious working conditions, and factors generated from it (health problems, competition, solidarity, prejudice, discrimination that mark the itineraries that these actors of the garbage collection explore.

  14. Mercury Exposure among Garbage Workers in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsiri Decharat

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Changing garbage workers’ hygiene habits can reduce urinary mercury levels. Personal hygiene is important, and should be stressed in education programs. Employers should institute engineering controls to reduce urinary mercury levels among garbage workers.

  15. On Beckton Alp : Iain Sinclair, Garbage and ‘Obscenery’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, N.; Lindner, C.; Meissner, M.

    2015-01-01

    Global Garbage examines the ways in which garbage, in its diverse forms, is being produced, managed, experienced, imagined, circulated, concealed, and aestheticized in contemporary urban environments and across different creative and cultural practices. The book explores the increasingly complex

  16. Global Garbage: Urban Imaginaries of Waste, Excess and Abandonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, C.; Meissner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Global Garbage examines the ways in which garbage, in its diverse forms, is being produced, managed, experienced, imagined, circulated, concealed, and aestheticized in contemporary urban environments and across different creative and cultural practices. The book explores the increasingly complex

  17. 77 FR 31028 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Request; Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information From the...--a survey that includes three customer service and twelve demographic questions (age, sex, race...). Characterizing clients and how they found out about the CIS is essential to customer service, program planning...

  18. Garbage monitoring system using IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, A.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays certain actions are taken to improve the level of cleanliness in the country. People are getting more active in doing all the things possible to clean their surroundings. Various movements are also started by the government to increase cleanliness. We will try to build a system which will notify the corporations to empty the bin on time. In this system, we will put a sensor on top of the garbage bin which will detect the total level of garbage inside it according to the total size of the bin. When the garbage will reach the maximum level, a notification will be sent to the corporation's office, then the employees can take further actions to empty the bin. This system will help in cleaning the city in a better way. By using this system people do not have to check all the systems manually but they will get a notification when the bin will get filled.

  19. 9 CFR 166.4 - Storage of garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage of garbage. 166.4 Section 166... SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.4 Storage of garbage. (a) Untreated garbage at a treatment facility shall be stored in covered and leakproof containers until treated...

  20. 33 CFR 151.63 - Shipboard control of garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shipboard control of garbage. 151... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE... Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.63 Shipboard...

  1. Microbial diversity in biodegradation and reutilization processes of garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Shin; Nakayama, Toru; Nakamura, Kohei; Hemmi, Hisashi; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo; Nishino, Tokuzo

    2005-01-01

    With particular focus on the microbial diversity in garbage treatment, the current status of garbage treatment in Japan and microbial ecological studies on various bioprocesses for garbage treatment are described in detail. The future direction of research in this field is also discussed.

  2. 20 CFR 654.414 - Garbage and other refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Garbage and other refuse. 654.414 Section 654... Garbage and other refuse. (a) Durable, fly-tight, clean containers in good condition of a minimum capacity of 20 gallons, shall be provided adjacent to each housing unit for the storage of garbage and other...

  3. 29 CFR 1450.17 - Contracting for collection services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contracting for collection services. 1450.17 Section 1450.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE... prevailing commercial practice. (3) FMCS may enter into a contract under paragraph (b)(1) of this section...

  4. A study of lock-free based concurrent garbage collectors for multicore platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Ji, Zhen-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent garbage collectors (CGC) have recently obtained extensive concern on multicore platform. Excellent designed CGC can improve the efficiency of runtime systems by exploring the full potential processing resources of multicore computers. Two major performance critical components for designing CGC are studied in this paper, stack scanning and heap compaction. Since the lock-based algorithms do not scale well, we present a lock-free solution for constructing a highly concurrent garbage collector. We adopt CAS/MCAS synchronization primitives to guarantee that the programs will never be blocked by the collector thread while the garbage collection process is ongoing. The evaluation results of this study demonstrate that our approach achieves competitive performance.

  5. A Study of Lock-Free Based Concurrent Garbage Collectors for Multicore Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent garbage collectors (CGC have recently obtained extensive concern on multicore platform. Excellent designed CGC can improve the efficiency of runtime systems by exploring the full potential processing resources of multicore computers. Two major performance critical components for designing CGC are studied in this paper, stack scanning and heap compaction. Since the lock-based algorithms do not scale well, we present a lock-free solution for constructing a highly concurrent garbage collector. We adopt CAS/MCAS synchronization primitives to guarantee that the programs will never be blocked by the collector thread while the garbage collection process is ongoing. The evaluation results of this study demonstrate that our approach achieves competitive performance.

  6. Solar-Powered Compaction Garbage Bins in Public Areas: A Preliminary Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Duc Nghiem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An excel-based model was developed to evaluate economic and environmental benefits of the solar-powered compaction garbage bins in public areas in Australia. Input data were collected from Brisbane and Wollongong City councils, and Sydney Olympic Park. The results demonstrate that solar-powered compaction garbage bins would provide environmental benefits in all scenarios. However, results of the economic analysis of the three studied areas varied significantly. The unique situation of Sydney Olympic Park made implementation in that facility particularly appealing. A lower monthly rental cost is needed for the implementation of this novel waste management practice.

  7. 77 FR 43428 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Minority Bank Deposit Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of... Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and Request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial... collection. By this notice, the Financial Management Service solicits comments concerning form FMS 3144...

  8. Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Pepper, Peter; Smith, Douglas R.

    Concurrent garbage collectors are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. Previous approaches to the issue of producing correct collectors have mainly been based on posit-and-prove verification or on the application of domain-specific templates and transformations. We show how to derive the

  9. Simulated Garbage: Leaps of Inference from Artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroble, Elizabeth J.; Stroble, Paul E.

    1988-01-01

    Recommends that teachers be skilled and respectful in helping students identify the functions of religion. The "Simulated Garbage" technique urges students to consider the qualities that give a religion coherence and meaning, without relation to external criteria of seeming rightness. (RAE)

  10. Energy from garbage; Energia a partir de la basura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu Fernandez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The subject of energy generation from garbage is discussed. A description is made of the sanitary fill, which is a system for the conversion or stabilization of garbage encompassing gas generation and lixiviates, these are collected to be used as fuels or a treatment process is applied to them avoiding this way the soil, water and air pollution; also a description is made of the utilization of a biogas recovery well, which recovers the biogas, cleans it from particles and condensates and afterwards feeds an internal combustion motor coupled to an electric generator. It is concluded that if the biogas generated by the buried garbage in the sanitary refills is utilized, the effects that cause the polluting emissions would be diminished and at the same time an additional energy resource would be on hand [Espanol] Se analiza el caso de la generacion de energia a partir de la basura. Se describe la tecnologia de relleno sanitario, la cual es un sistema de conversion o estabilizacion de la basura en el que existe generacion de biogas y lixiviados, estos se capturan para usarlos como combustibles o se les da un proceso de tratamiento y asi se evita la contaminacion del suelo, agua y aire; tambien se describe la utilizacion de un pozo de recuperacion de biogas, el cual recupera el biogas, lo limpia de particulas y condensados y despues alimenta a un motor de combustion interna acoplado a un generador. Se concluye en que si se aprovecha el biogas generado por la basura enterrada en rellenos sanitarios se diminuiran los efectos que causan las emisiones contaminantes y al mismo tiempo se tendria un recurso energetico adicional

  11. 78 FR 70584 - ATOS IT Solutions & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, Including Workers Whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI... Solutions & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, Mason, Ohio. The workers are engaged in... of ATOS IT Solutions & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, including workers whose...

  12. Privatization of solid waste collection services: Lessons from Gaborone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolaane, Benjamin, E-mail: bolaaneb@mopipi.ub.bw; Isaac, Emmanuel, E-mail: eisaac300@gmail.com

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We compared efficiency and effectiveness of waste collection by the public and private sector. • Public sector performs better than private sector in some areas and vice versa. • Outsourcing waste collection in developing countries is hindered by limited capacity on contractual issues. • Outsourcing collection in developing countries is hampered by inadequate waste information. • There is need to build capacity in the public sector of developing countries to support outsourcing. - Abstract: Formal privatization of solid waste collection activities has often been flagged as a suitable intervention for some of the challenges of solid waste management experienced by developing countries. Proponents of outsourcing collection to the private sector argue that in contrast to the public sector, it is more effective and efficient in delivering services. This essay is a comparative case study of efficiency and effectiveness attributes between the public and the formal private sector, in relation to the collection of commercial waste in Gaborone. The paper is based on analysis of secondary data and key informant interviews. It was found that while, the private sector performed comparatively well in most of the chosen indicators of efficiency and effectiveness, the public sector also had areas where it had a competitive advantage. For instance, the private sector used the collection crew more efficiently, while the public sector was found to have a more reliable workforce. The study recommends that, while formal private sector participation in waste collection has some positive effects in terms of quality of service rendered, in most developing countries, it has to be enhanced by building sufficient capacity within the public sector on information about services contracted out and evaluation of performance criteria within the contracting process.

  13. Privatization of solid waste collection services: Lessons from Gaborone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolaane, Benjamin; Isaac, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compared efficiency and effectiveness of waste collection by the public and private sector. • Public sector performs better than private sector in some areas and vice versa. • Outsourcing waste collection in developing countries is hindered by limited capacity on contractual issues. • Outsourcing collection in developing countries is hampered by inadequate waste information. • There is need to build capacity in the public sector of developing countries to support outsourcing. - Abstract: Formal privatization of solid waste collection activities has often been flagged as a suitable intervention for some of the challenges of solid waste management experienced by developing countries. Proponents of outsourcing collection to the private sector argue that in contrast to the public sector, it is more effective and efficient in delivering services. This essay is a comparative case study of efficiency and effectiveness attributes between the public and the formal private sector, in relation to the collection of commercial waste in Gaborone. The paper is based on analysis of secondary data and key informant interviews. It was found that while, the private sector performed comparatively well in most of the chosen indicators of efficiency and effectiveness, the public sector also had areas where it had a competitive advantage. For instance, the private sector used the collection crew more efficiently, while the public sector was found to have a more reliable workforce. The study recommends that, while formal private sector participation in waste collection has some positive effects in terms of quality of service rendered, in most developing countries, it has to be enhanced by building sufficient capacity within the public sector on information about services contracted out and evaluation of performance criteria within the contracting process

  14. Operationalisation of service quality in household waste collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Nico Alexander; Gellenbeck, Klaus; Nelles, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Since 2007, there has been intensive discussion at European and national levels concerning the standardisation of services including those in the sector of waste management. The drafts of the European standard prEN 16250 and the German preliminary standard DIN SPEC 1108 are intended to establish a uniform definition of corresponding services and their (minimum) service levels. Their binding application in practice requires that systematic inspections be provided to ascertain to what degree a service has been carried out as agreed upon. However, both standardisation projects give only a few examples of potential quality characteristics and offer no concrete information concerning methods of measurement. Because intersectoral or cross-service quality inspections do not exist, there is a need for the development of specific quality inspections. The study introduced in this article examines the question of how the service quality of door-to-door waste collection can be systematically measured. To this end, the quality concept applied to the process of waste collection was first concretised and then operationalised using indicators. Based upon this, the methods of the quality inspections were developed and subjected to a trial of their applicability in a German waste management company. The methods for measuring and evaluating take into account, in addition to the different boundary conditions of collection, also the possible customer influence on the collection process and consequently on the service performed by the collection crew. In order to avoid time- and therefore cost-intensive exhaustive surveys, a multilevel random-controlled selection of survey units was developed, too. Based on the analysis of the measurement data, it was possible to determine specific time requirement values for the regular performance of the data surveys, as well as minimum sample sizes as a function of the number of container locations of the waste collection tours. On the basis of this

  15. 78 FR 15123 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Accountable Official...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of...) Program AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and Request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management Service, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork...

  16. 77 FR 37959 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Pools and Associations-Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Pools and Associations--Annual Letter AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management Service, as part of...

  17. 77 FR 30050 - Financial Management Service Proposed Collection of Information: Resolution Authorizing Execution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service Proposed Collection of... Depositary, Financial Agency, and Collateral Agreement AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management Service, as part of...

  18. 75 FR 1683 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Assignment Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Assignment Form AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice... Management Service, Records and Information Management Branch, Room 135, 3700 East West Highway, Hyattsville...

  19. Virtual Collections: An Earth Science Data Curation Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, Kaylin; Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Gatlin, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The role of Earth science data centers has traditionally been to maintain central archives that serve openly available Earth observation data. However, in order to ensure data are as useful as possible to a diverse user community, Earth science data centers must move beyond simply serving as an archive to offering innovative data services to user communities. A virtual collection, the end product of a curation activity that searches, selects, and synthesizes diffuse data and information resources around a specific topic or event, is a data curation service that improves the discoverability, accessibility, and usability of Earth science data and also supports the needs of unanticipated users. Virtual collections minimize the amount of the time and effort needed to begin research by maximizing certainty of reward and by providing a trustworthy source of data for unanticipated users. This presentation will define a virtual collection in the context of an Earth science data center and will highlight a virtual collection case study created at the Global Hydrology Resource Center data center.

  20. The status of rural garbage disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ruqiong; Chen, Hong

    2018-01-01

    With the development of rural construction and the improvement of the living standard of residents, the production of rural living waste is increasing day by day. These wastes not only pollute the environment, destroy the rural landscape, but also spread disease, threaten the life safety of human beings, and become one of the public hazards. The problem of rural living waste is a major environmental problem facing China and the world. This paper make a summary analysis about the present situation of municipal waste in China, this paper expounds the problems in rural garbage treatment, and in view of status quo of municipal waste in China put forward comprehensive countermeasures.

  1. [Age effect on the life quality and health of garbage collectors of an association in Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Jane Rabelo; Elias, Elcinéia Tavares; Magalhães, Marcos Alves de; Vieira, Antônio José Dias

    2009-01-01

    Workers that segregate recyclable garbage are daily exposed to unhealthy work conditions which can have a more intense negative effect with aging of the garbage collector. A population of garbage collectors from Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil answered a semi-structured questionnaire regarding the presence or absence of labor pain, pain intensity, living conditions, access to health services, occurrence of accidents at works and degree of personal satisfaction. These variables were correlated with the age of the workers. It was observed that pain is not associated to age increase and that it doesn't affect the degree of personal satisfaction of the studied population. The education degree was negatively related with age. The youngest garbage collectors presented a lower degree of life satisfaction. The age of the workers doesn't have any association with the occurrence of accidents at work and dwelling type.

  2. 75 FR 4451 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Final Rule-Management of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Final Rule--Management of Federal Agency Disbursements. AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and Request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management...

  3. 75 FR 42486 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Authorization Agreement for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Authorization Agreement for Preauthorized Payment (SF 5510) AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management...

  4. 77 FR 34127 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Electronic Transfer Account...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Electronic Transfer Account (ETA) Financial Agency Agreement AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and Request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management...

  5. 75 FR 22680 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Annual Financial Statement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Annual Financial Statement of Surety Companies--Schedule F AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and Request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management...

  6. 77 FR 71035 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) Market Research Study AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and Request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management...

  7. 75 FR 45600 - Information Collection; Customer Data Worksheet Request for Service Center Information Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Customer Data Worksheet Request for Service Center Information Management System (SCIMS) Record Changes AGENCY: Farm Service... Customer Data Worksheet Request for Service Center Information Management System (SCIMS) that contains the...

  8. Compound Passport Service: supporting corporate collection owners in open innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David M; Degorce, Sébastien L; Drake, David J; Gustafsson, Magnus; Higgins, Kevin M; Winter, Jon J

    2015-10-01

    A growing number of early discovery collaborative agreements are being put in place between large pharma companies and partners in which the rights for assets can reside with a partner, exclusively or jointly. Our corporate screening collection, like many others, was built on the premise that compounds generated in-house and not the subject of paper or patent disclosure were proprietary to the company. Collaborative screening arrangements and medicinal chemistry now make the origin, ownership rights and usage of compounds difficult to determine and manage. The Compound Passport Service is a dynamic database, managed and accessed through a set of reusable services that borrows from social media concepts to allow sample owners to take control of their samples in a much more active way. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Developing collective customer knowledge and service climate: The interaction between service-oriented high-performance work systems and service leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kaifeng; Chuang, Chih-Hsun; Chiao, Yu-Ching

    2015-07-01

    This study theorized and examined the influence of the interaction between Service-Oriented high-performance work systems (HPWSs) and service leadership on collective customer knowledge and service climate. Using a sample of 569 employees and 142 managers in footwear retail stores, we found that Service-Oriented HPWSs and service leadership reduced the influences of one another on collective customer knowledge and service climate, such that the positive influence of service leadership on collective customer knowledge and service climate was stronger when Service-Oriented HPWSs were lower than when they were higher or the positive influence of Service-Oriented HPWSs on collective customer knowledge and service climate was stronger when service leadership was lower than when it was higher. We further proposed and found that collective customer knowledge and service climate were positively related to objective financial outcomes through service performance. Implications for the literature and managerial practices are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. A handbook of digital library economics operations, collections and services

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, David P

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a companion volume to Digital Library Economics and focuses on the 'how to' of managing digital collections and services (of all types) with regard to their financing and financial management. The emphasis is on case studies and practical examples drawn from a wide variety of contexts. A Handbook of Digital Library Economics is a practical manual for those involved - or expecting to be involved - in the development and management of digital libraries.provides practical approach to the subjectfocuses on the challenges associated with the economic and financial aspects of digi

  11. 78 FR 60303 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Online Survey of Web Services Employers; New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... of Web Services Employers; New Information Collection ACTION: 30-Day Notice. SUMMARY: The Department... collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Online Survey of Web Services Employers. (3) Agency form number... USCIS obtains data on the E-Verify Program Web Services. Gaining an understanding of the Web Services...

  12. Harmonia: A Globally Coordinated Garbage Collector for Arrays of Solid-state Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Lee, Junghee [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Solid-State Drives (SSDs) offer significant performance improvements over hard disk drives (HDD) on a number of workloads. The frequency of garbage collection (GC) activity is directly correlated with the pattern, frequency, and volume of write requests, and scheduling of GC is controlled by logic internal to the SSD. SSDs can exhibit significant performance degradations when garbage collection (GC) conflicts with an ongoing I/O request stream. When using SSDs in a RAID array, the lack of coordination of the local GC processes amplifies these performance degradations. No RAID controller or SSD available today has the technology to overcome this limitation. This paper presents Harmonia, a Global Garbage Collection (GGC) mechanism to improve response times and reduce performance variability for a RAID array of SSDs. Our proposal includes a high-level design of SSD-aware RAID controller and GGC-capable SSD devices, as well as algorithms to coordinate the global GC cycles. Our simulations show that this design improves response time and reduces performance variability for a wide variety of enterprise workloads. For bursty, write dominant workloads response time was improved by 69% while performance variability was reduced by 71%.

  13. 76 FR 23859 - Financial Management Service Proposed Collection of Information; Financial Institution Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service Proposed Collection of... Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial... collection. By this notice, the Financial Management Service solicits comments concerning the FMS 458 and FMS...

  14. 75 FR 5849 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Claim Against the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of... Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and Request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial... collection. By this notice, the Financial Management Service solicits comments concerning the Form FMS-1133...

  15. Exploration with Garbage. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Lund and Wolff Pak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Cherie; Wolff, Chanelle

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is concerned with the topic of garbage. The eleven lessons explore what garbage is, problems of littering, ways to reduce garbage, and ways to use garbage. The materials were designed to be used with kindergarten pupils, but could be…

  16. 9 CFR 166.5 - Licensed garbage-treatment facility standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensed garbage-treatment facility... garbage-treatment facility standards. Garbage-treatment facilities shall be maintained as set forth in... where insects and rodents may breed is prohibited. (b) Equipment used for handling untreated garbage...

  17. 7 CFR 305.40 - Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and... Garbage § 305.40 Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens. (a) T415-a, heat treatment. Incinerate to ash. Caterers under compliance agreement using an incinerator for garbage must comply with the...

  18. Health and self-care among garbage collectors: work experiences in a recyclable garbage cooperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Clarice Maria; Fernandes, Fernanda dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Study performed with garbage pickers who organized a cooperative to sort recyclable garbage in Porto Alegre, Brazil, in a shed loaned by the city administration. This activity, which has attracted an increasing number of people excluded from the formal job market, presents peculiar health risks and patterns of disease. The study aimed to learn about the participants' concepts and self-care actions, proposing discussions and jointly reflection on their problems. It focuses on the working environment and on attitudes towards health risks. Through the focal group technique with ten female subjects, the expression of capacity of situational analysis of those involved was privileged, giving rise to three main themes. Each theme discussed was followed by the construction of a plan of action in order to meet compatibly the more pressing needs according to the operational feasibility of the solutions proposed.

  19. Visual analysis of trash bin processing on garbage trucks in low resolution video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidla, Oliver; Loibner, Gernot

    2015-03-01

    We present a system for trash can detection and counting from a camera which is mounted on a garbage collection truck. A working prototype has been successfully implemented and tested with several hours of real-world video. The detection pipeline consists of HOG detectors for two trash can sizes, and meanshift tracking and low level image processing for the analysis of the garbage disposal process. Considering the harsh environment and unfavorable imaging conditions, the process works already good enough so that very useful measurements from video data can be extracted. The false positive/false negative rate of the full processing pipeline is about 5-6% at fully automatic operation. Video data of a full day (about 8 hrs) can be processed in about 30 minutes on a standard PC.

  20. Community participation in bank of garbage: Explorative case study in Banyumas regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Fitria Widiyanto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste bank is an activity that people do to reduce waste. The waste management activity through the establishment of a garbage bank becomes a very useful breakthrough, because people could save the waste which is exchangeable into money. The objective of this research is to know the inhibiting factors and the impetus for the community (targets to participate in waste bank, covering behavior, knowledge, understanding, and community motivation. This research is an exploratory research with qualitative approach implemented in Banyumas district. Data collection is done through in-depth interviews using purposive sampling. Data were analyzed using interactive analysis. The results indicate that the presence of active waste banks in the community, as well as motivated by other community members. The development of the existing garbage bank in the society is unstable that there is a need to be support from various parties so that the garbage bank continues to progress and develop. Community knowledge of waste bank activities, including collection, transportation, community participation, prices or economic value of waste and recycling activities. Factors that encourage participation in waste banks, among others are motivation and environmental conscious behavior.

  1. 78 FR 62658 - Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Leasing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ....Y00000] Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Leasing Program AGENCY: National Park... (email). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract. The National Park Service leasing program allows the... provide administrative support of the leasing program. Our authority to collect information for the...

  2. 76 FR 77590 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Request for Payment of Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Request for Payment of Federal Benefit by Check, EFT Waiver Form AGENCY: Financial Management... to Financial Management Service, 3700 East West Highway, Records and Information Management Branch...

  3. 75 FR 68039 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... (Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans... INFORMATION: Title: Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance, (SRH) Life Insurance, VA... applying for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance. VA uses the information collected to...

  4. Garbage separation: a livelihood option for poor men and women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 avr. 2016 ... Poverty and social disadvantage provide fertile ground for the proliferation of informal occupations that yield barely subsistence-level incomes. In Cochabamba, Bolivia, garbage separation is a relatively old informal occupation, dating back 30 or 40 years.

  5. Ground Zero/Fresh Kills: Cataloguing Ruins, Garbage, and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how the rise and fall of the Twin Towers can be read in relation to the rise and fall of the Staten Island Fresh Kills landfill, how their destinies were entwined from the start, and how the immediate cultural response to the collapse of the former and the closing of the latter recurred to the form of catalogues of objects, words, and images. From this angle it will be possible to posit the events within a larger, if somewhat unusual, cultural frame encompassing the history of two different yet complementary symbols of New York up to 2001 (the WTC and Fresh Kills. From Don DeLillo’s Underworld (1997 and Falling Man (2007 through Holman, Steve Zeitlin e Joe Dobkin’s Crisis (2001-2002; from Art Spiegelman’s In the Shadows of No Tower (2004 to Artists Respond’s 9-11 (2002; from the New York Times to Bearing Witness to History, the 2003-2006 retrospective of the Smithsonian Museum, relevant collective or individual responses to the 2001 attacks took the form of a catalogue, a list, a vertical or horizontal juxtaposition of data, objects, and memories, evoking a suggestive parallel to the organizing principle of past relics collected in museums and garbage stratified in sanitary landfills.

  6. Garbage in the diet of carnivores in an agricultural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowiak Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human food waste is considered to be richer in carbohydrates, lipids and proteins than most natural food supplies; however, it is very well digested in scats. So, as an indication of this kind of food in the diet, we have used each indigestible, anthropogenic origin element found in faeces (e.g., glass, plastic, rubber, etc.. There are few studies discussing the importance of garbage in the diet of mammalian predators living in farmland; definitely, most focus on this issue in urban areas. We studied the contribution of garbage in the diet of raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, red fox (Vulpes vulpes, marten (Martes sp., polecat (Mustela putorius, stoat (Mustela erminea, American mink (Neovison vison and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra in the agricultural areas of western Poland in 2006-2010. In addition, we examined the spatial changes in the diet of red fox and polecat. The largest contribution of garbage was found in scats of raccoon dog (8.8%, red fox (4.8% and marten (4.3%. The diet of polecat, stoat and Eurasian otter contained 2.5%, 1.7% and 0.2% garbage items respectively. The most frequent item was plastic. Our analysis showed that garbage consumption by red fox and polecat was greater closer to human settlements. The results reveal a continuous gradient in the garbage consumption that corresponds with the degree of synanthropization of particular species.

  7. 76 FR 8846 - Proposed Information Collection (VBA Loan Guaranty Service Lender Satisfaction Survey) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VBA Loan Guaranty Service Lender Satisfaction Survey) Activity.... SUMMARY: The Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), is announcing an... the following collection of information, VBA invites comments on: (1) Whether the proposed collection...

  8. 75 FR 4450 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Direct Deposit Sign-Up Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Direct Deposit Sign-Up Form AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and Request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management Service, as part of its...

  9. The waste collection vehicle routing problem with time windows in a city logistics context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhrkal, Katja Frederik; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Collection of waste is an important logistic activity within any city. In this paper we study how to collect waste in an efficient way. We study the Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Window which is concerned with finding cost optimal routes for garbage trucks such that all garbage...... by showing that the algorithm can improve the objective of a set of instances from the literature as well as for instances provided by a Danish garbage collection company....

  10. Hospitals as factories of medical garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    Over the course of the twentieth century, as hospitals cleaned up, they came to produce more and more rubbish. Beginning in the 1970s and gaining pace in the 1980s and 1990s, single-use plastic items (syringes, blood bags, tubing) saturated everyday medical practice across the globe. This essay brings the question of plastic to bear upon the longer history of twentieth century sanitary science. The widespread adoption of single-use disposable medical plastics consolidated a century's worth of changes in medical hygiene. As strange as it may seem today, the initial uptake of medical plastics was not driven primarily by concerns about hygiene. Plastic began as a mid-century technology of convenience and durability. It was not until the end of the twentieth century that it morphed into a powerful symbol and instrument of medical hygiene. Today, both patients and practitioners have embraced plastic as an indispensable technology of clean medicine. The procession of single-use medical plastics through everyday medicine now comprises a constant, if disposable, infrastructure of medical hygiene. This new processional infrastructure of disposable hygiene has produced another, albeit unintended, consequence. This new regime has exponentially increased hospitals' material outputs. In so doing, plastic has refigured the ecologies of everyday medicine. Plastic hygiene has rendered hospitals factories of medical garbage.

  11. [What is garbage, anyway? The opinions of women from an outlying neighborhood in a large Brazilian city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Rita de Cássia Franco; Barreto, Maurício L; Killinger, Cristina Larrea

    2002-01-01

    Domestic solid waste is cause for current environmental concern in large cities around the world. Little is known about the human health consequences of solid waste disposal in open-air dumps. In addition, there are few studies on people's health practices in relation to solid waste. As the initial step in epidemiological research on the relationship between solid waste and diarrhea, this study describes women's perception of the definition of garbage and the popular understanding of the relationships between garbage and disease, and between garbage and the environment. The study used a qualitative approach in a slum neighborhood in Salvador, Bahia. A total of 13 women were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire in 1999. The FileMaker "diaricamp" application was used for data analysis. Interviewees defined garbage as anything useless and considered it a problem whenever it accumulated in the surroundings producing a bad smell or visual pollution, attracted animals, caused disease in children or adults, or was shifted from the individual to the collective/institutional sphere of action to solve the problem.

  12. Scheme of energy collective services; Schema de services collectifs de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The scheme of collective energy services aims at facilitating and valorizing the contribution of the national organizations to the national energy plan and to the durable development of the country. The scheme comprises three main goals: defining the exploitation goals of local renewable energy resources and the goals of rational energy uses which can contribute to the national energy independence, to the security of supplies and to the abatement of the greenhouse effect; evaluating the foreseeable energy needs of regions and their energy production potentiality, their energy saving possibilities and their energy transportation needs; and finally, determining the conditions in which the government and the national organizations will be able to favor the energy saving actions and the production and use of renewable energies taking into account their impact on employment and their long-term financial consequences. This document is organized in five parts: 1 - status, stakes and perspectives: energy demand perspectives at the 2010-2020 vista, potentialities of energy saving and renewable energy sources development, implication of the international commitment of France in the fight against greenhouse effect; 2 - action means for new measures: buildings and accommodations, transportation sector, industry sector, mastery of electricity demand, development of renewable energy sources, decentralized energy production, energy storage, transport and distribution, economic tools and public means of sustain; 3 - follow up of the scheme of energy collective services; 4 - analysis of regional contributions; 5 - appendixes and maps. (J.S.)

  13. 75 FR 3906 - Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service Customer Satisfaction Survey AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction...: 0917-NEW, ``Indian Health Service Customer Satisfaction Survey.'' Type of Information Collection...

  14. 75 FR 75725 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Tax Time Card Account Pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Tax Time Card Account Pilot, Screening, Focus Groups, and Study AGENCY: Financial Management... collection. By this notice, the Financial Management Service solicits comments concerning the ``Tax Time Card...

  15. 78 FR 31573 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Social Values of Ecosystem Services at Cape...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS WSSO EQD SSD PPWON RADE3PPMR SNR1N.NM0000] Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Social Values of Ecosystem Services at Cape Lookout...: None. This is a new collection. Title: Social Values of Ecosystem Services at Cape Lookout National...

  16. 77 FR 50138 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...; Comment Request: Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information From the...: Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information from the National Cancer...--a survey that includes three customer service and twelve demographic questions (age, sex, race...

  17. Real-time garbage collection for list processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, R. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    In a list processing system, small reference counters are maintained in conjunction with memory cells for the purpose of identifying memory cells that become available for re-use. The counters are updated as references to the cells are created and destroyed, and when a counter of a cell is decremented to logical zero the cell is immediately returned to a list of free cells. In those cases where a counter must be incremented beyond the maximum value that can be represented in a small counter, the cell is restructured so that the additional reference count can be represented. The restructuring involves allocating an additional cell, distributing counter, tag, and pointer information among the two cells, and linking both cells appropriately into the existing list structure.

  18. Memory Efficient Hard Real-Time Garbage Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Ritzau, Tobias

    2003-01-01

    As the development of hardware progresses, computers are expected to solve increasingly complex problems. However, solving more complex problems requires more complex software. To be able to develop these software systems, new programming languages with new features and higher abstraction levels are introduced. These features are designed to ease development, but sometimes they also make the runtime behavior unpredictable. Such features can not be used in real-time systems. A feature that tra...

  19. Lock-free atom garbage collection for multithreaded Prolog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielemaker, Jan; Harris, Keri

    2016-01-01

    The runtime system of dynamic languages such as Prolog or Lisp and their derivatives contain a symbol table, in Prolog often called the atom table. A simple dynamically resizing hash-table used to be an adequate way to implement this table. As Prolog becomes fashionable for 24 × 7 server processes

  20. Lock-free atom garbage collection for multithreaded Prolog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Wielemaker (Jan); Harris, K. (Keri)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe runtime system of dynamic languages such as Prolog or Lisp and their derivatives contain a symbol table, in Prolog often called the atom table. A simple dynamically resizing hash-table used to be an adequate way to implement this table. As Prolog becomes fashionable for 24 × 7 server

  1. 76 FR 35949 - Agency Information Collection Activity (Servicer's Staff Appraisal Reviewer (SAR) Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Collection Activity (Servicer's Staff Appraisal Reviewer (SAR) Application) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans...: Servicer's Staff Appraisal Reviewer (SAR) Application, VA Form 26-0829. OMB Control Number: 2900-0715. Type... servicers to nominate employees for approval as Staff Appraisal Reviewer (SAR). Servicers SAR's will have...

  2. Continuous feed, on-site composting of kitchen garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eung-Ju; Shin, Hang-Sik; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2002-04-01

    Kitchen garbage generated at a school cafeteria was treated and stabilised in a controlled on-site composting unit for volume reduction and on-site utilisation of processed garbage. The on-site composter was fed with the garbage on a daily basis during the two-months experimental period. Compost was not removed from the unit but was entirely reused as a bulking agent in order to minimise the need for additional bulking agent and compost handling. Performance of the composter tinder this condition was investigated. Most of the easily degradable organic matter (EDM) in the garbage was biodegraded rapidly, and the final product had a low content of EDM. Lipids, total sugar, and hemi-cellulose were degraded 96%, 81%, and 66% respectively. Free air space (FAS) was higher than 0.5 all the time, so accumulation of dry matter in the unit was not significant in reducing reaction efficiency. Other reaction parameters such as pH and MC were kept within a suitable range; however, it was advisable to maintain MC at over 46%. As a result, this method of operation was able to stabilise the garbage with low sawdust demand and little compost production.

  3. Does garbage in diet improve Glaucous Gull reproductive output?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abby N.; Weiser, Emily L.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic subsidies are used by a variety of predators in areas developed for human use or residence. If subsidies promote population growth, these predators can have a negative effect on local prey species. The Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus) is an abundant predator in northern Alaska that is believed to benefit from garbage as a supplemental food source, but this supposition has never been tested. In summer 2008 and 2009, we recorded the Glaucous Gull's diet and reproduction at 10 breeding colonies in northern Alaska. Colonies were in industrial, residential, and undeveloped areas and ranged from 5 to 75 km from the nearest landfill. By colony, garbage occurred in zero to 85% of pellets and food remains produced during the chick-rearing period, and the average number of chicks fledged per pair ranged from zero to 2.9. Random-forest analysis indicated that percent occurrence of garbage in the diet was the second most important factor (after number of eggs per pair) explaining variance in fledging rate. There was a significant positive correlation between percent occurrence of garbage in the diet and fledging rate in each year. If this correlation reflects a causal relationship, it suggests that human development that increases gulls' access to garbage could result in increased local gull populations. Such an increase could affect the gulls' natural prey species, including at least 14 species of shorebirds and waterfowl of conservation concern.

  4. 76 FR 59420 - Proposed Information Collection; Alaska Guide Service Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... lands, we issue permits for commercial guide services, including big game hunting, sport fishing...) Type of guided activity. (4) Dates and location of guided activity. (5) Information on the services... information during the competitive selection process for big game and sport fishing guide permits to evaluate...

  5. Solid Waste and Recycling Collection Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the Town’s current collection schedule, including pick-up day and recycling week designation.The Town of Cary collects garbage weekly at the curb on the same...

  6. 77 FR 65927 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Office of Language Services Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... collected is used to initiate security clearance background checks and for processing payment vouchers... Collection: Office of Language Services Contractor Application Form. OMB Control Number: 1405-0191. Type of...

  7. 77 FR 20355 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Award Amendment Requests and Project Service Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... collection). Affected Public: Current recipients of EDA assistance, to include (1) cities or other political... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Award Amendment Requests and Project Service Maps AGENCY: Economic Development...

  8. 77 FR 15370 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Price Reductions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Price Reductions Clause; Extension... notice of request for comments regarding OMB Control No. 3090-0235, Price Reductions Clause, published in... 16, 2012. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 3090- 0235, Price...

  9. Smart Garbage Based on Internet of Things (IoT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joni, K.; Haryanto; Rohim, D. F.

    2018-01-01

    Trash is one of serious problems in Indonesia. It leads to another problems which deal with social, culture and economic, most of cities inindonesia have some problems in managing the trush. It is because the government doesn’t have the standard of trash management. The schedule to take the trash usually discover a problems with a lateness. The lack of trashmanagement and people’s habbit who don’t care about the trash impact effect to more serious problems that dealwith the trash. Such as, enviromental problems. Based on the problems the researcher makes a system called “Smart Garbage Based On Internet of things”. The system applies the technology of temporary garbage used internal system. This system creates in order to fix the problem of punctuality. Which makes the trash management more effective and afficient. The process of uploading the information in the internal awerness of based on the “real time” ativity this system can increase the peurity and health. Because the trash is controlled and not aculamulated arround people. The ultrasonic sensor and nodeMCU are used as a module of IoT to discover the temporary garbage. Grapical user Interface dekstop and android are also used in order to observe the level of trash in temporary garbage. The notification system can be access in mobile and dekstop interface. Furthermore the temporary garbage location can find by using google map the result of research shows that the system is running well. The system can onilne 12 hours/day along 2 weeks in exsperiment. The data sent by online based on “real time” activity and the result of mapping and tracking on android show the location of garbage.

  10. 33 CFR 151.69 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage outside special areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of garbage outside special areas. 151.69 Section 151.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage...

  11. 33 CFR 151.71 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage within special areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of garbage within special areas. 151.71 Section 151.71 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage...

  12. 33 CFR 151.73 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage from fixed or floating platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of garbage from fixed or floating platforms. 151.73 Section 151.73 Navigation and Navigable Waters... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage...

  13. 9 CFR 166.3 - Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Separation of swine from the garbage... Provisions § 166.3 Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas. (a) Access by swine to garbage handling and treatment areas shall be prevented by construction of facilities to exclude all ages...

  14. [Garbage, work, and health: a case study of garbage pickers at the metropolitan landfill in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo de Souza; Juncá, Denise Chrysóstomo de Moura; Gonçalves, Raquel de Souza; Filhote, Maria Izabel de Freitas

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the lives, work, and health conditions of garbage pickers in the largest metropolitan landfill in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using a semi-structured questionnaire with open-ended and closed questions, the study interviewed these individuals and developed a discussion of their daily lives, work, and health conditions. According to a quantitative-qualitative analysis, the garbage pickers identified garbage as a source of survival and defined health simply as the ability to work. They thus tended to neglect the relationship between work and health. However, the risks and reported morbidity highlighted the hazardous nature of this activity, aggravated by their living and housing conditions. Finally, the article emphasizes the importance of establishing public policies that integrate different dimensions of the problem, such as social inclusion, environmental preservation, public health, and the dignity of these workers.

  15. 75 FR 23219 - Information Collection; Direct Loan Servicing-Special

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Loan Programs provide loans to family farmers to purchase real estate and equipment and finance... information collection of this issue of the Federal Register. You may submit comments by any of the following...

  16. 77 FR 67329 - Information Collection Request, Servicing Minor Program Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... of the CONACT (7 U.S.C. 1985), provides servicing authority for real estate security; operation or lease of realty; disposition of property; conveyance of real property interest of the United States... date, volume, and page number of this issue of the Federal Register, the OMB control number and the...

  17. 76 FR 66132 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Travel Service Provider and Carrier Service Provider...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... for Travel Service Provider and Carrier Service Provider Submission AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets... other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information... soliciting comments concerning OFAC's Travel Service Provider and Carrier Service Provider information...

  18. 75 FR 80067 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Application for Job Placement and Training Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... Application for Job Placement and Training Services; Request for Comments AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... Application for Job Placement and Training Services. The information collection is currently authorized by OMB... information collection conducted under 25 CFR part 26 to administer the job placement and training program...

  19. 76 FR 15993 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for Financial Assistance and Social Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Financial Assistance and Social Services AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Assistance & Social Services, 25 CFR 20.'' The information collection is currently authorized by OMB Control... financial assistance or social services either are not available or not provided by State, tribal, county...

  20. 76 FR 14034 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory Web-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory Web-Based Application Form and Update Mailer Summary: In compliance with the requirement... included in the NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory on NCI's Cancer.gov Web site. The information...

  1. 75 FR 73132 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests: Public Demand for Museum and Library Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... on a wide range of library and museum services. The design of the PDMLS will be a random digital dial... Requests: Public Demand for Museum and Library Services (PDMLS) Survey AGENCY: Institute of Museum and... comments, collection of information. SUMMARY: The Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), as part...

  2. 77 FR 9659 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; GSA Mentor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ...-owned small businesses, service-disabled veteran-owned small businesses, and HUBZone small businesses in... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [OMB Control No. 3090-0286; Docket 2012-0001; Sequence 1] General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; GSA Mentor-Prot[eacute]g[eacute...

  3. 77 FR 27021 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Quarterly Survey of Financial Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Form BE-185, Quarterly Survey of Financial Services... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Economic Analysis Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Quarterly Survey of Financial Services Transactions Between U.S. Financial Services Providers and...

  4. Rationalisation of data collection for a child health service

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HeaJth infonnation systems at a health facility level tend to develop historically, with components and variables being added as the need arises or as higher echelons of the bureaucracy dictate. Consequently, data collection can become cumbersome and time-consuming. tn the latter half of 1992, the Pietermaritzburg City ...

  5. Evaluative study of collections and services of selected academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluated the collections of Ramat Library, University of Maiduguri, Ibrahim Musa Library, Sir Kashim College of Education, and Ramat Polytechnic Library Maiduguri, in terms of availability of funds, currency, and quantity of the materials available for the benefit of all their users. Four objectives and four research ...

  6. Changing Dimensions of Librarianship: users, collections, systems and services

    KAUST Repository

    Vijayakumar, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Through this presentation, I am trying to explain the developments of new generation libraries and connecting them to the contexts of an emerging spectrum of new librarianship and library transitions taking place; such as changes in user expectations, library spaces, systems, collections and marketing metrics.

  7. Pigeon-Frequented Areas, Garbage Piles and Dog Faeces as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to establish the presence of Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida species in two pigeon-frequented areas; garbage piles from two separate sites in Nairobi, and dog faeces from Small animal clinic, University of Nairobi, Kabete. The sampling included both solid materials and air. Potato Dextrose ...

  8. Beyond Garbage Cans: An AI Model of Organizational Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuch, Michael; LaPotin, Perry

    1989-01-01

    Building on a simulation methodology, this study presents a new organizational decision-making model that complements the original garbage can model and overcomes design-related limitations by using artificial intelligence tools. Decision-making in organized structures may become as disorderly as in organized anarchies, but for different reasons.…

  9. The Garbage Crisis: Environmental Issues for Adult ESL Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Helen

    This module on the garbage crisis is for intermediate and advanced learners of English as a Second Language. It seeks to inform learners about this issue and to give them an opportunity to direct their concerns about the environment into positive action. The guide uses the problem-posing methodology of Paulo Freire. This methodology has three…

  10. Mobile garbage bins and hand injuries in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Rui; Woodbridge, Adam B; Smith, Belinda J; Ruff, Stephen J; Lawson, Richard D

    2013-10-07

    To conduct a database search, chart and literature review of open extensor tendon and proximal interphalangeal joint injuries incurred while handling mobile garbage bins. A review of medical records at a Sydney tertiary referral hospital and a NSW rural Level 2 trauma hospital from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2010, identified through database searches of appropriate medical record codes and followed by a chart review. We identified 11 patients with finger injuries from handling mobile garbage bins that necessitated hospital-based treatments. Their average age was 75 years. Eight patients required surgery. Patients typically fell while maintaining their grip on mobile garbage bin handles, causing abrasive injury to the dorsal aspect of the proximal interphalangeal joint. Older patients are at risk of significant injuries to the dorsal side of their fingers when manoeuvring mobile garbage bins. This risk could be reduced by providing older members of the community with help to move their bins, or by modifying the design of bin handles. We propose a simple modification to the design of bin handles.

  11. 7 CFR 330.402 - Garbage generated in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... scraps. Such garbage includes, and is commonly known as, municipal solid waste. (1) Industrial process...) that may be present in municipal solid waste despite reasonable efforts to maintain source separation... Environmental Policy Act and all applicable Federal and State statutes to fully assess the impacts associated...

  12. Medication wasted - Contents and costs of medicines ending up in household garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; de Rooij, Roger H P F

    2018-02-10

    Despite potentially considerable implications for public health, the environment and public funds, medicine waste is an under-researched topic. This study aims to analyse medicines drawn from household garbage in Vienna (Austria) and to assess possible financial implications for public payers. Four pharmaceutical waste samples collected by the Vienna Municipal Waste Department between April 2015 and January 2016 were investigated with regard to their content. The value of medicines was assessed at ex-factory, reimbursement and pharmacy retail price levels, and the portion of costs attributable to the social health insurance was determined. Data were extrapolated for Vienna and Austria. The waste sample contained 1089 items, of which 42% were excluded (non-pharmaceuticals, non-Austrian origin and non-attributable medicines). A total of 637 items were further analysed. Approximately 18% of these medicines were full packs. 36% of the medicines wasted had not yet expired. Nearly two out of three medicines wasted were prescription-only medicines. The majority were medicines related to the 'alimentary tract and metabolism' (ATC code A), the 'nervous system' (ATC code N) and the 'respiratory system' (ATC code R). The medicines wasted had a total value of € 1965, € 2987 and € 4207, expressed at ex-factory, reimbursement and pharmacy retail price levels, respectively. Extrapolated for Vienna, at least € 37.65 million in terms of expenditure for public payers were wasted in household garbage, corresponding to € 21 per inhabitant. This study showed that in Vienna some medicines end up partially used or even completely unused in household garbage, including prescription-only medicines, non-expired medicines and medicines for chronic diseases. While there might be different reasons for medicines being wasted, the findings suggest possible adherence challenges as one issue to be addressed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Os coletores de lixo urbano no município de Dourados (MS e sua percepção sobre os riscos biológicos em seu processo de trabalho The perception of urban garbage collectors of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, regarding the biological risks involved in their work routine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelly Angelina Lazzari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A coleta de lixo urbano apresenta vários riscos ocupacionais. O objetivo foi identificar os riscos biológicos a que estão expostos os coletores de lixo urbano de Dourados/MS. Foi feita uma pesquisa qualitativa, segundo o Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo de Lefévre e Lefévre. A população abrangeu 42 trabalhadores, lotados na empresa que presta serviços à Secretaria Municipal de Serviços Urbanos. A coleta de dados através de entrevistas ocorreu de setembro de 2005 a janeiro de 2006. As entrevistas duraram em média 40 minutos, foram realizadas no escritório da empresa, em horário de chegada dos funcionários, gravadas em fita K7 e transcritas. Os riscos biológicos, segundo os coletores, são acidentes com vidro, seringas, espinhos, mordida de cães e contato com substâncias do lixo. Os acidentes com perfurocortantes constituem porta-de-entrada para microorganismos como bactérias, vírus e fungos. A contaminação com vírus (HIV e Hepatites B e C pode ocorrer através de acidentes com agulhas contaminadas descartadas nos resíduos. Concluímos que os riscos biológicos na coleta de lixo urbano podem diminuir com orientações à população.There are several occupational risks inherent to urban garbage collection, and the scope of this study was to identify the biological risks to which urban garbage collectors in Dourados/MS are exposed. A qualitative study using the Lefévre and Lefévre Collective Subject Discourse method was used with 42 urban garbage collectors working for the outsourced provider to the Municipal Department of Urban Services. Data were collected from September 2005 to January 2006. The interviews had an average duration of 40 minutes, and were recorded at the company office when the workers arrived to start their working day and subsequently transcribed. The biological risks mentioned by the garbage pickers were accidents with glass, syringes, thorns, dog bites, and contact with substances found in the garbage

  14. Identification and optimization of parameters for the semi-continuous production of garbage enzyme from pre-consumer organic waste by green RP-HPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, C; Sivashanmugam, P

    2015-10-01

    Reuse and management of organic solid waste, reduce the environmental impact on human health and increase the economic status by generating valuable products for current and novel applications. Garbage enzyme is one such product produced from fermentation of organic solid waste and it can be used as liquid fertilizer, antimicrobial agents, treatment of domestic wastewater, municipal and industrial sludge treatment, etc. The semi-continuous production of garbage enzyme in large quantity at minimal time period and at lesser cost is needed to cater for treatment of increasing quantities of industrial waste activated sludge. This necessitates a parameter for monitoring and control for the scaling up of current process on semi-continuous basis. In the present study a RP-HPLC (Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography) method is used for quantification of standard organic acid at optimized condition 30°C column oven temperature, pH 2.7, and 0.7 ml/min flow rate of the mobile phase (potassium dihydrogen phosphate in water) at 50mM concentration. The garbage enzyme solution collected in 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days were used as sample to determine the concentration of organic acid. Among these, 90th day sample showed the maximum concentration of 78.14 g/l of acetic acid in garbage enzyme, whereas other organic acids concentration got decreased when compare to the 15th day sample. This result confirms that the matured garbage enzyme contains a higher concentration of acetic acid and thus it can be used as a monitoring parameter for semi-continuous production of garbage enzyme in large scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 77 FR 26544 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Servicing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ..., mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g... automotive repair shops, and automotive repair shops not elsewhere classified. ICR numbers: EPA ICR No. 1617... Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standards for MVAC equipment. Approved independent standards testing...

  16. Novel bacterial consortia isolated from plastic garbage processing areas demonstrated enhanced degradation for low density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Manjunatha, Vishal; Sultana, Subiya; Jois, Chandana; Bai, Vidya; Vasist, Kiran S

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to formulate novel microbial consortia isolated from plastic garbage processing areas and thereby devise an eco-friendly approach for enhanced degradation of low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The LDPE degrading bacteria were screened and microbiologically characterized. The best isolates were formulated as bacterial consortia, and degradation efficiency was compared with the consortia formulated using known isolates obtained from the Microbial Culture Collection Centre (MTCC). The degradation products were analyzed by FTIR, GC-FID, tensile strength, and SEM. The bacterial consortia were characterized by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. The formulated bacterial consortia demonstrated 81 ± 4 and 38 ± 3 % of weight reduction for LDPE strips and LDPE pellets, respectively, over a period of 120 days. However, the consortia formulated by MTCC strains demonstrated 49 ± 4 and 20 ± 2 % of weight reduction for LDPE strips and pellets, respectively, for the same period. Furthermore, the three isolates in its individual application exhibited 70 ± 4, 68 ± 4, and 64 ± 4 % weight reduction for LDPE strips and 21 ± 2, 28 ± 2, 24 ± 2 % weight reduction for LDPE pellets over a period of 120 days (p waste management of LDPE and similar types of plastic garbage.

  17. Origin, dynamics and evolution of ocean garbage patches from observed surface drifters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sebille, Erik; England, Matthew H; Froyland, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Much of the debris in the near-surface ocean collects in so-called garbage patches where, due to convergence of the surface flow, the debris is trapped for decades to millennia. Until now, studies modelling the pathways of surface marine debris have not included release from coasts or factored in the possibilities that release concentrations vary with region or that pathways may include seasonal cycles. Here, we use observational data from the Global Drifter Program in a particle-trajectory tracer approach that includes the seasonal cycle to study the fate of marine debris in the open ocean from coastal regions around the world on interannual to centennial timescales. We find that six major garbage patches emerge, one in each of the five subtropical basins and one previously unreported patch in the Barents Sea. The evolution of each of the six patches is markedly different. With the exception of the North Pacific, all patches are much more dispersive than expected from linear ocean circulation theory, suggesting that on centennial timescales the different basins are much better connected than previously thought and that inter-ocean exchanges play a large role in the spreading of marine debris. This study suggests that, over multi-millennial timescales, a significant amount of the debris released outside of the North Atlantic will eventually end up in the North Pacific patch, the main attractor of global marine debris. (letter)

  18. 76 FR 20822 - Proposed Information Collection (Servicer's Staff Appraisal Reviewer (SAR) Application) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Appraisal Reviewer (SAR). Servicers SAR's will have the authority to review real estate appraisals and to issue liquidation notices of value on behalf of VA. VA will also use the data collected to track the...

  19. Catador de material reciclável: uma profissão para além da sobrevivência? Recycled garbage pickers: a profession beyond survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Ferreira Rezende de Medeiros

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa que objetivou investigar as relações de trabalho entre catadores de materiais recicláveis e organizações de reciclagem dos materiais coletados. Os catadores atuam no município de Goiânia. A reciclagem de lixo urbano figura como atividade emergente após movimentos ambientalistas e de preservação ambiental. Embora gere vantagens ambientais indiscutíveis, sobressaem os aspectos econômicos. A catação de materiais recicláveis constitui, para muitos trabalhadores, única forma de garantir sobrevivência e possibilidade de inclusão num mercado de trabalho excludente. Essa pesquisa investigou como os catadores percebem suas relações de trabalho, as condições em que desempenham suas funções e as práticas do trabalho em cooperativas de reciclagem. Utilizou-se entrevistas com 10 catadores, que foram tratadas pela análise de conteúdo. Os dados revelaram relações de trabalho precárias e informais entre catadores e organizações de reciclagem. Os trabalhadores são expostos à periculosidade, vítimas de preconceitos e estigmas e excluídos de alguns ambientes sociais.The article presents results of a research that investigated the work relations between recycled garbage pickers working in Goiânia and organizations that recycle such materials. The recycling of urban garbage figure as an emergent activity after environmentalist movements and environment preservation. Although it generates unquestionable environmental advantages, the economic benefits excel. Collecting garbage, to many workers, is the only way of guaranteing survival and inclusion in the excluding market. This research investigated the way garbage pickers understand their work relations, under what conditions perform their functions, and the work practices in garbage picking cooperatives. Ten garbage pickers were interviewed and data analyzed by content analysis. Data showed precarious and informal work relations

  20. Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Waste Collection Service in Gorkha Municipality of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bijan Maskey; Mrinila Singh

    2017-01-01

    Municipal solid waste management is a growing problem in urban areas of Nepal where municipalities are severely constrained by budget to manage it effectively. Collecting fees from the public can aid finance for improving waste management service. This study evaluates willingness to pay (WTP) by 401 households, selected using a stratified sampling method from all 15 wards of Gorkha municipality of Nepal for improved waste collection service and the factors influencing it. We employed a contin...

  1. Exposure of garbage truck drivers and maintenance personnel at a waste handling centre to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons derived from diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusimäki, Leea; Peltonen, Yrjö; Kyyrö, Eila; Mutanen, Pertti; Peltonen, Kimmo; Savela, Kirsti

    2002-10-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust was evaluated in summer and winter by measuring vapour and particle phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fifteen PAHs were simultaneously determined from the air samples obtained from truck drivers collecting household waste and maintenance personnel at a waste handling centre. The major compounds analysed from the personal air samples of exposed workers were naphthalene, phenanthrene and fluorene. The total PAH exposure (sum of 15 PAHs) of garbage truck drivers ranged from 71 to 2,660 ng m(-3) and from 68 to 900 ng m-3 in the maintenance work. The exposure of garbage truck drivers to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) ranged from the mean of 0.03 to 0.3 ng m(-3) whereas no B[a]P in control samples or in those collected from maintenance workers was detected. A statistically significant difference in diesel-derived PAH exposure between the garbage truck drivers and the control group in both seasons (in summer p = 0.0022, degrees of freedom (df) 70.5; and in winter p garbage truck drivers and the maintenance workers (in summer p < 0.0001, df = 50.1; and in winter p < 0.0001, df = 44.2) was obtained.

  2. 77 FR 64390 - Agency Information Collection (Food Service and Nutritional Care Analysis) Activities Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... quality of service resulting from advanced food preparation and advanced food delivery systems. All meals... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0227] Agency Information Collection (Food... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0227.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Food Service and Nutritional Care...

  3. 75 FR 19986 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for Financial Assistance and Social Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Financial Assistance and Social Services AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Office of Management and Budget the information collection, titled ``Financial Assistance & Social... assistance under 25 CFR part 20 to eligible Indians when comparable financial assistance or social services...

  4. 78 FR 42537 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Online Survey of Web Services Employers; New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... meet the goals of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, the... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services [OMB Control Number 1615.... Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following information collection request...

  5. 75 FR 15496 - Agency Information Collection (Service-Disabled Veterans Insurance-Waiver of Premiums) Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... complete VA Form 29-0812 to apply for a waiver of their Service-Disabled Veterans Insurance policy premiums... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0700] Agency Information Collection (Service-Disabled Veterans Insurance--Waiver of Premiums) Activities: Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits...

  6. 78 FR 28619 - Proposed Information Collection; Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Banking Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...-FF09E31000] Proposed Information Collection; Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Banking Survey AGENCY... banking program, and develop possible options for encouraging expanded use of the program. We plan to ask... banking credits. The surveys will benefit the Service by helping to identify constraints in the current...

  7. Type and Quantity of Shipborne Garbage at Selected Tropical Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilik, Julyus-Melvin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Husain, Mohd-Lokman; Hassan, Ruhana

    2016-01-01

    Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km) found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel.

  8. Type and Quantity of Shipborne Garbage at Selected Tropical Beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyus-Melvin Mobilik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel.

  9. Aquamess: Portraits of Garbage at the Top of the World, observing and changing our synthetic footprint for human and planetary health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, C.

    2017-12-01

    How can science inform art and art inform science and how does that interrelationship affect social change, research and the dissemination of scientific evidence? Carol Devine's Aquamess: Portraits of Garbage at the Top of the World project is based on a 2015 civilian expedition, CleanUp Svalbard. Volunteers on this stewardship initiative collected garbage accumulating on the Norwegian archipelago's remote shores as a recognized marine debris mitigation strategy. For four days, Devine and fellow volunteers travelled 10 nautical miles and collected 13.5 metres of garbage including 3.5 cubic metres of plastic fishing nets. Devine documented the effort and created Aquamess, a photography exhibit with garbage 'portraits', noting their geolocations. Her objective was to disseminate knowledge about the global marine debris problem, such as how ocean currents carry plastics, how the density varies due to hydrological and meterological conditions, what gyres are etc., and to encourage dialogue and continued interdisciplinary research and action. At the request of Dr. David Pantalony, Curator at the Canada Science and Technology Museum, Devine also collected a sample of the debris from Svalbard. This "Arctic garbage" is now archival material and part of an upcoming multimedia Oceans exhibit the museum created with her about marine science and ocean health. Already, Aquamess has engaged discussions about marine pollution's impact on human and planetary health in the 2016-7 group show Science Inspires Art: Food at the New York Hall of Science exploring contemporary food issues including food waste. It will be in a November 2017 group exhibit Photography as Response at the Center for Fine Art Photography in Colorado and is the subject of Devine's TEDxMontreal Women talk. Devine has written blogs and articles about Aquamess;has been interviewed in science, sciart and culture journals in the US, Europe, and Canada; and is observing scientific and non-scientific reactions through

  10. Risk assessment on processing facility of raw organic garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Rui; Koseki, Hiroshi; Iwata, Yusaku

    2008-06-15

    To investigate the cause of an explosion during disposal processing of raw garbage, the property of the raw garbage was primarily examined by a thermo gravimetry-differential thermal analyzer. With mutable oil concentration, the results showed variable onset temperatures of the exothermal reaction for the samples, for example, decreasing from 150 degrees C in the samples typically containing 10.9-14.1% oil to 114 degrees C when the oil content was raised to 40%. The disposal process was then simulated in a laboratory-scale facility being heated by hot air of 150 degrees C, which was blown into the bottom through nozzles. In the case of the dried garbage containing 14.1% oil, white smoke emitted after several hours, accompanying with an abrupt rise of the temperatures in particular at the bottom of the facility. The maximum temperature reached to 1070 degrees C. Meanwhile, gases, including flammable ones, whose amounts were CO2 approximately CO>H2>methane>ethane in order, were yielded. It indicated that smoldering developed from the zones near the hot air supply nozzle and propagated along the pathway of the imposed air. The continuously released gases possibly induced the transition of smoldering to flame or explosion after accumulating for hours.

  11. 76 FR 27382 - Agency Information Collection Activity (VBA Loan Guaranty Service Lender Satisfaction Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activity (VBA Loan Guaranty Service Lender Satisfaction Survey... notice announces that the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), Department of Veterans Affairs, will... information, VBA invites comments on: (1) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the...

  12. 78 FR 26657 - Proposed Extension of the Labor Standards for Federal Service Contracts Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... (including prospective increases) contained in a predecessor contractor's collective bargaining agreement... specifying the minimum monetary wage and fringe benefits to be paid the various classes of service employees... was computed. Id. C. Submission of Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA) Sections 2(a) and 4(c) of the...

  13. Current Situation Survey of Garbage Management in rural areas of Heilongjiang province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Yufeng

    2018-03-01

    This paper makes investigation to 120 administrative villages, count the the output, the distribution characteristics, the composition and the treatment model of the rural garbage at this stage. The research shows that the composition of the rural garbage is very complicated, the total annual output of rural garbage is 5 295 600 tonnes, and the daily output per capital of household garbage is 0.8925 kg. According to the situation of Heiliongjiang Province, this paper analyze the main problem during the garbage disposal, some control measures are presented, this reaesrch could provide basic data and research for the following treatment. The significant new findings of the research is that the rational governance path of garbage is that, first classification, second recycling and third harmless treatment.

  14. 47 CFR 64.1510 - Billing and collection of pay-per-call and similar service charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1510 Billing and collection of pay-per-call and... pay-per-call services and offering billing and collection services to such provider shall: (1) Ensure... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing and collection of pay-per-call and...

  15. Management considerations and environmental benefit analysis for turning food garbage into agricultural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2008-09-01

    The management of food garbage is of great importance because of its high energy consumption, potential environmental hazards and public health risks. In Taiwan, through the competent authorities at all levels and the citizens' participation in sorting household wastes, many recycling efforts have recently been implemented to further utilize it as available resources such as swine feeds and organic fertilizer by composting. As a result, a total of approximately 570 thousand metric tons was recycled with a recycling ratio of about 21.2% on a basis of food garbage generation in 2006, rising over 22% from a year earlier. These figures showed that compulsory garbage sorting has indeed dramatically increased the recycling of food garbage. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss some management considerations in turning food garbage into agricultural resources due to the compulsory garbage sorting directive in Taiwan. The description first aims at the current status in food garbage generation and its recycling, and at the regulatory polices which have become effective since 2000. It also centers on the environmental and agricultural measures on upgrading food garbage recycling. Based on the preliminary analysis of environmental benefit by the Revised 1996 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, it is obvious that composting food garbage is superior to that by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill) from the viewpoint of reducing greenhouse gases (i.e., CO(2) and CH(4)) emissions.

  16. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of garbage, screened swine and dairy cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Tang, Yue-Qin; Matsui, Toru; Morimura, Shigeru; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Kida, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Methane fermentation characteristics of garbage, swine manure (SM), dairy cattle manure (DCM) and mixtures of these wastes were studied. SM and DCM showed much lower volatile total solid (VTS) digestion efficiencies and methane yield than those of garbage. VTS digestion efficiency of SM was significantly increased when it was co-digested with garbage (Garbage: SM=1:1). Co-digestion of garbage, SM and DCM with respect to the relative quantity of each waste discharged in the Kikuchi (1: 16: 27) and Aso (1: 19: 12) areas indicated that co-digestion with garbage would improve the digestion characteristic of SM and DCM as far as the ratio of DCM in the wastes was maintained below a certain level. When the mixed waste (Garbage: SM: DCM=1:19:12) was treated using a thermophilic UAF reactor, methanogens responsible for the methane production were Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina species. Bacterial species in the phylum Firmicutes were dominant bacteria responsible for the digestion of these wastes. As the percentage of garbage in the mixed wastes used in this study was low (2-3%) and the digestion efficiency of DCM was obviously improved, the co-digestion of SM and DCM with limited garbage was a prospective method to treat the livestock waste effectively and was an attractive alternative technology for the construction of a sustainable environment and society in stock raising area.

  17. 76 FR 25782 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: List of Data (A) and List of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: List of Data (A) and List of Data (B) AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and Request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management Service, as part of...

  18. Brave New Media World: A Science Communications Voyage to the Great Pacific Garbage Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisewitz, A.; Clark, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    By leveraging online tools, such as blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google Earth, flickr and web-based discussion boards, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography team recently took science communications out of the static webpage to create an interactive journey that sparked social dialogue and helped raise awareness of science-based research on global marine environmental problems. A crew of 16 researchers, volunteers and support staff, with assistance from the shore-based Scripps Oceanography communications team, took readers and viewers aboard Scripps’ research vessel New Horizon during the 20-day and more than 2,500-mile SEAPLEX expedition (Scripps Environmental Accumulation of Plastic Expedition). The journey to the North Pacific Ocean Gyre, aka “The Great Pacific Garbage Patch,” was chronicled through popular daily blogs and tweets as the researchers shared interesting scientific facts and unusual findings contained in the 100 oceanographic tow samples conducted in the water to collect data on the distribution of plastic near the gyre.

  19. The urban solid wastes collecting in Zarzaquemada (Leganes): Phase I; Recogida neumatica de RSU de Zarzaquemada (Leganes) Fase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijoo Blanco, J.; Garcia Vivanco, J.; Rodriguez, B.; Arroyo, F.

    1998-07-01

    The urban solid waste management has been converted in one of the main political concerns of the municipalities. Their high materials and human costs, the greater demand of the citizenship for the level of quality of the service and the necessity, more, and more urgent, of effecting selective collections that allow to recycle the garbage and their reuse, obligates to the public institutions, and same to the private initiative, to search for alternative solutions to the traditional collection reasons the City Council of Leganes (Madrid) has ported for the neumatic collection of MSW. (Author)

  20. Evaluation of the contamination risk by 241AM from lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive lightning rods were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the licenses for using radioactive sources in these products were lifted by the national nuclear authority. Since then, radioactive devices have been replaced by Franklin type one and collected as radioactive waste. However, only 23 percent of the estimated total number of installed rods was delivered to Brazilian Nuclear Commission (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN). This situation is of concern as there is a possibility of the rods being discarded as domestic waste, considering that in Brazil, 63.6 percent of the municipal solid waste is disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump, according to Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE) in 2000. In addition, americium, the most common employed radionuclide, is classified as a high toxicity element, when ingested or inhaled. In the present study, it was performed migration experiments of Am-241 by lysimeter system in order to evaluate the risk of contamination caused by radioactive lightning rods disposed as a common solid waste. Sources removed from lightning rods were placed inside lysimeters filled with organic waste, collected at the restaurant of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the generated leachate was periodically analyzed to determine its characteristics such as pH, redox potential, solid content and concentration of the radioactive material. Microbial growth was also evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. The equivalent dose to members of the public has been calculated considering the ingestion of drinking water, the most probable mode of exposure. The final result was about 145 times below the effective dose limit of 1 mSv.year-1 for members of the public, established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), demonstrating that the risk caused by lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump is low. (author)

  1. Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Waste Collection Service in Gorkha Municipality of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Maskey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste management is a growing problem in urban areas of Nepal where municipalities are severely constrained by budget to manage it effectively. Collecting fees from the public can aid finance for improving waste management service. This study evaluates willingness to pay (WTP by 401 households, selected using a stratified sampling method from all 15 wards of Gorkha municipality of Nepal for improved waste collection service and the factors influencing it. We employed a contingent valuation method to elicit households’ WTP, logit regression model to determine factors influencing WTP and tobit regression model to determine factors influencing the maximum amount households are willing to pay for improved waste collection service. Majority of households (61% are willing to pay an average amount of NRs. 73.38 (0.72 US$ per month. Factors that significantly influence households’ WTP are monthly household income, education of household head, environmental awareness and waste collection service. Except for education of household head, all these factors significantly influence the maximum amount of money households are willing to pay. Concerned stakeholders and policy makers should consider these traits of households before enforcing a waste collection fee.

  2. [Urban solid residues, garbage collectors and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Mônica Maria; Moraes, Maria Silvia de

    2009-01-01

    The article approaches the issues of environmental production and the generation of urban solid residues, in particular the environment and health concept while social representation. From a bibliographical revision it argues the incorporation of the themes of health and environment in the practical field of knowledge and of interconnection with the Public Health. In this context it associates the question of the social exclusion generated by the form of production and consumption of the after-modern society, introducing the garbage collectors as a vulnerable population group.

  3. 33 CFR Appendix A to §§ 151.51... - Summary of Garbage Discharge Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE... Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and... Platforms & Assoc. Vessels 3 (33 CFR 151.73) Plastics—includes synthetic ropes and fishing nets and plastic...

  4. Strength of the reversible, garbage-free 2 k ±1 multiplier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotenberg, Eva; Cranch, James; Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a reversible garbage-free 2 k ±1 constant-multiplier circuit was presented by Axelsen and Thomsen. This was the first construction of a garbage-free, reversible circuit for multiplication with non-trivial constants. At the time, the strength, that is, the range of constants obtainable...

  5. 46 CFR 148.04-19 - Tankage, garbage or rough ammoniate, solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tankage, garbage or rough ammoniate, solid. 148.04-19 Section 148.04-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES...-19 Tankage, garbage or rough ammoniate, solid. (a) The material must contain at least 7 percent...

  6. Maximizing Academic Library Collections: Measuring Changes in Use Patterns Owing to EBSCO Discovery Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of academic libraries adopting web-scale discovery tools, few studies have quantified their effect on the use of library collections. This study measures the impact that EBSCO Discovery Service has had on use of library resources through circulation statistics, use of electronic resources, and interlibrary loan requests.…

  7. 77 FR 58141 - Public Buildings Service; Information Collection; Art-in-Architecture Program National Artist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ...-Architecture & Fine Arts Division (PCAC), 1800 F Street NW., Room 3305, Washington, DC 20405, at telephone(202... Buildings Service; Information Collection; Art-in- Architecture Program National Artist Registry (GSA Form... regarding Art-in Architecture Program National Artist Registry (GSA Form 7437). The Art-in-Architecture...

  8. 78 FR 64928 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Rehabilitation Services Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...; Comment Request; Rehabilitation Services Administration Grant Re-Allotment Form AGENCY: Office of Special..., commercial delivery, or hand delivery. Please note that comments submitted by fax or email and those... in response to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Rehabilitation...

  9. 76 FR 77538 - Family and Youth Services Bureau; Proposed Information Collection Activity; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... addressed key implementation considerations, such as adherence, dosage, quality of service delivery, and..., behaviors, intentions, and 350 2 4 2,800 perceived impacts data collection...... Measures of Attendance, Reach, Dosage Participant attendance log 1,400 2 4 11,200 Participant attendance log 1,400 2 4 11,200...

  10. 78 FR 58609 - Agency Information Collection (Claim, Authorization and Invoice for Prosthetic Items and Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Claim, Authorization and Invoice for Prosthetic Items and Services...: VA Desk Officer; 725 17th St. NW., Washington, DC 20503 or sent through electronic mail to oira... Invoice, VA Form 10-2520. (f) Prescription and Authorization for Fee Basis Eyeglasses, VA Form 10-2914...

  11. Alternative management structures for municipal waste collection services: The influence of economic and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata-Díaz, Ana María; Zafra-Gómez, José Luis; Pérez-López, Gemma; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors that influence on the restructuring of MSW services. • We evaluated five different alternatives for public and private service. • Our analysis covers a broad time horizon, 2002–2010. • We used a conditional fixed-effects logistic regression as the evaluation method. • Municipalities tend to contract out the MSW service in the presence of high costs and fiscal stress. - Abstract: Identifying and characterising the factors that determine why a local authority opts for a particular way of managing its waste collection service is an important issue, warranting research interest in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This paper presents empirical evidence spanning a broad time horizon (2002–2010) showing that economic and political factors impact in different ways on the provision of waste management services. We examine five alternatives in this area, including public and private service delivery formulas and, within each field, individual and joint options. Our findings highlight the importance of the service cost and that of the various indicators of fiscal stress as determinant factors of management decisions regarding the provision of MSW management services

  12. 77 FR 60129 - 60-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service Forms To Implement the Privacy Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    .... Yvette Roubideaux, Director, Indian Health Service. [FR Doc. 2012-24119 Filed 10-1-12; 8:45 am] BILLING... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service 60-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service Forms To Implement the Privacy Rule; Request for Public Comment AGENCY...

  13. Advantages and disadvantages of a municipal solid waste collection service for citizens of Hanoi City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kosuke; Osako, Masahiro

    2013-03-01

    Governments of municipalities in Vietnam experiencing dynamic economic growth and dramatic population increases have been struggling to manage increased amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study aimed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of the current MSW collection service for citizens of the four central districts of Hanoi city, Vietnam, by conducting interviews with 200 households and 200 business entities regarding their satisfaction with the service. The survey results showed that Hanoi city provides an economical collection service with sufficient frequency and at appropriate times for citizens. However, a number of citizens complained about unsanitary conditions in the area surrounding their residence. Business entities had sufficient motivation to sell recyclable waste (RW) to the informal sector, not only to derive revenue from selling RW, but also to reduce the amount of MSW generated, thus reducing the MSW collection fee. Households were not motivated to reduce MSW by selling RW to the informal sector because they paid a fixed collection fee. As a result, an improvement in living standards in the near future is expected to contribute to increasing the amount of MSW generated from households.

  14. Household waste management in Mashad: characteristics and factors influencing on demand for collecting services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, M; Liaghati, H; Mahmoudi, Hossein

    2007-11-01

    In order to characterize household waste management system in Mashad (Northeast of Iran) and evaluate factors which affect on demand for waste collecting services, a field survey was conducted. One hundred ninty eight families were selected according to classified randomized sampling system and data on their socio-economic characters including home area, type (apartment versus other types) and tenure (private versus rental), education, separating solid and organic wastes, family size and income were gathered using questionnaires and direct interview. Results showed that three variables including staying at home during day, home type and family size explained 21% of variations of demand for waste collecting services. The study emphasized on components of pricing and economic motivations as well as education and socio-economic factors for decreasing of household waste production. Suggestions have been presented for improving the efficiency of waste management system in Mashad.

  15. Q&A: Trash talk: disposal and remote degradation of neuronal garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Meghan Lee; Melentijevic, Ilija; Smart, Anna Joelle; Driscoll, Monica

    2018-01-30

    Caenorhabditis elegans neurons have recently been found to throw out cellular debris for remote degradation and/or storage, adding an "extracellular garbage elimination" option to known intracellular protein and organelle degradation pathways. This Q&A describes initial insights into the biology of seemingly selective protein and organelle elimination by challenged neurons, highlighting mysteries of how garbage is distinguished and sorted in the sending neuron, how the garbage-filled "exophers" appear to elicit degradative responses as they transit neighboring tissue, and how non-digestible materials get thrown out of cells again via processes that may be highly relevant to human neurodegenerative disease mechanisms.

  16. Os significados do lixo para garis e catadores de Fortaleza (CE, Brasil What garbage represents for municipal collectors and recyclers in Fortaleza, State of Ceará (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemmelle Oliveira Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou trazer uma discussão sobre os significados do lixo a partir da visão de um grupo de garis e catadores residentes em Fortaleza/CE. Ao usar a metodologia qualitativa, sob a técnica da entrevista individual, esse trabalho traz os resultados obtidos em uma pesquisa que vem sendo desenvolvida com os trabalhadores da coleta de lixo domiciliar em Fortale-za/CE e os que trabalham em uma usina de triagem de materiais recicláveis. Durante todo o período de aproximação com o "mundo do lixo" foram realizadas oito entrevistas. Após transcrição e interpretação dos depoimentos percebemos que o lixo é visto pelos entrevistados como algo perigoso à saúde (pelos diversos agravos provocados e também como meio de sobrevivência (em decorrência da não inserção no mercado de trabalho por falta de estudo e/ou oportunidade.This study sought to elicit a discussion about the significance of garbage from the standpoint of a group of municipal garbage collectors and garbage recyclers resident in Fortaleza, State of Ceará. Using qualitative methodology and the individual interview technique, this work presents the results of ongoing research that has been conducted together with the employees involved in the collection of household garbage in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, and those working in a plant for separating recyclable materials. During the period under analysis of the "world of garbage" eight interviews were staged. After transcription and interpretation of the interviews, it became clear that the respondents perceive garbage as being prejudicial to health (due to the various diseases it causes and also as a means of survival (as a result of non-inclusion in the labor market due to lack of study and/or opportunity.

  17. System of the incineration for the liquid scintillation garbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naba, Katsumi

    1981-12-01

    In Japan from 1980 the incineration of the used scintillation liquid has been permitted according to the safety guide regulation of Japan Scientific Technology Agency. This incineration method would disperse the radioactivity in local site and destroy the chemicals at the same time. This system are consist of three parts. (1) Filtration and pH. adjustment of liquid garbage. (2) Bubbling vaporization in closed cycle. The temperature of the solution inside vessel is kept from 65 0 C to 85 0 C and the solution is bubbled with nealy 4 0 C circulated air. After the end of distillation, water layer is separated from the organic chemical layer and put it down the drain according to the regulation. (3) The residue is mixed with only the distilled organic chemicals according to the next classification, thereafter incineration is carried out. (a) For under the radioactive concentration of 1 x 10 -3 μCi/ml, the mixed scintillation liquid are burned up in specially designed incinerator. (b) For over the level of 1 x 10 -3 μCi/ml, only the distilled organic chemicals are burned up and the residue will be sent to the Waste Disposal Site. (c) For under the water content of 5% these liquid garbage can be directly are burned up without distillation The residue seemed to be suitable for the combustion of the dried carcased animals as the auxiliary fuels. This incinerator will be able to use as room heater or water heater for the bath without radioactive contamination inside of install room. (author)

  18. 36 CFR 1011.9 - When will the Presidio Trust transfer a debt to the Financial Management Service for collection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When will the Presidio Trust transfer a debt to the Financial Management Service for collection? 1011.9 Section 1011.9 Parks, Forests... When will the Presidio Trust transfer a debt to the Financial Management Service for collection? (a...

  19. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from garbage burning, wood and dung cooking fires, motorcycles and brick kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, T. S.; Rathnayake, C.; Stockwell, C.; Daugherty, K.; Islam, R. M.; Christian, T. J.; Bhave, P.; Praveen, P. S.; Panday, A. K.; Adhikari, S.; Rasmi, M.; Goetz, D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Saikawa, E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stone, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in-situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources in South Asia by determining emission factors (EF) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. Garbage burning had the highest EF PM2.5 among the sampled sources ranging 7-124 g kg-1, with maximum EFs for garbage burned under higher moisture conditions. Garbage burning emissions contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn) that are associated with acute and chronic health effects. Triphenylbenzene and antimony (Sb) were unique to garbage burning are good candidates for tracing this source. Cook stove emissions varied largely by stove technology (traditional mud stove, 3-stone cooking fire, chimney stove, etc.) and biomass fuel (dung, hardwood, twigs, and mixtures thereof). Burning dung consistently emitted more PM2.5 than burning wood and contained characteristic fecal sterols and stanols. Motorcycle emissions were evaluated before and after servicing, which decreased EF PM2.5 from 8.8 g kg-1 to 0.7 g kg-1. Organic species analysis indicated that this reduction in PM2.5­ is largely due to a decrease in emission of motor oil. For brick kilns, the forced draft zig-zag kilns had higher EF PM2.5 (12-19 g kg-1) compared to clamp kilns (8-13 g kg-1) and also exhibited chemical differences. PM2.5 emitted from the zig-zag kiln were mainly OC (7%), sulfate (32%) and uncharacterized chemical components (60%), while clamp kiln emissions were dominated by OC (64%) and ammonium sulfate (36%). The quantitative emission factors developed in this study may be used for source apportionment and to update regional emission inventories.

  20. Recycling at Naval Shore Installations: One Means of Curbing the ’Garbage Glut’

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    disposable diaper ban was dropped from Georgia’s recycling law. 7 Despite their success, NUMKAPTs in all parts of the country shouldn’t celebrate too...AD-.A276 759 1993 Executive Research Project S63 Recycling at Naval Shore Installations: One Means of Curbing the "Garbage Glut" Commander Robert L... Recycling at Naval Shore Installations: One Means of Curbing the "Garbage Glut" --- Provides techniques and strategies to aid Federal recycling program

  1. GC^2: A Generational Conservative Garbage Collector for the ATerm Library

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau , Pierre-Etienne; Zendra , Olivier

    2002-01-01

    The ATerm library is a well-designed and well-known library in the term rewriting community. In this paper, we discuss the current garbage collector provided with the library and stress the fact that some peculiarities of this functional library could be taken advantage of by the memory management system. We explain how we designed and implemented GC², a new mark-and-sweep generational garbage collector for the ATerm library that builds upon these peculiarities. Experimental results on variou...

  2. BIO-PEDO-GEOGRAPHYCAL REGARDS ON GARBAGE DUMPS FROM TOMEŞTI - IAŞI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Secu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The garbage dump from Tomeşti (Iaşi represents a water and soil pollution source, as well as a peril for the population’s health. The study has pursued the analysis of some indicators of water quality (which have evidenced exceeds of the currently admitted values, the identification of the plant species from the garbage dump perimeter (table 1 and the presentation of the general geographical landscape.

  3. Ethanol Production from Kitchen Garbage Using Zymomonas mobilis: Optimization of Parameters through Statistical Experimental Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, H.; Wang, Q.; Gong, L.; Wang, X.; Yin, W.

    2008-01-01

    Plackett-Burman design was employed to screen 8 parameters for ethanol production from kitchen garbage by Zymomonas mobilis in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The parameters were divided into two parts, four kinds of enzymes and supplementation nutrients. The result indicated that the nutrient inside kitchen garbage could meet the requirement of ethanol production without supplementation, only protease and glucoamylase were needed to accelerate the ethanol production. The opti...

  4. Effects of anaerobic/aerobic incubation and storage temperature on preservation and deodorization of kitchen garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qunhui; Narita, Jun-ya; Xie, Weimin; Ohsumi, Yukihide; Kusano, Kohji; Shirai, Yoshihito; Ogawa, Hiroaki I

    2002-09-01

    To develop a garbage recycling system for the purpose of the production of lactic acid (LA) to use as raw material for producing biodegradable plastics, the preservation and deodorization of garbage during storage are very important. Anaerobic incubation (i.e., storage) was prove to be more suitable than aerobic incubation during the garbage storage in terms of concentration of LA and soluble sugar, pH value, viable bacteria counts and offensive odour substances. This difference is due to a fact that the growth of putrefactive bacteria such as coliforms and Clostridium spp. appeared to be inhibited by anaerobic fermentation during the storage, because the fermentation caused a drop of garbage pH and generated inhibitory substances, i.e., bacteriocins. Under anaerobic condition, LA concentration in the stored garbage was found to be higher in the order: 37 > 25 > 50 > 5 degrees C, and the concentration of sugar accumulated during the 50 degrees C-storage was the highest. Among the conditions employed, the optimum condition for the storage of kitchen garbage was anaerobic at 5 degrees C.

  5. Standardized diagnostic interviews, criteria, and algorithms for mental disorders: garbage in, garbage out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Michael; Muschalla, Beate

    2012-09-01

    There is a general consensus that diagnoses for mental disorders should be based on criteria and algorithms as given in ICD or DSM. Standardized clinical interviews are recommended as diagnostic methods. In ICD and DSM, much emphasis is put on algorithms, while the underlying criteria get much less attention. The question is how valid are the criteria that are collected by structured diagnostic interviews. 209 patients from a cardiology inpatient unit were interviewed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). 32 (15.3%) were diagnosed as suffering from a major depressive episode or dysthymia. Additionally, a thorough clinical examination was done by a psychiatric expert in 15 patients. The standardized diagnosis of present major depression was reaffirmed in one. In total, four patients were suffering from some kind of depressive disorder presently or life time. Two patients were suffering from anxiety disorders, two from adjustment disorders, and four from different types of organic brain disorders. Most important, there are 3 out of 15 who are not mentally ill. Our observations show that standardized diagnostic interviews cannot be used to make specific differential diagnoses, but rather catch unspecific syndromes. This is partly due to the fact that the wording, definition, and understanding of the underlying criteria is rather vague. This is an even greater problem if there is any somatic comorbidity. In the revision of ICD and DSM, a glossary of psychopathological terms and guidelines for the training of clinicians should be included.

  6. Determinants of efficiency in the provision of municipal street-cleaning and refuse collection services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benito-Lopez, Bernardino; Rocio Moreno-Enguix, Maria del; Solana-Ibanez, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Effective waste management systems can make critical contributions to public health, environmental sustainability and economic development. The challenge affects every person and institution in society, and measures cannot be undertaken without data collection and a quantitative analysis approach. In this paper, the two-stage double bootstrap procedure of is used to estimate the efficiency determinants of Spanish local entities in the provision of public street-cleaning and refuse collection services. The purpose is to identify factors that influence efficiency. The final sample comprised 1072 municipalities. In the first stage, robust efficiency estimates are obtained with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). We apply the second stage, based on a truncated-regression, to estimate the effect of a group of environmental factors on DEA estimates. The results show the existence of a significant relation between efficiency and all the variables analysed (per capita income, urban population density, the comparative index of the importance of tourism and that of the whole economic activity). We have also considered the influence of a dummy categorical variable - the political sign of the governing party - on the efficient provision of the services under study. The results from the methodology proposed show that municipalities governed by progressive parties are more efficient.

  7. Determinants of efficiency in the provision of municipal street-cleaning and refuse collection services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-López, Bernardino; Moreno-Enguix, María del Rocio; Solana-Ibañez, José

    2011-06-01

    Effective waste management systems can make critical contributions to public health, environmental sustainability and economic development. The challenge affects every person and institution in society, and measures cannot be undertaken without data collection and a quantitative analysis approach. In this paper, the two-stage double bootstrap procedure of Simar and Wilson (2007) is used to estimate the efficiency determinants of Spanish local entities in the provision of public street-cleaning and refuse collection services. The purpose is to identify factors that influence efficiency. The final sample comprised 1072 municipalities. In the first stage, robust efficiency estimates are obtained with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). We apply the second stage, based on a truncated-regression, to estimate the effect of a group of environmental factors on DEA estimates. The results show the existence of a significant relation between efficiency and all the variables analysed (per capita income, urban population density, the comparative index of the importance of tourism and that of the whole economic activity). We have also considered the influence of a dummy categorical variable - the political sign of the governing party - on the efficient provision of the services under study. The results from the methodology proposed show that municipalities governed by progressive parties are more efficient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 77 FR 15116 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; FHA-Insured Mortgage Loan Servicing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Processing, Escrow Administration, Customer Service, Servicing Fees and 235 Loans AGENCY: Office of the... Proposal: FHA-Insured Mortgage Loan Servicing for Performing Loans; MIP Processing, Escrow Administration...

  9. User-experience surveys with maternity services: a randomized comparison of two data collection models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjertnaes, Oyvind Andresen; Iversen, Hilde Hestad

    2012-08-01

    To compare two ways of combining postal and electronic data collection for a maternity services user-experience survey. Cross-sectional survey. Maternity services in Norway. All women who gave birth at a university hospital in Norway between 1 June and 27 July 2010. Patients were randomized into the following groups (n= 752): Group A, who were posted questionnaires with both electronic and paper response options for both the initial and reminder postal requests; and Group B, who were posted questionnaires with an electronic response option for the initial request, and both electronic and paper response options for the reminder postal request. Response rate, the amount of difference in background variables between respondents and non-respondents, main study results and estimated cost-effectiveness. The final response rate was significantly higher in Group A (51.9%) than Group B (41.1%). None of the background variables differed significantly between the respondents and non-respondents in Group A, while two variables differed significantly between the respondents and non-respondents in Group B. None of the 11 user-experience scales differed significantly between Groups A and B. The estimated costs per response for the forthcoming national survey was €11.7 for data collection Model A and €9.0 for Model B. The model with electronic-only response option in the first request had lowest response rate. However, this model performed equal to the other model on non-response bias and better on estimated cost-effectiveness, and is the better of the two models in large-scale user experiences surveys with maternity services.

  10. Litter survey detects the South Atlantic 'garbage patch'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G

    2014-02-15

    A distance-based technique was used to assess the distribution and abundance of floating marine debris (>1cm) in the southeast Atlantic Ocean between Cape Town and Tristan da Cunha, crossing the southern edge of the South Atlantic 'garbage patch' predicted by surface drift models. Most litter was made of plastic (97%). Detection distances were influenced by the size and buoyancy of litter items. Litter density decreased from coastal waters off Cape Town (>100 items km(-2)) to oceanic waters (<10 items km(-2)), and was consistently higher (6.2 ± 1.3 items km(-2)) from 3 to 8°E than in adjacent oceanic waters (2.7 ± 0.3 items km(-2)) or in the central South Atlantic around Tristan (1.0 ± 0.4 items km(-2)). The area with high litter density had few seaweeds, suggesting that most litter had been drifting for a long time. The results indicate that floating debris is accumulating in the South Atlantic gyre as far south as 34-35°S. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exosomes: From Garbage Bins to Promising Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H Rashed, Mohammed; Bayraktar, Emine; K Helal, Gouda; Abd-Ellah, Mohamed F; Amero, Paola; Chavez-Reyes, Arturo; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian

    2017-03-02

    Intercellular communication via cell-released vesicles is a very important process for both normal and tumor cells. Cell communication may involve exosomes, small vesicles of endocytic origin that are released by all types of cells and are found in abundance in body fluids, including blood, saliva, urine, and breast milk. Exosomes have been shown to carry lipids, proteins, mRNAs, non-coding RNAs, and even DNA out of cells. They are more than simply molecular garbage bins, however, in that the molecules they carry can be taken up by other cells. Thus, exosomes transfer biological information to neighboring cells and through this cell-to-cell communication are involved not only in physiological functions such as cell-to-cell communication, but also in the pathogenesis of some diseases, including tumors and neurodegenerative conditions. Our increasing understanding of why cells release exosomes and their role in intercellular communication has revealed the very complex and sophisticated contribution of exosomes to health and disease. The aim of this review is to reveal the emerging roles of exosomes in normal and pathological conditions and describe the controversial biological role of exosomes, as it is now understood, in carcinogenesis. We also summarize what is known about exosome biogenesis, composition, functions, and pathways and discuss the potential clinical applications of exosomes, especially as biomarkers and novel therapeutic agents.

  12. The test ability of fish Tawes to leachate garbage dump (TPA) Benowo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliardi AR, N. R.; Wiyanti, R. I.

    2018-01-01

    Leachate is a liquid from waste containing elements of dissolved and suspended elements. Garbage collected at the landfill site contains organic, inorganic and heavy metal substances. If the rains will produce leachate with mineral content, organic and heavy metals. When the condition or leachate flow in let to the soil surface can cause negative effects to the surrounding environment including for humans. Toxicity test it was conducted to determine the level of leachate toxicity of the test animals living in surface water located around of the “TPA Benowo”. In this study using Tawes fish with length between 4-6 cm. In this toxicity test is done in 2 stages, namely: range finding test, the search for this range is obtained 0% concentrations (as control) 0,3%; 0,6%; 0,9%; 0,12% and 0,15%. The next stage of toxicity acute test, at this stage of toxicity concentration do smaller again that is: 0,18%; 0,36%; 0,54%; 0,72% and 0,9%. The results obtained LC50 value of 0,385%, while eyes, brown stomach skin.

  13. Evidence that the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is rapidly accumulating plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, L; Slat, B; Ferrari, F; Sainte-Rose, B; Aitken, J; Marthouse, R; Hajbane, S; Cunsolo, S; Schwarz, A; Levivier, A; Noble, K; Debeljak, P; Maral, H; Schoeneich-Argent, R; Brambini, R; Reisser, J

    2018-03-22

    Ocean plastic can persist in sea surface waters, eventually accumulating in remote areas of the world's oceans. Here we characterise and quantify a major ocean plastic accumulation zone formed in subtropical waters between California and Hawaii: The Great Pacific Garbage Patch (GPGP). Our model, calibrated with data from multi-vessel and aircraft surveys, predicted at least 79 (45-129) thousand tonnes of ocean plastic are floating inside an area of 1.6 million km 2 ; a figure four to sixteen times higher than previously reported. We explain this difference through the use of more robust methods to quantify larger debris. Over three-quarters of the GPGP mass was carried by debris larger than 5 cm and at least 46% was comprised of fishing nets. Microplastics accounted for 8% of the total mass but 94% of the estimated 1.8 (1.1-3.6) trillion pieces floating in the area. Plastic collected during our study has specific characteristics such as small surface-to-volume ratio, indicating that only certain types of debris have the capacity to persist and accumulate at the surface of the GPGP. Finally, our results suggest that ocean plastic pollution within the GPGP is increasing exponentially and at a faster rate than in surrounding waters.

  14. 77 FR 52748 - 60-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service (IHS) Sharing What Works-Best...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... provide the product/service to IHS, Tribal, and Urban (I/T/U) programs, the Office of Preventive and...) whether the agency processes the information collected in a useful and timely fashion; (c) the accuracy of...

  15. Social capital, collective efficacy and the provision of social support services and amenities by municipalities in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waverijn, Geeke; Groenewegen, Peter P; de Klerk, Mirjam

    2017-03-01

    Differential provision of local services and amenities has been proposed as a mechanism behind the relationship between social capital and health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether social capital and collective efficacy are related to the provision of social support services and amenities in Dutch municipalities, against a background of decentralisation of long-term care to municipalities. We used data on neighbourhood social capital, collective efficacy (the extent to which people are willing to work for the common good), and the provision of services and amenities in 2012. We included the services municipalities provide to support informal caregivers (e.g. respite care), individual services and support (e.g. domiciliary help), and general and collective services and amenities (e.g. lending point for wheelchairs). Data for social capital were collected between May 2011 and September 2012. Social capital was measured by focusing on contacts between neighbours. A social capital measure was estimated for 414 municipalities with ecometric measurements. A measure of collective efficacy was constructed based on information about the experienced responsibility for the liveability of the neighbourhood by residents in 2012, average charity collection returns in municipalities in 2012, voter turnout at the municipal elections in 2010 and the percentage of blood donors in 2012. We conducted Poisson regression and negative binomial regression to test our hypotheses. We found no relationship between social capital and the provision of services and amenities in municipalities. We found an interaction effect (coefficient = 3.11, 95% CI = 0.72-5.51, P = 0.011) of social capital and collective efficacy on the provision of support services for informal caregivers in rural municipalities. To gain more insight in the relationship between social capital and health, it will be important to study the relationship between social capital and differential provision of

  16. [Impact of hydrothermal process on the dewaterability and degrease performance of restaurant garbage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lian-hail; Nie, Yong-feng; Liu, Jian-guo; Jin, Yi-ying

    2006-09-01

    In order to ameliorate the dewaterability and degrease performance of restaurant garbage, and to improve the treatment effect, a complete trail series with 2 factors on 5 levels was implemented. The 2 factors were temperature and retention time respectively as the main influencing factors of hydrothermal process. By means of analyzing the variation of the resistance, dewatering rate and floatable oil content of the treated restaurant garbage, and constructing the solid grease extracting kinetics, the mechanism of impact of hydrothermal process on the dewaterability and degrease performance of restaurant garbage was studied. It showed that the dewaterability of the product decreases at the beginning, after heating for 40min, it begins to increase. Moreover, it increases more quickly as temperature increases. The optimal dewaterability of the treated garbage appears at 180 degrees C and heating for 100 minutes. As temperature rises and heating time increases, the degrease performance is improved. Furthermore, this trend becomes more remarkably as temperature increases. When the temperature and retention time reach 160 degrees C and 80 minutes respectively, most of the solid grease in the garbage is extracted out to become floatable oil which can be separated and recovered readily. Subsequently, the amount of floatable oil begins to decrease since chemical reactions such as the partial hydrolysis of the oil take place. Additionally, the extraction of solid grease from interior accords with first-order reaction dynamic model.

  17. Does garbage in the diet improve reproductive output of Glaucous Gulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, E.L.; Powell, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic subsidies are used by a variety of predators in areas developed for human use or residence. If subsidies promote population growth, these predators can have a negative effect on local prey species. The Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus) is an abundant predator in northern Alaska that is believed to benefit from garbage as a supplemental food source, but this supposition has never been tested. In summer 2008 and 2009, we recorded the Glaucous Gull's diet and reproduction at 10 breeding colonies in northern Alaska. Colonies were in industrial, residential, and undeveloped areas and ranged from 5 to 75 km from the nearest landfill. By colony, garbage occurred in zero to 85% of pellets and food remains produced during the chick-rearing period, and the average number of chicks fledged per pair ranged from zero to 2.9. Random-forest analysis indicated that percent occurrence of garbage in the diet was the second most important factor (after number of eggs per pair) explaining variance in fledging rate. There was a significant positive correlation between percent occurrence of garbage in the diet and fledging rate in each year. If this correlation reflects a causal relationship, it suggests that human development that increases gulls' access to garbage could result in increased local gull populations. Such an increase could affect the gulls' natural prey species, including at least 14 species of shorebirds and waterfowl of conservation concern. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  18. Metropolitan garbage dumps: possible winter migratory raptor monitoring stations in peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter raptor migration and movement is poorly documented for peninsular India, mainly due to the lack of geographical bottlenecks. We describe, for the first time, the use of a garbage dump in a metropolitan city as an alternative visual winter raptor monitoring station. The daily count, adult to juvenile ratios and species composition of three migratory raptor species, Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis, Black-eared Kite Milvus migrans lineatus and Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax are presented. Ground temperatures at the garbage dump site and surrounding area, and the wing beat rate of migratory raptors before and after arrival in the early morning were measured. A total of 355 raptors migrating over a period of six observation days with 250 adults and 105 juveniles were recorded. The temperature of the garbage dump was significantly higher than the surrounding area, while the wing flapping rate was significantly lower over the garbage dump area. It is possible that migrating raptors use garbage dump thermals in the early morning to save energy with soaring and gliding flight (versus flapping flight. We propose that such sites may be used as visual winter migration monitoring stations in metropolitan cities in peninsular India.

  19. 77 FR 38064 - Public Buildings Service; Information Collection; GSA Form 3453, Application/Permit for Use of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... Buildings Service; Information Collection; GSA Form 3453, Application/Permit for Use of Space in Public... regarding GSA Form 3453, Application/Permit for Use of Space in Public Buildings and Grounds. Public... Information Collection 3090- 0044, GSA Form 3453, Application/Permit for Use of Space in Public Buildings and...

  20. Investigation of the radiation risk due to environmental contamination by 241Am from lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumo, Júlio T; Isiki, Vera L K; Miyamoto, Hissae; Ferreira, Rafael V P; Bellini, Maria H; de Lima, Luis F C P

    2008-02-01

    Radioactive lightning rods were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the licenses for using radioactive sources in these products were lifted by the national nuclear authority. Since then, these rods have been replaced by the Franklin type and collected as radioactive waste. However, only 20% of the estimated total number of installed rods has been delivered to the Brazilian Nuclear Commission. This situation causes concern, since there is the possibility of the rods to be disposed as domestic waste. In Brazil, 64% of the municipal solid waste is disposed at garbage dumps without sufficient control. In addition, (241)Am, the radionuclide most commonly employed, is classified as a high-toxicity element, when incorporated. In the present study, (241)Am migration experiments were performed by means of a lysimeter system, in order to evaluate the risk of contamination caused by radioactive lightning rods disposed as common solid waste. (241)Am sources removed from lightning rods were placed inside lysimeters filled with organic waste that was collected at the restaurant of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares. The generated leachate was periodically analyzed, and characteristics such as pH, redox potential, solid content and the concentration of the radioactive material were determined. The equivalent dose for members of the public was calculated considering ingestion of contaminated drinking water as the major path of exposure. Estimated doses were about 20-times below the effective dose limit of 1 mSv year(-1) for members of the public as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This suggests the radiation risk caused by lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dumps to be low. It should be noted, however, that the number of investigated lightning rods was quite small. The results of this study might therefore not be entirely representative and should be interpreted with care. They provide, however, a very first

  1. 76 FR 28851 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Extended Care Services); Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... services and to establish a co- payment agreement for such services. VA provides extended care to non... placement or treatment in extended care services, and to determine the appropriate co-payment. Affected...

  2. 76 FR 44090 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Extended Care Services); Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... establish a co- payment agreement for such services. VA provides extended care to non- service connected... treatment in extended care services, and to determine the appropriate co-payment. An agency may not conduct...

  3. Collaboratively Conceived, Designed and Implemented: Matching Visualization Tools with Geoscience Data Collections and Geoscience Data Collections with Visualization Tools via the ToolMatch Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebelheinrich, N. J.; Lynnes, C.; West, P.; Ferritto, M.

    2014-12-01

    Two problems common to many geoscience domains are the difficulties in finding tools to work with a given dataset collection, and conversely, the difficulties in finding data for a known tool. A collaborative team from the Earth Science Information Partnership (ESIP) has gotten together to design and create a web service, called ToolMatch, to address these problems. The team began their efforts by defining an initial, relatively simple conceptual model that addressed the two uses cases briefly described above. The conceptual model is expressed as an ontology using OWL (Web Ontology Language) and DCterms (Dublin Core Terms), and utilizing standard ontologies such as DOAP (Description of a Project), FOAF (Friend of a Friend), SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System) and DCAT (Data Catalog Vocabulary). The ToolMatch service will be taking advantage of various Semantic Web and Web standards, such as OpenSearch, RESTful web services, SWRL (Semantic Web Rule Language) and SPARQL (Simple Protocol and RDF Query Language). The first version of the ToolMatch service was deployed in early fall 2014. While more complete testing is required, a number of communities besides ESIP member organizations have expressed interest in collaborating to create, test and use the service and incorporate it into their own web pages, tools and / or services including the USGS Data Catalog service, DataONE, the Deep Carbon Observatory, Virtual Solar Terrestrial Observatory (VSTO), and the U.S. Global Change Research Program. In this session, presenters will discuss the inception and development of the ToolMatch service, the collaborative process used to design, refine, and test the service, and future plans for the service.

  4. Factors influencing the degradation of garbage in methanogenic bioreactors and impacts on biogas formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Masahiko; Sasaki, Kengo

    2012-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of garbage is attracting much attention because of its application in waste volume reduction and the recovery of biogas for use as an energy source. In this review, various factors influencing the degradation of garbage and the production of biogas are discussed. The surface hydrophobicity and porosity of supporting materials are important factors in retaining microorganisms such as aceticlastic methanogens and in attaining a higher degradation of garbage and a higher production of biogas. Ammonia concentration, changes in environmental parameters such as temperature and pH, and adaptation of microbial community to ammonia have been related to ammonia inhibition. The effects of drawing electrons from the methanogenic community and donating electrons into the methanogenic community on methane production have been shown in microbial fuel cells and bioelectrochemical reactors. The influences of trace elements, phase separation, and co-digestion are also summarized in this review.

  5. Monitoring of garbage with a 5x5NaI (Tl) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.; Angeles C, A.

    1991-12-01

    So far in that is carried out the first reload of nuclear fuel in the LVC, the monitoring of garbage has been carried out using monitors trade mark Eberline model RM 14. The procedure consists in manually monitoring each object and to separate of the considered 'clean' garbage the objects considered as contaminated, which register greater or equal counts to 100 cpm. This way to process was adequate under normal operation conditions, but not in the operation rhythm that implies a bigger maintenance since the time required for monitoring from 5 to 10 kg. of garbage is of the order of 0.5 hours and the production rhythm of this it ends up being a lot but high. Due to this necessity it was thought about the problem of looking by a more efficient monitoring method. In this work a method that uses a detector of NaI (Tl) of 5 x 5 inches is discussed. (Author)

  6. The Lid on the Garbage Can: Institutional Constraints on Decision Making in the Technical Core of College-Text Publishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Barbara; Nass, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Integrates the garbage can model of organizational choice with institutional theory. Explains how various environmental aspects yield different consequences for the decision and access structures of college textbook publishers than might be expected from the garbage can decision world they inhabit. Includes 42 references. (MLH)

  7. 76 FR 23859 - Financial Management Service Proposed Collection of Information: CMIA Annual Report and Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Information: CMIA Annual Report and Direct Cost Claims AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service... notice, the Financial Management Service solicits comments concerning the ``CMIA Annual Report and Direct... all written comments to Financial Management Service, 3700 East West Highway, Records and Information...

  8. Use of genetic algorithms to improve the solid waste collection service in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenrostro-Delgado, Otoniel; Ortega-Rodriguez, Juan Manuel; Clemitshaw, Kevin C; González-Razo, Carlos; Hernández-Paniagua, Iván Y

    2015-07-01

    Increasing generation of Urban Solid Waste (USW) has become a significant issue in developing countries due to unprecedented population growth and high rates of urbanisation. This issue has exceeded current plans and programs of local governments to manage and dispose of USW. In this study, a Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Production (GARP) integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to find areas with socio-economic conditions that are representative of the generation of USW constituents in such areas. Socio-economic data of selected variables categorised by Basic Geostatistical Areas (BGAs) were taken from the 2000 National Population Census (NPC). USW and additional socio-economic data were collected during two survey campaigns in 1998 and 2004. Areas for sampling of USW were stratified into lower, middle and upper economic strata according to income. Data on USW constituents were analysed using descriptive statistics and Multivariate Analysis. ARC View 3.2 was used to convert the USW data and socio-economic variables to spatial data. Desk-top GARP software was run to generate a spatial model to identify areas with similar socio-economic conditions to those sampled. Results showed that socio-economic variables such as monthly income and education are positively correlated with waste constituents generated. The GARP used in this study revealed BGAs with similar socio-economic conditions to those sampled, where a similar composition of waste constituents generated is expected. Our results may be useful to decrease USW management costs by improving the collection services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. RUSA Guidelines. Guidelines for Liaison Work in Managing Collections and Services; Guidelines for Medical, Legal, and Business Information Service Responses; Guidelines for the Preparation of a Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reference & User Services Quarterly, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents guidelines developed by RUSA (Reference and User Services Association), a division of the American Library Association, regarding collection development with user liaisons; meeting user needs for medical, legal, or business information; and bibliography preparation that includes a variety of formats such as nonprint materials and Web…

  10. Small rural emergency services can electronically collect accurate episode-level data: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Samantha L; Baker, Tim; Salzman, Scott

    2015-04-01

    There is little evidence that useful electronic data could be collected at Australian small rural emergency services. If in future their funding model changed to the Activity-Based Funding model, then they would need to collect and submit more data. We determine whether it is possible to collect episode-level data at six small rural emergency services and quantify the accuracy of eight fields. A prospective cross-sectional study. South-West Victoria, Australia. Six small rural emergency services. We collected and audited episode-level emergency data from participating services between 1 February 2011 and 31 January 2012. A random sample of these data were audited monthly. Research assistants located at each service supported data entry and audited data accuracy for four hours per week. Rates for data completeness, accuracy and total accuracy were calculated using audit data. Episode-level data were collected for 20 224 presentations across six facilities. The audit dataset consisted of 8.5% (1504/17 627) of presentations from five facilities. For all fields audited, the accuracy of entered data was high (>93%).Triage category was deemed appropriate for 95.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 94.9-96.9%) of the patient records reviewed. Some procedures were missing (28.7%, 95%CI: 27.2-30.3%). No significant improvement in data accuracy over 12 months was observed. All six services collected useful episode-level data for 12-months with four hours per week of assistance. Data entry accuracy was high for all fields audited, and data entry completeness was low for procedures. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  11. 75 FR 55303 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Commercial Service Annual Customer Satisfaction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... Request; Commercial Service Annual Customer Satisfaction Survey AGENCY: International Trade Administration... assistance services. The CS uses an Annual Customer Satisfaction Survey to measure client's overall... practices. The Annual Customer Satisfaction Survey results enable the CS to prioritize the allocation of...

  12. 77 FR 69865 - 60-Day Proposed Information Collection; Request for Public Comment: Indian Health Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Health Service (CHS) Program, located in the Office of Resource Access and Partnerships, needs this... by the CHS provider(s) to have providers validate services provided; to process payments for health care services performed by such providers; and to serve as a legal document for health and medical care...

  13. 78 FR 58611 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... (Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance (SRH), VA Form 29-0188 and 29-0189, and Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans (RH) Life...

  14. 76 FR 2953 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Service-Disabled Veterans Insurance) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... (Application for Service-Disabled Veterans Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Service-Disabled Veterans Insurance, VA Forms 29-4364 and 29-0151. OMB Control Number: 2900-0068. Type of... 29-0151 to apply for service-disabled veterans insurance, designate a beneficiary and to select an...

  15. 75 FR 68036 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Service-Disabled Veterans Insurance); Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... (Application for Service-Disabled Veterans Insurance); Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... claimant's eligibility for service disabled insurance. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Service-Disabled...

  16. 75 FR 2593 - Proposed Information Collection (Service-Disabled Veterans Insurance-Waiver of Premiums); Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... (Service-Disabled Veterans Insurance--Waiver of Premiums); Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... information technology. Title: Service-Disabled Veterans Insurance--Waiver of Premiums, VA Form 29-0812. OMB...: Claimants who become totally disabled complete VA Form 29-0812 to apply for a waiver of their Service...

  17. 77 FR 56709 - Proposed Information Collection (VA Subcontracting Report for Service Disabled Veteran-Owned...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Subcontracting Report for Service Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business and Veteran-Owned Small Business Concerns... use of other forms of information technology. Title: VA Subcontracting Report for Service Disabled... direction of the Secretary. Denise McLamb, Program Analyst, Enterprise Records Service. [FR Doc. 2012-22488...

  18. 78 FR 36830 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... (Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... Disabled Veterans Insurance (SRH), VA Form 29-0188 and 29-0189, and Application for Supplemental Service... by veterans to apply for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance. VA uses the information...

  19. 77 FR 70210 - Agency Information Collection (VA Subcontracting Report for Service Disabled Veteran-owned Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Subcontracting Report for Service Disabled Veteran-owned Small Business and Veteran-owned Small Business Concerns... Subcontracting Report for Service Disabled Veteran-owned Small Business and Veteran-owned Small Business Concerns... INFORMATION CONTACT: Crystal Rennie, Enterprise Records Service (005R1B), Department of Veterans Affairs, 810...

  20. 76 FR 13022 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Service-Disabled Veterans Insurance) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... (Application for Service-Disabled Veterans Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Service-Disabled Veterans Insurance, VA Forms 29-4364, 29-4364c and 29-0151. OMB Control Number: 2900-0068...-4364 and 29-0151 to apply for service-disabled veterans insurance, designate a beneficiary and select...

  1. 75 FR 52066 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... (Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... Disabled Veterans Insurance (SRH), VA Form 29-0188 and 29-0189, and Application for Supplemental Service... by veterans to apply for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance. VA uses the information...

  2. 75 FR 68037 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... (Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans...: Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans Insurance (SRH), VA Form 29-0188 and 29-0189, and Application for Supplemental Service Disabled Veterans (RH) Life Insurance, VA Form 29- 0190. OMB Control...

  3. 78 FR 69747 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Service-Disabled Veterans Insurance); Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... (Application for Service-Disabled Veterans Insurance); Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... determine a claimant's eligibility for service- disabled insurance. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Service-Disabled...

  4. Governance of smart living service platforms : State-ofthe-art and the need for collective action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikayin, F.; De Reuver, M.

    2012-01-01

    Today’s smart home concepts are no longer limited to home automation, but increasingly involve smart health, energy, security and entertainment services. Such smart living services are typically offered through sector-specific service platforms that are rarely interoperable and not fully

  5. GARBAGE: A Card Game That Simulates the Trade-Off between Competition and Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

    1991-01-01

    Describes a simulation card game involved with the dumping of hazardous wastes that was designed to explore the trade-off between industrial competition and social concern. Steps of play are described for the game, which is called GARBAGE, and debriefing techniques are suggested, including an affective phase and a cognitive phase. (LRW)

  6. Discourse at Our Disposal: Stories in and around the Garbage Can.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Ellen S.

    1997-01-01

    Uses a case study based on interviews and documents to apply narrative theory and methods to "garbage can" decision theory. States that narrative approaches to organizational action offer insight into how decisions occur in organizations and that organizational decision making may be understood as the interweaving of multiple, ongoing,…

  7. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases in garbage workers: relevance of molds and actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeyer, O; Bünger, J; van Kampen, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Drath, C; Merget, R; Brüning, Th; Broding, H C

    2013-01-01

    Exposures to molds and bacteria (especially actinomycetes) at workplaces are common in garbage workers, but allergic respiratory diseases due to these microorganisms have been described rarely. The aim of our study was a detailed analysis of mold or bacteria-associated occupational respiratory diseases in garbage workers. From 2002 to 2011 four cases of occupational respiratory diseases related to garbage handling were identified in our institute (IPA). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was diagnosed in three subjects (cases 1-3, one smoker, two non-smokers), occupational asthma (OA) was diagnosed in one subject (case 4, smoker), but could not be excluded completely in case 2. Cases 1 and 2 worked in composting sites, while cases 3 and 4 worked in packaging recycling plants. Exposure periods were 2-4 years. Molds and actinomycetes were identified as allergens in all cases. Specific IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were detected exclusively in case 4. Diagnoses of HP were essentially based on symptoms and the detection of specific IgG serum antibodies to molds and actinomycetes. OA was confirmed by bronchial provocation test with Aspergillus fumigatus in case 4. In conclusion, occupational HP and OA due to molds occur rarely in garbage workers. Technical prevention measures are insufficient and the diagnosis of HP is often inconclusive. Therefore, it is recommended to implement the full repertoire of diagnostic tools including bronchoalveolar lavage and high resolution computed tomography in the baseline examination.

  8. Evaluation of two-phase thermophilic anaerobic methane fermentation for the treatment of garbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.J.; Hong, F. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Engineering]|[Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan). CREST; Tsuno, H.; Hidaka, T.; Cheon, J.H. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Urban and Environmental Engineering]|[Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan). CREST

    2004-07-01

    Municipal solid wastes (MSW) in Japan are generally incinerated. However, in recent years, garbage has been recognized as a renewable energy source. This has resulted in an increase in the use of biological processes, such as anaerobic digestion, to treat organic waste such as sewage sludge and garbage. The two phases of anaerobic digestion are the acidogenic phase and the methane producing phase. Both differ significantly in their nutritional and physiological requirements. This study evaluated the effectiveness of treating garbage with the two-phase thermophilic methane fermentation system (TPS). The performance of the acid fermentation phase in TPS was examined with particular reference to operational parameters such as pH, hydraulic retention time and organic loading rate on volatile fatty acid fermentation. It was shown that TPS was more efficient than the single-phase thermophilic methane fermentation system (SPS). Acidification control in the first stage resulted in better stability of methane fermentation in the second stage. VFA formation was optimized at a pH of 6. The recovery ratios of VFAs and methane were achieved in the range of 42 to 44 per cent and 88 to 91 per cent of garbage by high organic loading rate respectively. 12 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Optimal routes scheduling for municipal waste disposal garbage trucks using evolutionary algorithm and artificial immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna MRÓWCZYŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an application of an evolutionary algorithm and an artificial immune systems to solve a problem of scheduling an optimal route for waste disposal garbage trucks in its daily operation. Problem of an optimisation is formulated and solved using both methods. The results are presented for an area in one of the Polish cities.

  10. Production of fuel ethanol and methane from garbage by high-efficiency two-stage fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Yoji; An, Ming-Zhe; Tang, Yue-Qin; Syo, Tomohiro; Osaka, Noriko; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2009-12-01

    A two-stage fermentation process, consisting of a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) stage and a dry methane fermentation stage, was developed to utilize garbage for the production of fuel ethanol and methane. Garbage from families, canteens and concessionaires was used for the study. Saccharification method was studied and the results indicated that the liquefaction pretreatment and the combination of cellulase and glucoamylase was effective for polysaccharide hydrolysis of family garbage with a high content of holocellulose and that SSF was suitable for ethanol fermentation of garbage. Ethanol productivity could be markedly increased from 1.7 to 7.0 g/l/h by repeated-batch SSF of family garbage. A high ethanol productivity of 17.7 g/l/h was achieved when canteen garbage was used. The stillage after distillation was treated by dry methane fermentation and the results indicated that the stillage was almost fully digested and that about 850 ml of biogas was recovered from 1 g of volatile total solid (VTS). Approximately 85% of the energy of the garbage was converted to fuels, ethanol and methane by this process.

  11. The under sink garbage grinder: a friendly technology for the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzonella, D; Pavan, P; Battistoni, P; Cecchi, F

    2003-03-01

    The use of garbage grinders is not a usual practice in Europe, but it is in other countries around the world (e.g., North America, Japan and Australia). Sometimes, garbage grinders are accused of producing problems in sewers and wastewater treatment plants and are prohibited by environmental protection laws. In this study, the different impacts determined by the use of this technology were considered to show the positive impacts of its use. In particular, it was shown that garbage grinders enable the disposal of household organic wastes with advantages for the wastewater treatment processes because of an increase in the carbon/nutrients ratio in the wastewater. This is particularly important for biological nutrients removal processes. Daily specific contributions for person equivalent (PE) due to organic waste disposal through garbage grinders were found to be equal to 75 gCODPE(-1) d(-1) for carbon (as COD), 2.5 gNPE(-1) d(-1) for nitrogen and 0.25 gPPE(-1) d(-1) for phosphorous, respectively. Those determined a value of 30 for the COD/N ratio. Moreover, no problems with solids settling in sewers were noted. These results were extensively compared with literature data. The economical balance showed that the use of garbage grinders allowed a global saving of some 17 Euro year(-1) for a three people family. Important benefits are also gained from an environmental point of view (e.g, organic wastes disposal nutrients removal in wastewater treatment and increase in biogas production with energy reclamation).

  12. Application of a Modified Garbage Code Algorithm to Estimate Cause-Specific Mortality and Years of Life Lost in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ye Rin; Kim, Young Ae; Park, So Youn; Oh, Chang Mo; Kim, Young Eun; Oh, In Hwan

    2016-11-01

    Years of life lost (YLLs) are estimated based on mortality and cause of death (CoD); therefore, it is necessary to accurately calculate CoD to estimate the burden of disease. The garbage code algorithm was developed by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to redistribute inaccurate CoD and enhance the validity of CoD estimation. This study aimed to estimate cause-specific mortality rates and YLLs in Korea by applying a modified garbage code algorithm. CoD data for 2010-2012 were used to calculate the number of deaths. The garbage code algorithm was then applied to calculate target cause (i.e., valid CoD) and adjusted CoD using the garbage code redistribution. The results showed that garbage code deaths accounted for approximately 25% of all CoD during 2010-2012. In 2012, lung cancer contributed the most to cause-specific death according to the Statistics Korea. However, when CoD was adjusted using the garbage code redistribution, ischemic heart disease was the most common CoD. Furthermore, before garbage code redistribution, self-harm contributed the most YLLs followed by lung cancer and liver cancer; however, after application of the garbage code redistribution, though self-harm was the most common leading cause of YLL, it is followed by ischemic heart disease and lung cancer. Our results showed that garbage code deaths accounted for a substantial amount of mortality and YLLs. The results may enhance our knowledge of burden of disease and help prioritize intervention settings by changing the relative importance of burden of disease.

  13. The patron-driven library a practical guide for managing collections and services in the digital age

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, Dee Ann

    2013-01-01

    Libraries in the USA and globally are undergoing quiet revolution. Libraries are moving away from a philosophy that is collection-centered to one focused on service. Technology is key to that change. The Patron Driven Library explores the way technology has moved the focus from library collections to services, placing the reader at the center of library activities. The book reveals the way library users are changing, and how social networking, web delivery of information, and the uncertain landscape of e-print has energized librarians to adopt technology to meet a different model of the library while preserving core values. Following an introduction, the first part begins with the historical milieu, and moves on to current challenges for financing and acquiring materials, and an exploration of why the millennial generation is transformational. The second part examines how changes in library practice can create a culture for imagining library services in an age of information overflow. The final chapter asks: ...

  14. 76 FR 29783 - Agency Information Collection: Comment Request; The State of Ecosystem Services Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... will gather information concerning: Methods used in ecosystem services projects, motivations for... respondents will include: Federal employees, non-governmental organization employees, and academic researchers...

  15. LIXO E IMPACTOS AMBIENTAIS PERCEPTÍVEIS NO ECOSSISTEMA URBANO / Garbage and perceptible environmental impacts in urban ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Mucelin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article has as thematic the garbage and considerations about certain perceptible environmentalimpacts that the solid residues enlarge in fragments of the urban environment. We approached negativeenvironmental impacts caused by the use forms, customs and perceptible cultural habits in cities ofBrazil. We register that the garbage impacts negatively certain urban environments, as street marginsand river-beds, provoked by the existence of habits of inadequate final arrangement of residues. Weshow part of environmental perception of social actors in Medianeira city – West of Paraná – Brazil –concerning garbage.

  16. 76 FR 16039 - Agency Information Collection (Statement in Support of Claim for Service Connection for PTSD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    .... Abstract: Veterans seeking compensation for post-traumatic stress disorder and need VA's assistance in... prisoner of war and are claiming compensation for post-traumatic stress disorder due to in-service... Analyst, Enterprise Records Service. BILLING CODE 8320-01-P ...

  17. 78 FR 22253 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Study of the Delivery of Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ...; Comment Request; Study of the Delivery of Services Under the State Vocational Rehabilitation Grants... hand delivery. Please note that comments submitted by fax or email and those submitted after the... Delivery of Services under the State Vocational Rehabilitation Grants Program. OMB Control Number: 1820-NEW...

  18. 77 FR 5020 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; GSA Form 527...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... INFORMATION: A. Purpose The General Services Administration will be requesting the Office of Management and... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [OMB Control No. 3090-0007; Docket 2011-0001; Sequence 12] General... Qualifications and Financial Information AGENCY: Office of the Chief Finance Officer, GSA. ACTION: Notice of...

  19. 77 FR 65707 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Certification of Military or Naval Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services [OMB Control Number 1615.... SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS... estimate of .333 hours per response; 10,000 respondents for the biometric processing with an estimate of 1...

  20. (a,k)-Anonymous Scheme for Privacy-Preserving Data Collection in IoT-based Healthcare Services Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongtao; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Wenyin; Wang, Jie; Xing, Jinsheng

    2018-02-14

    The widely use of IoT technologies in healthcare services has pushed forward medical intelligence level of services. However, it also brings potential privacy threat to the data collection. In healthcare services system, health and medical data that contains privacy information are often transmitted among networks, and such privacy information should be protected. Therefore, there is a need for privacy-preserving data collection (PPDC) scheme to protect clients (patients) data. We adopt (a,k)-anonymity model as privacy pretection scheme for data collection, and propose a novel anonymity-based PPDC method for healthcare services in this paper. The threat model is analyzed in the client-server-to-user (CS2U) model. On client-side, we utilize (a,k)-anonymity notion to generate anonymous tuples which can resist possible attack, and adopt a bottom-up clustering method to create clusters that satisfy a base privacy level of (a 1 ,k 1 )-anonymity. On server-side, we reduce the communication cost through generalization technology, and compress (a 1 ,k 1 )-anonymous data through an UPGMA-based cluster combination method to make the data meet the deeper level of privacy (a 2 ,k 2 )-anonymity (a 1  ≥ a 2 , k 2  ≥ k 1 ). Theoretical analysis and experimental results prove that our scheme is effective in privacy-preserving and data quality.

  1. Development of a Web-based tool to collect and display water system customer service areas for public health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michelle; Wolff, Craig; Collins, Natalie; Guo, Liang; Meltzer, Dan; English, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Significant illness is associated with biological contaminants in drinking water, but little is known about health effects from low levels of chemical contamination in drinking water. To examine these effects in epidemiological studies, the sources of drinking water of study populations need to be known. The California Environmental Health Tracking Program developed an online application that would collect data on the geographic location of public water system (PWS) customer service areas in California, which then could be linked to demographic and drinking water quality data. We deployed the Water Boundary Tool (WBT), a Web-based geospatial crowdsourcing application that can manage customer service boundary data for each PWS in California and can track changes over time. We also conducted a needs assessment for expansion to other states. The WBT was designed for water system operators, local and state regulatory agencies, and government entities. Since its public launch in 2012, the WBT has collected service area boundaries for about 2300 individual PWS, serving more than 90% of the California population. Results of the needs assessment suggest interest and utility for deploying such a tool among states lacking statewide PWS service area boundary data. Although the WBT data set is incomplete, it has already been used for a variety of applications, including fulfilling legislatively mandated reporting requirements and linking customer service areas to drinking water quality data to better understand local water quality issues. Development of this tool holds promise to assist with outbreak investigations and prevention, environmental health monitoring, and emergency preparedness and response.

  2. 78 FR 13394 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Office of Language Services Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... for processing payment vouchers. Respondents are typically members of the general public with varying... Number: 1405-0191. Type of Request: Extension of Currently Approved Collection. Originating Office...

  3. 75 FR 41920 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ...In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), this notice announces that the Information Collection Request (ICR) abstracted below is being forwarded to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for re-instatement of an expired collection. The ICR describes the nature of the information collection and its expected burden. The Federal Register Notice with a 60-day comment period soliciting comments on the following collection of information was published on April 16, 2010 (75 FR 21716).

  4. 77 FR 33808 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review: Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ...In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), this notice announces that the Information Collection Request (ICR) abstracted below is being forwarded to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for re-instatement of an expired collection. The ICR describes the nature of the information collection and its expected burden. The Federal Register Notice with a 60-day comment period soliciting comments on the following collection of information was published on March 27, 2012 (77 FR 18306). There were no comments.

  5. 78 FR 79475 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: The Impact of Housing and Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... research to ascertain the impact of various service and housing interventions in ending homelessness for... funding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD...

  6. 78 FR 56910 - Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Impact of Housing and Services Interventions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... research to ascertain the impact of various service and housing interventions in ending homelessness for... funding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD...

  7. Data collection automation and total quality management: case studies in the health-service industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D; Offodile, O Felix

    2008-01-01

    The limitations, immeasurable, and seemly unquantifiable aspects of the healthcare service industry, make it imperative that quality assurance programs include total quality management (TQM) and automatic identification and data capture (AIDC)-related technologies. Most of standards used in TQM and AIDC require data, to measure improvement and achieve standardization. Major difference between managing a service firm and managing a product-manufacturing firm is the difficulty of achieving consistently high quality. Examination of two different healthcare service providers in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area offers different views as to the implementation and practice of total quality management techniques and AIDC integration. Since the healthcare service industry must take into account its high customization needs, there are positive steps to make the hospital structure itself more patient friendly and quality related; hence improving its heath-marketing strategies to the general public.

  8. 78 FR 44521 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Veterinary Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... individual or business, VS conducts a survey to evaluate its customer service. The survey consists of a short... in terms of courtesy, timeliness, helpfulness, etc. Respondents are also asked to rate and provide...

  9. 77 FR 67657 - Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service (IHS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... the IHS mission and to provide the product/service to IHS, Tribal, and Urban (I/T/U) programs, the... timely fashion; (c) the accuracy of the public burden estimate (the estimated amount of time needed for...

  10. Financial analysis of an inner-city helicopter service: charges versus collections for patients transferred from another acute care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J R; Saywell, R M; Rodman, G H; Nyhuis, A W; Pientka, N D; Steiner, C J; Phillips, J D; Bock, H C

    1989-11-01

    Emergency helicopter services provided by trauma centers are now being perceived as contributing to the financial burden of the hospital because of recent changes in trauma reimbursement under the Medicare Prospective Payment System (PPS) and because of the general perception that collection rates are lower among trauma patients. The use of helicopters to transfer patients from one acute care facility to another may also be concentrating the patients with low collection rates at the receiving hospital. We examined retrospectively the demographic and clinical factors associated with the collection experience in a series of 288 trauma patients transferred by helicopter from another acute care facility to an inner-city hospital. Factors affecting payment at 180 and 360 days included patient age, insurance class, discharge status, and size of the hospital charge. As long as reimbursement continues to be cost-based for nonMedicare patients, collection rates remain an important consideration in determining the financial viability of using helicopters to transfer patients.

  11. Collections as a Service: A Research Library's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Julie; Tudesco, Sarah; Dollar, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Association of College and Research Libraries' (ACRL's) "2016 Top Trends in Academic Libraries" noted a "shift to the incorporation and integration of more continuous, ongoing, flexible, and sustainable review of collections," and "an increasing need" to align collection development with "institutional research…

  12. Real-time garbage collection for list processing using restructured cells for increased reference counter size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Jr., Robert L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In a list processing system, small reference counters are maintained in conjunction with memory cells for the purpose of identifying memory cells that become available for re-use. The counters are updated as references to the cells are created and destroyed, and when a counter of a cell is decremented to logical zero the cell is immediately returned to a list of free cells. In those cases where a counter must be incremented beyond the maximum value that can be represented in a small counter, the cell is restructured so that the additional reference count can be represented. The restructuring involves allocating an additional cell, distributing counter, tag, and pointer information among the two cells, and linking both cells appropriately into the existing list structure.

  13. Financial analysis of an inner-city helicopter service: charges versus collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywell, R M; Woods, J R; Rodman, G H; Nyhuis, A W; Bender, L B; Phillips, J D; Bock, H C

    1989-01-01

    Trauma centers are now being perceived as financial burdens because of recent changes in trauma reimbursement for the Medicare Prospective Payment System population and the perception that collection rates are lower among trauma patients. We examined the demographic and clinical factors associated with the collection experience in a series of 114 trauma patients transferred by helicopter from the accident site to an inner-city trauma center. Factors affecting payment at 30, 60, 90, and 180 days included patient age, insurance class, and discharge status. While not as high as the collection rate for the facility as a whole, we found an average 71.2% collection rate for trauma patients at 180 days. As long as trauma reimbursement continues to be cost based for nonMedicare patients, collection rates remain an important consideration in determining the financial viability of trauma centers.

  14. Collective knowledge sharing as a social justice strategy: the difference it made in a service project about preterm birth disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutain, Doris M

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about how health disparities are created and sustained from those affected is needed. Collective knowledge sharing is one way to redefine and revalue dialogue and critique processes with the aim of promoting just relationships of knowledge production. This article describes how a community service project focused on using collective knowledge sharing as a social justice strategy with health ministry volunteers produced insights about preterm birth disparity issues. Project insights related to (1) the connection between faith and health, (2) the significance of family and congregational stories, and (3) the importance of praising assets in the context of disparity recognition.

  15. What is waste? To whom?--An anthropological perspective on garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drackner, Mikael

    2005-06-01

    What is waste? To whom?--An anthropological perspective on garbage explores the fact that what constitutes waste is a highly subjective notion. In Tacna, Peru, the place from where this article draws its empirical material, waste is not only seen as a risk to public health and the environment. Some find it is a mere aesthetic inconvenience, for others it is the only source of income. Yet another way of perceiving waste is as a social contagion, in which the negative qualities of garbage are transmitted to surrounding people in the eyes of others. Such perceptions of waste, it is argued, are important parts of local waste management systems, and the understanding of such perceptions might increase the effectiveness of waste management campaigns.

  16. The Production of Green Identities in Garbage Can Decision-making Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    2004-01-01

    The article analyses the multinational oil-company Shell's decision in 1997 to establish Shell International Renewables. Theoretically the analysis contributes to developing the garbage can decision-making model developed originally by Cohen, March and Olsen (1972) by adding the production...... of organisational identities to the model. Within the scientific field of business and the environment the article contributes to a new understanding of the relationship between decision-making, green organisational identities and the process of social construction of business opportunities. This relationship can...... be of a sort, where the corporations' greener organisational identities are the product of random organisational garbage can decision-making processes. In such processes the rationale that the protection of the natural environment can be viewed as a business opportunity gets into focus not before, but after...

  17. 77 FR 59614 - Office of Citizen Services and Innovative Technologies; Information Collection; Data.gov Feedback...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    .... Please include your name, company name (if any), and ``Information Collection 3090-0284, Data.gov... for the public to submit ideas for datasets with an optional contact email address provided for those...

  18. 78 FR 7436 - Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... providers under contract with the IHS. Affected Public: Patients, health and medical care providers or... the information collected in a useful and timely fashion; (c) the accuracy of the public burden...

  19. 76 FR 38179 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; GSAR Provision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... CONTACT: Mr. Michael Jackson, Procurement Analyst, Contract Policy Division, GSA, (202) 208-4949 or michaelo.jackson@gsa.gov . ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 3090- 0197, GSAR...

  20. 76 FR 23860 - Financial Management Service Proposed Collection of Information: Schedule of Excess Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... contracts, and whether the company is in compliance with Treasury excess risk regulations for writing...: (a) Whether the collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of...

  1. 77 FR 36479 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; License Transfer and Duplicate License Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ...: Direct all written comments to Jennifer Jessup, Departmental Paperwork Clearance Officer, Department of...) 482-4895, Lawrence[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract This collection is needed...

  2. 77 FR 9658 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Preparation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Negotiation of Subcontracting Plans AGENCY: Office of Acquisition Policy, GSA. ACTION: Notice of request for... requirement regarding preparation, submission, and negotiation of subcontracting plans. This information collection will ensure that small and small disadvantaged business concerns are afforded the maximum...

  3. 75 FR 17771 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Jobs for Veterans Act Priority of Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... requirement in conjunction with the implementation of the generic integrated reporting and performance..., reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, collection instruments are clearly understood... 19, 2008, DOL had received OMB approval of the Workforce Investment Streamlined Performance Reporting...

  4. Innovations Under the Concept of ‘Turning Garbage into Gold’ in Fisheries Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the encouragement of creativity and innovation in creating opportunities for entrepreneurship turning useless materials into valuable resources. It is necessary to know the thought process and planning in the entrepreneurship idea to create a new business at this time. One of the brilliant philosophies about entrepreneurs is that they are those who can “turn garbage into gold”. This concept describes the important character of entrepreneurs who foresee business opportunit...

  5. 76 FR 17963 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Application for Job Placement and Training Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... training program, which provides vocational/technical training, related counseling, guidance, job placement... the job placement and training program, which provides vocational/technical training, related... Application for Job Placement and Training Services; Request for Comments AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs...

  6. Collective aspects of pre-service lower secondary teachers' knowledge on density of rational numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Zetra Hainul

    2016-01-01

    This study is about the design of hypothetical teacher tasks (HTTs) on density of rational numbers, developed based on the anthropological theory of the didactic (ATD), and used to investigate pre-service lower secondary teachers (PLSTs)’ mathematical and didactical knowledge. The PLSTs’ knowledge...

  7. 78 FR 13624 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Age Search Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ...- 3434; or: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION I. Abstract Age Search is a service... necessary information to conduct a search of historical population decennial census records in order to... Found'', advises the applicant that the search for information from the census records was unsuccessful...

  8. 76 FR 2755 - Proposed Information Collection (Statement in Support of Claim for Service Connection for Post...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Secondary to Personal Assault, VA Form 21-0781a--980 hours... Connection for Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Secondary to Personal Assault, VA Form 21-0781a--70.... Statement in Support of Claim for Service Connection for Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Secondary to...

  9. [Handling of laundry and garbage in nursing homes. A survey in 22 homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, D; Ross, B; Hilgenhöner, M; Loss, R; Grandek, M; Blättler, T; Popp, W

    2011-11-01

    Management of infectious diseases in nursing homes is as important as it is in hospitals. Therefore, a standardized questionnaire was used for the detailed assessment of the handling of laundry and garbage with a special focus on methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 22 nursing homes in Germany. The study focused on the prevention of occupational diseases in the nursing home staff. Despite a few isolated problems, the situation of MRSA-positive patients was not as alarming as expected: guidelines for MRSA as published by KRINKO were often followed by the healthcare workers. However, general problems with managing garbage and laundry were identified. Many nursing homes lacked protective clothing and a sufficient garbage management plan. In addition, the handling of laundry was a problem in that the clothing of the patients and the working clothes of the staff were often washed at home rather than in accredited laundries. Thus, the awareness for hygienic problems needs to be raised, e.g., by expanding hygienic control for the nursing homes.

  10. Thermophilic two-stage dry anaerobic digestion of model garbage with ammonia stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabu, Hironori; Sakai, Chikako; Fujiwara, Tomoko; Nishio, Naomichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2011-03-01

    To avoid the inhibition of methane production by ammonia that occurs during the degradation of garbage, anaerobic digestion with prior ammonia production and subsequent stripping was investigated. In the ammonia production phase, the maximum ammonia concentration was approximately 2800 mg N/kg of total wet sludge in the range of 4 days of sludge retention time, indicating that only 43% of total nitrogen in the model garbage was converted to ammonia. The model garbage from which ammonia was produced and stripped was subjected to semi-continuous thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion over 180 days. The gas yield was in the range of 0.68 to 0.75 Nm(3)/kg volatile solid, and it decreased with the decrease of the sludge retention time. The ammonia-nitrogen concentration in the sludge was kept below 3000 mg N/kg total wet sludge. Microbial community structure analysis revealed that the phylum Firmicutes dominated in the ammonia production, but the community structure changed at different sludge retention times. In dry anaerobic digestion, the dominant bacteria shifted from the phylum Thermotogae to Firmicutes. The dominant archaeon was the genus Methanothermobacter, but the ratio of Methanosarcina increased during the process of dry anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 75 FR 12174 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; AGE Search Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; AGE Search... provide the Census Bureau with the necessary information to conduct a search of historical population... applicant that search for information from the census records was unsuccessful. The BC-658(L), is sent to...

  12. 78 FR 52008 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Multifamily Housing Service Coordinator Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... program costs and the continued need for the program. 3. The LOCCS Payment Voucher (HUD-50080-SCMF) is.... Grant recipients will similarly use this voucher to track and record their requests for payment... Number: 2502-0447. Type of Request: Revision of a currently approved collection. Form Number: SF 424, HUD...

  13. Collection Development Policy. Media Retrieval Services--Pierce Library. Learning Resources. 1981 Rev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Philip, Jr., Ed.

    Policies for the selection, acquisition, and weeding of library materials, based on collection needs stated by academic departments and staff inputs, are listed for a university learning resource center. An alphabetical index is provided of major subject areas and subdivisions, which are assigned one of four level designators indicating the depth…

  14. 75 FR 21716 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ...In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13, the Bureau of Transportation Statistics invites the general public, industry and other governmental parties to comment on the continuing need for and usefulness of DOT requiring large certificated air carriers to file ``On-Time Flight Performance Reports'' and ``Mishandled-Baggage Reports'' pursuant to 14 CFR 234.4 and 234.6. These reports are used to monitor the quality of air service that major air carriers are providing the flying public. The Federal Aviation Administration uses the On-Time Flight Performance Reports to identify problem areas within the air traffic control system.

  15. Refuse treatment or a contribution to a ''sociology of garbage''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos, D.

    1999-01-01

    Quantity and diversity of waste matter increase, but the problem can technically be easily solved. This also applies to nuclear waste, that are created in nuclear technology in energy production, industry, research and development institutions, medical services etc. The article deals with an attempt at placing a dump for low and medium radioactive waste in Slovenia and the effects in the minds of people who were directly involved with the search for a waste dump in the regions of Haloze and Posavje in the late 80's and early 90's

  16. A pilot plant two-phase anaerobic digestion system for bioenergy recovery from swine wastes and garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chuanping; Shimada, Sadoru; Zhang, Zhenya; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2008-01-01

    A pilot plant bioenergy recovery system from swine waste and garbage was constructed. A series of experiments was performed using swine feces (SF); a mixture of swine feces and urine (MSFU); a mixture of swine feces, urine and garbage (MSFUG); garbage and a mixture of urine and garbage (AUG). The system performed well for treating the source materials at a high organic loading rate (OLR) and short hydraulic retention time (HRT). In particular, the biogas production for the MSFUG was the highest, accounting for approximately 865-930 L kg(-1)-VS added at the OLR of 5.0-5.3 kg-VS m(-3) day(-1) and the HRT of 9 days. The removal of VS was 67-75%, and that of COD was 73-74%. Therefore, co-digestion is a promising method for the recovery of bioenergy from swine waste and garbage. Furthermore, the results obtained from this study provide fundamental information for scaling up a high-performance anaerobic system in the future.

  17. Reduction of garbage in the diet of nonbreeding glaucous gulls corresponding to a change in waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Emily L.; Powell, Abby N.

    2011-01-01

    Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) are major predators in the Arctic and may benefit from human development. We studied use of garbage by glaucous gulls in Barrow, Alaska, in 2007, when municipal waste was disposed of in a landfill, and in 2008, when it was incinerated. In both years, diet samples from breeding adult gulls contained less garbage than those from loafing nonbreeding gulls (mostly subadults of less than four years), possibly because the breeding colony was more distant than many loafing sites from the landfills. Although breeding gull samples showed no change, garbage in regurgitated pellets and food remains of nonbreeding gulls was significantly less prevalent in 2008 than in 2007 (28% vs. 43% occurrence in diet samples), and this reduction could be explained by the switch from landfill to waste incineration. Yet garbage remained a substantial part of nonbreeding gull diet after the management change. Other aspects of waste management, such as storage prior to disposal, may also be important in limiting scavengers’ access to garbage and thus reducing the indirect impact of human development on prey species of conservation concern.

  18. Experiment in operation of a trash and garbage processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkina, E.N.; Matveev, I.K.; Obroskova, T.F.; Shcherbo, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment in the operation of the Leningrad pilot plant for mechanized processing of household wastes (put into service in 1970) is analyzed, the technology of which was assured by a scheme for the composting of solid household wastes in horizontally rotating drums, accepted as the basic technological equipment in designing analogous plants in the country. It is noted that this plant is a highly effective enterprise for rendering the mentioned wastes harmless in the sanitation system of the city. The final plant product at the present time is turned out with high sanitary conditions and according to the bacteriological index corresponds to the requirement of the technical specification for compost-biological fuel. More than 90% of the sample appearing after a 2-hour biofermentation of the compost has a coliform bacteria titer of 0.01 and higher. The experiment in the operation of the plant can be used in organizing the industrial disposal of solid household wastes in other cities of the country.

  19. Response of spinach and komatsuna to biogas effluent made from source-separated kitchen garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Yuichiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Recycling of kitchen garbage is an urgent task for reducing public spending and environmental burdens by incineration and/or landfill. There is an interesting regional effort in Ogawa, Saitama prefecture, Japan, in which source-separated kitchen garbage is anaerobically fermented with a biogas plant and the resultant effluent is used as a quick-release organic fertilizer by surrounding farmers. However, scientific assessments of fertilizer values and risks in the use of the effluent were lacking. Thus, a field experiment was conducted from 2003 to 2004 in Tohoku National Agricultural Research Center to grow spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis L. H. Bailey) for evaluating the fertilizer value of the kitchen garbage effluent (KGE), nitrate, coliform group (CG), Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci (FS), and Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations of KGE and in the soil and the plant leaves. A cattle manure effluent (CME) and chemical fertilizers (NPK) were used as controls. Total nitrogen (N) and ammonium N concentrations of the KGE were 1.47 and 1.46 g kg(-1), respectively. The bacteria tested were detected in both biogas effluents in the order of 2 to 3 log CFU g(-1), but there was little evidence that the biogas effluents increased these bacteria in the soil and the plant leaves. At the rate of 22 g N m(-2), yield, total N uptake, apparent N recovery rate, and leaf nitrate ion concentration at harvest of spinach and komatsuna in the KGE plot were mostly comparable to those in the NPK and CME plots. We conclude that the KGE is a quick-release N fertilizer comparable to chemical fertilizers and does not cause contamination of CG, E. coli, FS, or V. parahaemolyticus in the soil and spinach and komatsuna leaves.

  20. ChEBI in 2016: Improved services and an expanding collection of metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Janna; Owen, Gareth; Dekker, Adriano; Ennis, Marcus; Kale, Namrata; Muthukrishnan, Venkatesh; Turner, Steve; Swainston, Neil; Mendes, Pedro; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2016-01-04

    ChEBI is a database and ontology containing information about chemical entities of biological interest. It currently includes over 46,000 entries, each of which is classified within the ontology and assigned multiple annotations including (where relevant) a chemical structure, database cross-references, synonyms and literature citations. All content is freely available and can be accessed online at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi. In this update paper, we describe recent improvements and additions to the ChEBI offering. We have substantially extended our collection of endogenous metabolites for several organisms including human, mouse, Escherichia coli and yeast. Our front-end has also been reworked and updated, improving the user experience, removing our dependency on Java applets in favour of embedded JavaScript components and moving from a monthly release update to a 'live' website. Programmatic access has been improved by the introduction of a library, libChEBI, in Java, Python and Matlab. Furthermore, we have added two new tools, namely an analysis tool, BiNChE, and a query tool for the ontology, OntoQuery. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Disposal of household burned garbage and risk of low birth weight in Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puti Sari Hidayangsih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pembakaran sampah di dalam rumah tanggadapat mempengaruhi berat badan bayi lahir rendah (BBLR. Pada tulisan ini disajikan pembakaran sampah di rumah tangga terhadap risiko BBLR.Metode: Analisis data menggunakan sebagian data studi potong lintang Riskesdas 2013 di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Data yang dianalisis ialah data bayi berusia 0-11 bulan. Berat badan bayi waktu lahir berdasarkan catatan berat bayi saat lahir yang tercatat dalam kuesioner Riskesdas. Bayi dikategorikan BBLR jika berat badan waktu lahir kurang dari 2500 gram. Hasil: Di antara 281 bayi yang mempunyai catatan berat badan lahir terdapat 10,6% (23 bayi yang BBLR. Bayi yang tinggal di rumah tangga dengan perilaku pengelolaan sampah dengan cara dibakar dibandingkan dengan selain dibakar mempunyai risiko 2,3 kali lipat mengalami BBLR (RRa=2,28; 95% CI=1,18-8,61. Kesimpulan: Bayi yang tinggal di rumah tangga dengan sampah dibakar dibandingkan dengan tanpa sampah dibakar mempunyai risiko lebih tinggi BBLR di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:89-93Kata kunci: berat badan lahir rendah, pembakaran sampahAbstractBackground: The management of household waste by burning can affect the incidence of low birth weight (LBW. This paper aims to identify the burning of garbage at home and risk of low birth weight. Methods: This analysis used a part of Riskesdas 2013 data in the Central Sulawesi Province. Subjects analyzed were infants aged 0-11 months. Baby’s weight was based on the baby’s birth weightwhich was recorded in the questionnaire of Riskesdas. The infants were categorized as LBW, if the recorded birth weight was less than 2500 grams. Results: Out of 392 babies,  281 babies had recorded birth weightswhich could be proved by documentary evidence. The majority of babies were boys (50.9% and lived in rural areas (58.7%. The proportion of babies who had LBW was 10.6% (23 infants. The babies who were living in households with

  2. Comprehensive evaluation of municipal garbage disposal in Changchun City by the strategic environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianling L; Tang, Zhanhui H; Shang, Jincheng C; Zhao, Yuanhui H

    2010-06-01

    The environmental issues caused by the municipal solid waste disposal are becoming a worldwide concern. We studied the situations both domestically and abroad by the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) approach and also conducted comprehensive evaluations of garbage disposal in Changchun City. On the basis of this study, we found that SEA is of great importance in the municipal solid waste disposal. Moreover, with the rapid socioeconomic development of Changchun City, municipal solid waste production increases on an annual basis, and thus, good waste management planning is of great significance. Considering the situation of the economic development of Changchun City, garbage disposal was handled mainly in the major sanitary landfills with appropriate use of incineration technology. This plan is environmentally friendly at a relatively high degree and has met the requirements of minimum investment. It also takes into account the requirements of the development of incineration technology. Regarding environmental pollution in terms of groundwater pollution and atmospheric pollution, this plan is a feasible one by meeting various requirements with low environmental impact among the three plans discussed in this study.

  3. Surfactant protein-D and exposure to bioaerosols in wastewater and garbage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshzadeh Tabrizi, R; Bernard, A; Thommen, A M; De Winter, F; Oppliger, A; Hilfiker, S; Tschopp, A; Hotz, P

    2010-12-01

    Bioaerosols and their constituents, such as endotoxins, are capable of causing an inflammatory reaction at the level of the lung-blood barrier, which becomes more permeable. Thus, it was hypothesized that occupational exposure to bioaerosols can increase leakage of surfactant protein-D (SP-D), a lung-specific protein, into the bloodstream. SP-D was determined by ELISA in 316 wastewater workers, 67 garbage collectors, and 395 control subjects. Exposure was assessed with four interview-based indicators and by preliminary endotoxin measurements using the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Influence of exposure on serum SP-D was assessed by multiple linear regression considering smoking, glomerular function, lung diseases, obesity, and other confounders. Overall, mean exposure levels to endotoxins were below 100 EU/m(3). However, special tasks of wastewater workers caused higher endotoxin exposure. SP-D concentration was slightly increased in this occupational group and associated with the occurrence of splashes and contact to raw sewage. No effect was found in garbage collectors. Smoking increased serum SP-D. No clinically relevant correlation between spirometry results and SP-D concentrations appeared. These results support the hypothesis that inhalation of bioaerosols, even at low concentrations, has a subclinical effect on the lung-blood barrier, the permeability of which increases without associated spirometric changes.

  4. Construction of hydrogen fermentation from garbage slurry using the membrane free bioelectrochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Morita, Masahiko; Matsumoto, Norio; Sasaki, Daisuke; Hirano, Shin-ichi; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of the membrane free bioelectrochemical system (BES) using three electrodes on inhibition of methanogenesis and construction of hydrogen fermentation from the artificial garbage slurry. The electrical redox-potential on the working electrode was adjusted to -1.0V (vs. Ag/AgCl) that has positive effect on methanogenesis. The redox-potential on the counter electrode was measured to be 1.6V. The pH in the effluents was 5.5-6.4. Hydrogen production rate at the cathode side was similar to that at the anode side and much higher than that calculated from current, and reached a maximum of 2445±815 (average±standard deviation) mL L(-1) d(-1) at an organic loading rate of 58.7g dichromate chemical oxygen demand per L d(-1). Methane production was negligible throughout the experiment. Acetate and butyrate were the main products of the fermentation using a BES; these offered favorable conditions for hydrogen production. The bacterial community in the bioelectrochemical hydrogen fermentor differed from that in the methanogenic seed sludge and included hitherto unknown species. These results show that high redox-potential on the anodic electrode and acidic pH in the membrane free BES can be utilized for hydrogen fermentation from the artificial garbage slurry by avoiding methanogenesis. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficient treatment of garbage slurry in methanogenic bioreactor packed by fibrous sponge with high porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Sasaki, Daisuke; Morita, Masahiko; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Matsumoto, Norio; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2010-05-01

    Adding a supporting material to a methanogenic bioreactor treating garbage slurry can improve efficiency of methane production. However, little is known on how characteristics (e.g., porosity and hydrophobicity) of the supporting material affect the bioreactor degrading garbage slurry. We describe the reactor performances and microbial communities in bioreactors containing hydrophilic or hydrophobic sheets, or fibrous hydrophilic or hydrophobic sponges. The porosity affected the efficiency of methane production and solid waste removal more than the hydrophilic or hydrophobic nature of the supporting material. When the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used at a lower organic loading rate (OLR), microbial diversities in the suspended fraction were retained on the hydrophobic, but not the hydrophilic, sheets. Moreover, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed at a higher OLR revealed that the excellent performance of reactors containing fibrous sponges with high porosity (98%) was supported by a clear increase in the numbers of methanogens on these sponges, resulting in larger total numbers of methanogens in the reactors. In addition, the bacterial communities in fractions retained on both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibrous sponges differed from those in the suspended fraction, thus increasing bacterial diversity in the reactor. Thus, higher porosity of the supporting material improves the bioreactor performance by increasing the amount of methanogens and bacterial diversity; surface hydrophobicity contributes to maintaining the suspended microbial community.

  6. Two-phased hyperthermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge with kitchen garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungyeol; Hidaka, Taira; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    For co-digestion of waste activated sludge with kitchen garbage, hyperthermophilic digester systems that consisted of an acidogenic reactor operated at hyperthermophilic (70 degrees C) and a methanogenic reactor operated at mesophilic (35 degrees C), thermophilic (55 degrees C) or hyperthermophilic (65 degrees C) conditions in series were studied by comparing with a thermophilic digester system that consisted of thermophilic (55 degrees C) acidogenic and methanogenic reactors. Laboratory scale reactors were operated continuously fed with a substrate blend composed of concentrated waste activated sludge and artificial kitchen garbage. At the acidogenic reactor, solubilization efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), carbohydrate and protein at 70 degrees C were about 39%, 42% and 54%, respectively, and they were higher than those at 55 degrees C by around 10%. The system of acidogenesis at 70 degrees C and methanogenesis at 55 degrees C was stable and well-functioned in terms of treatment performances and low ammonium nitrogen concentrations. Microbial community analysis was conducted using a molecular biological method. The key microbe determined at the hyperthermophilic acidogenesis step was Coprothermobacter sp., which was possibly concerned with the degradation of protein in waste activated sludge. The present study proved that the hyperthermophilic system was advantageous for treating substrate blends containing high concentrations of waste activated sludge.

  7. [Evaluation of the sanitary-and-epidemiological hazard of solid garbage in Astana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumarova, Zh Zh; Bekshin, Zh M; Aushakhmetova, Z T

    2008-01-01

    According to the national plan of actions on environmental protection, industrial garbage recycling is to be introduced in Almaty and Astana for the sustainable development of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Integrated assessment of the hazard of garage is made by the sanitary-and-chemical and sanitary-and-epidemiological indices to provide the hygienic and ecological reliability of a procedure for neutralization and utilization of solid garbage (SG). According to the data obtained, Astana SG Astana in summer is characterized by the high total level of bacterial contamination. The indices of microbial contamination of SG and soil near the dustbins correlate with the density of population and the maturity of an infrastructure. Comparison of the sanitary-and-epidemiological indices of different types of SG (wastes from housing facilities, wholesale and retail outlays, and education, culture, and entertainment institutions) revealed no significant differences. According to the sanitary-and-helmintological indices, the Astana soil should be classified as pure (noninvasive). Involvement of SG into industrial recycling should be accompanied by a hygienic assessment of the hazard of waste and the reliability of used technologies in the context of warning and on-going sanitary surveillance.

  8. Contribution of garbage burning to chloride and PM2.5 in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G.; Lei, W.; Bei, N.; Molina, L. T.

    2012-09-01

    The contribution of garbage burning (GB) emissions to chloride and PM2.5 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) has been investigated for the period of 24 to 29 March during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign using the WRF-CHEM model. When the MCMA 2006 official emission inventory without biomass burning is used in the simulations, the WRF-CHEM model significantly underestimates the observed particulate chloride in the urban and the suburban areas. The inclusion of GB emissions substantially improves the simulations of particulate chloride; GB contributes more than 60% of the observation, indicating that it is a major source of particulate chloride in Mexico City. GB yields up to 3 pbb HCl at the ground level in the city, which is mainly caused by the burning of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in the garbage. GB is also an important source of PM2.5, contributing about 3-30% simulated PM2.5 mass on average. More modeling work is needed to evaluate the GB contribution to hazardous air toxics, such as dioxin, which is found to be released at high level from PVC burning in laboratory experiments.

  9. Contribution of garbage burning to chloride and PM2.5 in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of garbage burning (GB emissions to chloride and PM2.5 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA has been investigated for the period of 24 to 29 March during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign using the WRF-CHEM model. When the MCMA 2006 official emission inventory without biomass burning is used in the simulations, the WRF-CHEM model significantly underestimates the observed particulate chloride in the urban and the suburban areas. The inclusion of GB emissions substantially improves the simulations of particulate chloride; GB contributes more than 60% of the observation, indicating that it is a major source of particulate chloride in Mexico City. GB yields up to 3 pbb HCl at the ground level in the city, which is mainly caused by the burning of polyvinyl chloride (PVC in the garbage. GB is also an important source of PM2.5, contributing about 3–30% simulated PM2.5 mass on average. More modeling work is needed to evaluate the GB contribution to hazardous air toxics, such as dioxin, which is found to be released at high level from PVC burning in laboratory experiments.

  10. A Modified Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour Model to Analyze User Intention towards Distance-Based Electronic Toll Collection Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chung Tao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a modified decomposed theory of planned behaviour model (DTPB that integrates satisfaction and trust into the original DTPB model to explore what kind of factors affect the user intention towards distance-based electronic toll collection (ETC services. The proposed model is empirically tested by using data collected from a questionnaire survey with a computer assisted telephone interview system. Empirical analysis is carried out in three stages that combine confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modelling (SEM, and Bayesian network: (1 examination of reliability and validity of the measurement model; (2 analysis of structural model; (3 prediction of the probability of user intention change based on rigorous framework of SEM. The results confirm that the satisfaction and trust have positive effects on the behaviour intention, also validating that five constructs have indirect effects on the behaviour intention through attitude and perceived behaviour control. Compatibility is the most important influence factor, followed by perceived usefulness, facilitating conditions, self-efficacy, and perceived ease of use. The findings of this study identify potential improvements for ETC operator, such as contributing to the society to enhance the company image and trust of enterprise with charity activities, and simultaneously upgrading the information platform of website, software, and Apps.

  11. Data collection instrument and procedure for systematic reviews in the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Task Force on Community Preventive Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaza, S; Wright-De Agüero, L K; Briss, P A; Truman, B I; Hopkins, D P; Hennessy, M H; Sosin, D M; Anderson, L; Carande-Kulis, V G; Teutsch, S M; Pappaioanou, M

    2000-01-01

    A standardized abstraction form and procedure was developed to provide consistency, reduce bias, and improve validity and reliability in the Guide to Community Preventive Services: Systematic Reviews and Evidence-Based Recommendations (the Guide). The content of the abstraction form was based on methodologies used in other systematic reviews; reporting standards established by major health and social science journals; the evaluation, statistical and meta-analytic literature; expert opinion and review; and pilot-testing. The form is used to classify and describe key characteristics of the intervention and evaluation (26 questions) and assess the quality of the study's execution (23 questions). Study procedures and results are collected and specific threats to the validity of the study are assessed across six categories (intervention and study descriptions, sampling, measurement, analysis, interpretation of results and other execution issues). Each study is abstracted by two independent reviewers and reconciled by the chapter development team. Reviewers are trained and provided with feedback. What to abstract and how to summarize the data are discretionary choices that influence conclusions drawn on the quality of execution of the study and its effectiveness. The form balances flexibility for the evaluation of papers with different study designs and intervention types with the need to ask specific questions to maximize validity and reliability. It provides a structured format that researchers and others can use to review the content and quality of papers, conduct systematic reviews, or develop manuscripts. A systematic approach to developing and evaluating manuscripts will help to promote overall improvement of the scientific literature.

  12. Coletores de lixo e enteroparasitoses: o papel das representações sociais em suas atitudes preventivas Garbage collectors and intestinal parasitosis: the role played by social representations in its prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Borges de Paula Nunes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar a prevalência de enteroparasitoses em coletores de lixo do município de Patrocínio - MG, e conhecer suas representações sociais sobre as condições de trabalho a que estão sujeitos, e sobre os riscos que sua atividade profissional pode oferecer no que diz respeito às enteroparasitoses. Para a consecução deste objetivo, a coleta de dados foi feita por meio da aplicação de questionários e de entrevistas realizados paralelamente à efetivação de exames parasitológicos, aos 22 coletores de lixo de Patrocínio. Em 63,64% dos coletores estudados, foram encontrados protozoários ou helmintos, contudo apenas 13,63% são enteroparasitas. Os coletores de lixo evidenciaram representações sociais coletivas sobre o lixo e seu potencial como veiculador de doenças, e, com base nestas representações, desenvolvem estratégias próprias de prevenção, o que pode explicar a baixa prevalência encontrada de enteropasitoses.The aim of this research was to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in garbage collectors in Patrocínio - MG, find out their social representations about working conditions to which they are subject and the work-related risks concerning intestinal parasites. To achieve this goal, data collection was carried out through questionnaires and interviews as well as parasitological tests, from 22 garbage collectors of Patrocínio. Protozoa or helminthes were found in 63.64% of the studied collectors, although only 13.63% were intestinal parasites. Garbage collectors clearly showed collective social representations about garbage and its potential as a disease carrier and, according to such representations, they have developed their own preventive strategies, which might explain the low prevalence of intestinal parasites found.

  13. Do not feed the wildlife: associations between garbage use, aggression, and disease in banded mongooses (Mungos mungo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Bonnie Fairbanks; Hawley, Dana M; Alexander, Kathleen A

    2016-08-01

    Urbanization and other human modifications of the landscape may indirectly affect disease dynamics by altering host behavior in ways that influence pathogen transmission. Few opportunities arise to investigate behaviorally mediated effects of human habitat modification in natural host-pathogen systems, but we provide a potential example of this phenomenon in banded mongooses (Mungos mungo), a social mammal. Our banded mongoose study population in Botswana is endemically infected with a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex pathogen, M. mungi, that primarily invades the mongoose host through the nasal planum and breaks in the skin. In this system, several study troops have access to human garbage sites and other modified landscapes for foraging. Banded mongooses in our study site (N = 4 troops, ~130 individuals) had significantly higher within-troop aggression levels when foraging in garbage compared to other foraging habitats. Second, monthly rates of aggression were a significant predictor of monthly number of injuries in troops. Finally, injured individuals had a 75% incidence of clinical tuberculosis (TB) compared to a 0% incidence in visibly uninjured mongooses during the study period. Our data suggest that mongoose troops that forage in garbage may be at greater risk of acquiring TB by incurring injuries that may allow for pathogen invasion. Our study suggests the need to consider the indirect effects of garbage on behavior and wildlife health when developing waste management approaches in human-modified areas.

  14. Interdependence, Garbage Dumping, and Feral Dogs: Exploring Three Lifeworld Resources of Young Children in a Rural School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy Suzanne; Baker, Allison; Bruer, Laura

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we concentrate upon the lifeworld resources that comprise the funds of knowledge for children living in a rural community in the southeastern United States. Through interview conversations with a group of third grade children, we identified three lifeworld resources--interdependence, garbage dumping, and feral dogs--that rural…

  15. "Garbage" In, "Refuse and Refuse Disposal" Out: Making the Most of the Subject Authority File in OPAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Marguerite E.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the difference in subject access in OPACs (online public access catalogs) between subject searching (authority, alphabetic, or controlled vocabulary) versus keyword searching (uncontrolled, free text, natural language vocabulary). Compares a query on the term "garbage" in two online catalogs and discusses results. (Author/LRW)

  16. 33 CFR 151.66 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage in the Great Lakes and other navigable waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage in the Great Lakes and other navigable waters. 151.66 Section 151.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...

  17. The Crowding-Out Effects of Garbage Fees and Voluntary Source Separation Programs on Waste Reduction: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how and to what degree government policies of garbage fees and voluntary source separation programs, with free indoor containers and garbage bags, can affect the effectiveness of municipal solid waste (MSW management, in the sense of achieving a desirable reduction of per capita MSW generation. Based on city-level panel data for years 1998–2012 in China, our empirical analysis indicates that per capita MSW generated is increasing with per capita disposable income, average household size, education levels of households, and the lagged per capita MSW. While both garbage fees and source separation programs have separately led to reductions in per capita waste generation, the interaction of the two policies has resulted in an increase in per capita waste generation due to the following crowding-out effects: Firstly, the positive effect of income dominates the negative effect of the garbage fee. Secondly, there are crowding-out effects of mandatory charging system and the subsidized voluntary source separation on per capita MSW generation. Thirdly, small subsidies and tax punishments have reduced the intrinsic motivation for voluntary source separation of MSW. Thus, compatible fee charging system, higher levels of subsidies, and well-designed public information and education campaigns are required to promote household waste source separation and reduction.

  18. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. J. Christian; R. J. Yokelson; B. Cardenas; L. T. Molina; G. Engling; S.-C. Hsu

    2010-01-01

    In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl-, NO-3 , and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Global biofuel use has been...

  19. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. J. Christian; R. J. Yokelson; B. Cardenas; L. T. Molina; G. Engling; S.-C. Hsu

    2009-01-01

    In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl-, NO-3 , and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600...

  20. [Does living nearby a garbage dumping site degrade the quality of life? A case study based on Shin-dong Myeon residents, Chun-cheon Si].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Kyung; Choi, Jun Yeol; Kim, In Kyoung; Cho, Yeong-Ah; Kim, Young-Shin; Jung, Hye Jin; Kim, Li Na; Lee, Young Kyu; Cho, Youngtae

    2006-07-01

    This study aims to examine if a garbage dumping site has real and negative influence on the quality of life (QOL) for the nearby residents. The net effects of the residential distance from the garbage dumping site and from the garbage truck route were investigated for five domains of the QOL. Two hundred fifty seven Shin-dong Myeon residents, Chun-cheon Si, participated in a self-administrated survey. The Shin-dong Myeon garbage dumping site began operating in 1996. ANCOVA with generalized linear models and multiple regression analysis were performed. Descriptive analyses show that a residence nearby a garbage dumping site is negatively associated with the physical and environmental domains of the QOL. The residential distance from the garbage truck route does not exert any significant effect on various domains of QOL, except for the environmental domain. On the multivariate analysis, the residents living near the garbage dumping site tended to have a significantly negative QOL in the physical and environmental domains. However, the distance from the garbage truck route did not show a significant nor substantial effect on the QOL. The demographic and socioeconomic control variables are associated with a number of the QOL domains, and their patterns are consistent with the general expectations. The results indicated that a garbage dumping site is considered to be an environmental hazard among the nearby residents according to the lower scores on the physical and environmental domains of the QOL. The findings from this study provide comprehensive\\ understanding on the residents' QOL, and they may help politicians and policy makers make decisions for appropriate interventions.

  1. Reliability of length measurements collected by community nurses and health volunteers in rural growth monitoring and promotion services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Matilda E; Marquis, Grace S; Lartey, Anna; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2018-02-17

    Length measurements are important in growth, monitoring and promotion (GMP) for the surveillance of a child's weight-for-length and length-for-age. These two indices provide an indication of a child's risk of becoming wasted or stunted, and are more informative about a child's growth than the widely used weight-for-age index (underweight). Although the introduction of length measurements in GMP is recommended by the World Health Organization, concerns about the reliability of length measurements collected in rural outreach settings have been expressed by stakeholders. Our aim was to describe the reliability and challenges associated with community health personnel measuring length for rural outreach GMP activities. Two reliability studies (A and B), using 10 children less than 24 months each, were conducted in the GMP services of a rural district in Ghana. Fifteen nurses and 15 health volunteers (HV) with no prior experience in length measurements were trained. Intra- and inter-observer technical error of measurement (TEM), average bias from expert anthropometrist, and coefficient of reliability (R) of length measurements were assessed and compared across sessions. Observations and interviews were used to understand the ability and experiences of health personnel with measuring length at outreach GMP. Inter-observer TEM was larger than intra-observer TEM for both nurses and HV at both sessions and was unacceptably (compared to error standards) high in both groups at both time points. Average biases from expert's measurements were within acceptable limits, however, both groups tended to underestimate length measurements. The R for lengths collected by nurses (92.3%) was higher at session B compared to that of HV (87.5%). Length measurements taken by nurses and HV, and those taken by an experienced anthropometrist at GMP sessions were of moderate agreement (kappa = 0.53, p reliability of length measurements improved after two refresher trainings for nurses but

  2. Mobile phones and short message service texts to collect situational awareness data during simulated public health critical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Matthew; Isakov, Alex; Paradise, Helen Tang; Sullivan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Text messages are useful for timely communication during public health emergencies and for transmitting health data in infrastructure-limited settings. Little is known about the feasibility of two-way short message service (SMS) communication to collect public health preparedness and surveillance data. The authors aimed to determine the feasibility and acceptability of using two-way SMS texts to collect situational assessment (SA) data in simulated disaster events during a university-based pilot study. Eligible participants included university students with a mobile phone and messaging plan. Enrollment began in September 2009, and was open until the end of the study in May 2010. Participants attended a training session and provided demographic and phone use information using a baseline survey. Participants responded to SMS SAs that were sent directly to their phones throughout the study period. Frequency, completeness, and time to reporting were recorded for each procedure using an online commercial software package. Sixty-three participants enrolled; median age was 25 years, most were female (74.6 percent), lived off campus (76.2 percent), and were graduate students (76.2 percent). Most participants had a family/joint mobile phone account (73.0 percent) with unlimited messaging (60.3 percent). The median daily number of texts sent and received was 8 and 9, respectively. During five SAs, 194 (76.7 percent) of 253 prompted text surveys were completed. Nearly 60 percent of surveys were completed within 20 minutes of text deployment. Using two-way SMS communication for surveillance and reporting was feasible among a group of motivated students. Similar methods may provide timely data during public health critical events.

  3. Analysis of Dust Samples Collected from an In-Service Interim Storage System at the Maine Yankee Nuclear Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David

    2016-10-01

    In July, 2016, the Electric Power Research Institute and industry partners performed a field test at the Maine Yankee Nuclear Site, located near Wiscasset, Maine. The primary goal of the field test was to evaluate the use of robots in surveying the surface of an in-service interim storage canister within an overpack; however, as part of the demonstration, dust and soluble salt samples were collected from horizontal surfaces within the interim storage system. The storage system is a vertical system made by NAC International, consisting of a steel-lined concrete overpack containing a 304 stainless steel (SS) welded storage canister. The canister did not contain spent fuel but rather greater-than-class-C waste, which did not generate significant heat, limiting airflow through the storage system. The surfaces that were sampled for deposits included the top of the shield plug, the side of the canister, and a shelf at the bottom of the overpack, just below the level of the pillar on which the canister sits. The samples were sent to Sandia National Laboratories for analysis. This report summarizes the results of those analyses. Because the primary goal of the field test was to evaluate the use of robots in surveying the surface of the canister within the overpack, collection of dust samples was carried out in a qualitative fashion, using paper filters and sponges as the sampling media. The sampling focused mostly on determining the composition of soluble salts present in the dust. It was anticipated that a wet substrate would more effectively extract soluble salts from the surface that was sampled, so both the sponges and the filter paper were wetted prior to being applied to the surface of the metal. Sampling was accomplished by simply pressing the damp substrate against the metal surface for two minutes, and then removing it. It is unlikely that the sampling method quantitatively collected dust or salts from the metal surface; however, both substrates did extract a

  4. Medicines discarded in household garbage: analysis of a pharmaceutical waste sample in Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Leopold, Christine; Zuidberg, Christel; Habl, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    To analyze a sample of pharmaceutical waste drawn from household garbage in Vienna, with the aim to learn whether and which medicines end up unused in normal household waste. We obtained a pharmaceutical waste sample from the Vienna Municipal Waste Department. This was drawn by their staff in a representative search in October and November 2009. We did a manual investigation of the sample which contained packs and loose blisters, excluded medical devices and traced loose blisters back to medicines packs. We reported information on the prescription status, origin, therapeutic group, dose form, contents and expiry date. We performed descriptive statistics for the total data set and for sub-groups (e.g. items still containing some of original content). In total, 152 packs were identified, of which the majority was prescription-only medicines (74%). Cardiovascular medicines accounted for the highest share (24%). 87% of the packs were in oral form. 95% of the packs had not expired. 14.5% of the total data set contained contents but the range of content left in the packs varied. Results on the packs with contents differed from the total: the shares of Over-the Counter medicines (36%), of medicines of the respiratory system (18%) and of the musculo-skeletal system (18%), for dermal use (23%) and of expired medicines (19%) were higher compared to the full data set. The study showed that some medicines end up unused or partially used in normal household garbage in Vienna. Our results did not confirm speculations about a high percentage of unused medicines improperly discarded. There is room for improved patient information and counseling to enhance medication adherence and a proper discharge of medicines.

  5. Modeling the Association Between Home Care Service Use and Entry Into Residential Aged Care: A Cohort Study Using Routinely Collected Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Mikaela; Siette, Joyce; Georgiou, Andrew; Warland, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna

    2018-02-01

    To examine home care service-related and person-based factors associated with time to entry into permanent residential aged care. Longitudinal cohort study using routinely collected client management data. A large aged care service provider in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, Australia. A total of 1116 people aged 60 years and older who commenced home care services for higher-level needs between July 1, 2015 and June 30, 2016. Survival analysis methods were used to examine service-related and person-based factors that were associated with time between first home care service and entry into permanent residential aged care. Predictors included service hours per week, combination of service types, demographics, needs, hospital leave, and change in care level. Cluster analysis was used to determine patterns of types of services used. By December 31, 2016, 21.1% of people using home care services had entered into permanent residential care (n = 235). After adjusting for significant factors such as age and care needs, each hour of service received per week was associated with a 6% lower risk of entry into residential care (hazard ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.90-0.98). People who were predominant users of social support services, those with an identified carer, and those born in a non-main English-speaking country also remained in their own homes for longer. Greater volume of home care services was associated with significantly delayed entry into permanent residential care. This study provides much-needed evidence about service outcomes that could be used to inform older adults' care choices. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Feasibility of Embedding Data Collection into the Routine Service Delivery of a Multi-Component Program for High-Risk Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alice; Havard, Alys; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Maple, Myfanwy; Snijder, Mieke; Shakeshaft, Bernie

    2017-02-20

    There is little evidence about how to improve outcomes for high-risk young people, of whom Indigenous young people are disproportionately represented, due to few evaluation studies of interventions. One way to increase the evidence is to have researchers and service providers collaborate to embed evaluation into the routine delivery of services, so program delivery and evaluation occur simultaneously. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating best-evidence measures into the routine data collection processes of a service for high-risk young people, and identify the number and nature of risk factors experienced by participants. The youth service is a rural based NGO comprised of multiple program components: (i) engagement activities; (ii) case management; (iii) diversionary activities; (iv) personal development; and (v) learning and skills. A best-evidence assessment tool was developed by staff and researchers and embedded into the service's existing intake procedure. Assessment items were organised into demographic characteristics and four domains of risk: education and employment; health and wellbeing; substance use; and crime. Descriptive data are presented and summary risk variables were created for each domain of risk. A count of these summary variables represented the number of co-occurring risks experienced by each participant. The feasibility of this process was determined by the proportion of participants who completed the intake assessment and provided research consent. This study shows 85% of participants completed the assessment tool demonstrating that data on participant risk factors can feasibly be collected by embedding a best-evidence assessment tool into the routine data collection processes of a service. The most prevalent risk factors were school absence, unemployment, suicide ideation, mental distress, substance use, low levels of physical activity, low health service utilisation, and involvement in crime or with the juvenile

  7. Accuracy of aging ducks in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Waterfowl Parts Collection Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Richkus, Kenneth D.; Rohwer, Frank C.; Cox, Robert R.; Padding, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducts an annual Waterfowl Parts Collection Survey to estimate composition of harvested waterfowl by species, sex, and age (i.e., juv or ad). The survey relies on interpretation of duck wings by a group of experienced biologists at annual meetings (hereafter, flyway wingbees). Our objectives were to estimate accuracy of age assignment at flyway wingbees and to explore how accuracy rates may influence bias of age composition estimates. We used banded mallards (Anas platyrhynchos; n = 791), wood ducks (Aix sponsa; n = 242), and blue-winged teal (Anas discors; n = 39) harvested and donated by hunters as our source of birds used in accuracy assessments. We sent wings of donated birds to wingbees after the 2002–2003 and 2003–2004 hunting seasons and compared species, sex, and age determinations made at wingbees with our assessments based on internal and external examination of birds and corresponding banding records. Determinations of species and sex of mallards, wood ducks, and blue-winged teal were accurate (>99%). Accuracy of aging adult mallards increased with harvest date, whereas accuracy of aging juvenile male wood ducks and juvenile blue-winged teal decreased with harvest date. Accuracy rates were highest (96% and 95%) for adult and juvenile mallards, moderate for adult and juvenile wood ducks (92% and 92%), and lowest for adult and juvenile blue-winged teal (84% and 82%). We used these estimates to calculate bias for all possible age compositions (0–100% proportion juv) and determined the range of age compositions estimated with acceptable levels of bias. Comparing these ranges with age compositions estimated from Parts Collection Surveys conducted from 1961 to 2008 revealed that mallard and wood duck age compositions were estimated with insignificant levels of bias in all national surveys. However, 69% of age compositions for blue-winged teal were estimated with an unacceptable level of bias. The low

  8. The Feasibility of Embedding Data Collection into the Routine Service Delivery of a Multi-Component Program for High-Risk Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Knight

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is little evidence about how to improve outcomes for high-risk young people, of whom Indigenous young people are disproportionately represented, due to few evaluation studies of interventions. One way to increase the evidence is to have researchers and service providers collaborate to embed evaluation into the routine delivery of services, so program delivery and evaluation occur simultaneously. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating best-evidence measures into the routine data collection processes of a service for high-risk young people, and identify the number and nature of risk factors experienced by participants. Methods: The youth service is a rural based NGO comprised of multiple program components: (i engagement activities; (ii case management; (iii diversionary activities; (iv personal development; and (v learning and skills. A best-evidence assessment tool was developed by staff and researchers and embedded into the service’s existing intake procedure. Assessment items were organised into demographic characteristics and four domains of risk: education and employment; health and wellbeing; substance use; and crime. Descriptive data are presented and summary risk variables were created for each domain of risk. A count of these summary variables represented the number of co-occurring risks experienced by each participant. The feasibility of this process was determined by the proportion of participants who completed the intake assessment and provided research consent. Results: This study shows 85% of participants completed the assessment tool demonstrating that data on participant risk factors can feasibly be collected by embedding a best-evidence assessment tool into the routine data collection processes of a service. The most prevalent risk factors were school absence, unemployment, suicide ideation, mental distress, substance use, low levels of physical activity, low health service utilisation

  9. The Feasibility of Embedding Data Collection into the Routine Service Delivery of a Multi-Component Program for High-Risk Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alice; Havard, Alys; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Maple, Myfanwy; Snijder, Mieke; Shakeshaft, Bernie

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is little evidence about how to improve outcomes for high-risk young people, of whom Indigenous young people are disproportionately represented, due to few evaluation studies of interventions. One way to increase the evidence is to have researchers and service providers collaborate to embed evaluation into the routine delivery of services, so program delivery and evaluation occur simultaneously. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating best-evidence measures into the routine data collection processes of a service for high-risk young people, and identify the number and nature of risk factors experienced by participants. Methods: The youth service is a rural based NGO comprised of multiple program components: (i) engagement activities; (ii) case management; (iii) diversionary activities; (iv) personal development; and (v) learning and skills. A best-evidence assessment tool was developed by staff and researchers and embedded into the service’s existing intake procedure. Assessment items were organised into demographic characteristics and four domains of risk: education and employment; health and wellbeing; substance use; and crime. Descriptive data are presented and summary risk variables were created for each domain of risk. A count of these summary variables represented the number of co-occurring risks experienced by each participant. The feasibility of this process was determined by the proportion of participants who completed the intake assessment and provided research consent. Results: This study shows 85% of participants completed the assessment tool demonstrating that data on participant risk factors can feasibly be collected by embedding a best-evidence assessment tool into the routine data collection processes of a service. The most prevalent risk factors were school absence, unemployment, suicide ideation, mental distress, substance use, low levels of physical activity, low health service utilisation, and involvement

  10. Temperature and salinity profile data collected by the National Ocean Service's Navigation Response Team No. 3, during the 2001 field survey season (NODC Accession 0000645)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected by the National Ocean Service's Response Team No. 3 in the coastal waters of the Western U.S. from 25 January 2001 to 11 December...

  11. High-efficiency bioconversion of kitchen garbage to biobutanol using an enzymatic cocktail procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Shen, Hong; Su, HaiFeng; Chen, HongZhen; Tan, FuRong; Lin, JiaFu

    2017-12-01

    Research on methods to produce biobutanol production from kitchen garbage (KG) as a potential substrate is thus far lacking. Here, the effect of various enzymatic hydrolysis procedures (EHP) was first tested using different enzyme cocktails, on the decomposition of KG. The efficiency of Clostridium acetobutylicum-mediated biobutanol production was then measured using two modes: separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) in the condition of adjusting pH. The optimal results were obtained using (1) an enzymatic hydrolysis cocktail procedure (EHC5), (2) use of the SSF approach and (3) pH control. This approach results in a biobutanol production of 16.37g/L and total solvent concentration of 32.96g/L. Compared to experiments that use pure glucose asa substrate, our results show that KG is a promising feedstock for biobutanol production. The results demonstrate the feasibility of this waste source for an industrial application via the EHP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide gas poisoning in fish garbage room: A report of a fisherman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sadaf; Baig, Muhammad Akbar; Ali, Noman; Khan, NadeemUllah

    2017-07-01

    We report the case of a fisherman who was exposed to high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas from the fish garbage room. The patient survived and was discharged with full recovery from the hospital. H2S is a colourless, foul smelling and highly toxic gas next to carbon monoxide, which causes inhalation death. It is a by-product of various industrial processes particularly involves exposure from agriculture, petrochemical industry and organic matter decomposition from sewage processing. It is a by-product of H2S has been referred as the "knock down gas" because inhalation of high concentrations can cause immediate loss of consciousness and death. Although early use of amyl nitrate and hyperbaric oxygen shows some benefit in literature, supportive care remains the mainstay of treatment. Emergency physicians and pre-hospital care personnel are not very familiar with such exposure due to its rarity. This becomes more relevant in the developing world settings where there are rising concerns about the unsafe exposure to hazardous chemicals and its impact on human health. Emergency physicians working in Pakistan should be aware of this entity especially in regard to fishermen presenting to the Emergency Department with such a clinical presentation and its toxic manifestations. This incident also illustrates the need of enforcement of health and safety regulations in the fishing industry.

  13. Quality of mortality statistics' information: garbage codes as causesof death in Belo Horizonte, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitani, Lenice Harumi; Teixeira, Renato Azeredo; Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier; Paixão, Lucia Maria Miana Mattos; França, Elisabeth Barboza

    2017-05-01

    To assess the quality of mortality information by analyzing the frequency of garbage codes (GC) registered as underlying cause-of-death in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data of deaths of residents from 2011 to 2013 were selected. GC causes were classified as proposed by the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2015. They were grouped into GCs from ICD-10 Chapter XVIII and GCs excluding codes of Chapter XVIII. Proportions of GC were calculated by sex, age, and place of occurrence. In Belo Horizonte, 30.5% of the total of 44,123 deaths were GC. Higher proportion of these codes was observed in children (1 to 4 years) and in people aged over 60 years. The following leading GCs observed were: other ill-defined and unspecified causes of death (code R99), unspecified pneumonia (J18.9), unspecified stroke (hemorrhagic or ischemic) (I64), and unspecified septicemia (A41.9). The proportions of GC were 28.7% and 36.9% in deaths that occurred in hospitals and at home, respectively. An important difference occurred in the GC group from Chapter XVIII of ICD-10: 1.7% occurred in hospitals and 16.9% at home. The high proportions of GC in mortality statistics in Belo Horizonte demonstrated its importance for assessing the quality of information on causes of death.

  14. A bioelectrochemical reactor containing carbon fiber textiles enables efficient methane fermentation from garbage slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Morita, Masahiko; Sasaki, Daisuke; Hirano, Shin-ichi; Matsumoto, Norio; Watanabe, Atsushi; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2011-07-01

    A packed-bed system includes supporting materials to retain microorganisms and a bioelectrochemical system influences the microbial metabolism. In our study, carbon fiber textiles (CFT) as a supporting material was attached onto a carbon working electrode in a bioelectrochemical reactor (BER) that degrades garbage slurry to methane, in order to investigate the effect of combining electrochemical regulation and packing CFT. The potential on the working electrode in the BER containing CFT was set to -1.0 V or -0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). BERs containing CFT exhibited higher methane production, elimination of dichromate chemical oxygen demand, and the ratio of methanogens in the suspended fraction than reactors containing CFT without electrochemical regulation at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 27.8 gCODcr/L/day. In addition, BERs containing CFT exhibited higher reactor performances than BERs without CFT at this OLR. Our results revealed that the new design that combined electrochemical regulation and packing CFT was effective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Co-digestion of polylactide and kitchen garbage in hyperthermophilic and thermophilic continuous anaerobic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Hidaka, Taira; Tsuno, Hiroshi; Tsubota, Jun

    2012-05-01

    Two series of two-phase anaerobic systems, consisting of a hyperthermophilic (80°C) reactor and a thermophilic (55°C) reactor, fed with a mixture of kitchen garbage (KG) and polylactide (PLA), was compared with a single-phase thermophilic reactor for the overall performance. The result indicated that ammonia addition under hyperthermophilic condition promoted the transformation of PLA particles to lactic acid. The systems with hyperthermophilic treatment had advantages on PLA transformation and methane conversion ratio to the control system. Under the organic loading rate (OLR) of 10.3 g COD/(L day), the PLA transformation ratios of the two-phase systems were 82.0% and 85.2%, respectively, higher than that of the control system (63.5%). The methane conversion ratios of the two-phase systems were 82.9% and 80.8%, respectively, higher than 70.1% of the control system. The microbial community analysis indicated that hyperthermophilic treatment is easily installed to traditional thermophilic anaerobic digestion plants without inoculation of special bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of adding carbon fiber textiles to methanogenic bioreactors used to treat an artificial garbage slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Morita, Masahiko; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2009-08-01

    To compare the performances and microbial populations of methanogenic reactors with and without carbon fiber textiles (CFT), we operated small-scale (200 ml) reactors using a slurry of artificial garbage. For both types of reactors, the organic loading rate (OLR) was stepwisely and rapidly increased in the same manner. Start-up period was shortened by adding CFT. Reactors with CFT showed greater efficiency for removal of suspended solid and volatile suspended solid than reactors without CFT at a long hydraulic retention time (HRT) between 8 and 13 days. The reactors with CFT maintained stable methane production at an OLR of 15.3 g dichromate chemical oxygen demand (CODcr)/l/day and DNAs from microorganisms were highly concentrated in adhering fractions on CFT. As shown by quantitative PCR analysis, the proportions of methanogenic archaea were conserved more than 25% in adhering fractions on CFT in reactors with CFT. By contrast, reactors without CFT showed accumulation of volatile fatty acid and deteriorated at an OLR of 2.4 gCODcr/l/day. Methanogenic proportions dropped to 17.1% in suspended fractions of reactors without CFT. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that all archaeal DGGE bands in both types of reactors were related to methanogens, but more bands were observed in reactors with CFT. Thus the higher performance of reactors with CFT likely reflects the greater abundance of microorganisms and methanogenic diversity.

  17. Innovations Under the Concept of ‘Turning Garbage into Gold’ in Fisheries Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the encouragement of creativity and innovation in creating opportunities for entrepreneurship turning useless materials into valuable resources. It is necessary to know the thought process and planning in the entrepreneurship idea to create a new business at this time. One of the brilliant philosophies about entrepreneurs is that they are those who can “turn garbage into gold”. This concept describes the important character of entrepreneurs who foresee business opportunities and have the intelligence to transform trash into cash. This means that they have the necessary ability to create innovation and value-added products for sale. The analyzed case study involves innovation in using fisheries waste specifically derived from crab industries in Indonesia. The study presents empirical perspectives including (1 potential business of crab shell waste (2 technology in innovative use of shell to added value product (3 business analysis and commercialization. Ultimately, we present the concept of a new business by linking theories of entrepreneurial innovation and technology transfer in order to gain environmental balance.

  18. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, T. J.; Yokelson, R. J.; Cárdenas, B.; Molina, L. T.; Engling, G.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2010-01-01

    In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl-, NO3-, and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Global biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600 Tg/y. With several simple case studies we show that cooking fires can be a major, or the major, source of several gases and fine particles in developing countries. Insulated cook stoves with chimneys were earlier shown to reduce indoor air pollution and the fuel use per cooking task. We confirm that they also reduce the emissions of VOC pollutants per mass of fuel burned by about half. We did not detect HCN emissions from cooking fires in Mexico or Africa. Thus, if regional source attribution is based on HCN emissions typical for other types of biomass burning (BB), then biofuel use and total BB will be underestimated in much of the developing world. This is also significant because cooking fires are not detected from space. We estimate that ~2000 Tg/y of garbage are generated globally and about half may be burned, making this a commonly overlooked major global source of emissions. We estimate a fine particle emission factor (EFPM2.5) for garbage burning of ~10.5±8.8 g/kg, which is in reasonable agreement with very limited previous work. We observe large HCl emission factors in the range 2-10 g/kg. Consideration of the Cl content of the global waste stream suggests that garbage burning may generate as much as 6-9 Tg/yr of HCl, which would make it a major source of this compound. HCl generated by garbage burning in dry environments may have a relatively greater atmospheric impact than HCl generated in humid areas. Garbage burning PM2.5 was found to contain levoglucosan and K in concentrations similar to those for biomass burning, so it could be a source of interference in some areas when using

  19. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Christian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC, anhydrosugars, Cl, NO3, and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Global biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600 Tg/y. With several simple case studies we show that cooking fires can be a major, or the major, source of several gases and fine particles in developing countries. Insulated cook stoves with chimneys were earlier shown to reduce indoor air pollution and the fuel use per cooking task. We confirm that they also reduce the emissions of VOC pollutants per mass of fuel burned by about half. We did not detect HCN emissions from cooking fires in Mexico or Africa. Thus, if regional source attribution is based on HCN emissions typical for other types of biomass burning (BB, then biofuel use and total BB will be underestimated in much of the developing world. This is also significant because cooking fires are not detected from space. We estimate that ~2000 Tg/y of garbage are generated globally and about half may be burned, making this a commonly overlooked major global source of emissions. We estimate a fine particle emission factor (EFPM2.5 for garbage burning of ~10.5±8.8 g/kg, which is in reasonable agreement with very limited previous work. We observe large HCl emission factors in the range 2–10 g/kg. Consideration of the Cl content of the global waste stream suggests that garbage burning may generate as much as 6–9 Tg/yr of HCl, which would make it a major source of this compound. HCl generated by garbage burning in dry environments may have a relatively greater atmospheric impact than HCl generated in humid areas. Garbage burning PM2.5 was found to contain levoglucosan and K in concentrations similar to those for

  20. Can an online clinical data management service help in improving data collection and data quality in a developing country setting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildeman, Maarten A.; Zandbergen, Jeroen; Vincent, Andrew; Herdini, Camelia; Middeldorp, Jaap M.; Fles, Renske; Dalesio, Otilia; van der Donk, Emile; Tan, I. Bing

    2011-01-01

    Data collection by electronic medical record (EMR) systems have been proven to be helpful in data collection for scientific research and in improving healthcare. For a multi-centre trial in Indonesia and the Netherlands a web based system was selected to enable all participating centres to easily

  1. The Law Collection (formerly the Law Library of Library and Instructional Media Services at the College of the Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errol Augustus Adams

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Law Collection of the Harry C. Moore Library and Information Centre was first established in August 2000 at the time that the College of The Bahamas entered into a collaborative LL.B programme with the University of the West Indies. This paper profiles the law librarians, the Law Collection and the UWI/COB programme.

  2. 78 FR 69702 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA-Insured Mortgage Loan Servicing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Payment of Mortgage Insurance Premiums, Escrow Administration, Providing Loan Information and Customer... Payment of Mortgage Insurance Premiums, Escrow Administration, Providing Loan Information and Customer... involved with collection and payment of mortgage insurance premiums, payment processing, escrow account...

  3. Urbanization and Access Inequality to Collective Consumption Goods & Services related to Sanitation & Solid Waste in the cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, C. D. A.; Feitosa, F. D. F.; Monteiro, A. M. V.

    2016-12-01

    Cities are mainly a product of collective consumption and there is a pressing need to expand and deepen the discussion about the quality of access to collective goods and services in the urban world: the availability of electricity and potable water and its interrelation with the lack of solid waste management and wastewater treatment leading to pollution of water sources.This study attempts to measure urban stratification through access conditions to collective goods in the metropolitan regions of Sao Paulo State (SPS) by contributing with a research method that incorporates collective consumption as a core component of the population-environment relationship. The use of spatial analysis allows the examination of the structure and distribution of accessibility to sanitation services and basic urban infrastructure.The water stress situation in SPS is dramatic. The average water loss within these distribution systems is 34,3% and a 39% average sewage treatment rate of all wastewater generated. The SPS also imports 60,6% of electricity from other states that use mostly hydroelectric power which imposes greater pressure on the country's water resources. The energy and water crisis has harmed a number of essential rights related mostly to resource access and service continuity as suburban residents of poor municipalities are the ones most affected by disruptions.SPS is the most populous state of Brazil and this region of study is responsible for 75% of total State population with 83% of State GDP. There has been a major increase in water use conflicts such as power generation, urban water supply (including the Rio de Janeiro water demand) and the dilution of urban sewage and solid waste disposal. These collective consumption access problems demonstrate the urgent need for better integrated metropolitan management of natural resources and the urban commons.

  4. Study on optimization of process parameters for enhancing the multi-hydrolytic enzyme activity in garbage enzyme produced from preconsumer organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, C; Sivashanmugam, P

    2017-02-01

    The garbage enzymes produced from preconsumer organic waste containing multi hydrolytic enzyme activity which helps to solubilize the waste activated sludge. The continuous production of garbage enzyme and its scaling up process need a globe optimized condition. In present study the effect of fruit peel composition and sonication time on enzyme activity were investigated. Garbage enzyme produced from 6g pineapple peels: 4g citrus peels pre-treated with ultrasound for 20min shows higher hydrolytic enzymes activity. Simultaneously statistical optimization tools were used to model garbage enzyme production with higher activity of amylase, lipase and protease. The maximum activity of amylase, lipase and protease were predicted to be 56.409, 44.039, 74.990U/ml respectively at optimal conditions (pH (6), temperature (37°C), agitation (218 RPM) and fermentation duration (3days)). These optimized conditions can be successfully used for large scale production of garbage enzyme with higher hydrolytic enzyme activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Jay's Collectibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappel, James J.; Gillman, Jason R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in collectibles of many types, as indicated by the popularity of television programs such as the History Channel's "Pawn Stars" and "American Pickers" and the Public Broadcasting Service's "Antiques Road Show." The availability of online auction sites such as eBay has enabled many people to collect items of interest as a…

  6. Evaluation of the contamination risk by {sup 241}AM from lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump; Avaliacao da contaminacao provocada por para-raios radioativos de americio-241 descartados em lixoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive lightning rods were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the licenses for using radioactive sources in these products were lifted by the national nuclear authority. Since then, radioactive devices have been replaced by Franklin type one and collected as radioactive waste. However, only 23 percent of the estimated total number of installed rods was delivered to Brazilian Nuclear Commission (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN). This situation is of concern as there is a possibility of the rods being discarded as domestic waste, considering that in Brazil, 63.6 percent of the municipal solid waste is disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump, according to Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE) in 2000. In addition, americium, the most common employed radionuclide, is classified as a high toxicity element, when ingested or inhaled. In the present study, it was performed migration experiments of Am-241 by lysimeter system in order to evaluate the risk of contamination caused by radioactive lightning rods disposed as a common solid waste. Sources removed from lightning rods were placed inside lysimeters filled with organic waste, collected at the restaurant of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the generated leachate was periodically analyzed to determine its characteristics such as pH, redox potential, solid content and concentration of the radioactive material. Microbial growth was also evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. The equivalent dose to members of the public has been calculated considering the ingestion of drinking water, the most probable mode of exposure. The final result was about 145 times below the effective dose limit of 1 mSv.year-1 for members of the public, established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), demonstrating that the risk caused by lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump is low. (author)

  7. [High-solids anaerobic co-digestion of sludge and kitchen garbage under mesophilic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ni-Na; Dong, Bin; Li, Jiang-Hua; Dai, Ling-Ling; Dai, Xiao-Hu

    2013-01-01

    At solid retention time (SRT) of 20 days, biogas production, volatile solid (VS) degradation and system stability in co-digestion systems of dewatered sludge (DS) and kitchen garbage (KG) were investigated in semi-continuous completely mixed reactors numbered R1-R5 (the DS/KG of their feeding substrate based on wet mass was 1:0, 4:1, 3:2, 2:3 and 0:1, respectively). The results showed that, with larger proportion of KG in feeding substrate, higher methane yield and biogas yield were obtained with lower methane content. For certain reactor at given SRT, KG addition could significantly improve the organic loading rate (OLR) and volume biogas production. System with more KG addition favored higher hydraulic constant k and VS reduction. The hydraulic constant k was 0.25 d(-1), 0.61 d(-1), 1.09 d(-1) and 1.56 d(-1), and the VS reduction was 37.4%, 50.6%, 60.7% and 68.2% for R1-R4, respectively, indicating higher hydrolysis rates with more KG addition, which led to increased VS reductions. With larger KG proportion in feeding substrate, pH, total alkalinity (TA), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and free ammonia nitrogen (FAN) showed decreasing trend. As KG addition increased by 60%, pH, TA, TAN and FAN decreased by 6%, 16%, 22% and 75%, respectively. FAN and Na+ respectively were potential inhibitory chemicals that threatened the stability of the mono-system of DS and KG. In comparison with the mono-system of DS or KG, the co-system showed higher stability by diluting toxic chemicals like ammonia or Na+ to much lower levels.

  8. How good are routinely collected primary healthcare data for evaluating the effectiveness of health service provision in a remote Aboriginal community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephanie; Reeve, Carole; Humphreys, John S

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation and monitoring of primary health care requires the establishment and maintenance of an appropriate data system. This study reviews the application and effectiveness of the Communicare data management system in the delivery of health services to the Fitzroy Valley in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Key demographic fields (sex, date of birth and Aboriginal status) were examined for completeness (whether the date fields were all completed and correct when compared with the paper file) while the 'conditions' field was examined for accuracy. Three chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension and chronic kidney disease) in adults and age-specific incidence for four acute diseases (otitis media, gastroenteritis, lower respiratory tract infection and skin infection) in children were included. Completeness of chosen demographic fields was 100% for date of birth and sex and 98% for Aboriginal status. Chronic conditions matched the paper files 100%, while the recording of acute conditions was incomplete. Among older adults (≥55 years) the prevalences of diabetes, chronic kidney disease and hypertension were 43%, 42% and 39% respectively. Age-specific incidence of acute conditions was highest in the 0-4 years age group where 25% had had at least one episode of otitis media and 20% at least one episode of skin infection. The recording of demographic and chronic disease data was complete, but lower for acute conditions. Routinely collected data have a number of limitations, but nonetheless are a feasible way to establish population health indices, particularly for chronic diseases for this remote health service with minimal expenditure and effort. These rates provide useful baselines for monitoring and evaluating the impact of service delivery on health outcomes. This audit provides an indication of the accuracy of routinely collected data in the electronic system compared to the paper medical records, which have traditionally been considered the gold

  9. 78 FR 58287 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Social Values of Ecosystem Services (SolVES) in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... and the Olympic Coast NMS. The Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), 16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq., authorizes... collect socio-economic data from residents of local counties and stakeholder groups using the Mission-Aransas NERR and the Olympic Coast NMS for recreational, cultural and other reasons. Up-to-date socio...

  10. 76 FR 4408 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-1998E, Foreign Service Officer Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... (OMB) approval for the information collection described below. The purpose of this notice is to allow... information about their name, age, Social Security Number, contact information, sex, race, national origin, disability, education and work history, and military experience. The information will be used to prepare and...

  11. Monitoring of garbage with a 5 x 5 NaI (Tl) detector; Monitoreo de basura con un detector de NaI (Tl) de 5 x 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.; Angeles C, A

    1991-12-15

    So far in that is carried out the first reload of nuclear fuel in the LVC, the monitoring of garbage has been carried out using monitors trade mark Eberline model RM 14. The procedure consists in manually monitoring each object and to separate of the considered 'clean' garbage the objects considered as contaminated, which register greater or equal counts to 100 cpm. This way to process was adequate under normal operation conditions, but not in the operation rhythm that implies a bigger maintenance since the time required for monitoring from 5 to 10 kg. of garbage is of the order of 0.5 hours and the production rhythm of this it ends up being a lot but high. Due to this necessity it was thought about the problem of looking by a more efficient monitoring method. In this work a method that uses a detector of NaI (Tl) of 5 x 5 inches is discussed. (Author)

  12. Developing institutional repository at National Institute for Materials Science : Researchers directory service “SAMURAI” and Research Collection Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, Masao; Tanifuji, Mikiko

    National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) has developed an institutional repository “NIMS eSciDoc” since 2008. eSciDoc is an open source repository software made in Germany, and provides E-Science infrastructures through its flexible data model and rich Web APIs. NIMS eScidoc makes use of eSciDoc functions to benefit for NIMS situations. This article also focuses on researchers directory service “SAMURAI” in addition to NIMS eSciDoc. Successfully launched in October 2010, SAMURAI provides approximately 500 researchers' profile and publication information.

  13. The AmeriFlux data activity and data system: an evolving collection of data management techniques, tools, products and services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Boden

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL, USA has provided scientific data management support for the US Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Among the many data archived and available from CDIAC are collections from long-term measurement projects. One current example is the AmeriFlux measurement network. AmeriFlux provides continuous measurements from forests, grasslands, wetlands, and croplands in North, Central, and South America and offers important insight about carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. To successfully manage AmeriFlux data and support climate change research, CDIAC has designed flexible data systems using proven technologies and standards blended with new, evolving technologies and standards. The AmeriFlux data system, comprised primarily of a relational database, a PHP-based data interface and a FTP server, offers a broad suite of AmeriFlux data. The data interface allows users to query the AmeriFlux collection in a variety of ways and then subset, visualize and download the data. From the perspective of data stewardship, on the other hand, this system is designed for CDIAC to easily control database content, automate data movement, track data provenance, manage metadata content, and handle frequent additions and corrections. CDIAC and researchers in the flux community developed data submission guidelines to enhance the AmeriFlux data collection, enable automated data processing, and promote standardization across regional networks. Both continuous flux and meteorological data and irregular biological data collected at AmeriFlux sites are carefully scrutinized by CDIAC using established quality-control algorithms before the data are ingested into the AmeriFlux data system. Other tasks at CDIAC include reformatting and standardizing the diverse and heterogeneous datasets received from individual sites into a uniform and consistent

  14. The AmeriFlux data activity and data system: an evolving collection of data management techniques, tools, products and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, T. A.; Krassovski, M.; Yang, B.

    2013-06-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA has provided scientific data management support for the US Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Among the many data archived and available from CDIAC are collections from long-term measurement projects. One current example is the AmeriFlux measurement network. AmeriFlux provides continuous measurements from forests, grasslands, wetlands, and croplands in North, Central, and South America and offers important insight about carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. To successfully manage AmeriFlux data and support climate change research, CDIAC has designed flexible data systems using proven technologies and standards blended with new, evolving technologies and standards. The AmeriFlux data system, comprised primarily of a relational database, a PHP-based data interface and a FTP server, offers a broad suite of AmeriFlux data. The data interface allows users to query the AmeriFlux collection in a variety of ways and then subset, visualize and download the data. From the perspective of data stewardship, on the other hand, this system is designed for CDIAC to easily control database content, automate data movement, track data provenance, manage metadata content, and handle frequent additions and corrections. CDIAC and researchers in the flux community developed data submission guidelines to enhance the AmeriFlux data collection, enable automated data processing, and promote standardization across regional networks. Both continuous flux and meteorological data and irregular biological data collected at AmeriFlux sites are carefully scrutinized by CDIAC using established quality-control algorithms before the data are ingested into the AmeriFlux data system. Other tasks at CDIAC include reformatting and standardizing the diverse and heterogeneous datasets received from individual sites into a uniform and consistent network database

  15. The Strategy Of Information Services Unit, BPM To Collect Tacit Knowledge Amongst The Officers Who Will Retire At The Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norzehan Ngadiron; Mohd Hafizal Yusof; Mohd Hasnor Hasan; Habibah Adnan; Rudarul Morhaya Ismail; Iberahim Ali

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation strategies of Information Services Unit, Information Management Division (BPM) in collecting tacit knowledge among Malaysian Nuclear Agency officers before they entered retirement. Tacit knowledge is the knowledge of personnel (personal) owned by a person, consist the combination of knowledge, experience, wisdom and unique insight, and critical and stored in the individual. Therefore, efforts to collect tacit knowledge is designed to ensure that tacit knowledge can be stored and recorded either in the form of documents, visual audio, video and others. It is also to be used by internal and external users to enhance their knowledge and skills. It is hope that these efforts will contribute significantly to the survival of knowledge management activities in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. (author)

  16. Do open garbage dumps play a role in canine rabies transmission in Biyem-Assi health district in Cameroon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Tabue N; Roland, Madgan E; Françoise, Kenfack M M; Francis, Zeukeng; Livo, Esemu F; Clovis, Seumen T H

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a neglected enzootic disease which represents a serious public health problem. In Cameroon, efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies are often thwarted by the lack of community awareness. The community knowledge, as well as attitudes and perception on rabies, is therefore important for both prevention of human deaths and control in animals. A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the level of community knowledge as well as the role of open garbage dumps (OGDs) in the epidemiology of human rabies. Overall 420 heads of household were interviewed in the Biyem-Assi health district of Yaoundé. OGDs were identified through a systematic check, and household wastes they contained were characterized. Although 66.9% of respondents have knowledge on stray dogs, only 35% of respondents knew the role of OGDs in the increase of stray dog population. Overall OGDs consisted of fermentable wastes. Nutrition places for stray dogs were wild garbage dumps (68.1%), markets (18.3%), and houses (13.6%). The feeding behavior of stray dogs correlated significantly with the human rabies transmission (χ (2)=154.12, df=4, p<0.05). Most participants knew that rabies could be transmitted by a dog bite as well as the measures to be taken in this type of situation. Increased knowledge of respondents on rabies showed OGDs and stray dogs as significant risk factors for canine rabies in Biyem-Assi health district.

  17. Do open garbage dumps play a role in canine rabies transmission in Biyem-Assi health district in Cameroon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabue N. Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rabies is a neglected enzootic disease which represents a serious public health problem. In Cameroon, efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies are often thwarted by the lack of community awareness. The community knowledge, as well as attitudes and perception on rabies, is therefore important for both prevention of human deaths and control in animals. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the level of community knowledge as well as the role of open garbage dumps (OGDs in the epidemiology of human rabies. Overall 420 heads of household were interviewed in the Biyem-Assi health district of Yaoundé. OGDs were identified through a systematic check, and household wastes they contained were characterized. Results: Although 66.9% of respondents have knowledge on stray dogs, only 35% of respondents knew the role of OGDs in the increase of stray dog population. Overall OGDs consisted of fermentable wastes. Nutrition places for stray dogs were wild garbage dumps (68.1%, markets (18.3%, and houses (13.6%. The feeding behavior of stray dogs correlated significantly with the human rabies transmission (χ2=154.12, df=4, p<0.05. Conclusion: Most participants knew that rabies could be transmitted by a dog bite as well as the measures to be taken in this type of situation. Increased knowledge of respondents on rabies showed OGDs and stray dogs as significant risk factors for canine rabies in Biyem-Assi health district.

  18. O que é lixo afinal? Como pensam mulheres residentes na periferia de um grande centro urbano What is garbage, anyway? The opinions of women from an outlying neighborhood in a large Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Franco Rêgo

    2002-12-01

    13 women were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire in 1999. The FileMaker "diaricamp" application was used for data analysis. Interviewees defined garbage as anything useless and considered it a problem whenever it accumulated in the surroundings producing a bad smell or visual pollution, attracted animals, caused disease in children or adults, or was shifted from the individual to the collective/institutional sphere of action to solve the problem.

  19. Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta F. Simões

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Collaborations between different Microbiological Resource Centres (mBRCs and ethical sourcing practices are mandatory to guarantee biodiversity conservation, successful and sustainable preservation and fair share of benefits that arise from the use of genetic resources. Since microbial Culture Collections (CCs are now engaged in meeting high quality operational standards, they are facing the challenge of establishing quality control criteria to certify their biological materials. The authentication/certification of strains is nowadays a demand from the bioeconomy sector for the global operation of mBRCs. The achievement of consistent quality assurance and trust within the mBRCs and microbial CCs context is a dynamic and never-ending process. A good option to facilitate that process is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS based on the ISO 9001 standard. Here, we report a detailed description of all the steps taken for the QMS implementation at the Portuguese CC of filamentous fungi: Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM. Our aim is to provide guidelines for the certification of other CCs, so that they can also enhance the search and choice of the most consistent, reliable, and effective operating methods, with assured procedures and validation of preservation; and guarantee trustworthy relations with all stakeholders.

  20. Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Marta F; Dias, Nicolina; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2016-06-22

    Collaborations between different Microbiological Resource Centres (mBRCs) and ethical sourcing practices are mandatory to guarantee biodiversity conservation, successful and sustainable preservation and fair share of benefits that arise from the use of genetic resources. Since microbial Culture Collections (CCs) are now engaged in meeting high quality operational standards, they are facing the challenge of establishing quality control criteria to certify their biological materials. The authentication/certification of strains is nowadays a demand from the bioeconomy sector for the global operation of mBRCs. The achievement of consistent quality assurance and trust within the mBRCs and microbial CCs context is a dynamic and never-ending process. A good option to facilitate that process is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS) based on the ISO 9001 standard. Here, we report a detailed description of all the steps taken for the QMS implementation at the Portuguese CC of filamentous fungi: Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM). Our aim is to provide guidelines for the certification of other CCs, so that they can also enhance the search and choice of the most consistent, reliable, and effective operating methods, with assured procedures and validation of preservation; and guarantee trustworthy relations with all stakeholders.

  1. Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection

    KAUST Repository

    Simoes, Marta

    2016-06-22

    Collaborations between different Microbiological Resource Centres (mBRCs) and ethical sourcing practices are mandatory to guarantee biodiversity conservation, successful and sustainable preservation and fair share of benefits that arise from the use of genetic resources. Since microbial Culture Collections (CCs) are now engaged in meeting high quality operational standards, they are facing the challenge of establishing quality control criteria to certify their biological materials. The authentication/certification of strains is nowadays a demand from the bioeconomy sector for the global operation of mBRCs. The achievement of consistent quality assurance and trust within the mBRCs and microbial CCs context is a dynamic and never-ending process. A good option to facilitate that process is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS) based on the ISO 9001 standard. Here, we report a detailed description of all the steps taken for the QMS implementation at the Portuguese CC of filamentous fungi: Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM). Our aim is to provide guidelines for the certification of other CCs, so that they can also enhance the search and choice of the most consistent, reliable, and effective operating methods, with assured procedures and validation of preservation; and guarantee trustworthy relations with all stakeholders.

  2. Physical profile data collected in the Equatorial Pacific during cruises to service the TAO/TRITON array, a network of deep ocean moored buoys, February 23 - December 16, 2005 (NODC Accession 0002644)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 2005, CTD data were collected in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during cruises to service the TAO/TRITON array, a network of deep ocean moored buoys to support...

  3. Efeito da idade sobre a qualidade de vida e saúde dos catadores de materiais recicláveis de uma associação em Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brasil Age effect on the life quality and health of garbage collectors of an association in Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Rabelo Almeida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Trabalhadores que segregam materiais recicláveis são expostos diariamente a condições insalubres de trabalho que podem afetar com mais intensidade sua saúde em função do aumento de idade cronológica. Uma população de catadores de materiais recicláveis na cidade de Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brasil respondeu a um questionário semi-estruturado que continha questões sobre a presença e/ou ausência de dor laboral, intensidade da dor, moradia, acesso a serviços de saúde, presença ou ausência de acidentes laborais e grau de satisfação pessoal. Essas variáveis dependentes foram correlacionadas com a variável independente idade do trabalhador. Observou-se que a dor não está associada ao aumento da idade e não interfere no grau de satisfação pessoal da população estudada. O grau de escolaridade teve associação negativa com a idade. Os catadores mais jovens apresentaram menor grau de satisfação pela vida. A idade não tem nenhuma associação com a ocorrência de acidentes laborais e tipo de moradia.Workers that segregate recyclable garbage are daily exposed to unhealthy work conditions which can have a more intense negative effect with aging of the garbage collector. A population of garbage collectors from Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil answered a semi-structured questionnaire regarding the presence or absence of labor pain, pain intensity, living conditions, access to health services, occurrence of accidents at works and degree of personal satisfaction. These variables were correlated with the age of the workers. It was observed that pain is not associated to age increase and that it doesn't affect the degree of personal satisfaction of the studied population. The education degree was negatively related with age. The youngest garbage collectors presented a lower degree of life satisfaction. The age of the workers doesn't have any association with the occurrence of accidents at work and dwelling type.

  4. Equity and Urban Service Distribution, Package XVIII. Module 1; Module 2: Handbook for Analyzing the Distribution of Solid Waste Collection Services; Module 3: Handbook for Analyzing the Distribution of Library Services; Module 4: Handbook for Analyzing the Distribution of Park Services; Module 5: Handbook for Analyzing the Distribution of Police Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, William H.; Mladenka, Kenneth R.

    This package contains the student materials for five modules which comprise a portion of the National Training and Development Service Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. These modules focus on the distribution of services in urban areas. Module One presents chapters on service distribution and equity, effectiveness, decision making,…

  5. [Introduction of a centralised system (Service) for collecting clinical data in cancer screening programmes in Piedmont (Northern Italy): a pre-post assessment of a hub&spoke model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Federica; Giubilato, Pamela; Larato, Cristina; Caprioglio, Adele; Tomatis, Mariano; Calcagno, Marco; Casella, Denise; Di Leo, Aurora; Ponti, Antonio; Ronco, Guglielmo; Segnan, Nereo; Giordano, Livia

    2015-01-01

    evaluation of a centralised collection of clinical data (Service) within cancer screening programmes in Piedmont based on a hub&spoke model and its impact on process indicators. assessment of an organisational intervention, through a non-controlled pre-post design. organised screening programmes within the Piedmont Region, divided into 9 departments. clinical data (extracted from medical charts for mammography screening and from excision histology reports for cervical screening) obtained through the Service were quantified and their completeness was assessed. The Service impact on the detection rate (DR) was evaluated, comparing the DR pre- (2005-2008) and post-Service (2009- 2012) within breast screening; the DR was computed through histological diagnosis made during colposcopy (pre-Service method) or through the worst diagnosis between the latter and that reported from excision histology (post-Service method) within cervical screening (data available for department 1, year 2013). Some hints on human resources employed in pre- and post-Service periods were reported. within mammography screening, the Service obtained 53.1% of extra-department medical charts and 45.8% of extra-region ones; the percentage of missing diagnoses changed from 5.5% (pre- Service) to 3.7% (post-Service). The age standardised DR for malignant tumours in the post-Service period is 1.3 times the DR of the pre-Service period per 1,000 screening tests. Within cervical screening, 51.7% of histological reports was recorded. Crude DR for high-grade lesions changed from 3.9 (pre-Service) to 4.7 (post-Service) per 1,000 screened women. The system centralisation did not imply an increase in the dedicated personnel. the Service is an operational core which coordinates the collection of clinical data, impacting on process indicators without an increase in human resources at departmental level.

  6. Efficient production of methane from artificial garbage waste by a cylindrical bioelectrochemical reactor containing carbon fiber textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A cylindrical bioelectrochemical reactor (BER) containing carbon fiber textiles (CFT; BER + CFT) has characteristics of bioelectrochemical and packed-bed systems. In this study, utility of a cylindrical BER + CFT for degradation of a garbage slurry and recovery of biogas was investigated by applying 10% dog food slurry. The working electrode potential was electrochemically regulated at −0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Stable methane production of 9.37 L-CH4 · L−1 · day−1 and dichromate chemical oxygen demand (CODcr) removal of 62.5% were observed, even at a high organic loading rate (OLR) of 89.3 g-CODcr · L−1 · day−1. Given energy as methane (372.6 kJ · L−1 · day−1) was much higher than input electric energy to the working electrode (0.6 kJ · L−1 · day−1) at this OLR. Methanogens were highly retained in CFT by direct attachment to the cathodic working electrodes (52.3%; ratio of methanogens to prokaryotes), compared with the suspended fraction (31.2%), probably contributing to the acceleration of organic material degradation and removal of organic acids. These results provide insight into the application of cylindrical BER + CFT in efficient methane production from garbage waste including a high percentage of solid fraction. PMID:23497472

  7. Photodegradation of organic matter in fresh garbage leachate using immobilized nano-sized TiO2 as catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Xie, Q; Hu, B Q; Zhao, X L

    2014-01-01

    Two immobilized nano-sized TiO2 catalysts, TiO2/activated carbon (TiO2/AC) and TiO2/silica gel (SG) (TiO2/SG), were prepared by the sol-gel method, and their use in the photocatalytic degradation of organic matter in fresh garbage leachate under UV irradiation was investigated. The influences of the catalyst dosage, the initial solution pH, H2O2 addition and the reuse of the catalysts were evaluated. The degradation of organic matter was assessed based on the decrease of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the leachate. The results indicated that the degradation of the COD obeyed first-order kinetics in the presence of both photocatalysts. The degradation rate of COD was found to increase with increasing catalyst dosage up to 9 g/L for TiO2/AC and 6 g/L for TiO2/SG, above which the degradation began to attenuate. Furthermore, the degradation rate first increased and then decreased as the solution pH increased from 2 to 14, and the degradation rate increased as the amount of H2O2 increased to 2.93 mM, after which it remained constant. No obvious decrease in the rate of COD degradation was observed during the first four repeated uses of the photocatalysts, indicating that the catalysts could be recovered and reused. Compared with TiO2/AC, TiO2/SG exhibited higher efficiency in photocatalyzing the degradation of COD in garbage leachate.

  8. Elemental evaluation in plastic garbage bags purchased from local markets in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state, using the EDXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Eduardo de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Cavagis, Alexandre D.M.; Menegario, Amauri A.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic garbage bags have been used for packing household waste in Piracicaba city and nearby cities broadly. Many of these bags are made from recycled polymers and the presence of harmful elements is a matter of concern. In this work fourteen plastic garbage bags of different brands and colors were purchased from local markets in Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo. For the analysis, the samples in triplicate were cut into 47 mm diameter circle and attached into acrylic holder and analyzed directly by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence - EDXRF. The excitation was carried out using an X-ray tube Mo target and Zr filter (15 kV / 25 mA) under non-vacuum. The characteristic X-rays were detected by a semiconductor detector Si(Li), coupled to a multichannel analyzer system. The acquisition time was 500 s and the X-ray spectra were deconvulated by the AXIL software. For quantification it was used a standard set produced by the MicroMatter/USA and the absorption effect was corrected by the known chemical composition matrix technique, in which allowed the determination of K, Ca Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr by Kα lines and Pb by the line Lα simultaneously. The trueness of the method was verified by analyzing a certified reference material (NIST air particulate on filter media, SRM2783). The limits of detection (LD) for these elements were: K - 38.9; Ca - 19.4; Ti - 7.1; Cr - 3.1; Mn - 2.1; Fe - 1.5; Cu - 0.86; Zn - 0.85; Sr - 4.6 and Pb - 2.8 μg g -1 . Some elements showed minimum and/or maximum concentrations well above the LDs, as K: -1 . (author)

  9. Garbage as an energy resource. Present and prospective situation in Mexico; La basura como recurso energetico. Situacion actual y prospectiva en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu Fernandez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-06-13

    The objective of this article is to describe the factors involved in the energy exploitation of the municipal garbage, as well as to consider the potential for the generation of electricity in our country, by means of the conversion of garbage by biological means in sanitary landfills and incineration in thermal plants. Also, the aspects related to the consideration of garbage as fuel or energy source for power plants to generate electricity are described. Two processes exist for this: the biological one, carried out in sanitary landfills, and the thermal one in its different versions. Also opportunity niches exist, mainly in the same cities where the garbage is generated, since the energy can be used for public lighting system, water pumping and massive transport, among other more specific uses. Parallel these processes and technologies are viable and friendly with the environment, since they are in themselves a treatment of the garbage. Without any doubt the energy potential and the environmental benefits are in view, lacking only the diffusion and real knowledge of the technologies that are described in a general way in this article and that without any doubt they are the proven way to take advantage of the energy potential of garbage. [Spanish] El objetivo de este articulo es describir los factores involucrados en el aprovechamiento energetico de la basura municipal, asi como estimar el potencial para la generacion de electricidad en nuestro pais, mediante la conversion de la basura por medios biologicos en rellenos sanitarios y por incineracion en plantas termicas. Asimismo se describen los aspectos relacionados con la consideracion de la basura como combustible o fuente de energia para la generacion de electricidad. Existen dos procesos para este proposito, el biologico, efectuado en rellenos sanitarios, y el termico en sus diferentes versiones. Tambien existen nichos de oportunidad, sobre todo en las propias ciudades donde se genera la basura, ya que la

  10. Park Facilities, Howard County Parks GPS's and maintains a park facility layer containing amenities like picnic tables, garbage cans, water fountains etc., Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Park Facilities dataset current as of 2011. Howard County Parks GPS's and maintains a park facility layer containing amenities like picnic tables, garbage cans,...

  11. NLM Digital Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Digital Collections offers a search-based Web service that provides access to the Dublin Core metadata and full-text OCR of...

  12. Culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. (Z)-9-Tricosene based Musca domestica lure study on a garbage dump yard using plywood sticky trap baited with fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, S T Bino; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Vijayashanthi, R; Pandian, Serma Saravana

    2016-03-01

    A study was undertaken to find out the efficacy of (Z)-9-Tricosene in attracting flies in a garbage dump yard using a plywood sticky glue trap with fish meal as a food bait. (Z)-9-Tricosene was dissolved in acetone or hexane before application on a filter paper strip fixed at the centre of the trap. The traps were left in areas of the garbage dump yard of high fly activity for 6 h and then the trapped flies were counted species wise. Significantly more number of Musca domestica flies were caught in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated fish meal baited traps compared to those traps without (Z)-9-Tricosene. No significant difference was noted in trap catches in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated traps between the solvents acetone and hexane. In addition Sarcophaga sp. and Chrysomyia sp. flies were also caught in the traps.

  14. Development of an efficient anaerobic co-digestion process for garbage, excreta, and septic tank sludge to create a resource recycling-oriented society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhao-Yong; Liu, Kai; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    In order to develop a resource recycling-oriented society, an efficient anaerobic co-digestion process for garbage, excreta and septic tank sludge was studied based on the quantity of each biomass waste type discharged in Ooki machi, Japan. The anaerobic digestion characteristics of garbage, excreta and 5-fold condensed septic tank sludge (hereafter called condensed sludge) were determined separately. In single-stage mesophilic digestion, the excreta with lower C/N ratios yielded lower biogas volumes and accumulated higher volumes of volatile fatty acid (VFA). On the other hand, garbage allowed for a significantly larger volatile total solid (VTS) digestion efficiency as well as biogas yield by thermophilic digestion. Thus, a two-stage anaerobic co-digestion process consisting of thermophilic liquefaction and mesophilic digestion phases was proposed. In the thermophilic liquefaction of mixed condensed sludge and household garbage (wet mass ratio of 2.2:1), a maximum VTS loading rate of 24g/L/d was achieved. In the mesophilic digestion of mixed liquefied material and excreta (wet mass ratio of 1:1), biogas yield reached approximately 570ml/g-VTS fed with a methane content of 55% at a VTS loading rate of 1.0g/L/d. The performance of the two-stage process was evaluated by comparing it with a single-stage process in which biomass wastes were treated separately. Biogas production by the two-stage process was found to increase by approximately 22.9%. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of a two-stage anaerobic co-digestion process in enhancement of biogas production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE: emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jayarathne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5, organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg−1 with major contributions from OC (7 %, sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %, and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water. For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg−1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %, sulfate (23.4 %, and ammonium (16 %. Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg−1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg−1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb, making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud

  16. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Robiul Islam, Md.; Panday, Arnico K.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, J. Douglas; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert J.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2018-02-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted) were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg-1 with major contributions from OC (7 %), sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %), and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water). For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg-1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %), sulfate (23.4 %), and ammonium (16 %). Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg-1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg-1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb), making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud stoves, chimney stoves, and three-stone cooking

  17. The stigma of making a living from garbage: Meta-sterotypes of trash-pickers in León (Nicaragua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, José Juan

    2016-04-01

    The article analyzes various aspects related to the meta-stereotype of 99 trash pickers who made their living from the garbage dumps in León (Nicaragua). This group is difficult to access, heavily stigmatized, and lives in extreme poverty. All the pickers in the city were interviewed using a heteroapplied structured interview. The results show that people who obtained their livelihood from garbage in the city of León had a mainly negative meta-stereotype, albeit one to which was some extent indulgent, which could have a negative impact on their processes of social inclusion. The content of the meta-stereotype had a high degree of uniformity, with few variations between the respondents. However, some differences were observed in the use of some attributes in the meta-stereotype according to age, cohabitation with a partner and/or with parents, income level, engagement in paid work apart from picking garbage and the respondents' expectations for the future. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 76 FR 17423 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Services Administration publishes summaries of proposed data collection projects for public comment... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request In compliance with the requirements of...

  19. Evaluation of the waste profile from (medical) health services of Belo Horizonte concerned to the presence of radioactive wastes in the disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Adirson Monteiro de

    2005-01-01

    The medical procedures of diagnosis and treatment that use radiopharmaceuticals generate radioactive wastes that can, after reaching the release limit, follow the conventional ways of collection and disposal of the urban solid wastes. This research aims to detect radiometrically the presence of radioactive wastes in the health-care wastes at the final disposal. It is pointed out that the legal limit for the release of solid wastes established by Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is 7,5x10 4 Bq/kg (2 μCi/kg). Measurements in the material of the garbage trucks that make the special collect from Health Service installations are performed, at Belo Horizonte sanitary landfill, using a NaI scintillation counter. Values above the established limit were found in 60% of the cases. The spectral analysis of 6 samples showed the presence of 99m Tc in 5 of them and 131 I in one. These radionuclides are the most common radionuclides used in Nuclear Medicine. In conclusion there are radioactive wastes released together with the health service wastes, due to the disregard of the decay time until the legal limit is achieved. (author)

  20. Processo de trabalho e acidentes de trabalho em coletores de lixo domiciliar na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil The labor process and work-related accidents among garbage collectors in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pimenta Velloso

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve o processo de trabalho da coleta de lixo domiciliar visto pelo próprio trabalhador. A unidade específica de análise foi o grupo de trabalhadores da Companhia Municipal de Limpeza Urbana do Rio de Janeiro (COMLURB lotados na gerência de limpeza leste (LGL-3, no bairro do Rio Comprido. A metodologia utilizada baseou-se na recuperação da vivência do trabalhador sobre o seu trabalho, acrescida da observação do pesquisador, registrada em vídeo. Entre os riscos identificados no processo da coleta de lixo, destacam-se: mecânicos (cortes, ferimentos, atropelamentos, quedas graves, ergonômicos (esforço excessivo, biológico (contato com agentes biológicos patogênicos, químico (substâncias químicas tóxicas e sociais (falta de treinamento para o serviço.This study describes the work performed by garbage collectors in the Rio de Janeiro City Street Cleaning Company (COMLURB (Rio Comprido division and its consequences for their health. Data were collected through interviews and on-site video documentation. A detailed description of the work process was performed. In addition, we analyzed the workers' reports of their lifetime experience with job-related risks and accidents.

  1. Collective Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    and real defence of the country’s neutrality let alone a capability to support possible League of Nations action, should such need arise. The anti-militarist ideology of one party, led to regarding the armed services as harmful to designs for developing civic society and a waste of resources generally...... disinclination to accept that the collective security concept and international treaties and accords signed by Denmark should necessitate credible and real defence of the country’s neutrality let alone a capability to support possible League of Nations action, should such need arise. The anti-militarist ideology...

  2. Marketing Youth Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Marketing techniques in youth services are useful for designing programs, collections, and services and for determining customer needs. The marketing mix--product, place, price, and practice--provides a framework for service analysis. (AEF)

  3. Comparative performance and microbial diversity of hyperthermophilic and thermophilic co-digestion of kitchen garbage and excess sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungyeol; Hidaka, Taira; Hagiwara, Wataru; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of a hyperthermophilic digester system that consists of an acidogenic reactor operated at hyperthermophilic (70 degrees C) conditions in series with a methane reactor operated at mesophilic (35 degrees C), thermophilic (55 degrees C), and hyperthermophilic (65 degrees C) conditions. Lab-scale reactors were operated continuously, and were fed with co-substrates composed of artificial kitchen garbage (TS 9.8%) and excess sludge (TS 0.5%) at the volumetric ratio of 20:80. In the acidification step, COD solubilization was in the range of 22-46% at 70 degrees C, while it was 21-29% at 55 degrees C. The average protein solubilization was 44% at 70 degrees C. The double bond fatty acid removal ratio at 70 degrees C was much higher than at 55 degrees C. These results suggested that the optimal operation conditions for the acidogenic fermenter were about 3.1 days of HRT and 4 days of SRT at 70 degrees C. Methane conversion efficiency and the VS removal percentage in the methanogenic step following acidification was around 65% and 64% on average at 55 degrees C, respectively. The optimal operational conditions for this system are acidogenesis performed at 70 degrees C and methanogenesis at 55 degrees C. The key microbes determined in the hyperthermophilic acidification step were Anaerobic thermophile IC-BH at 6.4 days of HRT and Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus DSM 567 at 2.4 days of HRT. These results indicated that the hyperthermophilic system provides considerable advantages in treating co-substrates containing high concentrations of proteins, lipids, and nonbiodegradable solid matter.

  4. Termination of the leprosy isolation policy in the US and Japan : Science, policy changes, and the garbage can model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hajime; Frantz, Janet E

    2005-01-01

    Background In both the US and Japan, the patient isolation policy for leprosy /Hansen's disease (HD) was preserved along with the isolation facilities, long after it had been proven to be scientifically unnecessary. This delayed policy termination caused a deprivation of civil liberties of the involuntarily confined patients, the fostering of social stigmas attached to the disease, and an inefficient use of health resources. This article seeks to elucidate the political process which hindered timely policy changes congruent with scientific advances. Methods Examination of historical materials, supplemented by personal interviews. The role that science played in the process of policy making was scrutinized with particular reference to the Garbage Can model. Results From the vantage of history, science remained instrumental in all period in the sense that it was not the primary objective for which policy change was discussed or intended, nor was it the principal driving force for policy change. When the argument arose, scientific arguments were employed to justify the patient isolation policy. However, in the early post-WWII period, issues were foregrounded and agendas were set as the inadvertent result of administrative reforms. Subsequently, scientific developments were more or less ignored due to concern about adverse policy outcomes. Finally, in the 1980s and 1990s, scientific arguments were used instrumentally to argue against isolation and for the termination of residential care. Conclusion Contrary to public expectations, health policy is not always rational and scientifically justified. In the process of policy making, the role of science can be limited and instrumental. Policy change may require the opening of policy windows, as a result of convergence of the problem, policy, and political streams, by effective exercise of leadership. Scientists and policymakers should be attentive enough to the political context of policies. PMID:15771781

  5. Termination of the leprosy isolation policy in the US and Japan : Science, policy changes, and the garbage can model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantz Janet E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In both the US and Japan, the patient isolation policy for leprosy /Hansen's disease (HD was preserved along with the isolation facilities, long after it had been proven to be scientifically unnecessary. This delayed policy termination caused a deprivation of civil liberties of the involuntarily confined patients, the fostering of social stigmas attached to the disease, and an inefficient use of health resources. This article seeks to elucidate the political process which hindered timely policy changes congruent with scientific advances. Methods Examination of historical materials, supplemented by personal interviews. The role that science played in the process of policy making was scrutinized with particular reference to the Garbage Can model. Results From the vantage of history, science remained instrumental in all period in the sense that it was not the primary objective for which policy change was discussed or intended, nor was it the principal driving force for policy change. When the argument arose, scientific arguments were employed to justify the patient isolation policy. However, in the early post-WWII period, issues were foregrounded and agendas were set as the inadvertent result of administrative reforms. Subsequently, scientific developments were more or less ignored due to concern about adverse policy outcomes. Finally, in the 1980s and 1990s, scientific arguments were used instrumentally to argue against isolation and for the termination of residential care. Conclusion Contrary to public expectations, health policy is not always rational and scientifically justified. In the process of policy making, the role of science can be limited and instrumental. Policy change may require the opening of policy windows, as a result of convergence of the problem, policy, and political streams, by effective exercise of leadership. Scientists and policymakers should be attentive enough to the political context of policies.

  6. A avaliação da carga fisiológica de trabalho na legislação brasileira deve ser revista! O caso da coleta de lixo domiciliar no Rio de Janeiro Brazilian legislation regarding physiological workload should be revised! The case of garbage collectors in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio dos Anjos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Por meio da avaliação da carga fisiológica do trabalho (CFT da coleta de lixo domiciliar em amostra probabilística de setenta trabalhadores da Companhia Municipal de Limpeza Urbana do Rio de Janeiro, discute-se a adequação da legislação brasileira vigente quanto à classificação das atividades laborativas. A CFT foi determinada para o tempo total de trabalho (TTT e durante o tempo efetivo de coleta (TEC através da avaliação do gasto energético (GE e da freqüência cardíaca (FC, ao longo de quatro dias consecutivos de trabalho. As medianas do GE foram 288,4 e 319,1 kcal.h-1 durante o TTT e o TEC, respectivamente, e indicam trabalho de natureza moderada pela legislação. Entretanto, a CFT foi considerada pesada quando se utilizou: 1 a razão entre o GE e a taxa metabólica de repouso (TTT 5,0 e TEC 5,6, segundo a Organização Mundial de Saúde; 2. o percentual do GE máximo (36,2 e 41,1, extrapolando o limite de 30% sugerido para a atividade laboral de garis holandeses; 3 o percentual da FC de reserva (32,2 e 37,5. Os resultados demonstram a necessidade de revisão da legislação atual, para que sejam levadas em conta as características individuais na caracterização da atividade laboral.The physiological workload (PW involved in garbage collection was assessed in a probabilistic sample of 70 Rio de Janeiro city garbage collectors to determine the adequacy of Brazilian labor legislation regarding classification of work. PW was measured as energy expenditure (EE and heart rate (HR during total work time (TT and actual time (AT in garbage collection on 4 consecutive days. Median EE values were 288.4 and 319.1 kcal.h-1 during TT and AT, respectively, indicating moderately intense work according to Brazilian legislation. However, PW was considered heavy when work classifications based on individual response to work were used: 1 ratio of EE and resting metabolic rate was above 5.0, indicating heavy workload according to the WHO; 2

  7. Report to the prime minister relative to the decree no 2002-560 from April 18, 2002 and approving the collective service schemes; Rapport au Premier ministre relatif au decret no. 2002-560 du 18 avril 2002 approuvant les schemas de services collectifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The collective service schemes have been implemented by the French government in order to encourage the decentralization and a complementary development of urban and rural areas in all regions of France and in the domains of high school teaching and research, culture, health, information and communication, goods and public transportation, energy, natural and rural environments, and sports. This ambitious organization requires the joint action of the government, of the local authorities, and of the overall economical and social actors of the country. This document presents the objectives of the collective service schemes and the decree written by the prime minister for their approval. (J.S.)

  8. FY 1998 annual report on the study on development of corrosion-resistant ceramic materials for garbage incinerators; 1998 nendo gomi shori shisetsuyo taishoku ceramics zairyo no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 1988 results of development of corrosion-resistant ceramic materials for garbage incinerators. Residue released when porcelain stocks are collected is selected as the inexpensive stock for SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based refractory materials. It is incorporated with carbon black and reduced at 1,200 to 1,500 degrees C in a nitrogen atmosphere. Synthesis of the target Si-Al-C-N-O-based compound succeeds in the presence of a solid catalyst, but it is a fine powder, and hence that of the massive compound fails. The commercial ceramic materials and new refractory materials, made on a trial basis, are evaluated for their resistance to corrosion using fry ashes collected from a commercial incinerator. These ashes are higher in melting point, more viscous, holding a larger quantity of attached slag and more corrosive than synthetic ashes. These materials are corroded acceleratedly as temperature increases to 1,200 degrees C or higher, more noted with the ceramic materials than with the refractory materials. Oxidation and melting characteristics of the molten slag affect corrosion of some materials. Use of the graphite-based material shall be limited to a section below the slag surface, where graphite is oxidized to a smaller extent. The MgO-based material is promising. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based material is more promising than any other material developed in this study. Their bending strength before and after the corrosion test is measured at normal temperature to 1,700 degrees C, to investigate their deterioration by high temperature and corrosion. (NEDO)

  9. The USDA Forest Service-RMRS forest fungi collection: Resource for fungal identification, developing biological controls, predicting invasive pathogens, and predicting potential impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara M. Ashiglar; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2014-01-01

    The Moscow Forestry Sciences Laboratory of the Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) has a unique collection of forest/tree-associated fungi with over 15,000 living specimens. Based in Moscow, ID, this USDA APHIS-PPQ (Plant Protection and Quarantine) containment facility houses fungal archives from approximately 35 states and 30 countries. The collection involves the...

  10. 76 FR 72505 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Doc No: 2011-30157] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request... opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork...

  11. Management of suspected acute coronary syndrome patients admitted to cardiology or non-cardiology services at Auckland City Hospital: implications for future national data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tom Kai Ming; Chow, Kok-Lam; Lin, Aaron; Chataline, Alexei; White, Harvey; Dawes, Matthew; Gamble, Greg; Ellis, Chris

    2018-03-09

    To review the number, characteristics and clinical management of suspected ACS patients admitted to cardiology and non-cardiology services at Auckland City Hospital, to assess differences between these services and to assess the number who would potentially be enrolled in the All New Zealand Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) Quality Improvement Programme (ANZACS-QI) database. Auckland City Hospital patient data was extracted from the Australia and New Zealand ACS 'SNAPSHOT' audit, performed over 14 days in May 2012. There were 121 suspected ACS admissions to Auckland City hospital during the audit period, with 45 (37%) patients directly managed by the cardiology service, and 76 (63%) patients cared for by non-cardiology services. Based on the subsequent discharge diagnosis, the cardiology service had more patients with definite ACS than the non-cardiology services; 27/45 (60%) compared to 16/76 (21%), difference (95%CI) 39% (22-56), P<0.0001). Cardiology ACS patients were more likely to undergo echocardiography; 15/27 (56%) compared to 2/16 (13%), difference 42% (18-68), P=0.0089), coronary angiography; 21/27 (78%) compared to 3/16 (19%), difference (95%CI) 59% (34-84), P=0.0003), coronary revascularisation; 18/27 (67%) compared to 3/16 (19%), difference (95%CI) 48% (22-74), P=0.004, and be discharged on two antiplatelet agents; 18/26 (69%) compared to 3/15 (20%), difference (95%CI) 49% (22-76), P=0.0036, or an ACEI/ARB; 20/26 (77%) compared to 5/15 (33%), difference (95%CI) 44% (15-72), P=0.0088. In patients with a discharge diagnosis of definite ACS, those managed by non-cardiology services were less likely to receive guideline-recommended investigations, and management, in this relatively small cohort study. About one-third of all ACS patients are managed by non-cardiology services and would not be recorded by the ANZACS-QI database.

  12. Arc-An OAI Service Provider for Digital Library Federation; Kepler-An OAI Data/Service Provider for the Individual; Information Objects and Rights Management: A Mediation-Based Approach to DRM Interoperability; Automated Name Authority Control and Enhanced Searching in the Levy Collection; Renardus Project Developments and the Wider Digital Library Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Nelson, Michael L.; Erickson, John S.; DiLauro, Tim; Choudhury, G. Sayeed; Patton, Mark; Warner, James W.; Brown, Elizabeth W.; Heery, Rachel; Carpenter, Leona; Day, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Includes five articles that discuss the OAI (Open Archive Initiative), an interface between data providers and service providers; information objects and digital rights management interoperability; digitizing library collections, including automated name authority control, metadata, and text searching engines; and building digital library services…

  13. PIYAS-Proceeding to Intelligent Service Oriented Memory Allocation for Flash Based Data Centric Sensor Devices in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanam Shahla Rizvi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Flash memory has become a more widespread storage medium for modern wireless devices because of its effective characteristics like non-volatility, small size, light weight, fast access speed, shock resistance, high reliability and low power consumption. Sensor nodes are highly resource constrained in terms of limited processing speed, runtime memory, persistent storage, communication bandwidth and finite energy. Therefore, for wireless sensor networks supporting sense, store, merge and send schemes, an efficient and reliable file system is highly required with consideration of sensor node constraints. In this paper, we propose a novel log structured external NAND flash memory based file system, called Proceeding to Intelligent service oriented memorY Allocation for flash based data centric Sensor devices in wireless sensor networks (PIYAS. This is the extended version of our previously proposed PIYA [1]. The main goals of the PIYAS scheme are to achieve instant mounting and reduced SRAM space by keeping memory mapping information to a very low size of and to provide high query response throughput by allocation of memory to the sensor data by network business rules. The scheme intelligently samples and stores the raw data and provides high in-network data availability by keeping the aggregate data for a longer period of time than any other scheme has done before. We propose effective garbage collection and wear-leveling schemes as well. The experimental results show that PIYAS is an optimized memory management scheme allowing high performance for wireless sensor networks.

  14. 78 FR 73200 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Public Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Public Comment Request AGENCY: Health Resources and... Reduction Act of 1995), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) announces plans to submit an...

  15. 78 FR 41405 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Public Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Public Comment Request AGENCY: Health Resources and... Reduction Act of 1995), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) announces plans to submit an...

  16. 78 FR 41407 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Public Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Public Comment Request AGENCY: Health Resources and... Reduction Act of 1995), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) announces plans to submit an...

  17. 78 FR 953 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Comment Request ACTION: Notice. Summary: In compliance.... L. 104-13), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) publishes periodic summaries of...

  18. 78 FR 76309 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Public Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Public Comment Request AGENCY: Health Resources and... Reduction Act of 1995), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) announces plans to submit an...

  19. Distribution profile, health risk and elimination of model atmospheric SVOCs associated with a typical municipal garbage compressing station in Guangzhou, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Sun, Hongwei; Zhang, Zhengyong; An, Taicheng; Hu, Jianfang

    2013-09-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) air pollution caused by municipal garbage compressing process was investigated at a garbage compressing station (GCS). The most abundant contaminants were phthalate esters (PAEs), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic chlorinated pesticides (OCPs). ∑16PAHs concentrations ranged from 58.773 to 68.840 ng m-3 in gas and from 6.489 to 17.291 ng m-3 in particulate phase; ∑20OCPs ranged from 4.181 to 5.550 ng m-3 and from 0.823 to 2.443 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase, respectively; ∑15PAEs ranged from 46.498 to 87.928 ng m-3 and from 414.765 to 763.009 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase. Lung-cancer risk due to PAHs exposure was 1.13 × 10-4. Both non-cancer and cancer risk levels due to OCPs exposure were acceptable. Non-cancer hazard index of PAEs was 4.57 × 10-3, suggesting safety of workers as only exposure to PAEs at GCS. At pilot scale, 60.18% of PAHs, 70.89% of OCPs and 63.2% of PAEs were removed by an integrated biotrickling filter-photocatalytic reactor at their stable state, and health risk levels were reduced about 50%, demonstrating high removal capacity of integrated reactor.

  20. 76 FR 55742 - Proposed Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as... approved collection. Affected Public: Business or other for-profit organizations. Estimated Number of...

  1. 77 FR 1697 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Fast Track Generic Clearance for the Collection of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Delivery: IHS Web Site Customer Service Satisfaction Survey AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS. ACTION: 30... Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery: IHS Web site Customer Service Satisfaction... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Agency Information Collection...

  2. Teacher Identity Development: A Collective Case Study of English as a Foreign Language Pre-Service Teachers Learning to Teach in an Indonesian University Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanti, Dwi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how English as a foreign language pre-service teachers develop their identities through the process of learning to teach in a university microteaching class and a student teaching practicum within a multilingual Indonesian context. A sociocultural theoretical lens incorporating activity theory as well as a…

  3. 75 FR 16484 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Open Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Open Government Citizen Engagement Ratings, Rankings, and Flagging; Information Collection; OMB Control No. 3090-0288 AGENCY: Office of Citizen Services, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of a request...

  4. EPA Linked Open Data (Collection)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a collection item referencing the following EPA Linked Data resources: - EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS) - EPA Substance Registry Service (SRS) -...

  5. New Roads for Patron-Driven E-Books: Collection Development and Technical Services Implications of a Patron-Driven Acquisitions Pilot at Rutgers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fino, Melissa; Lo, Mei Ling

    2011-01-01

    Collection development librarians have long struggled to meet user demands for new titles. Too often, required resources are not purchased, whereas some purchased resources do not circulate. E-books selected through patron-driven plans are a solution but present new challenges for both selectors and catalogers. Radical changes to traditional…

  6. Gold from garbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.; Berkhout, P.; Hartmann, L.

    2006-01-01

    Domestic waste contains large quantities of copper, aluminum, nickel, zinc and silver. Until now, only around 20% of this was reclaimable, and annually 45 million euro of copper and aluminum disappears into the ground. A new Delft technology and Amsterdam innovation separates bottom ash into

  7. Gold from garbage

    OpenAIRE

    Rem, P.; Berkhout, P.; Hartmann, L.

    2006-01-01

    Domestic waste contains large quantities of copper, aluminum, nickel, zinc and silver. Until now, only around 20% of this was reclaimable, and annually 45 million euro of copper and aluminum disappears into the ground. A new Delft technology and Amsterdam innovation separates bottom ash into valuable non-ferro metals and clean building materials.

  8. From garbage to electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagl, G. [Filter/Engineered Systems, Schaumburg, IL (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Landfills provide an easy-to-tap source of methane gas to fuel power-generation gas turbines. However, they also produce hydrogen sulfide which when burned in a gas turbine, produces acidic sulfur dioxide that corrodes plant equipment and erodes community support. The Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center in Broward County FL operates the nation`s largest landfill gas to energy plant. After Hurricane Andrew hydrogen sulfide became a big problem. To reduce this and other air pollution problems, the Center installed the LO-CAT II process. This process removes hydrogen sulfide from landfill gas, eliminating oders and cutting corrosion. This article describes process alternatives, the process itself and the success of the project.

  9. Open access and its practical impact on the work of academic librarians collection development, public services, and the library and information science literature

    CERN Document Server

    Bowering Mullen, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at the practicing academic librarian, especially those working on the 'front lines' of reference, instruction, collection development, and other capacities that involve dealing directly with library patrons in a time of changing scholarly communication paradigms. The book looks at open access from the perspective of a practicing academic librarian and challenges fellow librarians to continue the dialogue about how the movement might be affecting day-to-day library work and the future of academic libraries. * Written by a practicing academic librarian with many years experience in reference, as well as in collection development and faculty liaison roles* Written with the "front-line" academic librarian in mind from a practical point of view* Contains numerous references to refer the reader to many open access resources; includes extensive footnotes for further reading

  10. NRC collection of abbreviations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff collected this list of abbreviations from NRC documents and nuclear industry documents, both foreign and domestic. Readers can use the collection, which is not all inclusive, to identify the terms from which the abbreviations are formed. The Editorial Section of the Division of Freedom of Information and Publications Services compiled this collection. In the introduction, the editorial staff offers suggestions for using abbreviations but does not recommend the use of one abbreviation over another

  11. 76 FR 49837 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection AGENCY: Internal... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506...: Extension of a currently approved collection. Affected Public: Business or other for-profit organizations...

  12. 77 FR 34461 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection AGENCY: Internal... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506... income under Code section 108. The collection of information is required for a taxpayer to elect to...

  13. 77 FR 5306 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... Internal Revenue Service Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection AGENCY: Internal... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506.... Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection. Affected Public: Business or other for...

  14. 76 FR 57801 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Internal Revenue Service Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection AGENCY: Internal... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506... to this existing regulation. Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection. Affected...

  15. 77 FR 5307 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... Internal Revenue Service Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection AGENCY: Internal... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506... currently approved collection. Affected Public: Business or other for-profit organizations, individuals, and...

  16. Mail Service

    CERN Multimedia

    TS-FM Group

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 19 October 2004 Please note that the distribution and collection of mail are likely to be disrupted on Tuesday, October 19, 2004, because of traffic and other restrictions enforced on that day in connection with CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The service may be completely interrupted in certain areas. Group TS-FM, Tel. 77551

  17. Collection Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Explains collection mapping for library media collections. Discusses purposes for creating collection maps, including helping with selection and weeding decisions, showing how the collection supports the curriculum, and making budget decisions; and methods of data collection, including evaluating a collaboratively taught unit with the classroom…

  18. Ambulatory care sensitive conditions at out-of-hospital emergence services in Croatia: a longitudinal study based on routinely collected data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanjšek, Diana; Benčić, Miro; Keglević, Mladenka Vrcić

    2014-12-01

    Conditions for which a hospital and emergency utilization can be considered avoidable are often referred as ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs). Until now, there has been no published research related to ACSCs in Croatia. This study was undertaken with the aim of determining the trends relating to ACSCs in out-of-hospital ES from 1995-2012. The study is based on data from the Croatian Health Service Yearbooks. Five chronic and three acute conditions were chosen: diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, asthma and COPD, bacterial pneumonia, urinary tract infections and skin infections. The results indicate that the ES in Croatia is overused, and consequently ACSCs are over-represented; 23.3% Croatian citizens visited the ES and around 15% of all diagnoses belonged to the ACSCs, with decreased trend. The leading diagnosis is hypertension, followed by asthma and COPD. For a better understanding of the importance of ACSC within the Croatian context, further research is needed.

  19. Biological monitoring of environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in subjects living in the area of recycling electronic garbage, in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhang, Wenbing; Fan, Ruifang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in subjects living in the area of recycling electronic garbage in Southern China and research the influence of environment smoke tobacco (EST) to people through active and passive smoking. Urinary concentrations of 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene were determined in 141 randomly selected voluntary residents aged 13 to 81 years in two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-exposed groups, two control groups, and an EST research group. The concentrations of 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene in PAH-exposed groups are significantly higher (pelectronic garbage (1.1 μmol/mol creatinine) is a little higher than those of iron foundry workers, automobile repair workers, and firefighters. Mean value of 2-hydroxynaphthalene (11.3 μmol/mol creatinine) is much higher than that of shipyard and aircraft maintenance and much lower than some occupational exposure, such as coking batteries, sorting department, and distillation department in coking plant. Some metabolites of PAHs (PAHm) are significantly elevated through active and passive smoking, while the influence of EST to other PAHm is not statistically significant. 2-Hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of smokers are, respectively, 3.9, 1.9, 1.4, and 1.9 times to those of nonsmokers. In nonsmokers, passive smokers excreted 1.1, 1.5, 1.9, and 1.5 times of 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene compared to nonpassive smokers.

  20. Collection Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes 21 articles that discuss collection development in Canadian school libraries. Topics include digital collections in school library media centers; print and electronic library resources; library collections; collaborative projects; print-disabled students; informing administrators of the importance of collection development; censorship;…

  1. Opening the Semantic Space in the Service of Collective Intelligence - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v1i1.43en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Lévy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As the human recorded memory is progressively digitized and posted on line, the need for a common semantic coordinate system independant from natural languages and ontologies is growing. A future universal semantic addressing system, able to index all digital documents, should meet three basic requirements. First, each distinct concept should have a unique address. Second, the semantic coordinate system should be open to any concept and relations between concepts (ontologies, whatever the cultural environments where these concepts are created and transformed, without neither privileges nor exclusions. Third, it should support a group of mathematically defined (automatable operations on semantic addresses, namely : rotations, symmetries and translations in the « semantic space » ; semantic compression and decompression ; set-theory operations like union, intersection and symmetric differences ; ranking on semantic criteria ; semantic pattern recognition ; semantic distances measurement ; logical inferences, etc. Developped by an international research network led by the Canada Research Chair in Collective Intelligence at the University of Ottawa, the Information Economy MetaLanguage (IEML, allows the construction of a semantic coordinate system meeting these three constraints. Website, including the IEML dictionary, since may 2006 : www.ieml.org. In Brasil, BIREME (www.bireme.br is member of the IEML initiative.

  2. Banks and Financial Services, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St. , Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Banks and Financial Services dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was...

  3. Banks and Financial Services, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St. , Published in 2011, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Banks and Financial Services dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was...

  4. 78 FR 61324 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Special Nutrition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ..., Social Science Research Analyst, Office of Policy Support, Food and Nutrition Service, USDA, 3101 Park... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Special Nutrition Program Operations Study (SNPOS) AGENCY: Food and...

  5. 78 FR 22332 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection, Comments Requested; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... to Customer Service Satisfaction ACTION: 60-day Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Justice, Federal.... Overview of this Information Collection (1) Type of information collection: Customer satisfaction ratings... the agencies' satisfaction with NCAVC services, and concrete achievements which were furthered via...

  6. 78 FR 39341 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection, Comments Requested: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... to Customer Service Satisfaction ACTION: 30-day Notice. The Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of... this information collection: (1) Type of information collection: Customer satisfaction ratings... the agencies' satisfaction with NCAVC services, and concrete achievements which were furthered via...

  7. Modern alchemy : plasma-arc conversion of garbage into energy, water and aggregate is the stuff of science fiction, and it may be coming soon to the Red Deer dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.

    2009-10-15

    Plasco Energy Group will now need to win government support for the construction of a new waste facility in Red Deer, Alberta. The Ottawa-based company uses a plasma waste conversion technology to generate electricity by refining hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the gasification process into a synthetic gas. An 85 ton per day demonstration plant has been operating in Ottawa since 2007. The average ton of municipal waste contains 13,000 mega joules of energy. The Plasco process will also help to treat waste water for release into the environment. The garbage is reduced to 1 per cent of its original volume after the water and gases are stripped away. The remaining garbage is melted with plasma arc torches for use as clean aggregates. The process also yields one and a half kg per ton of heavy metals. It was concluded that many cities are now showing an interest in the waste treatment technology. 1 fig.

  8. Marketing of Healthcare Services with reference to Laboratory services

    OpenAIRE

    Ajotikar, Vaishali M.; Ali, Dr.M. M

    2015-01-01

    The paper attempts to study empirically dealers point of view on the 7ps i.e. marketing mix for laboratory services. The primary data was collected from dealers by administering interview schedules on 7ps of laboratory service marketing. This data collected was tabulated, analyzed and intepretated so as to suitably arrive at findings. High score for statements: laboratory services are prompt, services are rendered on cash basis to patients, laboratory has collection centers in different area...

  9. 76 FR 12980 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration... proposed collections of information, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA... treatment and recovery support options (including faith-based programmatic options), and (3) increase...

  10. 78 FR 78985 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration... proposed collections of information, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA... options (including faith-based programmatic options), and (3) increase substance abuse treatment capacity...

  11. 75 FR 12241 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Alzheimer's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Alzheimer's Disease Supportive Services Program... requirements relating to the Alzheimer's Disease Supportive Services Program. DATES: Submit written or... other forms of information technology. The Alzheimer's Disease Supportive Services Program (ADSSP) is...

  12. Collection Mapping and Collection Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, William; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

  13. Debt collection project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    In October 1979 the Office of Management and Budget initiated a review of debt collection within the Federal Government. A DOE Debt Collection Project Team was established, and seven activites were selected for review. These were Albuquerque Operations Office; Bonneville Power Administration; Chicago Operations and Regional Office; Naval Petroleum Reserves, California; Oak Ridge Operations Office; Washington Financial Services Division; and Western Area Power Administration. The team visited each of these activities to collect data on the size, age, and types of receivables managed and procedures for billing, aging, and handling overdue accounts. Various deficiencies were found to exist at several of the DOE entities that are not consistent with good management practices in the performance of their debt collection functions. Also, the Debt Collection Project Team identified a wide variation in the procedures followed by DOE activities in the management of accounts receivable, and a wide variation in the effectiveness of the debt management functions. 1 figure, 17 tables. (RWR)

  14. SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF BARU (Dipterix alata Vog. TREATED WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE, COMPOSTED GARBAGE OR CATTLE MANURE ON MINED SPOILS IN THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Queiroz Pinheiro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge and composted garbage are available in large quantities to be employed assources of organic matter for revegetation projects of mined spoils in the Brazilian FederalDistrict (DF. These sources were used for growing baru (Dipterix alata Vog. on minedspoils in the Brazilian Cerrado and the growth and mortality of 99 seedlings treated with theseorganic matter soruces were measured. In 4 months, rates of survival ranged from 56.7%, fortrees treated with compost, to 96.7% for plants treated with sewage sludge. The compostseems to have toxic effects on seedlings, since the treatments with 35, 45 and 50 L/hollow hadno survivals. After the first period of growth, the study was able to show that the best rate forplant development with sewage sludge was 20 and 30 L/hollow (57% and 47. For plantstreated with compost, the best result was obtained with the smallest dosage (5L/hollow,where the growth is similar to the best results obtained with the sludge (47%. In larger dosesthe growth varied between 6% and 24%, span in which the results obtained in the controltreatments, chemical treatment (16% and no treatment (12% are also found. Therefore, theincrease in growth of the seedlings is a function of the dosage and type of organic materialemployed.

  15. Saúde coletiva, resíduos sólidos urbanos e os catadores de lixo Urban solid residues, garbage collectors and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Maria Siqueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a problemática ambiental da produção e da geração de resíduos sólidos urbanos, destacando o conceito de saúde e de ambiente enquanto representação social. A partir de uma revisão bibliográfica, discute a incorporação da temática saúde e ambiente no campo de conhecimento e práticas de interconexão com a saúde coletiva. Associa nesse contexto a questão da exclusão social gerada pela forma de produção e de consumo da sociedade pós-moderna, introduzindo os catadores de lixo, grupo populacional vulnerável.The article approaches the issues of environmental production and the generation of urban solid residues, in particular the environment and health concept while social representation. From a bibliographical revision it argues the incorporation of the themes of health and environment in the practical field of knowledge and of interconnection with the Public Health. In this context it associates the question of the social exclusion generated by the form of production and consumption of the after-modern society, introducing the garbage collectors as a vulnerable population group.

  16. Field Measurements of Trace Gases and Aerosols Emitted by Undersampled Combustion Sources Including Wood and Dung Cooking Fires, Garbage and Crop Residue Burning, and Indonesian Peat Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, C.; Jayarathne, T. S.; Goetz, D.; Simpson, I. J.; Selimovic, V.; Bhave, P.; Blake, D. R.; Cochrane, M. A.; Ryan, K. C.; Putra, E. I.; Saharjo, B.; Stone, E. A.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Yokelson, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Field measurements were conducted in Nepal and in the Indonesian province of Central Kalimantan to improve characterization of trace gases and aerosols emitted by undersampled combustion sources. The sources targeted included cooking with a variety of stoves, garbage burning, crop residue burning, and authentic peat fires. Trace gas and aerosol emissions were studied using a land-based Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, whole air sampling, photoacoustic extinctiometers (405 and 870nm), and filter samples that were analyzed off-line. These measurements were used to calculate fuel-based emission factors (EFs) for up to 90 gases, PM2.5, and PM2.5 constituents. The aerosol optical data measured included EFs for the scattering and absorption coefficients, the single scattering albedo (at 870 and 405 nm), as well as the absorption Ångström exponent. The emissions varied significantly by source, although light absorption by both brown and black carbon (BrC and BC, respectively) was important for all non-peat sources. For authentic peat combustion, the emissions of BC were negligible and absorption was dominated by organic aerosol. The field results from peat burning were in reasonable agreement with recent lab measurements of smoldering Kalimantan peat and compare well to the limited data available from other field studies. The EFs can be used with estimates of fuel consumption to improve regional emissions inventories and assessments of the climate and health impacts of these undersampled sources.

  17. Plausible exploitation of Jatropha de-oiled seed cake for lipase and phytase production and simultaneous detoxification by Candida parapsilosis isolated from poultry garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannoju, Balakrishna; Ganapathiwar, Swaruparani; Nunavath, Hanumalal; Sunkar, Bindu; Bhukya, Bhima

    2017-02-01

    Jatropha de-oiled seed cake was explored to utilize as a basic nutrient source for Candida parapsilosis, isolated from poultry garbage and selected based on the production of lipase and phytase enzymes under submerged fermentation. At optimized parameters under solid-state fermentation, lipase and phytase activities were recorded as 1056.66±2.92 and 833±2.5U/g of substrate (U/g), respectively. Besides enzyme production, complete elimination of phorbol esters and significant phytate reduction from 6.51±0.01 to 0.43±0.01g/100g of seed cake were noted after 3days incubation. Curcin and trypsin inhibition activity were reduced significantly from 26.33±0.43 to 0.56±0.02mg/100g and 229.33±2.02 to 11.66±0.28U/g, respectively after 5days incubation. Saponins were reduced from 5.56±0.19 to 1.95±0.01g/100g of seed cake after 7days incubation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Web services foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Bouguettaya, Athman; Daniel, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Web services and Service-Oriented Computing (SOC) have become thriving areas of academic research, joint university/industry research projects, and novel IT products on the market. SOC is the computing paradigm that uses Web services as building blocks for the engineering of composite, distributed applications out of the reusable application logic encapsulated by Web services. Web services could be considered the best-known and most standardized technology in use today for distributed computing over the Internet.Web Services Foundations is the first installment of a two-book collection coverin

  19. Generative collectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, W.; Avital, M.; Sabherwal, R.; Sumner, M.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing generative group activities against the backdrop of an increasingly connected world, this theory development paper introduces the concept of "generative collectives" as a new framework for classifying internet-based collectives and a novel theoretical lens for explaining why some

  20. Data collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callaert, J.; Epping, Elisabeth; Federkeil, G.; Jongbloed, Benjamin W.A.; Kaiser, Franciscus; Tijssen, R.; van Vught, F.A.; Ziegele, F.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the data collection instruments used in the development of U-Multirank. The first section is an overview of existing databases – mainly on bibliometrics and patents. The second describes the questionnaires and survey tools used for collecting data from the institutions – at

  1. 22 CFR 309.11 - Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collection. 309.11 Section 309.11 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Collection Actions § 309.11 Collection. Upon final determination of.... Collection may be through centralized offset by the Financial Management Service (FMS) of the Department of...

  2. 78 FR 19709 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Public Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... of Health and Human Services, has submitted an Information Collection Request (ICR), described below.... Information Collection Request Title: Evaluation of Implementation of the Viral Hepatitis Action Plan... systems for the purpose of collecting, validating and verifying information, processing and maintaining...

  3. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of trace gases and light-absorbing carbon from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Christian, Ted J.; Goetz, J. Douglas; Jayarathne, Thilina; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Saikawa, Eri; Blake, Donald R.; Simpson, Isobel J.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Panday, Arnico K.

    2016-09-01

    contribute to satellite observations of high levels of HCN in the lower stratosphere above the Asian monsoon. HCN was also emitted in significant quantities by several non-biomass burning sources. BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) were major emissions from both dung- (˜ 4.5 g kg-1) and wood-fuel (˜ 1.5 g kg-1) cooking fires, and a simple method to estimate indoor exposure to the many measured important air toxics is described. Biogas emerged as the cleanest cooking technology of approximately a dozen stove-fuel combinations measured. Crop residue burning produced relatively high emissions of oxygenated organic compounds (˜ 12 g kg-1) and SO2 (2.54 ± 1.09 g kg-1). Two brick kilns co-firing different amounts of biomass with coal as the primary fuel produced contrasting results. A zigzag kiln burning mostly coal at high efficiency produced larger amounts of BC, HF, HCl, and NOx, with the halogenated emissions likely coming from the clay. The clamp kiln (with relatively more biomass fuel) produced much greater quantities of most individual organic gases, about twice as much BrC, and significantly more known and likely organic aerosol precursors. Both kilns were significant SO2 sources with their emission factors averaging 12.8 ± 0.2 g kg-1. Mixed-garbage burning produced significantly more BC (3.3 ± 3.88 g kg-1) and BTEX (˜ 4.5 g kg-1) emissions than in previous measurements. For all fossil fuel sources, diesel burned more efficiently than gasoline but produced larger NOx and aerosol emission factors. Among the least efficient sources sampled were gasoline-fueled motorcycles during start-up and idling for which the CO EF was on the order of ˜ 700 g kg-1 - or about 10 times that of a typical biomass fire. Minor motorcycle servicing led to minimal if any reduction in gaseous pollutants but reduced particulate emissions, as detailed in a companion paper (Jayarathne et al., 2016). A small gasoline-powered generator and an "insect repellent fire" were

  4. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE: emissions of trace gases and light-absorbing carbon from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Stockwell

    2016-09-01

    (2.01 ± 1.25 g kg−1, where the latter could contribute to satellite observations of high levels of HCN in the lower stratosphere above the Asian monsoon. HCN was also emitted in significant quantities by several non-biomass burning sources. BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes were major emissions from both dung- (∼ 4.5 g kg−1 and wood-fuel (∼ 1.5 g kg−1 cooking fires, and a simple method to estimate indoor exposure to the many measured important air toxics is described. Biogas emerged as the cleanest cooking technology of approximately a dozen stove–fuel combinations measured. Crop residue burning produced relatively high emissions of oxygenated organic compounds (∼ 12 g kg−1 and SO2 (2.54 ± 1.09 g kg−1. Two brick kilns co-firing different amounts of biomass with coal as the primary fuel produced contrasting results. A zigzag kiln burning mostly coal at high efficiency produced larger amounts of BC, HF, HCl, and NOx, with the halogenated emissions likely coming from the clay. The clamp kiln (with relatively more biomass fuel produced much greater quantities of most individual organic gases, about twice as much BrC, and significantly more known and likely organic aerosol precursors. Both kilns were significant SO2 sources with their emission factors averaging 12.8 ± 0.2 g kg−1. Mixed-garbage burning produced significantly more BC (3.3 ± 3.88 g kg−1 and BTEX (∼ 4.5 g kg−1 emissions than in previous measurements. For all fossil fuel sources, diesel burned more efficiently than gasoline but produced larger NOx and aerosol emission factors. Among the least efficient sources sampled were gasoline-fueled motorcycles during start-up and idling for which the CO EF was on the order of ∼ 700 g kg−1 – or about 10 times that of a typical biomass fire. Minor motorcycle servicing led to minimal if any reduction in gaseous pollutants but reduced particulate emissions

  5. 75 FR 11890 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ...-programmed Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) interface. Responses collected by Web will be... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Agency Information Collection Activities... Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health and Human Services, is publishing the following...

  6. Patients’ attitudes and perceptions of two health-related quality-of-life questionnaires used to collect patient-reported outcome measures in the English National Health Service: A qualitative study of patients undergoing cardiac interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir M Matata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore patients’ views on the EuroQol-5D and Coronary Revascularisation Outcome Questionnaire, tools currently used for collecting patient-reported outcome measures in the English National Health Service. The key questions were as follows: (1 whether patients consider them sensitive enough to detect change in their health after cardiovascular disease interventions and (2 whether they consider the health-related quality-of-life questions as meaningful. Methods: Data were collected on patients’ views using focus groups. We held four focus groups selecting participants on the basis of their baseline and follow-up EuroQol-5D scores. Data were analysed using framework analysis and grounded theory. Results: Focus group participants confirmed that they had derived substantial health benefits from their cardiac interventions despite the lack of measurable effects on the EuroQol-5D scores. Participants felt that the EuroQol-5D questionnaire was limited because of the following reasons: Their health fluctuates from day to day. They had difficulty assessing their general health status on the visual analogue scale. They felt that the Coronary Revascularisation Outcome Questionnaire was limited because of the following reasons: They did not understand the clinical terms used. The impact of tiredness on their quality of life was not captured. They were unable to distinguish between the effects of their heart condition and other health issues. Additionally, neither questionnaire considers the adjustments people have made to their domestic arrangements to improve their health-related quality of life. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that the two questionnaires do not capture some aspects of health that patients consider important. Furthermore, the presence of co-morbidities masks the symptoms relating to the heart disease and the effect of their cardiac interventions. Future work on patient-reported outcome measures should consider

  7. 76 FR 74118 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments.... [[Page 74119

  8. Quantitation of persistent organic pollutants adsorbed on plastic debris from the Northern Pacific Gyre's "eastern garbage patch".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Lorena M; Jones, Patrick R; Moore, Charles; Narayan, Urja V

    2010-12-01

    Floating marine plastic debris was found to function as solid-phase extraction media, adsorbing and concentrating pollutants out of the water column. Plastic debris was collected in the North Pacific Gyre, extracted, and analyzed for 36 individual PCB congeners, 17 organochlorine pesticides, and 16 EPA priority PAHs. Over 50% contained PCBs, 40% contained pesticides, and nearly 80% contained PAHs. The PAHs included 2, 3 and 4 ring congeners. The PCBs were primarily CB-11, 28, 44, 52, 66, and 101. The pesticides detected were primarily p,p-DDTs and its metabolite, o,p-DDD, as well as BHC (a,b,g and d). The concentrations of pollutants found ranged from a few ppb to thousands of ppb. The types of PCBs and PAHs found were similar to those found in marine sediments. However, these plastic particles were mostly polyethylene which is resistant to degradation and although functioning similarly to sediments in accumulating pollutants, these had remained on or near the ocean surface. Particles collected included intact plastic items as well as many pieces less than 5 mm in size.

  9. O Serviço Social nas ONGs no campo da saúde: projetos societários em disputa ONGs' Social Services in the field of health: collective projects in debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Scheffer Machado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo faz uma análise do trabalho do Serviço Social nas organizações não governamentais (ONGs, no campo da saúde. O estudo visa identificar os dilemas e desafios no cotidiano das intervenções dos assistentes sociais nas sequelas da questão social. Também apresenta a pesquisa enquanto estratégia na construção de propostas coletivas na direção da cidadania, em contraponto à lógica do favor.The article analyses the Social Services' practices in the non-governmental organizations (ONGs in the field of health. The study aims at identifying the dilemmas and challenges in the social workers' daily interventions in the sequels of the social issue. It also presents the research as a strategy in the construction of collective proposals towards citizenship, as a counterpoint to the logic of favour.

  10. 76 FR 28034 - Labor-Management Relations Information Collection Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE Labor-Management Relations Information Collection... of Subjects Labor-management relations, employee management relations, and Information collection... opportunity to comment on the following information collection requests. The information collection requests...

  11. The Garbage Project Revisited: From a 20th Century Archaeology of Food Waste to a Contemporary Study of Food Packaging Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Vergne Lehmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1973, Dr. Bill Rathje and his students at the University of Arizona began what was to become a two decade long investigation into American consumer waste habits. An archaeologist by profession, Rathje decided to adapt traditional archaeological methods and apply them to contemporary archaeological situations. This provided a platform for improving the understanding of what was really happening with, amongst other forms of waste, food at the consumer household level. The Garbage Project was able to study consumer behaviours directly from the material realities they left behind rather than from self-conscious self-reports of surveys and interviews. Using the same rationale, this study developed a profile of the packaged and processed food consumption in three regional Victorian municipalities. The main findings identified that consumers were limited to the food retail opportunities closest to their home and that they took greater care to wash out recyclables if they were placed in the recycling bin compared to the same item placed in a kerbside landfill bin. There was also an apparent lack of understanding about appropriate food storage and buying for purpose, especially with regard to the volume of the item they purchased, which appears to result in partially used recyclable containers being put in the kerbside landfill bin. By understanding the nature of the packaging and food that has been thrown away, it is possible to develop a narrative around what people understand about food purchasing practices, longevity, storage and how they use it at home. This in turn can assist community engagement and education around nutrition, meal planning and purchasing as well as community waste education.

  12. Collection Development Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    If someone has something to say, they have never had it so good. People can get their word out by posting to a blog, by editing a wiki or a web site, or even by using cost-effective print-on-demand book production services. In other words, collection development librarians now live in a world of hurt. All these methods, as well as a number of…

  13. Advanced web services

    CERN Document Server

    Bouguettaya, Athman; Daniel, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Web services and Service-Oriented Computing (SOC) have become thriving areas of academic research, joint university/industry research projects, and novel IT products on the market. SOC is the computing paradigm that uses Web services as building blocks for the engineering of composite, distributed applications out of the reusable application logic encapsulated by Web services. Web services could be considered the best-known and most standardized technology in use today for distributed computing over the Internet. This book is the second installment of a two-book collection covering the state-o

  14. Locals Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hastings-King

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A locals collection is a set of parameters that are used to delimit data-mining operations. This piece uses a collection of locals from around Essex Massachusetts to shape and delimit an interrogation of post-reality in contemporary America. It explores the notion of crisis, the possibility of a crisis of empire that may or may not emerge in a media-space that does not allow crisis of empire to be mentioned and relations this maybe-crisis to the various levels of economic dysfunction that have become evident since late 2008. But mostly this piece explores ways in which particular stories about particular people do and do not link/link to these larger-scale narratives. This is the first of a potential series of locals collections that will mine the American post-real.

  15. Brooks Grease Service, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Brooks Grease Service, Inc., for alleged violations at its vegetable oil collection and storage facility located at or near 218 East James St., Kansas City, KS 66118.

  16. Un Service des collections à l’Université Montpellier 2. La constitution d’un service spécifique dédié à la conservation des collections : un début de solution pour le sauvetage du patrimoine scientifique universitaire ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Gomel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nulle part en France, et à aucun moment de son histoire, les universités n’ont été capables de prendre sérieusement la mesure de l’importance de la préservation de leur patrimoine scientifique, ce qui est un comble pour une institution qui revendique un rôle majeur dans la formation des élites intellectuelles et scientifiques de ce pays. Ce paradoxe s’explique cependant si on prend la peine d’analyser les différents facteurs qui ont contribué, et contribuent encore, à la situation dramatique du patrimoine universitaire. Parmi ceux-ci, trois éléments doivent être soulignés : l’évolution accélérée des disciplines et des techniques en enseignement comme en recherche, une identité parfois revendiquée mais jamais structurée et une course vers l’avenir qui n’a jamais voulu s’encombrer des scories du passé. Dans des structures exclusivement mobilisées par les missions d’enseignement et de recherche, soumises à une concurrence renforcée et dotées de moyens dénoncés comme en baisse, la préservation du patrimoine n’apparaît jamais spontanément comme utile et nécessaire et ne se décline pour l’instant que sur le mode de la tentative de sauvetage souvent désespérée. Heureusement cette situation commence à évoluer lentement, notamment grâce à l’accueil ou la reconnaissance, au sein de l’institution, de professionnels de la gestion et de la valorisation des collections.Although France has always taken pride for its excellence in the training of its intellectual “elite” through its universities, it is quite shocking to see how little interest those same universities take in managing and preserving its cultural heritage, especially in the scientific field. Yet, such a paradox can be explained when one analyses the various factors that led to the horrific condition of the universities patrimony. Amongst those factors, three can be highlighted: the fast evolution in taught subject matters as

  17. 78 FR 54894 - Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission, Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Mobile Radio Service. Form Number: N/A. Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection... of the 220 MHz service in the mobile service marketplace. However, as with any licensing and... small business concerns with fewer than 25 employees. The FCC may not conduct or sponsor a collection of...

  18. 78 FR 45171 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-WIC Nutrition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-WIC Nutrition Services and Administration (NSA) Cost Study AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS... compare to those of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Temporary Assistance for Needy...

  19. There is a Lack of Standardization in the Collection Development and Circulation Policies of Prison Library Services. A Review of: Conrad, S. (2012. Collection development and circulation policies in prison libraries: An exploratory survey of librarians in US correctional institutions. The Library Quarterly, 82(4, 407-427.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Dalton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To explore how collection development policies currently support the role and purpose of prison libraries, and to explore if the accessibility of circulation records impacts on patron privacy.Design – Online survey questionnaire and a case study analysis of the existing policy statements of selected correctional institutions.Setting – The prison library sector in the United States.Subjects – 17 librarians and library staff across ten states in the United States.Methods – An eight-question online questionnaire was used to explore the existing collection development and circulation policies in prison libraries, and the level of adherence to the guidelines of the Association of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies (ASCLA and the American Correctional Association (ACA. In addition, participants were encouraged to forward any circulation or collection development policy statements for more detailed analysis. Each policy was then reviewed to assess the degree of alignment or otherwise with the American Library Association’s (ALA Prisoners’ Right to Read guidelines (2010.Main Results – The results of the survey found that 24% of libraries had no formal collection development policy, and at least 53% of libraries had no circulation policy statement. In these instances, the libraries were typically subject to the local policies and procedures of the correctional institution. The purpose of the library and its collection was primarily viewed as: providing recreational reading material; maintaining contact with the outside world and enabling re-entry into the community; and supporting vocational skills and lifelong learning. In selecting materials, the results indicated that a broadly similar approach to that of public libraries was adopted by most institutions, with the exception of any material that may pose a safety or security threat to the institution. In one institution the use of library services or resources for

  20. Comparison between Windrow and Pit Composting of Poultry Wastes, Leaves and Garbage of Municipal Solid Waste in Damghan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghmaeian K, Malakootian M, Noorisepehr M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic principles of Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM are: Reduction, Reuse, Recycling and Recovery (4Rs. Composting as an element of ISWM strategy that can be applied to separately collected or mixed wastes, is a controlled aerobic process carried out by successive microbial populations combining both mesophilic and thermophilic activities and leading to the production of carbon dioxide, water, minerals and stabilized organic matter. In this research, comparing between windrow and pit co-composting methods was studied in the city of Damghan, Iran. Waste proportioning was done based on C/N ratio (about 25:1 and moisture content (about 55%. Mixed wastes were located in windrow and pit with natural aeration tunnel. Sufficient oxygen supply was provided in the piles of compostable materials in two systems through frequent turning of the piles in 7 d intervals during the first month. Temperature reached to maximum level in 10-15 d and then depleted (days: 20-25. It reached to the safety level (about 60˚C based on U.S.EPA and WHO recommendations. Finally, compost was produced with pH=7.7, dark brown color and 30- 35% moisture content. N, P, K, organic matter and organic carbon were measured by standard methods. Results were compared with WHO and U.S.EPA recommendations showing suitable conditions Also it was indicated that pit method was better for maintaining temperature, nitrogen, organic C and organic matter.