WorldWideScience

Sample records for gang members arrested

  1. Finding Street Gang Members on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Balasuriya, Lakshika; Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Doran, Derek; Sheth, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Most street gang members use Twitter to intimidate others, to present outrageous images and statements to the world, and to share recent illegal activities. Their tweets may thus be useful to law enforcement agencies to discover clues about recent crimes or to anticipate ones that may occur. Finding these posts, however, requires a method to discover gang member Twitter profiles. This is a challenging task since gang members represent a very small population of the 320 million Twitter users. ...

  2. Differentiating gang members, gang affiliates and violent men on their psychiatric morbidity and traumatic experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Jane L.; Kallis, Constantinos; Coid, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the differences between gang members and gang affiliates;\\ud individuals who associate with gangs, but who are not gang members. Even less is known\\ud about how these groups compare with other violent populations. This study, examined how\\ud gang members, gang affiliates, and violent men, compare on mental health symptoms and\\ud traumatic experiences. Method: Data included a sample of 1,539 adult males, aged 19-34\\ud years, taken from an earlier survey conduct...

  3. DIFFERENT STROKES FOR DIFFERENT GANGS? AN ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL AMONG LATINO AND ASIAN GANG MEMBERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIH, KAY KEI-HO; DE LA ROSA, MARIO; RUGH, DOUGLAS; MAO, KUORAY

    2009-01-01

    Gang activity and membership were noted to be significantly related to financial rewards. As such, gang membership and gang activity should also be understood from an economic perspective. In this article, Pierre Bourdieu's framework of capital is used to analyze two separate samples of Latino and Asian gang members. Stark contrasts in socioeconomic backgrounds are recorded among the two samples of gang members, and gang membership and activities are also noticeably dissimilar. Accessibility to economic, cultural, and social capital is argued to affect gang membership and activities. The results suggest that the availability of legitimate and illegitimate capital greatly affects the trajectory and the length of gang involvement. Also, gangs provide significant material and social capital for the respondents of the study. PMID:19578563

  4. Differentiating Gang Members, Gang Affiliates, and Violent Men on Their Psychiatric Morbidity and Traumatic Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jane L; Kallis, Constantinos; Coid, Jeremy W

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the differences between gang members and gang affiliates-or those individuals who associate with gangs but are not gang members. Even less is known about how these groups compare with other violent populations. This study examined how gang members, gang affiliates, and violent men compare on mental health symptoms and traumatic experiences. Data included a sample of 1,539 adult males, aged 19 to 34 years, taken from an earlier survey conducted in the United Kingdom. Participants provided informed consent before completing questionnaires and were paid £5 for participation. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare participants' symptoms of psychiatric morbidity and traumatic event exposure. Findings showed that, compared to violent men and gang affiliates, gang members had experienced more severe violence, sexual assaults, and suffered more serious/life-threatening injuries. Compared to violent men, gang members and gang affiliates had made more suicide attempts; had self-harmed more frequently; and had experienced more domestic violence, violence at work, homelessness, stalking, and bankruptcy. Findings further showed a decreasing gradient from gang members to gang affiliates to violent men in symptom levels of anxiety, antisocial personality disorder, pathological gambling, stalking others, and drug and/or alcohol dependence. Depression symptoms were similar across groups. The identified relationship between gang membership, affiliation, and adverse mental health indicates that mental health in gang membership deserves more research attention. Findings also indicate that criminal justice strategies need to consider gang members' mental health more fully, if gang membership is to be appropriately addressed and reduced.

  5. Youth Gang Members: Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert John Sargent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Approximately 260,000 of youth in the United States are gang-affiliated. There is a paucity of data available to identify the prevalence of mental health disorders in this population. Gang members share many of the features of “at risk” or juvenile justice involved youth who deny gang membership. The authors identified rates of psychiatric disorders within a juvenile justice population delineated in three categories: gang members, friends of gang members, and non-gang members. Methods: A retrospective review of records obtained by a juvenile probation department. A large detention center conducted mental health screenings on 7,615 youth aged 13–17. The mental health screenings were performed by either a master level or doctoral level mental health professional. Odds ratios were computed as an effect size for gender, race/ethnic differences, and gang-membership associations with self-reported psychiatric and substance use disorders. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk for psychiatric and substance use disorders among gang-members and friends of gang members. Diagnostic information was generated through a clinical interview and flexible battery. Results: Of the 7,615 youth in this study, ~50% had contact with gangs; 11% were self-identified gang-members, and 38% acknowledged having at least one friendship with a gang member. Similar to other studies, being male was a risk-factor for gang-membership (2.31 odds. In this multi-racial and ethnic study, Latinos had a greater affiliation with gang membership and association with gang members as friends (1.44 odds. Gang members were found to have increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (1.77 odds, current substance abuse (2.58 odds, oppositional defiant disorder, (1.24 odds and conduct disorder (4.05 odds; however, they were less likely to have an adjustment disorder than non-gang members (0.70 odds. Conclusions: Juveniles who received a mental health assessment

  6. Word Embeddings to Enhance Twitter Gang Member Profile Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Balasuriya, Lakshika; Doran, Derek; Sheth, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Gang affiliates have joined the masses who use social media to share thoughts and actions publicly. Interestingly, they use this public medium to express recent illegal actions, to intimidate others, and to share outrageous images and statements. Agencies able to unearth these profiles may thus be able to anticipate, stop, or hasten the investigation of gang-related crimes. This paper investigates the use of word embeddings to help identify gang members on Twitter. Building on our previous wo...

  7. Magical-religious narratives in gangs. A study on the psychology of the gang member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ordóñez Valverde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of an investigation on the cultural systems that sustain violence within gangs in marginalized neighborhoods of Cali, Colombia. It is about magical and religious beliefs of gang member that surround the episodes of violence, and that allow us to observe aspects of the psychology of the gang member that are functional adaptations to the reality of vendettas and territorial wars, which are intended to give sense and meaning to the tragic events of their lives. The study shows how Santeria was used to seek protection and harm the enemy, and how their ideas of God and the Devil, good and evil, lack of ethics that regulate the relationships with others, and are an expression of a narcissistic defense mechanism. It is concluded that this cultural belief system is an interesting transaction formula between objective social reality and subjective fantasies.

  8. THE PATH AND PROMISE OF FATHERHOOD FOR GANG MEMBERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Molly; MacKenzie, Kathleen; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

    2009-01-01

    While an increase in research on criminal desistance has occurred in recent years, little research has been applied to the gang field. Using qualitative interview data, this article examines fatherhood as a potential turning point in the lives of 91 gang members in the San Francisco Bay Area. Fatherhood initiated important subjective and affective transformations that led to changes in outlook, priorities and future orientation. However, these subjective changes were not sufficient unless accompanied by two additional features: first, changes in the amount of time spent on the streets and, second, an ability to support oneself or one’s family with legal income. Though fatherhood is no panacea, becoming a father did act as an important turning point toward desistance and motivator for change for some. PMID:20046970

  9. Epidemiological criminology: drug use among African American gang members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Mark M; Pack, Robert P; Akers, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological methods and public health theories can be tied to theories of crime and delinquency and used to create evidence-based policy. Interdisciplinary theoretical approaches to existing, and emerging, public health and criminal justice problems hold great promise. Differential association theory postulates that close association with delinquent peers leads to an increase in deviant activities such as illicit drug use. Social cognitive theory postulates that health behavior change is driven by the interaction of (a) cognitive states that support a health outcome, (b) the social and contextual environment, (c) and individual action. Combined, these theories can be applied to drug eradication programs as well as other health and crime issues. Focus groups and interviews were performed to identify rates of illicit substance use among incarcerated African American adolescent male gang members and nongang members. The policy recommendations illustrate the convergence of criminological and epidemiological theory under the new paradigm of epidemiological criminology or ''EpiCrim.''

  10. Delinquency Among Members of Hong Kong Youth Street Gangs: The Role of the Organizational Structures of Gangs and Triad Affiliations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Wing Hong; Khiatani, Paul Vinod

    2018-07-01

    This study explores the importance of organizational structures and formal affiliations with the Hong Kong triads to delinquency among youth street gang members in Hong Kong. More specifically, this study examines the relative importance of the number of organizational structures and triad affiliation to patterns of delinquency in a sample of active members of youth street gangs ( N = 201). With the aid of outreach social workers, a convenience sampling method was used to recruit a gender-balanced sample of at-risk youths. Logistic regression analysis of the survey data that was gathered indicated that formal affiliation to Hong Kong triads and the presence of organizational structures significantly increased the odds of delinquency (independently of each other). Suggestions for future research on gang membership and delinquency, with particular reference to the Asian context, are provided.

  11. Alcohol and Drug Use among Gang Members: Experiences of Adolescents Who Attend School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H.; Bossarte, Robert M.; West, Bethany; Topalli, Volkan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Problems related to gangs have been noted in large cities and in many schools across the United States. This study examined the patterns of alcohol, drug use, and related exposures among male and female high school students who were gang members. Methods: Analyses were based on the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and…

  12. The Impact of Location Alteration on School Attendance of Chicano Gang Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Alan C.

    The study examined whether a change in school site affected the school attendance of 13 male Chicano gang members, 13 to 18 years of age, admitted to a community-based delinquency and gang violence prevention project. Since an active Alternative Studies Program, designed for students with special learning problems or for working students, already…

  13. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  14. 76 FR 61279 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... that the language of the proposed clause be amended to read as follows to reinforce DoD's role in the... Military Sealift Command), and specific procedural guidance for DoD personnel obtaining the background... 247.5. B. Language Inconsistency Comment: DFARS 252.247-7027(a) defines ``riding gang member'' as it...

  15. Mareros and pandilleros in Honduras: the reintegration of youth gang members

    OpenAIRE

    Van Damme, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the reintegration of youth gang members in Honduras. The aim of this qualitative study is to broaden the knowledge of reintegration processes and programs in one specific country in Central America, namely, Honduras. A sample of fourteen interviews with stakeholders in the field of maras and pandillas has been investigated and the results revealed some similarities between the different methods of reintegration. Our data suggest that a comprehensive process, i...

  16. Deportation of Gang Members: Sub-Optimal Solution for Both America and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    16 James C. Howell, Arlen Egley, Jr., George E. Tita , and Elizabeth Griffiths, “U.S. Gang Problem Trends and Seriousness, 1996–2009”, National Gang...Howell, James C., Arlen Egley, Jr., George E. Tita , and Elizabeth Griffiths. “U.S. Gang Problem Trends and Seriousness, 1996–2009.” National Gang Center

  17. "Deterrability" among Gang and Nongang Juvenile Offenders: Are Gang Members More (or Less) Deterrable than Other Juvenile Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Cheryl L.; Matsuda, Kristy N.; Hennigan, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the threat of legal sanctions on intentions to commit three types of offenses with a representative sample of 744 officially adjudicated youth with varying histories of offenses and gang involvement. In a departure from previous research, the authors find small severity effects for property crimes that are not…

  18. Gender Norms and Age-Disparate Sexual Relationships as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Risky Sex among Adolescent Gang Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting. Participants in this study included 107 female gang members (68 % African-American, 19 % Latina; mean age, 17.6) and 169 male gang members (62 % African-American, 28 % Latino; mean age, 17.7). As hypothesized, endorsing unequal gender norms toward women was significantly related to IPV victimization among female participants and perpetration among male participants, and engagement in group sex in the past month among both female and male participants (ps sexual relationships were significantly more likely to have experienced more IPV and report being raped and males gang members who had age-disparate sexual relationships were significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV in the past year and perpetrate rape (ps sexual relationships were also significantly related to being gang raped among female gang members and participating in a gang rape among male gang members, and engaging in group sex among both female and male gang members (ps sexual relationships were more likely to have been pregnant (ps sexual coercion/violence. Early intervention will also be necessary as these adolescent gang members are already engaged in extremely high-risk, coercive, and violent behaviors.

  19. Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

  20. “It’s like we’re just renting over here”: The Pervasive Experiences of Discrimination of Filipino Immigrant Youth Gang Members in Hawai’i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Benner, Aprile D.; Takushi, Rena Mae Nalani; Ongbongan, Kathleen; Dennerlein, Donna; Spencer, Deborah K.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers, service providers, and policymakers must uncover and better understand the issues facing youths in Asian gangs in order to most effectively intervene with appropriate policies and programs. The present investigation sampled young male Filipino gang members in Hawai’i. Thematic analyses of the focus group data challenge the commonly held view of racial harmony in Hawai’i. It appears that racial and social discrimination from peers and authority figures propel Filipino boys to seek out gang membership as a way to protect themselves from being targets of oppression. PMID:19946383

  1. Communication between members of the cardiac arrest team--a postal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, J; Turner, B; Gabbott, D A

    2001-05-01

    Effective communication enhances team building and is perceived to improve the quality of team performance. A recent publication from the Resuscitation Council (UK) has highlighted this fact and recommended that cardiac arrest team members make contact daily. We wished to identify how often members of this team communicate prior to a cardiopulmonary arrest. A questionnaire on cardiac arrest team composition, leadership, communication and debriefing was distributed nationally to Resuscitation Training Officers (RTOs) and their responses analysed. One hundred and thirty (55%) RTOs replied. Physicians and anaesthetists were the most prominent members of the team. The Medical Senior House Officer is usually nominated as the team leader. Eighty-seven centres (67%) have no communication between team members prior to attending a cardiopulmonary arrest. In 33%, communication occurs but is either informal or fortuitous. The RTOs felt that communication is important to enhance team dynamics and optimise task allocation. Only 7% achieve a formal debrief following a cardiac arrest. Communication between members of the cardiac arrest team before and after a cardiac arrest is poor. Training and development of these skills may improve performance and should be prioritised. Team leadership does not necessarily reflect experience or training.

  2. Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use.1 Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates ...

  3. Understanding Head Start Children's Problem Behaviors in the Context of Arrest or Incarceration of Household Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair; Alva, Soumya; Zill, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), the relationships between living in a household where a household member had been arrested or incarcerated and conduct problems of preschool children enrolled in Head Start were examined. Children who lived in such households showed more…

  4. 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Reserve Component Members: Qualitative Analysis on Extremist Groups, Hate Crimes, and Gangs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-15

    White  “There are young teenagers that are in the gangs. Some of these teens do crimes such as theft or trespassing.” —ANG, male, senior...have been forced to eat my meals by myself because of my race and sexual orientation.” — USMCR, male, junior enlisted, Asian  “In [LOCATION] there...senior enlisted, Two or More Races Some comments highlighted hate crimes based on sexual orientation as well as race/ethnicity.  “We have people

  5. Confronting youth gangs in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    Youth gang violence has continued its upward trend nationwide. It was once thought that gangs convened only in selected areas, which left churches, schools, and hospitals as "neutral" territory. Unfortunately, this is a fallacy. The results of gang violence pour into hospitals and into intensive care units regularly. The media portrays California as having a gang violence problem; however, throughout the United States, gang violence has risen more than 35% in the past year. Youth gang violence continues to rise dramatically with more and more of our youth deciding to join gangs each day. Sadly, every state has gangs, and the problem is getting much worse in areas that would never have thought about gangs a year ago. These "new generation" of gang members is younger, much more violent, and staying in the gang longer. Gangs are not just an urban problem. Gang activity is a suburban and rural problem too. There are more than 25 500 gangs in the United States, with a total gang membership of 850 000. Ninety-four percent of gang members are male and 6% are female. The ethnic composition nationwide includes 47% Latino, 31% African American, 13% White, 7% Asian, and 2% "mixed," according to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result of the ongoing proliferation of youth street gangs in our communities, it is imperative that critical care nurses and others involved with the direct care become educated about how to identify gang members, their activities, and understand their motivations. Such education and knowledge will help provide solutions to families and the youth themselves, help eradicate the problem of gang violence, and keep health care professionals safe.

  6. Gangs in Central America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribando, Clare

    2005-01-01

    ... activities of Central American gangs. Citizens in several Central American countries have identified crime and gang violence among the top issues of popular concern, and Honduras and El Salvador have recently enacted tough anti-gang legislation...

  7. Pseudomonas fluvialis sp. nov., a novel member of the genus Pseudomonas isolated from the river Ganges, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Sarabjeet Kour; Pal, Deepika; Bisht, Bhawana; Kumar, Narender; Chaudhry, Vasvi; Patil, Prabhu; Sahni, Girish; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan

    2018-01-01

    A bacterial strain, designated ASS-1 T , was isolated and identified from a sediment sample of the river Ganges, Allahabad, India. The strain was Gram-stain-negative, formed straw-yellow pigmented colonies, was strictly aerobic, motile with a single polar flagellum, and positive for oxidase and catalase. The major fatty acids were C16 : 1ω7c/ 16 : 1 C16 : 1ω6c, C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0. Sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed that strain ASS-1 T showed high similarity to Pseudomonas guguanensis CC-G9A T (98.2 %), Pseudomonas alcaligenes ATCC 14909 T (98.2 %), Pseudomonas oleovorans DSM 1045 T (98.1 %), Pseudomonas indolxydans IPL-1 T (98.1 %) and Pseudomonas toyotomiensis HT-3 T (98.0 %). Analysis of its rpoB and rpoD housekeeping genes confirmed its phylogenetic affiliation and showed identities lower than 93 % with respect to the closest relatives. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA, rpoB, rpoD genes and the whole genome assigned it to the genus Pseudomonas. The results of digital DNA-DNA hybridization based on the genome-to-genome distance calculator and average nucleotide identity revealed low genome relatedness to its close phylogenetic neighbours (below the recommended thresholds of 70 and 95 %, respectively, for species delineation). Strain ASS-1 T also differed from the related strains by some phenotypic characteristics, i.e. growth at pH 5.0 and 42 °C, starch and casein hydrolysis, and citrate utilization. Therefore, based on data obtained from phenotypic and genotypic analysis, it is evident that strain ASS-1 T should be regarded as a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonasfluvialis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ASS-1 T (=KCTC 52437 T =CCM 8778 T ).

  8. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wechsberg WM

    2015-11-01

    their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72], run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4], get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47], and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96] and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]. Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]. These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. Keywords: school dropouts, youth alcohol use, sexual abuse, physical abuse, violence, drug abuse

  9. Guidelines for School and Community Cooperation: Implementation on a Gang Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronnie; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Youth gangs are not a new phenomena in the United States; however, in the past decade the number of gang members has increased dramatically. Gang prevention-intervention programs are a necessary part of every school's curriculum. Students join gangs for a variety of reasons ranging from boredom to intent on criminal behavior. One characteristic…

  10. Community-based gang desistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard Dichmann, Kirstine; Jensen, Tobias Bo; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2018-01-01

    of belonging to the communities in Homeboy Industries also facilitates self-reflection and identity transformation. Homeboy Industries is furthermore an important life changing resource because it offers former gang members a legal source of income. This provides them with a new and secure base, a way...

  11. Automatic gang graffiti recognition and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Albert; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2017-09-01

    One of the roles of emergency first responders (e.g., police and fire departments) is to prevent and protect against events that can jeopardize the safety and well-being of a community. In the case of criminal gang activity, tools are needed for finding, documenting, and taking the necessary actions to mitigate the problem or issue. We describe an integrated mobile-based system capable of using location-based services, combined with image analysis, to track and analyze gang activity through the acquisition, indexing, and recognition of gang graffiti images. This approach uses image analysis methods for color recognition, image segmentation, and image retrieval and classification. A database of gang graffiti images is described that includes not only the images but also metadata related to the images, such as date and time, geoposition, gang, gang member, colors, and symbols. The user can then query the data in a useful manner. We have implemented these features both as applications for Android and iOS hand-held devices and as a web-based interface.

  12. Awareness of Deaf Sign Language and Gang Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cynthia; Morgan, Robert L.

    There have been increasing incidents of innocent people who use American Sign Language (ASL) or another form of sign language being victimized by gang violence due to misinterpretation of ASL hand formations. ASL is familiar to learners with a variety of disabilities, particularly those in the deaf community. The problem is that gang members have…

  13. Gang Membership and Drug Involvement: Untangling the Complex Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between gang membership and involvement in illegal substances. In addition, researchers have noted that gang members are frequently more heavily involved in drug sales, which often lead to increases in violent behaviors. Most of this research, however, is either cross-sectional or…

  14. Gangs in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    buscan-apoyo-para-prevencion-de-violencia- en- el -sa/, (accessed December 10, 2012). 41 Cámara de Comercio e Industria de El Salvador “Propuesta...Gangs in El Salvador by Colonel Luis W. Ortiz Medina El Salvador Army United States Army War College...33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gangs in El Salvador 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  15. Extending Social Learning Theory to Explain Victimization Among Gang and Ex-Gang Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Analisa

    2018-03-01

    This study is among the first to extend and test social learning theory's ability to understand property and violent victimization. It specifically tests whether aspects of definitions, differential reinforcement, and differential association/modeling can explain the three types of victimization of gang members: actual experience, perception of likelihood, and fear. The sample consists of over 300 male and female gang members incarcerated in jails throughout Florida. The results show that all three types of victimization can be explained by the three aspects of social learning theory.

  16. Hurtigt i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Graversen, Brian; Damgaard, Bodil; Rosdahl, Anders

    hurtigere i job. Det gjaldt for alle grupper af ledige, men effekten var særlig stor for akademikere. Tilsyneladende har mange stærke ledige hurtigt selv fundet et job, for at undgå at deltage i aktiviteterne under den intensive indsats. Svagere ledige synes derimod at være blevet hjulpet i gang af...

  17. La deformación mediática de los jóvenes pandilleros; A deformação midiática dos jovens pandilleros; Media Deformation of Young Gang Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo César Moreno Hernández

    2016-07-01

    society from recognizing them as vulnerable and breached subjects. In this way, society accepts criminal law legislation of the enemy, which not only detracts from the exercise of political and fundamental rights of young gang members but also from all citizens.   Key words: transnational gangs, criminalization, youth, de-citizenization, moral panic.

  18. Gangs, clubs, and alcohol: The effect of organizational membership on adolescent drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chan S; Brashears, Matthew E; Genkin, Michael

    2016-07-01

    How does adolescent organizational membership in general, and simultaneous membership in distinct types of organizations in particular, impact drinking behavior? While past studies have focused either on the learning effect of involvement with gangs or on the constraining influence of conventional organizations on adolescent problem behavior, we explore the possibility that conventional school clubs can serve as socializing opportunities for existing gang members to engage in drinking behavior with non-gang club members. Using the Add Health data, we show that gang members drink more often, and engage in more binge drinking, than non-members. More importantly, individuals who are members of both gangs and school clubs drink alcohol at greater levels than those who are solely involved in gangs. In addition, non-gang adolescents who are co-members with gang members in the same school club are more likely to drink alcohol than non-members. This result has important implications for understanding the role of organizations in adolescent behavior and suggests that the study of delinquent behaviors would benefit from devoting more attention to individuals who bridge distinct types of organizations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Any of them will do: In-group identification, out-group entitativity, and gang membership as predictors of group-based retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Eduardo A; Wenborne, Lisa; Peers, Madeline; Alleyne, Emma; Ellis, Kirsty

    2015-05-01

    In non-gang populations, the degree of identification with an in-group and perceptions of out-group entitativity, the perception of an out-group as bonded or unified, are important contributors to group-based aggression or vicarious retribution. The link between these factors and group-based aggression, however, has not been examined in the context of street gangs. The current study assessed the relationship among in-group identification, perceptions of out-group entitativity, and the willingness to retaliate against members of rival groups who did not themselves attack the in-group among juvenile gang and non-gang members in London. Our results showed the predicted membership (gang/non-gang) × in-group identification × entitativity interaction. Decomposition of the three-way interaction by membership revealed a significant identification × entitativity interaction for gang, but not for non-gang members. More specifically, gang members who identify more strongly with their gang and perceived a rival group as high on entitativity were more willing to retaliate against any of them. In addition, entitativity was a significant predictor of group-based aggression after controlling for gender, in-group identification, and gang membership. Our results are consistent with socio-psychological theories of group-based aggression and support the proposal that such theories are applicable for understanding gang-related violence. Aggr. Behav. 41:242-252, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel A; Rowe, Hillary L; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P

    2014-06-01

    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency.

  1. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Rowe, Hillary L.; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency. PMID:24954999

  2. Raising Barriers to 'Outlaw Motorcycle Gang-Related Events' : Underlining the Difference between Pre-Emption and Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Ruitenburg (Teun)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractFighting outlaw motorcycle gangs is currently one of the top priorities of many governments around the world. This is due to the notion that outlaw motorcycle gangs do not consist solely of motorcycle enthusiasts. Numerous cases reveal that these clubs, or at least their members, are

  3. Gang Membership, School Violence, and the Mediating Effects of Risk and Protective Behaviors in California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2014-01-01

    There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school violence…

  4. Gang membership of California middle school students: behaviors and attitudes as mediators of school violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez; Gilreath, Tamika D; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2013-08-01

    Empirical evidence examining how risk and protective behaviors may possibly mediate the association between gang membership and school violence is limited. This study utilizes a statewide representative sample of 152 023 Latino, Black and White seventh graders from California to examine a theoretical model of how school risk (e.g. truancy, school substance use and risky peer approval) and protective (e.g. connectedness, support and safety) behaviors and attitudes mediate the effects of gang membership on school violence behaviors. The dataset was collected in the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 academic school years using the ongoing large-scale California Healthy Kids Survey conducted by WestEd for the State of California. Approximately 9.5% of the sample considered themselves to be a member of a gang. The findings indicate that school risk behaviors and attitudes mediate the association between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Although the direct negative association between gang membership and school violence perpetration is weak, the positive indirect effect mediated by school risks behaviors and attitudes is strong. This indicates that when gang members engage in school risk behaviors, they are much more likely to be school violence perpetrators. Implications for further research, theory and practice for both gang and school violence researchers are discussed.

  5. Racism, Schooling, and the Streets: A Critical Analysis of Vietnamese American Youth Gang Formation in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the relationship between educational experiences, street life, and gang formation for Vietnamese American youth gang members in Southern California. I use critical narrative methodology to center the life and experiences of a Los Angeles area gang member. His narrative substantiates how racism in schools and on the streets works together to impact and inform gang formation. Schools were sites of inter-ethnic conflict and racialized tension, and streets were spaces for contentious interactions with the police. In addition, I place the Vietnamese American youth gang phenomenon in larger historical and political contexts such as California’s anti-youth legislation, representations of Asian American youth, and U.S. geo-politics and imperialism—factors that have serious material and ideological implications and consequences.

  6. Associations between school violence, military connection, and gang membership in California secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez; Gilreath, Tamika D; Sanchez, Cathia Y; Astor, Ron Avi

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have found that military-connected students confront many challenges-such as secondary traumatization-that may stem from a parent's deployment and frequent relocations. It is possible that multiple moves and deployments of family service members are associated with military-connected students' gang membership and involvement with school violence behaviors. In this study, a total of 13,484 students completed the core and military modules of the California Healthy Kids Survey. Logistic regressions examined the odds of a student being a member of a gang given their grade, gender, race/ethnicity, school violence behaviors, military-connectedness, changes in schools, and familial deployments. Results indicated that of the nearly 8% of students sampled who reported being in a gang, those with a parent or sibling currently serving in the military reported a higher prevalence rate of gang membership than students with no military connection. Students who reported being in fights or carrying weapons to school were at least twice more likely to be a gang member than students who reported not having been in fights or carrying weapons. Changing schools 4 or more times in a 5-year period and experiencing at least 1 familial deployment were also associated with an increased likelihood of gang membership. The findings of this study offer incentive to further explicate the gang and school violence experiences of military-connected students. This study supports schools in understanding the characteristics of the military-connected students and families they serve so they can implement appropriate interventions to curb gang and school violence behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The Problem with Templates: Learning from Organic Gang-Related Violence Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Rodgers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers what demobilisation, disarmament, and reintegration (DDR programmes might learn from research on gangs and the problems associated with government-instituted ‘wars on gangs’ putatively aimed at reducing or fighting gang-related violence. It begins by considering interventions associated with the global war on gangs, and compares their underlying premises and practices with those of DDR programmes while highlighting how both are plagued with problems associated with drawing on de-contextualized templates. Drawing on long-term ethnographic research carried out in Nicaragua and South Africa, the article then goes on to explore why individuals leave gangs, focusing in particular on the more organic processes that deplete gangs of their members, as well as the consequences that the different possible occupational trajectories of ex-gang members can have for patterns of violence. These offer a number of potential lessons for DDR programmes, particularly with regard to reducing violence in a realistic and sustainable manner.

  8. Teaching Responsibility to Gang-Affiliated Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Michael E.; Walsh, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching youths who affiliate with a gang can be a daunting task. Risk factors for gang membership often compound across life domains and affect pro-social connectedness, cause feelings of marginalization, and hinder life-skill development. Sports and physical activities that are structured within a positive youth-development framework provide an…

  9. Gangs and a global sociological imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Alistair; Hagedorn, John M

    2018-02-01

    Across the globe, the phenomenon of youth gangs has become an important and sensitive public issue. In this context, an increasing level of research attention has focused on the development of universalized definitions of gangs in a global context. In this article, we argue that this search for similarity has resulted in a failure to recognize and understand difference. Drawing on an alternative methodology we call a 'global exchange', this article suggests three concepts-homologies of habitus, vectors of difference and transnational reflexivity-that seek to re-engage the sociological imagination in the study of gangs and globalization.

  10. Report on Gang Violence in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    crime; others, mainly parents, think of gangs as groups of neighborhood kids seeking companionship to brag about their day’s exploits and express...Ghetto Busters JBM (junior Black Mafia) Jersey Road Boys Kool Aid Kids PRP (Puerto Rican Posse) Skinheads 32 Ounce Posse West Side Boys Yellow Jackets...Graffiti BIG Devils Art Gang DAG East Side Crew ESC East Side Hit Squad ECHS Everlasting Writers ELW Fuck You Crew FYC Furious Fighting Crew FFC Go A Head

  11. Gang membership and substance use: guilt as a gendered causal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Donna L; Melde, Chris; Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    2015-03-01

    We examine whether anticipated guilt for substance use is a gendered mechanism underlying the noted enhancement effect of gang membership on illegal drug use. We also demonstrate a method for making stronger causal inferences when assessing mediation in the presence of moderation and time-varying confounding. We estimate a series of inverse propensity weighted models to obtain unbiased estimates of mediation in the presence of confounding of the exposure (i.e., gang membership) and mediator (i.e., anticipated guilt) using three waves of data from a multi-site panel study of a law-related education program for youth ( N =1,113). The onset of gang membership significantly decreased anticipated substance use guilt among both male and female respondents. This reduction was significantly associated with increased frequency of substance use only for female respondents, however, suggesting that gender moderates the mechanism through which gang membership influences substance use. Criminologists are often concerned with identifying causal pathways for antisocial and/or delinquent behavior, but confounders of the exposure, mediator, and outcome often interfere with efforts to assess mediation. Many new approaches have been proposed for strengthening causal inference for mediation effects. After controlling for confounding using inverse propensity weighting, our results suggest that interventions aimed at reducing substance use by current and former female gang members should focus on the normative aspects of these behaviors.

  12. Daily Arrests

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset provides the public with arrest information from the Montgomery County Central Processing Unit (CPU) systems. The data presented is derived from every...

  13. Cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... magnesium. These minerals help your heart's electrical system work. Abnormally high or low levels can cause cardiac arrest. Severe physical stress. Anything that causes a severe stress on your ...

  14. LA's Gang-Busters--Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Suzanne

    1989-01-01

    Regarded as the nation's gang violence capital, Los Angeles' politicians and law enforcement and school administrators are using knowledge from lost battles to win the war. Solutions include targeting younger children, teaching self-esteem and communication skills, as well as organizing group graffiti cleanups. (SI)

  15. Gangs, Marginalised Youth and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuchar, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents are routinely demonised by politicians and the media.Ross Deuchar's compelling research into the views of some of the toughest--youths who are growing up in socially deprived urban areas of Glasgow in Scotland--reveals the true facts. They talked to him about their lives, gang culture and territorialiity and he passes on their words…

  16. Mediating the Maltreatment-Delinquency Relationship: The Role of Triad Gang Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Wing Hong; Khiatani, Paul Vinod

    2018-02-01

    The primary aim of this article is to examine the role of triad affiliation in mediating the relationship between child maltreatment (neglect, punishment, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse) and delinquency among active young gang members in Hong Kong. A sample of 177 gang members aged 12 to 24 was recruited to complete a questionnaire with the assistance of a youth outreach social work team. Neglect was identified as the most common form of maltreatment, followed by emotional abuse, punishment, and sexual abuse. Mediation analyses confirmed that triad affiliation acts as a mediating variable in the child maltreatment-delinquency relationship, except in cases of sexual abuse. Only the relationship between punishment and delinquency was found to be fully mediated by triad affiliation; partial mediation effects were found for neglect and emotional abuse. Recommendations for child protection and youth workers are provided.

  17. Dual Trajectories of Gang Affiliation and Delinquent Peer Association during Adolescence: An Examination of Long-Term Offending Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Marvin D.

    2018-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that both adolescent gang affiliation and perceived delinquent peer association are important predictors of individual offending. A crucial question is whether and how youth gang affiliation contributes to a spectrum of criminal acts above and beyond the influence of associating with delinquent peers. Using 14 waves of data from the Rochester Youth Developmental Study, an ongoing longitudinal panel study aimed at understanding the causes and consequences of delinquency and drug use in an urban sample of adolescents, the current study employs a relatively new modeling technique—dual trajectory analysis—to illustrate the dynamic relationship between these two measures among 666 male youth. The results suggest that the two measures, while overlapping, may constitute distinct concepts that operate in different ways. The most convincing evidence of gang effects, above and beyond the influence of perceived peer delinquency, is for violent behavior and by extension police arrest. Our findings contribute to developmental research and provide information that informs future gang control efforts. PMID:26748922

  18. Gang homicides - five U.S. cities, 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    Gang homicides account for a substantial proportion of homicides among youths in some U.S. cities; however, few surveillance systems collect data with the level of detail necessary to gang homicide prevention strategies. To compare characteristics of gang homicides with nongang homicides, CDC analyzed 2003-2008 data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) for five cities with high levels of gang homicide. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, consistent with similar previous research, a higher proportion of gang homicides than other homicides involved young adults and adolescents, racial and ethnic minorities, and males. Additionally, the proportion of gang homicides resulting from drug trade/use or with other crimes in progress was consistently low in the five cities, ranging from zero to 25%. Furthermore, this report found that gang homicides were more likely to occur with firearms and in public places, which suggests that gang homicides are quick, retaliatory reactions to ongoing gang-related conflict. These findings provide evidence for the need to prevent gang involvement early in adolescence and to increase youths' capacity to resolve conflict nonviolently.

  19. Monitoring ARC services with GangliARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, D; Karpenko, D

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of Grid services is essential to provide a smooth experience for users and provide fast and easy to understand diagnostics for administrators running the services. GangliARC makes use of the widely-used Ganglia monitoring tool to present web-based graphical metrics of the ARC computing element. These include statistics of running and finished jobs, data transfer metrics, as well as showing the availability of the computing element and hardware information such as free disk space left in the ARC cache. Ganglia presents metrics as graphs of the value of the metric over time and shows an easily-digestable summary of how the system is performing, and enables quick and easy diagnosis of common problems. This paper describes how GangliARC works and shows numerous examples of how the generated data can quickly be used by an administrator to investigate problems. It also presents possibilities of combining GangliARC with other commonly-used monitoring tools such as Nagios to easily integrate ARC monitoring into the regular monitoring infrastructure of any site or computing centre.

  20. Major identity transformations - movements beyond criminal life and the biker gang environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Hansen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    . Empirically the paper illustrates these transitions and transformations with an empirical case of a young man, called Peter, changing his life conduct becoming less of a criminal member of the (biker) gang environment becoming more of a member of academia. The paper explore the action reasons of Peter...... logs, biographical documentaries and life story presentations to reflect identity change, which also becomes reflected part of the moment-movement research. The paper explore the struggles to move beyond marginal positions and how collective processes of recognition and reification might help about...

  1. Reconsidering Hispanic Gang Membership and Acculturation in a Multivariate Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly Ventura; Barnes, J. C.; Hartley, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous qualitative research has suggested that Hispanic gang membership is linked to the process of acculturation. Specifically, studies have indicated that those who are less assimilated into mainstream American or "Anglo" society are at greater risk for joining gangs. Building on these observations, this study examines the relationship between…

  2. Gang Youth, Substance Use Patterns, and Drug Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…

  3. Reviving the Ganges Water Machine: potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Upali Ananda; Muthuwatta, Lal; Surinaidu, Lagudu; Anand, Sumit; Jain, Sharad Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The Ganges River basin faces severe water challenges related to a mismatch between supply and demand. Although the basin has abundant surface water and groundwater resources, the seasonal monsoon causes a mismatch between supply and demand as well as flooding. Water availability and flood potential is high during the 3-4 months (June-September) of the monsoon season. Yet, the highest demands occur during the 8-9 months (October-May) of the non-monsoon period. Addressing this mismatch, which is likely to increase with increasing demand, requires substantial additional storage for both flood reduction and improvements in water supply. Due to hydrogeological, environmental, and social constraints, expansion of surface storage in the Ganges River basin is problematic. A range of interventions that focus more on the use of subsurface storage (SSS), and on the acceleration of surface-subsurface water exchange, has long been known as the Ganges Water Machine (GWM). The approach of the GWM for providing such SSS is through additional pumping and depleting of the groundwater resources prior to the onset of the monsoon season and recharging the SSS through monsoon surface runoff. An important condition for creating such SSS is the degree of unmet water demand. The paper shows that the potential unmet water demand ranging from 59 to 124 Bm3 year-1 exists under two different irrigation water use scenarios: (i) to increase irrigation in the Rabi (November-March) and hot weather (April-May) seasons in India, and the Aman (July-November) and Boro (December-May) seasons in Bangladesh, to the entire irrigable area, and (ii) to provide irrigation to Rabi and the hot weather season in India and the Aman and Boro seasons in Bangladesh to the entire cropped area. However, the potential for realizing the unmet irrigation demand is high only in 7 sub-basins in the northern and eastern parts, is moderate to low in 11 sub-basins in the middle, and has little or no potential in 4 sub

  4. De-securitising and Re-securitising Gang Policies : The Funes Government and Gangs in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borgh, G.J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/079983537; Savenije, W.

    This article analyses the gang policies of the first years of the Funes administration in El Salvador, from June 2.009 until July 2.012.. Using securitisation theory, it explains why the administration returned to an emphasis on extraordinary measures, most of them repressive, to deal with gangs. It

  5. Circulatory Arrest, Brain Arrest and Death Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam David Shemie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances, particularly in the capacity to support, replace or transplant failing organs, continue to challenge and refine our understanding of human death. Given the ability to reanimate organs before and after death, both inside and outside of the body, through reinstitution of oxygenated circulation, concepts related to death of organs (e.g. cardiac death are no longer valid. This paper advances the rationale for a single conceptual determination of death related to permanent brain arrest, resulting from primary brain injury or secondary to circulatory arrest. The clinical characteristics of brain arrest are the permanent loss of capacity for consciousness and loss of all brainstem functions. In the setting of circulatory arrest, death occurs after the arrest of circulation to the brain rather than death of the heart. Correspondingly, any intervention that resumes oxygenated circulation to the brain after circulatory arrest would invalidate the determination of death.

  6. Can the Jamaican Security Forces Successfully Reduce the Violent Impact of Gangs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    El Paso , TX: Scholarly Publishers, 2002), 35. 20 Walter Miller is a Professor of Anthropology at Harvard and MIT. From an academic perspective...percenter outlaw motor cycle gangs,” and “neighborhood gangs.” The definitions of these gangs are limited and fall short of describing OCGs. Even if the...Quoted in Lamm-Weiss. Contemporary Gangs: An Organizational Analysis. El Paso , TX: Scholarly Publishers, 2002. Sives, Amanda. “The Historical Roots of

  7. Physics analysis of the gang partial rod drive event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, C.; Frost, R.L.

    1992-08-01

    During the routine positioning of partial-length control rods in Gang 3 on the afternoon of Monday, July 27, 1992, the partial-length rods continued to drive into the reactor even after the operator released the controlling toggle switch. In response to this occurrence, the Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group (SAEG) requested that the Applied Physics Group (APG) analyze the gang partial rod drive event. Although similar accident scenarios were considered in analysis for Chapter 15 of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), APG and SAEG conferred and agreed that this particular type of gang partial-length rod motion event was not included in the SAR. This report details this analysis

  8. Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.

    2011-10-01

    We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs’ centers of activity influence the agents’ motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.

  9. Gangs, Migration and Crime; The changing landscape in Europe and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decker, S.; van Gemert, F.H.M.; Pyrooz, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    The history of gangs is intertwined with migration. In America, a number of classic studies have reported on the possible causal link between immigration, socio-economic position, social disorganization, and gang formation. More recently in Europe, the impact of migration on gangs reflects a complex

  10. Praxis development in relation to gang conflicts in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Hussain, Khaled; Møller-Andersen, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    The primary question addressed in this article is how to understand and produce praxis development in the complex and contentious field of street communities of young marginalized men, an area highlighted almost on a daily basis in the Danish media under headlines with terms such as ‘foreigner...... othering of young minority men since the late 1990s, to other societal changes escalating ‘gang-conflicts’ to ‘gang-war’. The article examines how these changes produce new dynamics, tensions and dimensions of binary thinking, which in turn creates new dilemmas in the everyday lives of the people involved...

  11. Humanitarian Protection for Children Fleeing Gang-Based Violence in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Carlson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2011, the US Customs and Border Protection (CBP began to see a steady rise in the number of Unaccompanied Alien Children (UAC from Central America, particularly from the Northern Triangle countries—El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala—arriving to the US-Mexico border. The number of children entering the United States from these countries more than doubled during fiscal year (FY 2012 and continued to grow through FY 2014. In FY 2013, CBP apprehended over 35,000 children. That number almost doubled to 66,127 in FY 2014, with Central American children outnumbering their Mexican counterparts for the first time. Research has identified high levels of violence perpetrated by gangs and drug cartels in the Northern Triangle countries and Mexico as a primary reason for this surge. Under the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA passed with bi-partisan support in 2008, children from Central America cannot be immediately deported and must be given a court hearing.In contrast, unless there are indicia of trafficking, Mexican children are returned immediately to their country. Advocates have expressed concern that expedited removal of Mexican children places children with valid humanitarian claims at risk of being returned to harm, including forcible recruitment into drug cartels and trafficking rings. After the spike in arrivals in FY 2014, several members of Congress called for a change in the TVPRA, urging that Central American children be treated like Mexican children and undergo expedited procedures for their removal. Many of their constituents supported such measures. The Obama administration requested additional funds to strengthen border security, speed up deportation procedures and implement measures to address the humanitarian crisis in Central America. Groups and individuals across the country came together to provide shelter, medical and psychological care and legal representation to many

  12. Mission Impossible? Social Work Practice with Black Urban Youth Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jerry R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the adaptation of social work practice skills to serve black urban youth gangs. Presents a model for practice which respects youths' right to self-determination and community needs. Model stages discussed include contact, rapport, setting goals, assigning roles, procuring resources, and evaluation. Model applicability is suggested. (NRB)

  13. Surviving gangs, violence and racism in cape town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz

    Surviving Gangs, Violence and Racism in Cape Town offers an ethnographic study of young men in Cape Town and considers how they stay safe in when growing up in post-apartheid South Africa. Breaking away from previous studies looking at structural inequality and differences, this unique book focus...... they move between "black" or "coloured" township areas and the "white" suburbs of Cape Town....

  14. An integrated public health and criminal justice approach to gangs: What can research tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Gebo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a call to better link public health and criminal justice approaches to best address crime problems generally, and youth and gang violence in particular. Importantly, there has yet to be a systematic examination of how criminal justice approaches can be integrated within a public health framework. This paper examines the strengths and challenges with mapping gang research and evidence-informed practices onto a public health approach. Conceptual examination reveals benefits to utilizing an integrated framework, but it also exposes core problems with identification and prediction of gang joining and gang membership. The gang label as a master status is called into question. It is argued that a public health framework can inform public policy approaches as to when the focus should be youth violence versus gangs and gang violence.

  15. BULLYING BEHAVIOUR OF ADOLESCENTS BASED ON GENDER, GANG AND FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Ayu Erika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bullying is a social problem which is part of aggressive violent behaviour done continuously and have negative impact to victims and its subject and happened at school. This study aimed to know the description of knowledge and adolescents behavior about bullying based on their age, gang, and family. Methods: This study used analytic descriptive design with number of sample was 246 adolescents from grade 1, 2, 3 of senior high school which used stratified random sampling. Instruments of this study were knowledge questioner, and modified of The Bullying Prevalence Questionnaire in guttman and likert scale. Data analysis used cross tabulation. Result: Data show that adolescents have a good knowledge (93.9% and less (6.1%. Bullying subjects were 93.9% and victims 94.7%. Forms of verbal bullying indicated the subjects (93.1% and victims (92.3%. Bullying subjects majority occurred in males (94.1% and women become victims (96.3%. Numbers of bullying subjects do not have a gang (94.5%, while those with gang as victims (95.2%. There were five adolescents who live in stepfamilies become subjects and victims of bullying. Conclusion: The majority of adolescents have good knowledge about bullying, bullying form the vast majority were verbal bullying with subjects and victims of bullying who occurs in all classes. The majority of bullying subjects do not have a gang, and as the majority of victims have a gang. Almost all adolescents with different family types become subjects and victims of bullying. Therefore, an intensive educational effort and spiritual needs to be done to change the behavior of adolescents to be adolescents with well character.

  16. Pittsburgh Police Arrest Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Arrest data contains information on people taken into custody by City of Pittsburgh police officers. More serious crimes such as felony offenses are more likely to...

  17. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: Aspects of the One-Percenter Culture for Emergency Department Personnel to Consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand N. Bosmia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker’s identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s.

  18. A Social Movement Theory Typology of Gang Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Global Crime Empire (Great Britain: Hodder and Stoughton, 2006), 362. 9 Ori Brafman and Rod A. Beckstrom, The Starfish and the Spider (New York: The... educate , assist, or mentor those 16–22 year-old youths most affected by gang violence. One source of fiscal inequality found in Salinas is in local...of Salinas. Although there is little doubt that a modern library can serve as a beacon for youth education , there is little to suggest that this

  19. [Rape by 2 assaillants and gang rape in Montreal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Y; Boyer, R; Lamontagne, C; Giroux, J

    1984-11-01

    A survey was conducted in 230 cases of rape and rape attempts heard in the Judicial District of Montreal between January 1975 and May 1978. Data were compiled from the 30 assaults including two or more assaillants. Results show that in cases of rape committed by two men the aggressors are older than gang rapists, meet the victim mainly in her flat or in a bar, and rape her in her own home, in a car or a hotel. In these cases, voyeurism seems to be an important factor since, most of the time, rape is committed by only one of the two aggressors. On the other hand, gang rapists are younger, meet the victim in public places, on the street or when she is hitch-hiking and attack her in one of the aggressors' house, in public places or on the street. Exhibitionism seems more present in this group of rapists. For both groups the victims are mainly single, younger than the aggressors and have diverse occupations. Finally, regarding the legal outcome half of the subjects were liberated or acquitted in both groups. Rape committed by two men had never been studied or compared with gang rape up until now. Results of this survey show dynamic and demographic differences between these two groups of sexual delinquents.

  20. EU Citizenship and European Arrest Warrant: The Same Rights for All?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marguery, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    In the case Wolzenburg, the principle of non-discrimination of European Union citizens is applied to the European arrest warrant. The implementation of the European arrest warrant by the Member States cannot escape a control of proportional- ity made by the Court. Member States may impose a period

  1. Man-made climatic changes in the Ganges basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Miah M.

    2002-06-01

    Climate data pertaining to the Ganges basin in Bangladesh were analysed to find any climatic changes in the wake of the upstream water diversion by the Farakka Barrage. Whereas the diversions have been continuing from at least 30 international rivers upstream of Bangladesh, the diversion from the Ganges is the best known and has a wider coverage than all other diversions. The diversion reduced the Ganges' discharge through the delta by about 60% from a pre-diversion average value of 1932 m3 s-1, decreased water availability in flood plains, ponds, canals, and ditches by about 50%, dropped the groundwater table, and caused changes in surface features. It took about 5 years of diversions beyond the test run year of 1975 for the environment to react to set 1981 as the baseline year. During the post-baseline era: (1) heating degree days and cooling degree days were respectively 1.33 and 1.44 times more than their counterparts during the pre-baseline era; (2) the summertime and wintertime average temperatures were respectively 1 °C more and 0.5 °C less than the corresponding values during the pre-baseline era; (3) the mode 32 °C of summertime maximum temperatures was 1 °C higher and occurred 414 times more, and the mode 25 °C of wintertime temperature was 1 °C less and occurred 17 times less than the corresponding quantities during the pre-baseline era; (4) the average value of maximum relative humidity has increased by more than 2% and that of minimum relative humidity has dropped by the same amount; (5) the mode 95% and 70% of maximum and minimum relative humidity values have occurred 1322 times and 84 times more respectively than their pre-baseline counterparts; and (6) the frequency for 100 mm or more rainfall and the monthly average rainfalls have dropped by about 50% and 30% respectively. The solution to the climatic changes lies in the restoration of the virgin Ganges flow, dredging of the Ganges and its distributaries to remove shoals and siltation, and re

  2. Runway Arrested Landing Site (RALS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Runway Arrested Landing Site includes an underground complex located on a Mod 2, Mod 3, and Mod 3+ arresting gear and are located under the runway and accurately...

  3. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2010-06-21

    The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile

  4. Review: Joschka Philipps, Ambivalent Rage: Youth Gangs and Urban Protest in Conakry, Guinea (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Ineke van Kessel; Afrika-Studiecentrum Leiden

    2014-01-01

    Review of the Monograph:Joschka Philipps, Ambivalent Rage: Youth Gangs and Urban Protest in Conakry, Guinea, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2013, ISBN 978-2-343-01577-4, 238 pp. Besprechung der Monographie:Joschka Philipps, Ambivalent Rage: Youth Gangs and Urban Protest in Conakry, Guinea, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2013, ISBN 978-2-343-01577-4, 238 Seiten

  5. Gang Involvement among Immigrant and Refugee Youth: A Developmental Ecological Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Nada M.; Chan, Wing Yi; Latzman, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and refugee youth are at elevated risk for joining gangs, which, in turn, is associated with a host of maladaptive outcomes. Previous literature on risk and protective factors for immigrant and refugee youth gang involvement has been inconclusive. Applying a developmental ecological systems approach, this study investigated contextual…

  6. Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a forensic epidemic? ... creates so much negative impact on the legal outcome. There is a need to provide a holistic support to the victims and to review Nigerian laws on sexual offences for the good of all. Keywords: Gang-Rape, Sexual violence, Forensic, Ep ...

  7. Gangkill: An Exploratory Empirical Assessment of Gang Membership, Homicide Offending, and Prison Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Alan J.; DeLisi, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Extant research indicates that inmates with street gang history are prone for prison misconduct but that inmates convicted of homicide offenses are less likely to be noncompliant. No research has explored the interaction between street gang history and homicide offending. Based on official infraction data from 1,005 inmates selected from the…

  8. Individual and Familial Characteristics of Youths Involved in Street Corner Gangs in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, C.; Sim, K.; Teoh, J.; Tian, C. S.; Ng, K. H.

    2003-01-01

    Study compares 36 youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore with 91 age-matched controls on measures of self-esteem, aggression, dysfunctional parenting and parent-adolescent communication. Results revealed that gang youths had lower self-esteem and higher levels of aggression than controls. Findings diverge from anticipated familial…

  9. Gangs of Chicago: Perceptions of crime and its effect on the recreation behavior of Latino residents in urban communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monika Stodolska; Juan Carlos Acevedo; Kimberly J. Shinew

    2009-01-01

    Perception of safety is an important factor affecting the leisure behavior of Latinos residing in urban neighborhoods. Yet research on how fear of crime and fear of gangs in particular affect leisure of ethnic and racial minorities is underdeveloped. The objectives of this study are to examine how gangs operate in recreation spaces in Latino neighborhoods, how gangs...

  10. Gangs and guilt: Towards a new theory of horror film

    OpenAIRE

    Kord, S. T.

    2016-01-01

    The most basic and unanimous statement made in scholarship on horror films is that horror films are ‘about’ fear: the primary purpose of horror films is to scare viewers. Based on horror films from the 1970s until the present in which child gangs play a significant part, this essay advances a new theory of horror film, namely that horror films primarily seek to elicit not fear but guilt. The analysis focuses on four topics: themes, camera angles, horror’s cinematic casting of ‘abnormality,’ a...

  11. Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis Metacercariae in Fish from Water Systems of Seomjin-gang (River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Kim, Cheon-Hyeon; Hwang, Min-Ah; No, Kyeong-Woo; Yoon, Ki-Bok; Lim, Hyun-Cheol

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae ( Cs Mc) was examined in freshwater fish from the water systems of Seomjin-gang (River), the Republic of Korea. Total 1,604 fish from 7 local sites of Seomjin-gang were examined by artificial digestion methods. The metacercariae of C. sinensis were detected in 102 (39.8%) out of 256 fish (14 species) from the upper reaches of Seomjin-gang, i.e., Osucheon (22.3% in 6 fish species) in Imsil-gun, and Seomjin-gang (63.9% in 9 fish species) in Sunchang-gun, Jeollabuk-do. Their average density was 9.0 per infected fish. They were also found in 132 (48.0%) out of 275 fish (12 spp.) from the middle reaches of Seomjin-gang, i.e., Songdaecheon (58.9% in 4 fish species) in Namwon-si, Jeollabuk-do, and Seomjin-gang (45.2% in 10 fish species) in Gokseong-gun, Jeollanam-do. Their average density was 21.0 per infected fish. Cs Mc were detected in 77 (56.6%) out of 136 fish (11 species) from the lower reaches of Seomjin-gang, i.e., Seomjin-gang (73.3% in 11 fish species) in Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do, and Namsancheon (8.6% in 1 fish species) in Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do. Their average density was 64.9 per infected fish. The metacercariae of Metorchis orientalis were also detected in 6 fish species from 4 sites of Seomjin-gang. Conclusively, it has been confirmed that Cs Mc are more or less prevalent in fish from some water systems of Seomjin-gang in Korea.

  12. The role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning

    2015-06-01

    Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sudden Cardiac Arrest during Participation in Competitive Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Cameron H; Allan, Katherine S; Connelly, Kim A; Cunningham, Kris; Morrison, Laurie J; Dorian, Paul

    2017-11-16

    The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during participation in sports activities remains unknown. Preparticipation screening programs aimed at preventing sudden cardiac arrest during sports activities are thought to be able to identify at-risk athletes; however, the efficacy of these programs remains controversial. We sought to identify all sudden cardiac arrests that occurred during participation in sports activities within a specific region of Canada and to determine their causes. In this retrospective study, we used the Rescu Epistry cardiac arrest database (which contains records of every cardiac arrest attended by paramedics in the network region) to identify all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests that occurred from 2009 through 2014 in persons 12 to 45 years of age during participation in a sport. Cases were adjudicated as sudden cardiac arrest (i.e., having a cardiac cause) or as an event resulting from a noncardiac cause, on the basis of records from multiple sources, including ambulance call reports, autopsy reports, in-hospital data, and records of direct interviews with patients or family members. Over the course of 18.5 million person-years of observation, 74 sudden cardiac arrests occurred during participation in a sport; of these, 16 occurred during competitive sports and 58 occurred during noncompetitive sports. The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during competitive sports was 0.76 cases per 100,000 athlete-years, with 43.8% of the athletes surviving until they were discharged from the hospital. Among the competitive athletes, two deaths were attributed to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and none to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Three cases of sudden cardiac arrest that occurred during participation in competitive sports were determined to have been potentially identifiable if the athletes had undergone preparticipation screening. In our study involving persons who had out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the incidence of sudden cardiac

  14. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR [Argonne National Laboratory

    2013-12-01

    In general, the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) as well as the and the tropical monsoon climate is influenced by a wide range of factors. Under various climate change scenarios, temperatures over land and into the mid troposphere are expected to increase, intensifying the summer pressure gradient differential between land and ocean and thus strengthening the ISM. However, increasing aerosol concentration, air pollution, and deforestation result in changes to surface albedo and insolation, potentially leading to low monsoon rainfall. Clear evidence points to increasing aerosol concentrations over the Indian subcontinent with time, and several hypotheses regarding the effect on monsoons have been offered. The Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) field study aimed to provide critical data to address these hypotheses and contribute to developing better parameterizations for tropical clouds, convection, and aerosol-cloud interactions. The primary science questions for the mission were as follows:

  15. Nuevo puente sobre el río Ganges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarwal

    1960-07-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha puesto en servicio un nuevo puente sobre el río Ganges, a unos cinco kilómetros aguas abajo de la estación ferroviaria de Mokameh Ghat, del Estado de Bihar, en la India. La obra consta de 14 tramos principales, de unos 120 m, aproximadamente, de luz cada uno, y 4 tramos, dos en cada extremidad, de 30 m de luz, que constituyen un total de 1.820 m de longitud. El puente tiene dos tableros: el superior, de 7,30 m de anchura, destinado a un paso de carretera, y el inferior, convenientemente separado, para el paso de un ferrocarril. Entre la parte inferior del puente y el nivel de aguas se ha dejado una altura libre de 10,50 m para el paso de la navegación fluvial.

  16. Adolescents, gangs, and perceptions of safety, parental engagement, and peer pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sarah E; Anderson, Debra G

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents are exposed to various forms of gang violence, and such exposure has led them to feel unsafe in their neighborhood and have differing interactions with their parents and peers. This qualitative study explored adolescents', parents', and community center employees' perceptions of adolescents' interaction with their neighborhood, family, and peers. Three themes emerged from the data: Most adolescents reported that the community center provided a safe environment for them; parental engagement influenced adolescents' experiences with gangs; and adolescents were subjected to peer pressure in order to belong. Exposure to gang violence can leave an impression on adolescents and affect their mental health, but neighborhood safety and relationships with parents and peers can influence adolescents' exposure to gang violence. Recommendations regarding the use of health care professionals at community centers are proposed. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Cardiac arrest – cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Lenjani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within 10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care (with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care the rate of survival is higher.

  18. Cardiac Arrest: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Handouts Cardiac arrest (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Cardiac Arrest updates ... this? GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Cardiac arrest Related Health Topics Arrhythmia CPR Pacemakers and Implantable Defibrillators National Institutes ...

  19. Long-term consequences of adolescent gang membership for adult functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Amanda B; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David

    2014-05-01

    We examined the possible public health consequences of adolescent gang membership for adult functioning. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study focusing on the development of positive and problem outcomes. Using propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses, we assessed the effects of adolescent gang membership on illegal behavior, educational and occupational attainment, and physical and mental health at the ages of 27, 30, and 33 years. In comparison with their nongang peers, who had been matched on 23 confounding risk variables known to be related to selection into gang membership, those who had joined a gang in adolescence had poorer outcomes in multiple areas of adult functioning, including higher rates of self-reported crime, receipt of illegal income, incarceration, drug abuse or dependence, poor general health, and welfare receipt and lower rates of high school graduation. The finding that adolescent gang membership has significant consequences in adulthood beyond criminal behavior indicates the public health importance of the development of effective gang prevention programs.

  20. Working With Chinese Triad Youth Gangs: Correct Diagnosis and Strategic Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, T Wing; Tam, H L

    2018-02-01

    Across the world, youth workers have been active in helping vulnerable youth groups. In Hong Kong, government-funded youth services are conducted by professional social workers to help vulnerable youths. This article adopted a case study approach to investigate a youth group who committed a murder. Nine murderers and two social workers were interviewed. It aims to uncover the structure and activities of the group and analyse the gang intervention prior to the murder to find out what had gone wrong and identify the lessons that social workers can learn from the murder. Four misconceptions in gang intervention have been identified. First, because of the Triad (Chinese-organised crime) affiliation, this is not just a group of deviant youths but a youth gang. Second, because it is a gang, the social workers should not group them but should instead degroup them to avoid contamination. Third, diagnosis is different from labelling. With the right diagnosis, services can be tailor-made to delabel them. Fourth, when the youths are diagnosed as a gang, outreach work instead of centre work should be provided-social workers should reach out to the gangland to uncover the youths' gang participation and crime involvement.

  1. "House Arrest" or "Developmental Arrest"? A Study of Youth Under House Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamiel, Elad; Walsh, Sophie D

    2018-06-01

    Studies have examined the potential benefits and risks of alternative forms of detention, such as house arrest, for adults but, despite its growing use, little research has examined the implications of house arrest for juveniles. The current research examined the experience of 14 adolescents under house arrest. Six main themes were identified in the narratives of the participants: the experience of detention, daily schedule and utilization of time, emotions and self-reflection, relationships with peers, relation to parents and supervisor(s), and contact with professionals. Findings emphasized the potential developmental dangers of house arrest at the critical stage of adolescence. Yet, analysis also showed that the period of house arrest has the potential to be a period of positive changes, and can be used for successful rehabilitation.

  2. Metoclopramide-induced cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Rumore

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of cardiac arrest in a patient receiving intravenous (IV metoclopramide and review the pertinent literature. A 62-year-old morbidly obese female admitted for a gastric sleeve procedure, developed cardiac arrest within one minute of receiving metoclopramide 10 mg via slow intravenous (IV injection. Bradycardia at 4 beats/min immediately appeared, progressing rapidly to asystole. Chest compressions restored vital function. Electrocardiogram (ECG revealed ST depression indicative of myocardial injury. Following intubation, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. Various cardiac dysrrhythmias including supraventricular tachycardia (SVT associated with hypertension and atrial fibrillation occurred. Following IV esmolol and metoprolol, the patient reverted to normal sinus rhythm. Repeat ECGs revealed ST depression resolution without pre-admission changes. Metoclopramide is a non-specific dopamine receptor antagonist. Seven cases of cardiac arrest and one of sinus arrest with metoclopramide were found in the literature. The metoclopramide prescribing information does not list precautions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs related to cardiac arrest. The reaction is not dose related but may relate to the IV administration route. Coronary artery disease was the sole risk factor identified. According to Naranjo, the association was possible. Other reports of cardiac arrest, severe bradycardia, and SVT were reviewed. In one case, five separate IV doses of 10 mg metoclopramide were immediately followed by asystole repeatedly. The mechanism(s underlying metoclopramide’s cardiac arrest-inducing effects is unknown. Structural similarities to procainamide may play a role. In view of eight previous cases of cardiac arrest from metoclopramide having been reported, further elucidation of this ADR and patient monitoring is needed. Our report should alert clinicians to monitor patients and remain diligent in surveillance and

  3. Stemming the Growth: Exploring the Risk Factors in Group Membership in Domestic Street Gangs and Foreign Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    attempt to explain gang membership and offending and delinquent behavior. New CVE program developers may be able to use these same theories to help...outcome in question—in this case, gang membership. Gang research scholars have discovered a multitude of risk factors that are statistically linked...and offending and delinquent behavior, including cultural diffusion, differential association, social disorganization and strain theory. CVE program

  4. Cognitive Ability and the Division of Labor in Urban Ghettos: Evidence From Gang Activity in U.S. Data

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Alan Seals Jr.

    2011-01-01

    I examine the link between IQ and an individual¡¯s decision to join a gang. Data from the NLSY97 and Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) are used to estimate time-to-first gang participation. Results from a variety of models which account for sibling effects, neighborhood effects, and non-cognitive traits indicate low IQ is a robust predictor of gang participation. However, the PHDCN results reveal gang participation is affected by a person¡¯s relative IQ, with respe...

  5. Murder by structure: dominance relations and the social structure of gang homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Andrew V

    2009-07-01

    Most sociological theories consider murder an outcome of the differential distribution of individual, neighborhood, or social characteristics. And while such studies explain variation in aggregate homicide rates, they do not explain the social order of murder, that is, who kills whom, when, where, and for what reason. This article argues that gang murder is best understood not by searching for its individual determinants but by examining the social networks of action and reaction that create it. In short, the social structure of gang murder is defined by the manner in which social networks are constructed and by people's placement in them. The author uses a network approach and incident-level homicide records to recreate and analyze the structure of gang murders in Chicago. Findings demonstrate that individual murders between gangs create an institutionalized network of group conflict, net of any individual's participation or motive. Within this network, murders spread through an epidemic-like process of social contagion as gangs evaluate the highly visible actions of others in their local networks and negotiate dominance considerations that arise during violent incidents.

  6. Uranium removal during low discharge in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.; Moore, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra river system supplies more dissolved uranium to the ocean than any other system in the world (Sarin et al., 1990; Sackett et al., 1973). However, there have been no investigations to determine whether riverine supplies of uranium are altered by geochemical reactions in the river-ocean mixing zone. In this study, uranium and salinity data were collected in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone during a period of low river discharge. The uranium distribution with salinity shows that in waters <12 ppt salinity, uranium activities are significantly lower than predicted from conservative mixing of river and seawater. This suggests that uranium is being removed within the mixing zone. The behavior of uranium in the Ganges-Brahmaputra is in sharp contrast to its behavior in the Amazon mixing zone where McKee et al. (1978) found uranium activities significantly higher than predicted from conservative mixing. The contrasting behaviors for uranium in these systems are due to the different locations where mixing between river and seawater occurs. For the Amazon, mixing takes place on the continental shelf whereas for the Ganges-Brahmaputra, mixing occurs within shoreline sedimentary environments. The physiochemical processes controlling uranium removal to sediment deposits in the Amazon are partly known. The authors discuss mechanisms which may be removing uranium to suspended and mangrove sediments in the Ganges-Brahmaputra

  7. Major life events as potential triggers of sudden cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, April F; Lumley, Thomas; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rea, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara; Strogatz, David S; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Siscovick, David S

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the risk of sudden cardiac arrest in association with the recent loss of, or separation from, a family member or friend. Our case-crossover study included 490 apparently healthy married residents of King County, Washington, who suffered sudden cardiac arrest between 1988 and 2005. We compared exposure to spouse-reported family/friend events occurring ≤ 1 month before sudden cardiac arrest with events occurring in the previous 5 months. We evaluated potential effect modification by habitual vigorous physical activity. Recent family/friend events were associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiac arrest (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-2.4). ORs for cases with and without habitual vigorous physical activity were 1.1 (0.6-2.2) and 2.0 (1.2-3.1), respectively (interaction P = 0.02). These results suggest family/friend events may trigger sudden cardiac arrest and raise the hypothesis that habitual vigorous physical activity may lower susceptibility to these potential triggers.

  8. The effect of urban street gang densities on small area homicide incidence in a large metropolitan county, 1994-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul L; Boscardin, W John; George, Sheba M; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Heslin, Kevin C; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2009-07-01

    The presence of street gangs has been hypothesized as influencing overall levels of violence in urban communities through a process of gun-drug diffusion and cross-type homicide. This effect is said to act independently of other known correlates of violence, i.e., neighborhood poverty. To test this hypothesis, we independently assessed the impact of population exposure to local street gang densities on 8-year homicide rates in small areas of Los Angeles County, California. Homicide data from the Los Angeles County Coroners Office were analyzed with original field survey data on street gang locations, while controlling for the established covariates of community homicide rates. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses explicated strong relationships between homicide rates, gang density, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic structure. Street gang densities alone had cumulative effects on small area homicide rates. Local gang densities, along with high school dropout rates, high unemployment rates, racial and ethnic concentration, and higher population densities, together explained 90% of the variation in local 8-year homicide rates. Several other commonly considered covariates were insignificant in the model. Urban environments with higher densities of street gangs exhibited higher overall homicide rates, independent of other community covariates of homicide. The unique nature of street gang killings and their greater potential to influence future local rates of violence suggests that more direct public health interventions are needed alongside traditional criminal justice mechanisms to combat urban violence and homicides.

  9. The Socialization Process of Street Children in the Youth Gangs and Groups of Organized Crime in Local Community. Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the research report on the socialization process of children in the street, youth gangs, and organized criminal groups in local communities. The author has analysed the signs and communication codes located on walls in local communities. This is very important to the socialization process of the youth street gangs.

  10. Evaluation and Evolution of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana; Taylor, Terrance J.; Freng, Adrienne; Osgood, D. Wayne; Carson, Dena C.; Matsuda, Kristy N.

    2011-01-01

    The Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program is a gang- and delinquency-prevention program delivered by law enforcement officers within a school setting. Originally designed in 1991 by Phoenix-area law enforcement agencies to address local needs, the program quickly spread across the United States. In this article, we describe…

  11. Accommodating Grief on Twitter: An Analysis of Expressions of Grief Among Gang Involved Youth on Twitter Using Qualitative Analysis and Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Desmond Upton; MacBeth, Jamie; Schoenebeck, Sarita; Shear, Katherine; McKeown, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    There is a dearth of research investigating youths’ experience of grief and mourning after the death of close friends or family. Even less research has explored the question of how youth use social media sites to engage in the grieving process. This study employs qualitative analysis and natural language processing to examine tweets that follow 2 deaths. First, we conducted a close textual read on a sample of tweets by Gakirah Barnes, a gang-involved teenaged girl in Chicago, and members of her Twitter network, over a 19-day period in 2014 during which 2 significant deaths occurred: that of Raason “Lil B” Shaw and Gakirah’s own death. We leverage the grief literature to understand the way Gakirah and her peers express thoughts, feelings, and behaviors at the time of these deaths. We also present and explain the rich and complex style of online communication among gang-involved youth, one that has been overlooked in prior research. Next, we overview the natural language processing output for expressions of loss and grief in our data set based on qualitative findings and present an error analysis on its output for grief. We conclude with a call for interdisciplinary research that analyzes online and offline behaviors to help understand physical and emotional violence and other problematic behaviors prevalent among marginalized communities. PMID:29636619

  12. A Microbiological Water Quality Evaluation of Ganges River Deltaic Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerby, C. J.; Gragg, S. E.; Page, J.; Leavens, J.; Bhattacharya, P.; Harrington, J.; Datta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Substantial natural contamination from trace elements (like arsenic) and pathogens make Ganges Deltaic aquifers an area of utmost concern. Following millions of cases of chronic arsenic poisoning from the groundwaters of the region, numerous residents are still knowingly ingesting water from shallow to intermediate accessible depth drinking water wells. Added to the calamity of arsenic is the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in these waters. The increasing frequency of gastroenteritis signifies the need to quantify the magnitude and extensiveness of health degrading agents--bacterial pathogens (i.e. Salmonella) and non-pathogens (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) --within the water supply in accessible Gangetic aquifers. To assess the dissolved microbiological quality in the region, present study sampling locations are along defined piezometer nests in an area in SE Asia (Bangladesh). Every nest contains samples from wells at varying depths covering shallow to deep aquifers. To date, 17 of the 76 water samples were analyzed for Salmonella, generic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms. Briefly, samples were plated in duplicate onto E. coli/Coliform petrifilm and incubated at 370C for 48 hours. Next, each sample was enriched in buffered peptone water and incubated at 370C for 18 hours. Bacterial DNA was extracted and amplified using a qPCR machine. Amplification plots were analyzed to determine presence/absence of microorganisms. All water samples (n=~76) are analyzed for Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria spp. and Shigella. Pathogen populations of PCR-positive water samples are enumerated using the agar direct plate method. Non-pathogenic bacterial indicator organisms (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) will also be enumerated. Over the course of the experiment, we hypothesize that shallower wells will 1)have a higher pathogen prevalence and 2)harbor pathogens and nonpathogens at higher concentrations. While the 17 samples analyzed to date were negative for Salmonella

  13. Risk and protective factors associated with gang-involved youth in Trinidad and Tobago Factores de riesgo y factores protectores asociados con la participación de los adolescentes en pandillas en Trinidad y Tabago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Katz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of gang involvement, the risk and protective factors associated with gang involvement, and the association between gang involvement and exposure to multiple risk and protective factors among school-aged youth in Trinidad and Tobago. METHODS: A survey instrument was administered to 2 206 students enrolled in 22 high-risk, urban public schools, from March-June 2006. It measured 30 risk factors and 13 protective factors within four domains: community, school, family, and peer-individual, plus levels of alcohol/drug use and delinquency. RESULTS: About 7.7% of youth reported being a gang associate; 6.8%, a former gang member; and 6.2%, a current gang member. Gang involvement was associated with perceived availability of handguns, residential mobility, having parents who favor antisocial behavior, early initiation of antisocial behavior, intention to use drugs, having antisocial peers, and having peers who use drugs. Those with social skills, belief in moral order, and interactions with prosocial peers were significantly less likely to self-report gang membership. Additionally, the probability of gang involvement increased as the number of risk factors increased. CONCLUSIONS: Gang membership among public school youth is about as prevalent in Trinidad and Tobago as it is in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, but further research is needed. Although risk factors associated with gang involvement were present in all four domains, peer-individual risk factors were disproportionately likely to be associated with gang status. The most effective gang prevention strategies might be those that focus on multiple risk factors, with an emphasis on peer-individual factors and promoting a "belief in moral order."OBJETIVOS: Examinar la prevalencia de la participación en pandillas, los factores de riesgo y los factores protectores asociados con la participación en pandillas, y la asociación entre la participaci

  14. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HRS Find a Specialist Share Twitter Facebook SCA Risk Assessment Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs abruptly and without ... people of all ages and health conditions. Start Risk Assessment The Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment Tool ...

  15. Rehabilitation of Platanista gangetica (Lebeck, 1801) as the valid scientific name of the Ganges dolphin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinze, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch scientist Heinrich Julius Lebeck’s description of the Ganges dolphin is, based on a deduced latest date of publication 24 August 1801, given priority over William Roxburgh’s account of the same species, for which no precise date could be established. Although very similar to the work of

  16. The movement and implications of the Ganges-Bramhaputra runoff on entering the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers discharge annually approximately 10 sup(2) m sup(3) of freshwater into the Bay of Bengal at its northern end. We propose that the spread of this water, accompaniEd. by mixing with the ambient waters, occurs in three...

  17. Book review: Don Pinnock, Gang town | van der Spuy | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Title: Gang town. Publisher: Tafelberg, Cape Town, 2016. Price: 312. Pages: R196 Availability: Published ISBN: 9780624067894. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  18. Countering Gang Violence: What Small Town Communities Can Learn from the US Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    city is also home to two of the most notorious Hispanic gangs operating in the US. The Nuestra Familia and the Mexican Mafia have approximately 11...within Salinas until all communities are capable of self-policing. Critical to this mission will be Salinas‟ ability to actually „connect‟ with the

  19. Public School Uniforms: Effect on Perceptions of Gang Presence, School Climate, and Student Self-Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kathleen Kiley; Stafford, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between public school uniforms and student self-worth and student and staff perceptions of gang presence and school climate. Surveys of middle school students and teachers indicated that although students' perceptions did not vary across uniform policy, teachers from schools with uniform policies perceived lower levels of…

  20. Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

  1. Findings from the Evaluation of OJJDP's Gang Reduction Program. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Meagan; Hayeslip, David

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin draws on findings from an independent evaluation, conducted by the Urban Institute, of the Gang Reduction Program's (GRP) Impact in Los Angeles, California; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; North Miami Beach, Florida; and Richmond, Virginia, to examine how effectively these sites implemented the program. Following are some of the authors' key…

  2. City Life and Delinquency-Victimization, Fear of Crime and Gang Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, Leonard D.; And Others

    Over 500 black and 500 white boys born in 1957 and attending Philadelphia schools were interviewed along with their mothers. The data were analyzed to discover how educational aspirations, social values, quality of life, fear of crime, victimization, family structure, father-son interaction, social attachments, and gang affiliation affected the…

  3. "American" Abjection: "Chicanos," Gangs, and Mexican/Migrant Transnationality in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genova, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Crime and street violence often evoke racialized discourses about urban space. In this ethnographic research in Chicago, however, the disdain that many Mexican migrants articulated about street gangs principally concerned issues "internal" to the Mexican/Chicano community, notably a profound ambivalence about U.S.-born Mexicans and a…

  4. Bullies, Gangs, Drugs, and School: Understanding the Overlap and the Role of Ethnicity and Urbanicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Goldweber, Asha; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2013-01-01

    Recent media attention has increased interest in behavioral, mental health, and academic correlates of involvement in bullying. Yet, there has not been much interest in investigating the co-occurrence of other health-risk behaviors, such as gang membership, weapon carrying, and substance use. The potential influence of contextual factors, such as…

  5. The Ganges and the GAP: An Assessment of Efforts to Clean a Sacred River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Tamminga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the Ganges River in India has been the locus of sacred rites for the Hindus. The religious significance of the Ganges is physically manifested in ghats (stepped landings that form the land-water interface. Besides serving as a site for religious bathing and cremation, the ghats are also tied to people’s livelihoods and are an inseparable part of their daily lives. Today, the increasingly urbanized Ganges basin sustains more than 40 percent of India’s population. At the same time, industrialization and the pressures of a growing population along its banks have contributed to alarming levels of pollution in the river. In 1985, the federal government of India launched the Ganga Action Plan (GAP with the primary objective of cleaning the river. However, characterized by centralized planning and control with little public participation, the GAP had limited impact. In 2011, the government launched yet another clean up program—the National Ganga River Basin Project—with support from the World Bank. In this paper, we take a closer look at the programs to highlight the tenuous relationship between the need for ‘efficient’ management of environmental problems and public participation. Can public participation fit into the technocratic model that is often adopted by environmental programs? What approaches to participation kindle authorship and empowerment among those who share a deep relationship with the river and the ghats? Can religious practices be accommodated within scientific frameworks of adaptive management and resilience? We argue that rethinking the relationship between pollution control programs and participation is crucial for any effort to clean the Ganges, restore its waterfront, and catalyze broader regeneration in the Ganges basin.

  6. Criminal gangs as perpetrators and 'protectors' | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... UPDATE | SAFE AND INCLUSIVE CITIES What is driving urban violence? In some ... Social cohesion – broadly understood as the willingness of members of a society to cooperate with each other to survive and prosper – is fundamental for societies to progress towards development goals. However ...

  7. The real performance of radioactive lightning arrester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The study of the performance of radioactive lightning arrester comparing to the performance of conventional one are presented. Measurements of currents between lightning arrester and an energyzed plate with wind simulation were done for radioactive and conventional lightning arresters, separately. The attraction range of radioactive and conventional lightning arresters using atmospheric pulses produced by a generator of 3MV were verified, separately and simultaneously. The influence of ionization produced by radioactive lightning arrester on critical disruptive tension of a spark plate, testing two lightning arresters for differents nominal attraction distances with applications of atmospheric pulses (positive and negative polarity) and tensions of 60 Hz was verified. The radiation emitted by a radioactive lightning had used in a building was retired and handled without special carefullness by a personnel without worthy of credence to evaluate the hazard in handling radioactive lightning arrester was measured. Critical disruptive tensions of radioactive and conventional lightning arrester using a suspensed electrode and external pulse generator of 6MV was measured. The effect of attraction of a radioactive and conventional lightning arresters disposed symmetrically regarding the same suspensed electrode was verified simultaneously. Seven cases on faults of radioactive lightning arrester in external areas are present. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Dataset on Investigating the role of onsite learning in the optimisation of craft gang's productivity in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugulu, Rex Asibuodu; Allen, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    The data presented in this article is an original data on "Investigating the role of onsite learning in the optimisation of craft gang's productivity in the construction industry". This article describes the constraints influencing craft gang's productivity and the influence of onsite learning on the blockwork craft gang's productivity. It also presented the method of data collection, using a semi-structured interview and an observation method to collect data from construction organisations. We provided statistics on the top most important constraints affecting the craft gang's productivity using 3-D Bar charts. In addition, we computed the correlation coefficients and the regression model on the influence of onsite learning on craft gang's productivity using the man-hour as the dependent variable. The relationship between blockwork inputs and cycle numbers was determined at 5% significance level. Finally, we presented data information on the application of the learning curve theory using the unit straight-line model equations and computed the learning rate of the observed craft gang's blockwork repetitive work.

  9. An engineering interpretation of pop-in arrest and tearing arrest in terms of static crack arrest, Ksub(Ia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    When fracture toughness specimens are tested under displacement controlled conditions, they are often observed to exhibit unstable cleavage fracture followed by arrest of the cleavage mode wherein a significant load remains on the specimen (pop-in arrest). This behavior carries over into the ductile tearing regime wherein tearing may occur rapidly identified by load reduction and then proceeds at a discernible less rate (tearing arrest). Both these behaviors represent an initiation condition followed by an arrest condition. In this paper it is demonstrated that from either of the arrest conditions an arrest value may be determined which, for available experimental data, is shown to be an engineering estimate for the static crack arrest toughness, Ksub(Ia). A data analysis procedure is outlined and Ksub(Ic) and Ksub(Ia) estimates from sixty-eight 1/2, 1 and 2 in. thick compact specimens from two steels (A533 Grade B Class 1 and AISI 1018) tested between -40 deg F and 200 deg F are summarized. The crack arrest estimates are seen to compare favorably with Ksub(Ia) results obtained by other investigators using 2 in. thick specimens. Also it is demonstrated that when failure is by fully ductile tearing, the crack arrest toughness is at least equal to the estimate for Ksub(Ic) for the specimen. (author)

  10. Gangs in Catalonia. The approach from the Catalonia Government Police Troopers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Herrero Blanco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the presence of gangs was detected in Catalonia. The groups had their origins in bands from the American continent, with whom they maintained communication and dependency relationships. Since then, there has been steady increase both in the number of gangs and youth involved in them, as well as the level of criminal activity linked to these groups. The police corps have followed the evolution of these groups closely, although the social context is radically different and the levels of crime and violence are not comparable to the other side of the Atlantic. This article seeks to explain the Catalonia Government Troopers’ approach to this phenomenon during this time.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i2.1360

  11. Barcelona and Madrid: Two different realities in the phenomenon of the Latino gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López Corral

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Latino gangs that have come into existence in Spain represent a potential risk factor for citizens’ security and coexistence. That is the view of security forces and organisations, and it also seems to be the understanding reached by the administrations of the Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Madrid, whose actions in the light of this phenomenon are assessed in this work. To this end, the author begins with an analysis of the significance of Latino gangs inSpain, from their origins to their introduction, and carries out a review of their current situation, including their organisation, recruitment, impact and risk for citizen security. Only with suchan analysis can one begin to comprehend the scenario of dangers that will appear in the future, and the police strategy that should be introduced to deal with the phenomenon.

  12. Dynamic photoelastic investigation of crack arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, G.R.; Dally, J.W.; Kobayashi, T.; Fourney, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Crack arrest and crack arrest toughness are of great interest, particularly for studies pertaining to safety of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Investigations are needed in which the instantaneous values of stress intensity factor (K) can be observed during crack propagation and arrest. Such observations are possible if the test specimens are made from plates of a transparent photoelastic sensitive material. Values of K as a function of crack speed are shown for Homalite 100 and various epoxy blends. 9 figures

  13. Development of seasonal flow outlook model for Ganges-Brahmaputra Basins in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Sazzad; Haque Khan, Raihanul; Gautum, Dilip Kumar; Karmaker, Ripon; Hossain, Amirul

    2016-10-01

    Bangladesh is crisscrossed by the branches and tributaries of three main river systems, the Ganges, Bramaputra and Meghna (GBM). The temporal variation of water availability of those rivers has an impact on the different water usages such as irrigation, urban water supply, hydropower generation, navigation etc. Thus, seasonal flow outlook can play important role in various aspects of water management. The Flood Forecasting and Warning Center (FFWC) in Bangladesh provides short term and medium term flood forecast, and there is a wide demand from end-users about seasonal flow outlook for agricultural purposes. The objective of this study is to develop a seasonal flow outlook model in Bangladesh based on rainfall forecast. It uses European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) seasonal precipitation, temperature forecast to simulate HYDROMAD hydrological model. Present study is limited for Ganges and Brahmaputra River Basins. ARIMA correction is applied to correct the model error. The performance of the model is evaluated using coefficient of determination (R2) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE). The model result shows good performance with R2 value of 0.78 and NSE of 0.61 for the Brahmaputra River Basin, and R2 value of 0.72 and NSE of 0.59 for the Ganges River Basin for the period of May to July 2015. The result of the study indicates strong potential to make seasonal outlook to be operationalized.

  14. Commitment language and homework completion in a behavioral employment program for gang-affiliated youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caitlin; Huey, Stanley J; McDaniel, Dawn D

    2015-05-01

    Research with substance-abusing samples suggests that eliciting commitment language during treatment may improve motivation to change, increase treatment engagement, and promote positive treatment outcomes. However, the relationship between in-session client language and treatment success is not well-understood for youth offender populations. This study evaluated the relationship between commitment language, treatment engagement (i.e., homework completion), and weekly employment outcomes for six gang-affiliated juvenile offenders participating in an employment counseling intervention. Weekly counseling sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded for commitment language strength. Multilevel models were fit to the data to examine the relationship between commitment language and counseling homework or employment outcomes within participants over time. Commitment language strength predicted subsequent homework completion but not weekly employment. These findings imply that gang-affiliated delinquent youth who express motivation to change during employment counseling will be more likely to comply with counselor-initiated homework. Further research on counselor techniques for promoting commitment language among juvenile gang offenders is needed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Geomorphology of the Ganges fluvial system in the Himalayan foreland: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sinha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ganges is one of the largest fluvial systems in the world rising from the loftiest Himalaya and draining into the Bay of Bengal. Together with the Brahmaputra, it also constitutes the largest delta in the world before finally meeting the sea. The Ganges system passes through a variety of terrain from the rugged mountains through the flat alluvial plains and the sea margin, and also transects variable climatic zones. As a result, the processes, landforms and stratigraphy are strikingly different in different zones of the system. This paper attempts to provide an update on our understanding of this very large and diverse system. A global effort has been made in the last few decades, and the research has focused on a variety of themes. The mountainous catchments have attracted attention in view of the extent of glaciation and extensive erosional processes. The alluvial plains of the Ganges symbolizes the life line of one of the world's largest population. Consequently, a number of studies have been carried out on the morphology, hydrology including flooding history and sediment transport behaviour of the river system. The alluvial stratigraphy of the large valleys and the interfluves in the plains has provided insight about the sedimentation pattern and response to climate change. The deltaic plain is the final destination of this huge sediment dispersal system before it drains into the sea, and it also records the influence of sea level changes apart from the upstream catchment controls over a period of time.

  16. Functions of Aggression and Delinquency: The Moderating Role of Parent Criminality and Friends' Gang Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Li, Xiang; Chan, Wei Teng

    2016-03-02

    This study examined the relationships between two functions of aggression (i.e., reactive and proactive) and delinquency, including the moderating effects of parent criminality and friends' gang membership, in a sample of 1,027 Singaporean adolescents from Grade 7 to Grade 9, with age ranging from 12 to 19 years (M = 14.10, SD = 1.15). Findings suggested that both reactive aggression and proactive aggression significantly and positively predicted delinquency (after controlling for proactive aggression and reactive aggression, respectively), with proactive aggression being a stronger predictor. Friends' gang membership was found to moderate the relationship between reactive aggression and delinquency, and proactive aggression and delinquency, with stronger moderator effects for the latter. Those who were aggressive proactively and who had friends in a gang appear to be impacted most negatively with respect to delinquency. Parent criminality did not moderate these relationships. These findings highlight the need to effectively address the issues of child and adolescent aggression. Also, developing positive peer relations early is crucial for delinquency prevention. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrests in a Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Barbara H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a simulated interdisciplinary role rehearsal for cardiopulmonary arrest to prepare nurses to function effectively. Includes needs analysis, program components, and responses of program participants. (Author)

  18. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  19. Pleiotropic role of growth arrest-specific gene 6 in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjwa, Marc; Moons, Lieve; Lutgens, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) belongs to the family of vitamin K-dependent coagulation proteins, but in contrast to its other members, has only a limited role in hemostasis. Instead, Gas6 plays a prominent role in conditions of injury, inflammation and repair. Gas6 amplifies the activation of

  20. SMC1-Mediated Intra-S-Phase Arrest Facilitates Bocavirus DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Deng, Xuefeng; Cheng, Fang; Li, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Activation of a host DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for DNA replication of minute virus of canines (MVC), a member of the genus Bocavirus of the Parvoviridae family; however, the mechanism by which DDR contributes to viral DNA replication is unknown. In the current study, we demonstrate that MVC infection triggers the intra-S-phase arrest to slow down host cellular DNA replication and to recruit cellular DNA replication factors for viral DNA replication. The intra-S-phase arrest is regulated by ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase) signaling in a p53-independent manner. Moreover, we demonstrate that SMC1 (structural maintenance of chromosomes 1) is the key regulator of the intra-S-phase arrest induced during infection. Either knockdown of SMC1 or complementation with a dominant negative SMC1 mutant blocks both the intra-S-phase arrest and viral DNA replication. Finally, we show that the intra-S-phase arrest induced during MVC infection was caused neither by damaged host cellular DNA nor by viral proteins but by replicating viral genomes physically associated with the DNA damage sensor, the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex. In conclusion, the feedback loop between MVC DNA replication and the intra-S-phase arrest is mediated by ATM-SMC1 signaling and plays a critical role in MVC DNA replication. Thus, our findings unravel the mechanism underlying DDR signaling-facilitated MVC DNA replication and demonstrate a novel strategy of DNA virus-host interaction. PMID:23365434

  1. Assessing School-Based Gang Prevention Efforts in Urban Centers: Are These Programs Reaching Those Students Who May Benefit the Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hector

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, schools have become a focal point for general delinquency and gang prevention programs for a variety of reasons. One premise behind this approach is that schools can serve as ideal settings for providing delinquency and intervention services because youths spend so much time there. School-based gang prevention efforts are supposed…

  2. Differential Heating in the Indian Ocean Differentially Modulates Precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shahriar Pervez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature dynamics play a prominent role in Asian summer monsoon variability. Two interactive climate modes of the Indo-Pacific—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO and the Indian Ocean dipole mode—modulate the amount of precipitation over India, in addition to precipitation over Africa, Indonesia, and Australia. However, this modulation is not spatially uniform. The precipitation in southern India is strongly forced by the Indian Ocean dipole mode and ENSO. In contrast, across northern India, encompassing the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, the climate mode influence on precipitation is much less. Understanding the forcing of precipitation in these river basins is vital for food security and ecosystem services for over half a billion people. Using 28 years of remote sensing observations, we demonstrate that (i the tropical west-east differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Ganges precipitation and (ii the north-south differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Brahmaputra precipitation. The El Niño phase induces warming in the warm pool of the Indian Ocean and exerts more influence on Ganges precipitation than Brahmaputra precipitation. The analyses indicate that both the magnitude and position of the sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean are important drivers for precipitation dynamics that can be effectively summarized using two new indices, one tuned for each basin. These new indices have the potential to aid forecasting of drought and flooding, to contextualize land cover and land use change, and to assess the regional impacts of climate change.

  3. Implications of agricultural land use change to ecosystem services in the Ganges delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, G M Tarekul; Islam, A K M Saiful; Shopan, Ahsan Azhar; Rahman, Md Munsur; Lázár, Attila N; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban

    2015-09-15

    Ecosystems provide the basis for human civilization and natural capital for green economy and sustainable development. Ecosystem services may range from crops, fish, freshwater to those that are harder to see such as erosion regulation, carbon sequestration, and pest control. Land use changes have been identified as the main sources of coastal and marine pollution in Bangladesh. This paper explores the temporal variation of agricultural land use change and its implications with ecosystem services in the Ganges delta. With time agricultural lands have been decreased and wetlands have been increased at a very high rate mainly due to the growing popularity of saltwater shrimp farming. In a span of 28 years, the agricultural lands have been reduced by approximately 50%, while the wetlands have been increased by over 500%. A large portion (nearly 40%) of the study area is covered by the Sundarbans which remained almost constant which can be attributed to the strict regulatory intervention to preserve the Sundarbans. The settlement & others land use type has also been increased to nearly 5%. There is a gradual uptrend of shrimp and fish production in the study area. The findings suggest that there are significant linkages between agricultural land use change and ecosystem services in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh. The continuous decline of agricultural land (due to salinization) and an increase of wetland have been attributed to the conversion of agricultural land into shrimp farming in the study area. Such land use change requires significant capital, therefore, only investors and wealthier land owners can get the higher profit from the land conversion while the poor people is left with the environmental consequences that affect their long-term lives and livelihood. An environmental management plan is proposed for sustainable land use in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential heating in the Indian Ocean differentially modulates precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature dynamics play a prominent role in Asian summer monsoon variability. Two interactive climate modes of the Indo-Pacific—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean dipole mode—modulate the amount of precipitation over India, in addition to precipitation over Africa, Indonesia, and Australia. However, this modulation is not spatially uniform. The precipitation in southern India is strongly forced by the Indian Ocean dipole mode and ENSO. In contrast, across northern India, encompassing the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, the climate mode influence on precipitation is much less. Understanding the forcing of precipitation in these river basins is vital for food security and ecosystem services for over half a billion people. Using 28 years of remote sensing observations, we demonstrate that (i) the tropical west-east differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Ganges precipitation and (ii) the north-south differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Brahmaputra precipitation. The El Niño phase induces warming in the warm pool of the Indian Ocean and exerts more influence on Ganges precipitation than Brahmaputra precipitation. The analyses indicate that both the magnitude and position of the sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean are important drivers for precipitation dynamics that can be effectively summarized using two new indices, one tuned for each basin. These new indices have the potential to aid forecasting of drought and flooding, to contextualize land cover and land use change, and to assess the regional impacts of climate change.

  5. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A Conrad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR is the use of rapid deployment venoarterial (VA extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to support systemic circulation and vital organ perfusion in patients in refractory cardiac arrest not responding to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Although prospective controlled studies are lacking, observational studies suggest improved outcomes compared with conventional CPR when ECPR is instituted within 30-60 min following cardiac arrest. Adult and pediatric patients with witnessed in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and good quality CPR, failure of at least 15 min of conventional resuscitation, and a potentially reversible cause for arrest are candidates. Percutaneous cannulation where feasible is rapid and can be performed by nonsurgeons (emergency physicians, intensivists, cardiologists, and interventional radiologists. Modern extracorporeal systems are easy to prime and manage and are technically easy to manage with proper training and experience. ECPR can be deployed in the emergency department for out-of-hospital arrest or in various inpatient units for in-hospital arrest. ECPR should be considered for patients with refractory cardiac arrest in hospitals with an existing extracorporeal life support program, able to provide rapid deployment of support, and with resources to provide postresuscitation evaluation and management.

  6. Soil Gas Sample Handling: Evaluation of Water Removal and Sample Ganging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrecht, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Donaldo P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Soil gas sampling is currently conducted in support of Nuclear Test Ban treaty verification. Soil gas samples are collected and analyzed for isotopes of interest. Some issues that can impact sampling and analysis of these samples are excess moisture and sample processing time. Here we discuss three potential improvements to the current sampling protocol; a desiccant for water removal, use of molecular sieve to remove CO2 from the sample during collection, and a ganging manifold to allow composite analysis of multiple samples.

  7. Construction of pipelines on marshlands during summer months with the aid of gang assembly platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, E P; Girshovich, I I

    1979-05-01

    Because the massive size of conventional pipeline-construction equipment limits its use in swampy areas to winter months, the USSR's SKB Gazstroimashina developed a new system to allow year-round construction activity. The equipment consists of five mobile platforms arranged in series along the pipeline to spread out the load for a lower specific ground pressure than exerted by conventional equipment. Platforms perform the successive functions of emplacement of the pipe lengths, end preparation, welding, cleanup, and insulation. So far, two sets of gang-assembly platforms have been built and are being field-tested.

  8. Drugs, Gangs, Transnational Organized Crime and Malgoverened Spaces in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    including Los Zetas expanded into “ franchises ” in Central America,28 pou- ring new resources into the patchwork of gangs and transport groups in that...html. 39. Randal C. Archibold, “Gangs’ Truce Buys El Salvador a Tenuous Peace,” New York Times, August 27, 2012, http: //www.nytimes.com/2012/08/28...center/press-releases/Pages/tg1733.aspx. 51. Randal C. Archibold, “Gangs’ Truce Buys El Salvador a Tenuous Peace,” New York Times, August 27, 2012, http

  9. Adaptation to changing water resources in the Ganges basin, northern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moors, Eddy J.; Groot, Annemarie; Biemans, Hester; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Catharien; Siderius, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Huggel, Christian; Wiltshire, Andy; Mathison, Camilla; Ridley, Jeff; Jacob, Daniela; Kumar, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    An ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) runs from the EU HighNoon project are used to project future air temperatures and precipitation on a 25 km grid for the Ganges basin in northern India, with a view to assessing impact of climate change on water resources and determining what multi-sector adaptation measures and policies might be adopted at different spatial scales. The RCM results suggest an increase in mean annual temperature, averaged over the Ganges basin, in the range 1-4 o C over the period from 2000 to 2050, using the SRES A1B forcing scenario. Projections of precipitation indicate that natural variability dominates the climate change signal and there is considerable uncertainty concerning change in regional annual mean precipitation by 2050. The RCMs do suggest an increase in annual mean precipitation in this region to 2050, but lack significant trend. Glaciers in headwater tributary basins of the Ganges appear to be continuing to decline but it is not clear whether meltwater runoff continues to increase. The predicted changes in precipitation and temperature will probably not lead to significant increase in water availability to 2050, but the timing of runoff from snowmelt will likely occur earlier in spring and summer. Water availability is subject to decadal variability, with much uncertainty in the contribution from climate change. Although global social-economic scenarios show trends to urbanization, locally these trends are less evident and in some districts rural population is increasing. Falling groundwater levels in the Ganges plain may prevent expansion of irrigated areas for food supply. Changes in socio-economic development in combination with projected changes in timing of runoff outside the monsoon period will make difficult choices for water managers. Because of the uncertainty in future water availability trends, decreasing vulnerability by augmenting resilience is the preferred way to adapt to climate change. Adaptive policies are

  10. Benchmarking wide swath altimetry-based river discharge estimation algorithms for the Ganges river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnema, Matthew G.; Sikder, Safat; Hossain, Faisal; Durand, Michael; Gleason, Colin J.; Bjerklie, David M.

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of three algorithms that estimate discharge from remotely sensed observables (river width, water surface height, and water surface slope) in anticipation of the forthcoming NASA/CNES Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. SWOT promises to provide these measurements simultaneously, and the river discharge algorithms included here are designed to work with these data. Two algorithms were built around Manning's equation, the Metropolis Manning (MetroMan) method, and the Mean Flow and Geomorphology (MFG) method, and one approach uses hydraulic geometry to estimate discharge, the at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG) method. A well-calibrated and ground-truthed hydrodynamic model of the Ganges river system (HEC-RAS) was used as reference for three rivers from the Ganges River Delta: the main stem of Ganges, the Arial-Khan, and the Mohananda Rivers. The high seasonal variability of these rivers due to the Monsoon presented a unique opportunity to thoroughly assess the discharge algorithms in light of typical monsoon regime rivers. It was found that the MFG method provides the most accurate discharge estimations in most cases, with an average relative root-mean-squared error (RRMSE) across all three reaches of 35.5%. It is followed closely by the Metropolis Manning algorithm, with an average RRMSE of 51.5%. However, the MFG method's reliance on knowledge of prior river discharge limits its application on ungauged rivers. In terms of input data requirement at ungauged regions with no prior records, the Metropolis Manning algorithm provides a more practical alternative over a region that is lacking in historical observations as the algorithm requires less ancillary data. The AMHG algorithm, while requiring the least prior river data, provided the least accurate discharge measurements with an average wet and dry season RRMSE of 79.8% and 119.1%, respectively, across all rivers studied. This poor

  11. Comparison of crack arrest methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The ASTM Cooperative Test Program Data were used to compare the static (K/sub Ia/) and dynamic (K/sud ID/, K/sub IDm/) approaches to crack arrest. K/sub Ia/ is not dependent on K/sub Q/. This is consistent with the requirements of the static approach, but not the dynamic one which requires that K/sub Ia/ decrease with K/sub Q/ if K/sub ID/ (= K/sub IDm/) is a constant. K/sub ID/ increases systematically with K/sub Q/ at a rate that is consistent with calculations based on the use of a constant value for K/sub Ia/ which is equal to its measured mean value. Only in the limiting case of very short crack jumps (associated with very low average crack speeds) can K/sub ID/ be identified as a minimum value at which K/sub ID/ = K/sub IDm/. In this case K/sub IDm/ approx. K/sub Ia/ approx. K/sub Im/. The latter is the idealized minimum value of K that will support the continued propagation of a running crack

  12. Crisis management during anaesthesia: cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runciman, W B; Morris, R W; Watterson, L M; Williamson, J A; Paix, A D

    2005-06-01

    Cardiac arrest attributable to anaesthesia occurs at the rate of between 0.5 and 1 case per 10 000 cases, tends to have a different profile to that of cardiac arrest occurring elsewhere, and has an in-hospital mortality of 20%. However, as individual practitioners encounter cardiac arrest rarely, the rapidity with which the diagnosis is made and the consistency of appropriate management varies considerably. To examine the role of a previously described core algorithm "COVER ABCD-A SWIFT CHECK", supplemented by a sub-algorithm for cardiac arrest, in the management of cardiac arrest occurring in association with anaesthesia. The potential performance of this structured approach for each the relevant incidents among the first 4000 reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetists involved. There were 129 reports of cardiac arrest associated with anaesthesia among the first 4000 AIMS incident reports. Identified aetiological factors were grouped into five categories: (1) anaesthetic technique (11 cases with this category alone; 32 with this and one or more of the other categories, representing 25% of all 129 cardiac arrests); (2) drug related (16; 32, 25%); (3) associated with surgical procedure (9; 29, 22%); (4) associated with pre-existing medical or surgical disease (30; 82, 64%); (5) unknown (8; 14, 11%). The "real life" presentation and management of cardiac arrest in association with anaesthesia differs substantially from that detailed in general published guidelines. Cardiac rhythms at the time were sinus bradycardia (23%); asystole (22%); tachycardia/ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (14%); and normal (7%), with a further third unknown. Details of treatment were recorded in 110 reports; modalities employed included cardiac compression (72%); adrenaline (61%); 100% oxygen (58%); atropine (38%); intravenous fluids (25%), and electrical defibrillation (17%). There

  13. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human t...

  14. Effect on water resources from upstream water diversion in the Ganges basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, M M

    2001-01-01

    Bangladesh faces at least 30 upstream water diversion constructions of which Farakka Barrage is the major one. The effects of Farakka Barrage on water resources, socioeconomy, and culture have been investigated downstream in the basins of the Ganges and its distributaries. A diversion of up to 60% of the Ganges water over 25 yr has caused (i) reduction of water in surface water resources, (ii) increased dependence on ground water, (iii) destruction of the breeding and raising grounds for 109 species of Gangetic fishes and other aquatic species and amphibians, (iv) increased malnutrition, (v) deficiency in soil organic matter content, (vi) change in the agricultural practices, (vii) eradication of inland navigable routes, (viii) outbreak of waterborne diseases, (ix) loss of professions, and (x) obstruction to religious observances and pastimes. Further, arsenopyrites buried in the prebarrage water table have come in contact with air and formed water-soluble compounds of arsenic. Inadequate recharging of ground water hinders the natural cleansing of arsenic, and threatens about 75,000,000 lives who are likely to use water contaminated with up to 2 mg/L of arsenic. Furthermore, the depletion of surface water resources has caused environmental heating and cooling effects. Apart from these effects, sudden releases of water by the barrage during the flood season cause devestating floods. In consideration of such a heavy toll for the areas downstream, strict international rules have to be laid down to preserve the riparian ecosystems.

  15. Seasonal variations in terrestrial gamma radiation along river Ganges and implications to public health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.; Meher, P.K.; Mishra, K.P.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation dose and determination of associated health hazard at river bank is of major importance due to the increasing tourism, bathing festivals and mythological beliefs. Present study was focused on measurement of absorbed dose rates as function of seasonal variation at designated locations along Ganges river in India. Portable dosimeter (plastic scintillation counter) was used for the measurement of absorbed dose rates. Subsequently, annual effective dose (AED) and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were calculated by the standard procedure. Results showed absorbed dose rates for Pre-monsoon ranged from 89.7 ± 4.03 to 115.0 ± 7.81 nSv/h with an average of 105.54 nSv/h. Post-monsoon measurements yielded values from 81.0 ± 7.00 to 105.6 ± 5.75 nSv/h with an average value of 90.8 nSv/h. Calculated average AED for Pre-monsoon period was found to be 0.13 mSv/y. Whereas, 0.11 mSv/y was the AED for the post-monsoon period. Furthermore, the calculated average ELCR values for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon were found to be 0.488 × 10 -3 and 0.418 × 10 -3 , respectively. This study reports significant seasonal variations in the terrestrial gamma radiation doses along the long stretch of Ganges river. (author)

  16. Control rod pattern exchange in a BWR/6 utilizing gang mode withdrawal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvil, A.B. Jr.; Aldemir, T.; Hajek, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    The use of checkerboard pattern of alternating inserted and fully withdrawn control rods and the uneven void distribution in boiling water reactor (BWR) cores can cause large burnup gradients even after a short time of operation. To compensate for these effects, power has to be reshaped periodically (typically every two full-power months) by individually manipulating the control rods. During this manipulation process (called the control rod pattern exchange), the core power is reduced to 60% of nominal power by means of flow reduction to limit power swings to tolerable levels and to ensure that fuel thermal limits are not exceeded. A control rod pattern exchange by individual rod manipulation typically takes 4 to 8 h and represents a large cost burden to the utility in terms of reduced system output. The latest generation of BWRs, the BWR/6, possesses the capability to simultaneously move up to four symmetrically located control rods. The rods corresponding to a given gang may have rotational symmetry, mirror symmetry, or a combination of the two. This paper presents a pattern exchange procedure that exploits the capability of gang mode rod withdrawal to reduce the pattern exchange execution time and radial power distribution asymmetry associated with individual rod manipulation. The working model used in the study is the Perry Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1, located in Perry, Ohio, and owned by the Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company

  17. Sex Disparities in Arrest Outcomes for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Melissa; Worthen, Meredith G. F.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence arrests have been historically focused on protecting women and children from abusive men. Arrest patterns continue to reflect this bias with more men arrested for domestic violence compared to women. Such potential gender variations in arrest patterns pave the way to the investigation of disparities by sex of the offender in…

  18. Point bars as stratigraphic traps for arsenic contamination in groundwater : Case study of the Ganges River, Bihar, India (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, M.E.; Bhatt, A.G.; Bruining, J.; Bose, N.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater causes a wide-spread, serious health risk affecting millions of people worldwide. Focus of the research is the floodplain of the Ganges River in the State of Bihar (India) where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water and irrigation, and where the

  19. Water resources management in the Ganges Basin: a comparison of three strategies for conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Voss, Clifford I.; Yu, Winston; Michael, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    The most difficult water resources management challenge in the Ganges Basin is the imbalance between water demand and seasonal availability. More than 80 % of the annual flow in the Ganges River occurs during the 4-month monsoon, resulting in widespread flooding. During the rest of the year, irrigation, navigation, and ecosystems suffer because of water scarcity. Storage of monsoonal flow for utilization during the dry season is one approach to mitigating these problems. Three conjunctive use management strategies involving subsurface water storage are evaluated in this study: Ganges Water Machine (GWM), Pumping Along Canals (PAC), and Distributed Pumping and Recharge (DPR). Numerical models are used to determine the efficacy of these strategies. Results for the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh (UP) indicate that these strategies create seasonal subsurface storage from 6 to 37 % of the yearly average monsoonal flow in the Ganges exiting UP over the considered range of conditions. This has clear implications for flood reduction, and each strategy has the potential to provide irrigation water and to reduce soil waterlogging. However, GWM and PAC require significant public investment in infrastructure and management, as well as major shifts in existing water use practices; these also involve spatially-concentrated pumping, which may induce land subsidence. DPR also requires investment and management, but the distributed pumping is less costly and can be more easily implemented via adaptation of existing water use practices in the basin.

  20. Of pandillas, pirucas, and Pablo Escobar in the barrio : Historical change and continuity in Nicaraguan gang violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodgers, D.; Huhn, S.; Warnecke-Berger, H.

    2017-01-01

    The putatively unprecedented rise to prominence of Central American youth gangs during the past two decades and a half is widely seen to epitomize the critical transformation that the region’s post-Cold War political economy of violence has undergone, moving from being predominantly related to

  1. The role of the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone in supplying barium and 226Ra to the Bay of Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.; Falkner, K.K.; Brown, E.T.; Moore, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra river system is ranked fourth among world rivers as a source of freshwater to the oceans and is believed to supply more sediment to the ocean than any other; 1.5 x 10 12 kg/yr (Milliman and Meade, 1983). Barium and 226 Ra are typically enriched in waters where sediment-laden rivers enter the ocean. As such, the Ganges-Brahmaputra is likely to produce globally significant barium and 226 Ra fluxes to the ocean. Water samples for barium and 226 Ra were collected within four major channels of the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone during a period of low sediment and freshwater discharge. The data suggest that in addition to suspended sediments supplied directly from rivers, river sediments deposited during high discharge in mangroves and on islands are desorbing barium and 226 Ra to seawater. The release of barium and 226 Ra from these sediment deposits is out-of-phase with the direct supply of sediments from the rivers. Estimates of the annual fluxes of barium and 226 Ra from the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone were also derived. The fluxes of barium and 226 Ra are 5.3 x 10 8 mol barium/yr and 9.5 x 10 14 dpm radium/yr. The first silicate and phosphate mixing profiles for this system are reported. 29 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Clay mineral distribution in the continental shelf sediments from Krishna to Ganges river mouth, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    Ninety six sediment samples (less than 2 mu m fractions) of the eastern continental shelf of India between Ganges in the north and Krishna in the south have been studiEd. by X-ray diffraction. On the basis of nature and abundance of different clay...

  3. Survey on current practices for neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Hans; Cronberg, Tobias; Dünser, Martin W; Duranteau, Jacques; Horn, Janneke; Oddo, Mauro

    2015-05-01

    To investigate current practices and timing of neurological prognostication in comatose cardiac arrest patients. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to the 8000 members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine during September and October 2012. The survey had 27 questions divided into three categories: background data, clinical data, decision-making and consequences. A total of 1025 respondents (13%) answered the survey with complete forms in more than 90%. Twenty per cent of respondents practiced outside of Europe. Overall, 22% answered that they had national recommendations, with the highest percentage in the Netherlands (>80%). Eighty-nine per cent used induced hypothermia (32-34 °C) for comatose cardiac arrest patients, while 11% did not. Twenty per cent had separate prognostication protocols for hypothermia patients. Seventy-nine per cent recognized that neurological examination alone is not enough to predict outcome and a similar number (76%) used additional methods. Intermittent electroencephalography (EEG), brain computed tomography (CT) scan and evoked potentials (EP) were considered most useful. Poor prognosis was defined as cerebral performance category (CPC) 3-5 (58%) or CPC 4-5 (39%) or other (3%). When prognosis was considered poor, 73% would actively withdraw intensive care while 20% would not and 7% were uncertain. National recommendations for neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest are uncommon and only one physician out of five uses a separate protocol for hypothermia treated patients. A neurological examination alone was considered insufficient to predict outcome in comatose patients and most respondents advocated a multimodal approach: EEG, brain CT and EP were considered most useful. Uncertainty regarding neurological prognostication and decisions on level of care was substantial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. El consumo de drogas como una práctica cultural dentro de las pandillas O uso de drogas como prática cultural dentro de gangues Drugs use as a cultural practice within gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Guzmán-Facundo

    2011-06-01

    thing that is shown is the beginning of gang members in drugs consumption, and the form how drugs are presented by family members and friends of the gang is described. Next, we described the meaning of drugs use in everyday life and show the extent to which drugs use is acceptable and normalized.

  5. Flood Risk Assessment and Forecasting for the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, T. M.; Priya, S.; Young, W.; Avasthi, A.; Clayton, T. D.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.; Riddle, E. E.; Broman, D.; Boehnert, J.; Sampson, K. M.; Kettner, A.; Singh, D.

    2017-12-01

    During the 2017 South Asia monsoon, torrential rains and catastrophic floods affected more than 45 million people, including 16 million children, across the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basins. The basin is recognized as one of the world's most disaster-prone regions, with severe floods occurring almost annually causing extreme loss of life and property. In light of this vulnerability, the World Bank and collaborators have contributed toward reducing future flood impacts through recent developments to improve operational preparedness for such events, as well as efforts in more general preparedness and resilience building through planning based on detailed risk assessments. With respect to improved event-specific flood preparedness through operational warnings, we discuss a new forecasting system that provides probability-based flood forecasts developed for more than 85 GBM locations. Forecasts are available online, along with near-real-time data maps of rainfall (predicted and actual) and river levels. The new system uses multiple data sets and multiple models to enhance forecasting skill, and provides improved forecasts up to 16 days in advance of the arrival of high waters. These longer lead times provide the opportunity to save both lives and livelihoods. With sufficient advance notice, for example, farmers can harvest a threatened rice crop or move vulnerable livestock to higher ground. Importantly, the forecasts not only predict future water levels but indicate the level of confidence in each forecast. Knowing whether the probability of a danger-level flood is 10 percent or 90 percent helps people to decide what, if any, action to take. With respect to efforts in general preparedness and resilience building, we also present a recent flood risk assessment, and how it provides, for the first time, a numbers-based view of the impacts of different size floods across the Ganges basin. The findings help identify priority areas for tackling flood risks (for

  6. Arrested larval development in cattle nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Duncan, M

    1987-06-01

    Most economically important cattle nematodes are able to arrest their larval development within the host - entering a period of dormancy or hypobiosis. Arrested larvae have a low death rate, and large numbers can accumulate in infected cattle during the grazing season. Because of this, outbreaks of disease caused by such nematodes can occur at times when recent infection with the parasites could not have occurred, for example during winter in temperature northern climates when cattle are normally housed. The capacity to arrest is a heritable trait. It is seen as an adaptation by the parasite to avoid further development to its free-living stages during times when the climate is unsuitable for free-living survival. But levels of arrestment can vary markedly in different regions, in different cattle, and under different management regimes. Climatic factors, previous conditioning, host immune status, and farm management all seem to affect arrestment levels. In this article, James Armour and Mary Duncan review the biological basis of the phenomenon, and discuss the apparently conflicting views on how it is controlled.

  7. Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.63) is Palau which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 2 March 2007. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 144 Member States became Members [fr

  8. Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.63) is Palau which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 2 March 2007. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 144 Member States became Members [es

  9. 28 CFR 50.10 - Policy with regard to the issuance of subpoenas to members of the news media, subpoenas for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subpoenas to members of the news media, subpoenas for telephone toll records of members of the news media, and the interrogation, indictment, or arrest of, members of the news media. 50.10 Section 50.10... to the issuance of subpoenas to members of the news media, subpoenas for telephone toll records of...

  10. Current practice in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proclemer, Alessandro; Dobreanu, Dan; Pison, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: The purpose of this EP wire is to examine clinical practice in the field of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) management, with special focus on in-hospital diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-three European centres, all members of the EHRA-EP Research network......, completed the questions of the survey. A dedicated strategy for OHCA management is active in 85% of the centres. Shockable tachyarrhythmias such as initial OHCA rhythm are reported in >70% of the patients in 64% of the centres. In-hospital therapeutic hypothermia was applied in >50% of the patients in 53...... management strategy, including coronary angiography/PCI and implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy, while therapeutic hypothermia appears to be underused....

  11. Paradigm for Distributive & Procedural Justice in Equitable Apportionment of Transboundary Ganges Waters Under Changing Climate & Landuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.; Anand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers have no regard for human demarcated boundaries. Besides, ever increasing demand-supply gap & vested riparian interests, fuel transboundary water conflicts. For resolving such disputes, appropriation doctrines advocating equity & fairness have received endorsement in the Helsinki Rules-1966 & UN Convention-1997. Thus, current study proposes the principle of equitable apportionment for sharing Ganges waters as it balances the interests & deservedness of all stakeholders, namely, India & its 11 states, Bangladesh, Nepal, & China. The study endeavors to derive a reasonable share of each co-basin state by operationalizing the vague concepts of fairness & equity through an objective & quantitative framework encompassing proportionality & egalitarianism for distributive & procedural justice. Equal weightage factors reflecting hydrology, geography & water use potential are chosen for fair share computation, wherein each contender ranks these factors to maximize his entitlement. If cumulative claims exceed the water availability, each claimant puts forth next ranked factor & this process continues till the claims match availability. Due to inter-annual variability in few factors, scenarios for Rabi & Kharif seasons are considered apart from cases for maximum, upper quartile, median, lower quartile & minimum. Possibility of spatial homogeneity & heterogeneity in factors is also recognized. Sometimes lack of technical information hinders transboundary dispute resolution via legal mechanisms. Hence, the study also attempts to bridge this gap between law & technology through GIS-based SWAT hydrologic model by estimating the Ganges water yield, & consequent share of each riparian for range of flows incorporating e-flows as well, under present & future climate & landuse scenarios. 82% of India's territory lies within interstate rivers, & therefore this research is very pertinent as it can facilitate the decision makers in effective interstate water conflict resolution.

  12. Hydroclimatic sustainability assessment of changing climate on cholera in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr-Azadani, Fariborz; Khan, Rakibul; Rahimikollu, Javad; Unnikrishnan, Avinash; Akanda, Ali; Alam, Munirul; Huq, Anwar; Jutla, Antarpreet; Colwell, Rita

    2017-10-01

    The association of cholera and climate has been extensively documented. However, determining the effects of changing climate on the occurrence of disease remains a challenge. Bimodal peaks of cholera in Bengal Delta are hypothesized to be linked to asymmetric flow of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Spring cholera is related to intrusion of bacteria-laden coastal seawater during low flow seasons, while autumn cholera results from cross-contamination of water resources when high flows in the rivers cause massive inundation. Coarse resolution of General Circulation Model (GCM) output (usually at 100 - 300 km)cannot be used to evaluate variability at the local scale(10-20 km),hence the goal of this study was to develop a framework that could be used to understand impacts of climate change on occurrence of cholera. Instead of a traditional approach of downscaling precipitation, streamflow of the two rivers was directly linked to GCM outputs, achieving reasonable accuracy (R2 = 0.89 for the Ganges and R2 = 0.91 for the Brahmaputra)using machine learning algorithms (Support Vector Regression-Particle Swarm Optimization). Copula methods were used to determine probabilistic risks of cholera under several discharge conditions. Key results, using model outputs from ECHAM5, GFDL, andHadCM3for A1B and A2 scenarios, suggest that the combined low flow of the two rivers may increase in the future, with high flows increasing for first half of this century, decreasing thereafter. Spring and autumn cholera, assuming societal conditions remain constant e.g., at the current rate, may decrease. However significant shifts were noted in the magnitude of river discharge suggesting that cholera dynamics of the delta may well demonstrate an uncertain predictable pattern of occurrence over the next century.

  13. Biological Aspects of the Critically Endangered Fish, Labeo boga in the Ganges River, Northwestern Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.Y.; Jahan, S.; Jewel, M.A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the first complete and inclusive description of some biological parameters including length-frequency distribution (LFD), sex ratio (SR), length-weight relationship (LWR), condition factors (allometric, KA; Fultons, KF; relative, KR and relative weight, WR) and form factor (a3.0) of Labeo boga in the Ganges River, northwestern Bangladesh. Sampling was conducted using traditional fishing gears during April 2011 to March 2012. For each specimen, total length (TL) was measured to the nearest 0.01 cm using digital slide calipers and total body weight (BW) was measured using an electronic balance with 0.01 g accuracy. The LWR was calculated using the expression: W= a Lb, where W is the BW and L is the TL. A total of 211 specimens ranging from 9.78-27.50 cm TL and 10.00 to 276.10 g BW were studied. BW of females was significantly higher than that of males (Mann-Whitney U-test, p>0.001). However the overall sex ratio did not differ significantly from the expected value of 1:1 (X"2 = 0.12, p > 3.00) in males, females and combined gender and there were significant differences in the intercepts but not in the slopes between the sexes of L. boga in the Ganges River. KF of females was significantly higher than that for males (p<0.001). In addition, the Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that the WR did not differ from 100 for males and females in this study indicating good condition of habitat for L. boga. The results of this study would be an effective tool for fishery specialists to initiate early management strategies and regulations for the sustainable management of the remaining stocks of this species within the Padma River and surrounding ecosystems. (author)

  14. Scarcity of Fresh Water Resources in the Ganges Delta of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshed, S. B.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Ganges Delta in Bangladesh is a classical example of water insecurity in a transboundary river basin where limitations in quantity, quality and timing of available water is producing disastrous conditions. Two opposite extreme water conditions, i.e., fresh water scarcity and floods are common in this region during dry and wet seasons, respectively. The purpose of this study is to manage fresh water requirement of people and environment considering the seasonal availability of surface water (SW) and ground water (GW). SW availability was analyzed by incoming stream flow including the effects of upstream water diversion, rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration (ET). Flow duration curves (FDC), and rainfall and temperature elasticity are used to assess the change of incoming upstream flow. Groundwater data were collected from 285 piezometers and monitoring wells established by Bangladesh water development board. Variation of groundwater depth shows major withdrawals of GW are mostly concentrated in the north part of the study area. Irrigation is the largest sector of off-stream (irrigation, industrial and domestic) water use which occupies 82% SW and 17% GW of total water consumption. Although domestic water use is entirely depend on GW but arsenic pollution is limiting the GW use. FDC depicts a substantial difference between high flow threshold (20%) and low flow threshold (70%) in the Bangladesh part of Ganges River. A large variation of around 83% is observed for instream water volume between wet and dry seasons. The reduction of upstream fresh water flow increased the extent and intensity of salinity intrusion. Presently GW is also contaminated by saline water. This fresh water scarcity is reducing the livelihood options considerably and indirectly forcing population migration from the delta region. This study provides insight to the changes in hydrology and limitations to freshwater availability enabling better formulation of water resources management in

  15. A Contemporary Challenge to State Sovereignty: Gangs and Other Illicit Transnational Criminal Organizations in Central America, El Salvador, Mexico, Jamaica, and Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manwaring, Max G

    2007-01-01

    ... Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCOs). In this new type of war, national security and sovereignty of affected countries is being impinged every day, and gangs illicit commercial motives are, in fact, becoming an ominous political agenda...

  16. Detecting Long-term Trend of Water Quality Indices of Dong-gang River, Taiwan Using Quantile Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D.; Shiau, J.

    2013-12-01

    ABSTRACT BODY: Abstract Surface water quality is an essential issue in water-supply for human uses and sustaining healthy ecosystem of rivers. However, water quality of rivers is easily influenced by anthropogenic activities such as urban development and wastewater disposal. Long-term monitoring of water quality can assess whether water quality of rivers deteriorates or not. Taiwan is a population-dense area and heavily depends on surface water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. Dong-gang River is one of major resources in southern Taiwan for agricultural requirements. The water-quality data of four monitoring stations of the Dong-gang River for the period of 2000-2012 are selected for trend analysis. The parameters used to characterize water quality of rivers include biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (SS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). These four water-quality parameters are integrated into an index called river pollution index (RPI) to indicate the pollution level of rivers. Although widely used non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and linear regression exhibit computational efficiency to identify trends of water-quality indices, limitations of such approaches include sensitive to outliers and estimations of conditional mean only. Quantile regression, capable of identifying changes over time of any percentile values, is employed in this study to detect long-term trend of water-quality indices for the Dong-gang River located in southern Taiwan. The results show that Dong-gang River 4 stations from 2000 to 2012 monthly long-term trends in water quality.To analyze s Dong-gang River long-term water quality trends and pollution characteristics. The results showed that the bridge measuring ammonia Long-dong, BOD5 measure in that station on a downward trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, River Pollution Index (RPI) on a downward trend. The results form Chau-Jhou station also ahowed simialar trends .more and more near the

  17. Location of cardiac arrest and impact of pre-arrest chronic disease and medication use on survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granfeldt, Asger; Wissenberg, Mads; Hansen, Steen Møller

    2017-01-01

    location and a higher mortality can be explained by differences in chronic diseases and medication. METHODS: We identified 27,771 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients ≥18 years old from the Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry (2001-2012). Using National Registries, we identified pre-arrest chronic disease......INTRODUCTION: Cardiac arrest in a private location is associated with a higher mortality when compared to public location. Past studies have not accounted for pre-arrest factors such as chronic disease and medication. AIM: To investigate whether the association between cardiac arrest in a private...

  18. Execution of the European Arrest Warrant by the Romanian Judicial Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Rusu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented development of criminality at the social and economical levels, the tendency toglobalize some categories of crimes, of maximum gravity, as terrorism, armament traffic, drug traffic orhuman traffic, have determined the world states to undertake specific measures to prevent, combat and finallyreduce it. The first and most important measure taken by the Europe’s Council, regarding the intensificationof judicial cooperation in criminal matters was the adoption of the European Convention on extradition, inParis on 13 December 1957, completed by the two Additional Protocols in Strasbourg, on 15 October 1975and 17 March 1978. In this context, the release of the Council’s Framework Decision on 13 June 2002 on theEuropean arrest warrant and the procedures of delivery among the member states (2002/584/JAI representeda natural decision, with the purpose of contributing at ensuring a free, secure and just European space. TheEuropean arrest warrant is a judicial decision through which a competent judicial authority of a EuropeanUnion member state solicits the arrest and delivery by another member state, in order to proceed to theprosecution, trial or execution of a penalty or safety measure that is privative of freedom.

  19. The construction of the gang in British Columbia : Mafioso, gangster, or thug? An examination of the uniqueness of the BC gangster phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    McConnell, Keiron

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores the structure, demographics, and history of gangs in British Columbia (BC), Canada, through a social constructionist lens. The purpose of this research is for the reader to consider the current state of gangs in BC as inherently different from other places in the world, to assist in understanding why there may be misconceptions, and to promote the research and implementation of more appropriate context-specific interventions. Building on previous work conducted as a Vanco...

  20. A mixed methods evaluation of paediatric trainee preparedness to manage cardiopulmonary arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Órla; Lydon, Sinéad; O'Connor, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Paediatric cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) survival rates are strongly linked to the training of the doctors responding to the event. This study sought to characterise the level of experience in managing CPAs among paediatric trainees and to investigate the nontechnical (NTS) required to effectively lead a paediatric CPA team. A mixed-methods research design was used. For the quantitative phase, a questionnaire was developed to assess training, confidence, and experiences related to CPA management. During the qualitative phase, 17 paediatric trainees participated in a series of critical incident technique (CIT) interviews to explore the NTS used during the management of paediatric CPAs. A total of 56 of 131 (37.1% response rate) trainees responded to the preparedness questionnaire. A total of 48.2% of respondents expressed low confidence in their skill as a team leader during the management of a CPA. The CIT interviews highlighted deficiencies in specific NTS (identifying options, prioritising, and identifying and utilising resources). Our results indicate that there is a desire for more training in CPA management among paediatric trainees, in particular as a team leader, which includes a focus on key NTS. What is Known • Levels of preparedness to be a paediatric cardiopulmonary arrests team member/leader are generally lower than desirable. • The importance of nontechnical skills to the effective performance of adult cardiopulmonary arrests teams has been identified. What is New • Levels of preparedness to be a cardiopulmonary arrests team member were higher than reported in US studies. • There is a need for greater training in cardiopulmonary arrest management which includes a focus on key nontechnical skills to include identifying options, prioritising, identifying and utilising resources.

  1. Cell cycle arrest induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okaichi, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Hideki; Ohnishi, Takeo

    1994-01-01

    It is known that various chemical reactions, such as cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and cell killing, can occur within the cells when exposed to ionizing radiation and ultraviolet radiation. Thus protein dynamics involved in such chemical reactions has received considerable attention. In this article, cell cycle regulation is first discussed in terms of the G2/M-phase and the G1/S-phase. Then, radiation-induced cell cycle arrest is reviewed. Cell cycle regulation mechanism involved in the G2 arrest, which is well known to occur when exposed to radiation, has recently been investigated using yeasts. In addition, recent study has yielded a noticeable finding that the G1 arrest can occur with intracellular accumulation of p53 product following ionization radiation. p53 is also shown to play an extremely important role in both DNA repair and cell killing due to DNA damage. Studies on the role of genes in protein groups induced by radiation will hold promise for the elucidation of cell cycle mechanism. (N.K.) 57 refs

  2. 32 CFR 935.125 - Citation in place of arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation in place of arrest. 935.125 Section 935... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Peace Officers § 935.125 Citation in place of arrest. In any case in which a peace officer may make an arrest without a warrant, he may issue and serve a citation if he...

  3. Transient Central Diabetes Insipidus and Marked Hypernatremia following Cardiorespiratory Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar H. Koubar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Diabetes Insipidus is often an overlooked complication of cardiopulmonary arrest and anoxic brain injury. We report a case of transient Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI following cardiopulmonary arrest. It developed 4 days after the arrest resulting in polyuria and marked hypernatremia of 199 mM. The latter was exacerbated by replacing the hypotonic urine by isotonic saline.

  4. An Audit Of Perioperative Cardiac Arrest At Lagos University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Intraoperative cardiac arrests are not uncommon and are related to both surgical and anaesthetic factors. This study aimed to examine the factors which predispose to a periopeartive cardiac arrest, to assess the appropriateness of therapy and the outcome. Materials and Methods: All perioperative cardiac arrests ...

  5. Witnessed arrest, but not delayed bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves prehospital cardiac arrest survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukmir, R B

    2004-05-01

    This study correlated the effect of witnessing a cardiac arrest and instituting bystander CPR (ByCPR), as a secondary end point in a study evaluating the effect of bicarbonate on survival. This prospective, randomised, double blinded clinical intervention trial enrolled 874 prehospital cardiopulmonary arrest patients encountered in a prehospital urban, suburban, and rural regional emergency medical service (EMS) area. This group underwent conventional advanced cardiac life support intervention followed by empiric early administration of sodium bicarbonate (1 mEq/l), monitoring conventional resuscitation parameters. Survival was measured as presence of vital signs on emergency department (ED) arrival. Data were analysed using chi(2) with Pearson correlation and odds ratio where appropriate. The overall survival rate was 13.9% (110 of 792) of prehospital cardiac arrest patients. The mean (SD) time until provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ByCPR) by laymen was 2.08 (2.77) minutes, and basic life support (BLS) by emergency medical technicians was 6.62 (5.73) minutes. There was improved survival noted with witnessed cardiac arrest-a 2.2-fold increase in survival, 18.9% (76 of 402) versus 8.6% (27 of 315) compared with unwitnessed arrests (ptwo minutes (p = 0.3752). Survival after prehospital cardiac arrest is more likely when witnessed, but not necessarily when ByCPR was performed by laymen.

  6. Clicking in shallow rivers: short-range echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River dolphins in a shallow, acoustically complex habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frants H Jensen

    Full Text Available Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191 re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes.

  7. Chain Gang-The Chemistry of Polymers (edited by Mickey Sarquis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Science in Our World, Vol. 5. Mickey Sarquis, series editor. Terrific Science Press: Middletown, OH, 1995. xiv + 149 pp. ISBN 1-883822-13-0. Spiral-bound, $13.95. Our familiarity with plastics makes polymers ideal examples of chemicals for discussion in K-12 science classes. Most importantly, polymers can be used as examples of chemicals that are safe to handle and of obvious use to society. The structures of polymers are easily represented by a number of models. These simple models go a long way in explaining the familiar physical properties of plastics. However, the introduction of polymers in the classroom relies on the availability of teaching material, experiments, and demonstrations that illustrate concepts in the current science curriculum. Chain Gang-The Chemistry of Polymers, one of the Science in Our World series published by the Center for Chemical Education at Miami University-Middletown (Ohio), will serve as a great resource for teachers interested in providing their students with a series of activities that can be related to their everyday experiences with these ubiquitous chemicals. After a brief introduction to some basic concepts, the book presents a series of 23 experiments. The collection of experiments presented here spans illustrations of chemistry, physical properties, analysis, and processing. Each experiment is recommended as either a hands-on activity or demonstration for various grade levels. A guide for the teacher suggests how the experiment can be used to illustrate topics in the science curriculum. The materials required for each activity are listed in detail, with quantities and sources (all materials are available from Flinn Scientific or hardware stores). There are detailed instructions for preparation of each experiment and how to introduce the experiment to students, and step-by-step instructions for activity. Very importantly, safety and disposal issues are clearly presented. Suggestions for cross-curriculum integration are also

  8. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.

  9. Between Sunda subduction and Himalayan collision: fertility, people and earthquakes on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Gale, J.; McHugh, C. M.; Ferguson, E. K.; Mondal, D. R.; Paola, C.; Reitz, M. D.; Wilson, C.

    2014-12-01

    A foreland (Ganges) and a suture (Brahmaputra) river, which both drain the Himalaya, have coalesced to form Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD), the world's largest. The GBD progrades along the continental margin, coupled with an advancing subduction to collision transition, deforming the delta as it grows. A better understanding of this time-transgressive system is urgent now that humans are increasing their forcing of the system and exposure to environmental hazards. Among these, earthquake risk is rapidly growing as people move from rural settings into expanding cities, creating unprecedented exposure. The megathrust 1950 M8.7 earthquake in Assam occurred during the monsoon and released 10x the annual sediment load, causing progradation at the coast and a pulse of river widening that propagated downstream. The 1762 M8.8(?) along the Arakan coast extended into the shelf of the delta where coastal tsunami deposits have been identified recently. These events bracket a segment with no credible historic megathrust earthquakes, but could affect far more people. Geodetic and geologic data along this 300 km boundary facing the GBD show oblique contraction. The subaerial accretionary prism (Burma Ranges) is up to 250 km wide with a blind thrust front that reaches ½ way across the delta. The GPS convergence rate of 14 mm/y is consistent with large displacements and long interseismic times, which can account for lack of historic ruptures, but also the potential for catastrophic events. Active folds and shallow thrust earthquakes point to an additional threat from upper-plate seismicity. Much of the current seismicity is in the lower-plate and reaches as far west as Dhaka; it may pose an immediate threat. The folds, and the uplift and subsidence patterns also influence the courses of the rivers. North of the delta, the Shillong plateau is a huge basement cored anticline bounded by the north-dipping Dauki thrust fault. 7 mm/y of N-S shortening and 5 km of structural relief here

  10. Land-use change may exacerbate climate change impacts on water resources in the Ganges basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarouchi, Gina; Buytaert, Wouter

    2018-02-01

    Quantifying how land-use change and climate change affect water resources is a challenge in hydrological science. This work aims to quantify how future projections of land-use and climate change might affect the hydrological response of the Upper Ganges river basin in northern India, which experiences monsoon flooding almost every year. Three different sets of modelling experiments were run using the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land surface model (LSM) and covering the period 2000-2035: in the first set, only climate change is taken into account, and JULES was driven by the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) outputs of 21 models, under two representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), whilst land use was held fixed at the year 2010. In the second set, only land-use change is taken into account, and JULES was driven by a time series of 15 future land-use pathways, based on Landsat satellite imagery and the Markov chain simulation, whilst the meteorological boundary conditions were held fixed at years 2000-2005. In the third set, both climate change and land-use change were taken into consideration, as the CMIP5 model outputs were used in conjunction with the 15 future land-use pathways to force JULES. Variations in hydrological variables (stream flow, evapotranspiration and soil moisture) are calculated during the simulation period. Significant changes in the near-future (years 2030-2035) hydrologic fluxes arise under future land-cover and climate change scenarios pointing towards a severe increase in high extremes of flow: the multi-model mean of the 95th percentile of streamflow (Q5) is projected to increase by 63 % under the combined land-use and climate change high emissions scenario (RCP8.5). The changes in all examined hydrological components are greater in the combined land-use and climate change experiment. Results are further presented in a water resources context, aiming to address potential implications of

  11. The atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle over the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorí, Rogert; Nieto, Raquel; Drumond, Anita; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Gimeno, Luis

    2017-12-01

    The atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle over the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra river basins (IRB, GRB, and BRB respectively) in the South Asian region was investigated. The 3-dimensional model FLEXPART v9.0 was utilized. An important advantage of this model is that it permits the computation of the freshwater budget on air parcel trajectories both backward and forward in time from 0.1 to 1000 hPa in the atmospheric vertical column. The analysis was conducted for the westerly precipitation regime (WPR) (November-April) and the monsoonal precipitation regime (MPR) (May-October) in the period from 1981 to 2015. The main terrestrial and oceanic climatological moisture sources for the IRB, GRB, and BRB and their contribution to precipitation over the basins were identified. For the three basins, the most important moisture sources for precipitation are (i) in the continental regions, the land masses to the west of the basins (in this case called western Asia), the Indian region (IR), and the basin itself, and (ii) from the ocean, the utmost sources being the Indian Ocean (IO) and the Bay of Bengal (BB), and it is remarkable that despite the amount of moisture reaching the Indus and Ganges basins from land sources, the moisture supply from the IO seems to be first associated with the rapid increase or decrease in precipitation over the sources in the MPR. The technique of the composites was used to analyse how the moisture uptake values spatially vary from the sources (the budget of evaporation minus precipitation (E - P) was computed in a backward experiment from the basins) but during the pre-onset and pre-demise dates of the monsoonal rainfall over each basin; this confirmed that over the last days of the monsoon at the basins, the moisture uptake areas decrease in the IO. The Indian region, the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, and the basins themselves are the main sources of moisture responsible for negative (positive) anomalies of moisture contribution to

  12. Projections of the Ganges-Brahmaputra precipitation: downscaled from GCM predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Downscaling Global Climate Model (GCM) projections of future climate is critical for impact studies. Downscaling enables use of GCM experiments for regional scale impact studies by generating regionally specific forecasts connecting global scale predictions and regional scale dynamics. We employed the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) to downscale 21st century precipitation for two data-sparse hydrologically challenging river basins in South Asia—the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. We used CGCM3.1 by Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis version 3.1 predictors in downscaling the precipitation. Downscaling was performed on the basis of established relationships between historical Global Summary of Day observed precipitation records from 43 stations and National Center for Environmental Prediction re-analysis large scale atmospheric predictors. Although the selection of predictors was challenging during the set-up of SDSM, they were found to be indicative of important physical forcings in the basins. The precipitation of both basins was largely influenced by geopotential height: the Ganges precipitation was modulated by the U component of the wind and specific humidity at 500 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels; whereas, the Brahmaputra precipitation was modulated by the V component of the wind at 850 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels. The evaluation of the SDSM performance indicated that model accuracy for reproducing precipitation at the monthly scale was acceptable, but at the daily scale the model inadequately simulated some daily extreme precipitation events. Therefore, while the downscaled precipitation may not be the suitable input to analyze future extreme flooding or drought events, it could be adequate for analysis of future freshwater availability. Analysis of the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation projection with respect to observed precipitation reveals that the precipitation regime in each basin may be significantly impacted by climate change

  13. Assessment of Environmental Flows for the Rivers of Western Ganges Delta with Special Reference to Indian Sundarban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, T.; Hazra, S.; Ghosh, S.; Barman, B. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Indian Sundarban, situated on the western tide-dominated part of the Ganges delta was formed by the sedimentation of the Ganges and its tributaries. Freshwater is a scarce resource in the Sundarban though it is traversed by rivers. Most of the rivers of Western Ganges Delta, which used to nourish the Sundarban, have become defunct with the passage of time. To ensure sustainable flow and to enhance the flow-dependent ecosystem services in this region, assessment of environmental flows within the system is required. A pilot assessment of environment flows, supported by IUCN has been carried out in some specific river reaches of Western Ganges Delta under the present study. The holistic Building Block Methodology (BBM) has been modified and used for the assessment of environmental flows. In the modified BBM, three distinctive blocks namely Hydro-Morphology, Ecology and Socio-Economy have been selected and indicators like Ganges Dolphin (Platanista gangetica), Sundari tree (Heritiera fomes) and Hilsa fish (Tenualosa ilisha) etc. have been determined to assess the environmental flows. As the discharge data of the selected rivers are restricted in the public domain, the SWAT model has been run to generate the discharge data of the classified rivers. The Hydraulic model, HEC-RAS has been calibrated in the selected River reaches to assess the habitat availability and its changes for indicator species under different flow condition. The study reveals that River Bhagirathi-Hugli requires 150-427 cumec additional water in monsoon and 850-1127 cumec additional water in post-monsoon months for Hilsa migration, whereas 327-486 cumec additional water in pre-monsoon and dry season and 227-386 cumec additional water in post-monsoon months are required for Dolphin movement. Flow requirement of river Ichhamati has also been estimated under the present study. The total required flow for the Sundarban ecosystem to reduce the salinity level from 30ppt to 14ppt during the dry and pre

  14. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, Kathrine B; Hansen, Steen Moller; Pallisgaard, Jannik L

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Despite wide dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), bystander defibrillation rates remain low. We aimed to investigate how route distance to the nearest accessible AED was associated with probability of bystander defibrillation in public and residential locations. METHODS......: We used data from the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry and the Danish AED Network to identify out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and route distances to nearest accessible registered AED during 2008-2013. The association between route distance and bystander defibrillation was described using...... in public locations, the probability of bystander defibrillation at 0, 100 and 200meters from the nearest AED was 35.7% (95% confidence interval 28.0%-43.5%), 21.3% (95% confidence interval 17.4%-25.2%), and 13.7% (95% confidence interval 10.1%-16.8%), respectively. The corresponding numbers for cardiac...

  15. HSST crack-arrest studies overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, C.E.; Whitman, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is given of the efforts underway in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program to better understand and model crack-arrest behavior in reactor pressure vessel steels. The efforts are both experimental and analytical. The experimental work provides K/sub Ia/ data from laboratory-sized specimens, from thick-wall cylinders which exhibit essentially-full restraint and from nonisothermal wide-plate specimens. These data serve to define toughness-temperature trends and to provide validation data under prototypical reactor conditions. The analytical efforts interpret and correlate the data, plus provide LEFM, elastodynamic and viscoplastic methods for analyzing crack run-arrest behavior in reactor vessels. The analysis methods are incorporated into finite element computer programs which are under development at three separate laboratories. 22 refs., 10 figs

  16. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H; Rams, Thomas E

    An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries.

  17. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  18. Integrated assessment of social and environmental sustainability dynamics in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Hutton, C. W.; Lázár, A. N.; Allan, A.; Adger, W. N.; Adams, H.; Wolf, J.; Rahman, M.; Salehin, M.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas provide diverse ecosystem services and benefits for their populations. At the same time, deltas are also recognised as one of the most vulnerable coastal environments, with a range of drivers operating at multiple scales, from global climate change and sea-level rise to deltaic-scale subsidence and land cover change. These drivers threaten these ecosystem services, which often provide livelihoods for the poorest communities in these regions. The imperative to maintain ecosystem services presents a development challenge: how to develop deltaic areas in ways that are sustainable and benefit all residents including the most vulnerable. Here we present an integrated framework to analyse changing ecosystem services in deltas and the implications for human well-being, focussing in particular on the provisioning ecosystem services of agriculture, inland and offshore capture fisheries, aquaculture and mangroves that directly support livelihoods. The framework is applied to the world's most populated delta, the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta within Bangladesh. The framework adopts a systemic perspective to represent the principal biophysical and socio-ecological components and their interaction. A range of methods are integrated within a quantitative framework, including biophysical and socio-economic modelling and analyses of governance through scenario development. The approach is iterative, with learning both within the project team and with national policy-making stakeholders. The analysis is used to explore physical and social outcomes for the delta under different scenarios and policy choices. We consider how the approach is transferable to other deltas and potentially other coastal areas.

  19. Inequalities in Human Well-Being in the Urban Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Szabo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently endorsed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs agenda unanimously agrees on the need to focus on inclusive development, the importance of eradicating extreme poverty and managing often complex human well-being impacts of rapid urban growth. Sustainable and inclusive urbanisation will accelerate progress towards the SDGs and contribute to eradicating extreme poverty. In tropical delta regions, such as the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna delta region, urban growth and resulting intra-urban inequalities are accelerated by the impact of environmental and climate change. In this context, the present study uses the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey to analyse the extent of wealth-based inequalities in human well-being in the urban delta region and the determinants of selected welfare measures. The results suggest that the extent of intra-urban inequalities is greatest in educational attainment and access to postnatal healthcare and relatively low in the occurrence of gastric disease. The paper concludes by providing policy recommendations to reduce increasing wealth inequalities in urban areas, thus contributing to sustainable development of the region.

  20. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples at Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Dharmendra K; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Durg V; Dubey, Suresh K

    2013-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, serotype identification, detection of virulence genes and ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprint analyses. All isolates were uniformly resistant to ampicillin, except two isolates, and showed variable resistance to gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin, rifampicin and tetracycline. Of the 20 isolates found positive for pathogens, seven (four human and three water isolates) belong to serogroups 4b, 4d and 4e; six (one human and five water isolates) belong to serogroups 1/2c and 3c; four milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2b and 3b; and three milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2a and 3a. Two water isolates, all human isolates, except one (Pb1) lacking inlJ gene, and three milk isolates possess inlA, inlC, plcA, prfA, actA, hlyA and iap genes. The remaining water and milk isolates showed variable presence of inlJ, plcA, prfA, and iap genes. ERIC- and REP-PCR based analyses collectively indicated that isolates of human clinical samples belong to identical or similar clone and isolates of water and milk samples belong to different clones. Overall study demonstrates the prevalence of pathogenic L. monocytogenes species in the environmental and clinical samples. Most of the isolates were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Construction and maintenance of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta: linking process, morphology, and stratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Carol A; Goodbred, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    We present a review of the processes, morphology, and stratigraphy of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), including insights gained from detailed elevation data. The review shows that the GBMD is best characterized as a composite system, with different regions having morphologic and stratigraphic attributes of an upland fluvial fan delta; a lowland, backwater-reach delta; a downdrift tidal delta plain; and an offshore subaqueous-delta clinoform. These distinct areas of upland and lowland fluvial reaches and tidal dominance vary in time and space, and we distinguish late-Holocene phases of delta construction, maintenance, and decline similar to delta-lobe cycling in other systems. The overall stability of the GBMD landform, relative to many deltas, reflects the efficient, widespread dispersal of sediment by the large monsoon discharge and high-energy tides that affect this region. However, we do identify portions of the delta that are in decline and losing elevation relative to sea level owing to insufficient sediment delivery. These areas, some of which are well inland of the coast, represent those most at risk to the continued effect of sea-level rise.

  2. Future changes in hydro-climatic extremes in the Upper Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra River basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijngaard, René R; Lutz, Arthur F; Nepal, Santosh; Khanal, Sonu; Pradhananga, Saurav; Shrestha, Arun B; Immerzeel, Walter W

    2017-01-01

    Future hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, may pose serious threats for the livelihoods in the upstream domains of the Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra. For this reason, the impacts of climate change on future hydrological extremes is investigated in these river basins. We use a fully-distributed cryospheric-hydrological model to simulate current and future hydrological fluxes and force the model with an ensemble of 8 downscaled General Circulation Models (GCMs) that are selected from the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The model is calibrated on observed daily discharge and geodetic mass balances. The climate forcing and the outputs of the hydrological model are used to evaluate future changes in climatic extremes, and hydrological extremes by focusing on high and low flows. The outcomes show an increase in the magnitude of climatic means and extremes towards the end of the 21st century where climatic extremes tend to increase stronger than climatic means. Future mean discharge and high flow conditions will very likely increase. These increases might mainly be the result of increasing precipitation extremes. To some extent temperature extremes might also contribute to increasing discharge extremes, although this is highly dependent on magnitude of change in temperature extremes. Low flow conditions may occur less frequently, although the uncertainties in low flow projections can be high. The results of this study may contribute to improved understanding on the implications of climate change for the occurrence of future hydrological extremes in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region.

  3. Coupled Landscape and Channel Dynamics in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Tidal Deltaplain, Southwest Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomer, J.; Wilson, C.; Hale, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    In the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) and other tide-dominated systems, periodic flooding of the land surface during the tidal cycle promotes sediment accretion and surface elevation gain over time. However, over the past several decades, anthropogenic modification of the GBD tidal deltaplain through embankment construction has precluded sediment delivery to catchment areas, leading to widespread channel siltation and subsidence in poldered landscapes. Amongst the current discussion on GBD sustainability, the relationship between tidal inundation period and resultant sedimentation in natural and embanked settings remains unclear. Moreover, an evaluation of how riparian sedimentology and stratigraphic architecture changes across the GBD tidal-fluvial spectrum is notably absent, despite its critical importance in assessing geomorphic change in human-impacted transitional environments. To provide local-scale, longitudinal trends of coupled landscape-channel dynamics, an array of surface elevation tables, groundwater piezometers, and sediment traps deployed in natural and embanked settings have been monitored seasonally over a time span of 4 years. This knowledge base will be extended across the GBD tidal-fluvial transition by collecting sediment cores from carefully selected point bars along the Gorai River. Sediments will be analyzed for lithologic, biostratigraphic, and geochemical properties to provide an integrated framework for discerning depositional zones and associated facies assemblages across this complex transitional environment. Preliminary comparisons of accretion and hydroperiod data suggest that inundation duration strongly governs mass accumulation on the intertidal platform, though other factors such as mass extraction from sediment source and vegetation density may play secondary roles.

  4. Future changes in hydro-climatic extremes in the Upper Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra River basins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René R Wijngaard

    Full Text Available Future hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, may pose serious threats for the livelihoods in the upstream domains of the Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra. For this reason, the impacts of climate change on future hydrological extremes is investigated in these river basins. We use a fully-distributed cryospheric-hydrological model to simulate current and future hydrological fluxes and force the model with an ensemble of 8 downscaled General Circulation Models (GCMs that are selected from the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The model is calibrated on observed daily discharge and geodetic mass balances. The climate forcing and the outputs of the hydrological model are used to evaluate future changes in climatic extremes, and hydrological extremes by focusing on high and low flows. The outcomes show an increase in the magnitude of climatic means and extremes towards the end of the 21st century where climatic extremes tend to increase stronger than climatic means. Future mean discharge and high flow conditions will very likely increase. These increases might mainly be the result of increasing precipitation extremes. To some extent temperature extremes might also contribute to increasing discharge extremes, although this is highly dependent on magnitude of change in temperature extremes. Low flow conditions may occur less frequently, although the uncertainties in low flow projections can be high. The results of this study may contribute to improved understanding on the implications of climate change for the occurrence of future hydrological extremes in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region.

  5. Salvadoran gangs and extortion. Challenges and priorities related to the extortion phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Andrade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years extortion has garnered a somber relevance for society as a whole, aside from the preponderance it already possessed from law enforcement agents and criminal investigators. The generation of income both in cash and in kind destined for criminal structures, particularly amongst gangs/maras, as well as its implications concerning danger levels and future potential, have made the agencies responsible of public security take a closer look at this crime and ensure there is a full comprehensive assessment made regarding the extortion phenomenon. The above, involved looking into this crime’s different forms of execution, existing enabling factors and the different criminal scenarios it fits into; reviewing how police and prosecutors address these offenses, all operative, investigative and legal implications, as well as the results achieved in the fight against it. Nonetheless, extortionremains a challenge, not only for the institutions involved (Police and the Prosecutor’s Office, but also for the key stakeholders and all those responsible of making strategic decisions for the country.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 103-148

  6. Distinct mechanisms act in concert to mediate cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toettcher, Jared E; Loewer, Alexander; Ostheimer, Gerard J; Yaffe, Michael B; Tidor, Bruce; Lahav, Galit

    2009-01-20

    In response to DNA damage, cells arrest at specific stages in the cell cycle. This arrest must fulfill at least 3 requirements: it must be activated promptly; it must be sustained as long as damage is present to prevent loss of genomic information; and after the arrest, cells must re-enter into the appropriate cell cycle phase to ensure proper ploidy. Multiple molecular mechanisms capable of arresting the cell cycle have been identified in mammalian cells; however, it is unknown whether each mechanism meets all 3 requirements or whether they act together to confer specific functions to the arrest. To address this question, we integrated mathematical models describing the cell cycle and the DNA damage signaling networks and tested the contributions of each mechanism to cell cycle arrest and re-entry. Predictions from this model were then tested with quantitative experiments to identify the combined action of arrest mechanisms in irradiated cells. We find that different arrest mechanisms serve indispensable roles in the proper cellular response to DNA damage over time: p53-independent cyclin inactivation confers immediate arrest, whereas p53-dependent cyclin downregulation allows this arrest to be sustained. Additionally, p21-mediated inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activity is indispensable for preventing improper cell cycle re-entry and endoreduplication. This work shows that in a complex signaling network, seemingly redundant mechanisms, acting in a concerted fashion, can achieve a specific cellular outcome.

  7. A case of thyroid storm with cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakashima Y

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yutaka Nakashima,1 Tsuneaki Kenzaka,2 Masanobu Okayama,3 Eiji Kajii31Department for Support of Rural Medicine, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, 2Division of General Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, Japan; 3Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, JapanAbstract: A 23-year-old man became unconscious while jogging. He immediately received basic life support from a bystander and was transported to our hospital. On arrival, his spontaneous circulation had returned from a state of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity. Following admission, hyperthyroidism led to a suspicion of thyroid storm, which was then diagnosed as a possible cause of the cardiac arrest. Although hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac arrest including ventricular fibrillation is rare, it should be considered when diagnosing the cause of treatable cardiac arrest.Keywords: hyperthyroidism, ventricular fibrillation, treatable cardiac arrest, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest

  8. Food and nutrition security trends and challenges in the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnout van Soesbergen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The population of the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM delta is highly vulnerable to food insecurity and malnutrition due to the specific environmental, climatic and human development factors affecting agricultural production and fisheries. To better understand the impacts of climate and environmental change on food security and nutrition in this delta, this study combines spatially explicit data from the 2007 and 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS with a standard satellite remotely sensed vegetation greenness index (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI, used as a proxy for rice production. The strength of association between NDVI and child nutrition in this tropical mega-delta were tested, showing correlations between two widely used indicators of child malnutrition; stunting and wasting, and deviations from a 10 year mean NDVI (anomalies for rice crop growing seasons – regarded as critical to individual children’s early lives. For children surveyed in 2007 we found that the likelihood of being stunted decreased with increased NDVI as a measure of food production. Similarly, for children surveyed in 2011, the likelihood of being wasted reduced with increased NDVI. However, regression results for stunting in 2011 and wasting in 2007 were not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that NDVI can be regarded as indicative of climatic variability and periods of low food production but is only partly successful as an indicator of climate related impacts on child nutrition in the GBM delta. Furthermore, our study highlights some of the uncertainties and challenges with linking environmental indicators such as the NDVI with household survey data across spatial and temporal scales.

  9. Evaluating order in vertical successions of deltaic Holocene sediments on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincavage, R.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Most stratigraphic models are predicated on the presence of cyclicity or some form of order in vertical successions of strata. In spite of this a priori assumption of ordered stratigraphy, rarely are statistical metrics employed to quantify cyclicity in sedimentary packages. The presence or absence of preserved order in vertical sedimentary successions has important implications for the nature of environmental signals that are transmitted into the rock record. We interrogate the Holocene sedimentary archive of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD) in an effort to explore to what extent fluvio-deltaic deposits exhibit recognizable order. Specifically, we focus on grain size data to evaluate 1.) if stratigraphic order in vertical sedimentary successions can be identified and quantified, and 2.) if there are spatial patterns of stratigraphic order across the GBMD. A runs order metric r is used to identify sequences of coarsening and fining within an extensive borehole network. Observed grain size data are shuffled enough times to generate synthetic "random" stratigraphy, and a Monte Carlo simulation generates 5000 realizations. The distribution of r values from the Monte Carlo are compared to the r metric calculated from observed data to determine how likely the observed metric could be generated by chance. The spatial distribution of order metrics indicates a relationship between areas of enhanced mass extraction and preservation of fluvial successions that scale with modern bar deposits on the Jamuna River. Similarly, probability metrics indicate that vertical successions of grain size data unlikely to have been generated by chance are more likely to be found on distal areas of the delta where 60% of the input mass has been extracted. Combining a mass balance framework with simple statistical metrics has the potential of improving predictions of the stratigraphic architecture and the preservation of ordered vs. disordered signals in the sedimentary record.

  10. Biometrics of the rare fish Rhinomugil corsula (Hamilton, 1822 (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae in the Ganges, Northwestern Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Yeamin Hossain

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate biometrics of the Rhinomugil corsula (Hamilton, 1822 (R. corsula, including length-weight relationships (LWRs, condition factors (Allometric, KA; Fulton’s, KF; Relative, KR; Relative weight, WR, and sex ratio and length-frequency distributions in the Ganges (Padma River, Northwestern Bangladesh. Methods: Monthly sampling was conducted using traditional fishing gears during June to August 2012. Total length was measured to the nearest 0.01 cm using digital slide calipers, and total body weight was measured using an electronic balance with 0.01 g accuracy. The LWR was calculated using the expression: W= a×Lb , where the W is the body weight , L is the total length , a and b are the parameters of the regression. Results: A total of 350 specimens ranging from 8.59-15.71 cm in total length and 9.57-32.59 g in body weight were analyzed during this study. The overall sex ratio was not significantly different from the expected value of 1:1 (χ2 =2.57, P>0.05, but there was significant difference in the length-frequency distributions between the sexes (P=0.03. The allometric coefficient b for the LWR indicated negative allometric growth (b≈3.00 in males, female and combined sexes. Results further indicated that KF was not significantly different between the sexes (P=0.57. However, the mean WR of R. corsula showed significant differences from 100 for males (P=0.03 and females (P<0.001 in this study, indicating the imbalance habitat with food availability relative to the presence of predators. Conclusions: This study reported the first description of biometric relationships for R. corsula, which would be useful for the sustainable conservation of this rear fishery in Bangladesh and also neighboring countries.

  11. Comparing and contrasting observed adaptations in three deltas: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra, Mahanadi and Volta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Suckall, N.; Mensah, A.; Mondal, S.; Dey, S.; Hazra, S.

    2015-12-01

    In low and middle-income countries, many deltaic communities directly depend on the natural environment for income and well-being. Current environmental concerns that threaten deltaic communities, such as increasing salinity, sedimentation, erosion and subsidence are likely to be exacerbated by climate change and variability, for example sea-level rise, increased storminess and rising temperatures. Such changes, along with other social and environmental stressors, mean that communities must adapt. This paper outlines findings of a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature that examines observed adaptations in three deltas of differing sizes in various geographical contexts: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra in India and Bangladesh, the Mahanadi in India, and the Volta in Ghana. It compares and contrasts various elements of observed adaptations, including who is driving the adaptation, the beneficiaries, barriers to participation and evidence for maladaptation. The predominant drivers of adaptation vary from government (at state level in India and national level in Bangladesh) and NGOs (in Ghana). Autonomous adaptations are not widely reported in the literature from any of the deltas. In all three deltas there is a focus on supporting adaptation in farming rather than fishing; despite the fact that fisheries contribute to local food security as well as national economies. Lack of access to financial, natural, physical and human capital are common barriers to adaptation in all three deltas. Additionally the Indian literature in particular highlights the lack of coordination between different government departments, coupled with an excessively top-down (state-driven) approach to adaptation. Maladaptation is most commonly reported in the literature from Bangladesh, for example, loss of employment of inland fishermen in embanked areas. The paper concludes by highlighting some of the implications of these findings for adaptation policy in deltas.

  12. Hydroxylated PBDEs induce developmental arrest in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usenko, Crystal Y., E-mail: Crystal_usenko@baylor.edu; Hopkins, David C.; Trumble, Stephen J., E-mail: Stephen_trumble@baylor.edu; Bruce, Erica D., E-mail: Erica_bruce@baylor.edu

    2012-07-01

    The ubiquitous spread of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has led to concerns regarding the metabolites of these congeners, in particular hydroxylated PBDEs. There are limited studies regarding the biological interactions of these chemicals, yet there is some concern they may be more toxic than their parent compounds. In this study three hydroxylated PBDEs were assessed for toxicity in embryonic zebrafish: 3-OH-BDE 47, 5-OH-BDE 47, and 6-OH-BDE 47. All three congeners induced developmental arrest in a concentration-dependent manner; however, 6-OH-BDE 47 induced adverse effects at lower concentrations than the other congeners. Furthermore, all three induced cell death; however apoptosis was not observed. In short-term exposures (24–28 hours post fertilization), all hydroxylated PBDEs generated oxidative stress in the region corresponding to the cell death at 5 and 10 ppm. To further investigate the short-term effects that may be responsible for the developmental arrest observed in this study, gene regulation was assessed for embryos exposed to 0.625 ppm 6-OH-BDE 47 from 24 to 28 hpf. Genes involved in stress response, thyroid hormone regulation, and neurodevelopment were significantly upregulated compared to controls; however, genes related to oxidative stress were either unaffected or downregulated. This study suggests that hydroxylated PBDEs disrupt development, and may induce oxidative stress and potentially disrupt the cholinergic system and thyroid hormone homeostasis. -- Highlights: ► OH-PBDEs induce developmental arrest in a concentration-dependent manner. ► Hydroxyl group location influences biological interaction. ► OH-PBDEs induce oxidative stress. ► Thyroid hormone gene regulation was disrupted following exposure. ► To our knowledge, this is the first whole organism study of OH-PBDE toxicity.

  13. Heterocyclic organobismuth (III) compounds containing an eight-membered ring: Inhibitory effects on cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuchi, Katsuya; Yagura, Tatsuo

    2018-03-21

    We previously showed that heterocyclic organobismuth compounds have excellent antimicrobial and antitumor potential. These compounds structurally consist of either six- or eight-membered rings. Previous research has shown that bi-chlorodibenzo[c,f][1,5]thiabismocine (Compound 3), an eight-membered ring, induced G 2 /M arrest via inhibition of tubulin polymerization in HeLa cells. Additionally, N-tert-butyl-bi-chlorodi-benzo[c,f][1,5]azabismocine (Compound 1), another eight-membered ring, exhibited higher cytotoxicity than Compound 3 against several cancer cell lines, including HeLa and K562. Finally, bi-chlorophenothiabismin-S,S-dioxide (Compound 5), a six-membered ring, exhibited lower antitumor activity than eight-membered ring compounds. In this study, we investigated the antimitotic activity of Compounds 1 and 5 in HeLa cells. At low concentrations, (0.1 and 0.25 μM), Compound 1 inhibited cell growth and arrested the cell cycle in mitosis. However, 0.5 μM Compound 1 exhibited no antimitotic activity. Conversely, Compound 5 weakly inhibited cell growth and did not markedly arrest the cell cycle. Flow cytometry showed that Compound 1 arrested the cell cycle at G 2 /M, resulting in apoptosis. Compound 1 inhibited tubulin polymerization as revealed by a cell-free assay, and both Compounds 1 and 3 inhibited microtubule spindle formation and chromosome alignment during prometaphase. These results suggest that eight-membered ring-containing organobismuth compounds can induce mitotic arrest by perturbing spindle dynamics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Nature of distribution of mercury in the sediments of the river Yamuna (tributary of the Ganges), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, V; Madhavan, N; Saxena, Rajinder; Lundin, Lars-Christer

    2003-06-01

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), surface (bed sediments) and short length cores of sediments collected from the largest tributary of the river Ganges, namely the river Yamuna, were analysed for total mercury as well as its fractionation in various size and chemical sites in the sediments following standard procedures. Also, attempts were made to determine the vertical distribution in sediments in relation to the recent timescale of a few decades. Our observations indicate that the SPM in general showed higher levels of total mercury compared to the surface sediments while at places the enhancement could be by a factor of 10, say around 25 microg g(-1) in the downstream region that integrates the industrial midstream and agricultural downstream terrain near its confluence with the Ganges. Surface sediments in the upstream direction near the Himalayan foothills and SPM in the lower reaches showed significant high Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) as defined by Müller. Size fractionation studies indicate that the finer fraction preferentially showed higher levels of mercury while in the lower reaches of the river, the total mercury is equitably distributed among all size fractions. The proportion of the residual fraction of mercury in relation to mobile fractions, in general decreases downstream towards its confluence with the Ganges river. In sediment cores, the vertical distribution show systematic peaks of mercury indicating that addition of this toxic metal to the aquatic system is in direct proportion to the increase in various types of human activities such as thermal power plants, land use changes (urbanisation) in the midstream region and intensive fertiliser application in lower reaches of this vast river basin.

  15. Crack arrest concepts for failure prevention and life extension. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings contain the thirteen papers presented at a seminar on crack arrest concepts for failure prevention and life extension. They provide a picture of the current position of crack arrest testing, models and applications, discussion of the relevance of recent research to industrial problems, and an assessment of whether the application of crack arrest models provides additional safety. Separate abstracts have been prepared for seven papers of relevance to the nuclear industry and, in particular, reactor pressure vessels. (UK)

  16. Model study of the impacts of future climate change on the hydrology of Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, M.; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Hanasaki, N.; Takeuchi, K.

    2014-06-01

    The intensity, duration, and geographic extent of floods in Bangladesh mostly depend on the combined influences of three river systems, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM). In addition, climate change is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology and water resources of the GBM basins and might ultimately lead to more serious floods in Bangladesh. However, the assessment of climate change impacts on basin-scale hydrology by using well-constrained hydrologic modelling has rarely been conducted for GBM basins due to the lack of data for model calibration and validation. In this study, a macro-scale hydrologic model H08 has been applied regionally over the basin at a relatively fine grid resolution (10 km) by integrating the fine-resolution (~0.5 km) DEM data for accurate river networks delineation. The model has been calibrated via analyzing model parameter sensitivity and validated based on a long-term observed daily streamflow data. The impact of climate change on not only the runoff, but also the basin-scale hydrology including evapotranspiration, soil moisture and net radiation have been assessed in this study through three time-slice experiments; present-day (1979-2003), near-future (2015-2039) and far-future (2075-2099) periods. Results shows that, by the end of 21st century (a) the entire GBM basin is projected to be warmed by ~3°C (b) the changes of mean precipitation are projected to be +14.0, +10.4, and +15.2%, and the changes of mean runoff to be +14, +15, and +18% in the Brahmaputra, Ganges and Meghna basin respectively (c) evapotranspiration is predicted to increase significantly for the entire GBM basins (Brahmaputra: +14.4%, Ganges: +9.4%, Meghna: +8.8%) due to increased net radiation (Brahmaputra: +6%, Ganges: +5.9%, Meghna: +3.3%) as well as warmer air temperature. Changes of hydrologic variables will be larger in dry season (November-April) than that in wet season (May-October). Amongst three basins, Meghna shows the largest hydrological

  17. Assessing regional climate simulations of the last 30 years (1982-2012) over Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandu; Awange, Joseph L.; Anyah, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Fukuda, Yoichi

    2017-10-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) River Basin presents a spatially diverse hydrological regime due to it's complex topography and escalating demand for freshwater resources. This presents a big challenge in applying the current state-of-the-art regional climate models (RCMs) for climate change impact studies in the GBM River Basin. In this study, several RCM simulations generated by RegCM4.4 and PRECIS are assessed for their seasonal and interannual variations, onset/withdrawal of the Indian monsoon, and long-term trends in precipitation and temperature from 1982 to 2012. The results indicate that in general, RegCM4.4 and PRECIS simulations appear to reasonably reproduce the mean seasonal distribution of precipitation and temperature across the GBM River Basin, although the two RCMs are integrated over a different domain size. On average, the RegCM4.4 simulations overestimate monsoon precipitation by {˜ }26 and {˜ }5% in the Ganges and Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin, respectively, while PRECIS simulations underestimate (overestimate) the same by {˜ }7% ({˜ }16%). Both RegCM4.4 and PRECIS simulations indicate an intense cold bias (up to 10° C) in the Himalayas, and are generally stronger in the RegCM4.4 simulations. Additionally, they tend to produce high precipitation between April and May in the Ganges (RegCM4.4 simulations) and Brahmaputra-Meghna (PRECIS simulations) River Basins, resulting in early onset of the Indian monsoon in the Ganges River Basin. PRECIS simulations exhibit a delayed monsoon withdrawal in the Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin. Despite large spatial variations in onset and withdrawal periods across the GBM River Basin, the basin-averaged results agree reasonably well with the observed periods. Although global climate model (GCM) driven simulations are generally poor in representing the interannual variability of precipitation and winter temperature variations, they tend to agree well with observed precipitation anomalies when driven by

  18. Air Pollution Over the Ganges Basin and Northwest Bay of Bengal in the Early Postmonsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2014-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office. This reanalysis is based on a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) model radiatively coupled with Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. In October over the period 2002-2009, MERRAero showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the northwest of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions because of higher population density, increased industrial output, and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the northwest of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal (BoB), AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over northwest BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation butmainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Moreover, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux was sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation over northwest BoB.

  19. Pathological links between stroke and cardiac arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaila Ghanekar; Sydney Corey; Trenton Lippert; Cesar V.Borlongan

    2017-01-01

    There may be a pathological connection between cardiac failure and ischemic stroke.In this article we describe pertinent research that demonstrates subsequent death of cardiac and neural myocytes in the post ischemic stroke brain.Current stroke therapy overlooks the connection between cardiac and cerebrovascular events and fails to address the shared risk factors.Current pre-clinical stroke investigations have provided evidence that suggests the presence of an indirect cell death pathway in which toxic molecules emanate from the stroke brain and trigger cardiac cell death.On the other hand,other studies highlight the presence of a reverse cell death cascade in which toxic molecules from the heart,following cardiac arrest,travel to the brain and induce ischemic cell death.Further examination of these putative cell death pathways between ischemic stroke and cardiac arrest will prompt the advancement of innovative treatments specifically targeting both diseases,leading to ameliorated clinical results of patients diagnosed with heart failure and ischemic stroke.

  20. Cerebral intolerance during flow arrested carotid angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Myron; Park, Brian D; Dahn, Michael; Bozeman, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The use of flow arrest as a means of providing cerebral protection during carotid angioplasty offers the advantages of improved efficiency of debris removal and the ability to provide protection under unfavorable (tortuous) anatomic circumstances. However, in contrast to the filtration methods of cerebral protection, this modality requires complete interruption of antegrade carotid artery flow during balloon angioplasty and stent deployment. We report our experience with 9 patients undergoing carotid angioplasty with the Mo.Ma device, which utilizes common and external carotid artery balloon occlusion during the angioplasty procedure. We assessed the clinical outcomes and intraprocedural hemodynamic data. The average duration of carotid occlusion was 8.3 minutes. Of the 9 patients, 2 patients (22%) experienced cerebral intolerance. No stroke occurred in this patient cohort. There appeared to be a poor relationship between procedure intolerance and the presence of significant contralateral stenosis or low carotid back pressure. Furthermore, the incidence of postangioplasty hypotension was not clearly related to cerebral intolerance. Carotid angioplasty with stenting can be safely conducted with flow arrest as an alternative to filter-type cerebral protection devices. However, because cerebral intolerance is not an infrequent occurrence with this approach, clinicians must be cognizant of management strategies for transient cerebral intolerance.

  1. Two Hours of Teamwork Training Improves Teamwork in Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrest Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahramus, Tara L; Penoyer, Daleen A; Waterval, Eugene M E; Sole, Mary L; Bowe, Eileen M

    2016-01-01

    Teamwork during cardiopulmonary arrest events is important for resuscitation. Teamwork improvement programs are usually lengthy. This study assessed the effectiveness of a 2-hour teamwork training program. A prospective, pretest/posttest, quasi-experimental design assessed the teamwork training program targeted to resident physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists. Participants took part in a simulated cardiac arrest. After the simulation, participants and trained observers assessed perceptions of teamwork using the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) tool (ratings of 0 [low] to 4 [high]). A debriefing and 45 minutes of teamwork education followed. Participants then took part in a second simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Afterward, participants and observers assessed teamwork. Seventy-three team members participated-resident physicians (25%), registered nurses (32%), and respiratory therapists (41%). The physicians had significantly less experience on code teams (P teamwork scores were 2.57 to 2.72. Participants' mean (SD) scores on the TEAM tool for the first and second simulations were 3.2 (0.5) and 3.7 (0.4), respectively (P teamwork educational intervention resulted in improved perceptions of teamwork behaviors. Participants reported interactions with other disciplines, teamwork behavior education, and debriefing sessions were beneficial for enhancing the program.

  2. An examination of outlaw motorcycle gangs and their involvement in the illicit drug market and the effectiveness of anti-association legislative responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsworthy, Terry; McGillivray, Laura

    2017-03-01

    In 2013 the Queensland Government introduced criminal association and mandatory sentencing laws for members of outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCGs). Forms of "criminal association" or "anti-bikie" laws have been introduced in several Australian jurisdictions, and recent High Court decisions upholding their constitutionality will ensure that they remain part of our justice landscape. Generally, the aims of these laws are to declare a specific organisation as "criminal" and impose various legal orders and offences that thwart the consorting of members and address organised crime, such as unexplained wealth regimes. There have been significant criticisms of these styles of association laws both here and internationally. The aim of this research is to show the extent of involvement of OMCGs in the drug trade and associated organised crime activity, and whether anti-association laws are an effective response to this type of organised criminal activity. This paper relied on six years of data outlining the criminal activity of OMCGs from the Queensland Police Service (QPS) obtained under the legislative framework of The Queensland Right to Information Act (RTI) 2009. Information obtained from the Queensland Commission into Organised Crime (2015) and Queensland Taskforce into organised crime legislation (2015) was also used. The data suggest that the role of OMCGs in the drug market has been overstated and is not as dominant as has been portrayed by government agencies and the popular media. Generally, OMCGs account for less than one percent of organised crime type activity. This is also true for drug type offences where OMCGs are responsible for less than one percent of offences. The findings show that the Queensland example has highlighted the ineffectiveness of the criminal association laws and the mandatory sentencing provisions in that they have had little impact on drug market activity and little success in the courts. The analysis presented here is twofold: an

  3. Canaries in the coal mine: Interpersonal violence, gang violence, and violent extremism through a public health prevention lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, David P; Flavahan, Louise

    2017-08-01

    This paper asks what programmes and policies for preventing violent extremism (also called 'countering violent extremism', or CVE) can learn from the public health violence prevention field. The general answer is that addressing violent extremism within the wider domain of public health violence prevention connects the effort to a relevant field of research, evidence-based policy and programming, and a broader population reach. This answer is reached by examining conceptual alignments between the two fields at both the case-level and the theoretical level. To address extremist violence within the wider reach of violence prevention, having a shared model is seen as a first step. The World Health Organization uses the social-ecological framework for assessing the risk and protective factors for violence and developing effective public-health based programmes. This study illustrates how this model has been used for gang violence prevention and explores overlaps between gang violence prevention and preventing violent extremism. Finally, it provides policy and programme recommendations to align CVE with public health violence prevention.

  4. Understanding the drivers of the future water gap in the Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerzeel, W. W.; Wijngaard, R. R.; Biemans, H.; Lutz, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra (IGB) river systems provide water resources for the agricultural, domestic and industrial sectors sustaining the lives of about 700 million people. The region is globally a hotspot for climate change as the headwaters of these rivers are fed by melt water from snow and glaciers, both strongly influenced by temperature change. In addition, the hydrology in the region is determined by the monsoon and its future dynamics as a results of climate change remains very uncertain. Simultaneously, the population is projected to grow rapidly over the coming decades, which in combination with strong economic developments, will likely result in a rapid increase in water demand. In this study we attempt to quantify the future water gap in the IGB and attribute this water gap to climate change and socio-economic growth. For the upstream mountainous parts of the basins we use the SPHY model, which is calibrated based on historical streamflow and glacier mass balance data and forced by the latest CMIP5 future climate model data for RCP4.5 and 8.5. Output of this model feeds into the downstream LPJmL model, which allows assessment of downstream climate change impacts and projected changes in water demand as a result of socio-economic developments. The LPJmL model is run for different combinations of RCPs and Shared Socio Economic Pathways (SSPs). Our results show that for the IGB as a whole climate change will increase water availability in the coming decades, due to an overall, albeit uncertain, increase in monsoon precipitation in combination with a sustained melt water supply from the upstream parts of the basins. However, irrespective of the SSP and RCP, the water demand as a result of socio-economic growth is expected to increase extremely fast in the near future and this is likely to be the main adaptation challenge for the IGB as far as water shortages are concerned. Our results also show that regional and temporal variation in the water gap

  5. Strategies for transdisciplinary research on peri-urban groundwater management in the Ganges delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Leon; Thissen, Wil; Gomes, Sharlene; Banerjee, Poulomi; Narain, Vishal; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Hasan, Rezaul; Barua, Anamika; Alam Khan, Shah; Bhattacharya, Samir; Kempers, Remi; Banerjee, Parthasarathi; Hossain, Zakir; Majumdar, Binoy; Hossain, Riad

    2016-04-01

    Transdisciplinary science transcends disciplinary boundaries. The reasons to engage in transdisciplinary science are many and include the desire to nurture a more direct relationship between science and society, as well as the desire to explain phenomena that cannot be explained by any of the existing disciplinary bodies of knowledge in isolation. Both reasons also reinforce each other, as reality often features a level of complexity that demands and inspires the combination of scientific knowledge from various disciplines. The challenge in transdisciplinary science, however, is not so much to cross disciplinary boundaries, but to ensure an effective connection between disciplines. This contribution reports on the strategy used in a transdisciplinary research project to address groundwater management in peri-urban areas in the Ganges delta. Groundwater management in peri-urban areas in rapidly urbanizing deltas is affected by diverse forces such as rapid population growth, increased economic activity and changing livelihood patterns, and other forces which result in a growing pressure on available groundwater resources. Understanding the intervention possibilities for a more sustainable groundwater management in these peri-urban areas requires an understanding of the dynamic interplay between various sub-systems, such as the physical groundwater system, the water using activities in households and livelihoods, and the institutional system of formal and informal rules that are used by various parties to access groundwater resources and to distribute the associated societal and economic costs and benefits. The ambition in the reported project is to contribute both new scientific knowledge, as well as build capacity with peri-urban stakeholders to improve the sustainability and equitability of local groundwater management. This is done by combining science and development activities, led by different organizations. The scientific component further consists of three

  6. Modeling Elevation Equilibrium and Human Adaptation in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasich, C. M.; Gilligan, J. M.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Hale, R. P.; Wilson, C.

    2017-12-01

    The communities living in the low-lying tidal reaches of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta rely on a system of polders (earthen-embanked landscapes) to prevent against tidal inundation and storm surge. These communities initially thrived as a result of poldering due to the increase in the total arable land, which presently helps sustain a population of 20 million people. However, poldering led to the unintended consequence of reducing water and sediment exchange between the polders and the tidal network, which has resulted in a significant elevation offset of 1-1.5 m relative to that of the natural landscape. This offset causes significant waterlogging which is problematic for rice cultivation. Engineering solutions, such as Tidal River Management (TRM), have been proposed to help alleviate this offset. Previous work suggests with proper implementation of TRM, polder elevations can successfully be reequilibrated to that of the natural elevation on timescales of 5-20 years. However, TRM implementation requires community commitment to allowing controlled tidal inundation. Here, we expand previous numerical simulations of sediment accumulation through field-based constraints of grain size, compaction, and sea level rise. We then model human decision-making for implementation of TRM practices using an agent-based model. Our sediment model employs a mass balance of sediment accumulation as a function of tidal height, suspended sediment concentration, settling velocity, and dry bulk density. We couple this sediment model to an agent-based model of human decision making. We model a hypothetical 500 x 300 m polder community with the lowest elevations in the middle and the highest elevations adjacent to the tidal channels. Landowners assess their risk and profit for future scenarios with and without TRM. All landowner decisions are aggregated and then a community decision is made on whether to implement TRM. Initial findings suggest that basic voting (majority rule) results in

  7. Coastal Dynamics of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: 1988-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, S.; Sousa, D.; Mondal, D. R.; Small, C.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we quantify erosional and depositional processes in the coastal zone (including tidal flats and river channels) of the lower Ganges Brahmaputra delta (GBD). Recent availability of accurately coregistered, radiometrically intercalibrated, Landsat TM, ETM+ & OLI collected since 1988 allows for spatiotemporal (ST) analyses of both natural and anthropogenic processes in the coastal zone on seasonal to interannual time scales. We quantify changes in the coastal zone using 106 cloud-free acquisitions in the area of the 3 Landsat scenes spanning the lower delta. Changes are quantified using multitemporal spectral mixture analysis of exoatmospheric reflectance to represent land cover and water bodies as continuous fields of soil and sediment substrates (S), vegetation (V), and dark surfaces (D; water & shadow). We also use MODIS 16-day EVI composite time series and high spatial resolution (2-4 m) imagery post-2000 to extend and vicariously validate the Landsat-derived observations. Because water levels on the lower delta change by several meters on time scales of hours (tides), months (discharge) and years (relative sea level rise), we use a network of 11 tide gauges to distinguish the effects of these changes in the coastal zone imaged by Landsat. Cross spectral analysis of this network of tide gauge records quantifies the dominant periods and relative magnitudes as well as phase of water level variations across these time scales. Tide gauge records are used to identify Landsat scenes acquired at similar water levels as well as the effects of water level on variations in tidal flats. Water level and water leaving radiance are used to map spatiotemporal variations in suspended sediment. Tri-temporal change maps of SVD fractions show progressive changes of coastlines throughout the study period. We find significant change in tidal flats in acquisitions from different tidal heights, alluding to the importance of tidal phase in coastal analyses. Erosion of

  8. Food and Nutrition Security Trends, Determinants and Challenges in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, K.; van Soesbergen, A.; Matthews, Z.; Burgess, N.

    2016-12-01

    In the last 20 years many developing countries have made considerable progress towards improving food security and nutrition. However, progress across countries and dimensions of food security have been uneven. While challenges to food security in the context of environmental and climate changes have been studied widely, limited evidence exists for their implications for food and nutrition security in tropical deltaic regions. Delta areas are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity and malnutrition due the specific environmental, climatic and human development factors affecting agricultural production and fisheries. These include coastal flooding and storm surges, deforestation, changes to river flow patterns and water tables, increased soil salinity and water quality degradation. Due to the large number of people living in deltaic regions and their importance in regional food production, there is a pressing need for a better understanding on how environmental factors affect food security and malnutrition. This study explores the potential impacts and challenges posed by environmental and climate change on food and nutrition security in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. This delta is one of the world's largest delta's draining land from Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India and Nepal. The delta makes up around two thirds of the country of Bangladesh, a country facing high levels of child undernutrition, child mortality and a high number of people living under extreme poverty. By combining spatially explicit data from the 2007 and 2011 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for Bangladesh with satellite remote sensing data (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) for relevant growing seasons of rice, the strength of association between this climate related environmental variable and indicators of child nutrition (wasting and stunting) in the delta were evaluated. Our results show that NDVI for the growing season of rice can be used to determine trends in rice production

  9. Association of National Initiatives to Improve Cardiac Arrest Management With Rates of Bystander Intervention and Patient Survival After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg, Mads; Lippert, Freddy K; Folke, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    resuscitation was attempted were identified between 2001 and 2010 in the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Of 29 111 patients with cardiac arrest, we excluded those with presumed noncardiac cause of arrest (n = 7390) and those with cardiac arrests witnessed by emergency medical services personnel (n...

  10. Performance of Surge Arrester Installation to Enhance Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbunwe Muncho Josephine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of abnormal voltages on power system equipment and appliances in the home have raise concern as most of the equipments are very expensive. Each piece of electrical equipment in an electrical system needs to be protected from surges. To prevent damage to electrical equipment, surge protection considerations are paramount to a well designed electrical system. Lightning discharges are able to damage electric and electronic devices that usually have a low protection level and these are influenced by current or voltage pulses with a relatively low energy, which are induced by lightning currents. This calls for proper designed and configuration of surge arresters for protection on the particular appliances. A more efficient non-linear surge arrester, metal oxide varistor (MOV, should be introduced to handle these surges. This paper shows the selection of arresters laying more emphasis on the arresters for residential areas. In addition, application and installation of the arrester will be determined by the selected arrester. This paper selects the lowest rated surge arrester as it provides insulation when the system is under stress. It also selected station class and distribution class of arresters as they act as an open circuit under normal system operation and to bring the system back to its normal operation mode as the transient voltage is suppressed. Thus, reduces the risk of damage, which the protection measures can be characterized, by the reduction value of the economic loss to an acceptable level.

  11. Cardiac arrest during anesthesia at a University Hospital in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: We assessed the incidence and outcomes of cardiac arrest during anesthesia in the operating room at our university hospital. A previous study on intraoperative cardiac arrests covered a period from 1994-1998 and since then; anesthetic personnel, equipment, and workload have increased remarkably.

  12. Efficacy of silver diamine fluoride for Arresting Caries Treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yee, R.T.F.; Holmgren, C.J.; Mulder, J.; Lama, D.; Walker, D.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2009-01-01

    Arresting Caries Treatment (ACT) has been proposed to manage untreated dental caries in children. This prospective randomized clinical trial investigated the caries-arresting effectiveness of a single spot application of: (1) 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) with tannic acid as a reducing agent;

  13. Cooling the crisis: Therapeutic hypothermia after sickle cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metske, Hennie A.; Postema, Pieter G.; Biemond, Bart J.; Bouman, Catherine S. C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The management of patients with sickle-cell disease and cardiac arrest presents special challenges. Mild therapeutic hypothermia may improve survival and neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest, however, it may also precipitate sickling in patients with sickle-cell disease. Rigorous

  14. 29 CFR 1915.159 - Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS). 1915.159 Section 1915... Protective Equipment (PPE) § 1915.159 Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS). The criteria of this section apply to PFAS and their use. Effective January 1, 1998, body belts and non-locking snaphooks are not...

  15. Glued structural members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell C. Moody; Jen Y. Liu

    1999-01-01

    Glued structural members are manufactured in a variety of configurations. Structural composite lumber (SCL) products consist of small pieces of wood glued together into sizes common for solid-sawn lumber. Glued-laminated timber (glulam) is an engineered stress-rated product that consists of two or more layers of lumber in which the grain of all layers is oriented...

  16. CERN welcomes new members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Lithuania is on course to become an associate member of CERN, pending final approval by the Lithuanian parliament. Associate membership will allow representatives of the Baltic nation to take part in meetings of the CERN Council, which oversees the Geneva-based physics lab.

  17. DUBNA: Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The political upheaval in what was the Soviet Union was reflected in an Extraordinary Plenipotentiaries Committee of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Member States, held in Dubna, near Moscow, on 10-13 December, with representatives of eleven sovereign republics of the former Soviet State taking part

  18. Maturation arrest of human oocytes at germinal vesicle stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Qin Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maturation arrest of human oocytes may occur at various stages of the cell cycle. A total failure of human oocytes to complete meiosis is rarely observed during assisted conception cycles. We describe here a case of infertile couples for whom all oocytes repeatedly failed to mature at germinal vesicle (GV stage during in vitro fertilization/Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. The patient underwent controlled ovarian stimulation followed by oocyte retrieval and IVF/ICSI. The oocytes were stripped off cumulus cells prior to the ICSI procedure and their maturity status was defined. The oocyte maturation was repeatedly arrested at the GV. Oocyte maturation arrest may be the cause of infertility in this couple. The recognition of oocyte maturation arrest as a specific medical condition may contribute to the characterization of the currently known as "oocyte factor." The cellular and genetic mechanisms causing oocyte maturation arrest should be the subject for further investigation.

  19. Growth arrest specific protein (GAS) 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, T N; Rasmussen, Morten; Jaksch, C A M

    2013-01-01

    using RNA microarray and quantitative PCR. The role of a differentially expressed gene, growth arrest specific protein 6 (GAS6), was evaluated in vitro using neonatal rat islets. Results The mRNA level of Gas6, known to be mitogenic in other tissues, was reduced in LP offspring. The mRNA content of Mafa...... was increased in LP offspring suggesting an early maturation of beta cells. When applied in vitro, GAS6 increased proliferation of neonatal pancreatic beta cells, while reducing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without changing the total insulin content of the islets. In addition, GAS6 decreased the m......RNA content of Mafa. Conclusions/interpretation We propose a role for GAS6 in the regulation of pancreatic beta cells in the critical period around the time of birth. Our results support the hypothesis that the reduced beta cell mass seen in LP offspring is caused by a change in the intra-uterine environment...

  20. Structural arrest in an ideal gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ketel, Willem; Das, Chinmay; Frenkel, Daan

    2005-04-08

    We report a molecular dynamics study of a simple model system that has the static properties of an ideal gas, yet exhibits nontrivial "glassy" dynamics behavior at high densities. The constituent molecules of this system are constructs of three infinitely thin hard rods of length L, rigidly joined at their midpoints. The crosses have random but fixed orientation. The static properties of this system are those of an ideal gas, and its collision frequency can be computed analytically. For number densities NL(3)/V>1, the single-particle diffusivity goes to zero. As the system is completely structureless, standard mode-coupling theory cannot describe the observed structural arrest. Nevertheless, the system exhibits many dynamical features that appear to be mode-coupling-like. All high-density incoherent intermediate scattering functions collapse onto master curves that depend only on the wave vector.

  1. 'When you're boxing you don't think so much': Pugilism, transitional masculinities and criminal desistance among young Danish gang members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deuchar, Ross; Søgaard, Thomas Friis; Kolind, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    provided the young men with a safe space to perform broader versions of locally dominated views on masculinity and to reflect on their current situations and dilemmas. The young men were clearly in transition and their desistance journeys were characterized by hope and ambition but also disappointment...

  2. ERC initiatives to reduce the burden of cardiac arrest: the European Cardiac Arrest Awareness Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Marios; Lockey, Andrew S

    2013-09-01

    The rate of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Europe remains unacceptably low and could be increased by better bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rates. The European Resuscitation Council has announced that there will be a European Cardiac Arrest Awareness Day every year on the 16th of October. This is to coincide with the goals of the Written Declaration passed by the European Parliament in June 2012 that emphasised the importance of equal access to CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED) training. The topic of this year's Awareness Day is 'Children Saving Lives' and it is hoped that all national resuscitation councils will promote awareness of the benefits of training all children in CPR and AED use and lobby for legislative change to ensure that all children receive this training. Children are not just the adults of tomorrow - they are the lifesavers of today and tomorrow. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prehospital cardiac arrest survival and neurologic recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, M; Sinclair, D; Butler, G; Cain, E

    1993-01-01

    Many studies of prehospital defibrillation have been conducted but the effects of airway intervention are unknown and neurologic follow-up has been incomplete. A non-randomized cohort prospective study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of defibrillation in prehospital cardiac arrest. Two ambulance companies in the study area developed a defibrillation protocol and they formed the experimental group. A subgroup of these patients received airway management with an esophageal obturator airway (EOA) or endotracheal intubation (ETT). The control group was composed of patients who suffered a prehospital cardiac arrest and did not receive prehospital defibrillation. All survivors were assessed for residual deficits using the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) and the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS). A total of 221 patients were studied over a 32-month period. Both the experimental group (N = 161) and the control group (N = 60) were comparable with respect to age, sex distribution, and ambulance response time. Survival to hospital discharge was 2/60 (3.3%) in the control group and 12/161 (6.3%) in the experimental group. This difference is not statistically significant. Survival in the experimental group by airway management technique was basic airway support (3/76 3.9%), EOA (3/67 4.5%), and ETT (6/48 12.5%). The improved effect on survival by ETT management was statistically significant. Survivors had minor differences in memory, work, and recreation as compared to ischemic heart disease patients as measured by the SIP and DRS. No effect of defibrillation was found on survival to hospital discharge. However, endotracheal intubation improved survival in defibrillated patients. Survivors had a good functional outcome.

  4. A survey of perfluorinated compounds in surface water and biota including dolphins from the Ganges River and in other waterbodies in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yeung, L.W.Y.; Yamashita, N.; Taniyasu, S.; Lam, P.K.S.; Sinha, R; Borole, D.V.; Kannan, K.

    and biomagnifications factors of PFCs were estimated in the Ganges River basin food web. The highest concentration of PFOA, 23.1 ng L sup(-1), was found in untreated sewage samples. Overall, concentrations of PFCs of water and biological samples from India are lower...

  5. Towards a National Gang Strategy: A Meta-Policy Analysis of Leadership, Learning, and Organizational Change within the Law Enforcement Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Maurice V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the process of change within law enforcement, focusing on the leadership, learning, and organizational change required to reduce crime, violence, and social disruption caused by criminal street gangs. The study tests the viability, results, and implications of a new policing model, the trans-jurisdictional task force, through…

  6. Supporting Members and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Thank you! Over the past year, AGU has received 12,104 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program and National Association of Geoscience Teachers. Together their generosity has benefited AGU non revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5,000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000 or more) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major gifts and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($200-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$199). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are among our most loyal Supporters.

  7. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Summer is coming, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 25 € instead of 31 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your Staff Association member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.  

  8. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 24 € instead of 30 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  9. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Summer is coming, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 24 € instead of 30 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  10. [Comment on] BOSP members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The new Board on Ocean Science and Policy (BOSP) (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402) met for the first time on May 4. John B. Slaughter, former director of the National Science Foundation and now chancellor of the University of Maryland in College Park, is the board's chairman. Other board members are D. James Baker, Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle); Kirk Bryan (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University); John P. Craven (University of Hawaii); Charles L. Drake (Dartmouth College); Paul M. Fye (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Edward D. Goldberg (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); G. Ross Heath (Oregon State University); Judith T. Kildow (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); John A. Knauss (University of Rhode Island); James J. McCarthy (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University); H. William Menard (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); C. Barry Raleigh (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory); Roger Revelle (University of California, San Diego); David A. Ross (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Brian J. Rothschild (University of Maryland); William M. Sackett (University of South Florida); John H. Steele (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); and Carl Wunsch (MIT). Wallace Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory), an original board member, resigned after the first meeting. Broecker told Eos that combining the science and policy boards resulted in a new board whose mission is too broad. A new board member will be appointed in Broecker's place

  11. N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl) retinamide potentiated paclitaxel for cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in glioblastoma C6 and RG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Rajiv; Butler, Jonathan T.; Banik, Naren L.; Ray, Swapan K.

    2009-01-01

    Glioblastoma grows aggressively due to its ability to maintain abnormally high potentials for cell proliferation. The present study examines the synergistic actions of N-(4-hdroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) and paclitaxel (PTX) to control the growth of rat glioblastoma C6 and RG2 cell lines. 4-HPR induced astrocytic differentiation was accompanied by increased expression of the tight junction protein e-cadherin and sustained down regulation of Id2 (member of inhibitor of differentiation family), catalytic subunit of rat telomerase reverse transcriptase (rTERT), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Flow cytometric analysis showed that the microtubule stabilizer PTX caused cell cycle deregulation due to G2/M arrest. This in turn could alter the fate of kinetochore-spindletube dynamics thereby halting cell cycle progression. An interesting observation was induction of G1/S arrest by combination of 4-HPR and PTX, altering the G2/M arrest induced by PTX alone. This was further ratified by the upregulation of tumor suppressor protein retinoblastoma, which repressed the expression of the key signaling moieties to induce G1/S arrest. Collectively, combination of 4-HPR and PTX diminished the survival factors (e.g., rTERT, PCNA, and Bcl-2) to make glioblastoma cells highly prone to apoptosis with activation of cysteine proteases (e.g., calpain, cathepsins, caspase-8, caspase-3) in two glioblastoma cell lines. Hence, combination 4-HPR and PTX can be considered as an effective therapeutic strategy for controlling the growth of heterogeneous glioblastoma cell populations. PMID:19285047

  12. Post-resuscitation care for survivors of cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvarya Mangla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest can occur following a myriad of clinical conditions. With advancement of medical science and improvements in Emergency Medical Services systems, the rate of return of spontaneous circulation for patients who suffer an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA continues to increase. Managing these patients is challenging and requires a structured approach including stabilization of cardiopulmonary status, early consideration of neuroprotective strategies, identifying and managing the etiology of arrest and initiating treatment to prevent recurrence. This requires a closely coordinated multidisciplinary team effort. In this article, we will review the initial management of survivors of OHCA, highlighting advances and ongoing controversies.

  13. New insights on the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta Plain by using 2D multichannel seismic data, gravity and flexural modeling, BanglaPIRE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall, C.; Pickering, J.; Steckler, M. S.; Spiess, V.; Seeber, L.; Paola, C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Palamenghi, L.; Schwenk, T.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas can subside very fast, yet many deltas remain emergent over geologic time. A large sediment input is often enough to compensate for subsidence and rising sea level to keep many deltas at sea level. This implies a balance between subsidence and sedimentation, both of which may, however, be controlled by independent factors such as sediment supply, tectonic loads and sea-level change. We here examine the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD). Located in the NE boundary of the Indian-Eurasian collision zone, the GBD is surrounded by active uplifts (Indo-Burma Fold Belt and the Shillong Massif). The pattern of subsidence from these tectonic loads can strongly vary depending on both loads and lithospheric flexural rigidity, both of which can vary in space and time. Sediment cover changes both the lithostatic pressure and the thermal properties and thus the rigidity of the lithosphere. While sediments are deposited cold, they also insulate the lithosphere, acting as a thermal blanket to increase lower crustal temperatures. These effects are a function of sedimentation rates and may be more important where the lithosphere is thin. At the massive GBD the impact of sedimentation should be considered for properly constraining flexural subsidence. The flexural rigidity of the lithosphere is here modeled by using a yield-stress envelope based on a thermomechanic model that includes geothermal changes associated with sedimentation. Models are constrained by using two different data sets, multichannel seismic data correlated to borehole stratigraphy, and gravity data. This approach allows us to determine the Holocene regional distribution of subsidence from the Hinge Zone to the Bengal Fan and the mass-anomalies associated with the flexural loading. Different end-member scenarios are explored for reproducing the observed land tilting and gravity anomalies. For all scenarios considered, data can be reproduced only if we consider an extremely weak lithosphere and

  14. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.63) is Palau which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 2 March 2007. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 144 Member States became Members

  15. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members

  16. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.64) is Nepal which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 8 July 2008. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 145 Member States became Members

  17. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.61) are Belize, Mozambique and Malawi, which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 31 March 2006, 18 September 2006 and 2 October 2006 respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 142 Member States became Members

  18. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members

  19. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.62) is Montenegro which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 30 October 2006. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 143 Member States became Members

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [ru

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members [fr

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.61) are Belize, Mozambique and Malawi, which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 31 March 2006, 18 September 2006 and 2 October 2006 respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 142 Member States became Members [fr

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [fr

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.65) is the Sultanate of Oman which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 5 February 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 146 Member States became Members [fr

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.59) is the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2004. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 138 Member States became Members

  6. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [es

  7. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members [es

  8. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.60) is Chad, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2005. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 139 Member States became Members

  9. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.65) is the Sultanate of Oman which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 5 February 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 146 Member States became Members [es

  10. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.58) is Kyrgyzstan, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 10 September 2003. The list shows the dates on which the present 137 Member States became Members

  11. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.65) is the Sultanate of Oman which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 5 February 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 146 Member States became Members

  12. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members [ru

  13. Predictability of current and future multi-river discharges: Ganges, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, Blue Nile, and Murray-Darling rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Jun

    2007-12-01

    Determining river discharge is of critical importance to many societies as they struggle with fresh water supply and risk of flooding. In Bangladesh, floods occur almost every year but with sufficient irregularity to have adverse social and economical consequences. Important goals are to predict the discharge to be used for the optimization of agricultural practices, disaster mitigation and water resource management. The aim of this study is to determine the predictability of river discharge in a number of major rivers on time scale varying from weeks to a century. We investigated predictability considering relationship between SST and discharge. Next, we consider IPCC model projections of river discharge while the models are statistically adjusted against observed discharges. In this study, we consider five rivers, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, the Yangtze, the Blue Nile, and the Murray-Darling Rivers. On seasonal time scales, statistically significant correlations are found between mean monthly equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the summer Ganges discharge with lead times of 2-3 months due to oscillations of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena. In addition, there are strong correlations in the southwest and northeast Pacific. These, too, appear to be tied to the ENSO cycle. The Brahmaputra discharge, on the other hand, shows somewhat weaker relationships with tropical SST. Strong lagged correlations relationships are found with SST in the Bay of Bengal but these are the result of very warm SSTs and exceptional Brahmaputra discharge during the summer of 1998. When this year is removed from the time series, relationships weaken everywhere except in the northwestern Pacific for the June discharge and in areas of the central Pacific straddling the equator for the July discharge. The relationships are relative strong, but they are persistent from month to month and suggest that two different and sequential factors influence Brahmaputra

  14. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

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    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

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    CERN Multimedia

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    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21,50 € instead of 27 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12:00 p.m. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  16. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

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    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 23 € instead of 29 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12:00 p.m. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  17. Cryogenic support member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.; Nicol, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    A cryogenic support member is described for restraining a cryogenic system comprising; a rod having a depression at a first end. The rod is made of non-metallic material. The non-metallic material has an effectively low thermal conductivity; a metallic plug; and a metallic sleeve. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod and assembled thereto such that the plug is disposed inside the depression of the rod. The sleeve is disposed over the depression in the rod and the rod is clamped therebetween. The shrink-fit clamping the rod is generated between the metallic plug and the metallic sleeve

  18. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJEY KUMAR PATHAK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathak AK, Sarkar UK, Singh SP. 2014. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India. Biodiversitas 15: 186-194.The present study describes the analysis and mapping of the different measurements of freshwater fish biodiversity of the Upper Ganges basin in the Himalayan region using spatial interpolation methods of Geographical Information System. The diversity, richness and abundance of fishes for each sampling location were determined and Kriging interpolation was applied on each fisheries measurement to predict and produce semivariogram. The semivariogarms produced were cross validated and reclassified. The reclassified maps for richness, abundance and diversity of fishes, occurrence of cold water threatened fish and abundance of important genera like Tor, Schziothorax and species were produced. The result of the Kriging produced good results and overall error in the estimation process was found significant. The cross validation of semovariograms also provided a better result with the observed data sets. Moreover, weighted overlay analysis of the reclassified raster maps of richness and abundance of fishes produced the classified raster map at different evaluation scale (0-10 qualitatively describing the gradient of species richness and abundance compositely. Similarly, the classified raster map at same evaluation scale qualitatively describing the gradient of species abundance and diversity compositely was produced and published. Further, basin wise analysis between Alaknanda/Pindar and Ganga1 sub basins showed 0.745 disparities at 0.745 distances in 2 dimensional spaces. The richness, diversity and abundance of threatened fishes among the different sampling locations were not significant (p = 0.9.

  19. [Cardiac arrest in spectators in German football stadiums. Precautionary measures, frequency and short-term outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, T; Preisegger, T; Rombach, D; Madler, C

    2014-09-01

    Provision of medical care is an important element of safety precautions for visitors of sports arenas. The organizational requirements are especially high if cardiac arrest occurs; how this scenario is managed may thus serve as the ultimate indicator of the quality of stadium medical care. The objectives of this study were to analyze the structures and the resources available for the medical care of spectators in German professional soccer stadiums and to identify the frequency and the primary resuscitation success of cardiac arrest. In 2011 a questionnaire-based survey was performed among the clubs of the first and second German soccer leagues regarding medical care of spectators during the seasons 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The focus was on the qualifications of emergency teams, the equipment and the incidence of cardiac arrest. A total of 15 stadiums were included (38%) in the survey. The mean number of physicians and emergency medical technicians on site was 0.6/10,000 seats and 16/10,000 seats, respectively. Of the latter, a mean of 82% (minimum 20% and maximum 100%) had received training with automatic external defibrillators. In 87% of the stadiums regular advanced life support training (ALS) was required. The mean number of defibrillators per stadium was 2.8/10,000 seats (minimum 1.3 and maximum 3.8) including 1.7 automatic defibrillators (minimum 0.4 and maximum 2.8). For patient transport, a mean of 0.65 ALS ambulance vehicles per 10,000 seats (minimum 0.14 and maximum 1.46) were available on site. In all stadiums staff members were connected via mobile radio communication with the stadium medical control room. A total of 52 cardiac arrests (=0.25/100,000 spectators) were recorded of which 96% of the patients were transported to hospitals with spontaneous circulation. Cardiac arrests are not a rare occurrence in German soccer stadiums. The participating stadiums are overall well prepared for such incidents in terms of organization, staff and technology and

  20. Thermal effects in concrete members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    When subjected to temperature changes and restrained from free movement, a member develops stresses. Restrained members are sometimes assumed to act independently of other members. A method of analysis and design for thermal stresses in such members is provided. The method of analysis, based on the ultimate strength concept, greatly reduces the computational efforts for determining thermal effects in concrete members. Available charts and tables and the recommendations given herein simplify the design. (Auth.)

  1. Prediction of cardiac arrest recurrence using ensemble classifiers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nachiket Tapas

    ECG dataset from PhysioNet, Pima Indian Diabetes dataset from UCI Machine Learning Repository and gene expression ... electrical activity, medically the condition is known as cardiac arrest ... ing, (5) lack of physical exercise, etc. [9]. Using ...

  2. Arrest of cytoplasmic streaming induces algal proliferation in green paramecia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Takahashi

    Full Text Available A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells.

  3. The outcome of anaesthesia related cardiac arrest in a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Adekola

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Anaesthesia related cardiac arrest and mortality were linked to cardiovascular depression from halothane overdose in our institution. The burden can be reduced by improving on establishing standard monitoring in the perioperative period, and a team approach to patients care.

  4. Dynamic propagation and cleavage crack arrest in bainitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaj, M.

    2006-06-01

    In complement of the studies of harmfulness of defects, generally realized in term of initiation, the concept of crack arrest could be used as complementary analyses to the studies of safety. The stop occurs when the stress intensity factor becomes lower than crack arrest toughness (KIa) calculated in elasto-statics (KI ≤ KIa). The aim of this thesis is to understand and predict the stop of a crack propagating at high speed in a 18MND5 steel used in the pressure water reactor (PWR). The test chosen to study crack arrest is the disc thermal shock test. The observations under the scanning electron microscope of the fracture surface showed that the crack arrest always occurs in cleavage mode and that the critical microstructural entity with respect to the propagation and crack arrest corresponds to at least the size of the prior austenitic grain. The numerical analyses in elasto-statics confirm the conservatism of the codified curve of the RCC-M with respect to the values of KIa. The dynamic numerical analyses show that the deceleration of the crack measured at the end of the propagation is related to the global dynamic of the structure (vibrations). The transferability to components of crack arrest toughness obtained from tests analysed in static is thus not assured. The disc thermal shock tests were also modelled by considering a criterion of propagation and arrest of the type 'RKR' characterized by a critical stress sc which depends on the temperature. The results obtained account well for the crack jump measured in experiments as well as the shape of the crack arrest front. (author)

  5. Al-Qaeda arrest casts shadow over the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Dacey, James

    2010-01-01

    "Cern remains on course for the imminent switch-on of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) despite the media frenzy following the recent arrest of a physicist who had been working at the facility. The researcher in question is a 32-year-old man of Algerian descent who is expected to face trail in France - the country in which he was arrested" (0.5 page)

  6. Associates of Cardiopulmonary Arrest in the Perihemodialytic Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flythe, Jennifer E.; Li, Nien-Chen; Brunelli, Steven M.; Lacson, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary arrest during and proximate to hemodialysis is rare but highly fatal. Studies have examined peridialytic sudden cardiac event risk factors, but no study has considered associates of cardiopulmonary arrests (fatal and nonfatal events including cardiac and respiratory causes). This study was designed to elucidate patient and procedural factors associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Data for this case-control study were taken from the hemodialysis population at Fresenius Medical Care, North America. 924 in-center cardiopulmonary events (cases) and 75,538 controls were identified. Cases and controls were 1 : 5 matched on age, sex, race, and diabetes. Predictors of cardiopulmonary arrest were considered for logistic model inclusion. Missed treatments due to hospitalization, lower body mass, coronary artery disease, heart failure, lower albumin and hemoglobin, lower dialysate potassium, higher serum calcium, greater erythropoietin stimulating agent dose, and normalized protein catabolic rate (J-shaped) were associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Of these, lower albumin, hemoglobin, and body mass index; higher erythropoietin stimulating agent dose; and greater missed sessions had the strongest associations with outcome. Patient health markers and procedural factors are associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. In addition to optimizing nutritional status, it may be prudent to limit exposure to low dialysate potassium (<2 K bath) and to use the lowest effective erythropoietin stimulating agent dose. PMID:25530881

  7. Associates of Cardiopulmonary Arrest in the Perihemodialytic Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Flythe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary arrest during and proximate to hemodialysis is rare but highly fatal. Studies have examined peridialytic sudden cardiac event risk factors, but no study has considered associates of cardiopulmonary arrests (fatal and nonfatal events including cardiac and respiratory causes. This study was designed to elucidate patient and procedural factors associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Data for this case-control study were taken from the hemodialysis population at Fresenius Medical Care, North America. 924 in-center cardiopulmonary events (cases and 75,538 controls were identified. Cases and controls were 1 : 5 matched on age, sex, race, and diabetes. Predictors of cardiopulmonary arrest were considered for logistic model inclusion. Missed treatments due to hospitalization, lower body mass, coronary artery disease, heart failure, lower albumin and hemoglobin, lower dialysate potassium, higher serum calcium, greater erythropoietin stimulating agent dose, and normalized protein catabolic rate (J-shaped were associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Of these, lower albumin, hemoglobin, and body mass index; higher erythropoietin stimulating agent dose; and greater missed sessions had the strongest associations with outcome. Patient health markers and procedural factors are associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. In addition to optimizing nutritional status, it may be prudent to limit exposure to low dialysate potassium (<2 K bath and to use the lowest effective erythropoietin stimulating agent dose.

  8. Cardiac arrest due to lymphocytic colitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groth Kristian A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a case of cardiac arrest due to hypokalemia caused by lymphocytic colitis. Case presentation A 69-year-old Caucasian man presented four months prior to a cardiac arrest with watery diarrhea and was diagnosed with lymphocytic colitis. Our patient experienced a witnessed cardiac arrest at his general practitioner's surgery. Two physicians and the emergency medical services resuscitated our patient for one hour and four minutes before arriving at our university hospital. Our patient was defibrillated 16 times due to the recurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. An arterial blood sample revealed a potassium level of 2.0 mmol/L (reference range: 3.5 to 4.6 mmol/L and pH 6.86 (reference range: pH 7.37 to 7.45. As the potassium level was corrected, the propensity for ventricular tachyarrhythmias ceased. Our patient recovered from his cardiac arrest without any neurological deficit. Further tests and examinations revealed no other reason for the cardiac arrest. Conclusion Diarrhea can cause life-threatening situations due to the excretion of potassium, ultimately causing cardiac arrest due to hypokalemia. Physicians treating patients with severe diarrhea should consider monitoring their electrolyte levels.

  9. The neighborhood context of racial and ethnic disparities in arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, David S

    2008-02-01

    This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with afocus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disadvantage relative to other racial and ethnic groups, and these layers work to create differences in arrest. At the family level, results show that disadvantages in the form of unstable family structures explain much of the disparities in arrest across race and ethnicity. At the neighborhood level, black youths tend to reside in areas with both significantly higher levels of concentrated poverty than other youths as well as lower levels of collective efficacy than white youths. Variations in neighborhood tolerance of deviance across groups explain little of the arrest disparities, yet tolerance of deviance does influence the frequency with which a crime ultimately ends in an arrest. Even after accounting for relevant demographic, family, and neighborhood-level predictors, substantial residual arrest differences remain between black youths and youths of other racial and ethnic groups.

  10. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The Courir shops propose the following offer: 15% discount on all articles (not on sales) in the Courir shops (Val Thoiry, Annemasse and Neydens) and 5% discount on sales upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card and an identity card before payment. Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  11. Offers for our members

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    Association du personnel

    2013-01-01

    La banque LCL propose aux membres de l’Association du personnel les avantages suivants : – Un barème Privilège sur le Prêt immobilier – Des avantages tarifaires sur l’épargne, notamment l’assurance-vie. – Un taux préférentiel de prêt à la consommation. En outre, jusqu’au 30 septembre 2013, elle offre 50€ à tous les nouveaux clients, membres de l'Association du personnel. Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Tickets "Zone terrestre" : 21 € instead of de 26 €. Access to Aqualibi : 5 euros instead of 8 euros on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Free car park. * * * * * * * Full day ticket: – Children : 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF &...

  12. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The warm weather arrives, it's time to take advantage of our offers Walibi and Aquapark! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 € Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Half-day ticket (5 hours): – Children: 26 CHF instead of 35 CHF – Adults : 32 CHF instead of 43 CHF Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Free for children under 5.

  13. Interfacial crack arrest in sandwich beams subjected to fatigue loading using a novel crack arresting device – Numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J.H.; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A novel crack arresting device is implemented in foam-cored composite sandwich beams and tested using the Sandwich Tear Test (STT) configuration. A finite element model of the setup is developed, and the predictions are correlated with observations and results from a recently conducted experiment...... concept, as well as a design tool that can be used for the implementation of crack arresting devises in engineering applications of sandwich components and structures....

  14. A model of survival following pre-hospital cardiac arrest based on the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Masha; Barnes, Vanessa; Whyman, Andrew; Currell, Alex; Bernard, Stephen; Walker, Tony; Smith, Karen L

    2007-11-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of sudden cardiac arrest patients in Victoria, Australia, as captured via the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Register (VACAR). We used the VACAR data to construct a new model of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), which was specified in accordance with observed trends. All cases of cardiac arrest in Victoria that were attended by Victorian ambulance services during the period of 2002-2005. Overall survival to hospital discharge was 3.8% among 18,827 cases of OHCA. Survival was 15.7% among 1726 bystander witnessed, adult cardiac arrests of presumed cardiac aetiology, presenting in ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT), where resuscitation was attempted. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, bystander CPR, cardiac arrest (CA) location, response time, age and sex were predictors of VF/VT, which, in turn, was a strong predictor of survival. The same factors that affected VF/VT made an additional contribution to survival. However, for bystander CPR, CA location and response time this additional contribution was limited to VF/VT patients only. There was no detectable association between survival and age younger than 60 years or response time over 15min. The new model accounts for relationships among predictors of survival. These relationships indicate that interventions such as reduced response times and bystander CPR act in multiple ways to improve survival.

  15. Characterization of Mitochondrial Injury after Cardiac Arrest (COMICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnino, Michael W.; Liu, Xiaowen; Andersen, Lars W.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Abella, Benjamin S.; Gaieski, David F.; Ornato, Joseph P.; Gazmuri, Raúl J.; Grossestreur, Anne V.; Cocchi, Michaen N.; Abbate, Antonio; Uber, Amy; Clore, John; Peberdy, Mary Anne; Callaway, Clifton

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mitochondrial injury post-cardiac arrest has been described in pre-clinical settings but the extent to which this injury occurs in humans remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that increased levels of mitochondrial biomarkers would be associated with mortality and neurological morbidity in post-cardiac arrest subjects. Methods We performed a prospective multicenter study of post-cardiac arrest subjects. Inclusion criteria were comatose adults who suffered an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Mitochondrial biomarkers were measured at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after return of spontaneous circulation as well as in healthy controls. Results Out of 111 subjects enrolled, 102 had evaluable samples at 0 hours. Cardiac arrest subjects had higher baseline cytochrome c levels compared to controls (2.18 ng/mL [0.74, 7.74] vs. 0.16 ng/mL [0.03, 0.91], p<0.001), and subjects who died had higher 0 hours cytochrome c levels compared to survivors (3.66 ng/mL [1.40, 14.9] vs. 1.27 ng/mL [0.16, 2.37], p<0.001). There were significantly higher RNAase P (3.3 [1.2, 5.7] vs. 1.2 [0.8, 1.2], p<0.001) and B2M (12.0 [1.0, 22.9], vs. 0.6 [0.6, 1.3], p<0.001) levels in cardiac arrest subjects at baseline compared to the control subjects. There were no differences between survivors and non-survivors for mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA. Conclusions Cytochrome C was increased in post-cardiac arrest subjects compared to controls, and in post-cardiac arrest non-survivors compared to survivors. Nuclear DNA and cell free DNA was increased in plasma of post-cardiac arrest subjects. There were no differences in mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA between survivors and non-survivors. Mitochondrial injury markers showed mixed results in post-arrest period. Future research needs to investigate these differences. PMID:28126408

  16. Characterization of mitochondrial injury after cardiac arrest (COMICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnino, Michael W; Liu, Xiaowen; Andersen, Lars W; Rittenberger, Jon C; Abella, Benjamin S; Gaieski, David F; Ornato, Joseph P; Gazmuri, Raúl J; Grossestreuer, Anne V; Cocchi, Michael N; Abbate, Antonio; Uber, Amy; Clore, John; Peberdy, Mary Anne; Callaway, Clifton W

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondrial injury post-cardiac arrest has been described in pre-clinical settings but the extent to which this injury occurs in humans remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that increased levels of mitochondrial biomarkers would be associated with mortality and neurological morbidity in post-cardiac arrest subjects. We performed a prospective multicenter study of post-cardiac arrest subjects. Inclusion criteria were comatose adults who suffered an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Mitochondrial biomarkers were measured at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48h after return of spontaneous circulation as well as in healthy controls. Out of 111 subjects enrolled, 102 had evaluable samples at 0h. Cardiac arrest subjects had higher baseline cytochrome c levels compared to controls (2.18ng/mL [0.74, 7.74] vs. 0.16ng/mL [0.03, 0.91], p<0.001), and subjects who died had higher 0h cytochrome c levels compared to survivors (3.66ng/mL [1.40, 14.9] vs. 1.27ng/mL [0.16, 2.37], p<0.001). There were significantly higher Ribonuclease P (RNaseP) (3.3 [1.2, 5.7] vs. 1.2 [0.8, 1.2], p<0.001) and Beta-2microglobulin (B2M) (12.0 [1.0, 22.9], vs. 0.6 [0.6, 1.3], p<0.001) levels in cardiac arrest subjects at baseline compared to the control subjects. There were no differences between survivors and non-survivors for mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA. Cytochrome c was increased in post- cardiac arrest subjects compared to controls, and in post-cardiac arrest non-survivors compared to survivors. Nuclear DNA and cell free DNA was increased in plasma of post-cardiac arrest subjects. There were no differences in mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA between survivors and non-survivors. Mitochondrial injury markers showed mixed results in the post-cardiac arrest period. Future research needs to investigate these differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. F-box protein FBXO31 is a dedicated checkpoint protein to facilitate cell cycle arrest through activation of regulators in radiation induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Manas Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In response to radiation-induced DNA damage, eukaryotic cells initiate a complex signalling pathway, termed the DNA damage response (DDR), which coordinates cell cycle arrest with DNA repair. Previous study showed that induction of G1 arrest in response to radiation induced DNA damage is minimally a two-step process: a fast p53-independent initiation of G1 arrest mediated by cyclin D1 proteolysis and a slower maintenance of arrest resulting from increased p53 stability. We elucidated the molecular mechanism of slow and fast response of radiation induced DDR. We showed that FBXO31, a member of F-box family proteins, plays important role in DDR induced by ionizing radiation. We show that FBXO31 is responsible for promoting MDM2 degradation following radiation. FBXO31 interacts with and directs the degradation of MDM2 in ATM dependent phosphorylation of MDM2. FBXO31-mediated loss of MDM2 leads to elevated levels of p53, resulting in growth arrest. In cells depleted of FBXO31, MDM2 is not degraded and p53 levels do not increase following genotoxic stress. Thus, FBXO31 is essential for the classic robust increase in p53 levels following DNA damage

  18. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document lists the 135 Member States of the Agency as of 19 March 2003. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/56) is the Republic of Honduras. The dates on which the present 135 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  19. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document lists the 130 Member States of the Agency as of 1 December 1999. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/52) is Angola. The dates on which the present 130 Member States became Members, and the state Honduras) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute are given in an Attachment

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.55) is the Republic of Botswana, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 20 March 2002. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 134 Member States became Members. It also shows the State whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference, but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The document lists the 132 Member States of the Agency as of 1 June 2001. The new Members since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/53) are Central African Republic and Azerbaijan. The dates on which the present 132 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.69) is the Commonwealth of Dominica, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 17 February 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 153 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.69) is the Commonwealth of Dominica, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 17 February 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 153 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.74) is Swaziland, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 15 February 2013. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 159 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  6. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  7. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.68) is the Lao People's Democratic Republic which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 November 2011. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 152 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statue with the depositary Government [fr

  8. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.73) is Trinidad and Tobago, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 9 November 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 158 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  9. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [ru

  10. Family members' experiences of autopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, F; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    Background. The experiences of family members will teach us how to handle an autopsy, the ultimate quality assessment tool. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine surviving family members' experience of autopsy. Method. Seven GPs were asked to approach surviving family members of

  11. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  12. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  13. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  14. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.69) is the Commonwealth of Dominica, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 17 February 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 153 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  15. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The 42nd revision of INFCIRC/2 lists the 113 Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency as of 1 January 1993. It includes Slovenia as a new Member State as of 21 September 1992, Cambodia replaces the former name ''Democratic Kampuchea'' and Czechoslovakia was deleted as it ceased to be a member of the Agency as of 1 January 1993 (INFCIRC/417)

  16. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.68) is the Lao People's Democratic Republic which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 November 2011. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 152 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statue with the depositary Government [es

  17. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.73) is Trinidad and Tobago, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 9 November 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 158 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  18. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  19. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.72) are Fiji and Togo, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2012 and 1 November 2012, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 157 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.73) is Trinidad and Tobago, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 9 November 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 158 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.68) is the Lao People's Democratic Republic which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 November 2011. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 152 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statue with the depositary Government

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [ru

  6. Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, M. S.; Henebry, G. M.

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the spatial and temporal responses of precipitation in the basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean (IO) dipole modes using observed precipitation records at 43 stations across the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins from 1982 to 2010. Daily observed precipitation records were extracted from Global Surface Summary of the Day dataset and spatial and monthly anomalies were computed. The anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by climate modes combinations. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduced (60% and 88% of baseline in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, respectively) precipitation during the monsoon months in the northwestern and central Ganges basin and across the Brahmaputra basin. In contrast, co-occurrence of La Niña and a positive IO dipole mode significantly enhanced (135% and 160% of baseline, respectively) precipitation across both basins. During the co-occurrence of neutral phases in both climate modes (occurring 13 out of 28 yr), precipitation remained below average to average in the agriculturally extensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, eastern Nepal, and the Rajshahi district in Bangladesh in the Ganges basin and northern Bangladesh, Meghalaya, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh in the Brahmaputra basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely in these areas with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Major flooding and drought occurred as a consequence of the interactive effects of the ENSO and IO dipole modes, with the sole exception of extreme precipitation and flooding during El Niño events. This observational analysis will facilitate well informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under changing climate.

  7. The effects of crosscutting before gang-ripping on dimension part yields from no. 1 and 2A common red oak lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1996-01-01

    Mills should have the option to crosscut red oak lumber prior to gang-ripping to remove crook and worthless material and to take advantage of the quality differences between board ends. At least half of No: 1 and 2A Common red oak boards will have end-to-end yield differences of at least 10 percent. Preprocessing will cause a slight decrease in overall yield but will...

  8. Sketches Toward an Ontology of Non-Dwelling: Mara Salvatrucha 13, Radical Homelessness, and Postglobality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ramos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1988, the California state legislature passed the California Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act (STEP, which allowed courts to “enhance” the sentences of offenders who have been proven to "promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct by gang members." It bundled together criminality, policing, and incarceration in ways that drew upon the fears of the black/latino Others that were imminent in panics surrounding the “crack epidemic” and inner-city crime. Jumping to April 2016, the Salvadoran government has passed strikingly similar legislation, which centers on reclassifying gang-associated crimes as terroristic; in essence under their new laws gang affiliation is a terrorist. This, too, has been enacted in the midst of panic about gang violence and low-level warfare between gangs and the Salvadoran state. The adoption of US-style anti-gang approaches by the Salvadoran government is not new. In 2003, the right-wing government passed mano dura [“iron fist”] policies that sought to address increases in gang associate crime with zero-tolerance, tough-on-crime measures. Law enforcement received expanded leeway to target and arrest gang members, especially those from Mara Salvatrucha 13 (MS-13 and Barrio 18. Despite the lack of sustained reductions in violent crime, the mano durapolicies have remained and will only be exacerbated by the new legislation.

  9. Fifteen Years (1993–2007 of Surface Freshwater Storage Variability in the Ganges-Brahmaputra River Basin Using Multi-Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Salameh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface water storage is a key component of the terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical cycles that also plays a major role in water resources management. In this study, surface water storage (SWS variations are estimated at monthly time-scale over 15 years (1993–2007 using a hypsographic approach based on the combination of topographic information from Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP-based Global Digital Elevation Models (GDEM and the Global Inundation Extent Multi-Satellite (GIEMS product in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin. The monthly variations of the surface water storage are in good accordance with precipitation from Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP, river discharges at the outlet of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, and terrestrial water storage (TWS from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE, with correlations higher than 0.85. Surface water storage presents a strong seasonal signal (~496 km3 estimated by GIEMS/ASTER and ~378 km3 by GIEMS/HyMAPs, representing ~51% and ~41% respectively of the total water storage signal and it exhibits a large inter-annual variability with strong negative anomalies during the drought-like conditions of 1994 or strong positive anomalies such as in 1998. This new dataset of SWS is a new, highly valuable source of information for hydrological and climate modeling studies of the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin.

  10. Visualizing Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Murakami

    Full Text Available Vpr is an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 with multiple functions. The induction of G2 arrest by Vpr plays a particularly important role in efficient viral replication because the transcriptional activity of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat is most active in G2 phase. The regulation of apoptosis by Vpr is also important for immune suppression and pathogenesis during HIV infection. However, it is not known whether Vpr-induced apoptosis depends on the ability of Vpr to induce G2 arrest, and the dynamics of Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis have not been visualized. We performed time-lapse imaging to examine the temporal relationship between Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis using HeLa cells containing the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator2 (Fucci2. The dynamics of G2 arrest and subsequent long-term mitotic cell rounding in cells transfected with the Vpr-expression vector were visualized. These cells underwent nuclear mis-segregation after prolonged mitotic processes and then entered G1 phase. Some cells subsequently displayed evidence of apoptosis after prolonged mitotic processes and nuclear mis-segregation. Interestingly, Vpr-induced apoptosis was seldom observed in S or G2 phase. Likewise, visualization of synchronized HeLa/Fucci2 cells infected with an adenoviral vector expressing Vpr clearly showed that Vpr arrests the cell cycle at G2 phase, but does not induce apoptosis at S or G2 phase. Furthermore, time-lapse imaging of HeLa/Fucci2 cells expressing SCAT3.1, a caspase-3-sensitive fusion protein, clearly demonstrated that Vpr induces caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Finally, to examine whether the effects of Vpr on G2 arrest and apoptosis were reversible, we performed live-cell imaging of a destabilizing domain fusion Vpr, which enabled rapid stabilization and destabilization by Shield1. The effects of Vpr on G2 arrest and subsequent apoptosis were reversible. This study is the first to

  11. Serum tau and neurological outcome in cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Niklas; Zetterberg, Henrik; Nielsen, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test serum tau as a predictor of neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. METHODS: We measured the neuronal protein tau in serum at 24, 48, and 72 hours after cardiac arrest in 689 patients in the prospective international Target Temperature Management trial. The main outcome...... was poor neurological outcome, defined as Cerebral Performance Categories 3-5 at 6 months. RESULTS: Increased tau was associated with poor outcome at 6 months after cardiac arrest (median = 38.5, interquartile range [IQR] = 5.7-245ng/l in poor vs median = 1.5, IQR = 0.7-2.4ng/l in good outcome, for tau....... The accuracy in predicting outcome by serum tau was equally high for patients randomized to 33 °C and 36 °C targeted temperature after cardiac arrest. INTERPRETATION: Serum tau is a promising novel biomarker for prediction of neurological outcome in patients with cardiac arrest. It may be significantly better...

  12. Current Pharmacological Advances in the Treatment of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Papastylianou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest is defined as the sudden cessation of spontaneous ventilation and circulation. Within 15 seconds of cardiac arrest, the patient loses consciousness, electroencephalogram becomes flat after 30 seconds, pupils dilate fully after 60 seconds, and cerebral damage takes place within 90–300 seconds. It is essential to act immediately as irreversible damage can occur in a short time. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is an attempt to restore spontaneous circulation through a broad range of interventions which are early defibrillation, high-quality and uninterrupted chest compressions, advanced airway interventions, and pharmacological interventions. Drugs should be considered only after initial shocks have been delivered (when indicated and chest compressions and ventilation have been started. During cardiopulmonary resuscitation, no specific drug therapy has been shown to improve survival to hospital discharge after cardiac arrest, and only few drugs have a proven benefit for short-term survival. This paper reviews current pharmacological treatment of cardiac arrest. There are three groups of drugs relevant to the management of cardiac arrest: vasopressors, antiarrhythmics, and other drugs such as sodium bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, atropine, fibrinolytic drugs, and corticosteroids.

  13. The effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride in arresting caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek

    2017-10-27

    Data sourcesPubMed, Embase, Scopus, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Ichushi-web, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud Espana (BVSE) and Biblioteca Virtual em Saude (BVS) databases. There were no limits on language or publication dates.Study selectionTwo reviewers selected prospective clinical studies investigating SDF treatment for caries prevention in children.Data extraction and synthesisData was abstracted independently by two reviewers and risk of bias assessed. Meta-analysis was performed on studies in which the caries-arresting rate using 38% SDF solution on primary teeth could be obtained or calculated.ResultsNineteen studies were included; 16 were conducted in the primary dentition and three in permanent dentition. Fourteen studies used 38% SDF, three 30% SDF, and two 10% SDF. Eight studies using 38% SDF contributed to a meta-analysis and the overall proportion of arrested caries was 81% (95% CI; 68-89%). Percentage reductions were also calculated for 6,12,18,24 and >30 months. Arrested carious lesions stained black but no other adverse effects were reported.ConclusionsSDF commonly used at a high concentration (38%, 44,800ppm fluoride) is effective in arresting caries among children. There is no consensus on its number and frequency of application to arrest caries. Further studies are necessary to develop evidence-based guidelines on its use in children.

  14. Modulation of the Ganges-Brahmaputra River Plume by the Indian Ocean Dipole and Eddies Inferred From Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, S.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Lee, T.; Gierach, M. M.; Chaitanya, A. V. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay of Bengal receives large amounts of freshwater from the Ganga-Brahmaputra (GB) river during the summer monsoon. The resulting upper-ocean freshening influences seasonal rainfall, cyclones, and biological productivity. Sparse in situ observations and previous modeling studies suggest that the East India Coastal Current (EICC) transports these freshwaters southward after the monsoon as an approximately 200 km wide, 2,000 km long "river in the sea" along the East Indian coast. Sea surface salinity (SSS) from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite provides unprecedented views of this peculiar feature from intraseasonal to interannual timescales. SMAP SSS has a 0.83 correlation and 0.49 rms-difference to 0-5 m in situ measurements. SMAP and in stu data both indicate a SSS standard deviation of ˜0.7 to 1 away from the coast, that rises to 2 pss within 100 km of the coast, providing a very favorable signal-to-noise ratio in coastal areas. SMAP also captures the strong northern BoB, postmonsoon cross-shore SSS contrasts (˜10 pss) measured along ship transects. SMAP data are also consistent with previous modeling results that suggested a modulation of the EICC/GB plume southward extent by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Remote forcing associated with the negative Indian Ocean Dipole in the fall of 2016 indeed caused a stronger EICC and "river in the sea" that extended by approximately 800 km further south than that in 2015 (positive IOD year). The combination of SMAP and altimeter data shows eddies stirring the freshwater plume away from the coast.Plain Language SummaryThe Bay of Bengal receives large quantity of freshwater from the Ganges-Brahmaputra river during the monsoon. The resulting low-salinity sea surface has strong implications for the regional climate and living marine resources. In situ observations are too sparse to provide salinity maps in this basin, even every 3 months. In contrast, the SMAP satellite provides maps at 40 km resolution

  15. Post-glacial climate forcing of surface processes in the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin and implications for carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Christopher J.; Galy, Valier; Galy, Albert; France-Lanord, Christian; Kudrass, Hermann; Schwenk, Tilmann

    2017-11-01

    Climate has been proposed to control both the rate of terrestrial silicate weathering and the export rate of associated sediments and terrestrial organic carbon to river-dominated margins - and thus the rate of sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in the coastal ocean - over glacial-interglacial timescales. Focused on the Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers, this study presents records of post-glacial changes in basin-scale Indian summer monsoon intensity and vegetation composition based on stable hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ13C) isotopic compositions of terrestrial plant wax compounds preserved in the channel-levee system of the Bengal Fan. It then explores the role of these changes in controlling the provenance and degree of chemical weathering of sediments exported by these rivers, and the potential climate feedbacks through organic-carbon burial in the Bengal Fan. An observed 40‰ shift in δD and a 3-4‰ shift in both bulk organic-carbon and plant-wax δ13C values between the late glacial and mid-Holocene, followed by a return to more intermediate values during the late Holocene, correlates well with regional post-glacial paleoclimate records. Sediment provenance proxies (Sr, Nd isotopic compositions) reveal that these changes likely coincided with a subtle focusing of erosion on the southern flank of the Himalayan range during periods of greater monsoon strength and enhanced sediment discharge. However, grain-size-normalized organic-carbon concentrations in the Bengal Fan remained constant through time, despite order-of-magnitude level changes in catchment-scale monsoon precipitation and enhanced chemical weathering (recorded as a gradual increase in K/Si* and detrital carbonate content, and decrease in H2O+/Si*, proxies) throughout the study period. These findings demonstrate a partial decoupling of climate change and silicate weathering during the Holocene and that marine organic-carbon sequestration rates primary reflect rates of physical erosion and sediment export

  16. Pattern of perioperative cardiac arrests at University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwari, Y D; Bello, M R; Eni, U E

    2010-01-01

    Perioperative cardiac arrests and death on the table represent the most serious complications of surgery and anaesthesia. This paper was designed to study their pattern, causes and outcomes following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and intensive care unit (ICU) management in our institution. Three year retrospective review of perioperative cardiac arrests and death on operating table following surgical procedure under anaesthesia. For each cardiac arrest or death on the table the sequence of events leading to the arrest was evaluated using case notes, anaesthetic chart and ICU records. Study variables which include demographic data, ASA score, anaesthetic technique, causes and outcome were analysed and discussed. Fourteen perioperative cardiac arrests were encountered following 4051 anaesthetics administered over the three year study period. Twelve out of the fourteen cardiac arrests occurred following general anaesthesia, while the remaining two occurred following spinal anaesthesia. There was no cardiac arrest following local anaesthesia. Children suffered more cardiac arrest than adults. ASA class III and IV risk status suffered more arrests than ASA I and II. Hypoxia from airway problems was the commonest cause of cardiac arrest followed by septic shock. Monitoring with pulse oximeter was done in only 4 out of the 14 cardiac arrests. Only 2 (14%) out of 14 cardiac arrests recovered to home discharge, one of them with significant neurological deficit. Majority of arrests were due to hypoxia from airway problems that were not detected early There is need to improve on patient monitoring, knowledge of CPR and intensive care so as to improve the outcome of perioperative cardiac arrest.

  17. Arrester Resistive Current Measuring System Based on Heterogeneous Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun Hua; Li, Zai Lin; Yuan, Feng; Hou Pan, Feng; Guo, Zhan Nan; Han, Yue

    2018-03-01

    Metal Oxide Arrester (MOA) suffers from aging and poor insulation due to long-term impulse voltage and environmental impact, and the value and variation tendency of resistive current can reflect the health conditions of MOA. The common wired MOA detection need to use long cables, which is complicated to operate, and that wireless measurement methods are facing the problems of poor data synchronization and instability. Therefore a novel synchronous measurement system of arrester current resistive based on heterogeneous network is proposed, which simplifies the calculation process and improves synchronization, accuracy and stability and of the measuring system. This system combines LoRa wireless network, high speed wireless personal area network and the process layer communication, and realizes the detection of arrester working condition. Field test data shows that the system has the characteristics of high accuracy, strong anti-interference ability and good synchronization, which plays an important role in ensuring the stable operation of the power grid.

  18. Cardiac arrest following ventilator fire: A rare cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Nazeer Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating room fires are rare events, but when occur they result in serious and sometimes fatal consequences. Anaesthesia ventilator fire leading to cardiac arrest is a rare incident and has not been reported. We report a near catastrophic ventilator fire leading to cardiac arrest in a patient undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy. In the present case sparks due to friction or electrical short circuit within the ventilator might have acted as source of ignition leading to fire and explosion in the oxygen rich environment. The patient was successfully resuscitated and revived with uneventful recovery and no adverse sequelae. The cardiac arrest was possibly due to severe hypoxia resulting from inhalation of smoke containing high concentrations of carbon monoxide and other noxious gases.

  19. Crack arrest toughness measurements with A533B steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, Seppo.

    1979-11-01

    This work covers crack arrest toughness measurements on A533B steel done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. These measurements are one part of a multinational effort, involving 30 laboratories. The aim of the cooperative test program is to examine two test procedures for measuring the crack arrest toughness, to give information about their reproducibility, and to identify the factors affecting the interpretation. The principles given for the testing were easy to apply in general and the results were satisfactory. Some factors in the test runs and in the specimen's behaviour are indicated which can cause error in the results or make implementation of the test more difficult. By comparing the results from our laboratory with average values from the test program a good agreement can be seen. Crack arrest toughness values derived from the compared procedures with a static analysis agree closely, but values calculated using a dynamic analysis differ considerably. (author)

  20. A crack arrest test using a toughness gradient steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, H.; Yagawa, G.; Urabe, Y.; Satoh, M.; Sano, J.

    1995-01-01

    Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) is a phenomenon that can occur in the reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) with internal pressure and is one of the most severe stress conditions that can be applied to the vessel. Preliminary research has shown that no PTS concern is likely to exist on Japanese RPVs during their design service lives. However, public acceptance of vessel integrity requires analyses and experiment in order to establish an analytical method and a database for life extension of Japanese RPVs. The Japanese PTS integrity study was carried out from FY 1983 to FY 1991 as a national project by Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) under contract with Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) in cooperation with LWR utilities and vendors. Here, a crack arrest test was carried out using a toughness gradient steel plate with three layers to study the concept of crack arrest toughness. Four-point bending load with thermal shock was applied to the large flat plate specimen with a surface crack. Five crack initiations and arrests were observed during the test and the propagated crack bifurcated. Finally, cracks were arrested at the boundary of the first and the second layer, except for a small segment of the crack. The first crack initiation took place slightly higher than the lower bound of K Ic data obtained by ITCT specimens. That is, the K IC concept for brittle crack initiation was verified for heavy section steel plates. The first crack arrest took place within the scatter band of K Ia and K Id data for the first layer. That is, the K Ia concept appears applicable for crack arrest of a short crack jump

  1. Complete maternal and fetal recovery after prolonged cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, B S; Burke, T J

    1988-04-01

    A case of complete maternal and fetal recovery after prolonged cardiac arrest from massive lidocaine overdose is presented. A 27-year-old woman at 15 weeks gestation had a complete neurologic recovery after 22 minutes of CPR, including 19 minutes of electromechanical dissociation and asystole, with normal fetal heart function and fetal motion confirmed by ultrasound immediately after resuscitation. The patient delivered a healthy and neurologically normal infant at 40 weeks gestation. This is the longest cardiac arrest in early pregnancy reported in the medical literature with normal maternal and fetal outcome.

  2. Hemodynamics and vasopressor support in therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Søholm, Helle

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Inducing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) can be challenging due to its impact on central hemodynamics and vasopressors are frequently used to maintain adequate organ perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between level of vasopres......AIM: Inducing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) can be challenging due to its impact on central hemodynamics and vasopressors are frequently used to maintain adequate organ perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between level...

  3. Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg Jørgensen, Mads

    challenges, due to the victim’s physical location, which brings an inherent risk of delay (or altogether absence) of recognition and treatment of cardiac arrest. A low frequency of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and low 30-day survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were identified nearly ten...... years ago in Denmark. These findings led to several national initiatives to strengthen bystander resuscitation attempts and advance care. Despite these nationwide efforts, it was unknown prior to this project whether these efforts resulted in changes in resuscitation attempts by bystanders and changes...

  4. Cultivated plants in the diversified homegardens of local communities in Ganges Valley, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Baldauf, Cristina; Mollee, Eefke Maria

    2013-01-01

    Homestead agroforestry, in the form of homegardens, has a long tradition in many developing countries. These systems are an intimate mix of diversified agricultural crops and multipurpose trees planted, maintained by members of the household. This paper aims to explore the species composition...... observation, (3) informal and structured interviews with a purposive sample of 90 households. A total of 53 plant species under 32 families were identified from the study area and it was found that the relative density were highest for Areca catechu (areca palm), Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit....... The comparison of Shannon-Wiener index between agroforestry systems and natural forest showed no statistical difference, reinforcing the role of homegardens in biological conservation in Bangladesh. Therefore, increasing agroforestry practices in homesteads, should be the strategy for enhancing tree cover...

  5. Interventions designed using quality improvement methods reduce the incidence of serious airway events and airway cardiac arrests during pediatric anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, James P; Kreeger, Renee; Varughese, Anna M; Wittkugel, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Although serious complications during pediatric anesthesia are less common than they were 20 years ago, serious airway events continue to occur. Based on Quality Improvement (QI) data from our institution, a QI project was designed to reduce the incidence of serious airway events and airway cardiac arrests. A quality improvement team consisting of members of the Department of Anesthesia was formed and QI data from previous years were analyzed. The QI team developed a Smart Aim, Key Driver Diagram, and specific Interventions that focused on the accessibility of emergency drugs, the use of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants for endotracheal intubation in children 2 years and younger, and the presence of anesthesia providers until emergence from anesthesia in high-risk patients. The percentage of cases where muscle relaxants were utilized in children 2 years and younger for endotracheal intubation and where atropine and succinylcholine were readily available increased at both our base and outpatient facilities. Over the 2.5-year study period, the incidence of serious airway events and airway cardiac arrests was reduced by 44% and 59%, respectively compared to the previous 2-year period. We utilized QI methodology to design and implement a project which led to greater standardization of clinical practice within a large pediatric anesthesia group. Based on an understanding of system issues impacting our clinical practice, we designed and tested interventions that led to a significant reduction in the incidence of serious airway events and airway cardiac arrests. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Bypass of cell cycle arrest induced by transient DNMT1 post-transcriptional silencing triggers aneuploidy in human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barra Viviana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aneuploidy has been acknowledged as a major source of genomic instability in cancer, and it is often considered the result of chromosome segregation errors including those caused by defects in genes controlling the mitotic spindle assembly, centrosome duplication and cell-cycle checkpoints. Aneuploidy and chromosomal instability has been also correlated with epigenetic alteration, however the molecular basis of this correlation is poorly understood. Results To address the functional connection existing between epigenetic changes and aneuploidy, we used RNA-interference to silence the DNMT1 gene, encoding for a highly conserved member of the DNA methyl-transferases. DNMT1 depletion slowed down proliferation of near-diploid human tumor cells (HCT116 and triggered G1 arrest in primary human fibroblasts (IMR90, by inducing p53 stabilization and, in turn, p21waf1 transactivation. Remarkably, p53 increase was not caused by DNA damage and was not observed after p14-ARF post-transcriptional silencing. Interestingly, DNMT1 silenced cells with p53 or p14-ARF depleted did not arrest in G1 but, instead, underwent DNA hypomethylation and became aneuploid. Conclusion Our results suggest that DNMT1 depletion triggers a p14ARF/p53 dependent cell cycle arrest to counteract the aneuploidy induced by changes in DNA methylation.

  7. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.72) are Fiji and Togo, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2012 and 1 November 2012, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 157 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [ru

  8. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.72) are Fiji and Togo, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2012 and 1 November 2012, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 157 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  9. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document lists the 129 Member States of the Agency as of 1 June 1999. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/51) is Benin. The dates on which the present 129 states became Members, and the state (Honduras) whose application for membership of the Agency has been recommended by the Board of Governors to be considered at the 43rd session of the General Conference are given in an Attachment

  10. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.72) are Fiji and Togo, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2012 and 1 November 2012, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 157 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  11. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The new member since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.44) is Yemen. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the 122 States became members of the Agency, as well as the State whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  12. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.75) are San Marino and the Bahamas, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 25 November 2013 and 7 January 2014, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 161 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  13. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The new members since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.42) are: Armenia, Coratia, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands, the Slovak Republic and Uzbekistan. The Attachment to the circular shows the dates on which the 120 States became members of the Agency, as well as those States whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but who have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  14. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document lists the 128 Member States of the Agency as of 18 September 1998. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/50) is Burkina Faso. In an attachment the dates on which the present 128 states became Members, and the state (Benin) whose application for membership of the Agency has been recommended by the Board of Governors to be considered at the 42nd session of the General Conference are given

  15. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.75) are San Marino and the Bahamas, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 25 November 2013 and 7 January 2014, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 161 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  16. The Members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-13

    The new member since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.44) is Yemen. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the 122 States became members of the Agency, as well as the State whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute.

  17. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document lists the 127 Member States of the Agency as of 1 January 1998. The new Members since the last issue of of the list (INFCIRC/2/49) are Malta and the Republic of Moldova. In an attachment are given the dates on which the present 127 states become Members, the state (Burkina Faso) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  18. The members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-15

    The document lists the 127 Member States of the Agency as of 1 January 1998. The new Members since the last issue of of the list (INFCIRC/2/49) are Malta and the Republic of Moldova. In an attachment are given the dates on which the present 127 states become Members, the state (Burkina Faso) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute.

  19. The Members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-18

    The document lists the 128 Member States of the Agency as of 18 September 1998. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/50) is Burkina Faso. In an attachment the dates on which the present 128 states became Members, and the state (Benin) whose application for membership of the Agency has been recommended by the Board of Governors to be considered at the 42nd session of the General Conference are given

  20. The Members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-16

    The document lists the 129 Member States of the Agency as of 1 June 1999. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/51) is Benin. The dates on which the present 129 states became Members, and the state (Honduras) whose application for membership of the Agency has been recommended by the Board of Governors to be considered at the 43rd session of the General Conference are given in an Attachment.

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.75) are San Marino and the Bahamas, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 25 November 2013 and 7 January 2014, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 161 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.54) are the Republic of Tajikistan, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 10 September 2001 and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 31 October 2001. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 133 Member States became Members. It also shows the States whose applications for membership of the Agency have been approved by the General Conference, but which have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  3. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document lists the 124 Member States of the Agency as of 1 September 1996. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/Rev.47) is Georgia. In an attachment are given the dates on which the 124 Member States became Members, the State (Latvia) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the State (Republic of Moldova) whose application for membership has been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  4. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.46) is Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 123 Member States became Members. It also shows the States whose applications for membership of the Agency have been approved by the General Conference but which have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the State whose application for membership has been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    No new Member has joined the Agency since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.45). The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 122 Member States became Members. It also shows the State whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the States whose applications for membership have been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  6. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document lists the 136 Member States of the Agency as of 6 May 2003. The new Members since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/57) are Eritrea and the Republic of Seychelles. Cambodia withdrew from the Agency with effect from 26 March 2003. The dates on which the present 136 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  7. The members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-10

    The document lists the 124 Member States of the Agency as of 1 September 1996. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/Rev.47) is Georgia. In an attachment are given the dates on which the 124 Member States became Members, the State (Latvia) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the State (Republic of Moldova) whose application for membership has been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference.

  8. The Members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-11

    No new Member has joined the Agency since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.45). The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 122 Member States became Members. It also shows the State whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the States whose applications for membership have been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference.

  9. The members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.46) is Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 123 Member States became Members. It also shows the States whose applications for membership of the Agency have been approved by the General Conference but which have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the State whose application for membership has been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference.

  10. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 30 June 1969 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  11. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to 30 June 1975, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  12. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to 31 March 1974, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  13. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to the end of 1970, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  14. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to the end of 1972, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  15. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to the end of 1971, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  16. Working with Difficult Group Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottler, Jeffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes types of group members who are challenging in group settings including entitled, manipulative, and character-disordered clients. Provides suggestions for working with these group members, either as isolated cases or as homogenous populations, emphasizing the protection of other clients' rights. Includes 31 references. (Author/CRR)

  17. Standardized EEG interpretation accurately predicts prognosis after cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westhall, Erik; Rossetti, Andrea O.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Wesenberg Kjaer, Troels; Horn, Janneke; Ullén, Susann; Friberg, Hans; Nielsen, Niklas; Rosén, Ingmar; Åneman, Anders; Erlinge, David; Gasche, Yvan; Hassager, Christian; Hovdenes, Jan; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Kuiper, Michael; Pellis, Tommaso; Stammet, Pascal; Wanscher, Michael; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wise, Matt P.; Cronberg, Tobias; Saxena, Manoj; Miller, Jennene; Inskip, Deborah; Macken, Lewis; Finfer, Simon; Eatough, Noel; Hammond, Naomi; Bass, Frances; Yarad, Elizabeth; O'Connor, Anne; Bird, Simon; Jewell, Timothy; Davies, Gareth; Ng, Karl; Coward, Sharon; Stewart, Antony; Micallef, Sharon; Parker, Sharyn; Cortado, Dennis; Gould, Ann; Harward, Meg; Thompson, Kelly; Glass, Parisa; Myburgh, John; Smid, Ondrej; Belholavek, Jan; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Boerma, EC

    2016-01-01

    To identify reliable predictors of outcome in comatose patients after cardiac arrest using a single routine EEG and standardized interpretation according to the terminology proposed by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. In this cohort study, 4 EEG specialists, blinded to outcome,

  18. Ventilation and gas exchange management after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherasan, Yuda; Raimondo, Pasquale; Pelosi, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    For several decades, physicians had integrated several interventions aiming to improve the outcomes in post-cardiac arrest patients. However, the mortality rate after cardiac arrest is still as high as 50%. Post-cardiac arrest syndrome is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to not only poor neurological outcome and cardiovascular failure but also respiratory dysfunction. To minimize ventilator-associated lung injury, protective mechanical ventilation by using low tidal volume ventilation and driving pressure may decrease pulmonary complications and improve survival. Low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can be initiated and titrated with careful cardiac output and respiratory mechanics monitoring. Furthermore, optimizing gas exchange by avoiding hypoxia and hyperoxia as well as maintaining normocarbia may improve neurological and survival outcome. Early multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation intervention is recommended. Minimally invasive monitoring techniques, that is, echocardiography, transpulmonary thermodilution method measuring extravascular lung water, as well as transcranial Doppler ultrasound, might be useful to improve appropriate management of post-cardiac arrest patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Endothelial Dysfunction in Resuscitated Cardiac Arrest (ENDO-RCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anna Sina P; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality following initial survival of cardiac arrest remain high despite great efforts to improve resuscitation techniques and post-resuscitation care, in part due to the ischemia-reperfusion injury secondary to the restoration of the blood circulation. Patients resusc...

  20. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162...

  1. Crack arrest toughness of structural steels evaluated by compact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Michihiro

    1982-01-01

    Crack arrest tests such as compact, ESSO and DCB tests were made on SA533B Cl. 1, HT80 and KD32 steels to evaluate the crack arrest toughness. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) The crack arrest toughness could be evaluated by K sub(Ia) which was obtained by the static analysis of compact test. (2) K sub(ID) determined by the dynamic analysis of compact test was greater than K sub(Ia), though K sub(ID) became close to K sub(Ia)/K sub(Q) became a unity where K sub(Q) is the stress intensity factor at the crack initiation. (3) No significant difference was observed between K sub(Ia) and K sub(ca) obtained by ESSO and DCB tests, though K sub(ca) obtained by DCB test tended to be smaller than K sub(Ia) at lower temperatures. (4) K sub(Ia) was smaller than K sub(Ic) in the transition temperature range, while it was greater than K sub(Id). In the temperature range where K sub(Ic), which was determined from J sub(Ic), decreased with temperature increase, however, it was smaller than K sub(Ia). (5) The fracture appearance transition temperature and the absorbed energy obtained by 2 mm V-notch Charpy test were appropriate parameters for representing the crack arrest toughness, while the NDT temperature was not. (author)

  2. Growth arrest despite growth hormone replacement, post-craniopharyngioma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVile, C J; Hayward, R D; Neville, B G; Grant, D B; Stanhope, R

    1995-01-01

    Children with growth failure, whether secondary to an endocrinopathy such as growth hormone deficiency or secondary to neurological handicap with poor nutrient intake, grow at a subnormal rate but it is most unusual for a child to have complete growth arrest. PMID:7745571

  3. Carbamazepine induces mitotic arrest in mammalian Vero cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Martin, J.M.; Fernandez Freire, P.; Labrador, V.; Hazen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    We reported recently that the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine, at supratherapeutic concentrations, exerts antiproliferative effects in mammalian Vero cells, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. This motivates us to examine rigorously whether growth arrest was associated with structural changes in cellular organization during mitosis. In the present work, we found that exposure of the cells to carbamazepine led to an increase in mitotic index, mainly due to the sustained block at the metaphase/anaphase boundary, with the consequent inhibition of cell proliferation. Indirect immunofluorescence, using antibodies directed against spindle apparatus proteins, revealed that mitotic arrest was associated with formation of monopolar spindles, caused by impairment of centrosome separation. The final consequence of the spindle defects induced by carbamazepine, depended on the duration of cell cycle arrest. Following the time course of accumulation of metaphase and apoptotic cells during carbamazepine treatments, we observed a causative relationship between mitotic arrest and induction of cell death. Conversely, cells released from the block of metaphase by removal of the drug, continued to progress through mitosis and resume normal proliferation. Our results show that carbamazepine shares a common antiproliferative mechanism with spindle-targeted drugs and contribute to a better understanding of the cytostatic activity previously described in Vero cells. Additional studies are in progress to extend these initial findings that define a novel mode of action of carbamazepine in cultured mammalian cells

  4. Cdc20 control of cell fate during prolonged mitotic arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The fate of cells arrested in mitosis by antimitotic compounds is complex but is influenced by competition between pathways promoting cell death and pathways promoting mitotic exit. As components of both of these pathways are regulated by Cdc20-dependent degradation, I hypothesize that variations...

  5. Outcomes After Cardiac Arrest in an Adult Burn Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-07

    of in-hospital CA are likely to report widely varying survival rates as a result of study populations with characteristic but distinct demo- graphics ...Rehabil 1997;18:S119. [2] Sandroni C, Nolan J. In-hospital cardiac arrest: incidence, prognosis and possible measures to improve survival. Intens Care Med

  6. Trichostrongylus colubriformis rDNA polymorphism associated with arrested development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langrová, I.; Zouhar, M.; Vadlejch, J.; Borovský, M.; Jankovská, I.; Lytvynets, Andrej

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 2 (2008), s. 401-403 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : arrested development * polymorphism * rDNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.473, year: 2008

  7. Carbamazepine induces mitotic arrest in mammalian Vero cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Martin, J.M.; Fernandez Freire, P.; Labrador, V. [Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Hazen, M.J. [Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: mariajose.hazen@uam.es

    2008-01-01

    We reported recently that the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine, at supratherapeutic concentrations, exerts antiproliferative effects in mammalian Vero cells, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. This motivates us to examine rigorously whether growth arrest was associated with structural changes in cellular organization during mitosis. In the present work, we found that exposure of the cells to carbamazepine led to an increase in mitotic index, mainly due to the sustained block at the metaphase/anaphase boundary, with the consequent inhibition of cell proliferation. Indirect immunofluorescence, using antibodies directed against spindle apparatus proteins, revealed that mitotic arrest was associated with formation of monopolar spindles, caused by impairment of centrosome separation. The final consequence of the spindle defects induced by carbamazepine, depended on the duration of cell cycle arrest. Following the time course of accumulation of metaphase and apoptotic cells during carbamazepine treatments, we observed a causative relationship between mitotic arrest and induction of cell death. Conversely, cells released from the block of metaphase by removal of the drug, continued to progress through mitosis and resume normal proliferation. Our results show that carbamazepine shares a common antiproliferative mechanism with spindle-targeted drugs and contribute to a better understanding of the cytostatic activity previously described in Vero cells. Additional studies are in progress to extend these initial findings that define a novel mode of action of carbamazepine in cultured mammalian cells.

  8. Anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest caused by thiamine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Pareek, Manan; Langfrits, Christian Sigvald

    2013-01-01

    intoxication and developed cardiac arrest due to anaphylactic shock following intravenous thiamine infusion. The patient was successfully resuscitated after 15 min and repeated epinephrine administrations. He was discharged in good health after 14 days. This case report emphasises both the importance...

  9. Lupeol induces S-phase arrest and mitochondria-mediated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    48

    Lupeol induces S-phase arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Nupoor Prasad1, Akash Sabarwal2, Umesh C. S. Yadav1, Rana P. Singh2,*. 1School of Life Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. 2Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal ...

  10. Cardiac Arrest after Local Anaesthetic Toxicity in a Paediatric Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Maria Torres de Araújo Azi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a paediatric patient undergoing urological procedure in which a possible inadvertent intravascular or intraosseous injection of bupivacaine with adrenaline in usual doses caused subsequent cardiac arrest, completely reversed after administration of 20% intravenous lipid emulsion. Early diagnosis of local anaesthetics toxicity and adequate cardiovascular resuscitation manoeuvres contribute to the favourable outcome.

  11. Offenders' Perceptions of House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jamie S.; Hanrahan, Kate; Bowers, James H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study designed to examine the perceptions of house arrest (HA) and electronic monitoring (EM) among offenders who have recently experienced this criminal sentence. Data were gathered via a self-administered questionnaire and follow-up interviews with a sample of offenders. Our primary areas of interest were to assess (a)…

  12. Ganging up or sticking together? Group processes and children's responses to text-message bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Siân E; Manstead, Antony S R; Livingstone, Andrew G

    2011-02-01

    Drawing on social identity theory and intergroup emotion theory (IET), we examined group processes underlying bullying behaviour. Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a perpetrator's group, a target's group, or a third party group. They then read a gender-consistent scenario in which the norm of the perpetrator's group (to be kind or unkind towards others) was manipulated, and an instance of cyberbullying between the perpetrator's group and a member of the target's group was described. It was found that group membership, group norms, and the proposed antecedents of the group-based emotions of pride, shame, and anger (but not guilt) influenced group-based emotions and action tendencies in ways predicted by social identity and IET. The results underline the importance of understanding group-level emotional reactions when it comes to tackling bullying, and show that being part of a group can be helpful in overcoming the negative effects of bullying. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Is Ward Experience in Resuscitation Effort Related to the Prognosis of Unexpected Cardiac Arrest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen-Kuang Hou

    2007-09-01

    Conclusion: Hospital wards with more than 5 cardiac arrests per year have a better patient survival rate than those with fewer arrests. This is despite all ward staff receiving the same level of training.

  14. Therapeutic Hypothermia after In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moler, Frank W; Silverstein, Faye S; Holubkov, Richard; Slomine, Beth S; Christensen, James R; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Meert, Kathleen L; Browning, Brittan; Pemberton, Victoria L; Page, Kent; Gildea, Marianne R; Scholefield, Barnaby R; Shankaran, Seetha; Hutchison, Jamie S; Berger, John T; Ofori-Amanfo, George; Newth, Christopher J L; Topjian, Alexis; Bennett, Kimberly S; Koch, Joshua D; Pham, Nga; Chanani, Nikhil K; Pineda, Jose A; Harrison, Rick; Dalton, Heidi J; Alten, Jeffrey; Schleien, Charles L; Goodman, Denise M; Zimmerman, Jerry J; Bhalala, Utpal S; Schwarz, Adam J; Porter, Melissa B; Shah, Samir; Fink, Ericka L; McQuillen, Patrick; Wu, Theodore; Skellett, Sophie; Thomas, Neal J; Nowak, Jeffrey E; Baines, Paul B; Pappachan, John; Mathur, Mudit; Lloyd, Eric; van der Jagt, Elise W; Dobyns, Emily L; Meyer, Michael T; Sanders, Ronald C; Clark, Amy E; Dean, J Michael

    2017-01-26

    Targeted temperature management is recommended for comatose adults and children after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; however, data on temperature management after in-hospital cardiac arrest are limited. In a trial conducted at 37 children's hospitals, we compared two temperature interventions in children who had had in-hospital cardiac arrest. Within 6 hours after the return of circulation, comatose children older than 48 hours and younger than 18 years of age were randomly assigned to therapeutic hypothermia (target temperature, 33.0°C) or therapeutic normothermia (target temperature, 36.8°C). The primary efficacy outcome, survival at 12 months after cardiac arrest with a score of 70 or higher on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, second edition (VABS-II, on which scores range from 20 to 160, with higher scores indicating better function), was evaluated among patients who had had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before the cardiac arrest. The trial was terminated because of futility after 329 patients had undergone randomization. Among the 257 patients who had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before cardiac arrest and who could be evaluated, the rate of the primary efficacy outcome did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (36% [48 of 133 patients] and 39% [48 of 124 patients], respectively; relative risk, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 1.27; P=0.63). Among 317 patients who could be evaluated for change in neurobehavioral function, the change in VABS-II score from baseline to 12 months did not differ significantly between the groups (P=0.70). Among 327 patients who could be evaluated for 1-year survival, the rate of 1-year survival did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (49% [81 of 166 patients] and 46% [74 of 161 patients], respectively; relative risk, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.34; P=0.56). The incidences of blood-product use, infection, and serious adverse

  15. Epidemiology and Outcomes After In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Punkaj; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Pasquali, Sara K.; Hill, Kevin D.; Gaynor, J. William; O’Brien, Sean M.; He, Max; Sheng, Shubin; Schexnayder, Stephen M.; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Imamura, Michiaki; Jacobs, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multicenter data regarding cardiac arrest in children undergoing heart operations are limited. We describe epidemiology and outcomes associated with postoperative cardiac arrest in a large multiinstitutional cohort. Methods Patients younger than 18 years in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (2007 through 2012) were included. Patient factors, operative characteristics, and outcomes were described for patients with and without postoperative cardiac arrest. Multivariable models were used to evaluate the association of center volume with cardiac arrest rate and mortality after cardiac arrest, adjusting for patient and procedural factors. Results Of 70,270 patients (97 centers), 1,843 (2.6%) had postoperative cardiac arrest. Younger age, lower weight, and presence of preoperative morbidities (all p < 0.0001) were associated with cardiac arrest. Arrest rate increased with procedural complexity across common benchmark operations, ranging from 0.7% (ventricular septal defect repair) to 12.7% (Norwood operation). Cardiac arrest was associated with significant mortality risk across procedures, ranging from 15.4% to 62.3% (all p < 0.0001). In multivariable analysis, arrest rate was not associated with center volume (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 1.57 in low- versus high-volume centers). However, mortality after cardiac arrest was higher in low-volume centers (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 2.63). This association was present for both high- and low-complexity operations. Conclusions Cardiac arrest carries a significant mortality risk across the stratum of procedural complexity. Although arrest rates are not associated with center volume, lower-volume centers have increased mortality after cardiac arrest. Further study of mechanisms to prevent cardiac arrest and to reduce mortality in those with an arrest is warranted. PMID:25443018

  16. The geometry of empty space is the key to arresting dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, Aonghus; De Gregorio, Paolo; Dawson, K A [Department of Chemistry, University College Dublin, Irish Centre for Colloid Science and Biomaterials, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2004-10-27

    We present the concept of dynamically available volume as a suitable order parameter for dynamical arrest. We show that dynamical arrest can be understood as a de-percolation transition of a vacancy network or available space. Beyond the arrest transition we find that droplets of available space are disconnected and the dynamics is frozen. This connection of the dynamics to the underlying geometrical structure of empty space provides us with a rich framework for studying the arrest transition.

  17. Crack propagation and arrest simulation of X90 gas pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fengping; Huo, Chunyong; Luo, Jinheng; Li, He; Li, Yang

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether X90 steel pipe has enough crack arrest toughness or not, a damage model was suggested as crack arrest criterion with material parameters of plastic uniform percentage elongation and damage strain energy per volume. Fracture characteristic length which characterizes fracture zone size was suggested to be the largest mesh size on expected cracking path. Plastic uniform percentage elongation, damage strain energy per volume and fracture characteristic length of X90 were obtained by five kinds of tensile tests. Based on this criterion, a length of 24 m, Φ1219 × 16.3 mm pipe segment model with 12 MPa internal gas pressure was built and computed with fluid-structure coupling method in ABAQUS. Ideal gas state equation was used to describe lean gas behavior. Euler grid was used to mesh gas zone inside the pipe while Lagrangian shell element was used to mesh pipe. Crack propagation speed and gas decompression speed were got after computation. The result shows that, when plastic uniform percentage elongation is equal to 0.054 and damage strain energy per volume is equal to 0.64 J/mm"3, crack propagation speed is less than gas decompression speed, which means the simulated X90 gas pipe with 12 MPa internal pressure can arrest cracking itself. - Highlights: • A damage model was suggested as crack arrest criterion. • Plastic uniform elongation and damage strain energy density are material parameters. • Fracture characteristic length is suggested to be largest mesh size in cracking path. • Crack propagating simulation with coupling of pipe and gas was realized in ABAQUS. • A Chinese X90 steel pipe with 12 MPa internal pressure can arrest cracking itself.

  18. Experimental investigation of interfacial crack arrest in sandwich beams subjected to fatigue loading using a novel crack arresting device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J.H.; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A recently proposed face-sheet–core interface crack arresting device is implemented in sandwich beams and tested using the Sandwich Tear Test configuration. Fatigue loading conditions are applied to propagate the crack and determine the effect of the crack stopper on the fatigue growth rate and a...

  19. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and... leads underground shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters of approved type within 100 feet...

  20. Gender and Relational-Distance Effects in Arrests for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, William; DeMaris, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study tests two hypotheses regarding factors affecting arrest of the perpetrator in domestic violence incidents. Black's relational-distance thesis is that the probability of arrest increases with increasing relational distance between perpetrator and victim. Klinger's leniency principle suggests that the probability of arrest is lower for…

  1. Channel Capture as a Response to Anthropogenic Modification of a Tidal Landscape: Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta, Southwest Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C.; Bain, R. L.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Hale, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of tidal channel dynamics frequently emphasize "morphologically short" spatial scales (i.e., settings in which the cross-system tidal propagation time is negligible) or idealized single-channel planforms. In contrast, tides in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (GBMD) propagate more than 100 kilometers inland from the coast through a network of interconnected tidal estuaries, producing complex hydrodynamic behavior that remains poorly understood. Intense anthropogenic modification of the GBMD landscape further complicates tidally-driven, natural delta surface maintenance. Analyzing this system is particularly urgent given the current trend of rising sea level and its associated impacts on coastal communities.We present results from an ongoing field investigation of tidal waveform interaction and mass exchange between the Pussur and Shibsa Rivers, two large macrotidal estuaries in the southwestern GBMD. In the 1960s, construction of earthen embankments ("polders") eliminated regular tidal inundation for a vast region of the tidal platform, shrinking the Shibsa and Pussur basins by an estimated 1000 km2 and 700 km2, respectively. Conservation of mass predicts that a reduction in tidal basin area will decrease peak flow velocities and induce channel siltation; indeed, 100 km2 of secondary channels at the distal end of the tidal range have partly or fully closed in recent decades. The Pussur is likewise rapidly shoaling, restricting navigational access along a major shipping route. However, discharge and bathymetric datasets indicate that the adjacent Shibsa conveys three to four times more water than the Pussur and is actively scouring its bed, contrary to its predicted response to polder construction. Our field measurements are consistent with an ongoing channel capture event in which the Shibsa floods and drains a progressively greater portion of the former Pussur basin, allowing the Shibsa to widen and deepen despite the regional trend of channel

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The document lists the 125 Member States of the Agency as of 1 September 1997. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/Rev.48) is Latvia. In an Attachment are given the dates on which the present 125 States became Members, the State (Republic of Moldova) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the States (Malta and Burkina Faso) whose applications for membership have been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The new members since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.43) are: Kazakhstan and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea withdrew from membership of the Agency as of 13 June 1994. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the 121 States became members of the Agency, as well as those States whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but who have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  4. The Members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-22

    The document lists the 125 Member States of the Agency as of 1 September 1997. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/Rev.48) is Latvia. In an Attachment are given the dates on which the present 125 States became Members, the State (Republic of Moldova) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the States (Malta and Burkina Faso) whose applications for membership have been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference.

  5. Post-flood status of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica (Cetartiodactyla: Platanistidae in the Koshi River, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Khatri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The breach of the eastern embankment of the Koshi Barrage at Paschim Kusaha Village of Sunsari District on 18 August 2008, created havoc for wildlife and their habitats, as well as people’s livelihood and welfare. The Koshi River flowed through the breach for five months. Following the breach, a population assessment survey of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica was made between March and November 2009 in the Koshi River main channel starting from Chatara to 2km south of Koshi Barrage to ascertain their status. A direct count survey was conducted by two teams of researchers simultaneously searching for animals by boat from Chatara to the Koshi Barrage including the Triyuga River and on foot along the river banks downstream of Koshi Barrage and along the Mariya River. Standard protocols were followed to record the number of sighted dolphins. A total of 11 dolphins were recorded in the entire 49-km river stretch with an encounter rate of 0.23 dolphins per km. The current result showed an encouraging population of dolphins in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and its buffer zone but the threats for conservation still remain challenging. Close monitoring of dolphins and their habitats involving local communities are required for long term conservation of the river dolphins in Nepal. The breach of the eastern embankment of the Koshi Barrage at Paschim Kusaha Village of Sunsari District on 18 August 2008, created havoc for wildlife and their habitats, as well as people’s livelihood and welfare. The Koshi River flowed through the breach for five months. Following the breach, a population assessment survey of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica was made between March and November 2009 in the Koshi River main channel starting from Chatara to 2km south of Koshi Barrage to ascertain their status. A direct count survey was conducted by two teams of researchers simultaneously searching for

  6. Restoring the Promise of the Right to Speedy Trial to Service Members in Pretrial Arrest and Confinement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaver, Daniel P

    1994-01-01

    ...). This new version of R.C.M. 707 envisaged the simplification of some 40 years of confusion over what the right to a speedy trial means to persons who are subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ...

  7. Community involvement in out of hospital cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Ali; Raad, Mohamad; Chams, Nour; Chams, Sana; Bachir, Rana; El Sayed, Mazen J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Developing countries including Lebanon report low survival rates and poor neurologic outcomes in affected victims. Community involvement through early recognition and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can improve OHCA survival. This study assesses knowledge and attitude of university students in Lebanon and identifies potential barriers and facilitators to learning and performing CPR. A cross-sectional survey was administered to university students. The questionnaire included questions regarding the following data elements: demographics, knowledge, and awareness about sudden cardiac arrest, CPR, automated external defibrillator (AED) use, prior CPR and AED training, ability to perform CPR or use AED, barriers to performing/learning CPR/AED, and preferred location for attending CPR/AED courses. Descriptive analysis followed by multivariate analysis was carried out to identify predictors and barriers to learning and performing CPR. A total of 948 students completed the survey. Participants’ mean age was 20.1 (±2.1) years with 53.1% women. Less than half of participants (42.9%) were able to identify all the presenting signs of cardiac arrest. Only 33.7% of participants felt able to perform CPR when witnessing a cardiac arrest. Fewer participants (20.3%) reported receiving previous CPR training. Several perceived barriers to learning and performing CPR were also reported. Significant predictors of willingness to perform CPR when faced with a cardiac arrest were: earning higher income, previous CPR training and feeling confident in one's ability to apply an AED, or perform CPR. Lacking enough expertise in performing CPR was a significant barrier to willingness to perform CPR. University students in Lebanon are familiar with the symptoms of cardiac arrest, however, they are not well trained in CPR and lack confidence to perform it. The attitude towards the importance of

  8. Thermal effects in concrete members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed method of analysis for concrete members subjected to temperature changes is consistent with the requirements of ultimate strength design. This also facilitates the provision of the same safety margin as for other loads. Due to cracks and creep in concrete, thermal stresses are nonlinear; they are dependent on the effective member stiffness, which in turn vary with the magnitude of loading. Therefore it is inconsistent to have an ultimate strength design in conjunction with an analysis based on the linear elastic theory. It is proposed that when the requirements of serviceability are met, the neutral axis corresponding to the ultimate load capacity conditions be considered for temperature-induced loadings. This conforms with the fact that the thermal load, because of creep and formation of cracks in the member, can be self-relieving as the failure load condition or ultimate capacity is approached. The maximum thermal load that can develop in dependent on the effective cross section of the member. Recommendations are made for determining the average effective member stiffness, which lies between the stiffness corresponding to the cracked (at ultimate condition) and the uncracked sections. In the proposed method, thermal stresses are not considered completely self-relieving. The stresses are considered simultaneously with stresses resulting from other causes. A step-by-step approach is presented for analysis and design of concrete members subjected to temperature changes

  9. Arrested of coalescence of emulsion droplets of arbitrary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbanga, Badel L.; Burke, Christopher; Blair, Donald W.; Atherton, Timothy J.

    2013-03-01

    With applications ranging from food products to cosmetics via targeted drug delivery systems, structured anisotropic colloids provide an efficient way to control the structure, properties and functions of emulsions. When two fluid emulsion droplets are brought in contact, a reduction of the interfacial tension drives their coalescence into a larger droplet of the same total volume and reduced exposed area. This coalescence can be partially or totally hindered by the presence of nano or micron-size particles that coat the interface as in Pickering emulsions. We investigate numerically the dependance of the mechanical stability of these arrested shapes on the particles size, their shape anisotropy, their polydispersity, their interaction with the solvent, and the particle-particle interactions. We discuss structural shape changes that can be induced by tuning the particles interactions after arrest occurs, and provide design parameters for the relevant experiments.

  10. Interrater variability of EEG interpretation in comatose cardiac arrest patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westhall, Erik; Rosén, Ingmar; Rossetti, Andrea O

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: EEG is widely used to predict outcome in comatose cardiac arrest patients, but its value has been limited by lack of a uniform classification. We used the EEG terminology proposed by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS) to assess interrater variability in a cohort...... who were blinded for patient outcome. Percent agreement and kappa (κ) for the categories in the ACNS EEG terminology and for prespecified malignant EEG-patterns were calculated. RESULTS: There was substantial interrater agreement (κ 0.71) for highly malignant patterns and moderate agreement (κ 0.......42) for malignant patterns. Substantial agreement was found for malignant periodic or rhythmic patterns (κ 0.72) while agreement for identifying an unreactive EEG was fair (κ 0.26). CONCLUSIONS: The ACNS EEG terminology can be used to identify highly malignant EEG-patterns in post cardiac arrest patients...

  11. Metazoan operons accelerate recovery from growth arrested states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslaver, Alon; Baugh, L. Ryan; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Existing theories explain why operons are advantageous in prokaryotes, but their occurrence in metazoans is an enigma. Nematode operon genes, typically consisting of growth genes, are significantly up-regulated during recovery from growth-arrested states. This expression pattern is anti-correlated to non-operon genes consistent with a competition for transcriptional resources. We find that transcriptional resources are initially limiting during recovery, and that recovering animals are highly sensitive to any additional decrease in transcriptional resources. Operons become advantageous because by clustering growth genes into operons, fewer promoters compete for the limited transcriptional machinery, effectively increasing the concentration of transcriptional resources, and accelerating recovery. Mathematical modeling reveals how a moderate increase in transcriptional resources can substantially enhance transcription rate and recovery. This design principle occurs in different nematodes and the chordate C. intestinalis. As transition from arrest to rapid growth is shared by many metazoans, operons could have evolved to facilitate these processes. PMID:21663799

  12. Cardiac arrest during a twin birth caesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampín-Huerta, F R; Moreira-Gómez, D; Lozano-Requelme, M L; Molina-Nieto, F; Fontán-García-Boente, L; Moreira-Pacheco, M

    2016-04-01

    The case of a 35 year-old pregnant woman with a right ovarian vein thrombosis complicated with a floating thrombus in the inferior vena cava reaching the right atrium, is presented. The patient had a cardiac arrest due to a pulmonary embolism during a twin-birth caesarean delivery. Discussion includes the pathophysiology of this condition and management options in a cardiac arrest secondary to this aetiology, recovered with stable blood pressure, highlighting the role of thrombolytic therapy in the Postoperative Care Unit in this situation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Peculiarities of the Enforcement of the European Arrest Warrant in the Case of an Illegal Liberty Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora Ioana Rusu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The illegal deprivation of liberty is, under the current context, one of the most serious offenses, being treated differently in the European Union. The need to prevent and combat this violation, it has led the European legislator to include it under different names in the European legislative act that governs the institution of the European arrest warrant. In this context, the European arrest warrant is the most important form of judicial cooperation in penal matters between the Member States of the EU, which is based on mutualrecognition of criminal judgments. The research conducted on how it is regulated the enforcement of the European arrest warrant in the case of illegal liberty deprivation in the European legislative act (the Framework Decision 2002/584/JHA leads to the conclusion that the legislature failed to mention the violation in question in the group of the violation for which it was not necessary the inspection of the double incrimination, but, still, including the offenses as kidnapping, illegal restraint and hostage-taking. Even if theRomanian legislator included this violation in the above mentioned group, this situation is not solved, because it will cause some problems in the request by the Romanian judicial authorities of the enforcement of such warrant. Another criticized issue, observed not only in the European legislative act, but also in the internal law, is related to the lack of stipulations, which can lead to the possibility of issuing and executing a European arrest warrant and for the execution of educational measures for illegal deprivation of liberty and also others. Also, in order to increase the effectiveness of the execution of a European arrest warrant, we consider that it should be granted executive powers of all courts of Romania. The originality of the work consists of the critical observations and the lege ferenda proposal which covers both the European legislativeact and the Romanian Law. At the same time

  14. Relationship between chest compression rates and outcomes from cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Ahamed H; Guffey, Danielle; Aufderheide, Tom P; Brown, Siobhan; Morrison, Laurie J; Nichols, Patrick; Powell, Judy; Daya, Mohamud; Bigham, Blair L; Atkins, Dianne L; Berg, Robert; Davis, Dan; Stiell, Ian; Sopko, George; Nichol, Graham

    2012-06-19

    Guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend a chest compression rate of at least 100 compressions per minute. Animal and human studies have reported that blood flow is greatest with chest compression rates near 120/min, but few have reported rates used during out-of-hospital (OOH) cardiopulmonary resuscitation or the relationship between rate and outcome. The purpose of this study was to describe chest compression rates used by emergency medical services providers to resuscitate patients with OOH cardiac arrest and to determine the relationship between chest compression rate and outcome. Included were patients aged ≥ 20 years with OOH cardiac arrest treated by emergency medical services providers participating in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. Data were abstracted from monitor-defibrillator recordings during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Multiple logistic regression analysis assessed the association between chest compression rate and outcome. From December 2005 to May 2007, 3098 patients with OOH cardiac arrest were included in this study. Mean age was 67 ± 16 years, and 8.6% survived to hospital discharge. Mean compression rate was 112 ± 19/min. A curvilinear association between chest compression rate and return of spontaneous circulation was found in cubic spline models after multivariable adjustment (P=0.012). Return of spontaneous circulation rates peaked at a compression rate of ≈ 125/min and then declined. Chest compression rate was not significantly associated with survival to hospital discharge in multivariable categorical or cubic spline models. Chest compression rate was associated with return of spontaneous circulation but not with survival to hospital discharge in OOH cardiac arrest.

  15. Arresting Strategy Based on Dynamic Criminal Networks Changing over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a sequence of dynamic criminal networks on a time series based on the dynamic network analysis (DNA. According to the change of networks’ structure, networks’ variation trend is analyzed to forecast its future structure. Finally, an optimal arresting time and priority list are designed based on our analysis. Better results can be expected than that based on social network analysis (SNA.

  16. Circulatory Arrest: A Surgical Option for Adult Window Ductus Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vithalkumar Malleshi Betigeri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The window ductus , an atypical type of patent ductus arteriosus(PDA is a characteristically large in size(>2cm with no recognizable length, characteristic continuation of main pulmonary artery with aortic arch and absence of internal ductal tissue. Surgical safety and effectiveness of its closure can be increased by using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB and hypothermic total circulatory arrest (HTCA via median sternotomy.

  17. The Neighborhood Context of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Arrest

    OpenAIRE

    KIRK, DAVID S.

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with a focus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disad...

  18. Advances in crack-arrest technology for reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is continuing to improve the understanding of conditions that govern the initiation, rapid propagation, arrest, and ductile tearing of cracks in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. This paper describes recent advances in a coordinated effort being conducted under the HSST Program by ORNL and several subcontracting groups to develop the crack-arrest data base and the analytical tools required to construct inelastic dynamic fracture models for RPV steels. Large-scale tests are being carried out to generate crack-arrest toughness data at temperatures approaching and above the onset of Charpy upper-shelf behavior. Small- and intermediate-size specimens subjected to static and dynamic loading are being developed and tested to provide additional fracture data for RPV steels. Viscoplastic effects are being included in dynamic fracture models and computer programs and their utility validated through analyses of data from carefully controlled experiments. Recent studies are described that examine convergence problems associated with energy-based fracture parameters in viscoplastic-dynamic fracture applications. Alternative techniques that have potential for achieving convergent solutions for fracture parameters in the context of viscoplastic-dynamic models are discussed. 46 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Initiation and arrest - two approaches to pressure vessel safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Filip, R.; Stepanek, S.

    1976-01-01

    The safety analysis is described of the reactor pressure vessel related to brittle fracture based on the fracture mechanics theory using two different approximations, i.e., the Crack Arrest Temperature (CAT) or Nil Ductility Temperature (NDT), and fracture toughness. The variation of CAT with stress was determined for different steel specimens of 120 to 200 mm in thickness. A diagram is shown of CAT variation with stress allowing the determination of crack arrest temperature for all types of commonly used steels independently of the NDT initial value. The diagram also shows that the difference between fracture transition elastic (FTE) and NDT depends on the type of material and determines the value of the ΔTsub(sigma) factor typical of the safety coefficient. The so-called fracture toughness reference value Ksub(IR) is recommended for the computation of pressure vessel criticality. Also shown is a defect analysis diagram which may be used for the calculation of pressure vessel safety prior to and during operation and which may also be used in making the decision on what crack sizes are critical, what cracks may be arrested and what cracks are likely to expand. The diagram is also important for the fact that it is material-independent and may be employed for the estimates of pre-operational and operational inspections and for pressure vessel life prediction. It is generally applicable to materials of greater thickness in the region where the validity of linear elastic fracture mechanics is guaranteed. (J.P.)

  20. Burnout in Female Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Vu, Lisa; Beck, Keli; Moore, Justin B

    2017-04-01

    Despite approximately equal numbers of male and female medical school graduates, women are entering academic medicine at a lower rate than their male colleagues. Of those who do assume a faculty position, female faculty members report higher levels of burnout, often attributable to gender-specific difficulties in clinical expectations and maintenance of work-life balance. Many of these struggles are attributable to issues that are amenable to supportive policies, but these policies are inconsistent in their availability and practice. This commentary presents evidence for inconsistencies in the day-to-day experience of female faculty members, and proposes solutions for the mitigation of the challenges experienced more often by female faculty members with the goal of diversifying and strengthening academic medicine.

  1. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.

    2013-12-01

    The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions

  2. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The information given in this document is divided into two parts. In part I the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 31 December 1965 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D. Part III contains information about materials which had not been delivered by 31 December but which had been allocated, in accordance with Article XI. F. 1 of the Statute, to approved Agency projects for which project arrangements were in force on that date

  3. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The information given in this document is divided into two parts. In part I the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 31 December 1964 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D. Part II contains information about materials which had not been delivered by 31 December but which had been allocated, in accordance with Article XI. F. 1 of the Statute, to approved Agency projects for which project arrangements were in force on that date

  4. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    The information given in this document is divided into two parts. In part I the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 30 June 1968 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX,D. Part II contains information about materials which had not been delivered by 30 June 1968 but which had been allocated, in accordance with Article XI.F.I of the Statute, to approved Agency projects for which project arrangements were in force on that date

  5. Descriptive Analysis of Medication Administration During Inpatient Cardiopulmonary Arrest Resuscitation (from the Mayo Registry for Telemetry Efficacy in Arrest Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipelisky, David; Ray, Jordan; Matcha, Gautam; Roy, Archana; Dumitrascu, Adrian; Harris, Dana; Bosworth, Veronica; Clark, Brooke; Thomas, Colleen S; Heckman, Michael G; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler; Kusumoto, Fred; Burton, M Caroline

    2016-05-15

    Advanced cardiovascular life support guidelines exist, yet there are variations in clinical practice. Our study aims to describe the utilization of medications during resuscitation from in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. A retrospective review of patients who suffered a cardiopulmonary arrest from May 2008 to June 2014 was performed. Clinical and resuscitation data, including timing and dose of medications used, were extracted from the electronic medical record and comparisons made. A total of 94 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into different groups based on the medication combination used during resuscitation: (1) epinephrine; (2) epinephrine and bicarbonate; (3) epinephrine, bicarbonate, and calcium; (4) epinephrine, bicarbonate, and epinephrine drip; and (5) epinephrine, bicarbonate, calcium, and epinephrine drip. No difference in baseline demographics or clinical data was present, apart from history of dementia and the use of calcium channel blockers. The number of medications given was correlated with resuscitation duration (Spearman's rank correlation = 0.50, p resuscitation durations compared to that of the other groups (p resuscitation efforts for in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrests. Increased duration and mortality rates were found in those resuscitations compared with epinephrine alone, likely due to the longer resuscitation duration in the former groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ALA Salary Survey: Personal Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Libraries, 1971

    1971-01-01

    A survey of the members of the American Library Association revealed that the principal salary determinants are academic degree, type of employer and sex. The obvious differences in the earnings of men and women is not only found in the early experience years but any narrowing which does take place in the wage gap seems to take place at the…

  7. Slovenia joins IPPOG as member

    CERN Multimedia

    'marcelloni, claudia

    2018-01-01

    Slovenia became an official member of IPPOG on 19 April 2018. The MOU was signed by the head of Particle Physics Department at Jozef Stefan Institute representing Slovenia participation at IPPOG. Andrej Gorišek, country representative for Slovenia in IPPOG, brought the document to the meeting in Italy where IPPOG chairs signed it, confirming Slovenia membership to the collaboration.

  8. C.A.U.S.E.: Cardiac arrest ultra-sound exam--a better approach to managing patients in primary non-arrhythmogenic cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Caleb; Shuler, Klaus; Hannan, Hashibul; Sonyika, Chionesu; Likourezos, Antonios; Marshall, John

    2008-02-01

    Cardiac arrest is a condition frequently encountered by physicians in the hospital setting including the Emergency Department, Intensive Care Unit and medical/surgical wards. This paper reviews the current literature involving the use of ultrasound in resuscitation and proposes an algorithmic approach for the use of ultrasound during cardiac arrest. At present there is the need for a means of differentiating between various causes of cardiac arrest, which are not a direct result of a primary ventricular arrhythmia. Identifying the cause of pulseless electrical activity or asystole is important as the underlying cause is what guides management in such cases. This approach, incorporating ultrasound to manage cardiac arrest aids in the diagnosis of the most common and easily reversible causes of cardiac arrest not caused by primary ventricular arrhythmia, namely; severe hypovolemia, tension pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, and massive pulmonary embolus. These four conditions are addressed in this paper using four accepted emergency ultrasound applications to be performed during resuscitation of a cardiac arrest patient with the aim of determining the underlying cause of a cardiac arrest. Identifying the underlying cause of cardiac arrest represents the one of the greatest challenges of managing patients with asystole or PEA and accurate determination has the potential to improve management by guiding therapeutic decisions. We include several clinical images demonstrating examples of cardiac tamponade, massive pulmonary embolus, and severe hypovolemia secondary to abdominal aortic aneurysm. In conclusion, this protocol has the potential to reduce the time required to determine the etiology of a cardiac arrest and thus decrease the time between arrest and appropriate therapy.

  9. ABT-263 induces G1/G0-phase arrest, apoptosis and autophagy in human esophageal cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-Huan; Que, Fu-Chang; Gu, Chun-Ping; Zhong, De-Sheng; Zhou, Dan; Kong, Yi; Yu, Le; Liu, Shu-Wen

    2017-12-01

    Both the anti- and pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family are regulated by a conserved Bcl-2 homology (BH3) domain. ABT-263 (Navitoclax), a novel BH3 mimetic and orally bioavailable Bcl-2 family inhibitor with high affinity for Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w has entered clinical trials for cancer treatment. But the anticancer mechanisms of ABT-263 have not been fully elucidated. In this study we investigated the effects of ABT-263 on human esophageal cancer cells in vitro and to explore its anticancer mechanisms. Treatment with ABT-263 dose-dependently suppressed the viability of 3 human esophageal cancer cells with IC 50 values of 10.7±1.4, 7.1±1.5 and 8.2±1.6 μmol/L, in EC109, HKESC-2 and CaES-17 cells, respectively. ABT-263 (5-20 μmol/L) dose-dependently induced G 1 /G 0 -phase arrest in the 3 cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis evidenced by increased the Annexin V-positive cell population and elevated levels of cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 9 and PARP. We further demonstrated that ABT-263 treatment markedly increased the expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1 and decreased the expression of cyclin D1 and phospho-Rb (retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein) (Ser780) proteins that contributed to the G 1 /G 0 -phase arrest. Knockdown of p21 Waf1/Cip1 attenuated ABT-263-induced G 1 /G 0 -phase arrest. Moreover, ABT-263 treatment enhanced pro-survival autophagy, shown as the increased LC3-II levels and decreased p62 levels, which counteracted its anticancer activity. Our results suggest that ABT-263 exerts cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on human esophageal cancer cells in vitro and enhances pro-survival autophagy, which counteracts its anticancer activity.

  10. Understanding Heterogeneous Preferences of Cooperative Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Lans, van der I.A.; Garcia, P.; Dijk, van G.

    2009-01-01

    We study the heterogeneity in the preference structure of cooperative members. Using conjoint analysis the utility that members attach to intra-organizational and strategic attributes of their cooperative is elicited. Recognizing that members are not homogenous, a concomitant finitemixture

  11. Biomechanics of fall arrest using the upper extremity: age differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Jung; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2003-05-01

    This study tried to isolate critical biomechanical factors in fall arrests using the upper extremity during simulated forward falls. This study also attempted to find the differences in those factors between young and old age groups. The role of the upper extremity is not well defined despite its primary usage as a local shock absorber during fall impact. Comparative study in which two age groups underwent motion analysis.Methods. Ten healthy older males (mean age, 66.4 years) and 10 young males (mean age, 24.1 years) volunteered to perform self-initiated and cable-released falls at selected falling distances, while the joint motion and impact forces at the hand were recorded. Significant age differences were demonstrated in joint kinematics and impact force parameters at close distances. Excessive reflexive responses of the upper extremity in cable-released falls for the older adults resulted in 10-15 times higher peak impact forces and 2-3 times shorter body braking time than in self-initiated falls. Pre-impact activities of the upper extremity predispose the post-impact response during fall arrests. Suppressing excessive pre-impact reflexive activation of the arms could efficiently decrease the risk of fall-related injuries, which calls for securing sufficient arm movement time. Any fall prevention strategy that can increase arm movement time would be effective against injuries of the upper extremity during falling in the older adults. The findings will help to understand underlying mechanisms of fall arrest using the upper extremity for prevention of fall-related fractures.

  12. Calmodulin Mutations Associated with Recurrent Cardiac Arrest in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotti, Lia; Johnson, Christopher N.; Graf, Elisabeth; De Ferrari, Gaetano M.; Cuneo, Bettina F.; Ovadia, Marc; Papagiannis, John; Feldkamp, Michael D.; Rathi, Subodh G.; Kunic, Jennifer D.; Pedrazzini, Matteo; Wieland, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Beckmann, Britt-Maria; Clark, Travis; Shaffer, Christian; Benson, D. Woodrow; Kääb, Stefan; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M.; Chazin, Walter J.; Schwartz, Peter J.; George, Alfred L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Life-threatening disorders of heart rhythm may arise during infancy and can result in the sudden and tragic death of a child. We performed exome sequencing on two unrelated infants presenting with recurrent cardiac arrest to discover a genetic cause. Methods and Results We ascertained two unrelated infants (probands) with recurrent cardiac arrest and dramatically prolonged QTc interval who were both born to healthy parents. The two parent-child trios were investigated using exome sequencing to search for de novo genetic variants. We then performed follow-up candidate gene screening on an independent cohort of 82 subjects with congenital long-QT syndrome without an identified genetic cause. Biochemical studies were performed to determine the functional consequences of mutations discovered in two genes encoding calmodulin. We discovered three heterozygous de novo mutations in either CALM1 or CALM2, two of the three human genes encoding calmodulin, in the two probands and in two additional subjects with recurrent cardiac arrest. All mutation carriers were infants who exhibited life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias combined variably with epilepsy and delayed neurodevelopment. Mutations altered residues in or adjacent to critical calcium binding loops in the calmodulin carboxyl-terminal domain. Recombinant mutant calmodulins exhibited several fold reductions in calcium binding affinity. Conclusions Human calmodulin mutations disrupt calcium ion binding to the protein and are associated with a life-threatening condition in early infancy. Defects in calmodulin function will disrupt important calcium signaling events in heart affecting membrane ion channels, a plausible molecular mechanism for potentially deadly disturbances in heart rhythm during infancy. PMID:23388215

  13. Godt i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Andersen, Kirsten; Bisgaard, Hanne; Carstensen, Susanne

    Bogen er et materiale til undervisning af let øvede brugere - døvblevne, svært hørehæmmede og hørende - i tegnstøttet kommunikation. Materialet er en fortsættelse af ´Godt begyndt´, og gloseforrådet fra ´Godt begyndt´ forudsættes kendt...

  14. Multiple contacts with diversion at the point of arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Sharon; Wix, Stuart; Haque, M Sayeed; Humphreys, Martin

    2003-04-01

    A diversion at the point of arrest (DAPA) scheme was set up in five police stations in South Birmingham in 1992. In a study of all referrals made over a four-year period a sub group of multiple contact individuals was identified. During that time four hundred and ninety-two contacts were recorded in total, of which 130 were made by 58 individuals. The latter group was generally no different from the single contact group but did have a tendency to be younger. This research highlights the need for a re-evaluation of service provision and associated education of police officers and relevant mental health care professionals.

  15. ADULTHOOD ANIMAL ABUSE AMONG MEN ARRESTED FOR DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Recupero, Patricia R.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence was examined. 41% (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 3.0% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend towards a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration. PMID:25324474

  16. Elastodynamic fracture analyses of large crack-arrest experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Walker, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Results obtained to date show that the essence of the run-arrest events, including dynamic behavior, is being modeled. Refined meshes and optimum solution algorithms are important parameters in elastodynamic analysis programs to give sufficient resolution to the geometric and time-dependent aspects of fracture analyses. Further refinements in quantitative representation of material parameters and the inclusion of rate dependence through viscoplastic modeling is expected to give an even more accurate basis for assessing the fracture behavior of reactor pressure vessels under PTS and other off-normal loading conditions

  17. A CASE OF GRANISETRON ASSOCIATED INTRAOPERATIVE CARDIAC ARREST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Harbi, Mohammed; Al Rifai, Derar; Al Habeeb, Hassan; Wambi, Freddie; Geldhof, Georges; Dimitriou, Vassilios

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of intraoperative severe bradycardia that resulted in asystole and cardiac arrest shortly after (granisetron 1mg for postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis, that occurred in a female patient who underwent an elective total thyroidectomy. After two cycles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, spontaneous circulation and sinus rhythm returned successfully. Postoperatively, the patient was diagnosed with a drug-induced long QT syndrome. At the time of the event, granisetron was the only medication administered. Furthermore, there was no reason to suspect electrolyte abnormalities. We explore the association of the onset of severe sinus bradycardia with the intravenous administration of granisetron.

  18. Advanced life support for cardiac arrest beyond the algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Søren Steemann; Isbye, Dan Lou; Pfeiffer, Peter

    2018-01-01

    In an advanced emergency medical service all parts of the advanced life support (ALS) algorithm can be provided. This evidence-based algorithm outlines resuscitative efforts for the first 10-15 minutes after cardiac arrest, whereafter the algorithm repeats itself. Restoration of spontaneous...... circulation fails in most cases, but in some circumstances the patient may benefit from additional interventional approaches, in which case transport to hospital with ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation is indicated. This paper has summarized treatments outside the ALS algorithm, which may be beneficial...

  19. [Cerebral oximetry in pulmonary thromboendarterectomy with circulatory arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán Escudero, P; González Román, A; Serra Ruiz, C N; Barbero Mielgo, M; García Fernández, J

    2014-02-01

    Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is an uncommon procedure and should be performed with circulatory arrest. One of the major concerns is the postoperative central neurological injuries. Perioperative brain oxygen monitoring is advisable in this surgical procedure for the early detection of brain hypoperfusion episodes and their intensity as well as any other postoperative episodes that can deteriorate the neurological outcome. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamical arrest in dense short-ranged attractive colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foffi, G; Sciortino, F; Zaccarelli, E; Tartaglia, P

    2004-01-01

    We study thermodynamic and dynamic properties of model colloidal systems interacting with a hard core repulsion and a short-range attraction, and provide an overall picture of their phase diagrams which shows a very rich phenomenology. We focus on the slow dynamic properties of this model, investigating in detail the glass transition lines (both repulsive and attractive), the glass-glass transitions and the location of the higher order singularities. We discuss the relative location of the glass lines and of the metastable liquid-gas binodal, an issue relevant for the understanding of low density arrested states of matter

  1. Adulthood animal abuse among men arrested for domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Recupero, Patricia R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-09-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV), perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence were examined. Forty-one percent (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 1.5% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend toward a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in river and ground/drinking water of the Ganges River basin: Emissions and implications for human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K.; Tayal, Shresth; Larssen, Thorjørn; Bečanová, Jitka; Karásková, Pavlína; Whitehead, Paul G.; Futter, Martyn N.; Butterfield, Dan; Nizzetto, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been widely used in production processes and daily-use products or may result from degradation of precursor compounds in products or the environment. India, with its developing industrialization and population moving from traditional to contemporary lifestyles, represents an interesting case study to investigate PFAS emission and exposure along steep environmental and socioeconomic gradients. This study assesses PFAS concentrations in river and groundwater (used in this region as drinking water) from several locations along the Ganges River and estimates direct emissions, specifically for PFOS and PFOA. 15 PFAS were frequently detected in the river with the highest concentrations observed for PFHxA (0.4–4.7 ng L"−"1) and PFBS (< MQL – 10.2 ng L"−"1) among PFCAs and PFSAs, respectively. Prevalence of short-chain PFAS indicates that the effects of PFOA and PFOS substitution are visible in environmental samples from India. The spatial pattern of C_5–C_7 PFCAs co-varied with that of PFOS suggesting similar emission drivers. PFDA and PFNA had much lower concentrations and covaried with PFOA especially in two hotspots downstream of Kanpur and Patna. PFOS and PFOA emissions to the river varied dramatically along the transect (0.20–190 and 0.03–150 g d"−"1, respectively). PFOS emission pattern could be explained by the number of urban residents in the subcatchment (rather than total population). Per-capita emissions were lower than in many developed countries. In groundwater, PFBA (< MQL – 9.2 ng L"−"1) and PFBS (< MQL – 4.9 ng L"−"1) had the highest concentrations among PFCAs and PFSAs, respectively. Concentrations and trends in groundwater were generally similar to those observed in surface water suggesting the aquifer was contaminated by wastewater receiving river water. Daily PFAS exposure intakes through drinking water were below safety

  3. A first look at the influence of anthropogenic climate change on the future delivery of fluvial sediment to the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Stephen E; Dunn, Frances E; Nicholls, Robert J; Rahman, Munsur; Riddy, Liam

    2015-09-01

    We employ a climate-driven hydrological water balance and sediment transport model (HydroTrend) to simulate future climate-driven sediment loads flowing into the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The model was parameterised using high-quality topographic data and forced with daily temperature and precipitation data obtained from downscaled Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations for the period 1971-2100. Three perturbed RCM model runs were selected to quantify the potential range of future climate conditions associated with the SRES A1B scenario. Fluvial sediment delivery rates to the GBM delta associated with these climate data sets are projected to increase under the influence of anthropogenic climate change, albeit with the magnitude of the increase varying across the two catchments. Of the two study basins, the Brahmaputra's fluvial sediment load is predicted to be more sensitive to future climate change. Specifically, by the middle part of the 21(st) century, our model results suggest that sediment loads increase (relative to the 1981-2000 baseline period) over a range of between 16% and 18% (depending on climate model run) for the Ganges, but by between 25% and 28% for the Brahmaputra. The simulated increase in sediment flux emanating from the two catchments further increases towards the end of the 21(st) century, reaching between 34% and 37% for the Ganges and between 52% and 60% for the Brahmaputra by the 2090s. The variability in these changes across the three climate change simulations is small compared to the changes, suggesting they represent a significant increase. The new data obtained in this study offer the first estimate of whether and how anthropogenic climate change may affect the delivery of fluvial sediment to the GBM delta, informing assessments of the future sustainability and resilience of one of the world's most vulnerable mega-deltas. Specifically, such significant increases in future sediment loads could increase the resilience

  4. Community Members Draw the Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Freeland

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether a community-based task force’s redistricting plan in Ventura County, California, positively affected fair representation, social equity issues, community interests, and the electoral process. Examination and evaluation of the organizational strategies and collaborations involved in the task force’s redistricting process find that the Board of Supervisors districts that members of the community drew were successful in improving and maintaining fair representation. This finding is based on comparing supervisorial votes and policies with community members’ votes on state propositions and local measures, in addition to conducting interviews with task force members, politicians, and community activists. This study finds that citizen participation in governmental processes improves overall community health and political participation.

  5. Power reactors in member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This is the first issue of a periodical computer-based listing of civilian nuclear power reactors in the Member States of the IAEA, presenting the situation as of 1 April 1975. It is intended as a replacement for the Agency's previous annual publication of ''Power and Research Reactors in Member States''. In the new format, the listing contains more information about power reactors in operation, under construction, planned and shut down. As far as possible all the basic design data relating to reactors in operation have been included. In future these data will be included also for other power reactors, so that the publication will serve to give a clear picture of the technical progress achieved. Test and research reactors and critical facilities are no longer listed. Of interest to nuclear power planners, nuclear system designers, nuclear plant operators and interested professional engineers and scientists

  6. New offer for our members

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Evolution 2, your specialist for Outdoor Adventures Be it for a ski lesson, a parachute jump or for a mountain bike descent, come live an unforgettable experience with our outdoor specialists. Benefit from a 10 % discount on all activities: Offer is open to SA members and their family members living in the same household, upon presentation of the membership card. Offer available for all bookings made between 1 June 2018 and 30 May 2019. Offer available on all the Evoltion2 sites. A wide range of summer and winter activities. More information on http://evolution2.com/ Contact and reservation : +33 (0)4.50.02.63.35 management@evolution2.com

  7. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    The information given in this document is divided into two parts. In part I the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered up to 30 September 1962 by Member States in compliance with requests the Agency has made under Article IX. D. Part II contains information about materials which have not yet been delivered but which have been allocated, in accordance with Article XI. F. 1 of the Statute, to approved Agency projects for which project agreements were in force on 30 September 1962. Reports on subsequent deliveries of materials and revised information about allocated but undelivered materials will be issued from time to time

  8. Communication Among Melanoma Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Deborah J; Albrecht, Terrance; Hay, Jennifer; Eggly, Susan; Harris-Wei, Julie; Meischke, Hendrika; Burke, Wylie

    2017-01-01

    Interventions to improve communication among family members may facilitate information flow about familial risk and preventive health behaviors. This is a secondary analysis of the effects of an interactive website intervention aimed at increasing communication frequency and agreement about health risk among melanoma families. Participants were family units, consisting of one family member with melanoma identified from a previous research study (the case) and an additional first degree relative and a parent of a child 0–17. Family triads were randomized to receive access to the website intervention or to serve as control families. Family communication frequency and agreement about melanoma prevention behaviors and beliefs were measured at baseline and again at one year post randomization. Intervention participants of all three types significantly increased the frequency of communication to their first degree relatives (Parents, siblings, children; range =14–18 percentage points; all pcommunication about cancer risk. PMID:28248624

  9. New support line for members

    Science.gov (United States)

    AGU has recently established a new customer "support line"—solutions@agu.org—as the point of contact on AGU's staff for members and other individual constituents who have not been able to resolve issues or get questions answered promptly or to their satisfaction through customary channels.Over the past year, there have been many changes at AGU. Unfortunately—and perhaps as a result of these changes—communication with members and individual constituents has suffered. Some individuals report, for example, that e-mail messages are not answered to their satisfaction, or in a timely manner. Instructions on AGU's Web site are unclear in some areas. Problems related specifically to the transition to electronic publishing are cropping up.

  10. Characteristics and possibilities of software tool for metal-oxide surge arresters selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure for the selection of metal-oxide surge arresters based on the instructions given in the Siemens and ABB catalogues, respecting their differences and the characteristics and possibilities of the software tool. The software tool was developed during the preparation of a Master's thesis titled, 'Automation of Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters Selection'. An example is presented of the selection of metal-oxide surge arresters using the developed software tool.

  11. Towards mobile staff members management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encheva, Sylvia

    2017-07-01

    Todays project management requires a number of abilities which involve finding quick solutions to shortage of staff members with possession of specific qualities. When persons with team responsibilities are under pressure or due to various circumstances are unable to perform exhaustive search in databases, an interactive visualization tool can come in quite handy in finding good solutions unforeseen occurrences. In particular we propose application of selected graphs for facilitating mobile human resource management.

  12. Downregulation of HDAC9 inhibits cell proliferation and tumor formation by inducing cell cycle arrest in retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiting; Wu, Dan; Xia, Fengjie; Xian, Hongyu; Zhu, Xinyue [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Ophthalmology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, 210002 (China); Cui, Hongjuan, E-mail: hcui@swu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Institute of Sericulture and Systems Biology, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400716 (China); Huang, Zhenping, E-mail: huangzhenping19633@163.com [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Ophthalmology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, 210002 (China)

    2016-04-29

    Histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) is a member of class II HDACs, which regulates a wide variety of normal and abnormal physiological functions. Recently, HDAC9 has been found to be overexpressed in some types of human cancers. However, the role of HDAC9 in retinoblastoma remains unclear. In this study, we found that HDAC9 was commonly expressed in retinoblastoma tissues and HDAC9 was overexpressed in prognostically poor retinoblastoma patients. Through knocking down HDAC9 in Y79 and WERI-Rb-1 cells, the expression level of HDAC9 was found to be positively related to cell proliferation in vitro. Further investigation indicated that knockdown HDAC9 could significantly induce cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in retinoblastoma cells. Western blot assay showed downregulation of HDAC9 could significantly decrease cyclin E2 and CDK2 expression. Lastly, xenograft study in nude mice showed that downregulation of HDAC9 inhibited tumor growth and development in vivo. Therefore, our results suggest that HDAC9 could serve as a novel potential therapeutic target in the treatment of retinoblastoma. - Highlights: • High expression of HDAC9 correlates with poor patient prognosis. • Downregulation of HDAC9 inhibits cell proliferation in retinoblastoma cells. • Downregulation of HDAC9 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in retinoblastoma cells. • Downregulation of HDAC9 suppresses tumor growth in nude mice.

  13. Analysis of the G1 arrest position of senescent WI38 cells by quinacrine dihydrochloride nuclear fluorescence: evidence for a late G1 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, S.D.; Cristofalo, V.J.

    1986-01-01

    Senescence of the human diploid fibroblast-like cell line, W138, is characterized by a loss of proliferative activity and an arrest of cells with a 2C DNA content (G1 or G0). To examine the specific region within G1 in which senescent cells arrest, senescent cells were stained with quinacrine dihydrochloride (QDH) and their nuclear fluorescence was compared with that of young cultures arrested in early and late G1 by serum deprivation and hydroxyurea exposure, respectively. Release of these G1-arrested young cultures from their blocking conditions and timing the kinetics of their entry into the S phase by autoradiographic detection of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation revealed that serum-deprived cells entered the S phase within 15-18h, whereas hydroxyurea-exposed cells entered the S phase within 1.5h, thus confirming their relative G1-arrest positions. QDH-stained, serum-deprived and hydroxyurea-exposed young cells exhibited relative nuclear fluorescence intensities of 51.7 and 23.9, respectively. Senescent cells exhibited a relative nuclear fluorescence intensity of 17.4, closely resembling the fluorescence of young cultures arrested in late G1 by hydroxyurea exposure. These data support the concept that senescent cells are arrested from further progression in the cell cycle in late G1

  14. Shielding member for thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masanori

    1997-06-30

    In a thermonuclear device for shielding fast neutrons by shielding members disposed in a shielding vessel (vacuum vessel and structures such as a blanket disposed in the vacuum vessel), the shielding member comprises a large number of shielding wires formed fine and short so as to have elasticity. The shielding wires are sealed in a shielding vessel together with water, and when the width of the shielding vessel is changed, the shielding wires follow after the change of the width while elastically deforming in the shielding vessel, so that great stress and deformation are not formed thereby enabling to improve reliability. In addition, the length, the diameter and the shape of each of the shielding wires can be selected in accordance with the shielding space of the shielding vessel. Even if the shape of the shielding vessel is complicated, the shielding wires can be inserted easily. Accordingly, the filling rate of the shielding members can be changed easily. It can be produced more easily compared with a conventional spherical pebbles. It can be produced more easily than existent spherical shielding pebbles thereby enabling to reduce the production cost. (N.H.)

  15. G2 phase arrest of cell cycle induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangwei; Gong Shouliang

    2002-01-01

    The exposure of mammalian cells to X rays results in the prolongation of the cell cycle, including the delay or the arrest in G 1 , S and G 2 phase. The major function of G 1 arrest may be to eliminate the cells containing DNA damage and only occurs in the cells with wild type p53 function whereas G 2 arrest following ionizing radiation has been shown to be important in protecting the cells from death and occurs in all cells regardless of p53 status. So the study on G 2 phase arrest of the cell cycle induced by ionizing radiation has currently become a focus at radiobiological fields

  16. An Exploratory Study of Functional Status in Post Cardiac Arrest Survivors Discharged To Home

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitcomb, John J

    2005-01-01

    .... Aims of the project were to describe perceived functional capacity, physical functional performance, mental health, symptom distress, and demographic factors in survivors of cardiopulmonary arrest...

  17. Perioperative cardiac arrest: an evolutionary analysis of the intra-operative cardiac arrest incidence in tertiary centers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Fachini Vane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Great changes in medicine have taken place over the last 25 years worldwide. These changes in technologies, patient risks, patient profile, and laws regulating the medicine have impacted the incidence of cardiac arrest. It has been postulated that the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest has decreased over the years, especially in developed countries. The authors hypothesized that, as in the rest of the world, the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest is decreasing in Brazil, a developing country. Objectives: The aim of this study was to search the literature to evaluate the publications that relate the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest in Brazil and analyze the trend in the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest. Contents: There were 4 articles that met our inclusion criteria, resulting in 204,072 patients undergoing regional or general anesthesia in two tertiary and academic hospitals, totalizing 627 cases of intraoperative cardiac arrest. The mean intraoperative cardiac arrest incidence for the 25 years period was 30.72:10,000 anesthesias. There was a decrease from 39:10,000 anesthesias to 13:10,000 anesthesias in the analyzed period, with the related lethality from 48.3% to 30.8%. Also, the main causes of anesthesia-related cause of mortality changed from machine malfunction and drug overdose to hypovolemia and respiratory causes. Conclusions: There was a clear reduction in the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest in the last 25 years in Brazil. This reduction is seen worldwide and might be a result of multiple factors, including new laws regulating the medicine in Brazil, incorporation of technologies, better human development level of the country, and better patient care. Resumo: Justificativa: Nos últimos 25 anos ocorreram grandes mudanças na medicina em todo o mundo. Essas mudanças de tecnologias, riscos do paciente, perfil do paciente e leis que regulam medicamentos tiveram impacto na incid

  18. Znhit1 causes cell cycle arrest and down-regulates CDK6 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhengmin; Cao, Yonghao; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Huang, Ying; Ding, Yuqiang; Liu, Xiaolong

    2009-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) is the key element of the D-type cyclin holoenzymes which has been found to function in the regulation of G1-phase of the cell cycle and is presumed to play important roles in T cell function. In this study, Znhit1, a member of a new zinc finger protein family defined by a conserved Zf-HIT domain, induced arrest in the G1-phase of the cell cycle in NIH/3T3 cells. Of the G1 cell cycle factors examined, the expression of CDK6 was found to be strongly down-regulated by Znhit1 via transcriptional repression. This effect may have correlations with the decreased acetylation level of histone H4 in the CDK6 promoter region. In addition, considering that CDK6 expression predominates in T cells, the negative regulatory role of Znhit1 in TCR-induced T cell proliferation was validated using transgenic mice. These findings identified Znhit1 as a CDK6 regulator that plays an important role in cell proliferation.

  19. Male and female child murderers: an empirical analysis of U.S. arrest data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Brian G; Heide, Kathleen M

    2012-08-01

    Recent U.S. cases of murders by children below age 11 have captured national headlines. A review of the literature reveals that little is known about this population of juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs). Most studies on juvenile murderers have used small clinical samples, focused on adolescents, and concentrated on male offenders. Studies that have used Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) data have found significant gender differences among juveniles below 18 years arrested for murder. This study investigated gender differences among 226 juvenile murderers ages 6 through 10 involved in single-victim incidents using bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Consistent with previous research, bivariate analyses revealed gender differences with respect to the type of weapon used, age of the victim, relationship to the victim, and circumstances of the crime. Logistic regression analysis identified female JHOs as more likely to use a knife, kill a family member, and kill a victim below age 5, when compared with male JHOs. From these findings, profiles of young male and female JHOs can be drawn. The article concludes with a discussion of the study's implications for prevention and treatment. The authors recommend that future research in gender differences among young children focus on examining psychological, neurological, and sociological variables not included in the SHR data set.

  20. Electrophysiological Monitoring of Brain Injury and Recovery after Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoxian Deng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable prognostic methods for cerebral functional outcome of post cardiac-arrest (CA patients are necessary, especially since therapeutic hypothermia (TH as a standard treatment. Traditional neurophysiological prognostic indicators, such as clinical examination and chemical biomarkers, may result in indecisive outcome predictions and do not directly reflect neuronal activity, though they have remained the mainstay of clinical prognosis. The most recent advances in electrophysiological methods—electroencephalography (EEG pattern, evoked potential (EP and cellular electrophysiological measurement—were developed to complement these deficiencies, and will be examined in this review article. EEG pattern (reactivity and continuity provides real-time and accurate information for early-stage (particularly in the first 24 h hypoxic-ischemic (HI brain injury patients with high sensitivity. However, the signal is easily affected by external stimuli, thus the measurements of EP should be combined with EEG background to validate the predicted neurologic functional result. Cellular electrophysiology, such as multi-unit activity (MUA and local field potentials (LFP, has strong potential for improving prognostication and therapy by offering additional neurophysiologic information to understand the underlying mechanisms of therapeutic methods. Electrophysiology provides reliable and precise prognostication on both global and cellular levels secondary to cerebral injury in cardiac arrest patients treated with TH.

  1. Archaeal RNA polymerase arrests transcription at DNA lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Alexandra M; Santangelo, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Transcription elongation is not uniform and transcription is often hindered by protein-bound factors or DNA lesions that limit translocation and impair catalysis. Despite the high degree of sequence and structural homology of the multi-subunit RNA polymerases (RNAP), substantial differences in response to DNA lesions have been reported. Archaea encode only a single RNAP with striking structural conservation with eukaryotic RNAP II (Pol II). Here, we demonstrate that the archaeal RNAP from Thermococcus kodakarensis is sensitive to a variety of DNA lesions that pause and arrest RNAP at or adjacent to the site of DNA damage. DNA damage only halts elongation when present in the template strand, and the damage often results in RNAP arresting such that the lesion would be encapsulated with the transcription elongation complex. The strand-specific halt to archaeal transcription elongation on modified templates is supportive of RNAP recognizing DNA damage and potentially initiating DNA repair through a process akin to the well-described transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR) pathways in Bacteria and Eukarya.

  2. In-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Martha; Rodriguez, Roger; Callejas, Allison; Carranza, Douglas; Zeron, Hilda; Sánchez, Carlos; Del Castillo, Jimena; López-Herce, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the characteristic and the prognostic factors of in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest (CA) in a public hospital Honduras. A prospective observational study was performed on pediatric in-hospital CA as a part of a multicenter international study. One hundred forty-six children were studied. The primary end point was survival at hospital discharge. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the influence of each factor on mortality. Cardiac arrest occurred in the emergency department in 66.9%. Respiratory diseases and sepsis were predominant causes of CA. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 60% of patients, and 22.6% survived to hospital discharge. The factors related with mortality were nonrespiratory cause of CA (odds ratio [OR], 2.55; P = 0.045), adrenaline administration (OR, 4.96; P = 0.008), and a duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation more than 10 minutes (OR, 3.40; P = 0.012). In-hospital CA in children in a developing country has low survival. Patients with nonrespiratory causes and those who need adrenaline administration and prolonged resuscitation had worse prognosis.

  3. Usefulness of emergency ultrasound in nontraumatic cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpicelli, Giovanni

    2011-02-01

    Treatment of nontraumatic cardiac arrest in the hospital setting depends on the recognition of heart rhythm and differential diagnosis of the underlying condition while maintaining a constant oxygenated blood flow by ventilation and chest compression. Diagnostic process relies only on patient's history, physical findings, and active electrocardiography. Ultrasound is not currently scheduled in the resuscitation guidelines. Nevertheless, the use of real-time ultrasonography during resuscitation has the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy and allows the physician a greater confidence in deciding aggressive life-saving therapeutic procedures. This article reviews the current opinions and literature about the use of emergency ultrasound during resuscitation of nontraumatic cardiac arrest. Cardiac and lung ultrasound have a great potential in identifying the reversible mechanical causes of pulseless electrical activity or asystole. Brief examination of the heart can even detect a real cardiac standstill regardless of electrical activity displayed on the monitor, which is a crucial prognostic indicator. Moreover, ultrasound can be useful to verify and monitor the tracheal tube placement. Limitation to the use of ultrasound is the need to minimize the no-flow intervals during mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, real-time ultrasound can be successfully applied during brief pausing of chest compression and first pulse-check. Finally, lung sonographic examination targeted to the detection of signs of pulmonary congestion has the potential to allow hemodynamic noninvasive monitoring before and after mechanical cardiopulmonary maneuvers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-equilibrium theory of arrested spinodal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olais-Govea, José Manuel; López-Flores, Leticia; Medina-Noyola, Magdaleno [Instituto de Física “Manuel Sandoval Vallarta,” Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón 64, 78000 San Luis Potosí, SLP (Mexico)

    2015-11-07

    The non-equilibrium self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of irreversible relaxation [P. E. Ramŕez-González and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E 82, 061503 (2010); 82, 061504 (2010)] is applied to the description of the non-equilibrium processes involved in the spinodal decomposition of suddenly and deeply quenched simple liquids. For model liquids with hard-sphere plus attractive (Yukawa or square well) pair potential, the theory predicts that the spinodal curve, besides being the threshold of the thermodynamic stability of homogeneous states, is also the borderline between the regions of ergodic and non-ergodic homogeneous states. It also predicts that the high-density liquid-glass transition line, whose high-temperature limit corresponds to the well-known hard-sphere glass transition, at lower temperature intersects the spinodal curve and continues inside the spinodal region as a glass-glass transition line. Within the region bounded from below by this low-temperature glass-glass transition and from above by the spinodal dynamic arrest line, we can recognize two distinct domains with qualitatively different temperature dependence of various physical properties. We interpret these two domains as corresponding to full gas-liquid phase separation conditions and to the formation of physical gels by arrested spinodal decomposition. The resulting theoretical scenario is consistent with the corresponding experimental observations in a specific colloidal model system.

  5. [Preliminary textual research on Zhijintang Sanctum re-revised version of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinsheng

    2014-03-01

    The Zhijintang Sanctum version of the re-revised edition of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)collected by Zhao Huiyuan of Baihe, Henan Province in 2008 was opted as one of the third batch of the National Directory of Rare Ancient Worksin 2010. On the second cover page (patent page), it is recorded as"Original Jiangxi version". However, it is investigated to find that most of its paper sheets were reprinted after the original Jinling version, only scores of paper sheets were supplemented block-printed, including the additional block-printed second preface and Li Jianyuan's submitted report of the Jiangxi version, the re-revised time of which should be after the Jiangxi edition, or 1603. The exact time can be determined only by checking it carefully against another Jinling re-revised version (the Sheyuantang Sanctum edition).

  6. Bandes de « microbes » et insécurité à Abidjan/Gangs of “microbes” and insecurity in Abidjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu A. Akadje

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of “microbes” gangs tends to spread throughout the territory of Abidjan district, but especially to increase the number of victims. The objective of this study is to determine the criminal acts perpetrated by the “microbes” and show how this phenomenon is experienced in populations. The methodology is based on desk and field research with the population. The qualitative analysis allowed to highlight crime and insecurity within the population. The results highlighted the fact that the multiple aggressions of “microbes”, both violent and recurrent, led to numerous injuries and even death of the victims. Also, they contributed to the establishment of a feeling of insecurity among the population of Abidjan. Le phénomène des gangs de « microbes » a tendance à s’étendre sur l’ensemble du territoire du district d’Abidjan, mais surtout à accroître le nombre des victimes. L’objectif de cette étude est de déterminer les actes criminels perpétrés par les « microbes » et de montrer comment ce phénomène est vécu au sein des populations. La méthodologie est basée sur une recherche documentaire et de terrain auprès des populations. L’analyse qualitative a permis de mettre en évidence la criminalité et le sentiment d’insécurité au sein de la population. Les résultats ont mis en exergue le fait que les multiples agressions des « microbes », à la fois violentes et récurrentes, ont conduit à de nombreux blessés voire décès des victimes. Aussi, ont-ils concouru à l’instauration d’un sentiment d’insécurité au sein des populations abidjanaises.

  7. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the member...

  8. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EU (CRIMINAL LAW: LEGALITY, EQUALITY, NON-DISCRIMINATION, SPECIALTY AND NE BIS IN IDEM IN THE FIELD OF THE EUROPEAN ARREST WARRANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOREL NEAGU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the field of the European arrest warrant, critically analysing the principles invoked in several decisions validating the European legislation in the field: legality, equality and non-discrimination, specialty, ne bis in idem. The author concludes that an area of freedom, security and justice could be built on these principles, but further harmonisation of legislation needs to be realised to avoid a ”journey to the unknown” for European citizens in respect to legislation of other member states of the EU.

  9. Prescription Monitoring Program Trends Among Individuals Arrested in Maine for Trafficking Prescription Drugs in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Kenneth; Nichols, Stephanie D; Holt, Christina; Ochs, Leslie; Cattabriga, Gary; Tu, Chunhao

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate controlled substance prescribing trends available in the Maine Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) among individuals arrested for prescription drug "trafficking." The demographic characteristics of the individuals who had matching prescription records in the PMP within 90 days of the arrest were identified. A population-based, retrospective cohort study using data from the Maine Diversion Alert Program (DAP) and the Maine PMP. The study population consisted of persons arrested for trafficking prescription drugs in Maine during the 2014 calendar year from January 1 to December 31. There were 594 trafficking arrests reported by the Maine DAP in 2014. The study population consisted of the 235 persons (40%) with arrests involving controlled prescription medications. The mean age of these persons was 33 years (range 18-77 yrs), and 156 (66%) were male. Arrests involved 154 prescription opioids (65%), seven stimulants (3%), seven benzodiazepines (3%), and 77 unspecified controlled prescription drugs (33%). A minority of individuals (n=57, 24%) had a prescription record in the PMP that matched the substance involved in the arrest. Only one person with matching PMP and arrest records utilized ≥ 5 prescribers, while none used ≥ 5 pharmacies within 90 days before the arrest. Payment methods for matching prescriptions were commercial insurance (n=28, 49%), Medicaid (n=19, 33%), Medicare (n=5, 9%), and cash (n=5, 9%). The majority (76%) of persons arrested for prescription drug trafficking did not have PMP records and did not directly obtain the diverted medication from a licensed pharmacy. Traditional red flags, like cash payment and using multiple prescribers or pharmacies, were uncommon. Therefore, arrest records for diversion and PMPs are distinct and complementary tools for identifying individuals at risk for substance misuse. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  10. Mental health court outcomes: a comparison of re-arrest and re-arrest severity between mental health court and traditional court participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marlee E; Hiday, Virginia Aldigé

    2006-12-01

    Mental health courts have been proliferating across the country since their establishment in the late 1990's. Although numerous advocates have proclaimed their merit, only few empirical studies have evaluated their outcomes. This paper evaluates the effect of one mental health court on criminal justice outcomes by examining arrests and offense severity from one year before to one year after entry into the court, and by comparing mental health court participants to comparable traditional criminal court defendants on these measures. Multivariate models support the prediction that mental health courts reduce the number of new arrests and the severity of such re-arrests among mentally ill offenders. Similar analysis of mental health court completers and non-completers supports the prediction that a "full dose" of mental health treatment and court monitoring produce even fewer re-arrests.

  11. Cell cycle age dependence for radiation-induced G2 arrest: evidence for time-dependent repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Exponentially growing eucaryotic cells, irradiated in interphase, are delayed in progression to mitosis chiefly by arrest in G 2 . The sensitivity of Chinese hamster ovary cells to G 2 arrest induction by X rays increases through the cell cycle, up to the X-ray transition point (TP) in G 2 . This age response can be explained by cell cycle age-dependent changes in susceptibility of the target(s) for G 2 arrest and/or by changes in capability for postirradiation recovery from G 2 arrest damage. Discrimination between sensitivity changes and repair phenomena is possible only if the level of G 2 arrest-causing damage sustained by a cell at the time of irradiation and the level ultimately expressed as arrest can be determined. The ability of caffeine to ameliorate radiation-induced G 2 arrest, while inhibiting repair of G 2 arrest-causing damage makes such an analysis possible. In the presence of caffeine, progression of irradiated cells was relatively unperturbed, but on caffeine removal, G 2 arrest was expressed. The duration of G 2 arrest was independent of the length of the prior caffeine exposure. This finding indicates that the target for G 2 arrest induction is present throughout the cell cycle and that the level of G 2 arrest damage incurred is initially constant for all cell cycle phases. The data are consistent with the existence of a time-dependent recovery mechanism to explain the age dependence for radiation induction of G 2 arrest

  12. Return to Work in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragholm, Kristian; Wissenberg, Mads; Mortensen, Rikke Normark

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on long-term function of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors are sparse. We examined return to work as a proxy of preserved function without major neurologic deficits in survivors. METHODS AND RESULTS: In Denmark, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests have been systematically repo...

  13. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.508 Lightning... conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are adequately...

  14. Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. 8 CFR 287.3 - Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant. 287.3 Section 287.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.3 Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant...

  16. The Tendency to Arrest Victims of Domestic Violence: A Preliminary Analysis of Officer Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Daniel G.

    1995-01-01

    Studied 111 police officers. Predicted that those inclined to arrest victims of domestic violence would have more negative stereotypes and attitudes toward victims and women. Results showed that those with an inclination to arrest victims believed domestic violence is justified situationally and that women stay in violent relationships for…

  17. The Influence of Peer and Educational Variables on Arrest Status among At-Risk Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Walker, Hill M.; Stieber, Steve

    1998-01-01

    A study examined the predictive power of selected social and academic variables regarding the arrest frequency for 11th-grade boys who seven years earlier had been judged to be at risk of developing antisocial behavior patterns. Antisocial measures on which participants scored higher were associated with more frequent arrests. (Author/CR)

  18. Mental Disorders, Comorbidity, and Postrunaway Arrests among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojin; Thrane, Lisa; Whitbeck, Les B.; Johnson, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the associations between lifetime mental disorder, comorbidity, and self-reported postrunaway arrests among 428 (187 males, 241 females) homeless and runaway youth. The analysis examined the pattern of arrests across five lifetime mental disorders (alcohol abuse, drug abuse, conduct disorder, major depressive episode, and…

  19. Interfacial Crack Arrest in Sandwich Panels with Embedded Crack Stoppers Subjected to Fatigue Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J. H.; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A novel crack arresting device has been implemented in sandwich panels and tested using a special rig to apply out-of-plane loading on the sandwich panel face-sheets. Fatigue crack propagation was induced in the face-core interface of the sandwich panels which met the crack arrester. The effect o...

  20. 39 CFR 230.4 - Arrest and investigative powers of criminal investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arrest and investigative powers of criminal... OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL General Policy and Authority § 230.4 Arrest and investigative powers of criminal investigators. (a) Under the authority of 18 U.S.C. 3061, criminal investigators employed by the...

  1. Mental Condition and Ventricular Size in Arrested Hydrocephalus: an Analysis of 29 Shunt‐independent Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOLTZER, G.J.; de LANGE, S.A.; ORBAAN, I.J.C.; GELSEMA, R.

    1971-01-01

    textabstractMeasurement of the diameter of the ventricular system, in a series of 29 patients with arrested hydrocephalus who had become shunt‐independent, showed that enlargement of the ventricles does not necessarily play a part in the arrest of hydrocephalus, for in many of these cases the

  2. Outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest--why do physicians withhold resuscitation attempts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Tina I; Rasmussen, Lars S; Lippert, Freddy K

    2004-01-01

    To describe the outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with a focus on why physicians withhold resuscitation attempts.......To describe the outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with a focus on why physicians withhold resuscitation attempts....

  3. A Summary and Analysis of Warrantless Arrest Statutes for Domestic Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeoli, April M.; Norris, Alexis; Brenner, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have enacted statutes that allow police officers to make warrantless arrests for domestic violence given probable cause; however, state laws differ from one another in multiple, important ways. Research on domestic violence warrantless arrest laws rarely describe them as anything…

  4. Comparison of analysis and experimental data for a unique crack arrest specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, D.J.; Fabi, R.J.; Schonenberg, R.Y.; Norris, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A new fracture test specimen has been developed to study crack extension and arrest in nuclear reactor vessel steels subject to stress-intensity factor and toughness gradients similar to those in postulated pressurized thermal shock situations. A summary of the results of all the tests performed is presented to illustrate the range of crack arrest and crack reinitiation conditions observed. One test of this specimen with the corresponding stress analysis is described in detail. During this test the crack initiated, extended, arrested, reinitiated, extended again, and reached a final arrest. Comparison of detailed dynamic elastic-plastic finite-element analyses and dynamic strain and displacement measurements of the crack extension, arrest, and reinitiation events, combined with topographic analysis of the future surfaces, has led to a new understanding of the crack extension and arrest process. The results of the tests demonstrate crack arrest in rising stress-intensity field at near-upper-shelf temperature conditions and show that the toughness required for arrest is lower than would be predicted by the analysis procedures usually employed for pressurized thermal shock evaluations

  5. Low cerebral blood flow after cardiac arrest is not associated with anaerobic cerebral metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Ainslie, Philip N.; Hinssen, S.; Aries, M.J.; Bisschops, Laurens L.; Hofmeijer, Jeannette; van der Hoeven, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study Estimation of cerebral anaerobic metabolism in survivors and non-survivors after cardiac arrest. Methods We performed an observational study in twenty comatose patients after cardiac arrest and 19 healthy control subjects. We measured mean flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery

  6. The effect of ultraviolet light on arrested human diploid cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, G.J.; Warner, C.; Hull, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The results of the experiments to determine an effect of UV (254 nm) on human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) arrested with respect to division by using 0.5% fetal calf serum in the culture medium are reported. A fraction of cells from irradiated arrested populations, maintained in the arrested state post-irradiation, was lost from the populations. The extent of cell loss was fluence-dependent and cell strain specific. A Xeroderma pigmentosum cell strain was more sensitive to UV than were normal HDF. No difference in sensitivity were observed when arrested populations established from normal HDF populations of various in vitro ages were used. The length of the pre-irradiation arrested period affected the sensitivity of normal HDF, which appeared more resistant at longer arrested periods, but not the sensitivity of arrested Xeroderma populations. These results suggest that DNA repair processes play a role in maintaining irradiated cells in the arrested state. The suggestion is made that the lethal event caused by UV is an effect on transcription leading to an inhibition of required protein synthesis. (author)

  7. A seed treatment to prevent shoot apical meristem arrest in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Goffman, Fernando D.; Kodde, J.; Angenent, G.C.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2018-01-01

    Brassica oleracea plants can suffer from shoot apical meristem arrest, when sown at cold temperatures, giving rise to so-called blind seedlings that stop development and the formation of new leaves. We developed a seed treatment that strongly reduces the occurrence of this meristem arrest in

  8. 38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will...) Nonpulmonary disease. Determination of complete arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence of...

  9. The relevance of crack arrest phenomena for pressure vessel structural integrity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connors, D.C.; Dowling, A.R.; Flewitt, P.E.J.

    1996-01-01

    The potential role of a crack arrest argument for the structural integrity assessments of steel pressure vessels and the relationship between crack initiation and crack arrest philosophies are described. A typical structural integrity assessment using crack initiation fracture mechanics is illustrated by means of a case study based on assessment of the steel pressure vessels for Magnox power stations. Evidence of the occurrence of crack arrest in structures is presented and reviewed, and the applications to pressure vessels which are subjected to similar conditions are considered. An outline is given of the material characterisation that would be required to undertake a crack arrest integrity assessment. It is concluded that crack arrest arguments could be significant in the structural integrity assessment of PWR reactor pressure vessels under thermal shock conditions, whereas for Magnox steel pressure vessels it would be limited in its potential to supporting existing arguments. (author)

  10. Proteomic analysis of the response to cell cycle arrests in human myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Tony; Endo, Aki; Lamond, Angus I

    2015-01-02

    Previously, we analyzed protein abundance changes across a 'minimally perturbed' cell cycle by using centrifugal elutriation to differentially enrich distinct cell cycle phases in human NB4 cells (Ly et al., 2014). In this study, we compare data from elutriated cells with NB4 cells arrested at comparable phases using serum starvation, hydroxyurea, or RO-3306. While elutriated and arrested cells have similar patterns of DNA content and cyclin expression, a large fraction of the proteome changes detected in arrested cells are found to reflect arrest-specific responses (i.e., starvation, DNA damage, CDK1 inhibition), rather than physiological cell cycle regulation. For example, we show most cells arrested in G2 by CDK1 inhibition express abnormally high levels of replication and origin licensing factors and are likely poised for genome re-replication. The protein data are available in the Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics (

  11. Application of Powell's optimization method to surge arrester circuit models' parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, C.A.; Stathopulos, I.A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Politechniou St., Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece); Vita, V.; Ekonomou, L.; Chatzarakis, G.E. [A.S.PE.T.E. - School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, Department of Electrical Engineering Educators, N. Heraklion, 141 21 Athens (Greece)

    2010-08-15

    Powell's optimization method has been used for the evaluation of the surge arrester models parameters. The proper modelling of metal-oxide surge arresters and the right selection of equivalent circuit parameters are very significant issues, since quality and reliability of lightning performance studies can be improved with the more efficient representation of the arresters' dynamic behavior. The proposed approach selects optimum arrester model equivalent circuit parameter values, minimizing the error between the simulated peak residual voltage value and this given by the manufacturer. Application of the method in performed on a 120 kV metal oxide arrester. The use of the obtained optimum parameter values reduces significantly the relative error between the simulated and manufacturer's peak residual voltage value, presenting the effectiveness of the method. (author)

  12. Condition Assessment of Metal Oxide Surge Arrester Based on Multi-Layer SVM Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khodsuz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the indicators for surge arrester condition assessment based on the leakage current analysis. Maximum amplitude of fundamental harmonic of the resistive leakage current, maximum amplitude of third harmonic of the resistive leakage current and maximum amplitude of fundamental harmonic of the capacitive leakage current were used as indicators for surge arrester condition monitoring. Also, the effects of operating voltage fluctuation, third harmonic of voltage, overvoltage and surge arrester aging on these indicators were studied. Then, obtained data are applied to the multi-layer support vector machine for recognizing of surge arrester conditions. Obtained results show that introduced indicators have the high ability for evaluation of surge arrester conditions.

  13. Electronic registration of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Dahl, Michael; Gade, John

    2007-01-01

    of cardiac arrest. 83 of those (28 %) received first aid. The first aid was provided by layman (68 %), physicians (11 %), nurses (11 %) and first-aiders (4 %). In 6 % the identity of the first aid provider was unknown. The majority of the patients (n = 177 (58 %)) had asystole upon ambulance arrival. 37 (12...... patients according to whether they received first aid, the identity of the first aid provider and the initial cardiac rhythm as diagnosed by the patient monitor.   Results: 18,666 patients where in contact with an emergency ambulance in the study period. Of those 296 (89/100,000/year) met the definition...... a considerably higher incidence rate for OHCA, than documented by the analogue nationwide registry. Further we discovered a high rate of first aid to OHCA-patients. Finally our data showed a high occurence of asystolia in patients who met the official criteria for OHCA....

  14. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajan, Shahzleen; Wissenberg, Mads; Folke, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is insufficient knowledge of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the very young. OBJECTIVES: This nationwide study sought to examine age-stratified OHCA characteristics and the role of parental socioeconomic differences and its contribution to mortality in the young...... population. METHODS: All OHCA patients in Denmark, ≤21 years of age, were identified from 2001 to 2010. The population was divided into infants (adolescents/young adults (16-21 years). Multivariate logistic regression......-school children, school children and high school adolescents were 11.5, 3.5, 1.3 and 5.3 per 100,000 inhabitants. Overall bystander CPR rate was 48.8%, and for age groups: 55.4%, 41.2%, 44.9% and 63.0%, respectively. Overall 30-day survival rate was 8.1%, and for age groups: 1.4%, 4.5%, 16.1% and 9...

  15. Increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest in obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam Jacoba; Blom, Marieke Tabo; Bardai, Abdennasser

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether (1) patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have an increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF), and (2) the SCA risk is mediated by cardiovascular risk-profile and/or respiratory drug use...... with electrocardiographic documentation of VT/VF were included. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between SCA and OPD. Pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed regarding age, sex, cardiovascular risk-profile, disease severity, and current use of respiratory drugs. RESULTS...... is associated with an increased observed risk of SCA. The most increased risk was observed in patients with a high cardiovascular risk-profile, and in those who received SABA and, possibly, those who received AC at the time of SCA....

  16. A Unique Case of Cardiac Arrest following K2 Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD accounts for up to 450,000 deaths every year in the United States (Zipes et al. (2006. Most cases of sudden cardiac death occur in subjects with no prior history of heart disease (Myerburg et al. (1998. The incidence of sudden death in a general population has been shown to increase contemporaneously with substance abuse (Phillips et al. (1999. The causative association of sudden death with cocaine, methadone, and volatile agents is well established (Adgey et al. (1995 and Isner et al. (1986. We describe a case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest temporally related to abuse of the synthetic cannabinoid street drug known as K2. To our knowledge, there are no previously documented cases of sudden cardiac death associated with synthetic cannabinoids although they have been linked to myocardial infarction in teenagers despite normal coronary angiography (Mir et al. (2011.

  17. Central diabetes insipidus following cardiopulmonary arrest in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Tara; Daly, Meredith; Davidson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    To describe a clinical case of transient central diabetes insipidus (CDI) occurring post cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) in a dog. An 8-week-old dog presented for intensive care after successful resuscitation following CPA. The patient exhibited neurologic deficits at initial presentation and over the following days developed marked polyuria, isosthenuria, and low urine osmolality. Treatment with synthetic vasopressin resulted in a reduction in urine output, increase in urine specific gravity (>50%), and increase in urine osmolality, suggesting a diagnosis of partial CDI. Clinical signs resolved over the following weeks and treatment was discontinued. CPA has been described as a cause of ischemic injury to the pituitary gland resulting in CDI in people. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a dog developing transient partial CDI following CPA and successful resuscitation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  18. Opiate Withdrawal Complicated by Tetany and Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfanali R. Kugasia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with symptoms of opiate withdrawal, after the administration of opiate antagonist by paramedics, are a common presentation in the emergency department of hospitals. Though most of opiate withdrawal symptoms are benign, rarely they can become life threatening. This case highlights how a benign opiate withdrawal symptom of hyperventilation led to severe respiratory alkalosis that degenerated into tetany and cardiac arrest. Though this patient was successfully resuscitated, it is imperative that severe withdrawal symptoms are timely identified and immediate steps are taken to prevent catastrophes. An easier way to reverse the severe opiate withdrawal symptom would be with either low dose methadone or partial opiate agonists like buprenorphine. However, if severe acid-base disorder is identified, it would be safer to electively intubate these patients for better control of their respiratory and acid-base status.

  19. Cellular Senescence in Postmitotic Cells: Beyond Growth Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Mallette, Frédérick A

    2018-04-25

    In mitotic cells, cellular senescence is a permanent state of G1 arrest, that may have evolved in parallel to apoptosis, to limit proliferation of damaged cells and oncogenesis. Recent studies have suggested that postmitotic cells are also capable of entering a state of senescence, although the repercussions of postmitotic cellular senescence (PoMiCS) on tissue health and function are currently ill-defined. In tissues made largely of post-mitotic cells, it is evolutionary advantageous to preserve cellular integrity and cellular senescence of post-mitotic cells may prevent stressor-induced tissue degeneration and promote tissue repair. Paradoxically, PoMiCS may also contribute to disease progression through the generation of inflammatory mediators, termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Here, we discuss the potential roles of PoMiCS and propose to enlarge the current definition of cellular senescence to postmitotic terminally differentiated cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lobaplatin arrests cell cycle progression in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chang-Jie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC still is a big burden for China. In recent years, the third-generation platinum compounds have been proposed as potential active agents for HCC. However, more experimental and clinical data are warranted to support the proposal. In the present study, the effect of lobaplatin was assessed in five HCC cell lines and the underlying molecular mechanisms in terms of cell cycle kinetics were explored. Methods Cytotoxicity of lobaplatin to human HCC cell lines was examined using MTT cell proliferation assay. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry. Expression of cell cycle-regulated genes was examined at both the mRNA (RT-PCR and protein (Western blot levels. The phosphorylation status of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs and retinoblastoma (Rb protein was also examined using Western blot analysis. Results Lobaplatin inhibited proliferation of human HCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. For the most sensitive SMMC-7721 cells, lobaplatin arrested cell cycle progression in G1 and G2/M phases time-dependently which might be associated with the down-regulation of cyclin B, CDK1, CDC25C, phosphorylated CDK1 (pCDK1, pCDK4, Rb, E2F, and pRb, and the up-regulation of p53, p21, and p27. Conclusion Cytotoxicity of lobaplatin in human HCC cells might be due to its ability to arrest cell cycle progression which would contribute to the potential use of lobaplatin for the management of HCC.