WorldWideScience

Sample records for gang members arrested

  1. Finding Street Gang Members on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, Lakshika; Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Doran, Derek; Sheth, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Most street gang members use Twitter to intimidate others, to present outrageous images and statements to the world, and to share recent illegal activities. Their tweets may thus be useful to law enforcement agencies to discover clues about recent crimes or to anticipate ones that may occur. Finding these posts, however, requires a method to discover gang member Twitter profiles. This is a challenging task since gang members represent a very small population of the 320 million Twitter users. This paper studies the problem of automatically finding gang members on Twitter. It outlines a process to curate one of the largest sets of verifiable gang member profiles that have ever been studied. A review of these profiles establishes differences in the language, images, YouTube links, and emojis gang members use compared to the rest of the Twitter population. Features from this review are used to train a series of supervised classifiers. Our classifier achieves a promising F1 score with a low false positive rate. PMID:28713880

  2. Finding Street Gang Members on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, Lakshika; Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Doran, Derek; Sheth, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Most street gang members use Twitter to intimidate others, to present outrageous images and statements to the world, and to share recent illegal activities. Their tweets may thus be useful to law enforcement agencies to discover clues about recent crimes or to anticipate ones that may occur. Finding these posts, however, requires a method to discover gang member Twitter profiles. This is a challenging task since gang members represent a very small population of the 320 million Twitter users. This paper studies the problem of automatically finding gang members on Twitter. It outlines a process to curate one of the largest sets of verifiable gang member profiles that have ever been studied. A review of these profiles establishes differences in the language, images, YouTube links, and emojis gang members use compared to the rest of the Twitter population. Features from this review are used to train a series of supervised classifiers. Our classifier achieves a promising F 1 score with a low false positive rate.

  3. U.S. Juvenile Arrests: Gang Membership, Social Class, and Labeling Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang x Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America's gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of arrest…

  4. DIFFERENT STROKES FOR DIFFERENT GANGS? AN ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL AMONG LATINO AND ASIAN GANG MEMBERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIH, KAY KEI-HO; DE LA ROSA, MARIO; RUGH, DOUGLAS; MAO, KUORAY

    2009-01-01

    Gang activity and membership were noted to be significantly related to financial rewards. As such, gang membership and gang activity should also be understood from an economic perspective. In this article, Pierre Bourdieu's framework of capital is used to analyze two separate samples of Latino and Asian gang members. Stark contrasts in socioeconomic backgrounds are recorded among the two samples of gang members, and gang membership and activities are also noticeably dissimilar. Accessibility to economic, cultural, and social capital is argued to affect gang membership and activities. The results suggest that the availability of legitimate and illegitimate capital greatly affects the trajectory and the length of gang involvement. Also, gangs provide significant material and social capital for the respondents of the study. PMID:19578563

  5. Becoming a Gang Member: Youth Life and Gang Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morch, Sven; Andersen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding the growth in youth gangs and gang behaviour. The paper builds on a youth theory perspective and describes how the social conditions work with or are against the young individual in such a way that gangs seem to be an option or an answer for some young people when faced with…

  6. Youth Gang Members: Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert John Sargent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Approximately 260,000 of youth in the United States are gang-affiliated. There is a paucity of data available to identify the prevalence of mental health disorders in this population. Gang members share many of the features of “at risk” or juvenile justice involved youth who deny gang membership. The authors identified rates of psychiatric disorders within a juvenile justice population delineated in three categories: gang members, friends of gang members, and non-gang members. Methods: A retrospective review of records obtained by a juvenile probation department. A large detention center conducted mental health screenings on 7,615 youth aged 13–17. The mental health screenings were performed by either a master level or doctoral level mental health professional. Odds ratios were computed as an effect size for gender, race/ethnic differences, and gang-membership associations with self-reported psychiatric and substance use disorders. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk for psychiatric and substance use disorders among gang-members and friends of gang members. Diagnostic information was generated through a clinical interview and flexible battery. Results: Of the 7,615 youth in this study, ~50% had contact with gangs; 11% were self-identified gang-members, and 38% acknowledged having at least one friendship with a gang member. Similar to other studies, being male was a risk-factor for gang-membership (2.31 odds. In this multi-racial and ethnic study, Latinos had a greater affiliation with gang membership and association with gang members as friends (1.44 odds. Gang members were found to have increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (1.77 odds, current substance abuse (2.58 odds, oppositional defiant disorder, (1.24 odds and conduct disorder (4.05 odds; however, they were less likely to have an adjustment disorder than non-gang members (0.70 odds. Conclusions: Juveniles who received a mental health assessment

  7. Magical-religious narratives in gangs. A study on the psychology of the gang member

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Ordóñez Valverde

    2015-01-01

    This article is the result of an investigation on the cultural systems that sustain violence within gangs in marginalized neighborhoods of Cali, Colombia. It is about magical and religious beliefs of gang member that surround the episodes of violence, and that allow us to observe aspects of the psychology of the gang member that are functional adaptations to the reality of vendettas and territorial wars, which are intended to give sense and meaning to the tragic events of their lives. The stu...

  8. Psychopathy Among Mexican American Gang Members: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D.; Codina, Edward

    2010-01-01

    High-risk Mexican American males were assessed for levels of psychopathy. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist–Screening Version was compared in a random sample of gang members with a matched community sample of violent non-gang members and samples of forensic and psychiatric patients and undergraduate students. Analysis involved t-test, chi-square, and Cronbach’s alpha statistics. More than half of the gang sample were categorized as low, 44% as moderate, and only 4% as high on psychopathy. The gang members had higher scores on the total, affective, and behavioral scores than the non–gang members. High scores on adolescent antisocial behavior, poor behavioral controls, and lack of remorse were found in both samples. Gang members scored twice as high as non-gang members on lack of empathy. Both samples were lower on psychopathy than the forensics and higher than psychiatric patients and undergraduates. The results provide grounds for early intervention efforts for this high-risk population. PMID:21516257

  9. Magical-religious narratives in gangs. A study on the psychology of the gang member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ordóñez Valverde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of an investigation on the cultural systems that sustain violence within gangs in marginalized neighborhoods of Cali, Colombia. It is about magical and religious beliefs of gang member that surround the episodes of violence, and that allow us to observe aspects of the psychology of the gang member that are functional adaptations to the reality of vendettas and territorial wars, which are intended to give sense and meaning to the tragic events of their lives. The study shows how Santeria was used to seek protection and harm the enemy, and how their ideas of God and the Devil, good and evil, lack of ethics that regulate the relationships with others, and are an expression of a narcissistic defense mechanism. It is concluded that this cultural belief system is an interesting transaction formula between objective social reality and subjective fantasies.

  10. THE PATH AND PROMISE OF FATHERHOOD FOR GANG MEMBERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Molly; MacKenzie, Kathleen; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

    2009-01-01

    While an increase in research on criminal desistance has occurred in recent years, little research has been applied to the gang field. Using qualitative interview data, this article examines fatherhood as a potential turning point in the lives of 91 gang members in the San Francisco Bay Area. Fatherhood initiated important subjective and affective transformations that led to changes in outlook, priorities and future orientation. However, these subjective changes were not sufficient unless accompanied by two additional features: first, changes in the amount of time spent on the streets and, second, an ability to support oneself or one’s family with legal income. Though fatherhood is no panacea, becoming a father did act as an important turning point toward desistance and motivator for change for some. PMID:20046970

  11. Epidemiological criminology: drug use among African American gang members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Mark M; Pack, Robert P; Akers, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological methods and public health theories can be tied to theories of crime and delinquency and used to create evidence-based policy. Interdisciplinary theoretical approaches to existing, and emerging, public health and criminal justice problems hold great promise. Differential association theory postulates that close association with delinquent peers leads to an increase in deviant activities such as illicit drug use. Social cognitive theory postulates that health behavior change is driven by the interaction of (a) cognitive states that support a health outcome, (b) the social and contextual environment, (c) and individual action. Combined, these theories can be applied to drug eradication programs as well as other health and crime issues. Focus groups and interviews were performed to identify rates of illicit substance use among incarcerated African American adolescent male gang members and nongang members. The policy recommendations illustrate the convergence of criminological and epidemiological theory under the new paradigm of epidemiological criminology or ''EpiCrim.''

  12. Delinquency Among Members of Hong Kong Youth Street Gangs: The Role of the Organizational Structures of Gangs and Triad Affiliations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Wing Hong; Khiatani, Paul Vinod

    2017-09-01

    This study explores the importance of organizational structures and formal affiliations with the Hong Kong triads to delinquency among youth street gang members in Hong Kong. More specifically, this study examines the relative importance of the number of organizational structures and triad affiliation to patterns of delinquency in a sample of active members of youth street gangs ( N = 201). With the aid of outreach social workers, a convenience sampling method was used to recruit a gender-balanced sample of at-risk youths. Logistic regression analysis of the survey data that was gathered indicated that formal affiliation to Hong Kong triads and the presence of organizational structures significantly increased the odds of delinquency (independently of each other). Suggestions for future research on gang membership and delinquency, with particular reference to the Asian context, are provided.

  13. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  14. Alcohol and Drug Use among Gang Members: Experiences of Adolescents Who Attend School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H.; Bossarte, Robert M.; West, Bethany; Topalli, Volkan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Problems related to gangs have been noted in large cities and in many schools across the United States. This study examined the patterns of alcohol, drug use, and related exposures among male and female high school students who were gang members. Methods: Analyses were based on the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and…

  15. 76 FR 61279 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... that the language of the proposed clause be amended to read as follows to reinforce DoD's role in the... Military Sealift Command), and specific procedural guidance for DoD personnel obtaining the background... 247.5. B. Language Inconsistency Comment: DFARS 252.247-7027(a) defines ``riding gang member'' as it...

  16. "Deterrability" among Gang and Nongang Juvenile Offenders: Are Gang Members More (or Less) Deterrable than Other Juvenile Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Cheryl L.; Matsuda, Kristy N.; Hennigan, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the threat of legal sanctions on intentions to commit three types of offenses with a representative sample of 744 officially adjudicated youth with varying histories of offenses and gang involvement. In a departure from previous research, the authors find small severity effects for property crimes that are not…

  17. Modern-Day Youth Gangs. OJJDP, Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, James C.; Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Gleason, Debra K.

    This report draws on data from the 1996 and 1998 National Youth Gang Surveys to compare the characteristics of gangs and gang members in jurisdictions with later onset of gang problems with those of gangs and gang members with earlier onset of gang problems. The survey asked respondents from law enforcement agencies to describe when gangs began to…

  18. Bullying and gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rob; Mason, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Although bullying is associated with gangs, questions arise as to whether bullying, as such, takes place within gangs. To provide a critical analysis of bullying as this pertains to youth gangs and especially to violence within gangs, and as applied to the behaviour of individual gang members. Young men between 12 and 25 years of age. Review of relevant literature with a view to theorising the nature of the relationship between bullying and violence within a youth gang context. Bullying is associated with the reasons why individuals join gangs and with gang-related behaviour, but the violence within a gang is of a different character than that usually described by the term bullying. Bullying has implications for related and/or subsequent types of street violence, but is less relevant for descriptions of violence within a youth gang context as such.

  19. Substance Abuse among Juvenile Delinquents and Gang Members. Prevention Research Update Number Six, Spring 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, John A.; Austin, Gregory A.

    There is a strong statistical correlation between delinquency activity level and the level of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in adolescents. A strong association between drug use, drug trafficking, and youth gangs has also emerged. However, several important questions concerning the relationship of delinquency, gang membership, and AOD use…

  20. Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

  1. Combating Gangs: Better Coordination and Performance Measurement Would Help Clarify Roles of Federal Agencies and Strengthen Assessment of Efforts. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-09-708

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Justice (DOJ) estimates that the United States has about a million gang members. While state and local agencies have primary responsibility for combating gang crime, the federal government has key roles to enforce laws and help fund programs to provide alternatives to gang membership for at-risk youth. GAO was asked to examine…

  2. "It's like we're just renting over here": The Pervasive Experiences of Discrimination of Filipino Immigrant Youth Gang Members in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Benner, Aprile D; Takushi, Rena Mae Nalani; Ongbongan, Kathleen; Dennerlein, Donna; Spencer, Deborah K

    2009-03-30

    Researchers, service providers, and policymakers must uncover and better understand the issues facing youths in Asian gangs in order to most effectively intervene with appropriate policies and programs. The present investigation sampled young male Filipino gang members in Hawai'i. Thematic analyses of the focus group data challenge the commonly held view of racial harmony in Hawai'i. It appears that racial and social discrimination from peers and authority figures propel Filipino boys to seek out gang membership as a way to protect themselves from being targets of oppression.

  3. “It’s like we’re just renting over here”: The Pervasive Experiences of Discrimination of Filipino Immigrant Youth Gang Members in Hawai’i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Benner, Aprile D.; Takushi, Rena Mae Nalani; Ongbongan, Kathleen; Dennerlein, Donna; Spencer, Deborah K.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers, service providers, and policymakers must uncover and better understand the issues facing youths in Asian gangs in order to most effectively intervene with appropriate policies and programs. The present investigation sampled young male Filipino gang members in Hawai’i. Thematic analyses of the focus group data challenge the commonly held view of racial harmony in Hawai’i. It appears that racial and social discrimination from peers and authority figures propel Filipino boys to seek out gang membership as a way to protect themselves from being targets of oppression. PMID:19946383

  4. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (Pgang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors.

  5. Gender Norms and Age-Disparate Sexual Relationships as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Risky Sex among Adolescent Gang Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting. Participants in this study included 107 female gang members (68 % African-American, 19 % Latina; mean age, 17.6) and 169 male gang members (62 % African-American, 28 % Latino; mean age, 17.7). As hypothesized, endorsing unequal gender norms toward women was significantly related to IPV victimization among female participants and perpetration among male participants, and engagement in group sex in the past month among both female and male participants (ps programs for female adolescents to reduce or avoid risky situations, such as inability to negotiate condom use with older sex partners. Additionally, programs must be developed for both female and male gang members to help them understand and identify unequal gender norms, and interpersonal and sexual coercion/violence. Early intervention will also be necessary as these adolescent gang members are already engaged in extremely high-risk, coercive, and violent behaviors.

  6. Communication between members of the cardiac arrest team--a postal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, J; Turner, B; Gabbott, D A

    2001-05-01

    Effective communication enhances team building and is perceived to improve the quality of team performance. A recent publication from the Resuscitation Council (UK) has highlighted this fact and recommended that cardiac arrest team members make contact daily. We wished to identify how often members of this team communicate prior to a cardiopulmonary arrest. A questionnaire on cardiac arrest team composition, leadership, communication and debriefing was distributed nationally to Resuscitation Training Officers (RTOs) and their responses analysed. One hundred and thirty (55%) RTOs replied. Physicians and anaesthetists were the most prominent members of the team. The Medical Senior House Officer is usually nominated as the team leader. Eighty-seven centres (67%) have no communication between team members prior to attending a cardiopulmonary arrest. In 33%, communication occurs but is either informal or fortuitous. The RTOs felt that communication is important to enhance team dynamics and optimise task allocation. Only 7% achieve a formal debrief following a cardiac arrest. Communication between members of the cardiac arrest team before and after a cardiac arrest is poor. Training and development of these skills may improve performance and should be prioritised. Team leadership does not necessarily reflect experience or training.

  7. Community-based gang desistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard Dichmann, Kirstine; Jensen, Tobias Bo; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2018-01-01

    theoretical analysis of learning resources and barriers from the perspective of Rosa, who is a female former gang member trying to change her life. The findings point to barriers facing (former) gang members as well as important learning resources facilitated by the communities at Homeboy Industries....... The strong sense of longing for belonging, the emotional connections of family and love to their former gangs, and the socio-economic marginalization, otherness and alienation related to being a poor (former) gang member lacking a legal source of income are the greatest barriers in the process of gang...... of belonging to the communities in Homeboy Industries also facilitates self-reflection and identity transformation. Homeboy Industries is furthermore an important life changing resource because it offers former gang members a legal source of income. This provides them with a new and secure base, a way...

  8. Highlights of the 2007 National Youth Gang Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egley, Jr., Arlen; O'Donnell, Christina E.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents findings from the 2007 National Youth Gang Survey. Data on the number of gangs, gang members, and gang-related homicides in larger cities, suburban counties, smaller cities, and rural counties are provided to accurately reflect youth gang activity in the United States. Based on survey results, it is estimated that nearly 3,550…

  9. Community-based gang desistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard Dichmann, Kirstine; Jensen, Tobias Bo; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2018-01-01

    of belonging to the communities in Homeboy Industries also facilitates self-reflection and identity transformation. Homeboy Industries is furthermore an important life changing resource because it offers former gang members a legal source of income. This provides them with a new and secure base, a way....... The strong sense of longing for belonging, the emotional connections of family and love to their former gangs, and the socio-economic marginalization, otherness and alienation related to being a poor (former) gang member lacking a legal source of income are the greatest barriers in the process of gang......The aim of this article is to investigate resources and barriers for gang desistance. The ethnographic fieldwork this article draws on was conducted at a community-based gang intervention program called Homeboy Industries, located in Los Angeles. The article is based on a social practice...

  10. Youth Gang Membership and Serious Violent Victimization: The Importance of Lifestyles and Routine Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Terrance J.; Freng, Adrienne; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Youth gangs have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. Although most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, recent studies have examined the victimization of youth gang members relative to their non-gang peers. Gang members generally have been found to be at…

  11. 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Reserve Component Members: Qualitative Analysis on Extremist Groups, Hate Crimes, and Gangs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-15

    male , senior enlisted, White  “I live in a border town with Mexico and drugs cause a high gang conflict.” —USAR, female , senior enlisted...from many countries seeking jobs.” —USAR, female , senior officer, Hispanic  “Gangs are everywhere. All the schools.” —ARNG, male , senior enlisted...especially in the Lesbian, Gay, Transsexual community.” —ANG, male , junior enlisted, Hispanic  “I live in [LOCATION] well in this town we have a lot

  12. National Youth Gang Survey, 1998. OJJDP Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Intergovernmental Research, Tallahassee, FL. National Youth Gang Center.

    This summary provides results from the 1998 National Youth Gang Survey, administered to a representative sample of city and county police and sheriff's departments nationwide. Results indicate that the percentage of jurisdictions reporting active youth gangs decreased from 51 percent in 1997 to 48 percent in 1998. About 780,200 gang members were…

  13. Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use.1 Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates ...

  14. Confronting youth gangs in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    Youth gang violence has continued its upward trend nationwide. It was once thought that gangs convened only in selected areas, which left churches, schools, and hospitals as "neutral" territory. Unfortunately, this is a fallacy. The results of gang violence pour into hospitals and into intensive care units regularly. The media portrays California as having a gang violence problem; however, throughout the United States, gang violence has risen more than 35% in the past year. Youth gang violence continues to rise dramatically with more and more of our youth deciding to join gangs each day. Sadly, every state has gangs, and the problem is getting much worse in areas that would never have thought about gangs a year ago. These "new generation" of gang members is younger, much more violent, and staying in the gang longer. Gangs are not just an urban problem. Gang activity is a suburban and rural problem too. There are more than 25 500 gangs in the United States, with a total gang membership of 850 000. Ninety-four percent of gang members are male and 6% are female. The ethnic composition nationwide includes 47% Latino, 31% African American, 13% White, 7% Asian, and 2% "mixed," according to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result of the ongoing proliferation of youth street gangs in our communities, it is imperative that critical care nurses and others involved with the direct care become educated about how to identify gang members, their activities, and understand their motivations. Such education and knowledge will help provide solutions to families and the youth themselves, help eradicate the problem of gang violence, and keep health care professionals safe.

  15. Youth gangs and drugs: the case of marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Kathleen; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

    2005-01-01

    While the association between drug sales and violence has been a central focus of gang research since the 1980s, the issue of drug use within gangs has been given much less attention. This is especially true in the case of marijuana. This lack of interest is surprising given the extent to which gang members use marijuana. Other than alcohol, marijuana is the most widely used substance in gang life. In examining the culture and role of marijuana in the lives of gang members, we highlight the integration and normalization of recreational drug use within their day-to-day activities and cultural practices. In doing so, we emphasize the similarity of the role of marijuana in gangs to its role in other youth groups. Data for this paper are drawn from the results of an on-going qualitative study of street gangs in the San Francisco Bay Area, in which 383 male gang members from three different ethnic groupings were interviewed.

  16. Living on the edge: Youth entry, career and exit in drug-selling gangs

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Leandro; Soares, Rodrigo Reis

    2013-01-01

    We use data from a unique survey of members of drug-trafficking gangs in favelas (slums) of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to characterize drug-trafficking jobs and study the selection into gangs, analyzing what distinguishes gang-members from other youth living in favelas. We also estimate wage regressions for gang-members and examine their career path: age at entry, progression within the gangs' hierarchy, and short- to medium-term outcomes. Individuals from lower socioeconomic background and with...

  17. Gangs and Youth Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgar, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Examines issues of gangs and youth violence. Provides statistics and other information on weapons in schools, crime in schools, gang effects on truancy and dropout rates, gang activity, appeal of membership, recruitment, ethnic groups, new gang types (white Supremist and "stoner" gangs and Satanic cults), preventive efforts, and community…

  18. Pseudomonas fluvialis sp. nov., a novel member of the genus Pseudomonas isolated from the river Ganges, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Sarabjeet Kour; Pal, Deepika; Bisht, Bhawana; Kumar, Narender; Chaudhry, Vasvi; Patil, Prabhu; Sahni, Girish; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan

    2018-01-01

    A bacterial strain, designated ASS-1 T , was isolated and identified from a sediment sample of the river Ganges, Allahabad, India. The strain was Gram-stain-negative, formed straw-yellow pigmented colonies, was strictly aerobic, motile with a single polar flagellum, and positive for oxidase and catalase. The major fatty acids were C16 : 1ω7c/ 16 : 1 C16 : 1ω6c, C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0. Sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed that strain ASS-1 T showed high similarity to Pseudomonas guguanensis CC-G9A T (98.2 %), Pseudomonas alcaligenes ATCC 14909 T (98.2 %), Pseudomonas oleovorans DSM 1045 T (98.1 %), Pseudomonas indolxydans IPL-1 T (98.1 %) and Pseudomonas toyotomiensis HT-3 T (98.0 %). Analysis of its rpoB and rpoD housekeeping genes confirmed its phylogenetic affiliation and showed identities lower than 93 % with respect to the closest relatives. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA, rpoB, rpoD genes and the whole genome assigned it to the genus Pseudomonas. The results of digital DNA-DNA hybridization based on the genome-to-genome distance calculator and average nucleotide identity revealed low genome relatedness to its close phylogenetic neighbours (below the recommended thresholds of 70 and 95 %, respectively, for species delineation). Strain ASS-1 T also differed from the related strains by some phenotypic characteristics, i.e. growth at pH 5.0 and 42 °C, starch and casein hydrolysis, and citrate utilization. Therefore, based on data obtained from phenotypic and genotypic analysis, it is evident that strain ASS-1 T should be regarded as a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonasfluvialis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ASS-1 T (=KCTC 52437 T =CCM 8778 T ).

  19. Ganges Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a high resolution view of portions of the lobes of several landslide deposits in Ganges Chasma. Dark material near the bottom (south) end of the image is windblown sand. Location near: 8.2oS, 44.3oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  20. Gang Membership as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Violent Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Terrance J.; Peterson, Dana; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Freng, Adrienne

    2007-01-01

    Youth gangs and violence have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. While most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, few quantitative studies have been conducted to examine the link between gang membership and violent victimization. The current study uses…

  1. Gang masculinity and high-risk sexual behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Quinn, Katherine; Broaddus, Michelle; Pacella, Maria

    2017-02-01

    High-risk sexual behaviours include practices such as relationship violence and substance use, which often cluster together among young people in high-risk settings. Youth gang members often show high rates of such behaviours, substance use and relationship violence. This paper draws on data from in-depth interviews with male and female gang members from six different gangs to explore the role of powerful socialising peer groups that set gender, sexual and relationship roles and expectations for their male and female members. High-risk sexual behaviours among gang members included sex with multiple partners and group sex. Gang norms included the belief that male members were sexually insatiable with multiple sexual partners and that female gang members should be sexually available to male members. Alcohol and drugs were seen to have a large influence on sexual desire and the inability to use condoms. Much sexual behaviour with gangs, such as group sex, was viewed with ambivalence and seen as somewhat coercive. Finally, gendered sexual expectations (boys as sexually insatiable and girls as sexually available) made forming long-term romantic relationships problematic for gang members. The influence of gang norms such as these must be addressed in future programmes and interventions with gang members.

  2. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wechsberg WM

    2015-11-01

    their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72], run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4], get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47], and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96] and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]. Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]. These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. Keywords: school dropouts, youth alcohol use, sexual abuse, physical abuse, violence, drug abuse

  3. MEXICAN AMERICAN YOUTH AND ADULT PRISON GANGS IN A CHANGING HEROIN MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Avelardo

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the interaction between the larger community’s drug markets and youth and adult prison gangs, and the process that leads to specific adverse consequences both to the youth gangs as organizations, and to individual members. Described is the emergence of a restructured heroin market dominated by an adult prison gang. A major consequence of this was the increasing use of heroin among Mexican American gang members and their transformation from autonomous youth gangs to ext...

  4. Homicidal Events Among Mexican American Street Gangs: A Situational Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Kaplan, Charles

    2009-09-01

    This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situational factors that lead to gang members' susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immigrant youth involvement in these types of violent crimes is discussed. Findings demonstrate how locally embedded social processes associated with specific gang types, ecology, drugs, circumstances, and motives unfold into homicidal events. These findings may contribute to the development of street-based social programs focused on gang mediation, dispute resolution, and crisis intervention.

  5. Youth Gangs, Delinquency and Drug Use: A Test of the Selection, Facilitation, and Enhancement Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Uberto; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; McDuff, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Background: Three different explanations have been given for the observation that adolescent gang members report more delinquent behaviour than their counterparts who do not affiliate with gangs: a) adolescents who commit more crimes join gangs (selection hypothesis); b) gang membership facilitates deviant behaviour (facilitation hypothesis); c)…

  6. MEXICAN AMERICAN YOUTH AND ADULT PRISON GANGS IN A CHANGING HEROIN MARKET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Avelardo

    2005-10-01

    This article focuses on the interaction between the larger community's drug markets and youth and adult prison gangs, and the process that leads to specific adverse consequences both to the youth gangs as organizations, and to individual members. Described is the emergence of a restructured heroin market dominated by an adult prison gang. A major consequence of this was the increasing use of heroin among Mexican American gang members and their transformation from autonomous youth gangs to extensions of the adult prison gangs or their demise. Data was collected from 160 members of 26 Mexican American youth gangs and key informants in San Antonio. Findings focus on organizational rules, drug market transformations, consequences on members, and the impact of heroin on the gang's organization. Discussed is how the dominance of prison gangs is related to the increased incarceration and recidivism rates of Mexican Americans and declining economic opportunities for urban minorities.

  7. Understanding the Black Box of Gang Organization: Implications for Involvement in Violent Crime, Drug Sales, and Violent Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott H.; Katz, Charles M.; Webb, Vincent J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of gang organization on several behavioral measures. Using interview data from juvenile detention facilities in three Arizona sites, this article examines the relationship between gang organizational structure and involvement in violent crime, drug sales, victimization, and arrest. The gang literature suggests…

  8. Troubles in Smurftown: Youth Gangs and Moral Visions on Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Stephen; Christopher, John Chambers

    1997-01-01

    Examined youth gang problem in U.S. Guam. Found that changes in island traditionalism and culture wrought by modern society and modern Western individualism can isolate some youth. Concluded that gang members must be viewed as members of a culture that proposes moral visions and prescribes group behaviors for its membership. (Author/SD)

  9. Urban Street Gang Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    Strategies to enhance prosecution of gang-related crimes are presented, with a focus on enforcement and prosecution targeting urban street gangs. The model programs introduced offer strategies largely based on the practical experiences of agencies that participated in a demonstration program, the Urban Street Gang Drug Trafficking Enforcement…

  10. Youth Gangs: An Overview. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Youth Gang Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, James C.

    1998-01-01

    This bulletin provides an overview of the problems that youth gangs pose. It pinpoints the differences between youth gangs and adult criminal organizations and examines the risk factors that lead to youth gang membership. Some promising strategies being used to curb youth gang involvement are reviewed. The proliferation of youth gangs since 1980…

  11. Youth Gangs: A Spreading Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Ken

    1993-01-01

    Reviews statistics on youth gangs and gang violence. Discusses the socioeconomic and psychological causes of gangs and gang membership. Describes "Making the Right Connection," a gang prevention program in inner-city Catholic schools in Los Angeles, utilizing a curriculum focusing on self-esteem, personal responsibility, value formation,…

  12. Moving beyond the gang-drug-violence connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe-Laidler, Karen; Hunt, Geoffrey P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reflect on the conceptual and methodological developments of our gang research over the past 20 years. We have conducted a large number of consecutive qualitative studies on youth gangs, drugs and alcohol in one urban locale for over two decades and have amassed a data set of over 2000 qualitative interviews. We have kept pace with the social changes in San Francisco as they have impacted and shaped youth gangs and their members' lives. However, these changes have not only occurred in the social context of gang members' lives, but have also occurred in our own thinking about how to conceptualize research on gangs. We have broadened our analysis of gang members' lives and incorporated new theoretical developments from research outside of the gang field. In addition to this shift in emphasis, our overall aim has been to redirect the research focus on youth gangs from a social problem and criminological perspective to a more sociological approach in which these youth are situated within an everyday perspective. With these overall issues in mind, we see this discussion as taking stock of the nature of gang research in the past, present and future.

  13. Gang Membership and Drug Involvement: Untangling the Complex Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between gang membership and involvement in illegal substances. In addition, researchers have noted that gang members are frequently more heavily involved in drug sales, which often lead to increases in violent behaviors. Most of this research, however, is either cross-sectional or…

  14. Awareness of Deaf Sign Language and Gang Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cynthia; Morgan, Robert L.

    There have been increasing incidents of innocent people who use American Sign Language (ASL) or another form of sign language being victimized by gang violence due to misinterpretation of ASL hand formations. ASL is familiar to learners with a variety of disabilities, particularly those in the deaf community. The problem is that gang members have…

  15. Are the risk and protective factors similar for gang-involved, pressured-to-join, and non-gang-involved youth? A social-ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrin, Gabriel J; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the risk and protective factors for gang involvement among subgroups of youth (i.e., current or former gang members, youth who resisted gang membership, and non-gang-involved youth) using the social-ecological framework. Middle and high school students (N = 17,366) from school districts in a large Midwestern county participated. Results indicated that males were more likely than females to be involved in gangs. For the individual context, our findings indicate that racial and ethnic minorities, females, and youth with depression/suicidal ideation are likely to be at risk for gang involvement. For the family context, we found that having gang-involved family members and family dysfunction are related to youth gang involvement. For the peer context, peers' alcohol and drug use and bullying were significantly associated with gang involvement. For the school context, as our results demonstrate, youth who perceived fair treatment from teachers and other adults in school and those with a sense of belonging in school are more likely to avoid gang membership. For the neighborhood context, we found that presence of adult support in the neighborhood and perceived neighborhood safety are negatively associated with gang membership. Findings suggest that gang prevention efforts need to target multiple ecologies that surround and influence youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Automatic gang graffiti recognition and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Albert; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2017-09-01

    One of the roles of emergency first responders (e.g., police and fire departments) is to prevent and protect against events that can jeopardize the safety and well-being of a community. In the case of criminal gang activity, tools are needed for finding, documenting, and taking the necessary actions to mitigate the problem or issue. We describe an integrated mobile-based system capable of using location-based services, combined with image analysis, to track and analyze gang activity through the acquisition, indexing, and recognition of gang graffiti images. This approach uses image analysis methods for color recognition, image segmentation, and image retrieval and classification. A database of gang graffiti images is described that includes not only the images but also metadata related to the images, such as date and time, geoposition, gang, gang member, colors, and symbols. The user can then query the data in a useful manner. We have implemented these features both as applications for Android and iOS hand-held devices and as a web-based interface.

  17. Gang zag rten

    OpenAIRE

    Bkra shis bzang po

    2009-01-01

    Bstan 'dzin tells a folk tale named Gang zag rten. Gang zag rten was a holy man who married a herdswoman This collection of 77 audio files focuses on weddings and weddings speeches but also contains: folk tales, folk songs, riddles, tongue twisters, and local history from Bang smad Village and Ri sne Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County World Oral Literature Project

  18. Cults as Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Mary Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Considers cults as gangs, but also distinguishes cults from gangs by the cult's reference to and insistence on allegiance to single higher authority, usually spirit figure or spiritual leader. Examines Satanism, identifies Satanic holidays and symbols, and describes characteristics of cult-influenced youth. Includes list of organizations and books…

  19. Preventing Adolescent Gang Involvement. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    This Bulletin provides the reader with information to understand the complexity of the juvenile gang problem, and it provides information to dispel common gang stereotypes. After describing the key characteristics of youth gangs, the Bulletin examines risk factors for gang membership, including individual and family demographics, personal…

  20. Gang membership between ages 5 and 17 years in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrooz, David C; Sweeten, Gary

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the frequency, prevalence, and turnover in gang membership between ages 5 and 17 years in the United States. Data were from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, which is representative of youth born between 1980 and 1984. Age-specific patterns of gang joining, participation, and leaving are estimated based on youths (N = 7,335) self-reported gang membership at the baseline and eight subsequent interviews, which were combined with population age estimates from the 2010 U.S. Census to produce national estimates of gang membership. Sampling variance-adjusted bounds were estimated based on assumptions about missing cases and survey design effects. Demographic and socioeconomic variables are used to compare differences between gang and nongang youth. Youth gang members were disproportionately male, black, Hispanic, from single-parent households, and families living below the poverty level. We estimated that there were 1,059,000 youth gang members in the United States in 2010 (bounds ranging from 675,000 to 1,535,000). The prevalence of youth gang membership was 2.0% (1.2%-2.8%), peaking at age 14 years at 5.0% (3.9%-6.0%). Annually, 401,000 (204,000-639,000) juveniles join gangs and 378,000 (199,000-599,000) exit gangs, with a turnover rate of 36%. We discovered that significantly more people are involved with gangs than previous estimates would suggest. Clinicians and policy makers must recognize that youth gang members may not conform to popular perceptions of gang demographics. The patterns of youth gang membership observed in this study support prevention programs aimed at children before the teen years. This strategy is more likely to succeed than gang intervention or suppression strategies aimed at teens. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexual risk, substance use, mental health, and trauma experiences of gang-involved homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Robin

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the associations of sexual risk behaviors, substance use, mental health, and trauma with varying levels of gang involvement in a sample of Los Angeles-based homeless youths. Data were collected from 505 homeless youths who self-reported various health information and whether they have ever identified as or been closely affiliated with a gang member. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations of lifetime gang involvement with risk taking behaviors and negative health outcomes. Results revealed seventeen percent of youths have ever identified as a gang member and 46% as gang affiliated. Both gang members and affiliates were at greater risk of many negative behaviors than non-gang involved youths. Gang members and affiliates were more likely to report recent methamphetamine use, cocaine use, chronic marijuana use, having sex while intoxicated, and symptoms of depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. They were also more likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse and witnessing family violence. Gang members were more likely to ever attempt suicide, experience recent partner violence, and report physical abuse during childhood. Results suggest that lifetime gang involvement is related to a trajectory of negative outcomes and amplified risk for youths experiencing homelessness. Additionally, being closely connected to a gang member appears to have just as much as an impact on risk as personally identifying as a gang member. Given the lack of knowledge regarding the intersection between youth homelessness and gang involvement, future research is needed to inform policies and programs that can address the specific needs of this population. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gangs, Terrorism, and Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Decker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available What can street gangs tell us about radicalization and extremist groups? At first glance, these two groups seem to push the boundaries of comparison. In this article, we examine the important similarities and differences across criminal, deviant, and extremist groups. Drawing from research on street gangs, this article explores issues such as levels of explanation,organizational structure, group process, and the increasingly important role of technology and the Internet in the context of radicalization. There are points of convergence across these groups, but it is important to understand the differences between these groups. This review finds little evidence to support the contention that American street gangs are becoming increasingly radicalized. This conclusion is based largely on organizational differences between gangs and terror groups.

  3. A Systematic Review on the Functions of Rap Among Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozon, Jeffrey; Bensimon, Moshe

    2017-08-01

    Although the field of gangs is well studied, information regarding the way gangs may use or misuse music for different needs is sparse. The aim of this systematic review is to gather descriptive and empirical information to ascertain the important roles rap music possesses within gang life. This review suggests five main functions of rap used within gangs with an emphasis on the subgenre of gangsta rap. First, rap facilitates antisocial behavior by reinforcing such messages in its lyrics. Second, its deviant lyrics serve as a reflection of the violent reality experienced in many urban ghetto communities. Third, it operates as a means for constructing individual and collective identity, as well as resistance identity. Fourth, it functions as an educating force by teaching its members how to act and respond in the urban ghetto. Finally, rap glorifies gang norms among newcomers and successfully spreads its values to the general population.

  4. Extending Social Learning Theory to Explain Victimization Among Gang and Ex-Gang Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Analisa

    2018-03-01

    This study is among the first to extend and test social learning theory's ability to understand property and violent victimization. It specifically tests whether aspects of definitions, differential reinforcement, and differential association/modeling can explain the three types of victimization of gang members: actual experience, perception of likelihood, and fear. The sample consists of over 300 male and female gang members incarcerated in jails throughout Florida. The results show that all three types of victimization can be explained by the three aspects of social learning theory.

  5. Gangs in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-10

    the root causes of gang violence, which include poverty, joblessness , and the social exclusion of at-risk youth , are addressed in a holistic manner...the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13). The 18th Street gang was formed by Mexican immigrants in the Rampart section of Los Angeles in the 1960s, youth who were...populations; growing youth populations facing stagnant job markets; and an absence of political will to fight crime in a holistic manner. Some

  6. Youth Gangs in Nicaragua: Gang Membership as Structured Individualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclure, Richard; Sotelo, Melvin

    2004-01-01

    In Nicaragua the rise of urban youth gangs has led the government to adopt a crime-control approach that focuses on containing adolescent violence. Yet efforts to foil youth gangs have been ineffectual, largely because the nature of gang membership is little understood. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of youth gang…

  7. La deformación mediática de los jóvenes pandilleros; A deformação midiática dos jovens pandilleros; Media Deformation of Young Gang Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo César Moreno Hernández

    2016-07-01

    society from recognizing them as vulnerable and breached subjects. In this way, society accepts criminal law legislation of the enemy, which not only detracts from the exercise of political and fundamental rights of young gang members but also from all citizens.   Key words: transnational gangs, criminalization, youth, de-citizenization, moral panic.

  8. Gangs, clubs, and alcohol: The effect of organizational membership on adolescent drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chan S; Brashears, Matthew E; Genkin, Michael

    2016-07-01

    How does adolescent organizational membership in general, and simultaneous membership in distinct types of organizations in particular, impact drinking behavior? While past studies have focused either on the learning effect of involvement with gangs or on the constraining influence of conventional organizations on adolescent problem behavior, we explore the possibility that conventional school clubs can serve as socializing opportunities for existing gang members to engage in drinking behavior with non-gang club members. Using the Add Health data, we show that gang members drink more often, and engage in more binge drinking, than non-members. More importantly, individuals who are members of both gangs and school clubs drink alcohol at greater levels than those who are solely involved in gangs. In addition, non-gang adolescents who are co-members with gang members in the same school club are more likely to drink alcohol than non-members. This result has important implications for understanding the role of organizations in adolescent behavior and suggests that the study of delinquent behaviors would benefit from devoting more attention to individuals who bridge distinct types of organizations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Comparison between Mexican American Youth Who Are in Gangs and Those Who Are Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Hugo A.; Kinnier, Richard T.; MacKinnon, David P.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study compares the differences between 43 Mexican American gang members and 43 Mexican American adolescents who are not members of a gang on several demographic, educational, familial, cultural, and psychological variables. Differences were analyzed using "t" tests and chi-square analyses. discussion focuses on implications for…

  10. Youth Maltreatment and Gang Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kevin M.; Braaten-Antrim, Rhonda

    1998-01-01

    Examines whether physical and sexual maltreatment raises the risk of gang involvement among secondary school students. Findings show that maltreatment increases the probability of gang involvement, independent of demographic factors. When youth are physically and sexually abused their odds of gang involvement are four times higher than those who…

  11. Youth Gangs in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Aline K.; Egley, Arlen Jr.; Howell, James C.; Mendenhall, Barbara; Armstrong, Troy

    2004-01-01

    Since 1995, the National Youth Gang Center (NYGC) has surveyed law enforcement agencies across the nation about youth gang activity. Because tribal police departments were not included in earlier surveys, however, youth gang activities in Indian country have been largely absent from survey findings. This Bulletin describes the nature and makeup…

  12. Hurtigt i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Graversen, Brian; Damgaard, Bodil; Rosdahl, Anders

    hurtigere i job. Det gjaldt for alle grupper af ledige, men effekten var særlig stor for akademikere. Tilsyneladende har mange stærke ledige hurtigt selv fundet et job, for at undgå at deltage i aktiviteterne under den intensive indsats. Svagere ledige synes derimod at være blevet hjulpet i gang af...

  13. Youth Gangs and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Few schools escape dynamics and behaviors that are associated with gangs. Think, for example, about bullying, disruptive intergroup conflicts, drug sales and abuse, and vandalism such as theft, graffiti, and other forms of property damage. From both a policy and practice perspective, it is essential for schools to understand and address…

  14. Highlights of the 2012 National Youth Gang Survey. Juvenile Justice Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Howell, James C.; Harris, Meena

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the nation's gang problem and summarizes findings from the 2012 survey. Of the 2,538 survey recipients, 2,199 (87 percent) responded to the survey. In 2012, there were an estimated 30,700 gangs (an increase from 29,900 in 2011) and 850,000 gang members (an increase from 782,500 in 2011) throughout 3,100…

  15. Ganges River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Ganges River forms an extensive delta where it empties into the Bay of Bengal. The delta is largely covered with a swamp forest known as the Sunderbans, which is home to the Royal Bengal Tiger. It is also home to most of Bangladesh, one of the world's most densely populated countries. Roughly 120 million people live on the Ganges Delta under threat of repeated catastrophic floods due to heavy runoff of meltwater from the Himalayas, and due to the intense rainfall during the monsoon season. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on February 28, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using green, infrared, and blue wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  16. Canadian Female Gang Inmates: Risk, Needs, and the Potential for Prison Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Terri-Lynne; Ruddell, Rick

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of the characteristics of 337 Canadian adult female gang offenders with a matched sample of women offenders showed that they were more likely to have been sentenced for violent offenses, had a greater number of prior youth and criminal convictions, and served prior terms of incarceration. Gang members were also assessed as having…

  17. Campus Gang Rape: Party Games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.

    The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…

  18. Unusual proliferation arrest and transcriptional control properties of a newly discovered E2F family member, E2F-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubatz, S; Wood, J G; Livingston, D M

    1998-08-04

    E2F transcription factors play an important role in the regulation of cell cycle progression. We report here the cloning and characterization of an additional member of this family, E2F-6. E2F-6 lacks pocket protein binding and transactivation domains, and it is a potent transcriptional repressor that contains a modular repression domain at its carboxyl terminus. Overproduction of E2F-6 had no specific effect on cell cycle progression in asynchronously growing Saos2 and NIH 3T3 cells, but it inhibited entry into S phase of NIH 3T3 cells stimulated to exit G0. Taken together, these data suggest that E2F-6 can regulate a subset of E2F-dependent genes whose products are required for entry into the cell cycle but not for normal cell cycle progression.

  19. Latino Youth Gangs and Schools. Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Michelle; And Others

    This bibliography was written for those interested in learning about the sociological and psychological research literature on Hispanic/Latino youth gangs. The focus is on the sociological and psychological issues of gang life that could be used to inform a school's response to gangs of Hispanic and Latino youth. Gangs and educators have…

  20. Associations between Gun Violence Exposure, Gang Associations, and Youth Aggression: Implications for Prevention and Intervention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Forster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using cross-sectional data collected from three middle schools in Southeast Los Angeles, we assessed the association of neighborhood violence exposure, gang associations, and social self-control with past week aggression in a sample of minority youth (n=164. Results from Poisson and logistic regression models showed that direct exposure to gun violence, having friends in gangs, and low social self control were all positively associated with past week aggression. Among girls, having gang affiliated family members was positively associated with aggression, whereas among boys having friends in gangs was associated with past week aggression. Subjective expectations of engagement in future interpersonal violence were associated with being male, having friends in gangs, and fear of neighborhood gun violence. We recommend that youth violence prevention and intervention programs address the impact of family, peers, and gun violence on student coping and identify students with low social self-control who could benefit from social and emotional skills training.

  1. Raising Barriers to 'Outlaw Motorcycle Gang-Related Events' : Underlining the Difference between Pre-Emption and Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Ruitenburg (Teun)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractFighting outlaw motorcycle gangs is currently one of the top priorities of many governments around the world. This is due to the notion that outlaw motorcycle gangs do not consist solely of motorcycle enthusiasts. Numerous cases reveal that these clubs, or at least their members, are

  2. Gang Membership, School Violence, and the Mediating Effects of Risk and Protective Behaviors in California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2014-01-01

    There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school violence…

  3. Gang membership of California middle school students: behaviors and attitudes as mediators of school violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez; Gilreath, Tamika D; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2013-08-01

    Empirical evidence examining how risk and protective behaviors may possibly mediate the association between gang membership and school violence is limited. This study utilizes a statewide representative sample of 152 023 Latino, Black and White seventh graders from California to examine a theoretical model of how school risk (e.g. truancy, school substance use and risky peer approval) and protective (e.g. connectedness, support and safety) behaviors and attitudes mediate the effects of gang membership on school violence behaviors. The dataset was collected in the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 academic school years using the ongoing large-scale California Healthy Kids Survey conducted by WestEd for the State of California. Approximately 9.5% of the sample considered themselves to be a member of a gang. The findings indicate that school risk behaviors and attitudes mediate the association between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Although the direct negative association between gang membership and school violence perpetration is weak, the positive indirect effect mediated by school risks behaviors and attitudes is strong. This indicates that when gang members engage in school risk behaviors, they are much more likely to be school violence perpetrators. Implications for further research, theory and practice for both gang and school violence researchers are discussed.

  4. 2. The Central American gang phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Does, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    2.1. Differentiating between pandillas and maras Youth gangs have existed since the 1960s and 1970s in Central America. However, there are different types of Central American gangs and thus one has to distinguish between pandillas and maras. The former are localized, homegrown gangs, which are “direct inheritors” (Jütersonke, Rodgers & Muggah 2009: 379) of the gangs that have historically characterized Central American societies, while the latter are a more recent phenomenon with transnationa...

  5. Indigenous Youth and Gangs as Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which Indigenous young people experience gang activity as stemming from family membership and family obligations. Based on recent gang research in Australia, the paper provides firsthand accounts of what "life in the gang/life in the family" means for Indigenous young people.

  6. Racism, Schooling, and the Streets: A Critical Analysis of Vietnamese American Youth Gang Formation in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the relationship between educational experiences, street life, and gang formation for Vietnamese American youth gang members in Southern California. I use critical narrative methodology to center the life and experiences of a Los Angeles area gang member. His narrative substantiates how racism in schools and on the streets works together to impact and inform gang formation. Schools were sites of inter-ethnic conflict and racialized tension, and streets were spaces for contentious interactions with the police. In addition, I place the Vietnamese American youth gang phenomenon in larger historical and political contexts such as Californias anti-youth legislation, representations of Asian American youth, and U.S. geo-politics and imperialismfactors that have serious material and ideological implications and consequences.

  7. Racism, Schooling, and the Streets: A Critical Analysis of Vietnamese American Youth Gang Formation in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the relationship between educational experiences, street life, and gang formation for Vietnamese American youth gang members in Southern California. I use critical narrative methodology to center the life and experiences of a Los Angeles area gang member. His narrative substantiates how racism in schools and on the streets works together to impact and inform gang formation. Schools were sites of inter-ethnic conflict and racialized tension, and streets were spaces for contentious interactions with the police. In addition, I place the Vietnamese American youth gang phenomenon in larger historical and political contexts such as California’s anti-youth legislation, representations of Asian American youth, and U.S. geo-politics and imperialism—factors that have serious material and ideological implications and consequences.

  8. Youth Gangs in Schools. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, James C.; Lynch, James P.

    A report issued by the U.S. Department of Education (Chandler et al., 1998) analyzed the findings of the 1989 and 1995 School Crime Supplements to the National Crime Victim Survey, each of which was distributed to approximately 10,000 students. Findings of these surveys and other data sources show that gangs are very prevalent in schools, with 37%…

  9. Associations between school violence, military connection, and gang membership in California secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez; Gilreath, Tamika D; Sanchez, Cathia Y; Astor, Ron Avi

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have found that military-connected students confront many challenges-such as secondary traumatization-that may stem from a parent's deployment and frequent relocations. It is possible that multiple moves and deployments of family service members are associated with military-connected students' gang membership and involvement with school violence behaviors. In this study, a total of 13,484 students completed the core and military modules of the California Healthy Kids Survey. Logistic regressions examined the odds of a student being a member of a gang given their grade, gender, race/ethnicity, school violence behaviors, military-connectedness, changes in schools, and familial deployments. Results indicated that of the nearly 8% of students sampled who reported being in a gang, those with a parent or sibling currently serving in the military reported a higher prevalence rate of gang membership than students with no military connection. Students who reported being in fights or carrying weapons to school were at least twice more likely to be a gang member than students who reported not having been in fights or carrying weapons. Changing schools 4 or more times in a 5-year period and experiencing at least 1 familial deployment were also associated with an increased likelihood of gang membership. The findings of this study offer incentive to further explicate the gang and school violence experiences of military-connected students. This study supports schools in understanding the characteristics of the military-connected students and families they serve so they can implement appropriate interventions to curb gang and school violence behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Gangs: The Origins and Impact of Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Scott, Ed.; Monti, Daniel J., Ed.

    This book presents papers from some leading social scientists and scholars who examine the contemporary contours of America's gang problem. New material is provided on wilding (i.e., running amok for no specific reason) gangs, migration and drug trafficking, and public education disruption. Other topics involve organization of gangs, their social…

  11. Daily Arrests

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset provides the public with arrest information from the Montgomery County Central Processing Unit (CPU) systems. The data presented is derived from every...

  12. Youth Gang Programs and Strategies. OJJDP Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, James C.

    This document draws on more than 50 years of gang program evaluations to summarize what has been learned about: (1) prevention programs, including early childhood, school-based, and afterschool initiatives; (2) intervention programs, including those that work to create violence-free zones, establish gang summits and truces, and rehabilitate gang…

  13. National Youth Gang Survey, 1997. OJJDP Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Intergovernmental Research, Tallahassee, FL. National Youth Gang Center.

    The largest and most comprehensive national gang survey to date, the 1997 National Youth Gang Survey, contacted nearly 5,000 law enforcement agencies across the country. To allow for both comparative and trend analysis, the 1997 survey used the same sample as the 1996 survey. Survey results indicate that the percentage of jurisdictions reporting…

  14. Teaching Responsibility to Gang-Affiliated Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Michael E.; Walsh, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching youths who affiliate with a gang can be a daunting task. Risk factors for gang membership often compound across life domains and affect pro-social connectedness, cause feelings of marginalization, and hinder life-skill development. Sports and physical activities that are structured within a positive youth-development framework provide an…

  15. The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, James C.; Decker, Scott H.

    This bulletin addresses questions about the interrelatedness of youth gangs, drugs, and violent crime, discussing whether drug trafficking is a main cause of violence in youth gangs or only a correlate, and noting whether there are other important sources of gang violence. Section 1 presents a historical overview of gang drug use and trafficking,…

  16. Cognitive-behavioural interventions for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (7-16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, H; Gardner, F E M; Montgomery, P

    2008-04-16

    Many studies document a robust and consistent relationship between gang membership and elevated delinquency, with gang members disproportionately involved in crime compared to non-gang peers. Research also indicates that both delinquent youth and youth who join gangs often show a wide range of deficient or distorted social-cognitive processes compared to non-delinquent peers. Cognitive-behavioural interventions are designed to address cognitive deficits in order to reduce maladaptive or dysfunctional behaviour, and studies have documented their positive impact on a number of behavioural and psychological disorders among children and youth. To determine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural interventions for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (ages 7-16). Electronic searches of ASSIA, CINAHL, CJA, Cochrane Library, Dissertations Abstracts A, EMBASE, ERIC, IBSS, LILACs, LexisNexis Butterworths, MEDLINE, NCJR Service Abstracts Database, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts, to April 2007. Reviewers contacted relevant organisations, individuals, and list-servs and searched pertinent websites and reference lists. All randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions with a cognitive-behavioural intervention as the majority component, delivered to youth and children aged 7-16 not involved in a gang. Searching yielded 2,284 unduplicated citations, 2,271 of which were excluded as irrelevant based on title and abstract. One was excluded following personal communication with investigators. One citation, of a large randomised prevention trial, awaits assessment; personal communication with study authors yielded unpublished reports addressing gang outcomes, but insufficient detail precluded determining inclusion status. Seven remaining reports were excluded as irrelevant because they were narrative reviews or descriptions of programs without evaluations, did not address a gang prevention programme, or did not

  17. Youth Gangs as Pseudo-Governments: Implications for Violent Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Russell S. Sobel; Brian J. Osoba

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesize the failure of government to protect the rights of individuals from violence committed by youths has led to the formation of youth gangs as protective agencies. Our theory predicts an opposite direction of causality between gang activity and violent crime than is widely accepted. While areas with more gang activity also have more violence, our results suggest gangs form as protection agencies precisely in areas with high violent crime rates. While gangs, like governments, use v...

  18. Gangs and a global sociological imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Alistair; Hagedorn, John M

    2018-02-01

    Across the globe, the phenomenon of youth gangs has become an important and sensitive public issue. In this context, an increasing level of research attention has focused on the development of universalized definitions of gangs in a global context. In this article, we argue that this search for similarity has resulted in a failure to recognize and understand difference. Drawing on an alternative methodology we call a 'global exchange', this article suggests three concepts-homologies of habitus, vectors of difference and transnational reflexivity-that seek to re-engage the sociological imagination in the study of gangs and globalization.

  19. Gang membership and substance use: guilt as a gendered causal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Donna L; Melde, Chris; Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    2015-03-01

    We examine whether anticipated guilt for substance use is a gendered mechanism underlying the noted enhancement effect of gang membership on illegal drug use. We also demonstrate a method for making stronger causal inferences when assessing mediation in the presence of moderation and time-varying confounding. We estimate a series of inverse propensity weighted models to obtain unbiased estimates of mediation in the presence of confounding of the exposure (i.e., gang membership) and mediator (i.e., anticipated guilt) using three waves of data from a multi-site panel study of a law-related education program for youth ( N =1,113). The onset of gang membership significantly decreased anticipated substance use guilt among both male and female respondents. This reduction was significantly associated with increased frequency of substance use only for female respondents, however, suggesting that gender moderates the mechanism through which gang membership influences substance use. Criminologists are often concerned with identifying causal pathways for antisocial and/or delinquent behavior, but confounders of the exposure, mediator, and outcome often interfere with efforts to assess mediation. Many new approaches have been proposed for strengthening causal inference for mediation effects. After controlling for confounding using inverse propensity weighting, our results suggest that interventions aimed at reducing substance use by current and former female gang members should focus on the normative aspects of these behaviors.

  20. Gang youth as a vulnerable population for nursing intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill; Schneiderman, Janet U; Loken, Alisha; Lankenau, Stephen E; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Gang youth often come from socially and economically marginalized communities. Such youth report significantly higher rates of participation in violence, substance use, and risky sexual behaviors than their nongang peers. This manuscript argues that gang-identified youth constitute a vulnerable population. Data are drawn from the general research literature and a case example of how a nurse in Los Angeles partnered with law enforcement to provide preventive health care to gang youth and youth at-risk for joining gangs. Gang youth are a vulnerable population amenable to nursing intervention. Gang youth may have particular health care needs and may need special access to health care.

  1. Arresting Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James J; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2017-12-01

    Evolution in the form of selective breeding has long been harnessed as a useful tool by humans. However, rapid evolution can also be a danger to our health and a stumbling block for biotechnology. Unwanted evolution can underlie the emergence of drug and pesticide resistance, cancer, and weeds. It makes live vaccines and engineered cells inherently unreliable and unpredictable, and therefore potentially unsafe. Yet, there are strategies that have been and can possibly be used to stop or slow many types of evolution. We review and classify existing population genetics-inspired methods for arresting evolution. Then, we discuss how genome editing techniques enable a radically new set of approaches to limit evolution. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Re-framing Gang Violence: A Pro-Youth Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Frederick

    1992-01-01

    Focuses on one aspect of contemporary youth violence, youth gangs and groups, in effort to open broad discussion of youth gangs and frame the process of developing a comprehensive prevention/intervention strategy in proyouth way. Examines three ways of framing youth gang phenomenon: youth violence as racism, alienation, and criminality. Considers…

  3. Improved utilization and responsiveness with gang scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitelson, D.G., [Institute of Computer Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (IsraelL); Jette, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Most commercial multicomputers use space-slicing schemes in which each scheduling decision has an unknown impact on the future: should a job be scheduled, risking that it will block other larger jobs later, or should the processors be left idle for now in anticipation of future arrivals? This dilemma is solved by using gang scheduling, because then the impact of each decision is limited to its time slice, and future arrivals can be accommodated in other time slices. This added flexibility is shown to improve overall system utilization and responsiveness. Empirical evidence from using gang scheduling on a Cray T3D installed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab corroborates these results, and shows conclusively that gang scheduling can be very effective with current technology. 29 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Gang: Culture. Eidos and Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Crewe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The terms ‘gang’ and ‘culture’ are used with varying degrees of (imprecision in different fields of academe, media, public, and policy; and this paper will contend that this circumstance provides a fertile ground for the reification of these two concepts. It will suggest that this phenomenon of reification has already taken hold in various parts of the study of gangs more recently, and in cultural criminology in a more established way. This paper will deconstruct the concepts ‘gang’ and ‘culture’ and attempt to reconstruct them in a way that opens up the discourse of ‘gangs’ and ‘culture’ such that better sense may be made of the phenomena that these terms are intended to evoke. Los terminos "banda" y "cultura" se usan con diferentes grados de (imprecisión en distintos ámbitos del mundo académico, medios de comunicación, público y política. En este artículo se defiende que esta circunstancia ofrece un campo fértil para la cosificación de estos dos conceptos. Se sugiere que este fenómeno de cosificación ya ha arraigado de diversa forma en los estudios de bandas recientes, y en la criminología cultural de forma más consolidada. Este artículo deconstruye los conceptos "banda" y "cultura" e intenta reconstruirlos de forma que se abra el discurso sobre "bandas" y "cultura" para tener una sensación mejor del fenómeno que estos términos intentan evocar. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2875344

  5. Gangs, Marginalised Youth and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuchar, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents are routinely demonised by politicians and the media.Ross Deuchar's compelling research into the views of some of the toughest--youths who are growing up in socially deprived urban areas of Glasgow in Scotland--reveals the true facts. They talked to him about their lives, gang culture and territorialiity and he passes on their words…

  6. National Youth Gang Survey, 1996. OJJDP Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Intergovernmental Research, Tallahassee, FL. National Youth Gang Center.

    The 1996 National Youth Gang Survey was the largest of its type ever conducted, and the results are representative of the United States as a whole. Almost 5,000 law enforcement agencies were surveyed, and more than 80% of the sample responded. Agencies in all large cities, and a random sample of smaller cities were included, as were suburban…

  7. Latin Gangs in Spain? Immigrant Youth Groups, Stigma and Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giliberti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the criminalized social imaginaries of so-called Latin gangs in Spain, dismantling stereotypes and proposing different analysis approaches. The empirical material comes from an ethnography conducted between 2010 and 2011 in neighborhoods in the suburbs of Barcelona. The main techniques used were document analysis, participant observation with various youth immigrant groups and collection of data from oral sources with diferents types of informants. The results of the study discuss the social image of these groups, which stigmatize young people that are involved in them and it is symptom of segregated reception of immigration, increasingly in times of economic crisis. We analyze the dynamics of violence concerning these groups; at the same time, we interprete these groups as circulation spaces of social capital and as forms of agency, that can empower the members individually and collectively.

  8. Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin presents research on why youth join gangs and how a community can build gang prevention and intervention services. The author summarizes recent literature on gang formation and identifies promising and effective programs for gang prevention. The following are some key findings: (1) Youth join gangs for protection, enjoyment, respect,…

  9. Circulatory Arrest, Brain Arrest and Death Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam David Shemie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances, particularly in the capacity to support, replace or transplant failing organs, continue to challenge and refine our understanding of human death. Given the ability to reanimate organs before and after death, both inside and outside of the body, through reinstitution of oxygenated circulation, concepts related to death of organs (e.g. cardiac death are no longer valid. This paper advances the rationale for a single conceptual determination of death related to permanent brain arrest, resulting from primary brain injury or secondary to circulatory arrest. The clinical characteristics of brain arrest are the permanent loss of capacity for consciousness and loss of all brainstem functions. In the setting of circulatory arrest, death occurs after the arrest of circulation to the brain rather than death of the heart. Correspondingly, any intervention that resumes oxygenated circulation to the brain after circulatory arrest would invalidate the determination of death.

  10. Youth Gangs and Streets in Surabaya, East Java: Growth, Movement and Places in the Context of Urban Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Carlo Alcano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the nature of youth street gangs in the poor innercity neighborhood of kampung Malang, located in Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. Specifically, it explores the relationship of youth street gangs with urban places and their transition to organized crime in the context of migration to South Bali. It focuses on notions of social cohesion, discipline and invulnerability while placing an emphasis on work and the quest for work against a background of uncertainty and precariousness. It introduces movement as a salient feature of life in the city and in the life of young gang members and it looks at how circuits of human mobility are configured for a particular group of people, to particular ends in a particular place.

  11. Ethnic differences in the effect of parenting on gang involvement and gang delinquency: a longitudinal, hierarchical linear modeling perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Barnes, C J; Mason, C A

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency. An ethnically diverse sample of 300 ninth-grade students was recruited and assessed on eight occasions during the school year. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that, in general, adolescents decreased their level of gang involvement over the course of the school year, whereas the average level of gang delinquency remained constant over time. As predicted, adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency were most strongly predicted by peer gang involvement and peer gang delinquency, respectively. Nevertheless, parenting behavior continued to significantly predict change in both gang involvement and gang delinquency, even after controlling for peer behavior. A significant interaction between parenting and ethnic and cultural heritage found the effect of parenting to be particularly salient for Black students, for whom higher levels of behavioral control and lower levels of lax parental control were related to better behavioral outcomes over time, whereas higher levels of psychological control predicted worse behavioral outcomes.

  12. Dimensions of Gang Issues at the National and International Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatošová Veronika

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to define the main dimensions of gang, its structure, mutual connections and influence on the contemporary society at national and international level. This paper is based on knowledge about the issues of gang and presents the main differences and characteristics of formalized and non-formalized gang and the main identical and different characters. It comes from a study of current knowledge on the issue of gang and discusses its general forms. In this paper, a discussion of existing studies and typologies of these peculiar social groups, including an explanation is provided. The next section will introduce the particular qualities of the crimes committed by (mostly youth gangs and explain their possible causes. The main findings of the paper is putting relations between formalized and non-formalized gang and their influence on the present and future society in the social, psychological, economic, ethnic and criminal dimension.

  13. Monitoring ARC services with GangliARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, D; Karpenko, D

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of Grid services is essential to provide a smooth experience for users and provide fast and easy to understand diagnostics for administrators running the services. GangliARC makes use of the widely-used Ganglia monitoring tool to present web-based graphical metrics of the ARC computing element. These include statistics of running and finished jobs, data transfer metrics, as well as showing the availability of the computing element and hardware information such as free disk space left in the ARC cache. Ganglia presents metrics as graphs of the value of the metric over time and shows an easily-digestable summary of how the system is performing, and enables quick and easy diagnosis of common problems. This paper describes how GangliARC works and shows numerous examples of how the generated data can quickly be used by an administrator to investigate problems. It also presents possibilities of combining GangliARC with other commonly-used monitoring tools such as Nagios to easily integrate ARC monitoring into the regular monitoring infrastructure of any site or computing centre.

  14. Homegirls, Hoodrats and Hos: Co-constructing Gang Status through Discourse and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Kolb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a growing literature regarding female gang membership, little is known about the ways in which gang-affiliated women negotiate the boundaries of gang membership. The current study, based on semi-structured interviews with twenty-four formerly gang-affiliated Chicana women involved with a prominent gang prevention/intervention organization, sought to understand how these women negotiated their interactions and understood their identity within the gang. Findings suggest that these women and the gangs in which they operate recreate broader gender norms that affect their standing and social mobility within the gang.

  15. Major identity transformations - movements beyond criminal life and the biker gang environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Hansen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    . Empirically the paper illustrates these transitions and transformations with an empirical case of a young man, called Peter, changing his life conduct becoming less of a criminal member of the (biker) gang environment becoming more of a member of academia. The paper explore the action reasons of Peter...... logs, biographical documentaries and life story presentations to reflect identity change, which also becomes reflected part of the moment-movement research. The paper explore the struggles to move beyond marginal positions and how collective processes of recognition and reification might help about...

  16. Gang Identity or Self-Expression? Researchers Look beyond the Surface of "Gang Clothing" and Appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hethorn, Janet

    1994-01-01

    A study that included observations and interviews in street and school settings throughout California and in selected cities nationwide documented the changing nature of gang identity within the broader context of street style and adolescent expression. Suggests that targeting student behavior, as opposed to style of clothing, would be more…

  17. Pachuco Gangs in Houston--A Postwar Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Luis Rey

    1979-01-01

    Combined with the overabundance of free time caused by unemployment, pachuco gangs in Chicano neighborhoods became very active during the 1940s. Houston had its own pachuco gangs that not only had feuds with each other but also clashed with Houston police. (NQ)

  18. Gang Youth, Substance Use Patterns, and Drug Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…

  19. Public Perceptions of Youth Gang Crime: An Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Douglas W.; McGarrell, Edmund F.

    1993-01-01

    Reports results of a survey administered to the general public in a large midwestern city on public perceptions of youth gang crime. The 306 residents (aged 14 years and over) of Indianapolis (Indiana) surveyed generally feel that youth gang crime is more serious in areas other than their own. (SLD)

  20. A Statewide Study of Gang Membership in California Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2016-01-01

    To date, there is a paucity of empirical evidence that examines gang membership in schools. Using statewide data of 7th-, 9th-, and 11th-grade students from California, this study focuses on the prevalence of gang membership by county, region, ethnicity, and grade level. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed with…

  1. An airline cardiac arrest program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, M F; Donaldson, E; Geddes, J S

    1997-11-04

    As many as 1000 lives are lost annually from cardiac arrest in commercial aircraft. Ventricular fibrillation (VF), the most common mechanism, can be treated effectively only with prompt defibrillation, whereas the current policy of most airlines is to continue cardiopulmonary resuscitation pending aircraft diversion. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of making semiautomatic external defibrillators (AEDs) available for use on airline passengers with cardiac arrest. AEDs were installed on international Qantas aircraft and at major terminals, selected crew were trained in their use, and all crew members were trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Supervision was provided by medical volunteers or (remotely) by airline physicians. During a 64-month period, AEDs were used on 109 occasions: 63 times for monitoring an acutely ill passenger and 46 times for cardiac arrest. Twenty-seven episodes of cardiac arrest occurred in aircraft, often (11 of 27 [41%]) unwitnessed, and they were usually (21 of 27 [78%]) associated with asystole or pulseless idioventricular rhythm. All 19 arrests in terminals were witnessed; VF was present in 17 (89%). Overall, defibrillation was initially successful in 21 of 23 cases (91%). Long-term survival from VF was achieved in 26% (2 of 6 in aircraft and 4 of 17 in terminals). The ability to monitor cardiac rhythm aided decisions on diversion, which was avoided in most passengers with asystole or idioventricular rhythm. AEDs in aircraft and terminals, with appropriate crew training, are helpful in the management of cardiac emergencies. Survival from VF is practicable and is comparable with the most effective prehospital ambulance emergency services. Costly aircraft diversions can be avoided in clearly futile situations, enhancing the cost-effectiveness of the program.

  2. Reviving the Ganges Water Machine: potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Upali Ananda; Muthuwatta, Lal; Surinaidu, Lagudu; Anand, Sumit; Jain, Sharad Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The Ganges River basin faces severe water challenges related to a mismatch between supply and demand. Although the basin has abundant surface water and groundwater resources, the seasonal monsoon causes a mismatch between supply and demand as well as flooding. Water availability and flood potential is high during the 3-4 months (June-September) of the monsoon season. Yet, the highest demands occur during the 8-9 months (October-May) of the non-monsoon period. Addressing this mismatch, which is likely to increase with increasing demand, requires substantial additional storage for both flood reduction and improvements in water supply. Due to hydrogeological, environmental, and social constraints, expansion of surface storage in the Ganges River basin is problematic. A range of interventions that focus more on the use of subsurface storage (SSS), and on the acceleration of surface-subsurface water exchange, has long been known as the Ganges Water Machine (GWM). The approach of the GWM for providing such SSS is through additional pumping and depleting of the groundwater resources prior to the onset of the monsoon season and recharging the SSS through monsoon surface runoff. An important condition for creating such SSS is the degree of unmet water demand. The paper shows that the potential unmet water demand ranging from 59 to 124 Bm3 year-1 exists under two different irrigation water use scenarios: (i) to increase irrigation in the Rabi (November-March) and hot weather (April-May) seasons in India, and the Aman (July-November) and Boro (December-May) seasons in Bangladesh, to the entire irrigable area, and (ii) to provide irrigation to Rabi and the hot weather season in India and the Aman and Boro seasons in Bangladesh to the entire cropped area. However, the potential for realizing the unmet irrigation demand is high only in 7 sub-basins in the northern and eastern parts, is moderate to low in 11 sub-basins in the middle, and has little or no potential in 4 sub

  3. salvadoran gang weapons: analysis of lethality, firepower, and implications for security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herard Von Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since they surfaced during the final phase of the Internal Conflict in El Salvador, gangs have always used the firearms that were available on the formal and illegal markets. Once the war concluded, and despite new regulations regarding possession of firearms, gang members were able to access them through two means: purchasing on the commercial market, and creating them themselves.This initial acquisition of firearms evolved to acquisition of heavier firepower; particularly assault rifles, and guns that are able to shoot shotgun shells, as well as traditional gauges (9x19 mm, .45, and .38. The cause of this could be directly linked to two factors. On the one hand, the war between two main gangs, the “MS” and the “Barrio 18” –as could be expected– increased the need for greater firepower. On the other hand, there was greater availability of firearms on the market, such as assault rifles, and machine guns, as a result of the war.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i1.1558

  4. 2000 Survey of Youth Gangs in Indian Country. NYGC Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Aline K.; Egley, Arlen, Jr.

    In 2001, the National Youth Gang Center conducted a survey of youth gangs in Indian country. Three hundred of the 577 federally recognized tribal communities responded to the survey. Twenty-three percent of Indian communities reported active youth gangs during 2000. The extent of the gang problem varied considerably among communities, with many…

  5. Police Handling of Youth Gangs. Reports of the National Juvenile Justice Assessment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needle, Jerome A.; Stapleton, Wm Vaughan

    Although the organizational structure and activities of youth gangs have been studied, little research has focused on law enforcement strategies to handle youth gang behavior. To examine how police handle youth gangs and law violation and to identify effective prevention and control strategies, the police gang control and youth personnel…

  6. Cardiac arrest leadership: in need of resuscitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip S; Shall, Emma; Rakhit, Roby

    2016-12-01

    Leadership skills directly correlate with the quality of technical performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and clinical outcomes. Despite an improved focus on non-technical skills in CPR training, the leadership of cardiac arrests is often variable. To assess the perceptions of leadership and team working among members of a cardiac arrest team and to evaluate future training needs. Cross-sectional survey of 102 members of a cardiac arrest team at an Acute Hospital Trust in the UK with 892 inpatient beds. Responses sought from doctors, nurses and healthcare assistants to 12 rated statements and 4 dichotomous questions. Of 102 responses, 81 (79%) were from doctors and 21 (21%) from nurses. Among specialist registrars 90% agreed or strongly agreed that there was clear leadership at all arrests compared with between 28% and 49% of nurses and junior doctors respectively. Routine omission of key leadership tasks was reported by as many as 80% of junior doctors and 50% of nurses. Almost half of respondents reported non-adherence with Advanced Life Support (ALS) guidelines. Among junior members of the team, 36% felt confident to lead an arrest and 75% would welcome further dedicated cardiac arrest leadership training. Leadership training is integrated into the ALS (Resus Council, UK) qualification. However, this paper found that in spite of this training; standards of leadership are variable. The findings suggest a pressing need for further dedicated cardiac arrest leadership training with a focus on improving key leadership tasks such as role assignment, team briefing and debriefing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Gang Membership Risk Factors for Eighth-Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Martinez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the major risk factor domains for gang membership and the relationships of these risk factors to eighth grade students. The domains of risk factors include: individual characteristics, peer group influences, family conditions, school experiences and the community context, along with demographic information obtained from the Student Gang Survey items. Through logistic multiple regression, risk factors associated with school, peer, community-neighborhood, and family were used to predict gang membership. Demographic data were also used as predictor variables. Results indicated that an increase in Community-Neighborhood Risk was associated with a decrease in joining a gang. Non-significant findings for Peer Risk, School Risk, Family Risk and demographic variables are additionally discussed. The current research identifies issues which middle school youth encounter in a county setting; provides a homegrown report to assist stakeholders (administrators, teachers, parents, students, and law enforcement in identifying locally relevant risk factors of gang behavior; and substantiates risk factors for gang membership proliferation in those neighborhoods with no recently documented history of gangs.

  8. Thinking Like an Indian: Healing Tribal Gang Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arturo

    2001-01-01

    Describes a tribal school with a mission to gang-involved youth in the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (Arizona). Explains disciplinary actions; involvement of parents, teachers, and police; and requirements for student participation in various activities. (LRW)

  9. Pittsburgh Police Arrest Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Arrest data contains information on people taken into custody by City of Pittsburgh police officers. More serious crimes such as felony offenses are more likely to...

  10. Risk and protective factors associated with gang affiliation among high-risk youth: a public health approach

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Dawn Delfin

    2012-01-01

    Background Gang violence accounted for 20% of homicides in large cities from 2002 to 2006. Preventing gang affiliation (ie, youth who either desire or have gang membership) might reduce subsequent gang activity. Previous research has focused on identifying risk factors for gang affiliation; however, little information is available on protective factors. Aim To identify risk and protective factors to provide more direction for gang violence prevention strategies. Methods The author analysed cr...

  11. Putting Out Fires: Understanding the Developmental Nature and Roles of Inmate Gangs in the Philippine Overcrowded Jails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narag, Raymund E; Lee, Sou

    2017-12-01

    Utilizing intensive interview data from inmates in one of the most overcrowded and underresourced jails in Metro Manila, Philippines, this article explores the origins and roles of inmate pangkats (a derivative of gangs) in jail management. Responding to institutional deficiencies, such as police misconduct and court case delays, and structural shortages, such as lack of space, operational resources, and personnel, this article investigates how the pangkats supplement jail management and help keep the jail operations afloat. Specifically, this article documents how the pangkats put out fires: their intricate roles in mitigating pains of imprisonment, conflict mediation, order maintenance, and instilling discipline among their members. This article also details the emergence of a give-and-take relationship that develops between and among the pangkats and jail officials that are reflective of the Philippine sociocultural realities. Implications to theory on prison community and policy on gang management in a developing country context are discussed.

  12. Associations Between Long-Term Gang Membership and Informal Social Control Processes, Drug Use, and Delinquent Behavior Among Mexican American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Alice; Saint Onge, Jarron M; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Valdez, Avelardo

    2016-10-01

    Research has found that among juveniles weak ties to informal social control entities such as parents, school, and conventional peers increase the probability of the initiation and continuation of deviant behaviors such as drug use and crime. Given the weak ties of formal social control mechanisms in highly disadvantaged communities, informal social control mechanisms are often an important deterrent that reduce or moderate engagement in deviant behaviors among serious and persistent offenders. This analysis examines the association between long-term gang membership and adolescent informal social control processes, drug use, and delinquency. This research is based on data from a study of 160 Mexican American male gang members between the ages of 16 and 20. Findings suggest that among gang members in this context, commonly studied informal control mechanisms such as the family and schools do not function to deter long-term gang membership that is associated with serious criminal and violent behavior and drug use. The implications for future research on desistance or continuation of antisocial behavior across the life course are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Can the Jamaican Security Forces Successfully Reduce the Violent Impact of Gangs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    movements in the form of local gangs, youth gangs and juvenile delinquents. In between these two extremes are other gangs of varied forms, composition and...also experiences high unemployment and high exposure to crime making them easy recruits for gangs (see appendix A). Anthony Harriott, Professor of...typical socio-economic factors. The socio-economic factors include poverty, widespread unemployment and absence of educational opportunities, lack of

  14. Understanding Gang Membership and Crime Victimization among Jail Inmates: Testing the Effects of Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathleen A.; Lane, Jodi; Akers, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous research has examined factors related to gang membership and offending, research on the relationship between gangs and victimization is limited. The present study builds on previous research and examines gang membership, victimization, and self-control among 2,414 jail inmates. Results from self-report surveys indicate that gang…

  15. Gangs, Migration and Crime; The changing landscape in Europe and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decker, S.; van Gemert, F.H.M.; Pyrooz, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    The history of gangs is intertwined with migration. In America, a number of classic studies have reported on the possible causal link between immigration, socio-economic position, social disorganization, and gang formation. More recently in Europe, the impact of migration on gangs reflects a complex

  16. Streets and Schools: How Educators Can Help Chicano Marginalized Gang Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, James Diego

    1999-01-01

    Gangs socialize Chicano youths, who then exhibit behaviors that interfere with learning. Educators are not well informed about gang culture to intervene. Three Los Angeles programs provide examples of ways schools can stop exacerbating the problem and successfully reach youth in gangs. (SK)

  17. The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970-98. OJJDP Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Walter B.

    For many decades communities have been troubled by the criminal activities of youth gangs. This report looks at almost 30 years of information collected on gang problems in nearly 4,000 communities. The number of localities reporting gang problems increased between the 1970s and the 1990s, representing a tenfold increase in the number of cities…

  18. Highlights of the 2004 National Youth Gang Survey. OJJDP Fact Sheet. FS-200601

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Ritz, Christina E.

    2006-01-01

    Annually since 1995, the National Youth Gang Center (NYGC) has conducted the National Youth Gang Survey (NYGS) of law enforcement agencies across the United States regarding the presences and characteristics of local gang problems. This Fact Sheet summarizes NYGS findings from the 2004 survey. The nationally representative sample included the…

  19. Violence by Youth Gangs and Youth Groups in Major American Cities. Final and Summary Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Walter B.

    This report represents the findings of a study on violence by youth gangs in 12 major American cities, and deals with the following topics: (1) the rationale and methods for a national survey of youth gangs; (2) the existence and seriousness of the problem of youth gangs in 12 major American cities; (3) the size and scope of the youth gang…

  20. Physics analysis of the gang partial rod drive event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, C.; Frost, R.L.

    1992-08-01

    During the routine positioning of partial-length control rods in Gang 3 on the afternoon of Monday, July 27, 1992, the partial-length rods continued to drive into the reactor even after the operator released the controlling toggle switch. In response to this occurrence, the Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group (SAEG) requested that the Applied Physics Group (APG) analyze the gang partial rod drive event. Although similar accident scenarios were considered in analysis for Chapter 15 of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), APG and SAEG conferred and agreed that this particular type of gang partial-length rod motion event was not included in the SAR. This report details this analysis

  1. Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.

    2011-10-01

    We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs’ centers of activity influence the agents’ motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.

  2. Humanitarian Protection for Children Fleeing Gang-Based Violence in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Carlson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2011, the US Customs and Border Protection (CBP began to see a steady rise in the number of Unaccompanied Alien Children (UAC from Central America, particularly from the Northern Triangle countries—El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala—arriving to the US-Mexico border. The number of children entering the United States from these countries more than doubled during fiscal year (FY 2012 and continued to grow through FY 2014. In FY 2013, CBP apprehended over 35,000 children. That number almost doubled to 66,127 in FY 2014, with Central American children outnumbering their Mexican counterparts for the first time. Research has identified high levels of violence perpetrated by gangs and drug cartels in the Northern Triangle countries and Mexico as a primary reason for this surge. Under the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA passed with bi-partisan support in 2008, children from Central America cannot be immediately deported and must be given a court hearing.In contrast, unless there are indicia of trafficking, Mexican children are returned immediately to their country. Advocates have expressed concern that expedited removal of Mexican children places children with valid humanitarian claims at risk of being returned to harm, including forcible recruitment into drug cartels and trafficking rings. After the spike in arrivals in FY 2014, several members of Congress called for a change in the TVPRA, urging that Central American children be treated like Mexican children and undergo expedited procedures for their removal. Many of their constituents supported such measures. The Obama administration requested additional funds to strengthen border security, speed up deportation procedures and implement measures to address the humanitarian crisis in Central America. Groups and individuals across the country came together to provide shelter, medical and psychological care and legal representation to many

  3. Do the Himalaya Export Air Pollutants from the Ganges Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, A.; Fiore, A.; Horowitz, L.; Levy, H.

    2009-04-01

    The Ganges Basin in South Asia ranks close to Eastern China in both population and air pollutant emissions. During the winter-spring dry season it often experiences a similar "atmospheric brown cloud" haze layer of aerosols and trace gases. Global model results, however, have suggested that the Ganges Basin's contribution to long distance pollution transport is significantly less than that of Eastern China. The assumption is that, for much of the dry season, the Ganges Basin experiences a large-scale inversion that suppresses vertical mixing of pollutants into the jet stream aloft. Yet both observations at high-altitude stations (such as the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid station located at 5079 meters above sea level near Everest Base Camp) and vertically resolved satellite data show significant pollution levels at high altitudes over the Himalaya, which line the northern edge of the Ganges Basin. Using the WRF model at resolutions as high as 1 km, along with photography over the Himalaya, we present several mechanisms by which pollutants from the boundary layer over the Ganges Basin can be transported vertically by Himalaya meteorology to heights where they can mix into the jetstream and be exported long distances. These mechanisms are closely tied to the shape of the topography and operate at scales of less than a few kilometers while global model grid spacing typically exceeds 100 km. We attempt to sum up the total contribution to pollutant export by the entire Himalaya region, and discuss the implications for both air quality over the Ganges Basin and global atmospheric chemistry and climate.

  4. Who Needs Enemies with Friends like These? The Importance of Place for Young People Living in Known Gang Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralphs, Robert; Medina, Juanjo; Aldridge, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Despite a growing concern about gangs in Britain, academic research that focuses on gangs remains scarce. Drawing on data from the ESRC-funded ethnographic research YOGEC (Youth Gangs in an English City) project, this paper explores the negotiation of space and place by young people living in inner-city areas affected by gangs. Using a combination…

  5. Discipline and punish? Youth gangs' response to "zero-tolerance" policies in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Lirio Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    The response of youth gangs to "zero tolerance" policing in Honduras are examined with respect to territoriality. Focusing on two main gangs, the Mara Salvatrucha and the 18th Street Gang, the ways in which state authority is challenged are assessed from an analysis of body territoriality, the respatialisation of organisational structures across urban neighbourhoods, and the production of new enclosed spaces of gang territoriality. These redefinitions of group territoriality strengthen the emotional bonds and sense of belonging towards the gang, enabling the emergence of a transnational/imagined community.

  6. An integrated public health and criminal justice approach to gangs: What can research tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Gebo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a call to better link public health and criminal justice approaches to best address crime problems generally, and youth and gang violence in particular. Importantly, there has yet to be a systematic examination of how criminal justice approaches can be integrated within a public health framework. This paper examines the strengths and challenges with mapping gang research and evidence-informed practices onto a public health approach. Conceptual examination reveals benefits to utilizing an integrated framework, but it also exposes core problems with identification and prediction of gang joining and gang membership. The gang label as a master status is called into question. It is argued that a public health framework can inform public policy approaches as to when the focus should be youth violence versus gangs and gang violence.

  7. An integrated public health and criminal justice approach to gangs: What can research tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebo, Erika

    2016-12-01

    There has been a call to better link public health and criminal justice approaches to best address crime problems generally, and youth and gang violence in particular. Importantly, there has yet to be a systematic examination of how criminal justice approaches can be integrated within a public health framework. This paper examines the strengths and challenges with mapping gang research and evidence-informed practices onto a public health approach. Conceptual examination reveals benefits to utilizing an integrated framework, but it also exposes core problems with identification and prediction of gang joining and gang membership. The gang label as a master status is called into question. It is argued that a public health framework can inform public policy approaches as to when the focus should be youth violence versus gangs and gang violence.

  8. Criminal gangs as perpetrators and 'protectors' | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... However, research in Latin America suggests that organized criminal activity can undermine the fabric of social cohesion and the ability of communities to find collective responses to violence and exclusion. For example, while youth gangs in San Salvador are the main threat to those living in areas they ...

  9. Clinical Issues in the Treatment of Chicano Male Gang Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitz, Jerald; Valdez, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Critical factors in the behavior of Chicano gang youth are family disintegration, cultural dissolution, abusive family relationships, and histories of interpersonal violence. Specific treatment modalities (individual, family, group) are discussed, and the importance of a multimodal approach is emphasized. Case studies highlight family dynamics and…

  10. Surviving gangs, violence and racism in cape town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz

    Surviving Gangs, Violence and Racism in Cape Town offers an ethnographic study of young men in Cape Town and considers how they stay safe in when growing up in post-apartheid South Africa. Breaking away from previous studies looking at structural inequality and differences, this unique book focuses...

  11. BULLYING BEHAVIOUR OF ADOLESCENTS BASED ON GENDER, GANG AND FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Ayu Erika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bullying is a social problem which is part of aggressive violent behaviour done continuously and have negative impact to victims and its subject and happened at school. This study aimed to know the description of knowledge and adolescents behavior about bullying based on their age, gang, and family. Methods: This study used analytic descriptive design with number of sample was 246 adolescents from grade 1, 2, 3 of senior high school which used stratified random sampling. Instruments of this study were knowledge questioner, and modified of The Bullying Prevalence Questionnaire in guttman and likert scale. Data analysis used cross tabulation. Result: Data show that adolescents have a good knowledge (93.9% and less (6.1%. Bullying subjects were 93.9% and victims 94.7%. Forms of verbal bullying indicated the subjects (93.1% and victims (92.3%. Bullying subjects majority occurred in males (94.1% and women become victims (96.3%. Numbers of bullying subjects do not have a gang (94.5%, while those with gang as victims (95.2%. There were five adolescents who live in stepfamilies become subjects and victims of bullying. Conclusion: The majority of adolescents have good knowledge about bullying, bullying form the vast majority were verbal bullying with subjects and victims of bullying who occurs in all classes. The majority of bullying subjects do not have a gang, and as the majority of victims have a gang. Almost all adolescents with different family types become subjects and victims of bullying. Therefore, an intensive educational effort and spiritual needs to be done to change the behavior of adolescents to be adolescents with well character.

  12. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: Aspects of the One-Percenter Culture for Emergency Department Personnel to Consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand N. Bosmia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker’s identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s.

  13. Good management. Wanna be in my gang?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Tim; Blandamer, Will

    2005-06-02

    PCTs are being urged to work together to increase their capacity to negotiate effectively with acute trusts. In Manchester a collaboration of 14 PCTs has enjoyed considerable success, with member trusts sharing a statement of strategic intent. The experience the Manchester PCTs suggests collaborations of this type are more effective when not driven by SHAs or central legislation.

  14. Organisation of in-hospital cardiac arrest teams - a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Kasper Glerup; Schmidt, Anders Sjørslev; Adelborg, Kasper; Løfgren, Bo

    2015-04-01

    In-hospital cardiac arrests are treated by a team of health care providers. Improving team performance may increase survival. Currently, no international standards for cardiac arrest teams exist in terms of member composition and allocation of tasks. To describe the composition of in-hospital cardiac arrest teams and review pre-arrest allocation of tasks. A nationwide cross-sectional study was performed. Data on cardiac arrest teams and pre-arrest allocation of tasks were collected from protocols on resuscitation required for hospital accreditation in Denmark. Additional data were collected through telephone interviews and email correspondence. Psychiatric hospitals and hospitals serving outpatients only were excluded. Data on the cardiac arrest team were available from 44 of 47 hospitals. The median team size was 5 (25th percentile; 75th percentile: 4; 6) members. Teams included a nurse anaesthetist (100%), a medical house officer (82%), an orderly (73%), an anaesthesiology house officer (64%) and a medical assistant (20%). Less likely to participate was a cardiology house officer (23%) or a cardiology specialist registrar (5%). Overall, a specialist registrar was represented on 20% of teams and 20% of cardiac arrest teams had a different team composition during nights and weekends. In total, 41% of teams did not define a team leader pre-arrest, and the majority of the teams did not define the tasks of the remaining team members. In Denmark, there are major differences among cardiac arrest teams. This includes team size, profession of team members, medical specialty and seniority of the physicians. Nearly half of the hospitals do not define a cardiac arrest team leader and the majority do not define the tasks of the remaining team members. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sudden Cardiac Arrest during Participation in Competitive Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Cameron H; Allan, Katherine S; Connelly, Kim A; Cunningham, Kris; Morrison, Laurie J; Dorian, Paul

    2017-11-16

    The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during participation in sports activities remains unknown. Preparticipation screening programs aimed at preventing sudden cardiac arrest during sports activities are thought to be able to identify at-risk athletes; however, the efficacy of these programs remains controversial. We sought to identify all sudden cardiac arrests that occurred during participation in sports activities within a specific region of Canada and to determine their causes. In this retrospective study, we used the Rescu Epistry cardiac arrest database (which contains records of every cardiac arrest attended by paramedics in the network region) to identify all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests that occurred from 2009 through 2014 in persons 12 to 45 years of age during participation in a sport. Cases were adjudicated as sudden cardiac arrest (i.e., having a cardiac cause) or as an event resulting from a noncardiac cause, on the basis of records from multiple sources, including ambulance call reports, autopsy reports, in-hospital data, and records of direct interviews with patients or family members. Over the course of 18.5 million person-years of observation, 74 sudden cardiac arrests occurred during participation in a sport; of these, 16 occurred during competitive sports and 58 occurred during noncompetitive sports. The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during competitive sports was 0.76 cases per 100,000 athlete-years, with 43.8% of the athletes surviving until they were discharged from the hospital. Among the competitive athletes, two deaths were attributed to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and none to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Three cases of sudden cardiac arrest that occurred during participation in competitive sports were determined to have been potentially identifiable if the athletes had undergone preparticipation screening. In our study involving persons who had out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the incidence of sudden cardiac

  16. Central American Street Gangs: Their Role in Communities and Prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Wolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available – Territories of Violence: State, Marginal Youth, and Public Security in Honduras, by Lirio Gutiérrez Rivera. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.– Adiós Niño: The Gangs of Guatemala City and the Politics of Death, by Deborah T. Levenson. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2013.– The Rule of Law in Central America: Citizens’ Reactions to Crime and Punishment, by Mary Fran T. Malone. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2012.– Ver, oír, callar. En las profundidades de una pandilla salvadoreña, by Juan José Martínez D’Aubuisson. San Salvador: AURA Ediciones, 2013.– Gangsters Without Borders: An Ethnography of a Salvadoran Street Gang, by T. W. Ward. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

  17. Growing against gangs and violence (GAGV): findings from a process and outcome evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Densley, James; Adler, Joanna R.; Zhu, Lijun; Lambine, Mackenzie Erica

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study assesses program efficacy of Growing Against Gangs and Violence (GAGV), a primary prevention partnership with the UK Metropolitan Police Service, delivered in London schools with the aim of reducing gang involvement, delinquency, and violent offending and improving young people’s confidence in police. GAGV is partially derived from an American program, Gangs Resistance Education and Training (GREAT).\\ud \\ud Method: A qualitative process evaluation and randomized c...

  18. The incidence of gangs in Salvadoran neighborhoods and its effect in political legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby CORDOVA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how the incidence of gangs in Salvadoran neighborhoods erodes trust in the national government. The results show that the levels of trust in the national government vary from one neighborhood to another, depending on their vulnerability to gang generated insecurity. In addition, this article demonstrates that, in neighborhoods with high gang incidence, crime victims and non-victims show similar and low levels of trust in the national government.

  19. GANG INVOLVEMENT AMONG STREET-INVOLVED YOUTH IN A CANADIAN SETTING: A GENDER-BASED ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brandon DL; DeBeck, Kora; Simo, Annick; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Evidence suggests that gang involvement is associated with adverse health outcomes among high-risk youth. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence and correlates of gang affiliation among this population, particularly in Canada. We examined the relationship between self-reported gang involvement and early childhood traumatic experiences, social factors, and other behaviors in a study of drug-using, street-involved youth. Study Design Cross-Sectional Study Methods Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective study of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Between June 2009 and May 2011, participants were asked questions ascertaining lifetime gang involvement and gang affiliation in one’s social network. We examined the gender-specific correlates of gang involvement using stratified log-binomial regression analyses. Results Among 435 eligible participants, 94 (21.6%) reported gang involvement and 206 (47.4%) reported having friends in a gang. In gender-stratified models, males involved in gangs were more likely to be of Aboriginal ancestry (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09 – 2.44), have grown up in government care (PR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.32 – 3.12), dealt drugs (PR = 2.52, 95%CI: 1.66 – 3.85), and been incarcerated (PR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.29 – 2.80). Women involved in gangs were more likely to have reported a history of childhood sexual abuse (PR = 3.08, 95%CI: 1.15 – 8.27). Conclusions These results suggest that a variety of adverse experiences in early life are associated with an increased risk of gang affiliation among street-involved youth. Primary prevention strategies aiming to avert gang initiation among high-risk youth should seek to address childhood abuse and other traumatic experiences commonly experienced by this population. PMID:25542743

  20. Union Members Are Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  1. [Rape by 2 assaillants and gang rape in Montreal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Y; Boyer, R; Lamontagne, C; Giroux, J

    1984-11-01

    A survey was conducted in 230 cases of rape and rape attempts heard in the Judicial District of Montreal between January 1975 and May 1978. Data were compiled from the 30 assaults including two or more assaillants. Results show that in cases of rape committed by two men the aggressors are older than gang rapists, meet the victim mainly in her flat or in a bar, and rape her in her own home, in a car or a hotel. In these cases, voyeurism seems to be an important factor since, most of the time, rape is committed by only one of the two aggressors. On the other hand, gang rapists are younger, meet the victim in public places, on the street or when she is hitch-hiking and attack her in one of the aggressors' house, in public places or on the street. Exhibitionism seems more present in this group of rapists. For both groups the victims are mainly single, younger than the aggressors and have diverse occupations. Finally, regarding the legal outcome half of the subjects were liberated or acquitted in both groups. Rape committed by two men had never been studied or compared with gang rape up until now. Results of this survey show dynamic and demographic differences between these two groups of sexual delinquents.

  2. [Violent youth gangs in Madrid: socialization and culturalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, María Jesús; Martínez, José Manuel; Rosa, Alberto

    2009-08-01

    This study explores the subject of youth involved in violent groups or gangs, with the goal of further understanding the indoctrination, socialization, and culturalization processes undergone by youth involved in group violence or gangs. Furthermore, to examine the dynamics between peer pressure and other social factors (dating relationships, work, family, etc.) within the theoretical framework of the theories of primary socialization and differential socialization. A qualitative analysis of 40 interviews of youth belonging to violent gangs/groups. According to the theories of primary socialization and differential socialization, over socialization by the violent group and under socialization by all other social entities can be assumed. Regarding parental supervision and support, three family types were clearly associated with the problem of youth violence. The distinct or unified social identity of the violent youth, as well as their individual self esteem and self image, formed a combination of processes whose relevance was highly predictive. Lastly, an accurate indicator of how these youth mature is their support network-perceived, absolute, and relative (distributed among the various influencing forces). The study clearly outlines the need for re-imposing fundamental philosophical epistemology and methodologies on social forces of this kind, incorporating elements key to the postmodern, constructionist, and opposing perspectives.

  3. Early hypercementosis and arrested dental eruption: heritable multiple ankylodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, H

    1984-01-01

    This study describes arrested posterior permanent tooth eruption in association with hypercementosis, reduction of the periodontal ligamental space, and bony ankylosis. The severe dental malocclusion occurred in four members of the same family and it appears to have an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance.

  4. Cardiac arrest – cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Lenjani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within 10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care (with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care the rate of survival is higher.

  5. Opportunities provision for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (7-16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, H; Montgomery, P; Gardner, F E M

    2008-04-16

    Youth gangs have long been studied in the United States and interest elsewhere is increasing. Many studies document a robust and consistent relationship between gang membership and elevated delinquency. One theory of gang involvement, drawing on anomie and strain theories, proposes that the gang provides a means of fulfilling the economic needs of youth excluded from legitimate labour markets. Opportunities provision is a gang prevention strategy based on this theory and the principle that providing youth with educational and employment opportunities may reduce gang involvement. Common techniques within opportunities provision include tutoring, remedial education, job training, and job placement. To determine the effectiveness of opportunities provision for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people aged 7 to 16. Electronic searches were conducted of ASSIA, CINAHL, CJA, Cochrane Library, Dissertations Abstracts, EMBASE, ERIC, IBSS, LILACs, LexisNexis Butterworths, MEDLINE, NCJR Service Abstracts Database, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts, to April 2007. Reviewers contacted relevant organisations, individuals and list-servs and searched pertinent websites and reference lists. All randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions that have opportunities provision as the majority component, delivered to children and youths aged 7 to 16 not involved in a gang, compared to any other or no intervention. Searches yielded 2,696 unduplicated citations. 2,676 were excluded based on title and abstract. Two were excluded based on personal communication with study authors. Full-text reports for 18 citations were retrieved. 16 were excluded because they were not evaluations, did not address a gang prevention programme, did not include gang-related outcomes, did not include opportunities provision intervention components, or presented preliminary findings for outcomes reported in another citation. The remaining two

  6. Temperature and precipitation projections over Bangladesh and the upstream Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesar, J; Janes, T; Lindsay, A; Bhaskaran, B

    2015-06-01

    South Asia is a region of complex atmospheric dynamics and therefore changes resulting from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, combined with existing vulnerability to extreme weather events such as flooding, could put the region at particular risk from climate change. However, current climate projections for the region show a range of uncertainty, particularly in terms of changes in the variability and extremes of precipitation. Focusing on Bangladesh and the region encompassing parts of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river basins, we aim to explore and quantify climate model uncertainty in climate change projections for the 21(st) century. We use results from a 17-member perturbed physics ensemble of projections from a global climate model which have been used to drive a higher resolution (25 km) regional climate model over the south Asia region from 1971 to 2099. The range of temperature and precipitation responses across the ensemble are assessed including representation of the annual cycle, trends, and changes in precipitation extremes. The 17 ensemble members consistently simulate increasing annual mean temperatures by 2100 compared with present day, ranging between 2.6 °C and 4.8 °C. Additionally, all ensemble members indicate increasing annual precipitation by 2100 of between around 8% and 28%, though with interdecadal variability which results in one ensemble member showing a slight decrease in precipitation in the mid-century period. The frequency of light precipitation events is projected to decrease in the future, but with an increase in the frequency of heavy events. Three members of the climate model ensemble, representing a range of projected climate outcomes, have been selected for use in further impacts modelling for the region.

  7. Cognitive and Social Influences on Gang Involvement among Delinquents in Three Chinese Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Ngan-pun; Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum

    2007-01-01

    Inasmuch as research has held the increase in youth gang activities responsible for the escalating level of crime and delinquency in Chinese societies, ascertaining risk or protective factors of gang involvement among Chinese youths is crucial. The factors include those associated with social control, social learning, and cognitive development. To…

  8. Individual and Familial Characteristics of Youths Involved in Street Corner Gangs in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, C.; Sim, K.; Teoh, J.; Tian, C. S.; Ng, K. H.

    2003-01-01

    Study compares 36 youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore with 91 age-matched controls on measures of self-esteem, aggression, dysfunctional parenting and parent-adolescent communication. Results revealed that gang youths had lower self-esteem and higher levels of aggression than controls. Findings diverge from anticipated familial…

  9. Gangkill: An Exploratory Empirical Assessment of Gang Membership, Homicide Offending, and Prison Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Alan J.; DeLisi, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Extant research indicates that inmates with street gang history are prone for prison misconduct but that inmates convicted of homicide offenses are less likely to be noncompliant. No research has explored the interaction between street gang history and homicide offending. Based on official infraction data from 1,005 inmates selected from the…

  10. Acculturative Stress and Gang Involvement among Latinos: U.S.-Born versus Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Alice N.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Lewis, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    Gang involvement is an increasing issue among Latino youth, yet nuanced research on its potential causes is scarce. Quantitative and qualitative data were used to explore links between acculturative stress and gang involvement among immigrant and U.S.-born Latino middle school students (N = 199). Regression analyses showed that U.S.-born youths…

  11. Intervening in Children's Involvement in Gangs: Views of Cape Town's Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Catherine L.; Bakhuis, Karlijn

    2010-01-01

    Gangs have a long history in Cape Town and children tend to begin involvement around age 12. Children's views on causes of children's involvement in gangs and appropriate interventions, were sought for inclusion in policy recommendations. Thirty focus group discussions were held with in- and out-of-school youth in different communities.…

  12. Affiliation to Youth Gangs during Adolescence: The Interaction between Childhood Psychopathic Tendencies and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…

  13. Adolescent gang involvement: The role of individual, family, peer, and school factors in a multilevel perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Michela; Sharkey, Jill; Vieno, Alessio; Mayworm, Ashley; Dougherty, Danielle; Nylund-Gibson, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Youth gang involvement is a serious public health challenge as adolescents involved in gangs are more likely than others to engage in violence and aggression. To better understand gang involvement, we examined the role of protective (empathy and parental support) and risk (peer deviance and lack of safety at school) factors, as well as their interactions, in predicting adolescent gang affiliation. The study involved a sample of 26,232 students (53.4% females; mean age = 14.62, SD = 1.69) participating in the California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS), a survey investigating a wide range of youth health and risk behaviors administered in all California schools every 2 years. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), findings indicated that high levels of empathy and parental support were associated with a lower likelihood of affiliating with a gang. Associating with deviant peers and perceiving the school as unsafe were positively correlated with gang membership. At the school level, lack of safety and type of school (special education, vocational, or alternative school vs. comprehensive schools) were associated with greater probability of gang membership. Empathy mitigated the association between deviant peers and gang membership. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Educators' Perspectives Regarding Youth Gang Activity and Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussy, Brooklyne

    2017-01-01

    Decreasing gang activity in inner city neighborhoods is an essential component to reducing violence and improving our society as a whole. This study was conducted to help generate awareness and a better understanding as to how schools can be best utilized as a protective factor against youth gang activity. The participants consisted of 6 educators…

  15. Gang Involvement among Immigrant and Refugee Youth: A Developmental Ecological Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Nada M.; Chan, Wing Yi; Latzman, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and refugee youth are at elevated risk for joining gangs, which, in turn, is associated with a host of maladaptive outcomes. Previous literature on risk and protective factors for immigrant and refugee youth gang involvement has been inconclusive. Applying a developmental ecological systems approach, this study investigated contextual…

  16. Always Running. La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Luis J.

    This autobiographical narrative describes the early life of Luis J. Rodriguez, a journalist and poet who was immersed in the youth gang culture of Los Angeles (California). Framed by the story of the pull of the gang life for the poet's son, it recounts his experiences from his childhood on the United States-Mexico border through his family's…

  17. Gangs of Chicago: Perceptions of crime and its effect on the recreation behavior of Latino residents in urban communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monika Stodolska; Juan Carlos Acevedo; Kimberly J. Shinew

    2009-01-01

    Perception of safety is an important factor affecting the leisure behavior of Latinos residing in urban neighborhoods. Yet research on how fear of crime and fear of gangs in particular affect leisure of ethnic and racial minorities is underdeveloped. The objectives of this study are to examine how gangs operate in recreation spaces in Latino neighborhoods, how gangs...

  18. Can Education Play a Role in the Prevention of Youth Gangs in Indian Country? One Tribe's Approach. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arturo

    Traditionally an urban problem, gang involvement is growing on Native American reservations. This digest examines common factors in gang development and one tribe's response through a Native-centric education and juvenile justice system. The sum of handicaps associated with gang involvement has been termed "multiple marginality," and…

  19. Metoclopramide-induced cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Rumore

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of cardiac arrest in a patient receiving intravenous (IV metoclopramide and review the pertinent literature. A 62-year-old morbidly obese female admitted for a gastric sleeve procedure, developed cardiac arrest within one minute of receiving metoclopramide 10 mg via slow intravenous (IV injection. Bradycardia at 4 beats/min immediately appeared, progressing rapidly to asystole. Chest compressions restored vital function. Electrocardiogram (ECG revealed ST depression indicative of myocardial injury. Following intubation, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. Various cardiac dysrrhythmias including supraventricular tachycardia (SVT associated with hypertension and atrial fibrillation occurred. Following IV esmolol and metoprolol, the patient reverted to normal sinus rhythm. Repeat ECGs revealed ST depression resolution without pre-admission changes. Metoclopramide is a non-specific dopamine receptor antagonist. Seven cases of cardiac arrest and one of sinus arrest with metoclopramide were found in the literature. The metoclopramide prescribing information does not list precautions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs related to cardiac arrest. The reaction is not dose related but may relate to the IV administration route. Coronary artery disease was the sole risk factor identified. According to Naranjo, the association was possible. Other reports of cardiac arrest, severe bradycardia, and SVT were reviewed. In one case, five separate IV doses of 10 mg metoclopramide were immediately followed by asystole repeatedly. The mechanism(s underlying metoclopramide’s cardiac arrest-inducing effects is unknown. Structural similarities to procainamide may play a role. In view of eight previous cases of cardiac arrest from metoclopramide having been reported, further elucidation of this ADR and patient monitoring is needed. Our report should alert clinicians to monitor patients and remain diligent in surveillance and

  20. Application studies of line arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanetta Junior, Luiz Cera; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo de Morais [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas]. E-mail: lzanetta@pea.usp.br

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the main calculations of the line arresters impact on outage rates, by focusing their effects on critical current curves, in presence of the power frequency voltage. The present critical results obtained will help in the understanding of some variables during the outrage calculations. Energy stresses on arresters due to first stroke are also evaluated in function of tower foot resistance. The transmission line studied, has a shielded 138 kV line configuration, single circuit typical of Brazilian SE region. The alternative with Zn O arresters consider their installation at every tower, in the two lower phases b and c. (author)

  1. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2010-06-21

    The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile

  2. Delinquency and substance use among gang-involved youth: the moderating role of parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J; Mason, Craig A

    2004-12-01

    This study uses longitudinal data from an ethnically diverse sample of 300 ninth grade students to examine the moderating effect of parenting practices upon the relationship between gang involvement and adolescent problem behavior. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicate that gang involvement is a highly significant positive predictor of each of three categories of problem behavior (minor delinquency, major delinquency, and substance use). Three of the four parenting variables (behavioral control, psychological control, parent-adolescent conflict, and warmth) are found to moderate the relationship between gang involvement and problem behavior, with the most consistent effects found for behavioral control and warmth. These findings indicate that intervention efforts aimed at reducing the impact of gang involvement on adolescent development should consider factors that may decrease the deleterious behavioral outcomes associated with youth gangs.

  3. EU Citizenship and European Arrest Warrant: The Same Rights for All?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Marguery

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the case Wolzenburg, the principle of non-discrimination of European Union citizens is applied to the European arrest warrant. The implementation of the European arrest warrant by the Member States cannot escape a control of proportional- ity made by the Court. Member States may impose a period of residence of five years to foreign Europeans citizens in order for them to rely on an optional ground for non-execution of a European arrest warrant (Article 4(6 of the Framework Deci- sion on the European arrest warrant. Home nationals are not obliged to comply with a residence requirement. It is possible for Member States to justify an exception to the principle of non-discrimination of European citizens with a legitimate inter- est. The chances of social reintegration of a person convicted constitute such an interest. The national measure resulting in a difference of treatment must be proportional to that interest.

  4. The Evolving Paradigm of Individualized Postresuscitation Care After Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seder, David B; Lord, Christine; Gagnon, David J

    2016-11-01

    The postresuscitation period after a cardiac arrest is characterized by a wide range of physiological derangements. Variations between patients include preexisting medical problems, the underlying cause of the cardiac arrest, presence or absence of hemodynamic and circulatory instability, severity of the ischemia-reperfusion injury, and resuscitation-related injuries such as pulmonary aspiration and rib or sternal fractures. Although protocols can be applied to many elements of postresuscitation care, the widely disparate clinical condition of cardiac arrest survivors requires an individualized approach that stratifies patients according to their clinical profile and targets specific treatments to patients most likely to benefit. This article describes such an individualized approach, provides a practical framework for evaluation and triage at the bedside, and reviews concerns specific to all members of the interprofessional postresuscitation care team. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  5. The role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning

    2015-06-01

    Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Socio-economic factors threatening the survival of Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica in the upper Ganges River, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bashir

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted along the upper Ganges River between Narora barrages and Anupshahar from January to June 2007. Community interviews were conducted in order to assess the socio-economic profile of the fishermen community, their level of dependence on the river and their attitude towards the conservation of Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica. The estimated literacy rate from interviews was 45%, and average annual income per household was 27,000 INR (Indian National Rupee. The respondents were found to be well aware of the river biodiversity and believed excessive water extraction and pollution to be the responsible for any perceived decline in the dolphin population. About 55% of the fishermen were found to fish for commercial purposes, and a majority of them (71% used nylon gill-nets. A majority (94% of respondents that had boats of their own fished in the middle of the river, an activity often conducted in groups. 12% of respondents reported to have encountered dolphin carcasses. Excessive fishing and dolphin poaching were found to be interrelated; if fishing can be more effectively managed poaching may automatically decline. 41% of the fishermen interviewed were found to be willing to stop fishing providing adequate alternative livelihoods are provided by the government.

  7. Problems of house arrest application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vladimirovich Kolesnikov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the position of house arrest in the system of preventive measures and to identify the main problems of criminal procedural regulation that prevent its broader use during the preliminary investigation and trial. Methods dialectical approach to the analysis of social phenomena allowing to view them in static and dynamic aspect evolutionarysynergetic paradigm providing the opportunity to explore the phenomenon under investigation with respect to the system subordinate and coordinating relationships within the system. Dialectical approach and the evolutionarysynergetic paradigm determined the choice of specific methods of research historical comparative law comparative formallegal statistical. Results the problems arising with application of house arrest are grouped by author depending on the structure of the provisions of Article 107 of the CriminalProcedural Code of the Russian Federation. The first group of problems includes the determination of the location of the accused suspect under house arrest and the scope of the legal restrictions imposed. The second group includes the establishment of terms of house arrest and their subsequent renewal or change of the preventive measure. The third group is the identification of persons to which the house arrest will be the best preventive measure. The results of the study allow to make proposals to change the current wording of Art. 107 of the CriminalProcedural Code of Russia. Scientific novelty a comprehensive study of current state of the normativelegal regulation of house arrest in the context of its practical application. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature of preventive measures related to the restraint of personal liberty of the accused. nbsp

  8. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR [Argonne National Laboratory

    2013-12-01

    In general, the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) as well as the and the tropical monsoon climate is influenced by a wide range of factors. Under various climate change scenarios, temperatures over land and into the mid troposphere are expected to increase, intensifying the summer pressure gradient differential between land and ocean and thus strengthening the ISM. However, increasing aerosol concentration, air pollution, and deforestation result in changes to surface albedo and insolation, potentially leading to low monsoon rainfall. Clear evidence points to increasing aerosol concentrations over the Indian subcontinent with time, and several hypotheses regarding the effect on monsoons have been offered. The Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) field study aimed to provide critical data to address these hypotheses and contribute to developing better parameterizations for tropical clouds, convection, and aerosol-cloud interactions. The primary science questions for the mission were as follows:

  9. Analysing the geographies of the 'transnational' gangs of Central America: the changing spaces of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Winton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute to knowledge of 'transnational' youth gangs in the Central American region, through an analysis of the mutually constitutive processes of identity, space and place production. It is argued that insights into gangs gained through analyzing their spatial dynamics and practices, and discussing ways in which these dynamics and processes connect the local and global scales, offer useful knowledge concerning the functioning of these gangs in a field still lacking in–depth academic research. Drawing on over a decade of direct research with young people in the region, the paper finds that poor understanding of gangs inevitably leads to ineffective, counterproductive interventions, and demonstrates that the geographies of maras are a fundamental –and still neglected– aspect of their development and transformation.

  10. Adolescents, gangs, and perceptions of safety, parental engagement, and peer pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sarah E; Anderson, Debra G

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents are exposed to various forms of gang violence, and such exposure has led them to feel unsafe in their neighborhood and have differing interactions with their parents and peers. This qualitative study explored adolescents', parents', and community center employees' perceptions of adolescents' interaction with their neighborhood, family, and peers. Three themes emerged from the data: Most adolescents reported that the community center provided a safe environment for them; parental engagement influenced adolescents' experiences with gangs; and adolescents were subjected to peer pressure in order to belong. Exposure to gang violence can leave an impression on adolescents and affect their mental health, but neighborhood safety and relationships with parents and peers can influence adolescents' exposure to gang violence. Recommendations regarding the use of health care professionals at community centers are proposed. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Mobilisation and Protests in the Aftermath of the New Delhi Gang Rape Case

    OpenAIRE

    Smith-Sivertsen, Rebecca; Kristensen, Pernille Bo; H. Noori, Hans Peter Jonas; Riis, Vagn

    2014-01-01

    This project examines the social mobilization that occurred in the aftermath of the gang rape and murder of a young female student in New Delhi in 2012. Violence against women is a widespread problem in India, and reports of especially violent incidences of rape against young women, children and tourists have filled the news in the last couple of years both nationally in India and Internationally. Especially the gang rape in New Delhi caused outrage both in India and abroad, resulting in p...

  12. Drugs, Gangs, Transnational Organized Crime and Malgoverened Spaces in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Central American street gangs such as Mara Salvatru- cha and Barrio-18,4 transnational organized crime,5 and the security situation in individual cou...virtually any form, from urban slums to impoverished cou- ntryside, from individual neighborhoods, to the disfunctionality of entire state or national gover...www.migrationpolicy.org/article/national-policies-and-rise-transnational-gangs/. 42. See, for example, Maria Ignacia Arriagada, “ Identidad violenta en los jóvenes

  13. Working With Chinese Triad Youth Gangs: Correct Diagnosis and Strategic Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, T Wing; Tam, H L

    2018-02-01

    Across the world, youth workers have been active in helping vulnerable youth groups. In Hong Kong, government-funded youth services are conducted by professional social workers to help vulnerable youths. This article adopted a case study approach to investigate a youth group who committed a murder. Nine murderers and two social workers were interviewed. It aims to uncover the structure and activities of the group and analyse the gang intervention prior to the murder to find out what had gone wrong and identify the lessons that social workers can learn from the murder. Four misconceptions in gang intervention have been identified. First, because of the Triad (Chinese-organised crime) affiliation, this is not just a group of deviant youths but a youth gang. Second, because it is a gang, the social workers should not group them but should instead degroup them to avoid contamination. Third, diagnosis is different from labelling. With the right diagnosis, services can be tailor-made to delabel them. Fourth, when the youths are diagnosed as a gang, outreach work instead of centre work should be provided-social workers should reach out to the gangland to uncover the youths' gang participation and crime involvement.

  14. Prospective Childhood Risk Factors for Gang Involvement among North American Indigenous Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Dane S.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine prospective childhood risk factors for gang involvement across the course of adolescence among a large eight-year longitudinal sample of 646 Indigenous (i.e., American Indian and Canadian First Nations) youth residing on reservation/reserve land in the Midwest of the United States and Canada. Risk factors at the first wave of the study (ages 10–12) were used to predict gang involvement (i.e., gang membership and initiation) in subsequent waves (ages 11–18). A total of 6.7% of the participants reported gang membership and 9.1% reported gang initiation during the study. Risk factors were distributed across developmental domains (e.g., family, school, peer, and individual) with those in the early delinquency domain having the strongest and most consistent effects. Moreover, the results indicate that the cumulative number of risk factors in childhood increases the probability of subsequent gang involvement. Culturally relevant implications and prevention/intervention strategies are discussed. PMID:28018134

  15. Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Neurological Outcome; Cardiac Arrest; Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest; Brain Anoxia Ischemia; Hypoxia, Brain; Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain; Cardiac Arrest With Successful Resuscitation; Cardiac Arrest, Out-Of-Hospital; Brain Injuries

  16. Putting in Work: Qualitative Research on Substance Use and Other Risk Behaviors Among Gang Youth in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Gang youth are notoriously difficult to access for research purposes. Despite this difficulty, qualitative research about substance use among gang youth is important because research indicates that such youth use more substances than their nongang peers. This manuscript discusses how a small sample of gang youth (n = 60) in Los Angeles was accessed and interviewed during a National Institute of Drug Abuse-funded pilot study on substance use and other risk behaviors. Topics discussed include the rationale and operationalization of the research methodology, working with community-based organizations, and the recruitment of different gang youth with varying levels of substance use. PMID:20222782

  17. How eggs arrest at metaphase II: MPF stabilisation plus APC/C inhibition equals Cytostatic Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Keith T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oocytes from higher chordates, including man and nearly all mammals, arrest at metaphase of the second meiotic division before fertilization. This arrest is due to an activity that has been termed 'Cytostatic Factor'. Cytostatic Factor maintains arrest through preventing loss in Maturation-Promoting Factor (MPF; CDK1/cyclin B. Physiologically, Cytostatic Factor – induced metaphase arrest is only broken by a Ca2+ rise initiated by the fertilizing sperm and results in degradation of cyclin B, the regulatory subunit of MPF through the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C. Arrest at metaphase II may therefore be viewed as being maintained by inhibition of the APC/C, and Cytostatic Factor as being one or more pathways, one of which inhibits the APC/C, consorting in the preservation of MPF activity. Many studies over several years have implicated the c-Mos/MEK/MAPK pathway in the metaphase arrest of the two most widely studied vertebrates, frog and mouse. Murine downstream components of this cascade are not known but in frog involve members of the spindle assembly checkpoint, which act to inhibit the APC/C. Interesting these downstream components appear not to be involved in the arrest of mouse eggs, suggesting a lack of conservation with respect to c-Mos targets. However, the recent discovery of Emi2 as an egg specific APC/C inhibitor whose degradation is Ca2+ dependent has greatly increased our understanding of MetII arrest. Emi2 is involved in both the establishment and maintenance of metaphase II arrest in frog and mouse suggesting a conservation of metaphase II arrest. Its identity as the physiologically relevant APC/C inhibitor involved in Cytostatic Factor arrest prompted us to re-evaluate the role of the c-Mos pathway in metaphase II arrest. This review presents a model of Cytostatic Factor arrest, which is primarily induced by Emi2 mediated APC/C inhibition but which also requires the c-Mos pathway to set MPF levels within

  18. Risk and protective factors associated with gang affiliation among high-risk youth: a public health approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Gang violence accounted for 20% of homicides in large cities from 2002 to 2006. Preventing gang affiliation (ie, youth who either desire or have gang membership) might reduce subsequent gang activity. Previous research has focused on identifying risk factors for gang affiliation; however, little information is available on protective factors. Aim To identify risk and protective factors to provide more direction for gang violence prevention strategies. Methods The author analysed cross-sectional survey data from 4131 youths in grades 7, 9, 11 and 12. Data were collected in 2004 from students in a high-risk, urban public school district. Regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between gang affiliation and alcohol and drug use, delinquency, depressed mood, suicidal ideation, peer victimisation, parental monitoring and positive reinforcement, adult, family and peer support, coping skills, and school connectedness. Analyses were controlled for sex, race/ethnicity and age. Results An estimated 7% of youths were gang affiliated. Adjusting for all factors, gang affiliation was positively associated with engaging in any delinquent behaviours (prevalence OR: 2.07; 95% CI 1.18 to 3.64), frequent alcohol use (OR: 2.62; 95% CI 1.85 to 3.72) and frequent drug use (OR: 1.95; 95% CI 1.15 to 3.29). Gang affiliation was negatively associated with moderate levels of parental monitoring (OR: 0.67; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.85) and coping skills (OR: 0.54; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.71). Conclusions The findings suggest the potential benefit of increasing parental monitoring and coping skills and reducing delinquency, alcohol use and drug use to prevent gang affiliation. PMID:22240265

  19. Murder by structure: dominance relations and the social structure of gang homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Andrew V

    2009-07-01

    Most sociological theories consider murder an outcome of the differential distribution of individual, neighborhood, or social characteristics. And while such studies explain variation in aggregate homicide rates, they do not explain the social order of murder, that is, who kills whom, when, where, and for what reason. This article argues that gang murder is best understood not by searching for its individual determinants but by examining the social networks of action and reaction that create it. In short, the social structure of gang murder is defined by the manner in which social networks are constructed and by people's placement in them. The author uses a network approach and incident-level homicide records to recreate and analyze the structure of gang murders in Chicago. Findings demonstrate that individual murders between gangs create an institutionalized network of group conflict, net of any individual's participation or motive. Within this network, murders spread through an epidemic-like process of social contagion as gangs evaluate the highly visible actions of others in their local networks and negotiate dominance considerations that arise during violent incidents.

  20. Uranium removal during low discharge in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.; Moore, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra river system supplies more dissolved uranium to the ocean than any other system in the world (Sarin et al., 1990; Sackett et al., 1973). However, there have been no investigations to determine whether riverine supplies of uranium are altered by geochemical reactions in the river-ocean mixing zone. In this study, uranium and salinity data were collected in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone during a period of low river discharge. The uranium distribution with salinity shows that in waters <12 ppt salinity, uranium activities are significantly lower than predicted from conservative mixing of river and seawater. This suggests that uranium is being removed within the mixing zone. The behavior of uranium in the Ganges-Brahmaputra is in sharp contrast to its behavior in the Amazon mixing zone where McKee et al. (1978) found uranium activities significantly higher than predicted from conservative mixing. The contrasting behaviors for uranium in these systems are due to the different locations where mixing between river and seawater occurs. For the Amazon, mixing takes place on the continental shelf whereas for the Ganges-Brahmaputra, mixing occurs within shoreline sedimentary environments. The physiochemical processes controlling uranium removal to sediment deposits in the Amazon are partly known. The authors discuss mechanisms which may be removing uranium to suspended and mangrove sediments in the Ganges-Brahmaputra

  1. The Socialization Process of Street Children in the Youth Gangs and Groups of Organized Crime in Local Community. Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the research report on the socialization process of children in the street, youth gangs, and organized criminal groups in local communities. The author has analysed the signs and communication codes located on walls in local communities. This is very important to the socialization process of the youth street gangs.

  2. The Socialization Process of Street Children in the Youth Gangs and Groups of Organized Crime in Local Community. Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-01-01

    This article includes the research report on the socialization process of children in the street, youth gangs, and organized criminal groups in local communities. The author has analysed the signs and communication codes located on walls in local communities. This is very important to the socialization process of the youth street gangs.

  3. Navigating the Thin Line between Education and Incarceration: An Action Research Case Study on Gang-Associated Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines data collected from an ethnographic research project conducted with 56 gang-associated Latino youths ages 15 to 21 from 2007 to 2009. The objectives of the study were to examine how poor Latino gang-associated youths perceived schooling and policing and to find out if the research process could promote educational aspirations…

  4. A composite mineralogical map of Ganges Chasma and surroundings, Valles Marineris, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull-Hearth, Selby; Clark, M. Caroline

    2017-08-01

    Ganges Chasma is a mineralogically diverse canyon in the far-eastern portion of the Valles Marineris system. It exposes bedrock outcrops of olivine, large dune fields enriched in olivine, a central Interior Layered Deposit with monohydrated sulfates, and Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates on the plateaus surrounding the canyon and in the canyon walls. The co-existence of hydrated minerals with unaltered olivine makes this an excellent location to study the timing of aqueous processes in this region. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) and the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), synthesizing them with previous data sets to produce a composite mineralogical map of Ganges Chasma. We then produce a timeline of mineralogic deposition for the Ganges area, relating it to regional geologic events.

  5. The role of the community health nurse in the provision of care to youth gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C Y

    1997-01-01

    Youth gangs are a major public health care concern in the United States. The nursing profession is just beginning to recognize the needs of this special population. In this article, I present a general background of gangs in the United States. They have been a significant problem in society since the early decades of the 19th century; however, increasing crimes and high health risks make it important to seek some solutions. I present an example of a community health nurse who, as part of a Gang Reduction Interagency Partnership team made a difference. The need for more research is emphasized so that we may understand this population as well as address their health care needs and those of their families.

  6. Location-aware gang graffiti acquisition and browsing on a mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Albert; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we describe a mobile-based system that allows first responders to identify and track gang graffiti by combining the use of image analysis and location-based-services. The gang graffiti image and metadata (geoposition, date and time) obtained automatically are transferred to a server and uploaded to a database of graffiti images. The database can then be queried with the matched results sent back to the mobile device where the user can then review the results and provide extra inputs to refine the information.

  7. Risk and protective factors associated with gang-involved youth in Trinidad and Tobago Factores de riesgo y factores protectores asociados con la participación de los adolescentes en pandillas en Trinidad y Tabago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Katz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of gang involvement, the risk and protective factors associated with gang involvement, and the association between gang involvement and exposure to multiple risk and protective factors among school-aged youth in Trinidad and Tobago. METHODS: A survey instrument was administered to 2 206 students enrolled in 22 high-risk, urban public schools, from March-June 2006. It measured 30 risk factors and 13 protective factors within four domains: community, school, family, and peer-individual, plus levels of alcohol/drug use and delinquency. RESULTS: About 7.7% of youth reported being a gang associate; 6.8%, a former gang member; and 6.2%, a current gang member. Gang involvement was associated with perceived availability of handguns, residential mobility, having parents who favor antisocial behavior, early initiation of antisocial behavior, intention to use drugs, having antisocial peers, and having peers who use drugs. Those with social skills, belief in moral order, and interactions with prosocial peers were significantly less likely to self-report gang membership. Additionally, the probability of gang involvement increased as the number of risk factors increased. CONCLUSIONS: Gang membership among public school youth is about as prevalent in Trinidad and Tobago as it is in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, but further research is needed. Although risk factors associated with gang involvement were present in all four domains, peer-individual risk factors were disproportionately likely to be associated with gang status. The most effective gang prevention strategies might be those that focus on multiple risk factors, with an emphasis on peer-individual factors and promoting a "belief in moral order."OBJETIVOS: Examinar la prevalencia de la participación en pandillas, los factores de riesgo y los factores protectores asociados con la participación en pandillas, y la asociación entre la participaci

  8. Prediction of cardiac arrest recurrence using ensemble classifiers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nachiket Tapas

    Abstract. Inability of a heart to contract effectually or its failure to contract prevents blood from circulating efficiently, causing circulatory arrest or cardiac arrest or cardiopulmonary arrest. The unexpected cardiac arrest is medically referred to as sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Poor survival rate of patients with SCA is one of the.

  9. Arrested segregative phase separation in capillary tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, R. Hans; Lindhoud, Saskia

    2006-01-01

    Phase separation in a capillary tube with one of the phases fully wetting the capillary wall is arrested when the typical size of the phase domains reaches the value of the diameter of the tube. The arrested state consists of an alternating sequence of concave-capped and convex-capped cylindrical

  10. Cardiorespiratory arrest in children (out of hospital)

    OpenAIRE

    Writer, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory arrest outside hospital occurs in approximately 1/10,000 children a year in resource-rich countries, with two thirds of arrests occurring in children under 18 months of age. Approximately 40% of cases have undetermined causes, including sudden infant death syndrome . Of the rest, 20% are caused by trauma, 10% by chronic disease, and 6% by pneumonia.

  11. Cardiorespiratory arrest in children (out of hospital)

    OpenAIRE

    Writer, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory arrest outside hospital occurs in approximately 1/10,000 children a year in resource-rich countries, with two-thirds of arrests occurring in children under 18 months of age. Approximately 45% of cases have undetermined causes, including sudden infant death syndrome. Of the rest, 20% are caused by trauma, 10% by chronic disease, and 6% by pneumonia.

  12. Juvenile Arrests, 2000. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Howard N.

    This bulletin examines the national and state juvenile arrest rate in 2000 using data reported annually by local law enforcement agencies nationwide to the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting program. Results indicate that the murder rate in 2000 was the lowest since 1965; juvenile arrests for violence in 2000 were the lowest since 1988; few juveniles…

  13. Psychopathology in Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…

  14. Local Immigration Enforcement and Arrests of the Hispanic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Coon

    2017-08-01

    . Another concern with the program is that it may lead to tensions between state and local law enforcement and the local community. If the program creates an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust by community members toward state and local law enforcement agents, even law abiding individuals may choose to avoid interaction with law enforcement agents. This can make victims and witnesses hesitant to come forward, for fear that their undocumented status will be uncovered. Such a situation inhibits law enforcement’s ability to do its job and can, ironically, make communities less safe. This study explores the effects of implementation of the 287(g program in Frederick County, Maryland on the arrests of Hispanics. Using data from individual arrest records from the Frederick County Sheriff’s Office , which has a 287(g agreement with ICE, and the Frederick Police Department, which does not, I analyze the changes in arrests between the two agencies before and after the 287(g program was implemented in 2008. I find that overall, the arrests of Hispanics fell, suggesting that the Hispanic community avoided interaction with law enforcement when the program began. However, I also find that the program led to a significantly higher number of arrests of Hispanics by the Sheriff’s Office than would have occurred in its absence, indicating that attention was focused toward the Hispanic community as a result of the program. These results suggest that, if the program is to continue, additional safeguards are needed to prevent abuses and civil rights violations.

  15. A Microbiological Water Quality Evaluation of Ganges River Deltaic Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerby, C. J.; Gragg, S. E.; Page, J.; Leavens, J.; Bhattacharya, P.; Harrington, J.; Datta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Substantial natural contamination from trace elements (like arsenic) and pathogens make Ganges Deltaic aquifers an area of utmost concern. Following millions of cases of chronic arsenic poisoning from the groundwaters of the region, numerous residents are still knowingly ingesting water from shallow to intermediate accessible depth drinking water wells. Added to the calamity of arsenic is the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in these waters. The increasing frequency of gastroenteritis signifies the need to quantify the magnitude and extensiveness of health degrading agents--bacterial pathogens (i.e. Salmonella) and non-pathogens (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) --within the water supply in accessible Gangetic aquifers. To assess the dissolved microbiological quality in the region, present study sampling locations are along defined piezometer nests in an area in SE Asia (Bangladesh). Every nest contains samples from wells at varying depths covering shallow to deep aquifers. To date, 17 of the 76 water samples were analyzed for Salmonella, generic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms. Briefly, samples were plated in duplicate onto E. coli/Coliform petrifilm and incubated at 370C for 48 hours. Next, each sample was enriched in buffered peptone water and incubated at 370C for 18 hours. Bacterial DNA was extracted and amplified using a qPCR machine. Amplification plots were analyzed to determine presence/absence of microorganisms. All water samples (n=~76) are analyzed for Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria spp. and Shigella. Pathogen populations of PCR-positive water samples are enumerated using the agar direct plate method. Non-pathogenic bacterial indicator organisms (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) will also be enumerated. Over the course of the experiment, we hypothesize that shallower wells will 1)have a higher pathogen prevalence and 2)harbor pathogens and nonpathogens at higher concentrations. While the 17 samples analyzed to date were negative for Salmonella

  16. SMC1-mediated intra-S-phase arrest facilitates bocavirus DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Deng, Xuefeng; Cheng, Fang; Li, Yi; Qiu, Jianming

    2013-04-01

    Activation of a host DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for DNA replication of minute virus of canines (MVC), a member of the genus Bocavirus of the Parvoviridae family; however, the mechanism by which DDR contributes to viral DNA replication is unknown. In the current study, we demonstrate that MVC infection triggers the intra-S-phase arrest to slow down host cellular DNA replication and to recruit cellular DNA replication factors for viral DNA replication. The intra-S-phase arrest is regulated by ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase) signaling in a p53-independent manner. Moreover, we demonstrate that SMC1 (structural maintenance of chromosomes 1) is the key regulator of the intra-S-phase arrest induced during infection. Either knockdown of SMC1 or complementation with a dominant negative SMC1 mutant blocks both the intra-S-phase arrest and viral DNA replication. Finally, we show that the intra-S-phase arrest induced during MVC infection was caused neither by damaged host cellular DNA nor by viral proteins but by replicating viral genomes physically associated with the DNA damage sensor, the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex. In conclusion, the feedback loop between MVC DNA replication and the intra-S-phase arrest is mediated by ATM-SMC1 signaling and plays a critical role in MVC DNA replication. Thus, our findings unravel the mechanism underlying DDR signaling-facilitated MVC DNA replication and demonstrate a novel strategy of DNA virus-host interaction.

  17. Late Holocene depositional variability and provenance in the lower Ganges-Brahmaputra delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Rory; Barr, Iestyn; Weltje, Gert Jan; Roberson, Sam; Russell, Mark; Meneely, John; Orford, Julian

    2017-04-01

    The Sundarbans is one of the largest coastal wetland sites in the world, extending over an area of approximately one million hectares of the western delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra (G-B) rivers. The western delta has not been directly fluvially sourced, due to the eastward shift of the Ganges. This western extent of the delta is considered abandoned with sediments derived from dominant estuary-tidal dynamics, with sediment source unknown. In this study, sediment cores from the Indian Sundarbans were examined for grain-size distributions (GSDs), mineralogy through X-ray diffraction (XRD), and geochemistry with X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Chemical weathering, transport, and hydrodynamic sorting processes all affect the internal facies composition. The West Bengal Sundarbans has been examined extensively and found to reveal intensively weathered, terrestrial sediment derived from the Ganges River. There is a predominance of quartz and mica with clay minerals, with quartz interpreted as G-B Rivers draining the Himalayas during low-relief tropical weathering. Kaolinite formation is derived from feldspar and muscovite mica with kaolinite the product of intense chemical weathering. Lithofacies through GSDs are indicative of a muddy tidal flat environment with aggradation and fining-up in sizes. Mineralogy and geochemistry has revealed that the TMF in the late Holocene is still considerably influenced by regional sedimentary provenance of the Ganges River.

  18. Book review: Don Pinnock, Gang town | van der Spuy | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Title: Gang town. Publisher: Tafelberg, Cape Town, 2016. Price: 312. Pages: R196 Availability: Published ISBN: 9780624067894. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  19. Site response of the Ganges basin inferred from re-evaluated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We analyze previously published geodetic data and intensity values for the Ms = 8.1 Shillong. (1897), Ms = 7.8 Kangra (1905), and Ms = 8.2 Nepal/Bihar (1934) earthquakes to investigate the rupture zones of these earthquakes as well as the amplification of ground motions throughout the. Punjab, Ganges and Brahmaputra ...

  20. Suburban Youth Gangs and Public Policy: An Alternative to the War on Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Evan

    1996-01-01

    Discusses problem-solving strategies designed to diffuse the power of suburban youth gangs. Argues against using the metaphor of "war" to combat youth violence and outlines the dimensions of a comprehensive policy that emphasizes prevention, prosecution, and placement. Suggests what local governments can do to solve this problem. (RJM)

  1. The movement and implications of the Ganges-Bramhaputra runoff on entering the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers discharge annually approximately 10 sup(2) m sup(3) of freshwater into the Bay of Bengal at its northern end. We propose that the spread of this water, accompaniEd. by mixing with the ambient waters, occurs in three...

  2. Rehabilitation of Platanista gangetica (Lebeck, 1801) as the valid scientific name of the Ganges dolphin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinze, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch scientist Heinrich Julius Lebeck’s description of the Ganges dolphin is, based on a deduced latest date of publication 24 August 1801, given priority over William Roxburgh’s account of the same species, for which no precise date could be established. Although very similar to the work of

  3. Highlights of the 2002 National Youth Gang Survey. OJDP Fact Sheet No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egley, Arlen; Major, Aline K.

    2004-01-01

    Based on survey results, it is estimated that, in 2002, youth gangs were active in more than 2,300 cities with a population of 2,500 or more and in more than 550 jurisdictions served by county law enforcement agencies. These results are comparable to those from recent NYGC surveys and provide preliminary evidence that the overall number of…

  4. Individual and ecological assets and positive developmental trajectories among gang and community-based organization youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Carl S; Lerner, Richard M; von Eye, Alexander; Balsano, Aida Bilalbegovic; Dowling, Elizabeth M; Anderson, Pamela M; Bobek, Deborah L; Bjelobrk, Dragana

    2002-01-01

    The Search Institute framework for conceptualizing developmental assets was used in a longitudinal study of African American male youth involved in gangs or in community-based organizations (CBOs) serving youth. Analyses of intraindividual change indicated that individual and ecological assets are linked to positive developmental trajectories among these youth.

  5. Between Illegality and Legality: (In)security, crime and gangs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the informal security market in the Nairobi slums of Kibera and Mathare. It assesses how gangs manoeuvre between legality and illegality in the provision of security. This article argues that there is a need to move away from a traditional interpretation of crime and criminal groups so as to understand the ...

  6. Conflict & Gang Violence Prevention Using Peer Leadership: Training Manual for CHAMPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAMPS Peer Leadership, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ.

    Conflict and violence on the part of adolescents and pre-adolescents has been a growing problem. Young people will respond to an "anti-gang message" if that message is delivered from their peer group. This manual describes a peer approach to impact young people about productive ways to handle conflict. Older students are trained to operate puppets…

  7. Public School Uniforms: Effect on Perceptions of Gang Presence, School Climate, and Student Self-Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kathleen Kiley; Stafford, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between public school uniforms and student self-worth and student and staff perceptions of gang presence and school climate. Surveys of middle school students and teachers indicated that although students' perceptions did not vary across uniform policy, teachers from schools with uniform policies perceived lower levels of…

  8. School Counselors' and Principals' Perceptions of Violence: Guns, Gangs and Drugs in Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Rosemary; VanZommeren, Wayne; Young, Clark; Holtman, Paula

    2001-01-01

    Research investigating perceptions of guns, gangs, drugs, and violence in rural schools surveyed 266 principals and counselors in rural elementary, middle, and high schools in northern Missouri. Smaller schools and elementary schools had fewer problems than larger and middle/high schools. Community collaboration is essential to solving…

  9. Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: All cases of sexual assault reported to the police in Edo state and its environs are usually referred to either Central Hospital, Benin City or the Police clinic for medical examination and issuing of medical reports. This study is a descriptive retrospective audit of all cases of gang-rape victims, attended ...

  10. An Adapted Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Gang-Affiliated Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Parrish, Danielle; Horowitz, Rosalind; Kaplan, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of an adapted Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) intervention for gang-affiliated Mexican American adolescents and their parents. Methods: A total of 200 adolescents and their family caregivers were randomized to either a treatment or a control condition. Outcomes included adolescent substance…

  11. Adaptation tot changing water resources in the Ganges basin, northern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.J.; Groot, A.M.E.; Biemans, H.; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Siderius, C.; Stoffel, M.

    2011-01-01

    An ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) runs from the EU HighNoon project are used to project future air temperatures and precipitation on a 25 km grid for the Ganges basin in northern India, with a view to assessing impact of climate change on water resources and determining what multi-sector

  12. [Cardiorespiratory arrest in children with trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Herce Cid, J; Domínguez Sampedro, P; Rodríguez Núñez, A; García Sanz, C; Carrillo Alvarez, A; Calvo Macías, C; Bellón Cano, J M

    2006-11-01

    To analyze the characteristics and outcome of cardiorespiratory arrest secondary to trauma in children. We performed a secondary analysis of data from a prospective, multicenter study of cardiorespiratory arrest in children. Data were recorded according to the Utstein style. Twenty-eight children (age range: 7 days to 16 years) with cardiorespiratory arrest secondary to trauma were evaluated. The outcome variables were return of spontaneous circulation, sustained (more than 20 minutes) return of spontaneous circulation (initial survival), and survival at hospital discharge (final survival) in relation to the characteristics of the cardiorespiratory arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Neurological and general performance outcome was assessed by means of the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category scale and the Pediatric Overall Performance Category scale. Return of spontaneous circulation was obtained in 18 patients (64.2 %), initial survival was achieved in 14 (50 %) and final survival was achieved in three (10.7 %) (two without neurological sequelae and one with vegetative status). Final survival was significantly higher in patients with respiratory arrest (33.3 %) than in those with cardiac arrest (4.5 %), p = 0.04. Final survival was also higher in patients with a duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation shorter than 20 minutes (27.2 %) than in the remaining patients (0 %), p =0.05. The two survivors without neurologic sequelae had respiratory arrest. Survival until hospital discharge in children with cardiorespiratory arrest secondary to trauma is lower than that in children with cardiorespiratory arrest. Patients with respiratory arrest when resuscitation is started and those with a duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation of less than 20 minutes showed better survival than the remaining patients.

  13. The Ganges and the GAP: An Assessment of Efforts to Clean a Sacred River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Tamminga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the Ganges River in India has been the locus of sacred rites for the Hindus. The religious significance of the Ganges is physically manifested in ghats (stepped landings that form the land-water interface. Besides serving as a site for religious bathing and cremation, the ghats are also tied to people’s livelihoods and are an inseparable part of their daily lives. Today, the increasingly urbanized Ganges basin sustains more than 40 percent of India’s population. At the same time, industrialization and the pressures of a growing population along its banks have contributed to alarming levels of pollution in the river. In 1985, the federal government of India launched the Ganga Action Plan (GAP with the primary objective of cleaning the river. However, characterized by centralized planning and control with little public participation, the GAP had limited impact. In 2011, the government launched yet another clean up program—the National Ganga River Basin Project—with support from the World Bank. In this paper, we take a closer look at the programs to highlight the tenuous relationship between the need for ‘efficient’ management of environmental problems and public participation. Can public participation fit into the technocratic model that is often adopted by environmental programs? What approaches to participation kindle authorship and empowerment among those who share a deep relationship with the river and the ghats? Can religious practices be accommodated within scientific frameworks of adaptive management and resilience? We argue that rethinking the relationship between pollution control programs and participation is crucial for any effort to clean the Ganges, restore its waterfront, and catalyze broader regeneration in the Ganges basin.

  14. Comparison of crack arrest methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The ASTM Cooperative Test Program Data were used to compare the static (K/sub Ia/) and dynamic (K/sud ID/, K/sub IDm/) approaches to crack arrest. K/sub Ia/ is not dependent on K/sub Q/. This is consistent with the requirements of the static approach, but not the dynamic one which requires that K/sub Ia/ decrease with K/sub Q/ if K/sub ID/ (= K/sub IDm/) is a constant. K/sub ID/ increases systematically with K/sub Q/ at a rate that is consistent with calculations based on the use of a constant value for K/sub Ia/ which is equal to its measured mean value. Only in the limiting case of very short crack jumps (associated with very low average crack speeds) can K/sub ID/ be identified as a minimum value at which K/sub ID/ = K/sub IDm/. In this case K/sub IDm/ approx. K/sub Ia/ approx. K/sub Im/. The latter is the idealized minimum value of K that will support the continued propagation of a running crack

  15. Spatiotemporal Stability of Public Cardiac Arrests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirtas, Derya; Brooks, Steven C.; Morrison, Laurie J.; Chan, Timothy C.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Public access automated external defibrillator (AED) deployment and community cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) programs should target geographical areas with high risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Although these long-term, location-based interventions implicitly assume

  16. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  17. Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest of Mice H22 Hepatoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yiye; Ni, Yanbo; Yang, Jing; Lin, Xutao; Li, Jun; Zhang, Lixia

    2016-06-23

    BACKGROUND It is widely recognized that astaxanthin (ASX), a member of the carotenoid family, has strong biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and immune-modulation activities. Previous studies have confirmed that ASX can effectively inhibit hepatoma cells in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS MTT was used to assay proliferation of mice H22 cells, and flow cytometry was used to determine apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of H22 cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, anti-tumor activity of ASX was observed in mice. RESULTS ASX inhibited the proliferation of H22 cells, promoted cell necrosis, and induced cell cycle arrest in G2 phase in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS This study indicated that ASX can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in mice H22 hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Dataset on Investigating the role of onsite learning in the optimisation of craft gang's productivity in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugulu, Rex Asibuodu; Allen, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    The data presented in this article is an original data on "Investigating the role of onsite learning in the optimisation of craft gang's productivity in the construction industry". This article describes the constraints influencing craft gang's productivity and the influence of onsite learning on the blockwork craft gang's productivity. It also presented the method of data collection, using a semi-structured interview and an observation method to collect data from construction organisations. We provided statistics on the top most important constraints affecting the craft gang's productivity using 3-D Bar charts. In addition, we computed the correlation coefficients and the regression model on the influence of onsite learning on craft gang's productivity using the man-hour as the dependent variable. The relationship between blockwork inputs and cycle numbers was determined at 5% significance level. Finally, we presented data information on the application of the learning curve theory using the unit straight-line model equations and computed the learning rate of the observed craft gang's blockwork repetitive work.

  19. Sex Disparities in Arrest Outcomes for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Melissa; Worthen, Meredith G. F.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence arrests have been historically focused on protecting women and children from abusive men. Arrest patterns continue to reflect this bias with more men arrested for domestic violence compared to women. Such potential gender variations in arrest patterns pave the way to the investigation of disparities by sex of the offender in…

  20. ASPECTS REGARDING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EUROPEAN ARREST WARRANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin, MARINESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Treaty of Amsterdam stipulated the fact that the European Union must maintain and develop an area of freedom, security and justice, freedom assuming the existence of a common judicial area in which European citizens are able to seek justice in any of the member state same as in their own country. This goal aims to eliminate the possibility that criminals exploit the differences between the legal systems of the member states, imposing that the judgments are recognized and enforced abroad without the formalities laid down by the classical conventions on international judicial assistance. The Council Framework Decision 2002/584/JHA of 13 June 2002 on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures between Member States, materialized the decision taken in Tampere, following that between EU Member States to be replace the formal extradition procedure of the people who evade the execution of a sentence of imprisonment imposed by a judgment of conviction became final, with a simplified surrender procedure..

  1. Gangs in Catalonia. The approach from the Catalonia Government Police Troopers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Herrero Blanco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the presence of gangs was detected in Catalonia. The groups had their origins in bands from the American continent, with whom they maintained communication and dependency relationships. Since then, there has been steady increase both in the number of gangs and youth involved in them, as well as the level of criminal activity linked to these groups. The police corps have followed the evolution of these groups closely, although the social context is radically different and the levels of crime and violence are not comparable to the other side of the Atlantic. This article seeks to explain the Catalonia Government Troopers’ approach to this phenomenon during this time.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i2.1360

  2. Barcelona and Madrid: Two different realities in the phenomenon of the Latino gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López Corral

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Latino gangs that have come into existence in Spain represent a potential risk factor for citizens’ security and coexistence. That is the view of security forces and organisations, and it also seems to be the understanding reached by the administrations of the Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Madrid, whose actions in the light of this phenomenon are assessed in this work. To this end, the author begins with an analysis of the significance of Latino gangs inSpain, from their origins to their introduction, and carries out a review of their current situation, including their organisation, recruitment, impact and risk for citizen security. Only with suchan analysis can one begin to comprehend the scenario of dangers that will appear in the future, and the police strategy that should be introduced to deal with the phenomenon.

  3. American Gangs of the Roaring Twenties, Al Capone and Chicago Mobs

    OpenAIRE

    KADI, Ahmed AHMED; LALAOUI, Yaakoub

    2016-01-01

    This study primarily investigates the appearance of mafia, Black Hand and Organized Crime in the American society during the Roaring Twenties. It provides a brief history that shows the genesis of gangs in the United States of America. It was characterized by different groups in which each one altered from the other. The United States became a wealthy nation with a high standard of living, several kinds of cars, large houses and a new way of living in which everybody wanted to ...

  4. Countering Gang Violence: What Small Town Communities Can Learn from the US Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    lettuce demand. ii This scenic valley, the backdrop for so many of Steinbeck‟s novels possesses some of the most fertile soil in the US. The...conditions within Hebbron. The base plan will then be modified as appropriate to reflect results from the assessment which in turn, will facilitate the...appropriate vi. Report internal gang atmospherics , i.e. growth or decrease in numbers or activity vii. Intervene as appropriate to de-escalate tensions or

  5. Flood Risk Assessment and Forecasting for the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basins

    OpenAIRE

    Young, William; Avasthi, Ankit; Priya, Satya; Hopson, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Ganges Basin in South Asia is home to some of the world's poorest and most vulnerable communities. Impacted by catastrophic annual floods, the region is recognized as highly disaster prone, causing widespread human suffering and economic losses. In recognition of these challenges, many groups are actively and cooperatively engaged in reducing South Asia's vulnerability to flooding. As a contribution to these efforts, the World Bank recently commissioned specialist teams to assess and map ...

  6. Can Counter-Gang Models be Applied to Counter ISIS’s Internet Recruitment Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    the unprecedented scope of the challenges posed by our enemy’s usage of the Internet to spread information.29 During the meeting, Lumpkin stated...CAN COUNTER-GANG MODELS BE APPLIED TO COUNTER ISIS’S INTERNET RECRUITMENT CAMPAIGN? A thesis presented to the Faculty of the... reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215

  7. Rich pickings near large communal roosts favor 'gang' foraging by juvenile common ravens, Corvus corax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha R X Dall

    Full Text Available Ravens (Corvus corax feed primarily on rich but ephemeral carcasses of large animals, which are usually defended by territorial pairs of adults. Non-breeding juveniles forage socially and aggregate in communal winter roosts, and these appear to function as 'information centers' regarding the location of the rare food bonanzas: individuals search independently of one another and pool their effort by recruiting each other at roosts. However, at a large raven roost in Newborough on Anglesey, North Wales, some juveniles have been observed recently to forage in 'gangs' and to roost separately from other birds. Here we adapt a general model of juvenile common raven foraging behavior where, in addition to the typical co-operative foraging strategy, such gang foraging behavior could be evolutionarily stable near winter raven roosts. We refocus the model on the conditions under which this newly documented, yet theoretically anticipated, gang-based foraging has been observed. In the process, we show formally how the trade off between search efficiency and social opportunity can account for the existence of the alternative social foraging tactics that have been observed in this species. This work serves to highlight a number of fruitful avenues for future research, both from a theoretical and empirical perspective.

  8. Development of seasonal flow outlook model for Ganges-Brahmaputra Basins in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hossain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is crisscrossed by the branches and tributaries of three main river systems, the Ganges, Bramaputra and Meghna (GBM. The temporal variation of water availability of those rivers has an impact on the different water usages such as irrigation, urban water supply, hydropower generation, navigation etc. Thus, seasonal flow outlook can play important role in various aspects of water management. The Flood Forecasting and Warning Center (FFWC in Bangladesh provides short term and medium term flood forecast, and there is a wide demand from end-users about seasonal flow outlook for agricultural purposes. The objective of this study is to develop a seasonal flow outlook model in Bangladesh based on rainfall forecast. It uses European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF seasonal precipitation, temperature forecast to simulate HYDROMAD hydrological model. Present study is limited for Ganges and Brahmaputra River Basins. ARIMA correction is applied to correct the model error. The performance of the model is evaluated using coefficient of determination (R2 and Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE. The model result shows good performance with R2 value of 0.78 and NSE of 0.61 for the Brahmaputra River Basin, and R2 value of 0.72 and NSE of 0.59 for the Ganges River Basin for the period of May to July 2015. The result of the study indicates strong potential to make seasonal outlook to be operationalized.

  9. Geomorphology of the Ganges fluvial system in the Himalayan foreland: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sinha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ganges is one of the largest fluvial systems in the world rising from the loftiest Himalaya and draining into the Bay of Bengal. Together with the Brahmaputra, it also constitutes the largest delta in the world before finally meeting the sea. The Ganges system passes through a variety of terrain from the rugged mountains through the flat alluvial plains and the sea margin, and also transects variable climatic zones. As a result, the processes, landforms and stratigraphy are strikingly different in different zones of the system. This paper attempts to provide an update on our understanding of this very large and diverse system. A global effort has been made in the last few decades, and the research has focused on a variety of themes. The mountainous catchments have attracted attention in view of the extent of glaciation and extensive erosional processes. The alluvial plains of the Ganges symbolizes the life line of one of the world's largest population. Consequently, a number of studies have been carried out on the morphology, hydrology including flooding history and sediment transport behaviour of the river system. The alluvial stratigraphy of the large valleys and the interfluves in the plains has provided insight about the sedimentation pattern and response to climate change. The deltaic plain is the final destination of this huge sediment dispersal system before it drains into the sea, and it also records the influence of sea level changes apart from the upstream catchment controls over a period of time.

  10. Commitment language and homework completion in a behavioral employment program for gang-affiliated youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caitlin; Huey, Stanley J; McDaniel, Dawn D

    2015-05-01

    Research with substance-abusing samples suggests that eliciting commitment language during treatment may improve motivation to change, increase treatment engagement, and promote positive treatment outcomes. However, the relationship between in-session client language and treatment success is not well-understood for youth offender populations. This study evaluated the relationship between commitment language, treatment engagement (i.e., homework completion), and weekly employment outcomes for six gang-affiliated juvenile offenders participating in an employment counseling intervention. Weekly counseling sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded for commitment language strength. Multilevel models were fit to the data to examine the relationship between commitment language and counseling homework or employment outcomes within participants over time. Commitment language strength predicted subsequent homework completion but not weekly employment. These findings imply that gang-affiliated delinquent youth who express motivation to change during employment counseling will be more likely to comply with counselor-initiated homework. Further research on counselor techniques for promoting commitment language among juvenile gang offenders is needed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.63) is Palau which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 2 March 2007. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 144 Member States became Members [es

  12. Arrested larval development in cattle nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Duncan, M

    1987-06-01

    Most economically important cattle nematodes are able to arrest their larval development within the host - entering a period of dormancy or hypobiosis. Arrested larvae have a low death rate, and large numbers can accumulate in infected cattle during the grazing season. Because of this, outbreaks of disease caused by such nematodes can occur at times when recent infection with the parasites could not have occurred, for example during winter in temperature northern climates when cattle are normally housed. The capacity to arrest is a heritable trait. It is seen as an adaptation by the parasite to avoid further development to its free-living stages during times when the climate is unsuitable for free-living survival. But levels of arrestment can vary markedly in different regions, in different cattle, and under different management regimes. Climatic factors, previous conditioning, host immune status, and farm management all seem to affect arrestment levels. In this article, James Armour and Mary Duncan review the biological basis of the phenomenon, and discuss the apparently conflicting views on how it is controlled.

  13. Characteristics and outcome of cardiorespiratory arrest in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Herce, Jesús; García, Cristina; Domínguez, Pedro; Carrillo, Angel; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio; Calvo, Custodio; Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2004-12-01

    To analyse the present day characteristics and outcome of cardio-respiratory arrest in children in Spain. An 18-month prospective, multicentre study analysing out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardio-respiratory arrest in children. Two hundred and eighty-three children between 7 days and 17 years of age with cardio-respiratory arrest. Data were recorded according to the Utstein style. The outcome variables were the sustained return of spontaneous circulation (initial survival), and survival at 1 year (final survival). Three hundred and eleven cardio-respiratory arrest episodes, composed of 70 respiratory arrests and 241 cardiac arrests in 283 children were studied. Accidents were the most frequent cause of out-of-hospital arrest (40%), and cardiac disease was the leading cause (31%) of in-hospital arrest. Initial survival was 60.2% and 1 year survival was 33.2%. The final survival was higher in patients with respiratory arrest (70%) than in patients with cardiac arrest (21.1%) (P arrest in children remains high. Survival after respiratory arrest is significantly higher than after cardiac arrest. The duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempt is the best indicator of mortality of cardio-respiratory arrest in children.

  14. Current practice in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proclemer, Alessandro; Dobreanu, Dan; Pison, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: The purpose of this EP wire is to examine clinical practice in the field of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) management, with special focus on in-hospital diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-three European centres, all members of the EHRA-EP Research network......, completed the questions of the survey. A dedicated strategy for OHCA management is active in 85% of the centres. Shockable tachyarrhythmias such as initial OHCA rhythm are reported in >70% of the patients in 64% of the centres. In-hospital therapeutic hypothermia was applied in >50% of the patients in 53...... management strategy, including coronary angiography/PCI and implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy, while therapeutic hypothermia appears to be underused....

  15. Miller Fisher syndrome with sinus arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuko Shiraiwa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dysautonomia in Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS rarely causes serious cardiovascular complications, such as sinus arrest. Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS is recognized as a variant of GBS. There have been few reports regarding the association between MFS and dysautonomia. We describe a case of a 68-year-old man with ophthalmoplegia, bulbar palsy, truncal ataxia, and areflexia. He was diagnosed with MFS because he exhibited the classical clinical triad and had elevated serum anti- GQ1b immunoglobulin G levels. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of his head was normal. His 24-hour Holter recording showed sinus arrest. He was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, whereupon his symptoms gradually improved. This included the sinus arrest, which was considered a symptom of dysautonomia in MFS. Therefore, clinicians should be mindful of dysautonomia not only in GBS patients, but also in cases of MFS.

  16. Homies with aspirations and positive peer network ties: associations with reduced frequent substance use among gang-affiliated Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Deardorff, Julianna; Herd, Denise; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2015-04-01

    In marginalized urban neighborhoods across the USA, Latino youth are disproportionately represented among the growing number of youth gangs. Substance use among gang-involved youth poses both immediate and long-term health risks and can threaten educational engagement, future socioeconomic stability, and desistance. Conventional assessments of gang-affiliated youth and their peer network overlook the possibility that positive peer ties may exist and can foster health promoting behavior norms. Drawing on a positive deviance framework, in this study, we examine the relationship between positive peer network characteristics tied to post-secondary educational aspirations and frequent alcohol and marijuana use among Latino, gang-affiliated youth from a neighborhood in San Francisco. Using generalized estimating equations regression models across 72 peer network clusters (162 youth), we found that having close friends who plan to go to a 4-year college was associated with a lower odds of frequent marijuana and alcohol use (OR 0.27, p = 0.02; OR 0.29, p = 0.14, respectively) and that this association persisted when adjusting for risk characteristics (OR 0.19, p gang intervention efforts by identifying protective and risk factors associated with non-criminal health outcomes to inform participatory research approaches and asset-based interventions that contribute to building healthy communities.

  17. Execution of the European Arrest Warrant by the Romanian Judicial Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Rusu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented development of criminality at the social and economical levels, the tendency toglobalize some categories of crimes, of maximum gravity, as terrorism, armament traffic, drug traffic orhuman traffic, have determined the world states to undertake specific measures to prevent, combat and finallyreduce it. The first and most important measure taken by the Europe’s Council, regarding the intensificationof judicial cooperation in criminal matters was the adoption of the European Convention on extradition, inParis on 13 December 1957, completed by the two Additional Protocols in Strasbourg, on 15 October 1975and 17 March 1978. In this context, the release of the Council’s Framework Decision on 13 June 2002 on theEuropean arrest warrant and the procedures of delivery among the member states (2002/584/JAI representeda natural decision, with the purpose of contributing at ensuring a free, secure and just European space. TheEuropean arrest warrant is a judicial decision through which a competent judicial authority of a EuropeanUnion member state solicits the arrest and delivery by another member state, in order to proceed to theprosecution, trial or execution of a penalty or safety measure that is privative of freedom.

  18. Domains of nursing intervention after sudden cardiac arrest and automatic internal cardioverter defibrillator implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, C M; Benoliel, J Q; Bellin, C

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore individual and family experiences after sudden cardiac arrest and automatic internal cardioverter defibrillator implantation during the first year of recovery. This report specifically addresses the domains of concern expressed and helpful strategies used by participants that are relevant to the development of future intervention programs. A grounded theory approach was used to gain an understanding of areas of concern of sudden cardiac arrest survivors and families that could be used when designing future nursing interventions. Semistructured interviews were conducted with both sudden cardiac arrest survivors and 1 family member each at 5 points during the first year of recovery (hospitalization; 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after hospitalization). Participants were asked to identify those specific areas that most concerned them and that they would like assistance with during the first year. A total of 150 interviews were conducted with 176 hours of data generated. The study focused on 10 northwest urban community medical centers and participants' homes within a 50-mile driving distance from the medical centers. The sample included 15 first-time sudden cardiac arrest survivors (13 men and 2 women) and 1 family member each between the ages of 31 and 72 years. Domains of concern identified by participants that can be used to design future nursing intervention programs included preventive care, dealing with automatic internal cardioverter defibrillator shocks, emotional challenges, physical changes, activities of daily living, partner relationships, and dealing with health care providers. Suggestions of helpful strategies used by participants during the first year are outlined. Domains of concern and helpful strategies identified by participants provide a framework for the development and testing of nursing intervention programs to enhance recovery following sudden cardiac arrest for survivors and their families.

  19. Gang exposure and pregnancy incidence among female adolescents in San Francisco: evidence for the need to integrate reproductive health with violence prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, A M; Moore, J G; Doherty, I A; Rodas, C; Auerswald, C; Shiboski, S; Padian, N S

    2008-05-01

    Among a cohort of 237 sexually active females aged 14-19 years recruited from community venues in a predominantly Latino neighborhood in San Francisco, California, the authors examined the relation between gang exposure and pregnancy incidence over 2 years of follow-up between 2001 and 2004. Using discrete-time survival analysis, they investigated whether gang membership by individuals and partners was associated with pregnancy incidence and determined whether partnership characteristics, contraceptive behaviors, and pregnancy intentions mediated the relation between gang membership and pregnancy. Pregnancy incidence was determined by urine-based testing and self-report. Latinas represented 77% of participants, with one in five born outside the United States. One quarter (27.4%) became pregnant over follow-up. Participants' gang membership had no significant effect on pregnancy incidence (hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 0.54, 3.45); however, having partners who were in gangs was associated with pregnancy (hazard ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 3.32). The male partner's perceived pregnancy intentions and having a partner in detention each mediated the effect of partner's gang membership on pregnancy risk. Increased pregnancy incidence among young women with gang-involved partners highlights the importance of integrating reproductive health prevention into programs for gang-involved youth. In addition, high pregnancy rates indicate a heightened risk for sexually transmitted infections.

  20. Impact of a Comprehensive Whole Child Intervention and Prevention Program among Youths at Risk of Gang Involvement and Other Forms of Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffman, Stephen; Ray, Alice; Berg, Sarah; Covington, Larry; Albarran, Nadine M.; Vasquez, Max

    2009-01-01

    Youths in gang-ridden neighborhoods are at risk for trauma-related mental health disorders, which are early indicators of likely school failure and delinquency. Such youths rarely seek out services for these problems. The Juvenile Intervention and Prevention Program (JIPP), a school-based gang intervention and prevention program in Los Angeles,…

  1. The Challenges of Gangs and Youth Violence in the Schools. Fourth CCBD Mini-Library Series: Addressing the Diverse Needs of Children and Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders--Programs That Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Sharon H.; Van Acker, Richard

    Review of the current knowledge concerning youth violence and gang behavior considers risk factors for violence and gang formation, functions served by violence and gang membership, and strategies that have been empirically validated to be either beneficial or ineffective. Following an introductory chapter, the first chapter looks at the nature of…

  2. House Arrest: Florida's Community Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Keon S.

    This report highlights Florida's house arrest program, a new alternative to prison incarceration viewed as a significant criminal justice experiment. The implementation and operation of the community control program is decribed, specific goals and objectives of the community control program are listed, and a preliminary assessment is offered.…

  3. [Extracorporeal life support for treating cardiac arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehot, Jean-Jacques; Long-Him-Nam, Nelly; Bastien, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    Percutaneous extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is now widespread for treating acute cardiac failure. ECLS has been used for treating in-hospital and out of hospital cardiac arrests. A systematic review of literature was performed in order to assess the results. Nine studies of in-hospital cardiac arrests were published between 2003 and January 31, 2011. They included 724 patients, 208 of which survived without significant neurological sequelae (28.7 %). In the other patients, the initial disease and the consequences of low flow brought multiorgan failure, or ECLS resulted in haemorrhage and ischaemia. Low flow lasted between 42 and 105 min (mean 54min). ECLS was used after out of hospital cardiac arrests in 3 studies published between 2008 and January 31, 2011. They included 110 patients of which only 6 survived (4.4 %) despite strict inclusion criteria. Low flow lasted between 60 and 120 min (mean 98 min.) According to these results the use of ECLS should be encouraged after in-hospital cardiac arrest and training in cardiorespiratory resuscitation should be improved in global population and health professionals.

  4. Cardiac Arrest After Submucosal Infiltration With Lignocaine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinda

    excitation like perioral twitching or tinnitus, seizures in our case. The occurrence of cardiac arrest was within a ten minute period after submucosal infiltration of 6 ml lignocaine 2% (120 mg) and. 1:200,000 epinephrine (30 μg). Further, the rapid onset and offset of symptoms would likely correlate with epinephrine and not ...

  5. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  6. The Organizational Determinants of Police Arrest Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Allison T.; MacDonald, John M.; Manz, Patrick W.

    2006-01-01

    A limited amount of research has examined the relationship between characteristics of police organizations and policing styles. In particular, few studies have examined the link between organizational structures and police officer arrest decisions. Wilson's (1968) pioneering case study of police organizations suggested that individual police…

  7. Heart Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different? Updated:Mar 15,2018 People often use these ... The heart attack symptoms in women can be different than men. What is cardiac arrest? Sudden cardiac ...

  8. Reproduction of Lightning Incidence Resulted in Line Surge Arrester Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Hironao; Kozuka, Masahiro; Itamoto, Naoki; Ishii, Masaru

    There is possibility that lightning strokes to transmission lines with large peaks and/or long duration of currents cause arrester failures. Hence it is important to evaluate reliability of transmission lines considering arrester failures caused by lightning strokes. Actually, arrester failures were caused by a winter lightning stroke to the tower top of one circuit transmission line. In this letter, the lightning stroke associated with the arrester failures is evaluated based on observation of electromagnetic field and analysis by EMTP simulation.

  9. Dynamic crack arrest in ceramics and ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, A. S.; Yang, K. H.

    1989-01-01

    The results of past dynamic crack arrest experiments involving structural ceramics and ceramic composites are reviewed and analyzed. The lack of dynamic crack arrest in very brittle materials is discussed and contrasted with dynamic crack arrest in somewhat brittle metallic and polymeric materials. Numerical analyses show that the lack of crack arrest is due to reduced dynamic fracture resistance of the material and is not due to the kinetic energy.

  10. Flexible Strategies for Coping with Rainfall Variability: Seasonal Adjustments in Cropped Area in the Ganges Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderius, Christian; Biemans, Hester; van Walsum, Paul E V; van Ierland, Ekko C; Kabat, Pavel; Hellegers, Petra J G J

    2016-01-01

    One of the main manifestations of climate change will be increased rainfall variability. How to deal with this in agriculture will be a major societal challenge. In this paper we explore flexibility in land use, through deliberate seasonal adjustments in cropped area, as a specific strategy for coping with rainfall variability. Such adjustments are not incorporated in hydro-meteorological crop models commonly used for food security analyses. Our paper contributes to the literature by making a comprehensive model assessment of inter-annual variability in crop production, including both variations in crop yield and cropped area. The Ganges basin is used as a case study. First, we assessed the contribution of cropped area variability to overall variability in rice and wheat production by applying hierarchical partitioning on time-series of agricultural statistics. We then introduced cropped area as an endogenous decision variable in a hydro-economic optimization model (WaterWise), coupled to a hydrology-vegetation model (LPJmL), and analyzed to what extent its performance in the estimation of inter-annual variability in crop production improved. From the statistics, we found that in the period 1999-2009 seasonal adjustment in cropped area can explain almost 50% of variability in wheat production and 40% of variability in rice production in the Indian part of the Ganges basin. Our improved model was well capable of mimicking existing variability at different spatial aggregation levels, especially for wheat. The value of flexibility, i.e. the foregone costs of choosing not to crop in years when water is scarce, was quantified at 4% of gross margin of wheat in the Indian part of the Ganges basin and as high as 34% of gross margin of wheat in the drought-prone state of Rajasthan. We argue that flexibility in land use is an important coping strategy to rainfall variability in water stressed regions.

  11. Flexible Strategies for Coping with Rainfall Variability: Seasonal Adjustments in Cropped Area in the Ganges Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Siderius

    Full Text Available One of the main manifestations of climate change will be increased rainfall variability. How to deal with this in agriculture will be a major societal challenge. In this paper we explore flexibility in land use, through deliberate seasonal adjustments in cropped area, as a specific strategy for coping with rainfall variability. Such adjustments are not incorporated in hydro-meteorological crop models commonly used for food security analyses. Our paper contributes to the literature by making a comprehensive model assessment of inter-annual variability in crop production, including both variations in crop yield and cropped area. The Ganges basin is used as a case study. First, we assessed the contribution of cropped area variability to overall variability in rice and wheat production by applying hierarchical partitioning on time-series of agricultural statistics. We then introduced cropped area as an endogenous decision variable in a hydro-economic optimization model (WaterWise, coupled to a hydrology-vegetation model (LPJmL, and analyzed to what extent its performance in the estimation of inter-annual variability in crop production improved. From the statistics, we found that in the period 1999-2009 seasonal adjustment in cropped area can explain almost 50% of variability in wheat production and 40% of variability in rice production in the Indian part of the Ganges basin. Our improved model was well capable of mimicking existing variability at different spatial aggregation levels, especially for wheat. The value of flexibility, i.e. the foregone costs of choosing not to crop in years when water is scarce, was quantified at 4% of gross margin of wheat in the Indian part of the Ganges basin and as high as 34% of gross margin of wheat in the drought-prone state of Rajasthan. We argue that flexibility in land use is an important coping strategy to rainfall variability in water stressed regions.

  12. Differential heating in the Indian Ocean differentially modulates precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature dynamics play a prominent role in Asian summer monsoon variability. Two interactive climate modes of the Indo-Pacific—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean dipole mode—modulate the amount of precipitation over India, in addition to precipitation over Africa, Indonesia, and Australia. However, this modulation is not spatially uniform. The precipitation in southern India is strongly forced by the Indian Ocean dipole mode and ENSO. In contrast, across northern India, encompassing the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, the climate mode influence on precipitation is much less. Understanding the forcing of precipitation in these river basins is vital for food security and ecosystem services for over half a billion people. Using 28 years of remote sensing observations, we demonstrate that (i) the tropical west-east differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Ganges precipitation and (ii) the north-south differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Brahmaputra precipitation. The El Niño phase induces warming in the warm pool of the Indian Ocean and exerts more influence on Ganges precipitation than Brahmaputra precipitation. The analyses indicate that both the magnitude and position of the sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean are important drivers for precipitation dynamics that can be effectively summarized using two new indices, one tuned for each basin. These new indices have the potential to aid forecasting of drought and flooding, to contextualize land cover and land use change, and to assess the regional impacts of climate change.

  13. Differential Heating in the Indian Ocean Differentially Modulates Precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shahriar Pervez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature dynamics play a prominent role in Asian summer monsoon variability. Two interactive climate modes of the Indo-Pacific—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO and the Indian Ocean dipole mode—modulate the amount of precipitation over India, in addition to precipitation over Africa, Indonesia, and Australia. However, this modulation is not spatially uniform. The precipitation in southern India is strongly forced by the Indian Ocean dipole mode and ENSO. In contrast, across northern India, encompassing the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, the climate mode influence on precipitation is much less. Understanding the forcing of precipitation in these river basins is vital for food security and ecosystem services for over half a billion people. Using 28 years of remote sensing observations, we demonstrate that (i the tropical west-east differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Ganges precipitation and (ii the north-south differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Brahmaputra precipitation. The El Niño phase induces warming in the warm pool of the Indian Ocean and exerts more influence on Ganges precipitation than Brahmaputra precipitation. The analyses indicate that both the magnitude and position of the sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean are important drivers for precipitation dynamics that can be effectively summarized using two new indices, one tuned for each basin. These new indices have the potential to aid forecasting of drought and flooding, to contextualize land cover and land use change, and to assess the regional impacts of climate change.

  14. Soil Gas Sample Handling: Evaluation of Water Removal and Sample Ganging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrecht, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Donaldo P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Soil gas sampling is currently conducted in support of Nuclear Test Ban treaty verification. Soil gas samples are collected and analyzed for isotopes of interest. Some issues that can impact sampling and analysis of these samples are excess moisture and sample processing time. Here we discuss three potential improvements to the current sampling protocol; a desiccant for water removal, use of molecular sieve to remove CO2 from the sample during collection, and a ganging manifold to allow composite analysis of multiple samples.

  15. Adaptation to changing water resources in the Ganges basin, northern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moors, Eddy J.; Groot, Annemarie; Biemans, Hester; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Catharien; Siderius, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Huggel, Christian; Wiltshire, Andy; Mathison, Camilla; Ridley, Jeff; Jacob, Daniela; Kumar, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    An ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) runs from the EU HighNoon project are used to project future air temperatures and precipitation on a 25 km grid for the Ganges basin in northern India, with a view to assessing impact of climate change on water resources and determining what multi-sector adaptation measures and policies might be adopted at different spatial scales. The RCM results suggest an increase in mean annual temperature, averaged over the Ganges basin, in the range 1-4 o C over the period from 2000 to 2050, using the SRES A1B forcing scenario. Projections of precipitation indicate that natural variability dominates the climate change signal and there is considerable uncertainty concerning change in regional annual mean precipitation by 2050. The RCMs do suggest an increase in annual mean precipitation in this region to 2050, but lack significant trend. Glaciers in headwater tributary basins of the Ganges appear to be continuing to decline but it is not clear whether meltwater runoff continues to increase. The predicted changes in precipitation and temperature will probably not lead to significant increase in water availability to 2050, but the timing of runoff from snowmelt will likely occur earlier in spring and summer. Water availability is subject to decadal variability, with much uncertainty in the contribution from climate change. Although global social-economic scenarios show trends to urbanization, locally these trends are less evident and in some districts rural population is increasing. Falling groundwater levels in the Ganges plain may prevent expansion of irrigated areas for food supply. Changes in socio-economic development in combination with projected changes in timing of runoff outside the monsoon period will make difficult choices for water managers. Because of the uncertainty in future water availability trends, decreasing vulnerability by augmenting resilience is the preferred way to adapt to climate change. Adaptive policies are

  16. An Audit Of Perioperative Cardiac Arrest At Lagos University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Intraoperative cardiac arrests are not uncommon and are related to both surgical and anaesthetic factors. This study aimed to examine the factors which predispose to a periopeartive cardiac arrest, to assess the appropriateness of therapy and the outcome. Materials and Methods: All perioperative cardiac arrests ...

  17. Pattern of Perioperative Cardiac Arrests at University of Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    only 4 out of the 14 cardiac arrests. Only 2(14%) out of 14 cardiac arrests recovered to home discharge, one of them with significant neurological deficit. Majority of arrests were due to hypoxia from airway problems that were not detected early. There is need to improve on patient monitoring, knowledge of CPR and intensive ...

  18. Transient Central Diabetes Insipidus and Marked Hypernatremia following Cardiorespiratory Arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Koubar, Sahar H.; Younes, Eliane

    2017-01-01

    Central Diabetes Insipidus is often an overlooked complication of cardiopulmonary arrest and anoxic brain injury. We report a case of transient Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) following cardiopulmonary arrest. It developed 4 days after the arrest resulting in polyuria and marked hypernatremia of 199?mM. The latter was exacerbated by replacing the hypotonic urine by isotonic saline.

  19. Transient Central Diabetes Insipidus and Marked Hypernatremia following Cardiorespiratory Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar H. Koubar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Diabetes Insipidus is often an overlooked complication of cardiopulmonary arrest and anoxic brain injury. We report a case of transient Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI following cardiopulmonary arrest. It developed 4 days after the arrest resulting in polyuria and marked hypernatremia of 199 mM. The latter was exacerbated by replacing the hypotonic urine by isotonic saline.

  20. 32 CFR 935.125 - Citation in place of arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation in place of arrest. 935.125 Section 935... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Peace Officers § 935.125 Citation in place of arrest. In any case in which a peace officer may make an arrest without a warrant, he may issue and serve a citation if he...

  1. Seasonal variations in terrestrial gamma radiation along river Ganges and implications to public health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.; Meher, P.K.; Mishra, K.P.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation dose and determination of associated health hazard at river bank is of major importance due to the increasing tourism, bathing festivals and mythological beliefs. Present study was focused on measurement of absorbed dose rates as function of seasonal variation at designated locations along Ganges river in India. Portable dosimeter (plastic scintillation counter) was used for the measurement of absorbed dose rates. Subsequently, annual effective dose (AED) and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were calculated by the standard procedure. Results showed absorbed dose rates for Pre-monsoon ranged from 89.7 ± 4.03 to 115.0 ± 7.81 nSv/h with an average of 105.54 nSv/h. Post-monsoon measurements yielded values from 81.0 ± 7.00 to 105.6 ± 5.75 nSv/h with an average value of 90.8 nSv/h. Calculated average AED for Pre-monsoon period was found to be 0.13 mSv/y. Whereas, 0.11 mSv/y was the AED for the post-monsoon period. Furthermore, the calculated average ELCR values for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon were found to be 0.488 × 10 -3 and 0.418 × 10 -3 , respectively. This study reports significant seasonal variations in the terrestrial gamma radiation doses along the long stretch of Ganges river. (author)

  2. Control rod pattern exchange in a BWR/6 utilizing gang mode withdrawal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvil, A.B. Jr.; Aldemir, T.; Hajek, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    The use of checkerboard pattern of alternating inserted and fully withdrawn control rods and the uneven void distribution in boiling water reactor (BWR) cores can cause large burnup gradients even after a short time of operation. To compensate for these effects, power has to be reshaped periodically (typically every two full-power months) by individually manipulating the control rods. During this manipulation process (called the control rod pattern exchange), the core power is reduced to 60% of nominal power by means of flow reduction to limit power swings to tolerable levels and to ensure that fuel thermal limits are not exceeded. A control rod pattern exchange by individual rod manipulation typically takes 4 to 8 h and represents a large cost burden to the utility in terms of reduced system output. The latest generation of BWRs, the BWR/6, possesses the capability to simultaneously move up to four symmetrically located control rods. The rods corresponding to a given gang may have rotational symmetry, mirror symmetry, or a combination of the two. This paper presents a pattern exchange procedure that exploits the capability of gang mode rod withdrawal to reduce the pattern exchange execution time and radial power distribution asymmetry associated with individual rod manipulation. The working model used in the study is the Perry Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1, located in Perry, Ohio, and owned by the Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company

  3. [Cardiorespiratory arrest at the age of 30].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porlier, Magali; Porlier, Ludovic; Lefort, Hugues

    The cardiovascular risk of women is specific and polymorphous. Delays in treatment in women are evident and caused by multiple social and anthropological factors as well as changes to lifestyle habits which are becoming similar to those of men. Young women thereby have a higher risk of sudden death than the rest of the female and general population. A nurse who experienced cardiorespiratory arrest at the age of 30 shares her story. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H; Rams, Thomas E

    An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries.

  5. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  6. El consumo de drogas como una práctica cultural dentro de las pandillas O uso de drogas como prática cultural dentro de gangues Drugs use as a cultural practice within gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Guzmán-Facundo

    2011-06-01

    thing that is shown is the beginning of gang members in drugs consumption, and the form how drugs are presented by family members and friends of the gang is described. Next, we described the meaning of drugs use in everyday life and show the extent to which drugs use is acceptable and normalized.

  7. Sulfur dioxide converter and pollution arrester system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvo, V.H.

    1983-01-01

    A sulphur dioxide converter and pollution arrester system are disclosed which involves the treatment of smoke and/or contaminated air emanating from a combustion area by passage through a zone achieving turbulence into a water spray contained first treating chamber. The turbulence zone, into which an atomized catalyst is introduced, serves to create a longer path for cooling as well as increased centrifugal motion to the solid particles in the contaminated air and also the formation of sulphur trioxide. In other words, the arrangement is such that pollution arresting action is provided in the form of ''slinging'' resulting from tangential directional movement and, when combining with the water spray in the first treating chamber, the ultimate formation of sulphuric acid. Subsequently, the contaminated air, containing amounts of sulphurous and sulphuric acids, passes through a second treating chamber, where airflow throughout the system is occasioned by action at the outlet end, such as the vacuum created by a flue and not by independent mechanical means. The arrangement serves to a twofold purpose, i.e. to minimize or arrest pollution and to convert sulphur dioxide, a component of high sulphur coal, into commercially valuable sulphuric acid

  8. Cardiorespiratory arrest in children (out of hospital).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, Hilary

    2010-11-25

    Cardiorespiratory arrest outside hospital occurs in approximately 1/10,000 children a year in resource-rich countries, with two-thirds of arrests occurring in children under 18 months of age. Approximately 45% of cases have undetermined causes, including sudden infant death syndrome. Of the rest, 20% are caused by trauma, 10% by chronic disease, and 6% by pneumonia. We conducted a systematic review aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for non-submersion out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest in children? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 15 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: airway management and ventilation (bag-mask ventilation and intubation), bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, direct-current cardiac shock, hypothermia, intravenous sodium bicarbonate, standard dose of intravenous adrenaline (epinephrine), and training parents to perform resuscitation.

  9. Variations in Cardiac Arrest Regionalization in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary P. Mercer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The development of cardiac arrest centers and regionalization of systems of care may improve survival of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. This survey of the local EMS agencies (LEMSA in California was intended to determine current practices regarding the treatment and routing of OHCA patients and the extent to which EMS systems have regionalized OHCA care across California. Methods: We surveyed all of the 33 LEMSA in California regarding the treatment and routing of OHCA patients according to the current recommendations for OHCA management. Results: Two counties, representing 29% of the California population, have formally regionalized cardiac arrest care. Twenty of the remaining LEMSA have specific regionalization protocols to direct all OHCA patients with return of spontaneous circulation to designated percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI-capable hospitals, representing another 36% of the population. There is large variation in LEMSA ability to influence inhospital care. Only 14 agencies (36%, representing 44% of the population, have access to hospital outcome data, including survival to hospital discharge and cerebral performance category scores. Conclusion: Regionalized care of OHCA is established in two of 33 California LEMSA, providing access to approximately one-third of California residents. Many other LEMSA direct OHCA patients to PCI-capable hospitals for primary PCI and targeted temperature management, but there is limited regional coordination and system quality improvement. Only one-third of LEMSA have access to hospital data for patient outcomes.

  10. Defensive Localism in White and Black: A Comparative History of European-American and African-American Youth Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Compares European American and African American youth gangs in four historical periods (seaboard, immigrant, racially changing, and hypersegregated cities), showing that differences can be traced to race-specific effects of labor, housing, and consumer markets, government policies, local politics, and organized crime on their communities.…

  11. Water resources management in the Ganges Basin: a comparison of three strategies for conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Voss, Clifford I.; Yu, Winston; Michael, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    The most difficult water resources management challenge in the Ganges Basin is the imbalance between water demand and seasonal availability. More than 80 % of the annual flow in the Ganges River occurs during the 4-month monsoon, resulting in widespread flooding. During the rest of the year, irrigation, navigation, and ecosystems suffer because of water scarcity. Storage of monsoonal flow for utilization during the dry season is one approach to mitigating these problems. Three conjunctive use management strategies involving subsurface water storage are evaluated in this study: Ganges Water Machine (GWM), Pumping Along Canals (PAC), and Distributed Pumping and Recharge (DPR). Numerical models are used to determine the efficacy of these strategies. Results for the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh (UP) indicate that these strategies create seasonal subsurface storage from 6 to 37 % of the yearly average monsoonal flow in the Ganges exiting UP over the considered range of conditions. This has clear implications for flood reduction, and each strategy has the potential to provide irrigation water and to reduce soil waterlogging. However, GWM and PAC require significant public investment in infrastructure and management, as well as major shifts in existing water use practices; these also involve spatially-concentrated pumping, which may induce land subsidence. DPR also requires investment and management, but the distributed pumping is less costly and can be more easily implemented via adaptation of existing water use practices in the basin.

  12. 32 CFR 884.11 - Procedures for return of an Air Force member to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR... civilian authorities. (1) Fully identify the member sought by providing the member's name, grade, SSN, and... capias (writs authorizing arrests), or other process directing or authorizing the requesting authorities...

  13. Perceptions of teamwork among code team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahramus, Tara; Frewin, Sarah; Penoyer, Daleen Aragon; Sole, Mary Lou

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) teams, known as code teams, provide coordinated and evidenced-based interventions by various disciplines during a CPA. Teamwork behaviors are essential during CPA resuscitation and may have an impact on patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of teamwork during CPA events among code team members and to determine if differences in perception existed between disciplines within the code team. A prospective, descriptive, comparative design using the Code Teamwork Perception Tool online survey was used to assess the perception of teamwork during CPA events by medical residents, critical care nurses, and respiratory therapists. Sixty-six code team members completed the Code Teamwork Perception Tool. Mean teamwork scores were 2.63 on a 5-point scale (0-4). No significant differences were found in mean scores among disciplines. Significant differences among scores were found on 7 items related to code leadership, roles and responsibilities between disciplines, and in those who had participated on a code team for less than 2 years and certified in Advanced Cardiac Life Support for less than 4 years. Teamwork perception among members of the code team was average. Teamwork training for resuscitation with all disciplines on the code team may promote more effective teamwork during actual CPA events. Clinical nurse specialists can aid in resuscitation efforts by actively participating on committees, identifying opportunities for improvement, being content experts, leading the development of team training programs, and conducting research in areas lacking evidence.

  14. Flood Risk Assessment and Forecasting for the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, T. M.; Priya, S.; Young, W.; Avasthi, A.; Clayton, T. D.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.; Riddle, E. E.; Broman, D.; Boehnert, J.; Sampson, K. M.; Kettner, A.; Singh, D.

    2017-12-01

    During the 2017 South Asia monsoon, torrential rains and catastrophic floods affected more than 45 million people, including 16 million children, across the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basins. The basin is recognized as one of the world's most disaster-prone regions, with severe floods occurring almost annually causing extreme loss of life and property. In light of this vulnerability, the World Bank and collaborators have contributed toward reducing future flood impacts through recent developments to improve operational preparedness for such events, as well as efforts in more general preparedness and resilience building through planning based on detailed risk assessments. With respect to improved event-specific flood preparedness through operational warnings, we discuss a new forecasting system that provides probability-based flood forecasts developed for more than 85 GBM locations. Forecasts are available online, along with near-real-time data maps of rainfall (predicted and actual) and river levels. The new system uses multiple data sets and multiple models to enhance forecasting skill, and provides improved forecasts up to 16 days in advance of the arrival of high waters. These longer lead times provide the opportunity to save both lives and livelihoods. With sufficient advance notice, for example, farmers can harvest a threatened rice crop or move vulnerable livestock to higher ground. Importantly, the forecasts not only predict future water levels but indicate the level of confidence in each forecast. Knowing whether the probability of a danger-level flood is 10 percent or 90 percent helps people to decide what, if any, action to take. With respect to efforts in general preparedness and resilience building, we also present a recent flood risk assessment, and how it provides, for the first time, a numbers-based view of the impacts of different size floods across the Ganges basin. The findings help identify priority areas for tackling flood risks (for

  15. A case of thyroid storm with cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakashima Y

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yutaka Nakashima,1 Tsuneaki Kenzaka,2 Masanobu Okayama,3 Eiji Kajii31Department for Support of Rural Medicine, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, 2Division of General Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, Japan; 3Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, JapanAbstract: A 23-year-old man became unconscious while jogging. He immediately received basic life support from a bystander and was transported to our hospital. On arrival, his spontaneous circulation had returned from a state of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity. Following admission, hyperthyroidism led to a suspicion of thyroid storm, which was then diagnosed as a possible cause of the cardiac arrest. Although hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac arrest including ventricular fibrillation is rare, it should be considered when diagnosing the cause of treatable cardiac arrest.Keywords: hyperthyroidism, ventricular fibrillation, treatable cardiac arrest, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest

  16. [Identifying children at risk for cardiorespiratory arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Alvarez, A; Martínez Gutiérrez, A; Salvat Germán, F

    2004-08-01

    Cardiorespiratory arrest in children with severe disease does not usually present suddenly or unexpectedly but is often the result of a progressive deterioration of respiratory and/or circulatory function. Before failure of these functions occurs, there is a series of clinical signs that serve as a warning. Health professionals should not only evaluate clinical signs of respiratory and/or circulatory insufficiency but should also be able to identify these warning signs as early as possible, preferably in the compensation phase, given that the possibility that this process can be reversed by therapeutic measures decreases as the process progresses.

  17. [Lethal portal venous gas after cardiopulmonary arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomachot, L; Arnal, J M; Vialet, R; Albanèse, J; Martin, C

    1998-01-01

    We report the case of a 51-year-old patient admitted after a transient cardiorespiratory arrest. The abdominal CT scan revealed the presence of hepatic portal venous gas. At laparotomy, a diffuse mesenteric ischaemia was diagnosed. The patient died from multiple organ failure in the subsequent hours. Necrotic bowel is associated with hepatic portal venous gas in 50% of the cases and the current mortality rate is 85%. Gas originates either through intestinal transmucosal passage, either by intraportal bacterial gas production, or through both mechanisms.

  18. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces-from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or "homophily").

  19. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces—from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or “homophily”).

  20. Scarcity of Fresh Water Resources in the Ganges Delta of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshed, S. B.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Ganges Delta in Bangladesh is a classical example of water insecurity in a transboundary river basin where limitations in quantity, quality and timing of available water is producing disastrous conditions. Two opposite extreme water conditions, i.e., fresh water scarcity and floods are common in this region during dry and wet seasons, respectively. The purpose of this study is to manage fresh water requirement of people and environment considering the seasonal availability of surface water (SW) and ground water (GW). SW availability was analyzed by incoming stream flow including the effects of upstream water diversion, rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration (ET). Flow duration curves (FDC), and rainfall and temperature elasticity are used to assess the change of incoming upstream flow. Groundwater data were collected from 285 piezometers and monitoring wells established by Bangladesh water development board. Variation of groundwater depth shows major withdrawals of GW are mostly concentrated in the north part of the study area. Irrigation is the largest sector of off-stream (irrigation, industrial and domestic) water use which occupies 82% SW and 17% GW of total water consumption. Although domestic water use is entirely depend on GW but arsenic pollution is limiting the GW use. FDC depicts a substantial difference between high flow threshold (20%) and low flow threshold (70%) in the Bangladesh part of Ganges River. A large variation of around 83% is observed for instream water volume between wet and dry seasons. The reduction of upstream fresh water flow increased the extent and intensity of salinity intrusion. Presently GW is also contaminated by saline water. This fresh water scarcity is reducing the livelihood options considerably and indirectly forcing population migration from the delta region. This study provides insight to the changes in hydrology and limitations to freshwater availability enabling better formulation of water resources management in

  1. Hydro-meteorological variability in the greater Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rashed; Ward, Neil

    2004-10-01

    The flows of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) are highly seasonal, and heavily influenced by monsoon rainfall. As a result, these rivers swell to their banks and often overflow during the monsoon months. This is most pronounced in the downstream regions, particularly in Bangladesh, which is the lowest riparian country. The objective of this paper is to study this hydro-meteorological variability in the greater GBM regions, including the headwater regions in India and their role in streamflows in Bangladesh, and explore the large-scale oceanic factors affecting this hydro-meteorological variability. Global precipitation data, Bangladesh rainfall and streamflow records have been analysed and related to large-scale climate patterns, including upstream rainfall, regional atmospheric circulation and patterns of sea-surface temperature.The findings have quantified how the streamflows of these rivers in Bangladesh are highly correlated with the rainfall in the upper catchments with typically a lag of about 1 month. Therefore, streamflows in Bangladesh could be reasonably estimated for 1 to 3 months in advance (especially for the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers) by employing simple correlation, if rainfall data from countries further up are available on a real-time and continuous basis. In the absence of rainfall data, streamflow forecasts are still possible from unusually warm or cold sea-surface temperatures in the tropics. The study concludes that hydro-meteorological information flow between Bangladesh and other neighbouring countries is essential for developing a knowledge base for evaluating the potential implications of seasonal streamflow forecast in the GBM basins in Bangladesh.

  2. Hydroclimatic sustainability assessment of changing climate on cholera in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr-Azadani, Fariborz; Khan, Rakibul; Rahimikollu, Javad; Unnikrishnan, Avinash; Akanda, Ali; Alam, Munirul; Huq, Anwar; Jutla, Antarpreet; Colwell, Rita

    2017-10-01

    The association of cholera and climate has been extensively documented. However, determining the effects of changing climate on the occurrence of disease remains a challenge. Bimodal peaks of cholera in Bengal Delta are hypothesized to be linked to asymmetric flow of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Spring cholera is related to intrusion of bacteria-laden coastal seawater during low flow seasons, while autumn cholera results from cross-contamination of water resources when high flows in the rivers cause massive inundation. Coarse resolution of General Circulation Model (GCM) output (usually at 100 - 300 km)cannot be used to evaluate variability at the local scale(10-20 km),hence the goal of this study was to develop a framework that could be used to understand impacts of climate change on occurrence of cholera. Instead of a traditional approach of downscaling precipitation, streamflow of the two rivers was directly linked to GCM outputs, achieving reasonable accuracy (R2 = 0.89 for the Ganges and R2 = 0.91 for the Brahmaputra)using machine learning algorithms (Support Vector Regression-Particle Swarm Optimization). Copula methods were used to determine probabilistic risks of cholera under several discharge conditions. Key results, using model outputs from ECHAM5, GFDL, andHadCM3for A1B and A2 scenarios, suggest that the combined low flow of the two rivers may increase in the future, with high flows increasing for first half of this century, decreasing thereafter. Spring and autumn cholera, assuming societal conditions remain constant e.g., at the current rate, may decrease. However significant shifts were noted in the magnitude of river discharge suggesting that cholera dynamics of the delta may well demonstrate an uncertain predictable pattern of occurrence over the next century.

  3. Paradigm for Distributive & Procedural Justice in Equitable Apportionment of Transboundary Ganges Waters Under Changing Climate & Landuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.; Anand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers have no regard for human demarcated boundaries. Besides, ever increasing demand-supply gap & vested riparian interests, fuel transboundary water conflicts. For resolving such disputes, appropriation doctrines advocating equity & fairness have received endorsement in the Helsinki Rules-1966 & UN Convention-1997. Thus, current study proposes the principle of equitable apportionment for sharing Ganges waters as it balances the interests & deservedness of all stakeholders, namely, India & its 11 states, Bangladesh, Nepal, & China. The study endeavors to derive a reasonable share of each co-basin state by operationalizing the vague concepts of fairness & equity through an objective & quantitative framework encompassing proportionality & egalitarianism for distributive & procedural justice. Equal weightage factors reflecting hydrology, geography & water use potential are chosen for fair share computation, wherein each contender ranks these factors to maximize his entitlement. If cumulative claims exceed the water availability, each claimant puts forth next ranked factor & this process continues till the claims match availability. Due to inter-annual variability in few factors, scenarios for Rabi & Kharif seasons are considered apart from cases for maximum, upper quartile, median, lower quartile & minimum. Possibility of spatial homogeneity & heterogeneity in factors is also recognized. Sometimes lack of technical information hinders transboundary dispute resolution via legal mechanisms. Hence, the study also attempts to bridge this gap between law & technology through GIS-based SWAT hydrologic model by estimating the Ganges water yield, & consequent share of each riparian for range of flows incorporating e-flows as well, under present & future climate & landuse scenarios. 82% of India's territory lies within interstate rivers, & therefore this research is very pertinent as it can facilitate the decision makers in effective interstate water conflict resolution.

  4. Sublingual Microcirculation is Impaired in Post-cardiac Arrest Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Omar, Yasser; Massey, Michael; Wiuff Andersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    the microcirculation flow index (MFI) at 6 and 24h in the cardiac arrest patients, and within 6h of emergency department admission in the sepsis and control patients. RESULTS: We evaluated 30 post-cardiac arrest patients, 16 severe sepsis/septic shock patients, and 9 healthy control patients. Sublingual...... markers in the post-cardiac arrest state. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the sublingual microcirculation in post-cardiac arrest patients, severe sepsis/septic shock patients, and healthy control patients using Sidestream Darkfield microscopy. Microcirculatory flow was assessed using...

  5. The ethics of cardiac arrest research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B L

    1993-01-01

    In cardiac arrest research, prior informed consent is not available to resolve the conflict between the rights and well-being of subjects and the possible benefit to future patients. The right to autonomy is the fundamental right that is protected by the legal doctrine of informed consent. As a fundamental right, it cannot be balanced against other goods. Rather, it is a constraint, or trump, on the balancing of goods and can be overridden only for a narrow range of reasons: its recognition in a given case conflicts with another basic right, infringing the right will prevent great harm to others, and excluding a particular case from its scope will recognize and advance the right in the long run. Proxy consent, deferred consent, and presumed consent to cardiac arrest research are examined to determine if they qualify as justified infringements of the right to autonomy. The conclusion is that only presumed consent can be used, provided that the researcher can honestly say that outside of the randomized clinical trial of two or more treatments, a physician would have no basis for choosing one over the others.

  6. Cardiac arrest caused by nafamostat mesilate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Shik Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man was transferred from the Department of Vascular Surgery to Nephrology because of cardiac arrest during hemodialysis. He underwent incision and drainage for treatment of a buttock abscess. Nafamostat mesilate was used as an anticoagulant for hemodialysis to address bleeding from the incision and drainage site. Sudden cardiac arrest occurred after 15 minutes of dialysis. The patient was treated in the intensive care unit for 5 days. Continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration was started without any anticoagulant in the intensive care unit. Conventional hemodialysis was reinitiated, and nafamostat mesilate was used again because of a small amount of continued bleeding. Ten minutes after hemodialysis, the patient complained of anaphylactic signs and symptoms such as dyspnea, hypotension, and facial swelling. Epinephrine, dexamethasone, and pheniramin were injected under the suspicion of anaphylactic shock, and the patient recovered. Total immunoglobulin E titer was high, and skin prick test revealed weak positivity for nafamostat mesilate. We first report a case of anaphylactic shock caused by nafamostat mesilate in Korea.

  7. The construction of the gang in British Columbia : Mafioso, gangster, or thug? An examination of the uniqueness of the BC gangster phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    McConnell, Keiron

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores the structure, demographics, and history of gangs in British Columbia (BC), Canada, through a social constructionist lens. The purpose of this research is for the reader to consider the current state of gangs in BC as inherently different from other places in the world, to assist in understanding why there may be misconceptions, and to promote the research and implementation of more appropriate context-specific interventions. Building on previous work conducted as a Vanco...

  8. Detecting Long-term Trend of Water Quality Indices of Dong-gang River, Taiwan Using Quantile Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D.; Shiau, J.

    2013-12-01

    ABSTRACT BODY: Abstract Surface water quality is an essential issue in water-supply for human uses and sustaining healthy ecosystem of rivers. However, water quality of rivers is easily influenced by anthropogenic activities such as urban development and wastewater disposal. Long-term monitoring of water quality can assess whether water quality of rivers deteriorates or not. Taiwan is a population-dense area and heavily depends on surface water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. Dong-gang River is one of major resources in southern Taiwan for agricultural requirements. The water-quality data of four monitoring stations of the Dong-gang River for the period of 2000-2012 are selected for trend analysis. The parameters used to characterize water quality of rivers include biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (SS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). These four water-quality parameters are integrated into an index called river pollution index (RPI) to indicate the pollution level of rivers. Although widely used non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and linear regression exhibit computational efficiency to identify trends of water-quality indices, limitations of such approaches include sensitive to outliers and estimations of conditional mean only. Quantile regression, capable of identifying changes over time of any percentile values, is employed in this study to detect long-term trend of water-quality indices for the Dong-gang River located in southern Taiwan. The results show that Dong-gang River 4 stations from 2000 to 2012 monthly long-term trends in water quality.To analyze s Dong-gang River long-term water quality trends and pollution characteristics. The results showed that the bridge measuring ammonia Long-dong, BOD5 measure in that station on a downward trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, River Pollution Index (RPI) on a downward trend. The results form Chau-Jhou station also ahowed simialar trends .more and more near the

  9. Two Hours of Teamwork Training Improves Teamwork in Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrest Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahramus, Tara L; Penoyer, Daleen A; Waterval, Eugene M E; Sole, Mary L; Bowe, Eileen M

    2016-01-01

    Teamwork during cardiopulmonary arrest events is important for resuscitation. Teamwork improvement programs are usually lengthy. This study assessed the effectiveness of a 2-hour teamwork training program. A prospective, pretest/posttest, quasi-experimental design assessed the teamwork training program targeted to resident physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists. Participants took part in a simulated cardiac arrest. After the simulation, participants and trained observers assessed perceptions of teamwork using the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) tool (ratings of 0 [low] to 4 [high]). A debriefing and 45 minutes of teamwork education followed. Participants then took part in a second simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Afterward, participants and observers assessed teamwork. Seventy-three team members participated-resident physicians (25%), registered nurses (32%), and respiratory therapists (41%). The physicians had significantly less experience on code teams (P teamwork scores were 2.57 to 2.72. Participants' mean (SD) scores on the TEAM tool for the first and second simulations were 3.2 (0.5) and 3.7 (0.4), respectively (P teamwork educational intervention resulted in improved perceptions of teamwork behaviors. Participants reported interactions with other disciplines, teamwork behavior education, and debriefing sessions were beneficial for enhancing the program.

  10. Viscoelastic Deformation Due to Sediment Loading in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta and in the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpytchev, M.; Ballu, V.; Valty, P.; Calmant, S.; Guo, J.; Papa, F.; Becker, M.; Hossain, F.; Shum, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    Sedimentation is a major cause of long-term subsidence in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Basin. We estimate the vertical crustal velocities induced by sediment discharge in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (GBMD) by using a realistic viscoelastic Earth model. The ancient sediment loading is inferred from the available chronostratigraphic data and the present-day loading is estimated from the river discharges. The model is constrained by geological data and the GPS vertical velocities. The contribution and spatial pattern of the present-day elastic subsidence in the GBMD is compared with that due to Holocene sedimentation and with the subsidence rates induced by sediment compaction. The model provides new insights on possbile links between the climate changes, the river discharges and the relative sea level variations along the GBMD coast.

  11. Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg Jørgensen, Mads

    challenges, due to the victim’s physical location, which brings an inherent risk of delay (or altogether absence) of recognition and treatment of cardiac arrest. A low frequency of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and low 30-day survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were identified nearly ten...

  12. Cardiac arrest during anesthesia at a University Hospital in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-07

    Mar 7, 2013 ... Background: We assessed the incidence and outcomes of cardiac arrest during anesthesia in the operating room at our university hospital. A previous study on intraoperative cardiac arrests covered a period from 1994-1998 and since then; anesthetic personnel, equipment, and workload have increased ...

  13. Cardiac arrest during anesthesia at a University Hospital in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: We assessed the incidence and outcomes of cardiac arrest during anesthesia in the operating room at our university hospital. A previous study on intraoperative cardiac arrests covered a period from 1994-1998 and since then; anesthetic personnel, equipment, and workload have increased remarkably.

  14. Efficacy of silver diamine fluoride for Arresting Caries Treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yee, R.T.F.; Holmgren, C.J.; Mulder, J.; Lama, D.; Walker, D.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2009-01-01

    Arresting Caries Treatment (ACT) has been proposed to manage untreated dental caries in children. This prospective randomized clinical trial investigated the caries-arresting effectiveness of a single spot application of: (1) 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) with tannic acid as a reducing agent;

  15. A novel parameter estimation method for metal oxide surge arrester ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    45 and 60μs, is 2–4% lower than that of a 8μs current impulse (Martinez & Durbak 2005). In order to reproduce the MO surge arrester dynamic characteristics mentioned previously, a lot of researches have been done on modelling and simulation of MO surge arresters (Martinez. & Durbak 2005). A dynamic model has been ...

  16. A novel parameter estimation method for metal oxide surge arrester ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Accurate modelling and exact determination of Metal Oxide (MO) surge arrester parameters are very important for arrester allocation, insulation coordination studies and systems reliability calculations. In this paper, a new technique, which is the combination of Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) and Ant Colony ...

  17. A novel parameter estimation method for metal oxide surge arrester ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with experimental results. Keywords. Metal oxide surge arrester models; PSO; ACO; parameter estimation;. EMTP. 1. Introduction. Metal oxide (MO) surge arresters are widely used as protective devices against switching and lightning over-voltages in power systems. The proper nonlinear voltage-current characteristics,. ∗.

  18. The Influence of Mandatory Arrest Policies, Police Organizational Characteristics, and Situational Variables on the Probability of Arrest in Domestic Violence Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David

    2005-01-01

    Prior research into factors predicting arrest in domestic violence cases is limited in three regards: (a) no examination of whether mandatory arrest policies are associated with increased risk of arrest across multiple jurisdictions; (b) little consideration of whether police organizational characteristics influence arrest in such cases; and (c)…

  19. Location of cardiac arrest and impact of pre-arrest chronic disease and medication use on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granfeldt, Asger; Wissenberg, Mads; Hansen, Steen Møller; Lippert, Freddy K; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2017-05-01

    Cardiac arrest in a private location is associated with a higher mortality when compared to public location. Past studies have not accounted for pre-arrest factors such as chronic disease and medication. To investigate whether the association between cardiac arrest in a private location and a higher mortality can be explained by differences in chronic diseases and medication. We identified 27,771 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients ≥18 years old from the Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry (2001-2012). Using National Registries, we identified pre-arrest chronic disease and medication. To investigate the importance of cardiac arrest related factors and chronic disease and medication use we performed adjusted Cox regression analyses during day 0-7 and day 8-365 following cardiac arrest to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for death. Day 0-7: Un-adjusted HR for death day 0-7 was 1.21 (95%CI:1.18-1.25) in private compared to public location. When including cardiac arrest related factors HR for death was 1.09 (95%CI:1.06-1.12). Adding chronic disease and medication to the analysis changed HR for death to 1.08 (95%CI:1.05-1.12). 8-365 day: The un-adjusted HR for death day 8-365 was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.43-2.02) in private compared to public location. When including cardiac arrest related factors the HR decreased to 1.39 (95% CI: 1.14-1.68). Adding chronic disease and medication to the analysis changed HR for death to 1.27 (95% CI:1.04-1.54). The higher mortality following cardiac arrest in a private location is partly explained by a higher prevalence of chronic disease and medication use in patients surviving until day 8. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Clicking in shallow rivers: short-range echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River dolphins in a shallow, acoustically complex habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frants H Jensen

    Full Text Available Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191 re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes.

  1. Clicking in shallow rivers: short-range echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River dolphins in a shallow, acoustically complex habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Frants H; Rocco, Alice; Mansur, Rubaiyat M; Smith, Brian D; Janik, Vincent M; Madsen, Peter T

    2013-01-01

    Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti) use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB) re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191) re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes.

  2. Radiation shielding member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Nobuo; Ito, Masato; Nihei, Ken-ichi; Takeshi, Tetsu

    1998-01-01

    A radiation shielding member comprises a metal vessel and a liquid therein, and is disposed to the upper surface of a lower flange of a reactor core shroud. Waterproof hot wires are contained in the liquid and are connected to a power source disposed at the outside. Electric current is supplied to the hot wires to elevate the temperature of the liquid, and the temperature of the vessel is kept higher than an atmospheric temperature thereby suppressing generation of dew condensation or water droplets. In addition, a water repellent coating is applied to the shielding member itself to prevent deposition of water droplets. Further, the bottom of the shielding member is inclined, and a water droplet-recovering vessel is disposed at the lower portion of the shielding member, so that the water droplets collected by the inclination of the bottom are recovered to the water droplet recovering vessel. With such a constitution, access of an operator to the inside of a reactor pressure vessel is facilitated, and at the same time, the working circumstance at the reactor bottom can be improved. (I.N.)

  3. DUBNA: Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The political upheaval in what was the Soviet Union was reflected in an Extraordinary Plenipotentiaries Committee of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Member States, held in Dubna, near Moscow, on 10-13 December, with representatives of eleven sovereign republics of the former Soviet State taking part

  4. Radiation shielding member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuochi, Akira; Narita, Takuya; Omori, Tetsu; Nemezawa, Isao; Kimura, Kunihiro.

    1997-01-01

    A radiation shielding member comprising a lead plate or a lead fabrication product is covered integrally with a rubber, a synthetic resin or a flame retardant fabric having a thickness greater than that of an oxidation preventive membrane made of a copper material. Radiation rays are shielded by the lead material, and not only oxidation but also failure of the lead material and generation of lead pieces or powder can be prevented by the coating of the rubber, the synthetic resin or the flame retardant fabric. The shape of the radiation shielding member can be conformed to constitutional products, a reinforcing frame or plate is formed integrally with the radiation shielding plate, alternatively, lowering of strength of the structure by fabrication of the shape is reinforced by the reinforcing frame or plate. The radiation shielding member is suspended by hanging a rope on a grommet, or disposed on constitutional products, or adjacent radiation shielding members are combined with each other by fixing metals. The thickness of the coating made of rubber, synthetic rubber or flame retardant fabric is determined to 0.1mm or greater to prevent failures of the lead material or formation of lead powder. (N.H.)

  5. Structural arrest in an ideal gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ketel, Willem; Das, Chinmay; Frenkel, Daan

    2005-04-08

    We report a molecular dynamics study of a simple model system that has the static properties of an ideal gas, yet exhibits nontrivial "glassy" dynamics behavior at high densities. The constituent molecules of this system are constructs of three infinitely thin hard rods of length L, rigidly joined at their midpoints. The crosses have random but fixed orientation. The static properties of this system are those of an ideal gas, and its collision frequency can be computed analytically. For number densities NL(3)/V>1, the single-particle diffusivity goes to zero. As the system is completely structureless, standard mode-coupling theory cannot describe the observed structural arrest. Nevertheless, the system exhibits many dynamical features that appear to be mode-coupling-like. All high-density incoherent intermediate scattering functions collapse onto master curves that depend only on the wave vector.

  6. Crack arrest tests for a new ASTM-standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillot, R.; Kalthoff, J.

    1980-01-01

    In order to quantitatively describe the procedures in crack arrest, the following two parameters must be known which can be determined either experimentally or analytically: 1. The crack arrest toughness which represents a measure of the capability of the material to stop running cracks and 2. the stress intensity factor at the peak of the crack of the running or stopping crack as a measure of the danger of the crack. As cracks propagate as long as the K factor is greater than the crack arrest toughness, there are principally two possibilities of influencing the arrest: either one makes sure that the crack is led into an increasingly tougher region, i.e. by material-specific measures, or by leading the crack into an area of reduced stress by constructive measures. Both possibilities for crack arrest are described by the same fracture mechanical formula. (orig./RW) [de

  7. Maturation arrest of human oocytes at germinal vesicle stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi Qin; Ming, Teng Xiao; Nielsen, Hans Ingolf

    2010-01-01

    Maturation arrest of human oocytes may occur at various stages of the cell cycle. A total failure of human oocytes to complete meiosis is rarely observed during assisted conception cycles. We describe here a case of infertile couples for whom all oocytes repeatedly failed to mature at germinal vesicle (GV) stage during in vitro fertilization/Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). The patient underwent controlled ovarian stimulation followed by oocyte retrieval and IVF/ICSI. The oocytes were stripped off cumulus cells prior to the ICSI procedure and their maturity status was defined. The oocyte maturation was repeatedly arrested at the GV. Oocyte maturation arrest may be the cause of infertility in this couple. The recognition of oocyte maturation arrest as a specific medical condition may contribute to the characterization of the currently known as “oocyte factor.” The cellular and genetic mechanisms causing oocyte maturation arrest should be the subject for further investigation. PMID:21234179

  8. ERC initiatives to reduce the burden of cardiac arrest: the European Cardiac Arrest Awareness Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Marios; Lockey, Andrew S

    2013-09-01

    The rate of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Europe remains unacceptably low and could be increased by better bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rates. The European Resuscitation Council has announced that there will be a European Cardiac Arrest Awareness Day every year on the 16th of October. This is to coincide with the goals of the Written Declaration passed by the European Parliament in June 2012 that emphasised the importance of equal access to CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED) training. The topic of this year's Awareness Day is 'Children Saving Lives' and it is hoped that all national resuscitation councils will promote awareness of the benefits of training all children in CPR and AED use and lobby for legislative change to ensure that all children receive this training. Children are not just the adults of tomorrow - they are the lifesavers of today and tomorrow. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.

  10. Multicenter Cohort Study of In-Hospital Pediatric Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meert, Kathleen L.; Donaldson, Amy; Nadkarni, Vinay; Tieves, Kelly S.; Schleien, Charles L.; Brilli, Richard J.; Clark, Robert S. B.; Shaffner, D. H.; Levy, Fiona; Statler, Kimberly; Dalton, H.J.; van der Jagt, Elise W.; Hackbarth, Richard; Pretzlaff, Robert; Hernan, Lynn; Dean, J. Michael; Moler, Frank W.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives (1) Describe the clinical characteristics, hospital courses and outcomes of a cohort of children cared for within the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) who experienced in-hospital cardiac arrest with sustained return of circulation between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2004, and (2) identify factors associated with hospital mortality in this population. These data are required to prepare a randomized trial of therapeutic hypothermia on neurobehavioral outcomes in children after in-hospital cardiac arrest. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Fifteen children’s hospitals associated with PECARN. Patients Patients between one day and 18 years of age who had cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and received chest compressions for >1 minute, and had a return of circulation for >20 minutes. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results A total of 353 patients met entry criteria; 172 (48.7%) survived to hospital discharge. Among survivors, 132 (76.7%) had good neurological outcome documented by Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category scores. After adjustment for age, gender and first documented cardiac arrest rhythm, variables available prior to and during the arrest that were independently associated with increased mortality included pre-existing hematologic, oncologic, or immunologic disorders, genetic or metabolic disorders, presence of an endotracheal tube prior to the arrest, and the use of sodium bicarbonate during the arrest. Variables associated with decreased mortality included post-operative CPR. Extending the time frame to include variables available prior to, during, and within 12 hours following arrest, variables independently associated with increased mortality included the use of calcium during the arrest. Variables associated with decreased mortality included higher minimum blood pH and pupillary responsiveness. Conclusions Many factors are associated with hospital mortality among children after in

  11. Land-use change may exacerbate climate change impacts on water resources in the Ganges basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarouchi, Gina; Buytaert, Wouter

    2018-02-01

    Quantifying how land-use change and climate change affect water resources is a challenge in hydrological science. This work aims to quantify how future projections of land-use and climate change might affect the hydrological response of the Upper Ganges river basin in northern India, which experiences monsoon flooding almost every year. Three different sets of modelling experiments were run using the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land surface model (LSM) and covering the period 2000-2035: in the first set, only climate change is taken into account, and JULES was driven by the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) outputs of 21 models, under two representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), whilst land use was held fixed at the year 2010. In the second set, only land-use change is taken into account, and JULES was driven by a time series of 15 future land-use pathways, based on Landsat satellite imagery and the Markov chain simulation, whilst the meteorological boundary conditions were held fixed at years 2000-2005. In the third set, both climate change and land-use change were taken into consideration, as the CMIP5 model outputs were used in conjunction with the 15 future land-use pathways to force JULES. Variations in hydrological variables (stream flow, evapotranspiration and soil moisture) are calculated during the simulation period. Significant changes in the near-future (years 2030-2035) hydrologic fluxes arise under future land-cover and climate change scenarios pointing towards a severe increase in high extremes of flow: the multi-model mean of the 95th percentile of streamflow (Q5) is projected to increase by 63 % under the combined land-use and climate change high emissions scenario (RCP8.5). The changes in all examined hydrological components are greater in the combined land-use and climate change experiment. Results are further presented in a water resources context, aiming to address potential implications of

  12. The atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle over the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorí, Rogert; Nieto, Raquel; Drumond, Anita; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Gimeno, Luis

    2017-12-01

    The atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle over the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra river basins (IRB, GRB, and BRB respectively) in the South Asian region was investigated. The 3-dimensional model FLEXPART v9.0 was utilized. An important advantage of this model is that it permits the computation of the freshwater budget on air parcel trajectories both backward and forward in time from 0.1 to 1000 hPa in the atmospheric vertical column. The analysis was conducted for the westerly precipitation regime (WPR) (November-April) and the monsoonal precipitation regime (MPR) (May-October) in the period from 1981 to 2015. The main terrestrial and oceanic climatological moisture sources for the IRB, GRB, and BRB and their contribution to precipitation over the basins were identified. For the three basins, the most important moisture sources for precipitation are (i) in the continental regions, the land masses to the west of the basins (in this case called western Asia), the Indian region (IR), and the basin itself, and (ii) from the ocean, the utmost sources being the Indian Ocean (IO) and the Bay of Bengal (BB), and it is remarkable that despite the amount of moisture reaching the Indus and Ganges basins from land sources, the moisture supply from the IO seems to be first associated with the rapid increase or decrease in precipitation over the sources in the MPR. The technique of the composites was used to analyse how the moisture uptake values spatially vary from the sources (the budget of evaporation minus precipitation (E - P) was computed in a backward experiment from the basins) but during the pre-onset and pre-demise dates of the monsoonal rainfall over each basin; this confirmed that over the last days of the monsoon at the basins, the moisture uptake areas decrease in the IO. The Indian region, the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, and the basins themselves are the main sources of moisture responsible for negative (positive) anomalies of moisture contribution to

  13. Projections of the Ganges-Brahmaputra precipitation: downscaled from GCM predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Downscaling Global Climate Model (GCM) projections of future climate is critical for impact studies. Downscaling enables use of GCM experiments for regional scale impact studies by generating regionally specific forecasts connecting global scale predictions and regional scale dynamics. We employed the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) to downscale 21st century precipitation for two data-sparse hydrologically challenging river basins in South Asia—the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. We used CGCM3.1 by Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis version 3.1 predictors in downscaling the precipitation. Downscaling was performed on the basis of established relationships between historical Global Summary of Day observed precipitation records from 43 stations and National Center for Environmental Prediction re-analysis large scale atmospheric predictors. Although the selection of predictors was challenging during the set-up of SDSM, they were found to be indicative of important physical forcings in the basins. The precipitation of both basins was largely influenced by geopotential height: the Ganges precipitation was modulated by the U component of the wind and specific humidity at 500 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels; whereas, the Brahmaputra precipitation was modulated by the V component of the wind at 850 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels. The evaluation of the SDSM performance indicated that model accuracy for reproducing precipitation at the monthly scale was acceptable, but at the daily scale the model inadequately simulated some daily extreme precipitation events. Therefore, while the downscaled precipitation may not be the suitable input to analyze future extreme flooding or drought events, it could be adequate for analysis of future freshwater availability. Analysis of the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation projection with respect to observed precipitation reveals that the precipitation regime in each basin may be significantly impacted by climate change

  14. Experimental investigation of interfacial crack arrest in sandwich beams subjected to fatigue loading using a novel crack arresting device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J.H.; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A recently proposed face-sheet–core interface crack arresting device is implemented in sandwich beams and tested using the Sandwich Tear Test configuration. Fatigue loading conditions are applied to propagate the crack and determine the effect of the crack stopper on the fatigue growth rate...... the energy release rate, mode mixity and to simulate crack propagation and arrest of the crack. Finally, the effectiveness of the crack arresting device is demonstrated on composite sandwich beams subjected to fatigue loading conditions....... and arrest of the crack. Digital image correlation is used through the duration of the fatigue experiment to track the strain evolution as the crack tip advances. The measured strains are related to crack tip propagation, arrest, and re-initiation of the crack. A finite element model is used to calculate...

  15. Supporting Members and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Thank you! Over the past year, AGU has received 12,104 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program and National Association of Geoscience Teachers. Together their generosity has benefited AGU non revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5,000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000 or more) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major gifts and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($200-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$199). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are among our most loyal Supporters.

  16. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 24 € instead of 30 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  17. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Summer is coming, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 24 € instead of 30 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  18. [Comment on] BOSP members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The new Board on Ocean Science and Policy (BOSP) (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402) met for the first time on May 4. John B. Slaughter, former director of the National Science Foundation and now chancellor of the University of Maryland in College Park, is the board's chairman. Other board members are D. James Baker, Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle); Kirk Bryan (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University); John P. Craven (University of Hawaii); Charles L. Drake (Dartmouth College); Paul M. Fye (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Edward D. Goldberg (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); G. Ross Heath (Oregon State University); Judith T. Kildow (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); John A. Knauss (University of Rhode Island); James J. McCarthy (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University); H. William Menard (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); C. Barry Raleigh (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory); Roger Revelle (University of California, San Diego); David A. Ross (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Brian J. Rothschild (University of Maryland); William M. Sackett (University of South Florida); John H. Steele (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); and Carl Wunsch (MIT). Wallace Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory), an original board member, resigned after the first meeting. Broecker told Eos that combining the science and policy boards resulted in a new board whose mission is too broad. A new board member will be appointed in Broecker's place

  19. Pine needle oil induces G2/M arrest of HepG2 cells by activating the ATM pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bing; Jiang, Wei; Qiu, Wenliang; Mu, Wenling; Qin, Yujing; Zhu, Yongcui; Zhang, Jianying; Wang, Qingyi; Liu, Dongjie; Qu, Zhangyi

    2018-02-01

    Over the last two decades, inducing DNA damage of cancer cells by natural medicines has become a research hotspot in the field of cancer treatment. Although various natural medicines have anticancer effects, very few studies have been conducted to explore the anti-cancer effect of pine needle oil. In the present study, the role of pine needle oil in inducing G2/M arrest in HepG2 cells was investigated. The data revealed that pine needle oil could induce DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. In the pine needle oil-treated HepG2 cells, the protein levels of phosphorylated (p)-ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), γ-H2A histone family, member X, p-p53, p-checkpoint kinase 2 and p-cell division cycle 25C were evidently increased, indicating that pine needle oil facilitated G2/M arrest in HepG2 cells through the ATM pathway. In response to the treatment with pine needle oil, ATM was activated in HepG2 cells, which subsequently phosphorylated downstream targets and induced G2/M arrest. In summary, the data of the present study indicated that pine needle oil induces G2/M arrest in HepG2 cells by facilitating ATM activation.

  20. Outcomes following military traumatic cardiorespiratory arrest: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmey, Nicholas T; Park, Claire L; Bartels, Oliver J; Konig, Thomas C; Mahoney, Peter F; Mellor, Adrian J

    2011-09-01

    To determine the characteristics of military traumatic cardiorespiratory arrest (TCRA), and to identify factors associated with successful resuscitation. Data was collected prospectively for adult casualties suffering TCRA presenting to a military field hospital in Helmand Province, Afghanistan between 29 November 2009 and 13 June 2010. Data was available for 52 patients meeting the inclusion criteria. The mean age (range) was 25 (18-36) years. The principal mechanism of injury was improvised explosive device (IED) explosion, the lower limbs were the most common sites of injury and exsanguination was the most common cause of arrest. Fourteen (27%) patients exhibited ROSC and four (8%) survived to discharge. All survivors achieved a good neurological recovery by Glasgow Outcome Scale. Three survivors had arrested due to exsanguination and one had arrested due to pericardial tamponade. All survivors had arrested after commencing transport to hospital and the longest duration of arrest associated with survival was 24 min. All survivors demonstrated PEA rhythms on ECG during arrest. When performed, 6/24 patients had ultrasound evidence of cardiac activity during arrest; all six with cardiac activity subsequently exhibited ROSC and two survived to hospital discharge. Overall rates of survival from military TCRA were similar to published civilian data, despite military TCRA victims presenting with high Injury Severity Scores and exsanguination due to blast and fragmentation injuries. Factors associated with successful resuscitation included arrest beginning after transport to hospital, the presence of electrical activity on ECG, and the presence of cardiac movement on ultrasound examination. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidemiology and management of cardiac arrest: what registries are revealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten; Bossaert, Leo

    2013-09-01

    Major European institutions report cardiovascular disease (CVD) as the first cause of death in adults, with cardiac arrest and sudden death due to coronary ischaemia as the primary single cause. Global incidence of CVD is decreasing in most European countries, due to prevention, lifestyle and treatment. Mortality of acute coronary events inside the hospital decreases more rapidly than outside the hospital. To improve the mortality of cardiac arrest outside the hospital, reliable epidemiological and process figures are essential: "we can only manage what we can measure". Europe is a patchwork of 47 countries (total population of 830 million), with a 10-fold difference in incidence of coronary heart disease between North and South, East and West, and a 5-fold difference in number of EMS-treated cardiac arrest (range 17-53/1000,000/year). Epidemiology of cardiac arrest should not be calculated as a European average, but it is appropriate to describe the incidence of cardiac arrest, the resuscitation process, and the outcome in each of the European regions, for benchmarking and quality management. Epidemiological reports of cardiac arrest should specify definitions, nominator (number of cases) and denominator (study population). Recently some regional registries in North America, Japan and Europe fulfilled these conditions. The European Registry of Cardiac Arrest (EuReCa) has the potential to achieve these objectives on a pan-European scale. For operational applications, the Utstein definition of "Cardiac arrest" is used which includes the potential of survival. For application in community health, the WHO definition of "sudden death" is frequently used, describing the mode of death. There is considerable overlap between both definitions. But this explains that no single method can provide all information. Integrating data from multiple sources (local, national, multinational registries and surveys, death certificates, post-mortem reports, community statistics, medical

  2. Muddy waters: International actors and transboundary water cooperation in the Ganges-Brahmaputra problemshed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Hanasz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The portion of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna mega-basin shared between Nepal, Bhutan, northern India, and Bangladesh is one of the poorest, most densely populated, ecologically vulnerable, and socially and politically unstable areas in the world. As such, reducing the potential for transboundary water conflict by increasing cooperation between riparian states has been of increasing interest to policy-makers and foreign aid donors. The World Bank-led South Asia Water Initiative (SAWI commenced in the mid-2000s. Yet, in more than a decade of existence, neither SAWI nor other international initiatives, have been able to improve transboundary water interactions between India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. In part this is because of the sheer complexity of transboundary water governance, and in part because of contextual factors. Addressing transboundary water issues is not a priority for the riparian states; there is significant distrust between them and resentment about India’s hydro-hegemony; and bilateral, rather than multilateral, arrangements prevail. These factors make collective action both more urgent and more difficult. If they are to increase transboundary water cooperation, international actors should, among other things, resolve historical grievances; strengthen water-sharing institutions; build trust between riparian states; and work toward outcomes based on principles of water justice.

  3. Hydrogeochemistry and arsenic contamination of groundwater in the Ganges Delta Plain, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, M A; Majumder, R K; Nessa, S A; Hiroshiro, Y; Uddin, M J; Shimada, J; Jinno, K

    2009-05-30

    Geochemical composition and the level of Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater in the Ganges Delta Plain, southwestern Bangladesh were elucidated. Hydrogeochemical data of tube well samples suggested that the groundwater is mostly Ca-Mg-HCO(3) type with bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) as the dominant anion, though other type waters are also observed. In contrast, the elevated EC, Cl(-) and high content of Na(+) relative to Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+) in six groundwater samples suggest their saline origin. Low concentrations of NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-), and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), HCO(3)(-) and PO(4)(3-) indicate the reducing conditions of subsurface aquifer where sediments are deposited with abundant organic matter. The total As concentration in the analyzed samples is very high (0.0431-1.352 mg/L) along with high Fe (2.791-17.058 mg/L) and relatively low Mn (0.134-1.972 mg/L) at different depths. Distinct relationship of As with Fe and Mn, and strong correlation with DOC suggests that the biodegradation of organic matter and reductive dissolution of Fe-oxyhydroxide is considered to be the dominant processes to release As in aquifers. Moreover, negative correlation between As and SO(4)(2-) demonstrates the As may not be directly mobilized from sulfide minerals like arsenopyrite.

  4. Salvadoran gangs and extortion. Challenges and priorities related to the extortion phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Andrade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years extortion has garnered a somber relevance for society as a whole, aside from the preponderance it already possessed from law enforcement agents and criminal investigators. The generation of income both in cash and in kind destined for criminal structures, particularly amongst gangs/maras, as well as its implications concerning danger levels and future potential, have made the agencies responsible of public security take a closer look at this crime and ensure there is a full comprehensive assessment made regarding the extortion phenomenon. The above, involved looking into this crime’s different forms of execution, existing enabling factors and the different criminal scenarios it fits into; reviewing how police and prosecutors address these offenses, all operative, investigative and legal implications, as well as the results achieved in the fight against it. Nonetheless, extortionremains a challenge, not only for the institutions involved (Police and the Prosecutor’s Office, but also for the key stakeholders and all those responsible of making strategic decisions for the country.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 103-148

  5. Coupled Landscape and Channel Dynamics in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Tidal Deltaplain, Southwest Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomer, J.; Wilson, C.; Hale, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    In the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) and other tide-dominated systems, periodic flooding of the land surface during the tidal cycle promotes sediment accretion and surface elevation gain over time. However, over the past several decades, anthropogenic modification of the GBD tidal deltaplain through embankment construction has precluded sediment delivery to catchment areas, leading to widespread channel siltation and subsidence in poldered landscapes. Amongst the current discussion on GBD sustainability, the relationship between tidal inundation period and resultant sedimentation in natural and embanked settings remains unclear. Moreover, an evaluation of how riparian sedimentology and stratigraphic architecture changes across the GBD tidal-fluvial spectrum is notably absent, despite its critical importance in assessing geomorphic change in human-impacted transitional environments. To provide local-scale, longitudinal trends of coupled landscape-channel dynamics, an array of surface elevation tables, groundwater piezometers, and sediment traps deployed in natural and embanked settings have been monitored seasonally over a time span of 4 years. This knowledge base will be extended across the GBD tidal-fluvial transition by collecting sediment cores from carefully selected point bars along the Gorai River. Sediments will be analyzed for lithologic, biostratigraphic, and geochemical properties to provide an integrated framework for discerning depositional zones and associated facies assemblages across this complex transitional environment. Preliminary comparisons of accretion and hydroperiod data suggest that inundation duration strongly governs mass accumulation on the intertidal platform, though other factors such as mass extraction from sediment source and vegetation density may play secondary roles.

  6. Integrated assessment of social and environmental sustainability dynamics in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Hutton, C. W.; Lázár, A. N.; Allan, A.; Adger, W. N.; Adams, H.; Wolf, J.; Rahman, M.; Salehin, M.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas provide diverse ecosystem services and benefits for their populations. At the same time, deltas are also recognised as one of the most vulnerable coastal environments, with a range of drivers operating at multiple scales, from global climate change and sea-level rise to deltaic-scale subsidence and land cover change. These drivers threaten these ecosystem services, which often provide livelihoods for the poorest communities in these regions. The imperative to maintain ecosystem services presents a development challenge: how to develop deltaic areas in ways that are sustainable and benefit all residents including the most vulnerable. Here we present an integrated framework to analyse changing ecosystem services in deltas and the implications for human well-being, focussing in particular on the provisioning ecosystem services of agriculture, inland and offshore capture fisheries, aquaculture and mangroves that directly support livelihoods. The framework is applied to the world's most populated delta, the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta within Bangladesh. The framework adopts a systemic perspective to represent the principal biophysical and socio-ecological components and their interaction. A range of methods are integrated within a quantitative framework, including biophysical and socio-economic modelling and analyses of governance through scenario development. The approach is iterative, with learning both within the project team and with national policy-making stakeholders. The analysis is used to explore physical and social outcomes for the delta under different scenarios and policy choices. We consider how the approach is transferable to other deltas and potentially other coastal areas.

  7. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples at Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Dharmendra K; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Durg V; Dubey, Suresh K

    2013-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, serotype identification, detection of virulence genes and ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprint analyses. All isolates were uniformly resistant to ampicillin, except two isolates, and showed variable resistance to gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin, rifampicin and tetracycline. Of the 20 isolates found positive for pathogens, seven (four human and three water isolates) belong to serogroups 4b, 4d and 4e; six (one human and five water isolates) belong to serogroups 1/2c and 3c; four milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2b and 3b; and three milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2a and 3a. Two water isolates, all human isolates, except one (Pb1) lacking inlJ gene, and three milk isolates possess inlA, inlC, plcA, prfA, actA, hlyA and iap genes. The remaining water and milk isolates showed variable presence of inlJ, plcA, prfA, and iap genes. ERIC- and REP-PCR based analyses collectively indicated that isolates of human clinical samples belong to identical or similar clone and isolates of water and milk samples belong to different clones. Overall study demonstrates the prevalence of pathogenic L. monocytogenes species in the environmental and clinical samples. Most of the isolates were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Future changes in hydro-climatic extremes in the Upper Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra River basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijngaard, René R; Lutz, Arthur F; Nepal, Santosh; Khanal, Sonu; Pradhananga, Saurav; Shrestha, Arun B; Immerzeel, Walter W

    2017-01-01

    Future hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, may pose serious threats for the livelihoods in the upstream domains of the Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra. For this reason, the impacts of climate change on future hydrological extremes is investigated in these river basins. We use a fully-distributed cryospheric-hydrological model to simulate current and future hydrological fluxes and force the model with an ensemble of 8 downscaled General Circulation Models (GCMs) that are selected from the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The model is calibrated on observed daily discharge and geodetic mass balances. The climate forcing and the outputs of the hydrological model are used to evaluate future changes in climatic extremes, and hydrological extremes by focusing on high and low flows. The outcomes show an increase in the magnitude of climatic means and extremes towards the end of the 21st century where climatic extremes tend to increase stronger than climatic means. Future mean discharge and high flow conditions will very likely increase. These increases might mainly be the result of increasing precipitation extremes. To some extent temperature extremes might also contribute to increasing discharge extremes, although this is highly dependent on magnitude of change in temperature extremes. Low flow conditions may occur less frequently, although the uncertainties in low flow projections can be high. The results of this study may contribute to improved understanding on the implications of climate change for the occurrence of future hydrological extremes in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region.

  9. Bullies, gangs, drugs, and school: understanding the overlap and the role of ethnicity and urbanicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Goldweber, Asha; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2013-02-01

    Recent media attention has increased interest in behavioral, mental health, and academic correlates of involvement in bullying. Yet, there has not been much interest in investigating the co-occurrence of other health-risk behaviors, such as gang membership, weapon carrying, and substance use. The potential influence of contextual factors, such as youth ethnicity, urbanicity, and school characteristics, also has been overlooked in previous research. The current study examined different subtypes of involvement in bullying-as primarily a victim, as primarily a bully, as both a victim and bully, and no involvement-and the association with significant health-risk behaviors, including engaging in violence and substance use, as well as academic problems. The analyses use self-report data from 16,302 adolescents (50.3 % female, 62.2 % Caucasian, 37.8 % African American) enrolled in 52 high schools. A series of three-level HLM analyses revealed that bullies and bully/victims were generally at greatest of risk of being involved in violence, engaging in multiple types of substance use, and having academic problems. These findings extend prior research by emphasizing a potential link between involvement in bullying and multiple health-risk behaviors, particularly among urban and African American high school youth.

  10. A statistical comparison of four precipitation climate datasets in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, James

    There are 630 million people that live within the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River basin (GBM) who depend on these rivers for their livelihood (Frenken, 2011). These rivers greatly depend upon the precipitation and rain fall to contribute to their flows. Researchers and end-users in the GBM basin depend on climate precipitation datasets to help them study the impact precipitation has the hydrology and agricultural. To properly utilize a dataset, the source input data, the algorithms used to merge the data, and the final temporal and spatial resolution of the dataset all need to be properly understood. The goal for this study is to statistically compare four climate precipitation datasets, GPCP, CMAP, CHIRPS and APHRODITE, in the GBM basin to identify significant differences among them. Their respective data will be compared and, the evaluations will be shared with the SERVIR science team and the hydrologists at ICIMOD. Then, SERVIR and ICIMOD can better aid decision makers in the GBM Basin by improving their knowledge and interpretation of precipitation datasets and how it will affect the people of the GBM Basin.

  11. Inequalities in Human Well-Being in the Urban Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Szabo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently endorsed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs agenda unanimously agrees on the need to focus on inclusive development, the importance of eradicating extreme poverty and managing often complex human well-being impacts of rapid urban growth. Sustainable and inclusive urbanisation will accelerate progress towards the SDGs and contribute to eradicating extreme poverty. In tropical delta regions, such as the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna delta region, urban growth and resulting intra-urban inequalities are accelerated by the impact of environmental and climate change. In this context, the present study uses the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey to analyse the extent of wealth-based inequalities in human well-being in the urban delta region and the determinants of selected welfare measures. The results suggest that the extent of intra-urban inequalities is greatest in educational attainment and access to postnatal healthcare and relatively low in the occurrence of gastric disease. The paper concludes by providing policy recommendations to reduce increasing wealth inequalities in urban areas, thus contributing to sustainable development of the region.

  12. Cardiac arrest in the toilet: clinical characteristics and resuscitation profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamasu, Joji; Miyatake, Satoru

    2013-03-01

    The great majority of non-traumatic cardiac arrests (CA) occur at home. The toilet is a closed and private room where CA occurs frequently. However, due to the feelings of privacy that are associated with this room, the circumstances and causes of CA in the toilet have rarely been investigated. A retrospective study was conducted to clarify clinical characteristics and resuscitation profiles of patients sustaining CA in the toilet. Among 907 CA patients treated during a 4-year period, 101 (11 %) sustained CA in the toilet. While the collapse was witnessed in only 10 % of these patients, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved in 41 %. However, the long-term survival rate was 1 %. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that a history of cardiac diseases was predictive of CA in the toilet (odds ratio 3.045; 95 % confidence interval 1.756-5.282) but that there was no correlation with advanced age. The frequency of CA in the toilet may be influenced moderately by seasonal/circadian variations. The 101 patients were classified into four subgroups according to mode of discovery of CA. The frequency of ROSC was highest in those who collapsed in the presence of caregivers and lowest in those whose collapse were discovered later by family members being worried that the patient stayed in the toilet "too long." Imaging studies revealed life-threatening extra-cardiac lesions responsible for CA, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage and aortic dissection, in 23 % of the patient cohort. The rarity of long-term survival among individuals sustaining CA in the toilet is mainly due to the delay in discovering the individual who collapsed. Although a history of cardiac diseases is a risk factor, predicting who may sustain CA in the toilet remains difficult due to etiological heterogeneity.

  13. Post-resuscitation care for survivors of cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvarya Mangla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest can occur following a myriad of clinical conditions. With advancement of medical science and improvements in Emergency Medical Services systems, the rate of return of spontaneous circulation for patients who suffer an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA continues to increase. Managing these patients is challenging and requires a structured approach including stabilization of cardiopulmonary status, early consideration of neuroprotective strategies, identifying and managing the etiology of arrest and initiating treatment to prevent recurrence. This requires a closely coordinated multidisciplinary team effort. In this article, we will review the initial management of survivors of OHCA, highlighting advances and ongoing controversies.

  14. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.60) is Chad, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2005. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 139 Member States became Members

  15. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.59) is the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2004. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 138 Member States became Members

  16. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.58) is Kyrgyzstan, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 10 September 2003. The list shows the dates on which the present 137 Member States became Members

  17. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.65) is the Sultanate of Oman which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 5 February 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 146 Member States became Members [es

  18. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members [es

  19. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [es

  20. Air pollution modeling over the Ganges basin and north-west Bay of Bengal in the early post-monsoon season using the NASA GEOS-5 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; da Silva, Arlindo; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2014-05-01

    The Ganges basin is characterized by a significant population growth accompanied by developing industry, agriculture, and increasing transportation. This has resulted in increased anthropogenic emissions and declining air quality. The NASA GEOS-5 model was used to extend the MERRA reanalysis with five atmospheric aerosol components (sulfates, organic carbon, black carbon, desert dust, and sea-salt). The model includes assimilation of bias-corrected Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from the MODIS sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. The obtained eight-year (2002 - 2009) MERRA-driven aerosol dataset (MERRAero) was applied to study AOT and its trends over the Ganges basin and north-west Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the early post-monsoon season. This season is characterized by aerosol transport from the Ganges basin to north-west BoB by prevailing winds; lower cloud fraction compared to the monsoon season; and still significant rainfall of over 150 mm/month. In the early post-monsoon season (October), modeled data showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the north-west of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions due to higher population density, increased industrial output and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the north-west of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and north-west BoB, AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT

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  4. Arresting dissolution by interfacial rheology design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, Peter J.; Gupta, Manish; Alicke, Alexandra; Liascukiene, Irma; Gunes, Deniz Z.; Baroud, Charles N.

    2017-01-01

    A strategy to halt dissolution of particle-coated air bubbles in water based on interfacial rheology design is presented. Whereas previously a dense monolayer was believed to be required for such an “armored bubble” to resist dissolution, in fact engineering a 2D yield stress interface suffices to achieve such performance at submonolayer particle coverages. We use a suite of interfacial rheology techniques to characterize spherical and ellipsoidal particles at an air–water interface as a function of surface coverage. Bubbles with varying particle coverages are made and their resistance to dissolution evaluated using a microfluidic technique. Whereas a bare bubble only has a single pressure at which a given radius is stable, we find a range of pressures over which bubble dissolution is arrested for armored bubbles. The link between interfacial rheology and macroscopic dissolution of ∼ 100 μm bubbles coated with ∼ 1 μm particles is presented and discussed. The generic design rationale is confirmed by using nonspherical particles, which develop significant yield stress at even lower surface coverages. Hence, it can be applied to successfully inhibit Ostwald ripening in a multitude of foam and emulsion applications. PMID:28893993

  5. MRI in the assessment of growth arrest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohman, Martina; Kivisaari, Arto; Kivisaari, Leena [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Vehmas, Tapio [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland); Kallio, Pentti; Puntila, Juha [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare MRI with X-ray tomography in the assessment of bone bridges across the growth plate. Materials and methods: The investigation consisted of two parts. (1) Eleven children with 13 epiphyses suspected of physeal growth arrests were examined with conventional X-ray tomography and MRI. The bar was post-traumatic in eight children, postinfectious in two and due to a congenital, operated pes equinovarus in one. Three blinded radiologists separately evaluated the examinations retrospectively. (2) The images of four children with known physeal bars in the ankle were mixed with 36 normal examinations obtained 1-year after trauma and evaluated blindly by three radiologists. Results: In 5 of 13 epiphysis, the bony bridge was considered smaller on MRI than on X-ray tomography, in 7 of 13 it was considered equal, while it was larger only in one. The interobserver agreement (weighted kappa) was 0.8 (very good) for MRI, 0.76 (good) for X-ray tomography and 0.60 (moderate) for radiographs. The four bony bridges were easily detected on MRI. Conclusions: Compared to MRI, the size of bridges was estimated larger by tomography in about half of the patients. (orig.)

  6. Cardiac Arrest in Pediatric Patients Receiving Azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Santiago O; Kim, Jeffrey J; Niu, Mary C; de la Uz, Caridad M; Miyake, Christina Y; Moffett, Brady S

    2017-03-01

    To compare outcomes of pediatric patients treated with azithromycin compared with penicillin or cephalosporin. We hypothesized that azithromycin use would not be associated with increased cardiac mortality in the pediatric population. Retrospective cohort study from the Pediatric Health Information System database between 2008 and 2012. Patients Azithromycin was used in 5039 (6.1%); penicillin or cephalosporin was used in 77 943 (93.9%). Overall prevalence of antibiotic-associated CPR was 0.14%. Patients receiving a macrolide antibiotic had a lower prevalence of CPR compared with patients receiving a penicillin or cephalosporin (0.04% vs 0.14%, P = .04), and there was no difference in mortality. Multivariable analysis did not find an association between macrolide use and CPR. In contrast to recent adult studies, among children hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia, azithromycin use was not associated with a greater prevalence of cardiac arrest compared with penicillin or cephalosporin use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of viscosity on cerebral blood flow after cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschops, L.L.A.; Pop, G.A.M.; Teerenstra, S.; Struijk, P.C.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine blood viscosity in adult comatose patients treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest and to assess the relation between blood viscosity, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral oxygen extraction. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Tertiary care university

  8. Therapeutic hypothermia in the treatment of cardiorespiratory arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Rob

    2010-02-01

    Prompt treatment of patients with cardiorespiratory arrest can mean the difference between life and death. This article analyses the use of therapeutic hypothermia and aims to educate practitioners about its advantages and disadvantages as an immediate treatment.

  9. Endothelial Dysfunction in Resuscitated Cardiac Arrest (ENDO-RCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anna Sina P; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality following initial survival of cardiac arrest remain high despite great efforts to improve resuscitation techniques and post-resuscitation care, in part due to the ischemia-reperfusion injury secondary to the restoration of the blood circulation. Patients...... resuscitated from cardiac arrest display evidence of endothelial injury and coagulopathy (hypocoagulability, hyperfibrinolysis), which in associated with poor outcome. Recent randomized controlled trials have revealed that treatment with infusion of prostacyclin reduces endothelial damage after major surgery...... and AMI. Thus, a study is pertinent to investigate if prostacyclin infusion as a therapeutic intervention reduces endothelial damage without compromising, or even improving, the hemostatic competence in resuscitated cardiac arrest patients. Post-cardiac arrest patients frequently have a need...

  10. Arrest of cytoplasmic streaming induces algal proliferation in green paramecia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Takahashi

    Full Text Available A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells.

  11. Early myoclonic status and outcome after cardiorespiratory arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, H; Howard, R; Brown, P

    1998-01-01

    It has been suggested that early myoclonic status after cardiorespiratory arrest is an agonal event.1 Here we describe three cases who developed early myoclonic status during a coma after cardiorespiratory arrest due to acute asthma. As consciousness improved, each patient developed Lance-Adams type multifocal myoclonus, but the eventual outcome was satisfactory. Only one patient needed assistance to walk, and all three were self caring. One patient had persistent dyscalc...

  12. Dynamic propagation and cleavage crack arrest in bainitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaj, M.

    2006-06-01

    In complement of the studies of harmfulness of defects, generally realized in term of initiation, the concept of crack arrest could be used as complementary analyses to the studies of safety. The stop occurs when the stress intensity factor becomes lower than crack arrest toughness (KIa) calculated in elasto-statics (KI ≤ KIa). The aim of this thesis is to understand and predict the stop of a crack propagating at high speed in a 18MND5 steel used in the pressure water reactor (PWR). The test chosen to study crack arrest is the disc thermal shock test. The observations under the scanning electron microscope of the fracture surface showed that the crack arrest always occurs in cleavage mode and that the critical microstructural entity with respect to the propagation and crack arrest corresponds to at least the size of the prior austenitic grain. The numerical analyses in elasto-statics confirm the conservatism of the codified curve of the RCC-M with respect to the values of KIa. The dynamic numerical analyses show that the deceleration of the crack measured at the end of the propagation is related to the global dynamic of the structure (vibrations). The transferability to components of crack arrest toughness obtained from tests analysed in static is thus not assured. The disc thermal shock tests were also modelled by considering a criterion of propagation and arrest of the type 'RKR' characterized by a critical stress sc which depends on the temperature. The results obtained account well for the crack jump measured in experiments as well as the shape of the crack arrest front. (author)

  13. Al-Qaeda arrest casts shadow over the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dacey, James

    2010-01-01

    "Cern remains on course for the imminent switch-on of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) despite the media frenzy following the recent arrest of a physicist who had been working at the facility. The researcher in question is a 32-year-old man of Algerian descent who is expected to face trail in France - the country in which he was arrested" (0.5 page)

  14. Structural basis of RNA polymerase II backtracking, arrest and reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C M; Cramer, Patrick

    2011-03-10

    During gene transcription, RNA polymerase (Pol) II moves forwards along DNA and synthesizes messenger RNA. However, at certain DNA sequences, Pol II moves backwards, and such backtracking can arrest transcription. Arrested Pol II is reactivated by transcription factor IIS (TFIIS), which induces RNA cleavage that is required for cell viability. Pol II arrest and reactivation are involved in transcription through nucleosomes and in promoter-proximal gene regulation. Here we present X-ray structures at 3.3 Å resolution of an arrested Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol II complex with DNA and RNA, and of a reactivation intermediate that additionally contains TFIIS. In the arrested complex, eight nucleotides of backtracked RNA bind a conserved 'backtrack site' in the Pol II pore and funnel, trapping the active centre trigger loop and inhibiting mRNA elongation. In the reactivation intermediate, TFIIS locks the trigger loop away from backtracked RNA, displaces RNA from the backtrack site, and complements the polymerase active site with a basic and two acidic residues that may catalyse proton transfers during RNA cleavage. The active site is demarcated from the backtrack site by a 'gating tyrosine' residue that probably delimits backtracking. These results establish the structural basis of Pol II backtracking, arrest and reactivation, and provide a framework for analysing gene regulation during transcription elongation.

  15. Outcome of out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Herce, Jesús; García, Cristina; Domínguez, Pedro; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio; Carrillo, Angel; Calvo, Custodio; Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2005-12-01

    To analyze the characteristics and outcome of out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest in children in Spain. Secondary analysis of data from a prospective, multicenter study analyzing cardiorespiratory arrest in children. Ninety-five children between 7 days and 16 years with cardiorespiratory arrest. Data were recorded according to the Utstein style. The outcome variables were the sustained return of spontaneous circulation (initial survival), and survival at 1 year (final survival). Neurologic and general performance outcome was assessed by the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) scale and the Pediatric Overall Performance Category (POPC) scale. Initial survival was 47.3% and 1-year survival was 26.4%. Mortality was higher in children younger than 1 year. Survival of patients with respiratory arrest (82.1%) was significantly higher than survival of cardiac arrest victims (14.4%). Patients who were initially resuscitated by laypersons or paramedics had higher survival (53.6%) than those who were initially resuscitated by doctors and/or nurses (15.2%) (P cardiorespiratory arrest in children is high. When resuscitation is started soon by layperson or paramedics, survival is increased. Duration of resuscitation efforts is the best indicator of mortality. Most of survivors had good long-term neurologic outcome.

  16. Respiratory Arrest in an Obese Pregnant Woman with Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Iwashita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pregnant, non-Japanese-speaking Peruvian, and, thus, with communication difficulty, suffered hyperemesis gravidarum and had respiratory arrest, requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The obese pregnant woman (prepregnancy weight: 107 kg had vomited and lost 15 kg in bodyweight over appropriately 2 weeks prior to the arrest but had not complained due to communication difficulty, which, together with her obesity, prevented a Japanese obstetrician from noticing her severe condition. 1,000 mL of low potassium fluid plus thiamine was administered. She became unable to stand, suggesting lower-extremity-proximal-muscle weakness, and then respiratory arrest occurred. Hypopotassemia (2.3 mEq/L, pulseless electrical activity, and muscle weakness suggested the presence of severe potassium deficiency, which may have caused respiratory muscle paralysis, leading to the respiratory arrest. Hypercapnea was severer than expected for compensatory hypoventilation, indicating the presence of concomitant severe hypoventilation, which may also have contributed to respiratory arrest. She recovered with electrolyte and volume replacement. Respiratory arrest can occur with hyperemesis gravidarum, and obesity and communication difficulties can prevent the early detection of severe conditions.

  17. Cardiac arrest due to lymphocytic colitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groth Kristian A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a case of cardiac arrest due to hypokalemia caused by lymphocytic colitis. Case presentation A 69-year-old Caucasian man presented four months prior to a cardiac arrest with watery diarrhea and was diagnosed with lymphocytic colitis. Our patient experienced a witnessed cardiac arrest at his general practitioner's surgery. Two physicians and the emergency medical services resuscitated our patient for one hour and four minutes before arriving at our university hospital. Our patient was defibrillated 16 times due to the recurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. An arterial blood sample revealed a potassium level of 2.0 mmol/L (reference range: 3.5 to 4.6 mmol/L and pH 6.86 (reference range: pH 7.37 to 7.45. As the potassium level was corrected, the propensity for ventricular tachyarrhythmias ceased. Our patient recovered from his cardiac arrest without any neurological deficit. Further tests and examinations revealed no other reason for the cardiac arrest. Conclusion Diarrhea can cause life-threatening situations due to the excretion of potassium, ultimately causing cardiac arrest due to hypokalemia. Physicians treating patients with severe diarrhea should consider monitoring their electrolyte levels.

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  1. Changing Flow Patterns In The Ganges And Brahmaputra Basins: Evidence Of Regional Climate Warming In The Eastern Himalayas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashar, D. K.; Akanda, A. S.; Small, D. L.; Islam, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin region of South Asia is home to over 500 million people. Water is intricately linked with the overall development framework of this region. Concerns about region wide climate warming and early signs of glacial retreat have raised questions about the long-term flow availability of these rivers. In addition, possible seasonal shifts in the regional streamflow patterns may lead to major changes in environmental impacts and water management and usage practices. We compare precipitation, streamflow, and related atmospheric changes for the upper Brahmaputra and the Ganges basin regions at monthly, seasonal, annual and decadal scales. We find that a strong warming signal is evident in the recorded discharge of the two rivers with seasonal flow values for both basins showing a significant shift over the last decade. Increasing trends have been observed in the Brahmaputra and Ganges low flows over the last decade. Monthly flow in the dry season has risen significantly, while monsoon flow volumes have decreased. While there has been no change in precipitation patterns in the region, investigation using temperature Reanalysis data show that winter temperatures in the high altitude regions are increasingly warmer thereby causing abnormal patterns of snow accumulation and depletion. Our findings are corroborated by remotely sensed snow cover patterns in corresponding years. While these hydroclimatic changes may provide short-term relief for dry season water scarcity, long-term viability of the available runoff remain questionable. It is thus imperative to understand the shifting flow patterns and associated impacts on water needs in the region.

  2. Food and nutrition security trends and challenges in the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnout van Soesbergen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The population of the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM delta is highly vulnerable to food insecurity and malnutrition due to the specific environmental, climatic and human development factors affecting agricultural production and fisheries. To better understand the impacts of climate and environmental change on food security and nutrition in this delta, this study combines spatially explicit data from the 2007 and 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS with a standard satellite remotely sensed vegetation greenness index (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI, used as a proxy for rice production. The strength of association between NDVI and child nutrition in this tropical mega-delta were tested, showing correlations between two widely used indicators of child malnutrition; stunting and wasting, and deviations from a 10 year mean NDVI (anomalies for rice crop growing seasons – regarded as critical to individual children’s early lives. For children surveyed in 2007 we found that the likelihood of being stunted decreased with increased NDVI as a measure of food production. Similarly, for children surveyed in 2011, the likelihood of being wasted reduced with increased NDVI. However, regression results for stunting in 2011 and wasting in 2007 were not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that NDVI can be regarded as indicative of climatic variability and periods of low food production but is only partly successful as an indicator of climate related impacts on child nutrition in the GBM delta. Furthermore, our study highlights some of the uncertainties and challenges with linking environmental indicators such as the NDVI with household survey data across spatial and temporal scales.

  3. Linking process, morphology, and stratigraphy in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Sincavage, R.; Steckler, M. S.; Pickering, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD) is characterized as a composite system with an upland fluvial fan delta, a lowland, backwater-reach delta, a downdrift tidal delta plain, and an offshore subaqueous-delta, reflecting the respective dominance of fluvial, tidal, and marine processes. Topographic transitions, coupled with surface morphology and underlying stratigraphy define the temporally and spatially integrated patterns of river behavior and sediment dispersal that characterize the delta system. These play important roles in the scale of natural hazards, such as flooding and storm surges, affecting the 150 million inhabitants of the GBMD. Within the upland fan delta, aggradation of mobile braided channels within the active rivers support the wide-scale distribution of bed- and suspended-load sands that constitute nearly the entire underlying architecture of upper GBMD stratigraphy. Finer silt-dominated facies form on the floodplain from overbank deposition during waning stages of flow; however preservation is very low and localized because of the persistent lateral migration of braided channels. A differentiation in stream morphology and channel behavior is associated with a sharp decrease in stream gradient, channel avulsion and abandonment, and the transition across the backwater. Deposition and preservation of fine-grained mud and organic-rich successions are concentrated within broad interdistributary basins of the lowland fluvial plain or within tectonically subsiding Sylhet Basin. While ~15% of the 1 x 109 t yr-1 sediment load carried by the rivers is advected along shore and inland via tidal activity, a rapidly prograding subaqueous clinoform and the adjacent Swatch of No Ground canyon system offshore receive ~50% of the modern sediment load. The overall stability of the GBMD landform, relative to many deltas, reflects the efficient, widespread dispersal of sediment by the large monsoon discharge and high-energy tides that affect this region

  4. Evaluating order in vertical successions of deltaic Holocene sediments on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincavage, R.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Most stratigraphic models are predicated on the presence of cyclicity or some form of order in vertical successions of strata. In spite of this a priori assumption of ordered stratigraphy, rarely are statistical metrics employed to quantify cyclicity in sedimentary packages. The presence or absence of preserved order in vertical sedimentary successions has important implications for the nature of environmental signals that are transmitted into the rock record. We interrogate the Holocene sedimentary archive of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD) in an effort to explore to what extent fluvio-deltaic deposits exhibit recognizable order. Specifically, we focus on grain size data to evaluate 1.) if stratigraphic order in vertical sedimentary successions can be identified and quantified, and 2.) if there are spatial patterns of stratigraphic order across the GBMD. A runs order metric r is used to identify sequences of coarsening and fining within an extensive borehole network. Observed grain size data are shuffled enough times to generate synthetic "random" stratigraphy, and a Monte Carlo simulation generates 5000 realizations. The distribution of r values from the Monte Carlo are compared to the r metric calculated from observed data to determine how likely the observed metric could be generated by chance. The spatial distribution of order metrics indicates a relationship between areas of enhanced mass extraction and preservation of fluvial successions that scale with modern bar deposits on the Jamuna River. Similarly, probability metrics indicate that vertical successions of grain size data unlikely to have been generated by chance are more likely to be found on distal areas of the delta where 60% of the input mass has been extracted. Combining a mass balance framework with simple statistical metrics has the potential of improving predictions of the stratigraphic architecture and the preservation of ordered vs. disordered signals in the sedimentary record.

  5. Comparing and contrasting observed adaptations in three deltas: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra, Mahanadi and Volta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Suckall, N.; Mensah, A.; Mondal, S.; Dey, S.; Hazra, S.

    2015-12-01

    In low and middle-income countries, many deltaic communities directly depend on the natural environment for income and well-being. Current environmental concerns that threaten deltaic communities, such as increasing salinity, sedimentation, erosion and subsidence are likely to be exacerbated by climate change and variability, for example sea-level rise, increased storminess and rising temperatures. Such changes, along with other social and environmental stressors, mean that communities must adapt. This paper outlines findings of a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature that examines observed adaptations in three deltas of differing sizes in various geographical contexts: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra in India and Bangladesh, the Mahanadi in India, and the Volta in Ghana. It compares and contrasts various elements of observed adaptations, including who is driving the adaptation, the beneficiaries, barriers to participation and evidence for maladaptation. The predominant drivers of adaptation vary from government (at state level in India and national level in Bangladesh) and NGOs (in Ghana). Autonomous adaptations are not widely reported in the literature from any of the deltas. In all three deltas there is a focus on supporting adaptation in farming rather than fishing; despite the fact that fisheries contribute to local food security as well as national economies. Lack of access to financial, natural, physical and human capital are common barriers to adaptation in all three deltas. Additionally the Indian literature in particular highlights the lack of coordination between different government departments, coupled with an excessively top-down (state-driven) approach to adaptation. Maladaptation is most commonly reported in the literature from Bangladesh, for example, loss of employment of inland fishermen in embanked areas. The paper concludes by highlighting some of the implications of these findings for adaptation policy in deltas.

  6. RAD50, an SMC family member with multiple roles in DNA break repair: How does ATP affect function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kinoshita (Eri); E. van der Linden (Eddy); H. Sanchez (Humberto); C. Wyman (Claire)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe protein complex including Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1 (MRN) functions in DNA double-strand break repair to recognize and process DNA ends as well as signal for cell cycle arrest. Amino acid sequence similarity and overall architecture make Rad50 a member of the structural maintenance of

  7. Air Pollution Over the Ganges Basin and Northwest Bay of Bengal in the Early Postmonsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2014-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office. This reanalysis is based on a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) model radiatively coupled with Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. In October over the period 2002-2009, MERRAero showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the northwest of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions because of higher population density, increased industrial output, and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the northwest of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal (BoB), AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over northwest BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation butmainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Moreover, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux was sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation over northwest BoB.

  8. Drug Sales, Gender, and Risk: Notions of Risk From the Perspective of Gang-Involved Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Molly; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

    2015-05-01

    We examine gender and meanings of risk in interviews (2007-2010) with gang-involved young men and women (n = 253) engaged in illicit drug sales in San Francisco, California. The in-depth interviews from this NIDA-funded study were coded using the software NVivo to identify patterns and themes. We examine their interpretations of the risks of drug-selling and their narratives about gender differences in these risks. We find distinct discourses regarding the role of femininities and masculinities and male and female bodies in shaping risk as well as the nexus between gender, family, and risk for female drug sellers.

  9. Model study of the impacts of future climate change on the hydrology of Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, M.; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Hanasaki, N.; Takeuchi, K.

    2014-06-01

    The intensity, duration, and geographic extent of floods in Bangladesh mostly depend on the combined influences of three river systems, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM). In addition, climate change is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology and water resources of the GBM basins and might ultimately lead to more serious floods in Bangladesh. However, the assessment of climate change impacts on basin-scale hydrology by using well-constrained hydrologic modelling has rarely been conducted for GBM basins due to the lack of data for model calibration and validation. In this study, a macro-scale hydrologic model H08 has been applied regionally over the basin at a relatively fine grid resolution (10 km) by integrating the fine-resolution (~0.5 km) DEM data for accurate river networks delineation. The model has been calibrated via analyzing model parameter sensitivity and validated based on a long-term observed daily streamflow data. The impact of climate change on not only the runoff, but also the basin-scale hydrology including evapotranspiration, soil moisture and net radiation have been assessed in this study through three time-slice experiments; present-day (1979-2003), near-future (2015-2039) and far-future (2075-2099) periods. Results shows that, by the end of 21st century (a) the entire GBM basin is projected to be warmed by ~3°C (b) the changes of mean precipitation are projected to be +14.0, +10.4, and +15.2%, and the changes of mean runoff to be +14, +15, and +18% in the Brahmaputra, Ganges and Meghna basin respectively (c) evapotranspiration is predicted to increase significantly for the entire GBM basins (Brahmaputra: +14.4%, Ganges: +9.4%, Meghna: +8.8%) due to increased net radiation (Brahmaputra: +6%, Ganges: +5.9%, Meghna: +3.3%) as well as warmer air temperature. Changes of hydrologic variables will be larger in dry season (November-April) than that in wet season (May-October). Amongst three basins, Meghna shows the largest hydrological

  10. Assessing regional climate simulations of the last 30 years (1982-2012) over Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandu; Awange, Joseph L.; Anyah, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Fukuda, Yoichi

    2017-10-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) River Basin presents a spatially diverse hydrological regime due to it's complex topography and escalating demand for freshwater resources. This presents a big challenge in applying the current state-of-the-art regional climate models (RCMs) for climate change impact studies in the GBM River Basin. In this study, several RCM simulations generated by RegCM4.4 and PRECIS are assessed for their seasonal and interannual variations, onset/withdrawal of the Indian monsoon, and long-term trends in precipitation and temperature from 1982 to 2012. The results indicate that in general, RegCM4.4 and PRECIS simulations appear to reasonably reproduce the mean seasonal distribution of precipitation and temperature across the GBM River Basin, although the two RCMs are integrated over a different domain size. On average, the RegCM4.4 simulations overestimate monsoon precipitation by {˜ }26 and {˜ }5% in the Ganges and Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin, respectively, while PRECIS simulations underestimate (overestimate) the same by {˜ }7% ({˜ }16%). Both RegCM4.4 and PRECIS simulations indicate an intense cold bias (up to 10° C) in the Himalayas, and are generally stronger in the RegCM4.4 simulations. Additionally, they tend to produce high precipitation between April and May in the Ganges (RegCM4.4 simulations) and Brahmaputra-Meghna (PRECIS simulations) River Basins, resulting in early onset of the Indian monsoon in the Ganges River Basin. PRECIS simulations exhibit a delayed monsoon withdrawal in the Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin. Despite large spatial variations in onset and withdrawal periods across the GBM River Basin, the basin-averaged results agree reasonably well with the observed periods. Although global climate model (GCM) driven simulations are generally poor in representing the interannual variability of precipitation and winter temperature variations, they tend to agree well with observed precipitation anomalies when driven by

  11. The Lightning Performance of Overhead Distribution Line Installed Mov and Clah Surge Arresters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanasaksiri, T.

    2008-10-01

    This paper compares the lightning performance of overhead distribution line which installed two arrester types, metal oxide varistor (MOV) and current limiting arcing horn (CLAH). The performance of line which related to the insulator flashover, with and without arresters installed, has been modeled and analyzed using EMTP. The MOV arrester type gives better line lightning performance. The relatively wide arrester spacings will reduce the lightning performance. The arrester leads should be kept as short as possible.

  12. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document lists the 135 Member States of the Agency as of 19 March 2003. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/56) is the Republic of Honduras. The dates on which the present 135 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  13. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.55) is the Republic of Botswana, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 20 March 2002. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 134 Member States became Members. It also shows the State whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference, but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  14. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document lists the 130 Member States of the Agency as of 1 December 1999. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/52) is Angola. The dates on which the present 130 Member States became Members, and the state Honduras) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute are given in an Attachment

  15. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The document lists the 132 Member States of the Agency as of 1 June 2001. The new Members since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/53) are Central African Republic and Azerbaijan. The dates on which the present 132 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  16. 'When you're boxing you don't think so much': Pugilism, transitional masculinities and criminal desistance among young Danish gang members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deuchar, Ross; Søgaard, Thomas Friis; Kolind, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    provided the young men with a safe space to perform broader versions of locally dominated views on masculinity and to reflect on their current situations and dilemmas. The young men were clearly in transition and their desistance journeys were characterized by hope and ambition but also disappointment...

  17. An examination of outlaw motorcycle gangs and their involvement in the illicit drug market and the effectiveness of anti-association legislative responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsworthy, Terry; McGillivray, Laura

    2017-03-01

    In 2013 the Queensland Government introduced criminal association and mandatory sentencing laws for members of outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCGs). Forms of "criminal association" or "anti-bikie" laws have been introduced in several Australian jurisdictions, and recent High Court decisions upholding their constitutionality will ensure that they remain part of our justice landscape. Generally, the aims of these laws are to declare a specific organisation as "criminal" and impose various legal orders and offences that thwart the consorting of members and address organised crime, such as unexplained wealth regimes. There have been significant criticisms of these styles of association laws both here and internationally. The aim of this research is to show the extent of involvement of OMCGs in the drug trade and associated organised crime activity, and whether anti-association laws are an effective response to this type of organised criminal activity. This paper relied on six years of data outlining the criminal activity of OMCGs from the Queensland Police Service (QPS) obtained under the legislative framework of The Queensland Right to Information Act (RTI) 2009. Information obtained from the Queensland Commission into Organised Crime (2015) and Queensland Taskforce into organised crime legislation (2015) was also used. The data suggest that the role of OMCGs in the drug market has been overstated and is not as dominant as has been portrayed by government agencies and the popular media. Generally, OMCGs account for less than one percent of organised crime type activity. This is also true for drug type offences where OMCGs are responsible for less than one percent of offences. The findings show that the Queensland example has highlighted the ineffectiveness of the criminal association laws and the mandatory sentencing provisions in that they have had little impact on drug market activity and little success in the courts. The analysis presented here is twofold: an

  18. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The 42nd revision of INFCIRC/2 lists the 113 Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency as of 1 January 1993. It includes Slovenia as a new Member State as of 21 September 1992, Cambodia replaces the former name ''Democratic Kampuchea'' and Czechoslovakia was deleted as it ceased to be a member of the Agency as of 1 January 1993 (INFCIRC/417)

  19. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.69) is the Commonwealth of Dominica, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 17 February 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 153 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.68) is the Lao People's Democratic Republic which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 November 2011. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 152 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statue with the depositary Government [es

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.73) is Trinidad and Tobago, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 9 November 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 158 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  5. Family members' experiences of autopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, F; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    Background. The experiences of family members will teach us how to handle an autopsy, the ultimate quality assessment tool. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine surviving family members' experience of autopsy. Method. Seven GPs were asked to approach surviving family members of

  6. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.73) is Trinidad and Tobago, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 9 November 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 158 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  7. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.68) is the Lao People's Democratic Republic which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 November 2011. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 152 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statue with the depositary Government

  8. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.72) are Fiji and Togo, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2012 and 1 November 2012, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 157 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  9. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  10. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.74) is Swaziland, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 15 February 2013. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 159 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  11. Cranial computed tomography in the resuscitated patient with cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, Robin; Ellison, Elizabeth; Brady, William J

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest from all causes in the United States occurs not infrequently. Postresuscitation care should include the identification of the inciting arrest event as well as therapy tailored to support the patient and treat the primary cause of the decompensation. The application of one particular testing modality, cranial computed tomography (CT) of the head, has not yet been determined. We undertook an evaluation of the use of head CT in patients who were resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Prehospital (emergency medical services), ED, and hospital records were reviewed for patients of all ages with cardiorespiratory arrest over a 4-year period (July 1996-June 2000). Information regarding diagnosis, management, and outcome was recorded. The results of cranial CT, if performed, and any apparent resulting therapeutic changes were recorded. Patients with a known traumatic mechanism for the cardiorespiratory arrest were excluded. A total of 454 patients (mean age 58.3 years with 60% male) with cardiorespiratory arrest were entered in the study with 98 (22%) individuals (mean age 58.5 years with 53% male) undergoing cranial CT. Arrest location was as follows: emergency medical services, 41 (42%); ED, 11 (11%); and hospital, 46 (47%). Seventy-eight (79%) patients demonstrated 111 CT abnormalities: edema, 35 (32%); atrophy, 24 (22%); extra-axial hemorrhage, 14 (13%); old infarct, 12 (11%); new infarct, 11 (10%); intraparenchymal hemorrhage, 6 (5%); skull fracture, 5 (4%); mass, 3 (2%); and foreign body, 1 (1%). Therapeutic and diagnostic alterations in care were made in 38 (39%) patients-35 abnormal and 3 normal CTs. The following alterations occurred: medication administration, 26; withdrawal of life support, 7; additional diagnostic study, 6; neurologic consultation, 6; and intracranial pressure monitoring. 4. No patient survived to discharge. In this subset of resuscitated patients with cardiac arrest

  12. Visualizing Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Murakami

    Full Text Available Vpr is an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 with multiple functions. The induction of G2 arrest by Vpr plays a particularly important role in efficient viral replication because the transcriptional activity of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat is most active in G2 phase. The regulation of apoptosis by Vpr is also important for immune suppression and pathogenesis during HIV infection. However, it is not known whether Vpr-induced apoptosis depends on the ability of Vpr to induce G2 arrest, and the dynamics of Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis have not been visualized. We performed time-lapse imaging to examine the temporal relationship between Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis using HeLa cells containing the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator2 (Fucci2. The dynamics of G2 arrest and subsequent long-term mitotic cell rounding in cells transfected with the Vpr-expression vector were visualized. These cells underwent nuclear mis-segregation after prolonged mitotic processes and then entered G1 phase. Some cells subsequently displayed evidence of apoptosis after prolonged mitotic processes and nuclear mis-segregation. Interestingly, Vpr-induced apoptosis was seldom observed in S or G2 phase. Likewise, visualization of synchronized HeLa/Fucci2 cells infected with an adenoviral vector expressing Vpr clearly showed that Vpr arrests the cell cycle at G2 phase, but does not induce apoptosis at S or G2 phase. Furthermore, time-lapse imaging of HeLa/Fucci2 cells expressing SCAT3.1, a caspase-3-sensitive fusion protein, clearly demonstrated that Vpr induces caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Finally, to examine whether the effects of Vpr on G2 arrest and apoptosis were reversible, we performed live-cell imaging of a destabilizing domain fusion Vpr, which enabled rapid stabilization and destabilization by Shield1. The effects of Vpr on G2 arrest and subsequent apoptosis were reversible. This study is the first to

  13. Public intervention on Latin American youth gangs: A few considerations based on immigration laws and their application in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moya Malapeira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Administrative intervention on young people from Latin American origins and who belong to youth gangs can be relatively complex, at least from a legal standpoint. On one hand, the young people in question may possess varying types of legal status (foreigners-nationals, youths-adults, regular or irregular which determine the type of administrative intervention that is applied. On the other hand, the resources and routes of administrative intervention that currently exist (intervention on minors deemed to be socially at risk, youth justice, prosecution for crimes, etc. should be modulated and adapted to the peculiarities of these groups, and of the young people themselves. This study is based on the premise that, with certain exceptions, the youth gangs that exist in our cities still do not possess a criminal structure or organisation comparable to the Maras of Central America or the “Latino gangs”, but rather that their proliferation is a symptom of the lack of social integration and the educational failure of these young people in our society. As a consequence, the article stresses that in addition to policing and legal initiatives aimed at fighting crime, there is a need to reinforce social and educational resources to prevent this phenomenon and, particularly, a need to enlarge and make more flexible the non-regulated education-training services that currently exist in order that they should serve as a bridge for these young people’s insertion into the labour market, and thus to prevent their social and legal exclusion.

  14. [Definitions and prevention of cardiorespiratory arrest in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Alvarez, A; López-Herce Cid, J

    2006-08-01

    In cardiopulmonary resuscitation ages are divided in neonates (in the inmediate period after the birth), infant (from birth to 12 months) and child (from 12 months to puberty). Respiratory arrest is defined by the absence of spontaneous respiration (apnea) or a severe respiratory insufficiency (agonal gasping) that require respiratory assistance. Cardiac arrest is defined as the absence of central arterial pulse or signs of circulation (movement, cough or normal breathing) or the presence of a central pulse less than 60 lpm in a child who does not respond, not breath and with poor perfusion. After resuscitation the return of spontaneous circulation is defined as the recuperation of central arterial pulse or signs of circulation in a child with previous cardiorespiratory arrest. It is maintained when the duration is longer than 20 minutes. Injuries, sudden infant death syndrome, and respiratory diseases are the most frequent etiologies of cardiorrespiratory arrest in children. The prevention and the formation of citizens in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation are the most effective measures to reduce the mortality of cardiorespiratory arrest in children.

  15. Serum tau and neurological outcome in cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Niklas; Zetterberg, Henrik; Nielsen, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test serum tau as a predictor of neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. METHODS: We measured the neuronal protein tau in serum at 24, 48, and 72 hours after cardiac arrest in 689 patients in the prospective international Target Temperature Management trial. The main outcome...... was poor neurological outcome, defined as Cerebral Performance Categories 3-5 at 6 months. RESULTS: Increased tau was associated with poor outcome at 6 months after cardiac arrest (median = 38.5, interquartile range [IQR] = 5.7-245ng/l in poor vs median = 1.5, IQR = 0.7-2.4ng/l in good outcome, for tau....... The accuracy in predicting outcome by serum tau was equally high for patients randomized to 33 °C and 36 °C targeted temperature after cardiac arrest. INTERPRETATION: Serum tau is a promising novel biomarker for prediction of neurological outcome in patients with cardiac arrest. It may be significantly better...

  16. Understanding the drivers of the future water gap in the Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerzeel, W. W.; Wijngaard, R. R.; Biemans, H.; Lutz, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra (IGB) river systems provide water resources for the agricultural, domestic and industrial sectors sustaining the lives of about 700 million people. The region is globally a hotspot for climate change as the headwaters of these rivers are fed by melt water from snow and glaciers, both strongly influenced by temperature change. In addition, the hydrology in the region is determined by the monsoon and its future dynamics as a results of climate change remains very uncertain. Simultaneously, the population is projected to grow rapidly over the coming decades, which in combination with strong economic developments, will likely result in a rapid increase in water demand. In this study we attempt to quantify the future water gap in the IGB and attribute this water gap to climate change and socio-economic growth. For the upstream mountainous parts of the basins we use the SPHY model, which is calibrated based on historical streamflow and glacier mass balance data and forced by the latest CMIP5 future climate model data for RCP4.5 and 8.5. Output of this model feeds into the downstream LPJmL model, which allows assessment of downstream climate change impacts and projected changes in water demand as a result of socio-economic developments. The LPJmL model is run for different combinations of RCPs and Shared Socio Economic Pathways (SSPs). Our results show that for the IGB as a whole climate change will increase water availability in the coming decades, due to an overall, albeit uncertain, increase in monsoon precipitation in combination with a sustained melt water supply from the upstream parts of the basins. However, irrespective of the SSP and RCP, the water demand as a result of socio-economic growth is expected to increase extremely fast in the near future and this is likely to be the main adaptation challenge for the IGB as far as water shortages are concerned. Our results also show that regional and temporal variation in the water gap

  17. Strategies for transdisciplinary research on peri-urban groundwater management in the Ganges delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Leon; Thissen, Wil; Gomes, Sharlene; Banerjee, Poulomi; Narain, Vishal; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Hasan, Rezaul; Barua, Anamika; Alam Khan, Shah; Bhattacharya, Samir; Kempers, Remi; Banerjee, Parthasarathi; Hossain, Zakir; Majumdar, Binoy; Hossain, Riad

    2016-04-01

    Transdisciplinary science transcends disciplinary boundaries. The reasons to engage in transdisciplinary science are many and include the desire to nurture a more direct relationship between science and society, as well as the desire to explain phenomena that cannot be explained by any of the existing disciplinary bodies of knowledge in isolation. Both reasons also reinforce each other, as reality often features a level of complexity that demands and inspires the combination of scientific knowledge from various disciplines. The challenge in transdisciplinary science, however, is not so much to cross disciplinary boundaries, but to ensure an effective connection between disciplines. This contribution reports on the strategy used in a transdisciplinary research project to address groundwater management in peri-urban areas in the Ganges delta. Groundwater management in peri-urban areas in rapidly urbanizing deltas is affected by diverse forces such as rapid population growth, increased economic activity and changing livelihood patterns, and other forces which result in a growing pressure on available groundwater resources. Understanding the intervention possibilities for a more sustainable groundwater management in these peri-urban areas requires an understanding of the dynamic interplay between various sub-systems, such as the physical groundwater system, the water using activities in households and livelihoods, and the institutional system of formal and informal rules that are used by various parties to access groundwater resources and to distribute the associated societal and economic costs and benefits. The ambition in the reported project is to contribute both new scientific knowledge, as well as build capacity with peri-urban stakeholders to improve the sustainability and equitability of local groundwater management. This is done by combining science and development activities, led by different organizations. The scientific component further consists of three

  18. Food and Nutrition Security Trends, Determinants and Challenges in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, K.; van Soesbergen, A.; Matthews, Z.; Burgess, N.

    2016-12-01

    In the last 20 years many developing countries have made considerable progress towards improving food security and nutrition. However, progress across countries and dimensions of food security have been uneven. While challenges to food security in the context of environmental and climate changes have been studied widely, limited evidence exists for their implications for food and nutrition security in tropical deltaic regions. Delta areas are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity and malnutrition due the specific environmental, climatic and human development factors affecting agricultural production and fisheries. These include coastal flooding and storm surges, deforestation, changes to river flow patterns and water tables, increased soil salinity and water quality degradation. Due to the large number of people living in deltaic regions and their importance in regional food production, there is a pressing need for a better understanding on how environmental factors affect food security and malnutrition. This study explores the potential impacts and challenges posed by environmental and climate change on food and nutrition security in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. This delta is one of the world's largest delta's draining land from Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India and Nepal. The delta makes up around two thirds of the country of Bangladesh, a country facing high levels of child undernutrition, child mortality and a high number of people living under extreme poverty. By combining spatially explicit data from the 2007 and 2011 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for Bangladesh with satellite remote sensing data (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) for relevant growing seasons of rice, the strength of association between this climate related environmental variable and indicators of child nutrition (wasting and stunting) in the delta were evaluated. Our results show that NDVI for the growing season of rice can be used to determine trends in rice production

  19. Subsidence and human influences in mega deltas: The case of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S; Nicholls, R J

    2015-09-15

    Relative sea/land level changes are fundamental to people living in deltas. Net subsidence is complex and attributed to tectonics, compaction, sedimentation and anthropogenic causes. It can have severe impacts and needs to be quantified and where possible (for subsidence due to anthropogenic causes) avoided. For the highly populated Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, a large range of net subsidence rates are described in the literature, yet the reasons behind this wide range of values are poorly understood. This paper documents and analyses rates of subsidence (for publications until 2014) and relates these findings to human influences (development). 205 point measurements of net subsidence were found, reported in 24 studies. Reported measurements were often repetitive in multiple journals, with some lacking detail as to precise location, cause and method, questioning reliability of the rate of subsidence. Rates differed by locality, methodology and period of measurement. Ten different measurement methods were recorded, with radio-carbon dating being the most common. Temporal and spatially, rates varied between -1.1mm/yr (i.e. uplift) and 43.8mm/yr. The overall mean reported rate was 5.6mm/yr, and the overall median 2.9 mm/yr, with 7.3mm/yr representing one standard deviation. These rates were reduced if inaccurate or vague records were omitted. The highest rates were recorded in the Sylhet Plateau, Dhaka and Kolkata. Highest rates were recorded in the last 1000 years, where the mean increased to 8.8mm/yr and a standard deviation of 7.5mm/yr. This could be partly due to shorter-term measurement records, or anthropogenic influence as multiple high rates are often found in urban settings. Continued development may cause rates to locally increase (e.g. due to groundwater abstraction and/or drainage). Improved monitoring is required over a wider area, to determine long-term trends, particularly as short-term records are highly variable. Focus in regions where wide spread

  20. Coastal Dynamics of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: 1988-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, S.; Sousa, D.; Mondal, D. R.; Small, C.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we quantify erosional and depositional processes in the coastal zone (including tidal flats and river channels) of the lower Ganges Brahmaputra delta (GBD). Recent availability of accurately coregistered, radiometrically intercalibrated, Landsat TM, ETM+ & OLI collected since 1988 allows for spatiotemporal (ST) analyses of both natural and anthropogenic processes in the coastal zone on seasonal to interannual time scales. We quantify changes in the coastal zone using 106 cloud-free acquisitions in the area of the 3 Landsat scenes spanning the lower delta. Changes are quantified using multitemporal spectral mixture analysis of exoatmospheric reflectance to represent land cover and water bodies as continuous fields of soil and sediment substrates (S), vegetation (V), and dark surfaces (D; water & shadow). We also use MODIS 16-day EVI composite time series and high spatial resolution (2-4 m) imagery post-2000 to extend and vicariously validate the Landsat-derived observations. Because water levels on the lower delta change by several meters on time scales of hours (tides), months (discharge) and years (relative sea level rise), we use a network of 11 tide gauges to distinguish the effects of these changes in the coastal zone imaged by Landsat. Cross spectral analysis of this network of tide gauge records quantifies the dominant periods and relative magnitudes as well as phase of water level variations across these time scales. Tide gauge records are used to identify Landsat scenes acquired at similar water levels as well as the effects of water level on variations in tidal flats. Water level and water leaving radiance are used to map spatiotemporal variations in suspended sediment. Tri-temporal change maps of SVD fractions show progressive changes of coastlines throughout the study period. We find significant change in tidal flats in acquisitions from different tidal heights, alluding to the importance of tidal phase in coastal analyses. Erosion of

  1. Emergency response planning and sudden cardiac arrests in high schools after automated external defibrillator legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M; Kannankeril, Prince J; Meredith, Mark

    2013-12-01

    To compare medical emergency response plan (MERP) and automated external defibrillator (AED) prevalence and define the incidence and outcomes of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in high schools before and after AED legislation. In 2011, Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association member schools were surveyed regarding AED placement, MERPs, and on-campus SCAs within the last 5 years. Results were compared with a similar study conducted in 2006, prior to legislation requiring AEDs in schools. Of the schools solicited, 214 (54%, total enrollment 182 289 students) completed the survey. Compared with 2006, schools in the 2011 survey had a significantly higher prevalence of MERPs (84% vs 71%, P defibrillators (90% vs 47%, P defibrillators but rates of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and overall compliance with guidelines remained low. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiac arrest following ventilator fire: A rare cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Nazeer Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating room fires are rare events, but when occur they result in serious and sometimes fatal consequences. Anaesthesia ventilator fire leading to cardiac arrest is a rare incident and has not been reported. We report a near catastrophic ventilator fire leading to cardiac arrest in a patient undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy. In the present case sparks due to friction or electrical short circuit within the ventilator might have acted as source of ignition leading to fire and explosion in the oxygen rich environment. The patient was successfully resuscitated and revived with uneventful recovery and no adverse sequelae. The cardiac arrest was possibly due to severe hypoxia resulting from inhalation of smoke containing high concentrations of carbon monoxide and other noxious gases.

  3. The role of vasopressin in cardiorespiratory arrest and pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M; Elliot, C M; Kiely, D G; Channer, K S

    2006-03-01

    Vasopressin is a peptide synthesized in the hypothalamus whose primary role is in fluid homeostasis. It has recently gained interest as a potential agent in the treatment of cardiorespiratory arrest. Initial human studies have shown benefits with vasopressin in patients with out of hospital ventricular fibrillation and asystolic cardiac arrest. One subgroup of patients not included in these trials is patients with pulmonary hypertension, who have a five-year mortality rate of 50%. Animal studies have shown vasopressin to be a vasodilator in the pulmonary vascular system of rats, under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, with conflicting results in canines. Human studies have shown conflicting results with increases, decreases and no changes seen in pulmonary artery pressures of patients with a variety of clinical conditions. Research needs to be done in patients with pulmonary hypertension regarding the potential role of vasopressin during cardiac arrest in this subgroup.

  4. [Cardiorespiratory arrest in full term newborn infants: six case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, H; Castel, C; Andrini, P; Durand, P; Carlus, C; Chabernaud, J L; Vial, M; Dehan, M; Boithias, C

    2004-05-01

    Cardiorespiratory arrest occurring within the first two hours of life of a perfectly normal newborn is a very seldom event hitherto unreported. Six infants born after an uneventful pregnancy by normal vaginal delivery, with a normal Apgar score and physical examination, were found with unexpected cardiorespiratory arrest requiring cardiac and respiratory resuscitation early after birth. All were lying in the prone position, their face covered up while facing mother's abdomen, breast or neck. All mothers were primipara. All newborns but one died. Biological and bacteriological samples were normal and early onset neonatal sepsis was ruled out. Autopsy, performed in five infants, was not contributive. We hypothesize that the sudden and unexpected cardiorespiratory arrest occurring in these normal newborns was secondary to acute upper airway obstruction. To prevent this life threatening post-natal asphyxic episode, it is essential to ensure that the face of a newborn lying down upon mother's breast and abdomen is properly and continuously cleared.

  5. The optimal hemodynamics management of post-cardiac arrest shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Tommaso; Sanfilippo, Filippo; Ristagno, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest develop a pathophysiological state named "post-cardiac arrest syndrome." Post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction is a common feature of this syndrome, and many patients eventually die from cardiovascular failure. Cardiogenic shock accounts for most deaths in the first 3 days, when post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction peaks. Thus, identification and treatment of cardiovascular failure is one of the key therapeutic goals during hospitalization of post-cardiac arrest patients. Patients with hemodynamic instability may require advanced cardiac output monitoring. Inotropes and vasopressors should be considered if hemodynamic goals are not achieved despite optimized preload. If these measures fail to restore adequate organ perfusion, a mechanical circulatory assistance device may be considered. Adequate organ perfusion should be ensured in the absence of definitive data on the optimal target pressure goals. Hemodynamic goals should also take into account targeted temperature management and its effect on the cardiovascular function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Macrolide antibiotics allosterically predispose the ribosome for translation arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothiselvam, Shanmugapriya; Liu, Bo; Han, Wei; Ramu, Haripriya; Klepacki, Dorota; Atkinson, Gemma Catherine; Brauer, Age; Remm, Maido; Tenson, Tanel; Schulten, Klaus; Vázquez-Laslop, Nora; Mankin, Alexander S

    2014-07-08

    Translation arrest directed by nascent peptides and small cofactors controls expression of important bacterial and eukaryotic genes, including antibiotic resistance genes, activated by binding of macrolide drugs to the ribosome. Previous studies suggested that specific interactions between the nascent peptide and the antibiotic in the ribosomal exit tunnel play a central role in triggering ribosome stalling. However, here we show that macrolides arrest translation of the truncated ErmDL regulatory peptide when the nascent chain is only three amino acids and therefore is too short to be juxtaposed with the antibiotic. Biochemical probing and molecular dynamics simulations of erythromycin-bound ribosomes showed that the antibiotic in the tunnel allosterically alters the properties of the catalytic center, thereby predisposing the ribosome for halting translation of specific sequences. Our findings offer a new view on the role of small cofactors in the mechanism of translation arrest and reveal an allosteric link between the tunnel and the catalytic center of the ribosome.

  7. Arrester Resistive Current Measuring System Based on Heterogeneous Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun Hua; Li, Zai Lin; Yuan, Feng; Hou Pan, Feng; Guo, Zhan Nan; Han, Yue

    2018-03-01

    Metal Oxide Arrester (MOA) suffers from aging and poor insulation due to long-term impulse voltage and environmental impact, and the value and variation tendency of resistive current can reflect the health conditions of MOA. The common wired MOA detection need to use long cables, which is complicated to operate, and that wireless measurement methods are facing the problems of poor data synchronization and instability. Therefore a novel synchronous measurement system of arrester current resistive based on heterogeneous network is proposed, which simplifies the calculation process and improves synchronization, accuracy and stability and of the measuring system. This system combines LoRa wireless network, high speed wireless personal area network and the process layer communication, and realizes the detection of arrester working condition. Field test data shows that the system has the characteristics of high accuracy, strong anti-interference ability and good synchronization, which plays an important role in ensuring the stable operation of the power grid.

  8. Numerical study of fracture arrest on snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Frigo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Under the hypothesis of a perfectly brittle phenomenon, avalanche triggering can be investigated numerically by means of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM. Since, however, the real phenomenon is intrinsically dynamical, another aspect to investigate is represented by dynamic fracture propagation. In this paper, we model dynamic crack propagation into a dry snow slab and we investigate the possibility to arrest the crack propagation through the presence of weak zones distributed along the extension of the snow slope. Assuming that the weak layer is almost collapsed, we simulate the efficiency of artificial voids in the slab to arrest fracture propagation, into the framework of Dynamical Fracture Mechanics. We put forward here a new philosophy for the use of artificial discontinuities (void into the snowpack able to perform as crack arresters distributed along the snow slope area: the target is to split a large avalanche slab into smaller slabs, causing small avalanches to propagate with less catastrophic effects.

  9. Crack arrest toughness measurements with A533B steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, Seppo.

    1979-11-01

    This work covers crack arrest toughness measurements on A533B steel done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. These measurements are one part of a multinational effort, involving 30 laboratories. The aim of the cooperative test program is to examine two test procedures for measuring the crack arrest toughness, to give information about their reproducibility, and to identify the factors affecting the interpretation. The principles given for the testing were easy to apply in general and the results were satisfactory. Some factors in the test runs and in the specimen's behaviour are indicated which can cause error in the results or make implementation of the test more difficult. By comparing the results from our laboratory with average values from the test program a good agreement can be seen. Crack arrest toughness values derived from the compared procedures with a static analysis agree closely, but values calculated using a dynamic analysis differ considerably. (author)

  10. Allyl isothiocyanate arrests cancer cells in mitosis, and mitotic arrest in turn leads to apoptosis via Bcl-2 protein phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Feng; Tang, Li; Li, Yun; Yang, Lu; Choi, Kyoung-Soo; Kazim, A Latif; Zhang, Yuesheng

    2011-09-16

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) occurs in many commonly consumed cruciferous vegetables and exhibits significant anti-cancer activities. Available data suggest that it is particularly promising for bladder cancer prevention and/or treatment. Here, we show that AITC arrests human bladder cancer cells in mitosis and also induces apoptosis. Mitotic arrest by AITC was associated with increased ubiquitination and degradation of α- and β-tubulin. AITC directly binds to multiple cysteine residues of the tubulins. AITC induced mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis, as shown by cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytoplasm, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and formation of TUNEL-positive cells. Inhibition of caspase-9 blocked AITC-induced apoptosis. Moreover, we found that apoptosis induction by AITC depended entirely on mitotic arrest and was mediated via Bcl-2 phosphorylation at Ser-70. Pre-arresting cells in G(1) phase by hydroxyurea abrogated both AITC-induced mitotic arrest and Bcl-2 phosphorylation. Overexpression of a Bcl-2 mutant prevented AITC from inducing apoptosis. We further showed that AITC-induced Bcl-2 phosphorylation was caused by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and AITC activates JNK. Taken together, this study has revealed a novel anticancer mechanism of a phytochemical that is commonly present in human diet.

  11. The role of water use patterns and sewage pollution in incidence of water-borne/enteric diseases along the Ganges river in Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, Steve; Tripathi, Anshuman; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar; Bouskill, Nik; Broadaway, Susan C; Pyle, Barry H; Ford, Timothy E

    2006-04-01

    In Varanasi, India, an estimated 200 million liters daily or more of untreated human sewage is discharged into the Ganges River. River water monitoring over the past 12 years has demonstrated faecal coliform counts up to 10(8) MPN (most probable number) per 100 ml and biological oxygen demand levels averaging over 40 mg/l in the most polluted part of the river in Varanasi. A questionnaire-based survey was used to estimate water-borne and enteric disease incidence and study river use among resident users of the Ganges River in Varanasi. The overall rate of water-borne/enteric disease incidence, including acute gastrointestinal disease, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis-A, and typhoid, was estimated to be about 66% during the one-year period prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis revealed significant associations between water-borne/enteric disease occurrence and the use of the river for bathing, laundry, washing eating utensils, and brushing teeth. Thirty-three cases of cholera were identified among families exposed to washing clothing or bathing in the Ganges while no cholera cases occurred in unexposed families. Other exposure factors such as lack of sewerage and toilets at residence, children defecating outdoors, poor sanitation, low income and low education levels also showed significant associations with enteric disease outcome. This study provides an estimate of water-borne/enteric disease incidence and identifies possible risk factors for residents who live by and use the Ganges River in Varanasi.

  12. On the Relationship between Bonding Theory and Youth Gang Resistance in U.S. 8th Graders: Competing Structural Equation Models with Latent Structure Indirect Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Horst, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    In a study of 5285 8th graders from the Gang Resistance and Education Training (G.R.E.A.T.) research, this study applied Travis Hirschi's social bonding theory to examine the curriculum's efficacy in increasing conventional bonding (friends with positive peers, succeeding at education etc.) and decreasing non-conventional bonding (drug…

  13. The Lived Experiences of Single Hispanic Mothers Raising Gang-Affiliated Male Youth Released from Texas Juvenile Justice Department State Facilities: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Almendarez, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study (Moustakas, 1994) was to describe the experiences that single Hispanic mothers of gang-affiliated male juveniles face during their sons' reentry process after being released from a Texas Juvenile Justice Department state facility. Methods: After an extensive review of…

  14. The lysis cassette of bacteriophage ϕKMV encodes a signal-arrest-release endolysin and a pinholin

    OpenAIRE

    Briers, Yves; Peeters, Liesbet M; Volckaert, Guido; Lavigne, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The lysis cassette of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage ϕKMV encodes a holin, endolysin, Rz and Rz1 in the canonical order. It has a tight organization with a high degree of overlapping genes and is highly conserved (between 96 and 100% identity at the protein level) among several other members of the “phiKMV-like viruses.” The endolysin KMV45 exhibits characteristics as expected for a signal-arrest-release (SAR) endolysin, whereas the holin KMV44 is a typical pinholin. KMV45 is initially secreted...

  15. Swedish ambulance nurses' experiences of nursing patients suffering cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Ricard; Engström, Åsa

    2013-04-01

    Effective pre-hospital treatment of a person suffering cardiac arrest is a challenging task for the ambulance nurses. The aim of this study was to describe ambulance nurses' experiences of nursing patients suffering cardiac arrest. Qualitative personal interviews were conducted during 2011 in Sweden with seven ambulance nurses with experience of nursing patients suffering cardiac arrests. The interview texts were analyzed using qualitative thematic content analysis, which resulted in the formulation of one theme with six categories. Mutual preparation, regular training and education were important factors in the nursing of patients suffering cardiac arrest. Ambulance nurses are placed in ethically demanding situations regarding if and for how long they should continue cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to accord with pre-hospital cardiac guidelines and patients' wishes. When a cardiac arrest patient is nursed their relatives also need the attention of ambulance nurses. Reflection is one way for ambulance nurses to learn from, and talk about, their experiences. This study provides knowledge of ambulance nurses' experiences in the care of people with cardiac arrest. Better feedback about the care given by the ambulance nurses, and about the diagnosis and nursing care the patients received after they were admitted to the hospital are suggested as improvements that would allow ambulance nurses to learn more from their experience. Further development and research concerning the technical equipment might improve the situation for both the ambulance nurses and the patients. Ambulance nurses need regularly training and education to be prepared for saving people's lives and also to be able to make the right decisions. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Complete maternal and fetal recovery after prolonged cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, B S; Burke, T J

    1988-04-01

    A case of complete maternal and fetal recovery after prolonged cardiac arrest from massive lidocaine overdose is presented. A 27-year-old woman at 15 weeks gestation had a complete neurologic recovery after 22 minutes of CPR, including 19 minutes of electromechanical dissociation and asystole, with normal fetal heart function and fetal motion confirmed by ultrasound immediately after resuscitation. The patient delivered a healthy and neurologically normal infant at 40 weeks gestation. This is the longest cardiac arrest in early pregnancy reported in the medical literature with normal maternal and fetal outcome.

  17. Oxidative phosphorylation as a target to arrest malignant neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Aguilar-Ponce, José Luis; Mandujano-Tinoco, Edna Ayerim; Meneses, Abelardo; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Since Warburg proposed in 1956 that cancer cells exhibit increased glycolysis due to mitochondrial damage, numerous researchers have assumed that glycolysis is the predominant ATP supplier for cancer cell energy-dependent processes. However, chemotherapeutic strategies using glycolytic inhibitors have been unsuccessful in arresting tumor proliferation indicating that the Warburg hypothesis may not be applicable to all existing neoplasias. This review analyzes recent information on mitochondrial metabolism in several malignant neoplasias emphasizing that, although tumor cells maintain a high glycolytic rate, the principal ATP production may derive from active oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, anti-mitochondrial drug therapy may be an adequate adjuvant strategy to arrest proliferation of oxidative phosphorylation-dependent neoplasias.

  18. Interrater variability of EEG interpretation in comatose cardiac arrest patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westhall, Erik; Rosén, Ingmar; Rossetti, Andrea O

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: EEG is widely used to predict outcome in comatose cardiac arrest patients, but its value has been limited by lack of a uniform classification. We used the EEG terminology proposed by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS) to assess interrater variability in a cohort.......42) for malignant patterns. Substantial agreement was found for malignant periodic or rhythmic patterns (κ 0.72) while agreement for identifying an unreactive EEG was fair (κ 0.26). CONCLUSIONS: The ACNS EEG terminology can be used to identify highly malignant EEG-patterns in post cardiac arrest patients...

  19. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The new members since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.42) are: Armenia, Coratia, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands, the Slovak Republic and Uzbekistan. The Attachment to the circular shows the dates on which the 120 States became members of the Agency, as well as those States whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but who have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document lists the 128 Member States of the Agency as of 18 September 1998. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/50) is Burkina Faso. In an attachment the dates on which the present 128 states became Members, and the state (Benin) whose application for membership of the Agency has been recommended by the Board of Governors to be considered at the 42nd session of the General Conference are given

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The new member since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.44) is Yemen. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the 122 States became members of the Agency, as well as the State whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  2. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document lists the 127 Member States of the Agency as of 1 January 1998. The new Members since the last issue of of the list (INFCIRC/2/49) are Malta and the Republic of Moldova. In an attachment are given the dates on which the present 127 states become Members, the state (Burkina Faso) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document lists the 129 Member States of the Agency as of 1 June 1999. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/51) is Benin. The dates on which the present 129 states became Members, and the state (Honduras) whose application for membership of the Agency has been recommended by the Board of Governors to be considered at the 43rd session of the General Conference are given in an Attachment

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.72) are Fiji and Togo, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2012 and 1 November 2012, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 157 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.75) are San Marino and the Bahamas, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 25 November 2013 and 7 January 2014, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 161 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  6. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.75) are San Marino and the Bahamas, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 25 November 2013 and 7 January 2014, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 161 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  7. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document lists the 124 Member States of the Agency as of 1 September 1996. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/Rev.47) is Georgia. In an attachment are given the dates on which the 124 Member States became Members, the State (Latvia) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the State (Republic of Moldova) whose application for membership has been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  8. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    No new Member has joined the Agency since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.45). The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 122 Member States became Members. It also shows the State whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the States whose applications for membership have been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  9. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.46) is Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 123 Member States became Members. It also shows the States whose applications for membership of the Agency have been approved by the General Conference but which have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the State whose application for membership has been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  10. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document lists the 136 Member States of the Agency as of 6 May 2003. The new Members since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/57) are Eritrea and the Republic of Seychelles. Cambodia withdrew from the Agency with effect from 26 March 2003. The dates on which the present 136 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  11. Interfacial crack arrest in sandwich beams subjected to fatigue loading using a novel crack arresting device – Numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J.H.; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A novel crack arresting device is implemented in foam-cored composite sandwich beams and tested using the Sandwich Tear Test (STT) configuration. A finite element model of the setup is developed, and the predictions are correlated with observations and results from a recently conducted experimental...... fatigue test study. Based on a linear elastic fracture mechanics approach, the developed FE model is utilised to simulate crack propagation and arrest in foam-cored sandwich beam specimens subjected to fatigue loading conditions. The effect of the crack arresters on the fatigue life is analysed......, and the predictive results are subsequently compared with the observations from the previously conducted fatigue tests. The FE model predicts the energy release rate and the mode mixity based on the derived crack surface displacements, utilising algorithms for the prediction of accelerated fatigue crack growth...

  12. Exploring the influence of precipitation extremes and human water use on total water storage (TWS) changes in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandu; Forootan, Ehsan; Schumacher, Maike; Awange, Joseph L.; Müller Schmied, Hannes

    2016-03-01

    Climate extremes such as droughts and intense rainfall events are expected to strongly influence global/regional water resources in addition to the growing demands for freshwater. This study examines the impacts of precipitation extremes and human water usage on total water storage (TWS) over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) River Basin in South Asia. Monthly TWS changes derived from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) (2002-2014) and soil moisture from three reanalyses (1979-2014) are used to estimate new extreme indices. These indices are applied in conjunction with standardized precipitation indices (SPI) to explore the impacts of precipitation extremes on TWS in the region. The results indicate that although long-term precipitation do not indicate any significant trends over the two subbasins (Ganges and Brahmaputra-Meghna), there is significant decline in rainfall (9.0 ± 4.0 mm/decade) over the Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin from 1998 to 2014. Both river basins exhibit a rapid decline of TWS from 2002 to 2014 (Ganges: 12.2 ± 3.4 km3/yr and Brahmaputra-Meghna: 9.1 ± 2.7 km3/yr). While the Ganges River Basin has been regaining TWS (5.4 ± 2.2 km3/yr) from 2010 onward, the Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin exhibits a further decline (13.0 ± 3.2 km3/yr) in TWS from 2011 onward. The impact of human water consumption on TWS appears to be considerably higher in Ganges compared to Brahmaputra-Meghna, where it is mainly concentrated over Bangladesh. The interannual water storage dynamics are found to be strongly associated with meteorological forcing data such as precipitation. In particular, extreme drought conditions, such as those of 2006 and 2009, had profound negative impacts on the TWS, where groundwater resources are already being unsustainably exploited.

  13. Model study of the impacts of future climate change on the hydrology of Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, M.; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Hanasaki, N.; Takeuchi, K.

    2015-02-01

    The intensity, duration, and geographic extent of floods in Bangladesh mostly depend on the combined influences of three river systems, the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM). In addition, climate change is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology and water resources of the GBM basin and may ultimately lead to more serious floods in Bangladesh. However, the assessment of climate change impacts on the basin-scale hydrology by using well-calibrated hydrologic modeling has seldom been conducted in the GBM basin due to the lack of observed data for calibration and validation. In this study, a macroscale hydrologic model H08 has been applied over the basin at a relatively fine grid resolution (10 km) by integrating the fine-resolution DEM (digital elevation model) data for accurate river networks delineation. The model has been calibrated via the analysis of model parameter sensitivity and validated based on long-term observed daily streamflow data. The impacts of climate change (considering a high-emissions path) on runoff, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture are assessed by using five CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) GCMs (global circulation models) through three time-slice experiments; the present-day (1979-2003), the near-future (2015-2039), and the far-future (2075-2099) periods. Results show that, by the end of 21st century, (a) the entire GBM basin is projected to be warmed by ~4.3 °C; (b) the changes of mean precipitation (runoff) are projected to be +16.3% (+16.2%), +19.8% (+33.1%), and +29.6% (+39.7%) in the Brahmaputra, Ganges, and Meghna, respectively; and (c) evapotranspiration is projected to increase for the entire GBM (Brahmaputra: +16.4%, Ganges: +13.6%, Meghna: +12.9%) due to increased net radiation as well as warmer temperature. Future changes of hydrologic variables are larger in the dry season (November-April) than in the wet season (May-October). Amongst the three basins, the Meghna shows the highest increase in

  14. Public knowledge of how to use an automatic external defibrillator in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, K L; Leung, L P; Poon, H T; Chiu, H Y; Liu, H L; Tang, W Y

    2016-12-01

    The survival rate of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Hong Kong is low. A long delay between collapse and defibrillation is a contributing factor. Public access to defibrillation may shorten this delay. It is unknown, however, whether Hong Kong's public is willing or able to use an automatic external defibrillator. This study aimed to evaluate public knowledge of how to use an automatic external defibrillator in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A face-to-face semi-structured questionnaire survey of the public was conducted in six locations with a high pedestrian flow in Hong Kong. In this study, 401 members of the public were interviewed. Most had no training in first aid (65.8%) or in use of an automatic external defibrillator (85.3%). Nearly all (96.5%) would call for help for a victim of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest but only 18.0% would use an automatic external defibrillator. Public knowledge of automatic external defibrillator use was low: 77.6% did not know the location of an automatic external defibrillator in the vicinity of their home or workplace. People who had ever been trained in both first aid and use of an automatic external defibrillator were more likely to respond to and help a victim of cardiac arrest, and to use an automatic external defibrillator. Public knowledge of automatic external defibrillator use is low in Hong Kong. A combination of training in first aid and in the use of an automatic external defibrillator is better than either one alone.

  15. Sensemaking in the formation of basic life support teams - a proof-of-concept, qualitative study of simulated in-hospital cardiac arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Peter; Lauridsen, Johnny; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2018-01-29

    The formation of critical care teams is a complex process where team members need to get a shared understanding of a serious situation. No previous studies have focused on how this shared understanding is achieved during the formation of cardiac arrest teams. "Sensemaking" is a concept well known in organizational studies. It refers to the collaborative effort among members in a dialogue to create meaning in an ambiguous situation, often by using subtle variations in the sentences in the dialogue. Sentences with high degrees of "sensemaking" activity can be thematized as "co-orientation", "re-presentation" and/or "subordination" (among others). We sought to establish if elements of "sensemaking" occur in the formation of in-hospital cardiac arrest teams. Videos of ten simulations of unannounced in-hospital cardiac arrests treated by basic life support (BLS) providers. We transcribed all verbal communication from the moment the first responder stepped into the room until the moment external chest compression were initiated (verbatim transcription). Transcriptions were then analyzed with a focus on identifying three elements of sensemaking: Co-orientation, Re-presentation and Sub-ordination. Sensemaking elements could be identified in seven of ten scenarios as part of team formation. Co-orientation was the element that was used most consistently, occurring in all of the eight scenarios that included sensemaking efforts. Sensemaking is an element in the communication in some cardiac arrest teams. It is possible that the active moderation of sensemaking should be considered a non-technical skill in cardiac arrest teams.

  16. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to the end of 1972, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  17. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to 30 June 1975, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  18. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to 31 March 1974, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  19. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 30 June 1969 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  20. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to the end of 1970, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  1. Life Expectancy of Kibbutz Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Uri; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations.…

  2. Cardiac Arrest after Local Anaesthetic Toxicity in a Paediatric Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Maria Torres de Araújo Azi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a paediatric patient undergoing urological procedure in which a possible inadvertent intravascular or intraosseous injection of bupivacaine with adrenaline in usual doses caused subsequent cardiac arrest, completely reversed after administration of 20% intravenous lipid emulsion. Early diagnosis of local anaesthetics toxicity and adequate cardiovascular resuscitation manoeuvres contribute to the favourable outcome.

  3. Offenders' Perceptions of House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jamie S.; Hanrahan, Kate; Bowers, James H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study designed to examine the perceptions of house arrest (HA) and electronic monitoring (EM) among offenders who have recently experienced this criminal sentence. Data were gathered via a self-administered questionnaire and follow-up interviews with a sample of offenders. Our primary areas of interest were to assess (a)…

  4. Sudden cardiac arrest risk in young athletes | Gradidge | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Underlying cardiac abnormalities are the main cause of unexpected death in athletes on field. These abnormalities have been associated with a previous history of syncope, a family history of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), cardiac murmur, a history of over-exhaustion post exercise and ventricular tachyarrhythmia during ...

  5. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162...

  6. Trichostrongylus colubriformis rDNA polymorphism associated with arrested development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langrová, I.; Zouhar, M.; Vadlejch, J.; Borovský, M.; Jankovská, I.; Lytvynets, Andrej

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 2 (2008), s. 401-403 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : arrested development * polymorphism * rDNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.473, year: 2008

  7. Prediction of cardiac arrest recurrence using ensemble classifiers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 42; Issue 7. Prediction of cardiac arrest recurrence using ensemble classifiers. NACHIKET TAPAS ... Poor survival rate of patients with SCA is one of themost ubiquitous health care problems today. Recent studies show that heart-rate-derived features can act as early predictors of SCA.

  8. Anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest caused by thiamine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Pareek, Manan; Langfrits, Christian Sigvald

    2013-01-01

    intoxication and developed cardiac arrest due to anaphylactic shock following intravenous thiamine infusion. The patient was successfully resuscitated after 15 min and repeated epinephrine administrations. He was discharged in good health after 14 days. This case report emphasises both the importance...

  9. [Refractory cardiac arrest patients in prehospital care, potential organ donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Jan, Arnaud; Dupin, Aurélie; Garrigue, Bruno; Sapir, David

    2016-09-01

    Under the authority of the French Biomedicine Agency, a new care pathway integrates refractory cardiac arrest patients into a process of organ donation. It is a medical, logistical and ethical challenge for the staff of the mobile emergency services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Cdc20 control of cell fate during prolonged mitotic arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The fate of cells arrested in mitosis by antimitotic compounds is complex but is influenced by competition between pathways promoting cell death and pathways promoting mitotic exit. As components of both of these pathways are regulated by Cdc20-dependent degradation, I hypothesize that variations...

  11. Carbamazepine induces mitotic arrest in mammalian Vero cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Martin, J.M.; Fernandez Freire, P.; Labrador, V.; Hazen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    We reported recently that the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine, at supratherapeutic concentrations, exerts antiproliferative effects in mammalian Vero cells, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. This motivates us to examine rigorously whether growth arrest was associated with structural changes in cellular organization during mitosis. In the present work, we found that exposure of the cells to carbamazepine led to an increase in mitotic index, mainly due to the sustained block at the metaphase/anaphase boundary, with the consequent inhibition of cell proliferation. Indirect immunofluorescence, using antibodies directed against spindle apparatus proteins, revealed that mitotic arrest was associated with formation of monopolar spindles, caused by impairment of centrosome separation. The final consequence of the spindle defects induced by carbamazepine, depended on the duration of cell cycle arrest. Following the time course of accumulation of metaphase and apoptotic cells during carbamazepine treatments, we observed a causative relationship between mitotic arrest and induction of cell death. Conversely, cells released from the block of metaphase by removal of the drug, continued to progress through mitosis and resume normal proliferation. Our results show that carbamazepine shares a common antiproliferative mechanism with spindle-targeted drugs and contribute to a better understanding of the cytostatic activity previously described in Vero cells. Additional studies are in progress to extend these initial findings that define a novel mode of action of carbamazepine in cultured mammalian cells

  12. Lupeol induces S-phase arrest and mitochondria-mediated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    48

    Lupeol induces S-phase arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Nupoor Prasad1, Akash Sabarwal2, Umesh C. S. Yadav1, Rana P. Singh2,*. 1School of Life Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. 2Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal ...

  13. Is Ward Experience in Resuscitation Effort Related to the Prognosis of Unexpected Cardiac Arrest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen-Kuang Hou

    2007-09-01

    Conclusion: Hospital wards with more than 5 cardiac arrests per year have a better patient survival rate than those with fewer arrests. This is despite all ward staff receiving the same level of training.

  14. The arresting phase determines the total healing time of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Ping

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Radiation is an important cause of delayed wound healing, and there still exist many questions regarding the patterns and mechanisms of wound healing. This study investigated the characteristics of wound healing after varying doses of local radiation and explored possible causes of the delay in healing caused by radiation. Methods: A full-thickness dorsal longitudinal skin tissue, 2 cm in diameter, was excised after local irradiation on one side of the back of swine, and the other side was wounded as a control. The size of the wound area was re-corded every two days after injury. Pathological changes, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, immunohisto-chemistry and apoptosis levels (TUNEL assay were mea-sured at different time points after wounding. Results: The course of wound healing can be divided into four phases, namely: the arresting phase, the healing priming phase, the fast healing phase, and the healed phase. Although the total wound healing time was closely corre-lated to the dose of irradiation (R 2 = 0.9758, it was more dependent on the length of the arresting phase (R 2 =0.9903 because once the arresting phase ended, the wound healed at a similar speed regardless of radiation doses. Pathologi-cal analysis showed that compared with the control side there were more necrotic tissues, slower epithelial crawling, as well as fewer blood vessels and cellular components in the irradiated side at the arresting phase, while other phases revealed no significant difference concerning these measurements. Immunohistochemistry showed that the ir-radiated wounds had significantly less PCNA-positive and more TUNEL-positive labeling of cells in the arresting phase than in other phases. Moreover, the changes were posi-tively related to the radiation doses, but there was no obvi-ous difference in cell proliferation or apoptosis among the healing priming phase, fast healing phase or healed phase, whether on the control side

  15. Evolution of the P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 'Gang of Four' Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This series of eight NASA Hubble Space Telescope 'snapshots' shows the evolution of the P-Q complex, also called the 'gang of four' region, of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9.The eight individual frames chronicle changes in the comet during the 12 months before colliding with Jupiter. The sequence shows that the relative separations of the various cometary fragments, thought to range in size from about 500 meters to almost 4 km (2.5 miles) across, changed dramatically over this period. The apparent separation of Q1 and Q2 was only about 1100 kilometers (680 miles) on 1 July 1993 and increased to 28,000 kilometers (17,400 miles) by 20 July 1994.The P-Q complex demonstrates that further fragmentation occurred after the breakup of the parent body in July 1992. Fragments Q1 and Q2 were probably together at some point in a single body. However, it is not clear how P1 and P2, and the P and Q objects are related.Between 24 January and 30 March 1994, the P2 nucleus broke-up into two separate fragments, one of which disappeared by late June. (It might be present in the mid-May image.) The P1 nucleus had a 'streaked' appearance on 24 January 1994 and then became a barely discernible 'puff' through mid-May. It was not detected in subsequent observations.Throughout the period, most nuclei were within a 4000 kilometer-wide (2500 miles) spherical cloud of dust, called a coma. However, shortly before impact, the coma around each nucleus became highly elongated along the comet's travel path due to 'stretching' by Jupiter's rapidly increasing gravity.This stretching is dramatic in the image of the Q-complex taken on 20 July 1994, just 10 hours before collision. Despite the coma's changes, HST images show that the core of each nucleus always remained concentrated. This shows that the nuclei were probably not catastrophically fragmenting, at least not up to 10 hours before impact.The first HST image was taken on 1 July 1993 with the Planetary Camera before the December 1993 HST servicing

  16. Shelf sedimentation off the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system: Evidence for sediment bypassing to the Bengal fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven A.; Hariu, Tina M.; Moore, Willard S.

    1989-12-01

    The nature of shelf sedimentation seaward of the world's largest sediment dispersal system is examined by using sedimentological and geochronological techniques on a unique suite of sediment cores and grab samples. Sediments from the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system are currently accumulating on the shelf in water depths of less than about 80 m, forming a clinoform-like deposit similar to subaqueous deltas found off other major river systems. The highest sediment accumulation rates on the shelf occur near the head of the Swatch of No Ground, a major submarine canyon that indents the shelf west of the present river mouths. This observation, together with textural data, suggests that river sediments are transported seaward and westward and that the Swatch of No Ground is currently a major conduit for the transport of sediments from the Bengal shelf.

  17. Long-term outcome of paediatric cardiorespiratory arrest in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Herce, Jesús; García, Cristina; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio; Domínguez, Pedro; Carrillo, Angel; Calvo, Custodio; Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2005-01-01

    To analyse the final outcome of cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA) in children and the neurological and functional state of survivors at 1 year. An 18-month prospective, multicentre study analysing out-of-hospital and in-hospital CRA in children was carried out; 283 children between 7 days and 17 years of age were included. CRA and resuscitation data were registered according to Utstein style. The outcome variables were: sustained return of spontaneous circulation (initial survival), and survival at 1 year (final survival). The status of survivors was evaluated by means of the paediatric cerebral performance category (PCPC) scale and the paediatric overall performance category (POPC) scale at Paediatric Intensive Care Unit discharge, at hospital discharge, and at 1 year follow-up. In 283 children, 311 CRA episodes, 73 respiratory arrests (23.5%) and 238 cardiac arrests (76.5%) were analysed. Seventeen children suffered more than one CRA episode (range: 2-6). The initial survival was 60.2% and 1-year survival was 33.2%. The final survival was significantly higher in respiratory arrest than in cardiac arrest patients (70.0% versus 21.1%) (P < 0.0001). After 1 year follow-up, 87.3% of patients had scores 1 or 2 on the PCPC scale and 84.0% had scores 1 or 2 in the POPC scale; these results indicate that 1 year after CRA, the majority of survivors had normal neurological and functional status or showed only mild disability. Prognosis of CRA in children continues to be poor in terms of survival but quite good in terms of neurological and functional status among survivors. Additional strategies and efforts are needed to improve the short-term prognosis of paediatric CRA. However, the long-term outcome of survivors is reassuring.

  18. Explaining Discrepancies in Arrest Rates Between Black and White Male Juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Fite, Paula J.; Wynn, Porche’; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated discrepancies in arrest rates between Black and White male juveniles by examining the role of early risk factors for arrest. Two hypotheses were evaluated: (a) Disproportionate minority arrest is due to increased exposure to early risk factors, and (b) a differential sensitivity to early risk factors contributes to disproportionate minority arrest. The study included 481 Black and White boys who were followed from childhood to early adulthood. A higher incidence of ea...

  19. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJEY KUMAR PATHAK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathak AK, Sarkar UK, Singh SP. 2014. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India. Biodiversitas 15: 186-194.The present study describes the analysis and mapping of the different measurements of freshwater fish biodiversity of the Upper Ganges basin in the Himalayan region using spatial interpolation methods of Geographical Information System. The diversity, richness and abundance of fishes for each sampling location were determined and Kriging interpolation was applied on each fisheries measurement to predict and produce semivariogram. The semivariogarms produced were cross validated and reclassified. The reclassified maps for richness, abundance and diversity of fishes, occurrence of cold water threatened fish and abundance of important genera like Tor, Schziothorax and species were produced. The result of the Kriging produced good results and overall error in the estimation process was found significant. The cross validation of semovariograms also provided a better result with the observed data sets. Moreover, weighted overlay analysis of the reclassified raster maps of richness and abundance of fishes produced the classified raster map at different evaluation scale (0-10 qualitatively describing the gradient of species richness and abundance compositely. Similarly, the classified raster map at same evaluation scale qualitatively describing the gradient of species abundance and diversity compositely was produced and published. Further, basin wise analysis between Alaknanda/Pindar and Ganga1 sub basins showed 0.745 disparities at 0.745 distances in 2 dimensional spaces. The richness, diversity and abundance of threatened fishes among the different sampling locations were not significant (p = 0.9.

  20. Evaluation of WRF PBL parameterization schemes against direct observations during a dry event over the Ganges valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanadh, Anusha; Prabha, Thara V.; Balaji, B.; Resmi, E. A.; Karipot, Anandakumar

    2017-09-01

    Accurate representations of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are important in all weather forecast systems, especially in simulations of turbulence, wind and air quality in the lower atmosphere. In the present study, detailed observations from the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment - Integrated Ground based Observational Campaign (CAIPEEX-IGOC) 2014 comprising of the complete surface energy budget and detailed boundary layer observations are used to validate Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations over a diverse terrain over the Ganges valley region, Uttar Pradesh, India. A drying event in June 2014 associated with a heat wave is selected for validation.Six local and nonlocal PBL schemes from WRF at 1 km resolution are compared with hourly observations during the diurnal cycle. Near-surface observations of weather parameters, radiation components and eddy covariance fluxes from micrometeorological tower, and profiles of variables from microwave radiometer, and radiosonde observations are used for model evaluations. Models produce a warmer, drier surface layer with higher wind speed, sensible heat flux and temperature than observations. Layered boundary layer dynamics, including the residual layer structure as illustrated in the observations over the Ganges valley are missed in the model, which lead to deeper mixed layers and excessive drying.Although it is difficult to identify any single scheme as the best, the qualitative and quantitative analyses for the entire study period and overall reproducibility of the observations indicate that the MYNN2 simulations describe lower errors and more realistic simulation of spatio-temporal variations in the boundary layer height.

  1. Engineering Design of A Gang Drilling Machine Equipped with Jig and Fixtures to Make A Prototype Machine in Birdcage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Widiyono

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the engineering design of a gang drilling machine with jig & fixtures to make a prototype machine. This effort has been done in order to solve the problem which aroused in small business enterprises producing birdcages. The problem was how to minimize the production time in making a lot of holes that have same distance and straightness. Hopefully, the prototype machine can help the small business enterprises to increase their production rate.The design engineering process has been carried out by variant approximation on dowel pin modular fixtures in order to simplify fixtures design. CAD CAM software has also been used as fixtures synthesized method including geometric analysis and three dimensional fixtures assembling. The resulting prototype machine can be well operated and based on the running test, it can be concluded that the greater the motor rotation the greater the power needed. As for teak wood, at 250 rpm motor rotation the power needed is 26.5 watt, and at 400 rpm the motor needs power of 43.6 watt while at 600 rpm the motor needs power of 600 watt. The power consumption is also depends on the type of material, the better the mechanical properties of the materials, the higher the power consumption. For cast iron, the 400 rpm motor rotation needs power as high as 569.7 watt. This prototype of gang drilling machine needs power of 350 watt to make five holes on teak wood while ordinary drilling machine needs total power of 1350 watt.

  2. Gender and Relational-Distance Effects in Arrests for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, William; DeMaris, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study tests two hypotheses regarding factors affecting arrest of the perpetrator in domestic violence incidents. Black's relational-distance thesis is that the probability of arrest increases with increasing relational distance between perpetrator and victim. Klinger's leniency principle suggests that the probability of arrest is lower for…

  3. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and... leads underground shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters of approved type within 100 feet...

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The document lists the 125 Member States of the Agency as of 1 September 1997. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/Rev.48) is Latvia. In an Attachment are given the dates on which the present 125 States became Members, the State (Republic of Moldova) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the States (Malta and Burkina Faso) whose applications for membership have been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The new members since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.43) are: Kazakhstan and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea withdrew from membership of the Agency as of 13 June 1994. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the 121 States became members of the Agency, as well as those States whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but who have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  6. Countering Islamic Radicalization and Al Shabaab Recruitment Within the Ethnic Somali Population of the United States: An Argument for Applying Best Practices for Stemming Youth Gang Recruitment and Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Deen, & Parker, 1994, para. 2). The primary risk factors determining youth susceptibility to gang recruitment are racism , poverty, lack of a support...feelings of alienation and stigma ” while non-Muslim communities harbor resentment for Muslim communities because they are receiving government funding...future terrorist attacks. 29 III. COUNTERGANG BEST PRACTICES Street gangs are an amalgam of racism , of urban underclass poverty, of minority and

  7. Restoring the Promise of the Right to Speedy Trial to Service Members in Pretrial Arrest and Confinement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaver, Daniel P

    1994-01-01

    ...). This new version of R.C.M. 707 envisaged the simplification of some 40 years of confusion over what the right to a speedy trial means to persons who are subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ...

  8. Extruded edge members for honeycombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Edge members in bonded honeycomb panel structures are conventionally made by machining channels in aluminum bars. Open ends are stuffed with honeycomb core, using intumescent adhesive. Less expensive technique eliminates need for stuffing. Extended edges are more reliable, lighter, and easier to install. New manufacturing method may prove useful in fabricating structures such as air-frames, recreational-vehicle frame members, and the like in which weight savings is primary goal.

  9. Are radiologists able to manage serious anaphylactic reactions and cardiopulmonary arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapping, C R; Culverwell, A D

    2009-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the ability and confidence of radiologists in managing adult life support in cardiopulmonary arrest and acute anaphylaxis reactions. We used a questionnaire survey assessing the knowledge of how to manage and the confidence in managing an adult cardiorespiratory arrest scenario. This was sent to 165 radiology consultants and registrars in 6 NHS trusts in Yorkshire: 105 participated. The questionnaire elicited basic demographic details and included eight questions aimed at assessing recent training, knowledge and confidence in the management of adult resuscitation (Resuscitation Council (UK) 2005 guidelines) and acute anaphylaxis. Despite the fact that 90% of participants stated that they would feel confident to initiate life support, the average score from the questions assessing life support procedure was 2.3 out of 5, with only 13% of participants answering all questions correctly. There was no correlation between grade of radiologist and likelihood of a correct answer, nor was there a correlation between feeling confident and knowing the correct life support procedure. Flaws in training were highlighted, with only 61% of radiologists having attended a life support course in the last 4 years. Those who had attended a course more recently were more likely to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation correctly (p = 0.02). Individuals who were confident in initialising cardiopulmonary resuscitation were more likely to be confident that other members of staff could assist them (p = 0.028). This study emphasises the need for regular life support training and the need to alter the attitude of radiologists, who must consider it their role to initiate effective life support in the radiology environment.

  10. Domains of concern of intimate partners of sudden cardiac arrest survivors after ICD implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Cynthia M; Pyper, Gail P; Benoliel, Jeanne Q

    2004-01-01

    There is limited research that describes the experiences of intimate partners of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) survivors. The purposes of this article are to (1) describe the domains of concern of intimate partners of SCA survivors during the first year after internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation and (2) outline strategies used by partners of SCA survivors in dealing with the concerns and demands of recovery in the first year after ICD implantation. This is a secondary analysis of interview data collected for the primary study "Family Experiences Following Sudden Cardiac Arrest." A grounded theory method was used to identify experiences of SCA survivors and their family members from hospitalization through the first year after ICD implantation. Data were collected from the SCA survivor and one intimate partner at 5 times: hospital discharge, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postdischarge. Eight Domains of Concern were identified for intimate partners following SCA and ICD implantation during the first year. These included (1) Care of the survivor, (2) My (partner) self-care, (3) Relationship, (4) ICD, (5) Money, (6) Uncertain future, (7) Health care providers, and (8) Family. Five categories of strategies to deal with the Domains of Concerns were identified (1) Care of the survivor, (2) My (partner) self-care, (3) Relationship, (4) Uncertain future, and (5) Controlling the environment. Nursing intervention programs should include the intimate partner of SCA survivors and contain education and support in the following areas: (1) information on the function of the ICD, (2) normal progression of physical and emotional recovery experiences, (3) safety and maintenance of the ICD, (4) activities of daily living after an ICD, (5) strategies to assist with the survivors care, and (6) strategies to assist with partner self care.

  11. The Likelihood of Collaboration Between Central American Transnational Gangs and Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    illegal sale of fraudulent phone cards, and cigarette smuggling present little risk, yet provide a highly profitable return. Extortion has also...Mexican train route that runs from Chiapas to Tabasco, through Veracruz and into northern Mexico; 90 percent of these are freight trains.91 Additionally...know al Qaeda to be active.”162 Currently, MS-13 members “own” the eastern Mexican train route that runs from Chiapas to Tabasco, through Veracruz

  12. A Case of Morgagni Hernia Resulting with Respiratory Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavit Çöl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni’s hernia is seen at a rate of 3-4% among all diaphragmatic hernias. It develops from a defect in the pleuroperitoneal membrane. Herniation of the omentum is seen most commonly, that of the colon frequently, and herniation of small bowel and stomach is seen rarely. When being examined due to anemia and dyspnea, a 53-year-old male patient suffered from a respiratory arrest and was hence intubated and placed under treatment at the intensive care unit. On radiological examination, a giant diaphragmatic hernia was observed bilaterally, more marked on the right side. On laparotomy, especially on the right side, the caecum, the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the appendix, the omentum and part of the small bowel was seen to be herniated. Primary diaphragmatic repair + right hemicolectomy + end-to-end ileo-transversostomy was performed. We have reported this case because it was a giant hernia which caused respiratory arrest.

  13. [Hypothermia after cardiac arrest--underused method that saves lives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornik, Ivan; Peklić, Marina; Gasparović, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory arrest causes ischemia and lesion of all organ systems, but the central nervous system is the most vulnerable. It is known that only few minutes of hypoperfusion and ischemia can cause irreversible damage to the brain which is the major frustration of reanimatology. Results of clinical trials suggest positive effects of hypothermia on survival and neurological recovery which led to including this method to Guidelines for resuscitation as a recommended standard method in post-resuscitation period for patients who have not regained consciousness. Methods for induction and maintenance of hypothermia are numerous and various, basically divided into invasive and non-invasive, each with its own advantages and disadvantages which are described in this paper. Despite recognised positive effects of mild therapeutic hypothermia after resuscitation from cardiac arrest, the method is not fully implemented as a standard method in post-resuscitation period.

  14. Metazoan operons accelerate recovery from growth arrested states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslaver, Alon; Baugh, L. Ryan; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Existing theories explain why operons are advantageous in prokaryotes, but their occurrence in metazoans is an enigma. Nematode operon genes, typically consisting of growth genes, are significantly up-regulated during recovery from growth-arrested states. This expression pattern is anti-correlated to non-operon genes consistent with a competition for transcriptional resources. We find that transcriptional resources are initially limiting during recovery, and that recovering animals are highly sensitive to any additional decrease in transcriptional resources. Operons become advantageous because by clustering growth genes into operons, fewer promoters compete for the limited transcriptional machinery, effectively increasing the concentration of transcriptional resources, and accelerating recovery. Mathematical modeling reveals how a moderate increase in transcriptional resources can substantially enhance transcription rate and recovery. This design principle occurs in different nematodes and the chordate C. intestinalis. As transition from arrest to rapid growth is shared by many metazoans, operons could have evolved to facilitate these processes. PMID:21663799

  15. Cardiac arrest related to anaesthesia in Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena Delgado, J; Sanabria Carretero, P; Durán la Fuente, P; Gónzalez Rocafort, A; Castro Parga, L; Reinoso Barbero, F

    2017-12-12

    Williams-Beuren syndrome is the clinical manifestation of a congenital genetic disorder in the elastin gene, among others. There is a history of cardiac arrest refractory to resuscitation manoeuvres in anaesthesia. The incidence of myocardial ischaemia is high during anaesthetic induction, but there are patients who do not have this condition yet also have had very serious cardiac events, and issues that are still to be resolved. Case descriptions will enable the common pathophysiological factors to be defined, and decrease morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a 3-year-old boy with cardiac arrest at induction, rescued with circulatory assistance with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and hypothermia induced for cerebral protection. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Arrested of coalescence of emulsion droplets of arbitrary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbanga, Badel L.; Burke, Christopher; Blair, Donald W.; Atherton, Timothy J.

    2013-03-01

    With applications ranging from food products to cosmetics via targeted drug delivery systems, structured anisotropic colloids provide an efficient way to control the structure, properties and functions of emulsions. When two fluid emulsion droplets are brought in contact, a reduction of the interfacial tension drives their coalescence into a larger droplet of the same total volume and reduced exposed area. This coalescence can be partially or totally hindered by the presence of nano or micron-size particles that coat the interface as in Pickering emulsions. We investigate numerically the dependance of the mechanical stability of these arrested shapes on the particles size, their shape anisotropy, their polydispersity, their interaction with the solvent, and the particle-particle interactions. We discuss structural shape changes that can be induced by tuning the particles interactions after arrest occurs, and provide design parameters for the relevant experiments.

  17. Peculiarities of the Enforcement of the European Arrest Warrant in the Case of an Illegal Liberty Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora Ioana Rusu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The illegal deprivation of liberty is, under the current context, one of the most serious offenses, being treated differently in the European Union. The need to prevent and combat this violation, it has led the European legislator to include it under different names in the European legislative act that governs the institution of the European arrest warrant. In this context, the European arrest warrant is the most important form of judicial cooperation in penal matters between the Member States of the EU, which is based on mutualrecognition of criminal judgments. The research conducted on how it is regulated the enforcement of the European arrest warrant in the case of illegal liberty deprivation in the European legislative act (the Framework Decision 2002/584/JHA leads to the conclusion that the legislature failed to mention the violation in question in the group of the violation for which it was not necessary the inspection of the double incrimination, but, still, including the offenses as kidnapping, illegal restraint and hostage-taking. Even if theRomanian legislator included this violation in the above mentioned group, this situation is not solved, because it will cause some problems in the request by the Romanian judicial authorities of the enforcement of such warrant. Another criticized issue, observed not only in the European legislative act, but also in the internal law, is related to the lack of stipulations, which can lead to the possibility of issuing and executing a European arrest warrant and for the execution of educational measures for illegal deprivation of liberty and also others. Also, in order to increase the effectiveness of the execution of a European arrest warrant, we consider that it should be granted executive powers of all courts of Romania. The originality of the work consists of the critical observations and the lege ferenda proposal which covers both the European legislativeact and the Romanian Law. At the same time

  18. Relationship between chest compression rates and outcomes from cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Ahamed H; Guffey, Danielle; Aufderheide, Tom P; Brown, Siobhan; Morrison, Laurie J; Nichols, Patrick; Powell, Judy; Daya, Mohamud; Bigham, Blair L; Atkins, Dianne L; Berg, Robert; Davis, Dan; Stiell, Ian; Sopko, George; Nichol, Graham

    2012-06-19

    Guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend a chest compression rate of at least 100 compressions per minute. Animal and human studies have reported that blood flow is greatest with chest compression rates near 120/min, but few have reported rates used during out-of-hospital (OOH) cardiopulmonary resuscitation or the relationship between rate and outcome. The purpose of this study was to describe chest compression rates used by emergency medical services providers to resuscitate patients with OOH cardiac arrest and to determine the relationship between chest compression rate and outcome. Included were patients aged ≥ 20 years with OOH cardiac arrest treated by emergency medical services providers participating in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. Data were abstracted from monitor-defibrillator recordings during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Multiple logistic regression analysis assessed the association between chest compression rate and outcome. From December 2005 to May 2007, 3098 patients with OOH cardiac arrest were included in this study. Mean age was 67 ± 16 years, and 8.6% survived to hospital discharge. Mean compression rate was 112 ± 19/min. A curvilinear association between chest compression rate and return of spontaneous circulation was found in cubic spline models after multivariable adjustment (P=0.012). Return of spontaneous circulation rates peaked at a compression rate of ≈ 125/min and then declined. Chest compression rate was not significantly associated with survival to hospital discharge in multivariable categorical or cubic spline models. Chest compression rate was associated with return of spontaneous circulation but not with survival to hospital discharge in OOH cardiac arrest.

  19. Cerebral vasoconstriction in comatose patients resuscitated from a cardiac arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buunk, G; van der Hoeven, J G; Frölich, M; Meinders, A E

    1996-11-01

    To determine the role of cerebral vasoconstriction in the delayed hypoperfusion phase in comatose patients after cardiac arrest. Prospective study. Medical intensive care unit in a university hospital. 10 comatose patients (Glasgow Coma Score +/- 6)successfully resuscitated from a cardiac arrest occurring outside the hospital. We measured the pulsatility index (PI) and mean blood flow velocity (MFV) of the middle cerebral artery, the cerebral oxygen extraction ratio and jugular bulb levels of endothelin, nitrate, and cGMP during the first 24 h after cardiac arrest. The PI decreased significantly from 1.86 +/- 1.02 to 1.05 +/- 0.22 (p = 0.03). The MFV increased significantly from 29 +/- 10 to 62 +/- 25 cm/s (p = 0.003). Cerebral oxygen extraction ratio decreased also from 0.39 +/- 0.13 to 0.24 +/- 0.11 (p = 0.015). Endothelin levels were high but did not change during the study period. Nitrate levels varied widely and showed a slight but significant decrease from 37.1 mumol/l (median; 25th-75th percentiles: 26.8-61.6) to 31.3 mumol/l (22.1-39.6) (p = 0.04). Cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels increased significantly from 2.95 mumol/l (median; 25th-75th percentiles: 2.48-5.43) to 7.5 mumol/l (6.20-14.0) (p = 0.02). We found evidence of increased cerebrovascular resistance during the first 24 h after cardiac arrest with persistent high endothelin levels, gradually decreasing nitrate levels, and gradually increasing cGMP levels, This suggests that active cerebral vasoconstriction due to an imbalance between local vasodilators and vasoconstrictors plays a role in the delayed hypoperfusion phase.

  20. High voltage measurements on metal-oxide surge arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yli-Aeyhoe, S. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). High Voltage Laboratory

    2000-07-01

    Metal-oxide surge arresters (MOA) are used to prevent damages caused by overvoltages and currents. Because of the function of MOAs they have to be tested with high voltage and with high current. The aim of this seminar paper is to give some information how MOAs can be tested in laboratory circumstances and on- site. Few new test methods are introduced as well. (orig.)