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Sample records for gan buffer layer

  1. Growth and characterization of semi-insulating carbon-doped/undoped GaN multiple-layer buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Seok; Won, Chul-Ho; Kang, Hee-Sung; Kim, Young-Jo; Kang, In Man; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Yong Tae

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed a new semi-insulating GaN buffer layer, which consists of multiple carbon-doped and undoped GaN layer. The buffer layer showed sufficiently good semi-insulating characteristics, attributed to the depletion effect between the carbon-doped GaN and the undoped GaN layers, even though the thickness of the carbon-doped GaN layer in the periodic structure was designed to be very thin to minimize the total carbon incorporation into the buffer layer. The AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure grown on the proposed buffer exhibited much better electrical and structural properties than that grown on the conventional thick carbon-doped semi-insulating GaN buffer layer, confirmed by Hall measurement, x-ray diffraction, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The fabricated device also showed excellent buffer breakdown characteristics. (paper)

  2. Fabrication of GaN epitaxial thin film on InGaZnO4 single-crystalline buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinozaki, Tomomasa; Nomura, Kenji; Katase, Takayoshi; Kamiya, Toshio; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Epitaxial (0001) films of GaN were grown on (111) YSZ substrates using single-crystalline InGaZnO 4 (sc-IGZO) lattice-matched buffer layers by molecular beam epitaxy with a NH 3 source. The epitaxial relationships are (0001) GaN //(0001) IGZO //(111) YSZ in out-of-plane and [112-bar 0] GaN //[112-bar 0] IGZO //[11-bar 0] YSZ in in-plane. This is different from those reported for GaN on many oxide crystals; the in-plane orientation of GaN crystal lattice is rotated by 30 o with respect to those of oxide substrates except for ZnO. Although these GaN films showed relatively large tilting and twisting angles, which would be due to the reaction between GaN and IGZO, the GaN films grown on the sc-IGZO buffer layers exhibited stronger band-edge photoluminescence than GaN grown on a low-temperature GaN buffer layer.

  3. Improved crystal quality of a-plane GaN with high- temperature 3-dimensional GaN buffer layers deposited by using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Hyun; Moon, Dae Young; Kim, Bum Ho; Kim, Dong Uk; Chang, Ho Jun; Jeon, Heon Su; Yoon, Eui Joon; Joo, Ki Su; You, Duck Jae; Nanishi, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire substrates suffers from high density defects and rough surfaces. To obtain pit-free a-plane GaN by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, we intentionally grew high-temperature (HT) 3-dimensional (3D) GaN buffer layers on a GaN nucleation layer. The effects of the HT 3D GaN buffer layers on crystal quality and the surface morphology of a-plane GaN were studied. The insertion of a 3D GaN buffer layer with an optimum thickness was found to be an effective method to obtain pit-free a-plane GaN with improved crystalline quality on r-plane sapphire substrates. An a-plane GaN light emitting diode (LED) at an emission wavelength around 480 nm with negligible peak shift was successfully fabricated.

  4. Ultralow threading dislocation density in GaN epilayer on near-strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer and its applications in hetero-epitaxial LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Yu, Sheng-Fu; Ko, Chung-Ting; Yang, Jer-Ren; Lin, Ray-Ming; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-09-02

    High threading dislocation (TD) density in GaN-based devices is a long unresolved problem because of the large lattice mismatch between GaN and the substrate, which causes a major obstacle for the further improvement of next-generation high-efficiency solid-state lighting and high-power electronics. Here, we report InGaN/GaN LEDs with ultralow TD density and improved efficiency on a sapphire substrate, on which a near strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer was grown by remote plasma atomic layer deposition. This "compliant" buffer layer is capable of relaxing strain due to the absorption of misfit dislocations in a region within ~10 nm from the interface, leading to a high-quality overlying GaN epilayer with an unusual TD density as low as 2.2 × 10(5) cm(-2). In addition, this GaN compliant buffer layer exhibits excellent uniformity up to a 6" wafer, revealing a promising means to realize large-area GaN hetero-epitaxy for efficient LEDs and high-power transistors.

  5. Selectively Enhanced UV-A Photoresponsivity of a GaN MSM UV Photodetector with a Step-Graded AlxGa1-xN Buffer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Ju; Won, Chul-Ho; Lee, Jung-Hee; Hahm, Sung-Ho; Park, Hongsik

    2017-07-21

    The UV-to-visible rejection ratio is one of the important figure of merits of GaN-based UV photodetectors. For cost-effectiveness and large-scale fabrication of GaN devices, we tried to grow a GaN epitaxial layer on silicon substrate with complicated buffer layers for a stress-release. It is known that the structure of the buffer layers affects the performance of devices fabricated on the GaN epitaxial layers. In this study, we show that the design of a buffer layer structure can make effect on the UV-to-visible rejection ratio of GaN UV photodetectors. The GaN photodetector fabricated on GaN-on-silicon substrate with a step-graded Al x Ga -x N buffer layer has a highly-selective photoresponse at 365-nm wavelength. The UV-to-visible rejection ratio of the GaN UV photodetector with the step-graded Al x Ga 1-x N buffer layer was an order-of-magnitude higher than that of a photodetector with a conventional GaN/AlN multi buffer layer. The maximum photoresponsivity was as high as 5 × 10 - ² A/W. This result implies that the design of buffer layer is important for photoresponse characteristics of GaN UV photodetectors as well as the crystal quality of the GaN epitaxial layers.

  6. Buffer optimization for crack-free GaN epitaxial layers grown on Si(1 1 1) substrate by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Engin; Ozbay, Ekmel; Ozturk, Mustafa K; Ozcelik, Suleyman; Teke, Ali

    2008-01-01

    We report the growth of GaN films on the Si(1 1 1) substrate by metalorganic chemical vapour phase deposition (MOCVD). Different buffer layers were used to investigate their effects on the structural and optical properties of GaN layers. A series of GaN layers were grown on Si(1 1 1) with different buffer layers and buffer thicknesses and were characterized by Nomarski microscopy, atomic force microscopy, high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. We first discuss the optimization of the LT-AlN/HT-AlN/Si(1 1 1) templates and then the optimization of the graded AlGaN intermediate layers. In order to prevent stress relaxation, step-graded AlGaN layers were introduced along with a crack-free GaN layer of thickness exceeding 2.6 μm. The XRD and PL measurements results confirmed that a wurtzite GaN was successfully grown. The resulting GaN film surfaces were flat, mirror-like and crack-free. The mosaic structure in the GaN layers was investigated. With a combination of Williamson-Hall measurements and the fitting of twist angles, it was found that the buffer thickness determines the lateral coherence length, vertical coherence length, as well as the tilt and twist of the mosaic blocks in GaN films. The PL spectra at 8 K show that a strong band edge photoluminescence of GaN on Si (1 1 1) emits light at an energy of 3.449 eV with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 16 meV. At room temperature, the peak position and FWHM of this emission become 3.390 eV and 58 meV, respectively. The origin of this peak was attributed to the neutral donor bound exciton. It was found that the optimized total thickness of the AlN and graded AlGaN layers played a very important role in the improvement of quality and in turn reduced the cracks during the growth of GaN/Si(1 1 1) epitaxial layers

  7. Growth modes of InN (000-1) on GaN buffer layers on sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bing; Kitajima, Takeshi; Chen Dongxue; Leone, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, using atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, we study the surface morphologies of epitaxial InN films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy with intervening GaN buffer layers on sapphire substrates. On smooth GaN buffer layers, nucleation and evolution of three-dimensional InN islands at various coverages and growth temperatures are investigated. The shapes of the InN islands are observed to be predominantly mesalike with large flat (000-1) tops, which suggests a possible role of indium as a surfactant. Rough GaN buffer layers composed of dense small GaN islands are found to significantly improve uniform InN wetting of the substrates, on which atomically smooth InN films are obtained that show the characteristics of step-flow growth. Scanning tunneling microscopy imaging reveals the defect-mediated surface morphology of smooth InN films, including surface terminations of screw dislocations and a high density of shallow surface pits with depths less than 0.3 nm. The mechanisms of the three-dimensional island size and shape evolution and formation of defects on smooth surfaces are considered

  8. Strain-free GaN thick films grown on single crystalline ZnO buffer layer with in situ lift-off technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. W.; Minegishi, T.; Lee, W. H.; Goto, H.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Ha, J. S.; Goto, T.; Hanada, T.; Cho, M. W.; Yao, T.

    2007-01-01

    Strain-free freestanding GaN layers were prepared by in situ lift-off process using a ZnO buffer as a sacrificing layer. Thin Zn-polar ZnO layers were deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates, which was followed by the growth of Ga-polar GaN layers both by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The MBE-grown GaN layer acted as a protecting layer against decomposition of the ZnO layer and as a seeding layer for GaN growth. The ZnO layer was completely in situ etched off during growth of thick GaN layers at low temperature by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Hence freestanding GaN layers were obtained for the consecutive growth of high-temperature GaN thick layers. The lattice constants of freestanding GaN agree with those of strain-free GaN bulk. Extensive microphotoluminescence study indicates that strain-free states extend throughout the high-temperature grown GaN layers

  9. Carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane for high electron mobility transistor applications: Growth and device results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Nilsson, D.; Danielsson, Ö.; Pedersen, H.; Janzén, E.; Forsberg, U. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping 58183 (Sweden); Bergsten, J.; Rorsman, N. [Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg 41296 (Sweden)

    2015-12-28

    The creation of a semi insulating (SI) buffer layer in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) devices is crucial for preventing a current path beneath the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). In this investigation, we evaluate the use of a gaseous carbon gas precursor, propane, for creating a SI GaN buffer layer in a HEMT structure. The carbon doped profile, using propane gas, is a two stepped profile with a high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) epitaxial layer closest to the substrate and a lower doped layer (3 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3}) closest to the 2DEG channel. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurement shows a uniform incorporation versus depth, and no memory effect from carbon doping can be seen. The high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) does not influence the surface morphology, and a roughness root-mean-square value of 0.43 nm is obtained from Atomic Force Microscopy. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements show very sharp peaks and no structural degradation can be seen related to the heavy carbon doped layer. HEMTs are fabricated and show an extremely low drain induced barrier lowering value of 0.1 mV/V, demonstrating an excellent buffer isolation. The carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane gas is compared to samples using carbon from the trimethylgallium molecule, showing equally low leakage currents, demonstrating the capability of growing highly resistive buffer layers using a gaseous carbon source.

  10. Growth of GaN on SiC/Si substrates using AlN buffer layer by hot-mesh CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kazuyuki; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Yasui, Kanji; Suemitsu, Maki; Ito, Takashi; Endou, Tetsuro; Nakazawa, Hideki; Narita, Yuzuru; Takata, Masasuke; Akahane, Tadashi

    2008-01-01

    GaN films were grown on SiC/Si (111) substrates by hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using ammonia (NH 3 ) and trimetylgallium (TMG) under low V/III source gas ratio (NH 3 /TMG = 80). The SiC layer was grown by a carbonization process on the Si substrates using propane (C 3 H 8 ). The AlN layer was deposited as a buffer layer using NH 3 and trimetylaluminum (TMA). GaN films were formed and grown by the reaction between NH x radicals, generated on a tungsten hot mesh, and the TMG molecules. The GaN films with the AlN buffer layer showed better crystallinity and stronger near-band-edge emission compared to those without the AlN layer

  11. Growth of GaN on SiC/Si substrates using AlN buffer layer by hot-mesh CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Kazuyuki [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)], E-mail: kazuyuki@stn.nagaokaut.ac.jp; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Yasui, Kanji [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Suemitsu, Maki; Ito, Takashi [Center of Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Endou, Tetsuro [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakazawa, Hideki [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan); Narita, Yuzuru [Center of Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takata, Masasuke; Akahane, Tadashi [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    GaN films were grown on SiC/Si (111) substrates by hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and trimetylgallium (TMG) under low V/III source gas ratio (NH{sub 3}/TMG = 80). The SiC layer was grown by a carbonization process on the Si substrates using propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}). The AlN layer was deposited as a buffer layer using NH{sub 3} and trimetylaluminum (TMA). GaN films were formed and grown by the reaction between NH{sub x} radicals, generated on a tungsten hot mesh, and the TMG molecules. The GaN films with the AlN buffer layer showed better crystallinity and stronger near-band-edge emission compared to those without the AlN layer.

  12. Characterization of low-frequency noise in molecular beam epitaxy-grown GaN epilayers deposited on double buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, W.K.; Ng, S.W.; Leung, B.H.; Surya, Charles

    2003-01-01

    We report the growth of high-mobility Si-doped GaN epilayers utilizing unique double buffer layer (DBL) structures, which consist of a thin buffer layer and a thick GaN intermediate-temperature buffer layer (ITBL). In this study, three types of DBL were investigated: (i) thin GaN low-temperature buffer layer/GaN ITBL (type I); (ii) nitridated Ga metal film/GaN ITBL (type II); and (iii) thin AlN high-temperature buffer layer/GaN ITBL (type III). Systematic measurements were conducted on the electron mobilities and the low-frequency noise over a wide range of temperatures. It is found that the electron mobilities of the GaN films are substantially improved with the use of DBLs, with the sample using type III DBL which exhibits the highest low-temperature mobility. Furthermore, the same sample also demonstrates the elimination of deep levels at 91 and 255 meV below the conduction band. This is believed to result from the relaxation of tensile stress during growth with the use of type III DBLs

  13. Selectively Enhanced UV-A Photoresponsivity of a GaN MSM UV Photodetector with a Step-Graded AlxGa1−xN Buffer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ju Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The UV-to-visible rejection ratio is one of the important figure of merits of GaN-based UV photodetectors. For cost-effectiveness and large-scale fabrication of GaN devices, we tried to grow a GaN epitaxial layer on silicon substrate with complicated buffer layers for a stress-release. It is known that the structure of the buffer layers affects the performance of devices fabricated on the GaN epitaxial layers. In this study, we show that the design of a buffer layer structure can make effect on the UV-to-visible rejection ratio of GaN UV photodetectors. The GaN photodetector fabricated on GaN-on-silicon substrate with a step-graded AlxGa−xN buffer layer has a highly-selective photoresponse at 365-nm wavelength. The UV-to-visible rejection ratio of the GaN UV photodetector with the step-graded AlxGa1−xN buffer layer was an order-of-magnitude higher than that of a photodetector with a conventional GaN/AlN multi buffer layer. The maximum photoresponsivity was as high as 5 × 10−2 A/W. This result implies that the design of buffer layer is important for photoresponse characteristics of GaN UV photodetectors as well as the crystal quality of the GaN epitaxial layers.

  14. Improvement of luminescence properties of GaN buffer layer for fast nitride scintillator structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubáček, T.; Hospodková, Alice; Oswald, Jiří; Kuldová, Karla; Pangrác, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 464, Apr (2017), s. 221-225 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-11769S; GA MŠk LO1603 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MOVPE * GaN * scintillators * yellow band Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2016

  15. Zero lattice mismatch and twin-free single crystalline ScN buffer layers for GaN growth on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupina, L.; Zoellner, M. H.; Dietrich, B.; Capellini, G. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt, Oder (Germany); Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M. [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Thapa, S. B.; Haeberlen, M.; Storck, P. [SILTRONIC AG, Hanns-Seidel-Platz 4, 81737 München (Germany); Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt, Oder (Germany); BTU Cottbus, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2015-11-16

    We report the growth of thin ScN layers deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si(111) substrates. Using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, we find that ScN films grown at 600 °C are single crystalline, twin-free with rock-salt crystal structure, and exhibit a direct optical band gap of 2.2 eV. A high degree of crystalline perfection and a very good lattice matching between ScN and GaN (misfit < 0.1%) makes the ScN/Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer system a very promising template for the growth of high quality GaN layers on silicon.

  16. High-quality III-nitride films on conductive, transparent (2̅01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 using a GaN buffer layer

    KAUST Repository

    Mumthaz Muhammed, Mufasila

    2016-07-14

    We demonstrate the high structural and optical properties of InxGa1−xN epilayers (0 ≤ x ≤ 23) grown on conductive and transparent (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrates using a low-temperature GaN buffer layer rather than AlN buffer layer, which enhances the quality and stability of the crystals compared to those grown on (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3. Raman maps show that the 2″ wafer is relaxed and uniform. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the dislocation density reduces considerably (~4.8 × 107 cm−2) at the grain centers. High-resolution TEM analysis demonstrates that most dislocations emerge at an angle with respect to the c-axis, whereas dislocations of the opposite phase form a loop and annihilate each other. The dislocation behavior is due to irregular (01) β-Ga2O3 surface at the interface and distorted buffer layer, followed by relaxed GaN epilayer. Photoluminescence results confirm high optical quality and time-resolved spectroscopy shows that the recombination is governed by bound excitons. We find that a low root-mean-square average (≤1.5 nm) of InxGa1−xN epilayers can be achieved with high optical quality of InxGa1−xN epilayers. We reveal that (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate has a strong potential for use in large-scale high-quality vertical light emitting device design.

  17. High-quality III-nitride films on conductive, transparent (2̅01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 using a GaN buffer layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, M M; Roldan, M A; Yamashita, Y; Sahonta, S-L; Ajia, I A; Iizuka, K; Kuramata, A; Humphreys, C J; Roqan, I S

    2016-07-14

    We demonstrate the high structural and optical properties of InxGa1-xN epilayers (0 ≤ x ≤ 23) grown on conductive and transparent (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrates using a low-temperature GaN buffer layer rather than AlN buffer layer, which enhances the quality and stability of the crystals compared to those grown on (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3. Raman maps show that the 2″ wafer is relaxed and uniform. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the dislocation density reduces considerably (~4.8 × 10(7) cm(-2)) at the grain centers. High-resolution TEM analysis demonstrates that most dislocations emerge at an angle with respect to the c-axis, whereas dislocations of the opposite phase form a loop and annihilate each other. The dislocation behavior is due to irregular (01) β-Ga2O3 surface at the interface and distorted buffer layer, followed by relaxed GaN epilayer. Photoluminescence results confirm high optical quality and time-resolved spectroscopy shows that the recombination is governed by bound excitons. We find that a low root-mean-square average (≤1.5 nm) of InxGa1-xN epilayers can be achieved with high optical quality of InxGa1-xN epilayers. We reveal that (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate has a strong potential for use in large-scale high-quality vertical light emitting device design.

  18. High-quality III-nitride films on conductive, transparent (2̅01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 using a GaN buffer layer

    KAUST Repository

    Mumthaz Muhammed, Mufasila; Roldan, M. A.; Yamashita, Y.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Ajia, Idris A.; Iizuka, K.; Kuramata, A.; Humphreys, C. J.; Roqan, Iman S.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the high structural and optical properties of InxGa1−xN epilayers (0 ≤ x ≤ 23) grown on conductive and transparent (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrates using a low-temperature GaN buffer layer rather than AlN buffer layer, which enhances the quality and stability of the crystals compared to those grown on (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3. Raman maps show that the 2″ wafer is relaxed and uniform. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the dislocation density reduces considerably (~4.8 × 107 cm−2) at the grain centers. High-resolution TEM analysis demonstrates that most dislocations emerge at an angle with respect to the c-axis, whereas dislocations of the opposite phase form a loop and annihilate each other. The dislocation behavior is due to irregular (01) β-Ga2O3 surface at the interface and distorted buffer layer, followed by relaxed GaN epilayer. Photoluminescence results confirm high optical quality and time-resolved spectroscopy shows that the recombination is governed by bound excitons. We find that a low root-mean-square average (≤1.5 nm) of InxGa1−xN epilayers can be achieved with high optical quality of InxGa1−xN epilayers. We reveal that (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate has a strong potential for use in large-scale high-quality vertical light emitting device design.

  19. Self-organization of dislocation-free, high-density, vertically aligned GaN nanocolumns involving InGaN quantum wells on graphene/SiO2 covered with a thin AlN buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hiroaki; Konno, Yuta; Kishino, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated the self-organization of high-density GaN nanocolumns on multilayer graphene (MLG)/SiO 2 covered with a thin AlN buffer layer by RF-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. MLG/SiO 2 substrates were prepared by the transfer of CVD graphene onto thermally oxidized SiO 2 /Si [100] substrates. Employing the MLG with an AlN buffer layer enabled the self-organization of high-density and vertically aligned nanocolumns. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that no threading dislocations, stacking faults, or twinning defects were included in the self-organized nanocolumns. The photoluminescence (PL) peak intensities of the self-organized GaN nanocolumns were 2.0–2.6 times higher than those of a GaN substrate grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Moreover, no yellow luminescence or ZB-phase GaN emission was observed from the nanocolumns. An InGaN/GaN MQW and p-type GaN were integrated into GaN nanocolumns grown on MLG, displaying a single-peak PL emission at a wavelength of 533 nm. Thus, high-density nitride p–i–n nanocolumns were fabricated on SiO 2 /Si using the transferred MLG interlayer, indicating the possibility of developing visible nanocolumn LEDs on graphene/SiO 2 . (paper)

  20. Novel oxide buffer approach for GaN integration on Si(111) platform through Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} bi-layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarnawska, Lidia

    2012-12-19

    Motivation: Preparation of GaN virtual substrates on large-scale Si wafers is intensively pursued as a cost-effective approach for high power/high frequency electronics (HEMT's etc.) and optoelectronic applications (LED, LASER). However, the growth of high quality GaN layers on Si is hampered by several difficulties mainly related to a large lattice mismatch (-17%) and a huge difference in the thermal expansion coefficient (56%). As a consequence, GaN epitaxial layers grown on Si substrates show a high number of defects (threading dislocations etc.), which severely deteriorate the overall quality of the GaN films. Additionally, due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the substrate and the film, um-thick GaN layers crack during post-growth cooling. To solve these integration problems, different semiconducting (e.g. AlN, GaAs, ZnO, HfN) and insulating (e.g. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, LiGaO{sub 2}) buffer layers, separating the Si substrate from the GaN film, are applied. Goal: In this thesis, a novel buffer approach for the integration of GaN on Si is proposed and investigated. The new approach employs Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} bilayer templates as a step-graded buffer to reduce the lattice mismatch between GaN and the Si(111) substrate. According to the bulk crystal lattices, since the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} has an in-plane lattice misfit of -2% to Si, Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} -7% to Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the lattice misfit between GaN and the substrate can be theoretically reduced by about 50% from -17% (GaN/Si) to -8% (GaN/Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Experimental: The GaN/Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si(111) heterostructures are prepared in a multichamber molecular beam epitaxy system on 4 inch Si(111) wafers. In order to obtain complete information on the structural quality of the oxide buffer as well as the GaN layer, synchrotron- and laboratory-based X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements are performed. The

  1. Low-leakage-current AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on Si substrates with partially Mg-doped GaN buffer layer by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Wang Yong; Wong Kai-Ming; Lau Kei-May

    2014-01-01

    High-performance low-leakage-current AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on silicon (111) substrates grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with a novel partially Magnesium (Mg)-doped GaN buffer scheme have been fabricated successfully. The growth and DC results were compared between Mg-doped GaN buffer layer and a unintentionally one. A 1-μm gate-length transistor with Mg-doped buffer layer exhibited an OFF-state drain leakage current of 8.3 × 10 −8 A/mm, to our best knowledge, which is the lowest value reported for MOCVD-grown AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on Si featuring the same dimension and structure. The RF characteristics of 0.25-μm gate length T-shaped gate HEMTs were also investigated

  2. Effect of SiC buffer layer on GaN growth on Si via PA-MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkin, S. A.; Mizerov, A. M.; Osipov, A. V.; Redkov, A. V.; Telyatnik, R. S.; Timoshnev, S. N.

    2017-11-01

    The study is devoted to comparison of GaN thin films grown on SiC/Si substrates made by the method of atoms substitution with the films grown directly on Si substrates. The growth was performed in a single process via plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The samples were studied via optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and a comparison of their characteristics was made. Using chemical etching in KOH, the polarity of GaN films grown on SiC/Si and Si substrates was determined.

  3. Impact of GaN transition layers in the growth of GaN epitaxial layer on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Danmei; Zhao Degang; Jiang Desheng; Liu Zongshun; Zhu Jianjun; Chen Ping; Liu Wei; Li Xiang; Shi Ming

    2015-01-01

    A method for growing GaN epitaxial layer on Si (111) substrate is investigated. Due to the large lattice mismatch between GaN and AlN, GaN grown directly above an AlN buffer layer on the Si substrate turns out to be of poor quality. In this study, a GaN transition layer is grown additionally on the AlN buffer before the GaN epitaxial growth. By changing the growth conditions of the GaN transition layer, we can control the growth and merging of islands and control the transfer time from 3D to 2D growth mode. With this method, the crystalline quality of the GaN epitaxial layer can be improved and the crack density is reduced. Here, we have investigated the impact of a transition layer on the crystalline quality and stress evolution of a GaN epitaxial layer with methods of X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and in situ reflectivity trace. With the increasing thickness of transition layer, the crack decreases and the crystalline quality is improved. But when the transition layer exceeds a critical thickness, the crystalline quality of the epilayer becomes lower and the crack density increases. (paper)

  4. Structural and optical studies of GaN pn-junction with AlN buffer layer grown on Si (111) by RF plasma enhanced MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusoff, Mohd Zaki Mohd; Hassan, Zainuriah; Woei, Chin Che; Hassan, Haslan Abu; Abdullah, Mat Johar [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia and Department of Applied Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 13500 Permatang Pauh, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Applied Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 13500 Permatang Pauh, Penang (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    GaN pn-junction grown on silicon substrates have been the focus in a number of recent reports and further effort is still necessary to improve its crystalline quality for practical applications. GaN has the high n-type background carrier concentration resulting from native defects commonly thought to be nitrogen vacancies. In this work, we present the growth of pn-junction of GaN on Si (111) substrate using RF plasma-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Both of the layers show uniformity with an average thickness of 0.709 {mu}m and 0.095 {mu}m for GaN and AlN layers, respectively. The XRD spectra indicate that no sign of cubic phase of GaN are found, so it is confirmed that the sample possessed hexagonal structure. It was found that all the allowed Raman optical phonon modes of GaN, i.e. the E2 (low), E1 (high) and A1 (LO) are clearly visible.

  5. Growth of c-plane ZnO on γ-LiAlO2 (1 0 0) substrate with a GaN buffer layer by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, T.; Lu, C.-Y.J.; Schuber, R.; Chang, L.; Schaadt, D.M.; Chou, M.M.C.; Ploog, K.H.; Chiang, C.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnO epilayers were grown on LiAlO 2 (1 0 0) substrate with a GaN buffer layer by MBE. • A high Zn/O flux ratio is beneficial for reducing the density of screw dislocations. • Reciprocal space maps demonstrate that the misfit strain in ZnO has been relaxed. • No interfacial layer is formed at ZnO/GaN interface using a Zn pre-exposure strategy. - Abstract: C-plane ZnO epilayers were grown on LiAlO 2 (1 0 0) substrate with a GaN buffer layer by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Both the X-ray rocking curves and the transmission electron microscopy analyses indicate that the ZnO epilayers exhibit a lower threading dislocation density (∼1 × 10 10 cm −2 ) as compared to those grown on LiAlO 2 substrate without the buffer layer. A high Zn/O flux ratio is beneficial for reducing the density of screw-type dislocations. Reciprocal space maps demonstrate that the misfit strain has been relaxed. No interfacial layer is formed at the ZnO/GaN interface by using a Zn pre-exposure strategy. The ZnO epilayers exhibit a strong near band edge emission at 3.28 eV at room temperature with a negligible green band emission

  6. Influence of AlGaN Buffer Growth Temperature on GaN Epilayer based on Si(lll) Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Meng; Wang Xiaoliang; Pan Xu; Xiao Hongling; Wang Cuimei; Zhang Minglan; Wang Zhanguo

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigated the influence of AlGaN buffer growth temperature on strain status and crystal quality of the GaN film on Si(111) sbustrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. It was demonstrated by the optical microscopy that AlGaN buffer gorwth temperature had a remarkable effect on compensating tensil stress in top GaN layer and preventing the formation of cracks. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy analysis showed crystal quality and surface morphology of the GaN epilayer could be improved through increasing AlGaN buffer growth temperature. 1μm crack-free GaN epilayer on Si (111) substrates was obtained with graded AlGaN buffer layer at optimized temperature of 1050 deg. C. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that a significant reduction in threading dislocations was achieved in GaN epilayer.

  7. Effect of the nand p-type Si(100) substrates with a SiC buffer layer on the growth mechanism and structure of epitaxial layers of semipolar AlN and GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessolov, V. N.; Grashchenko, A. S.; Konenkova, E. V.; Myasoedov, A. V.; Osipov, A. V.; Red'kov, A. V.; Rodin, S. N.; Rubets, V. P.; Kukushkin, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    A new effect of the n-and p-type doping of the Si(100) substrate with a SiC film on the growth mechanism and structure of AlN and GaN epitaxial layers has been revealed. It has been experimentally shown that the mechanism of AlN and GaN layer growth on the surface of a SiC layer synthesized by substituting atoms on n- and p-Si substrates is fundamentally different. It has been found that semipolar AlN and GaN layers on the SiC/Si(100) surface grow in the epitaxial and polycrystalline structures on p-Si and n-Si substrates, respectively. A new method for synthesizing epitaxial semipolar AlN and GaN layers by chloride-hydride epitaxy on silicon substrates has been proposed.

  8. Growth of GaN Layers on Sapphire by Low-Temperature-Deposited Buffer Layers and Realization of p-type GaN by Magesium Doping and Electron Beam Irradiation (Nobel Lecture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hiroshi

    2015-06-26

    This Review is a personal reflection on the research that led to the development of a method for growing gallium nitride (GaN) on a sapphire substrate. The results paved the way for the development of smart display systems using blue LEDs. The most important work was done in the mid to late 80s. The background to the author's work and the process by which the technology that enables the growth of GaN and the realization of p-type GaN was established are reviewed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Interaction of GaN epitaxial layers with atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, M.; Giangregorio, M.M.; Capezzuto, P.; Bruno, G.; Namkoong, G.; Doolittle, W.A.; Brown, A.S

    2004-08-15

    GaN surface passivation processes are still under development and among others hydrogen treatments are investigated. In this study, we use non-destructive optical and electrical probes such as spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and surface potential Kelvin probe microscopy (SP-KPM) in conjunction with non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the study of the different reactivity of Ga-polar and N-polar GaN epitaxial layers with atomic hydrogen. The GaN epitaxial layers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates, and GaN and AlN buffer layers are used to grow N-polar and Ga-polar films, respectively. The atomic hydrogen is produced by a remote rf (13.56 MHz) H{sub 2} plasma in order to rule out any ion bombardment of the GaN surface and make the interaction chemical. It is found that the interaction of GaN surfaces with atomic hydrogen depends on polarity, with N-polar GaN exhibiting greater reactivity. Furthermore, it is found that atomic hydrogen is effective in the passivation of grain boundaries and surface defects states.

  10. Interaction of GaN epitaxial layers with atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losurdo, M.; Giangregorio, M.M.; Capezzuto, P.; Bruno, G.; Namkoong, G.; Doolittle, W.A.; Brown, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    GaN surface passivation processes are still under development and among others hydrogen treatments are investigated. In this study, we use non-destructive optical and electrical probes such as spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and surface potential Kelvin probe microscopy (SP-KPM) in conjunction with non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the study of the different reactivity of Ga-polar and N-polar GaN epitaxial layers with atomic hydrogen. The GaN epitaxial layers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates, and GaN and AlN buffer layers are used to grow N-polar and Ga-polar films, respectively. The atomic hydrogen is produced by a remote rf (13.56 MHz) H 2 plasma in order to rule out any ion bombardment of the GaN surface and make the interaction chemical. It is found that the interaction of GaN surfaces with atomic hydrogen depends on polarity, with N-polar GaN exhibiting greater reactivity. Furthermore, it is found that atomic hydrogen is effective in the passivation of grain boundaries and surface defects states

  11. Structural and morphological properties of GaN buffer layers grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy on SiC substrates for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrion, A. L.; Poblenz, C.; Wu, F.; Speck, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of growth conditions on the surface morphology and structural properties of ammonia molecular beam epitaxy GaN buffers layers on SiC substrates was investigated. The threading dislocation (TD) density was found to decrease with decreasing NH 3 :Ga flux ratio, which corresponded to an increase in surface roughness and reduction in residual compressive lattice mismatch stress. Furthermore, the dislocation density and compressive stress decreased for increasing buffer thickness. TD inclination was proposed to account for these observations. Optimized surface morphologies were realized at high NH 3 :Ga flux ratios and were characterized by monolayer-high steps, spiral hillocks, and pyramidal mounds, with rms roughness of ∼1.0 nm over 2x2 μm 2 atomic force microscopy images. Smooth surface morphologies were realized over a large range of growth temperatures and fluxes, and growth rates of up to 1 μm/h were achieved. TD densities in the buffers as low as 3x10 9 cm -2 were demonstrated. These buffers were highly insulating and were used in recently reported AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with power densities of >11 W/mm at 4 and 10 GHz

  12. Structural characteristics of single crystalline GaN films grown on (111) diamond with AlN buffer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécz, Béla; Tóth, Lajos; Barna, Árpád

    2013-01-01

    Hexagonal GaN films with the [0001] direction parallel to the surface normal were grown on (111) oriented single crystalline diamond substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Pre-treatments of the diamond surface with the nitrogen plasma beam, prior the nucleation of a thin AlN layer......, eliminated the inversion domains and reduced the density of threading dislocations in the GaN epilayers. The films have an in-plane epitaxial relationship [1010]GaN//[110]diamond. Thus GaN (0001) thin films of single epitaxial relationship and of single polarity were realised on diamond with AlN buffer....

  13. Growth of GaN on Sapphire via Low-Temperature Deposited Buffer Layer and Realization of p-Type GaN by Mg Doping Followed by Low-Energy Electron Beam Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    This is a personal history of one of the Japanese researchers engaged in developing a method for growing GaN on a sapphire substrate, paving the way for the realization of smart television and display systems using blue LEDs. The most important work was done in the mid- to late 80s. The background to the author's work and the process by which the technology enabling the growth of GaN and the realization of p-type GaN was established are reviewed.

  14. Growth of GaN on sapphire via low-temperature deposited buffer layer and realization of p-type GaN by Mg doping followed by low-energy electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Venture Business Laboratory, Akasaki Research Center, Nagoya University (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    This is a personal history of one of the Japanese researchers engaged in developing a method for growing GaN on a sapphire substrate, paving the way for the realization of smart television and display systems using blue LEDs. The most important work was done in the mid to late 1980s. The background to the author's work and the process by which the technology enabling the growth of GaN and the realization of p-type GaN was established are reviewed. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Growth of high quality GaN epilayer on AlInN/GaN/AlInN/GaN multilayer buffer and its device characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Suk-Hun; Lee, Hyun-Hwi; Jung, Jong-Jae; Moon, Young-Bu; Kim, Tae Hoon; Baek, Jong Hyeob; Yu, Young Moon

    2004-01-01

    The role of AlInN 1st /GaN/AlInN 2nd /GaN multi-layer buffer (MLB) on the growth of the high quality GaN epilayers was demonstrated by atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence, and Hall measurement. The surface morphology and crystalline quality of GaN epilayers were considerably dependent on AlInN layers thicknesses rather than those of GaN inter layers. With optimal thickness of 2 nd AlInN layer, the pit density of GaN epilayers was substantially reduced. Also, the RMS roughness of the well ordered terraces generated on the GaN surface was 1.8 A at 5 x 5 μm 2 . The omega-rocking width of GaN(0002) Bragg peak and Hall mobility of GaN epilayers grown on AlInN 1st /GaN/AlInN 2nd /GaN MLB were 190 arcsec and 500 cm 2 /Vs, while those values of GaN epilayers on single GaN buffer layer were 250 arcsec and 250 cm 2 /Vs, respectively. Especially, the light output power and operating voltage of the fabricated light emitting diodes with this new buffer layer was about 5 mW and 3.1 V (dominant luminous wavelength ∝460 nm) at 20 mA, respectively. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  17. Nonpolar a-plane GaN grown on r-plane sapphire using multilayer AlN buffer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, C.H.; Chen, K.M.; Wu, Y.H.; Yeh, Y.S.; Lee, W.I.; Chen, J.F.; Lin, K.L.; Hsiao, Y.L.; Huang, W.C.; Chang, E.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Mirror-like and pit-free non-polar a-plane (1 1 -2 0) GaN films are grown on r-plane (1 -1 0 2) sapphire substrates using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with multilayer high-low-high temperature AlN buffer layers. The buffer layer structure and film quality are essential to the growth of a flat, crack-free and pit-free a-plane GaN film. The multilayer AlN buffer structure includes a thin low-temperature-deposited AlN (LT-AlN) layer inserted into the high-temperature-deposited AlN (HT-AlN) layer. The results demonstrate that the multilayer AlN buffer structure can improve the surface morphology of the upper a-plane GaN film. The grown multilayer AlN buffer structure reduced the tensile stress on the AlN buffer layers and increased the compressive stress on the a-plane GaN film. The multilayer AlN buffer structure markedly improves the surface morphology of the a-plane GaN film, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The effects of various growth V/III ratios was investigated to obtain a-plane GaN films with better surface morphology. The mean roughness of the surface was 1.02 nm, as revealed by atomic force microscopy. Accordingly, the multilayer AlN buffer structure improves the surface morphology and facilitates the complete coalescence of the a-plane GaN layer.

  18. Epitaxial condition and polarity in GaN grown on a HfN-buffered Si(111) wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Armitage, R.; Shinkai, Satoko; Sasaki, Katsutaka; Kisielowski, C.; Weber, E. R.

    2005-05-01

    Single-crystal GaN thin films have been deposited epitaxially on a HfN-buffered Si(111) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy. The microstructural and compositional characteristics of the films were studied in detail by transmission electron microscopy (TEMs). Cross-sectional TEM investigations have revealed the crystallographic orientation relationship in different GaN /HfN/Si layers. GaN film polarity is studied by conventional TEM and convergent beam electron diffraction simulations, and the results show that the GaN film has a Ga polarity with relatively high density of inversion domains. Based on our observations, growth mechanisms related to the structural properties are discussed.

  19. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  20. Improvement of GaN epilayer by gradient layer method with molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yen-Liang; Lo, Ikai; Gau, Ming-Hong; Hsieh, Chia-Ho; Sham, Meng-Wei; Pang, Wen-Yuan; Hsu, Yu-Chi; Tsai, Jenn-Kai; Schuber, Ralf; Schaadt, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated a molecular beam epitaxy method to resolve the dilemma between structural and morphological quality in growth of the GaN epilayer. A gradient buffer layer was grown in such a way that the N/Ga ratio was gradually changed from nitrogen-rich to gallium-rich. The GaN epitaxial layer was then grown on the gradient buffer layer. In the X-ray diffraction analysis of GaN(002) rocking curves, we found that the full width at half-maximum was improved from 531.69″ to 59.43″ for the sample with a gradient buffer layer as compared to a purely gallium-rich grown sample. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the root-mean-square roughness of the surface was improved from 18.28 nm to 1.62 nm over an area of 5 × 5 μm 2 with respect to a purely nitrogen-rich grown sample. Raman scattering showed the presence of a slightly tilted plane in the gradient layer. Furthermore we showed that the gradient layer can also slash the strain force caused by either Ga-rich GaN epitaxial layer or AlN buffer layer. - Highlights: ► The samples were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. ► The GaN epilayer was grown on sapphire substrate. ► The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. ► The sample quality was improved by gradient buffer layer.

  1. Improvement of GaN epilayer by gradient layer method with molecular-beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yen-Liang [Department of Physics, Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lo, Ikai, E-mail: ikailo@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Gau, Ming-Hong; Hsieh, Chia-Ho; Sham, Meng-Wei; Pang, Wen-Yuan; Hsu, Yu-Chi [Department of Physics, Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Jenn-Kai [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Formosa University, Hu-Wei, Yun-Lin County 63208, Taiwan, ROC (China); Schuber, Ralf; Schaadt, Daniel [Institute of Applied Physics/DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-07-31

    We demonstrated a molecular beam epitaxy method to resolve the dilemma between structural and morphological quality in growth of the GaN epilayer. A gradient buffer layer was grown in such a way that the N/Ga ratio was gradually changed from nitrogen-rich to gallium-rich. The GaN epitaxial layer was then grown on the gradient buffer layer. In the X-ray diffraction analysis of GaN(002) rocking curves, we found that the full width at half-maximum was improved from 531.69 Double-Prime to 59.43 Double-Prime for the sample with a gradient buffer layer as compared to a purely gallium-rich grown sample. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the root-mean-square roughness of the surface was improved from 18.28 nm to 1.62 nm over an area of 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 {mu}m{sup 2} with respect to a purely nitrogen-rich grown sample. Raman scattering showed the presence of a slightly tilted plane in the gradient layer. Furthermore we showed that the gradient layer can also slash the strain force caused by either Ga-rich GaN epitaxial layer or AlN buffer layer. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The GaN epilayer was grown on sapphire substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sample quality was improved by gradient buffer layer.

  2. Infrared Reflectance Analysis of Epitaxial n-Type Doped GaN Layers Grown on Sapphire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsykaniuk, Bogdan I; Nikolenko, Andrii S; Strelchuk, Viktor V; Naseka, Viktor M; Mazur, Yuriy I; Ware, Morgan E; DeCuir, Eric A; Sadovyi, Bogdan; Weyher, Jan L; Jakiela, Rafal; Salamo, Gregory J; Belyaev, Alexander E

    2017-12-01

    Infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy is applied to study Si-doped multilayer n + /n 0 /n + -GaN structure grown on GaN buffer with GaN-template/sapphire substrate. Analysis of the investigated structure by photo-etching, SEM, and SIMS methods showed the existence of the additional layer with the drastic difference in Si and O doping levels and located between the epitaxial GaN buffer and template. Simulation of the experimental reflectivity spectra was performed in a wide frequency range. It is shown that the modeling of IR reflectance spectrum using 2 × 2 transfer matrix method and including into analysis the additional layer make it possible to obtain the best fitting of the experimental spectrum, which follows in the evaluation of GaN layer thicknesses which are in good agreement with the SEM and SIMS data. Spectral dependence of plasmon-LO-phonon coupled modes for each GaN layer is obtained from the spectral dependence of dielectric of Si doping impurity, which is attributed to compensation effects by the acceptor states.

  3. Analysis of field-plate effects on buffer-related lag phenomena and current collapse in GaN MESFETs and AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horio, Kazushige; Nakajima, Atsushi; Itagaki, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    A two-dimensional transient analysis of field-plate GaN MESFETs and AlGaN/GaN HEMTs is performed in which a deep donor and a deep acceptor are considered in a semi-insulating buffer layer, and quasi-pulsed current–voltage curves are derived from them. How the existence of a field plate affects buffer-related drain lag, gate lag and current collapse is studied. It is shown that in both MESFET and HEMT, the drain lag is reduced by introducing a field plate because electron injection into the buffer layer is weakened by it, and the buffer-trapping effects are reduced. It is also shown that the field plate could reduce buffer-related current collapse and gate lag in the FETs. The dependence of lag phenomena and current collapse on the field-plate length and on the SiN passivation layer thickness is also studied. The work suggests that in the field-plate structures, there is an optimum thickness of the SiN layer to minimize the buffer-related current collapse and drain lag in GaN MESFETs and AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

  4. Study on GaN buffer leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures grown by ammonia-molecular beam epitaxy on 100-mm Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikiran, L.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Ng, G. I.; Munawar Basha, S.; Dharmarasu, N.; Agrawal, M.; Manoj kumar, C. M.; Arulkumaran, S.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of carbon doping on the structural and electrical properties of GaN buffer layer of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures has been studied. In the undoped HEMT structures, oxygen was identified as the dominant impurity using secondary ion mass spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. In addition, a notable parallel conduction channel was identified in the GaN buffer at the interface. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures with carbon doped GaN buffer using a CBr 4 beam equivalent pressure of 1.86 × 10 −7 mTorr showed a reduction in the buffer leakage current by two orders of magnitude. Carbon doped GaN buffers also exhibited a slight increase in the crystalline tilt with some pits on the growth surface. PL and Raman measurements indicated only a partial compensation of donor states with carbon acceptors. However, AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures with carbon doped GaN buffer with 200 nm thick undoped GaN near the channel exhibited good 2DEG characteristics

  5. Study on GaN buffer leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures grown by ammonia-molecular beam epitaxy on 100-mm Si(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravikiran, L.; Radhakrishnan, K., E-mail: ERADHA@e.ntu.edu.sg; Ng, G. I. [NOVITAS-Nanoelectronics, Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Munawar Basha, S.; Dharmarasu, N.; Agrawal, M.; Manoj kumar, C. M.; Arulkumaran, S. [Temasek Laboratories@NTU, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)

    2015-06-28

    The effect of carbon doping on the structural and electrical properties of GaN buffer layer of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures has been studied. In the undoped HEMT structures, oxygen was identified as the dominant impurity using secondary ion mass spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. In addition, a notable parallel conduction channel was identified in the GaN buffer at the interface. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures with carbon doped GaN buffer using a CBr{sub 4} beam equivalent pressure of 1.86 × 10{sup −7} mTorr showed a reduction in the buffer leakage current by two orders of magnitude. Carbon doped GaN buffers also exhibited a slight increase in the crystalline tilt with some pits on the growth surface. PL and Raman measurements indicated only a partial compensation of donor states with carbon acceptors. However, AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures with carbon doped GaN buffer with 200 nm thick undoped GaN near the channel exhibited good 2DEG characteristics.

  6. Epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 (001) films on multilayer buffered GaN (0002) by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, W B; Jing, J; Shuai, Y; Zhu, J; Zhang, W L; Zhou, S; Gemming, S; Du, N; Schmidt, H

    2013-01-01

    SrTiO 3 films were grown on CeO 2 /YSZ/TiO 2 multilayer buffered GaN/Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrates with and without the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) bridge layer by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The deposition process of the buffer layers was in situ monitored by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The crystallographical orientation of the heterostructure was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD). With the introduction of the YBCO (001) layer, the STO (001) film was epitaxially grown on the GaN substrate. There were three sets of inplane domains separated from each other by 30° in both STO and YBCO buffer layers. The epitaxial relationship was STO (002)[110]∥YBCO(001)[110]∥CeO 2 (002)[010]∥YSZ (002)[010]∥GaN(0001)[1 1 -2 0] according to XRD results. By comparing the orientation of STO grown on GaN with and without the YBCO top buffer layer, the surface chemical bonding was found to be a very important factor in determining the orientation relationship of STO.

  7. Crystallinity Improvement of ZnO Thin Film on Different Buffer Layers Grown by MBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Ying Ting

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The material and optical properties of ZnO thin film samples grown on different buffer layers on sapphire substrates through a two-step temperature variation growth by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The thin buffer layer between the ZnO layer and the sapphire substrate decreased the lattice mismatch to achieve higher quality ZnO thin film growth. A GaN buffer layer slightly increased the quality of the ZnO thin film, but the threading dislocations still stretched along the c-axis of the GaN layer. The use of MgO as the buffer layer decreased the surface roughness of the ZnO thin film by 58.8% due to the suppression of surface cracks through strain transfer of the sample. From deep level emission and rocking curve measurements it was found that the threading dislocations play a more important role than oxygen vacancies for high-quality ZnO thin film growth.

  8. High-Brightness Blue Light-Emitting Diodes Enabled by a Directly Grown Graphene Buffer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaolong; Zhang, Xiang; Dou, Zhipeng; Wei, Tongbo; Liu, Zhiqiang; Qi, Yue; Ci, Haina; Wang, Yunyu; Li, Yang; Chang, Hongliang; Yan, Jianchang; Yang, Shenyuan; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Junxi; Gao, Peng; Li, Jinmin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-06-08

    Single-crystalline GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with high efficiency and long lifetime are the most promising solid-state lighting source compared with conventional incandescent and fluorescent lamps. However, the lattice and thermal mismatch between GaN and sapphire substrate always induces high stress and high density of dislocations and thus degrades the performance of LEDs. Here, the growth of high-quality GaN with low stress and a low density of dislocations on graphene (Gr) buffered sapphire substrate is reported for high-brightness blue LEDs. Gr films are directly grown on sapphire substrate to avoid the tedious transfer process and GaN is grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The introduced Gr buffer layer greatly releases biaxial stress and reduces the density of dislocations in GaN film and In x Ga 1- x N/GaN multiple quantum well structures. The as-fabricated LED devices therefore deliver much higher light output power compared to that on a bare sapphire substrate, which even outperforms the mature process derived counterpart. The GaN growth on Gr buffered sapphire only requires one-step growth, which largely shortens the MOCVD growth time. This facile strategy may pave a new way for applications of Gr films and bring several disruptive technologies for epitaxial growth of GaN film and its applications in high-brightness LEDs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. AlGaN/GaN field effect transistors for power electronics—Effect of finite GaN layer thickness on thermal characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, C., E-mail: chris.hodges@bristol.ac.uk; Anaya Calvo, J.; Kuball, M. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Stoffels, S.; Marcon, D. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-11-11

    AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors with a 150 nm thick GaN channel within stacked Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N layers were investigated using Raman thermography. By fitting a thermal simulation to the measured temperatures, the thermal conductivity of the GaN channel was determined to be 60 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1}, over 50% less than typical GaN epilayers, causing an increased peak channel temperature. This agrees with a nanoscale model. A low thermal conductivity AlGaN buffer means the GaN spreads heat; its properties are important for device thermal characteristics. When designing power devices with thin GaN layers, as well as electrical considerations, the reduced channel thermal conductivity must be considered.

  10. Strain and crystalline defects in epitaxial GaN layers studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chierchia, Rosa

    2007-07-01

    This thesis treats strain and dislocations in MOVPE GaN layers. The mosaic structure of metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE)-grown GaN layers was studied in dependence on the grain diameter utilizing high-resolution XRD. Different models for the defect structure were analyzed, the edge type TD densities were calculated under the assumption that the dislocations are not randomly distributed but localized at the grain boundaries. Moreover, in situ measurements have shown that the layers are under tension in the c-plane when a nucleation layer is used. The second part of this thesis treats a particular approach to reduce dislocations in MOVPE GaN layers, i.e. maskless pendeo epitaxial growth of MOVPE GAN layers. FE simulations assuming the strain to be completely induced during cooling of the structures after growth agree only partly with experimental data. The strain state of single layers and stripes of GaN grown on SiC was studied to exploit the evolution of the strain in the different phases of the PE growth. The biaxial compressive stress, due to the lattice mismatch between the GaN layer and the AlN nucleation layer is plastically relieved before overgrowth. Temperature dependent measurements show a linear reduction of the wing tilt with increasing temperature varying from sample to sample. Bent TDs have been observed in TEM images of maskless PE samples. Stress induced from the mismatch between the AlN buffer layer and the GaN also contributes to the remaining part of the wing tilt not relieved thermally. It has to be noted that the rest tilt value varies from sample to sample at the growth temperature. In fact some of the data indicate that the wing tilt decreases with increasing V/III ratio. In the last Chapter the application of X-ray techniques for the analysis of strain and composition in layers of inhomogeneous composition is explored. In the first part of the Chapter the strain state and the Al content of AlGaN buffer layers grown directly on (0001

  11. Atomic force microscopy studies of homoepitaxial GaN layers grown on GaN template by laser MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, B. S. [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Rajasthan Technical University, Rawatbhata Road, Kota 324010 (India); Singh, A.; Tyagi, P. K. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Tanwar, S. [Rajasthan Technical University, Rawatbhata Road, Kota 324010 (India); Kumar, M. Senthil; Kushvaha, S. S., E-mail: kushvahas@nplindia.org [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2016-04-13

    We have grown homoepitaxial GaN films on metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown 3.5 µm thick GaN on sapphire (0001) substrate (GaN template) using an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) laser assisted molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) system. The GaN films were grown by laser ablating a polycrystalline solid GaN target in the presence of active r.f. nitrogen plasma. The influence of laser repetition rates (10-30 Hz) on the surface morphology of homoepitaxial GaN layers have been studied using atomic force microscopy. It was found that GaN layer grown at 10 Hz shows a smooth surface with uniform grain size compared to the rough surface with irregular shape grains obtained at 30 Hz. The variation of surface roughness of the homoepitaxial GaN layer with and without wet chemical etching has been also studied and it was observed that the roughness of the film decreased after wet etching due to the curved structure/rough surface.

  12. Luminescence and Morphological Properties of GaN Layers Grown on SiC/Si(111) Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Ristic, J.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Dpto. Ing. Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Serre, C.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R. [EME - Electronic Materials and Engineering, Department of Electronics, Universidad de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Koegler, R.; Skorupa, W. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., 01314 Dresden (Germany); Trampert, A.; Ploog, K.H. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2002-08-16

    This article describes the fabrication of SiC thin films on top of Si(111) substrates by means of a multiple C-ion implantation and the subsequent growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of GaN layers. The stoichiometry of the top SiC layer is controlled by reactive ion etching. Photoluminescence spectra reveal that all GaN layers are under biaxial tensile strain of thermal origin. The photoluminescence efficiency clearly depends on the stoichiometry of the initial SiC layer and on whether AlN buffer layers are used or not. GaN layers grown directly on bare non-stoichiometric SiC layers exhibit the best photoluminescence efficiency but also a high degree of mosaicity, as measured by X-ray diffraction techniques. The nucleation process involved in the initial stages of the growth leads to the formation of large dislocation-free grains with a high PL efficiency and with a higher tensile strain character. Despite the lack of a perfect monocrystalline SiC substrate lattice, high quality GaN microcrystals are obtained. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Investigation of GaN LED with Be-implanted Mg-doped GaN layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.-W.; Kao, C.C.; Chu, J.T.; Kuo, H.C.; Wang, S.C.; Yu, C.C.; Lin, C.F.

    2004-01-01

    We report the electrical and optical characteristics of GaN light emitting diode (LED) with beryllium (Be) implanted Mg-doped GaN layer. The p-type layer of Be-implanted GaN LED showed a higher hole carrier concentration of 2.3 x 10 18 cm -3 and low specific contact resistance value of 2.0 x 10 -4 Ωcm 2 than as-grown p-GaN LED samples without Be-implantation. The Be-implanted GaN LEDs with InGaN/GaN MQW show slightly lower light output (about 10%) than the as-grown GaN LEDs, caused by the high RTA temperature annealing process

  14. Investigation of different mechanisms of GaN growth induced on AlN and GaN nucleation layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasco, V.; Campa, A.; Tarantini, I.; Passaseo, A.; Gonzalez-Posada, F.; Munoz, E.; Redondo-Cubero, A.; Lorenz, K.; Franco, N.

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of GaN growth on AlN and GaN nucleation layers is compared through morphological and structural analyses, including ion beam analysis. By using AlN nucleation layer grown at high temperature, improved crystalline quality is exhibited by 300 nm thin GaN epilayers. GaN (002) x-ray rocking curve as narrow as 168 arc sec and atomic-step surface morphology characterize such a thin GaN film on AlN. Defects are strongly confined into the first 50 nm of growth, whereas a fast laterally coherent growth is observed when increasing thickness, as an effect of high temperature AlN surface morphology and Ga adatom dynamics over this template

  15. Successful Fabrication of GaN Epitaxial Layer on Non-Catalytically grown Graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Won [Konkuk University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Suk-Ho [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Sapphire is widely used as a substrate for the growth of GaN epitaxial layer (EPI), but has several drawbacks such as high cost, large lattice mismatch, non-flexibility, and so on. Here, we first employ graphene directly grown on Si or sapphire substrate as a platform for the growth and lift-off of GaN-light-emitting diode (LED) EPI, useful for not only recycling the substrate but also transferring the GaN-LED EPI to other flexible substrates. Sequential standard processes of nucleation/recrystallization of GaN seeds and deposition of undoped (u-) GaN/AlN buffer layer were done on graphene/substrate before the growth of GaN-LED EPI, accompanied by taping and lift-off of u-GaN/AlN or GaN-LED EPI. This approach can overcome the limitations by the catalytic growth and transfer of graphene, and make the oxygen-plasma treatment of graphene for the growth of GaN EPI unnecessary.

  16. Buffer layers and articles for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan P.; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.; Feenstra, Roeland; Goyal, Amit

    2004-07-20

    Materials for depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured and untextured metallic and metal oxide substrates for use in the manufacture of superconducting and other electronic articles comprise RMnO.sub.3, R.sub.1-x A.sub.x MnO.sub.3, and combinations thereof; wherein R includes an element selected from the group consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y, and A includes an element selected from the group consisting of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra.

  17. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  18. GaN epitaxial layers grown on multilayer graphene by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianbao; Liu, Chenyang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Bin; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Wei; Jia, Zhigang; Yu, Chunyan; Gan, Lin; Xu, Bingshe

    2018-04-01

    In this study, GaN epitaxial layers were successfully deposited on a multilayer graphene (MLG) by using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Highly crystalline orientations of the GaN films were confirmed through electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). An epitaxial relationship between GaN films and MLG is unambiguously established by transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The Raman spectra was used to analyze the internal stress of GaN films, and the spectrum shows residual tensile stress in the GaN films. Moreover, the results of the TEM analysis and Raman spectra indicate that the high quality of the MLG substrate is maintained even after the growth of the GaN film. This high-quality MLG makes it possible to easily remove epitaxial layers from the supporting substrate by micro-mechanical exfoliation technology. This work can aid in the development of transferable devices using GaN films.

  19. Optical and field emission properties of layer-structure GaN nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhen [Science School, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); School of automation and Information Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Li, Enling, E-mail: Lienling@xaut.edu.cn [Science School, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Shi, Wei; Ma, Deming [Science School, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The layer-structure GaN nanowires with hexagonal-shaped cross-sections are produced via a process based on the CVD method. • The diameter of the layer-structure GaN nanowire gradually decreases from ∼500 nm to ∼200 nm along the wire axis. • The layer-structure GaN nanowire film possesses good field emission property. - Abstract: A layer-structure gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires, grown on Pt-coated n-type Si (1 1 1) substrate, have been synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The results show: (1) SEM indicates that the geometry structure is layer-structure. HRTEM indicates that GaN nanowire’s preferential growth direction is along [0 0 1] direction. (2) The room temperature PL emission spectrum of the layer-structure GaN nanowires has a peak at 375 nm, which proves that GaN nanowires have potential application in light-emitting nano-devices. (3) Field-emission measurements show that the layer-structure GaN nanowires film has a low turn-on field of 4.39 V/μm (at room temperature), which is sufficient for electron emission devices, field emission displays and vacuum nano-electronic devices. The growth mechanism for GaN nanowires has also been discussed briefly.

  20. Growing GaN LEDs on amorphous SiC buffer with variable C/Si compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Tzou, An-Jye; Chang, Jung-Hung; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Shih, Min-Hsiung; Lee, Chao-Kuei; Wu, Chih-I; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-01-01

    The epitaxy of high-power gallium nitride (GaN) light-emitting diode (LED) on amorphous silicon carbide (a-SixC1−x) buffer is demonstrated. The a-SixC1−x buffers with different nonstoichiometric C/Si composition ratios are synthesized on SiO2/Si substrate by using a low-temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The GaN LEDs on different SixC1−x buffers exhibit different EL and C-V characteristics because of the extended strain induced interfacial defects. The EL power decays when increasing the Si content of SixC1−x buffer. The C-rich SixC1−x favors the GaN epitaxy and enables the strain relaxation to suppress the probability of Auger recombination. When the SixC1−x buffer changes from Si-rich to C-rich condition, the EL peak wavelengh shifts from 446 nm to 450 nm. Moreover, the uniform distribution contour of EL intensity spreads between the anode and the cathode because the traping density of the interfacial defect gradually reduces. In comparison with the GaN LED grown on Si-rich SixC1−x buffer, the device deposited on C-rich SixC1−x buffer shows a lower turn-on voltage, a higher output power, an external quantum efficiency, and an efficiency droop of 2.48 V, 106 mW, 42.3%, and 7%, respectively. PMID:26794268

  1. Thin film photovoltaic devices with a minimally conductive buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Teresa M.; Burst, James

    2016-11-15

    A thin film photovoltaic device (100) with a tunable, minimally conductive buffer (128) layer is provided. The photovoltaic device (100) may include a back contact (150), a transparent front contact stack (120), and an absorber (140) positioned between the front contact stack (120) and the back contact (150). The front contact stack (120) may include a low resistivity transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer (124) and a buffer layer (128) that is proximate to the absorber layer (140). The photovoltaic device (100) may also include a window layer (130) between the buffer layer (128) and the absorber (140). In some cases, the buffer layer (128) is minimally conductive, with its resistivity being tunable, and the buffer layer (128) may be formed as an alloy from a host oxide and a high-permittivity oxide. The high-permittivity oxide may further be chosen to have a bandgap greater than the host oxide.

  2. Atomic layer deposition of GaN at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgit, Cagla; Donmez, Inci; Alevli, Mustafa; Biyikli, Necmi [UNAM - Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2012-01-15

    The authors report on the self-limiting growth of GaN thin films at low temperatures. Films were deposited on Si substrates by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMG) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the group-III and -V precursors, respectively. GaN deposition rate saturated at 185 deg. C for NH{sub 3} doses starting from 90 s. Atomic layer deposition temperature window was observed from 185 to {approx}385 deg. C. Deposition rate, which is constant at {approx}0.51 A/cycle within the temperature range of 250 - 350 deg. C, increased slightly as the temperature decreased to 185 deg. C. In the bulk film, concentrations of Ga, N, and O were constant at {approx}36.6, {approx}43.9, and {approx}19.5 at. %, respectively. C was detected only at the surface and no C impurities were found in the bulk film. High oxygen concentration in films was attributed to the oxygen impurities present in group-V precursor. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies revealed a microstructure consisting of small crystallites dispersed in an amorphous matrix.

  3. Ultrathin silicon oxynitride layer on GaN for dangling-bond-free GaN/insulator interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Kengo; Yayama, Tomoe; Miyazaki, Takehide; Taoka, Noriyuki; Shimizu, Mitsuaki

    2018-01-23

    Despite the scientific and technological importance of removing interface dangling bonds, even an ideal model of a dangling-bond-free interface between GaN and an insulator has not been known. The formation of an atomically thin ordered buffer layer between crystalline GaN and amorphous SiO 2 would be a key to synthesize a dangling-bond-free GaN/SiO 2 interface. Here, we predict that a silicon oxynitride (Si 4 O 5 N 3 ) layer can epitaxially grow on a GaN(0001) surface without creating dangling bonds at the interface. Our ab initio calculations show that the GaN/Si 4 O 5 N 3 structure is more stable than silicon-oxide-terminated GaN(0001) surfaces. The electronic properties of the GaN/Si 4 O 5 N 3 structure can be tuned by modifying the chemical components near the interface. We also propose a possible approach to experimentally synthesize the GaN/Si 4 O 5 N 3 structure.

  4. A DFT study on NEA GaN photocathode with an ultrathin n-type Si-doped GaN cap layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Kong, Yike; Diao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Due to the drawbacks of conventional negative electron affinity (NEA) GaN photocathodes activated by Cs or Cs/O, a new-type NEA GaN photocathodes with heterojunction surface dispense with Cs activation are proposed. This structure can be obtained through the coverage of an ultrathin n-type Si-doped GaN cap layer on the p-type Mg-doped GaN emission layer. The influences of the cap layer on the photocathode are calculated using DFT. This study indicates that the n-type cap layer can promote the photoemission characteristics of GaN photocathode and demonstrates the probability of the preparation of a NEA GaN photocathode with an n-type cap layer.

  5. Improvement of InN layers deposited on Si(111) by RF sputtering using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdueza-Felip, S.; Ibáñez, J.; Monroy, E.; González-Herráez, M.; Artús, L.; Naranjo, F.B.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer on structural and optical properties of wurtzite nanocrystalline InN films deposited on Si(111) substrates by reactive radio-frequency sputtering. The deposition conditions of the InN buffer layer were optimized in terms of morphological and structural quality, leading to films with surface root-mean-square roughness of ∼ 1 nm under low-growth-rate conditions (60 nm/h). The use of the developed InN buffer layer improves the crystalline quality of the subsequent InN thick films deposited at high growth rate (180 nm/h), as confirmed by the narrowing of X-ray diffraction peaks and the increase of the average grain size of the layers. This improvement of the structural quality is further confirmed by Raman scattering spectroscopy measurements. Room temperature PL emission peaking at ∼ 1.58 eV is observed for InN samples grown with the developed buffer layer. The crystal and optical quality obtained for InN films grown on Si(111) using the low-growth-rate InN buffer layer become comparable to high-quality InN films deposited directly on GaN templates by RF sputtering. - Highlights: ► Improved RF-sputtered InN films on Si(111) using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer. ► Enhanced structural quality confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements. ► Room-temperature photoluminescence emission at 1.58 eV. ► InN films deposited with buffer layer on Si comparable to InN LAYERS on GaN templates.

  6. Improvement of InN layers deposited on Si(111) by RF sputtering using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdueza-Felip, S., E-mail: sirona.valdueza@depeca.uah.es [Electronics Dept., Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Madrid-Barcelona Road, km 33.6, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Ibanez, J. [Institut de Ciencies de la Terra Jaume Almera, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), c/Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Monroy, E. [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/NPSC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Gonzalez-Herraez, M. [Electronics Dept., Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Madrid-Barcelona Road, km 33.6, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Artus, L. [Institut de Ciencies de la Terra Jaume Almera, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), c/Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Naranjo, F.B. [Electronics Dept., Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Madrid-Barcelona Road, km 33.6, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-31

    We investigate the influence of a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer on structural and optical properties of wurtzite nanocrystalline InN films deposited on Si(111) substrates by reactive radio-frequency sputtering. The deposition conditions of the InN buffer layer were optimized in terms of morphological and structural quality, leading to films with surface root-mean-square roughness of {approx} 1 nm under low-growth-rate conditions (60 nm/h). The use of the developed InN buffer layer improves the crystalline quality of the subsequent InN thick films deposited at high growth rate (180 nm/h), as confirmed by the narrowing of X-ray diffraction peaks and the increase of the average grain size of the layers. This improvement of the structural quality is further confirmed by Raman scattering spectroscopy measurements. Room temperature PL emission peaking at {approx} 1.58 eV is observed for InN samples grown with the developed buffer layer. The crystal and optical quality obtained for InN films grown on Si(111) using the low-growth-rate InN buffer layer become comparable to high-quality InN films deposited directly on GaN templates by RF sputtering. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved RF-sputtered InN films on Si(111) using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced structural quality confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Room-temperature photoluminescence emission at 1.58 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer InN films deposited with buffer layer on Si comparable to InN LAYERS on GaN templates.

  7. Buffer layers for REBCO films for use in superconducting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A superconducting article includes a substrate having a biaxially textured surface. A biaxially textured buffer layer, which can be a cap layer, is supported by the substrate. The buffer layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different transition metal cations. A biaxially textured superconductor layer is deposited so as to be supported by the buffer layer. A method of making a superconducting article is also disclosed.

  8. Reduction of buffer layer conduction near plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy grown GaN/AlN interfaces by beryllium doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, D.F.; Katzer, D.S.; Binari, S.C.; Glaser, E.R.; Shanabrook, B.V.; Roussos, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Beryllium doping of epitaxial GaN layers is used to reduce leakage currents through interfacial or buffer conducting layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on SiC. Capacitance-voltage measurements of Schottky barrier test structures and dc pinch-off characteristics of unintentionally doped GaN high-electron-mobility transistors indicate that these leakage currents are localized near the GaN/AlN interface of our AlGaN/GaN/AlN device structures. Insertion of a 2000 Aa Be:GaN layer at the interface reduces these currents by three orders of magnitude

  9. Investigation of InN layers grown by MOCVD using analytical and high resolution TEM: The structure, band gap, role of the buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruterana, P.; Abouzaid, M.; Gloux, F.; Maciej, W.; Doualan, J.L.; Drago, M.; Schmidtling, T.; Pohl, U.W.; Richter, W.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we investigate the microstructure of InN layers grown by MOCVD on different buffer layers using TEM (InN, GaN). The large mismatch between the various lattices (InN, sapphire or GaN) leads to particular interface structures. Our local analysis allows to show that at atomic scale, the material has the InN lattice parameters and that no metallic In precipitates are present, meaning that the PL emission below 0.8 eV is a genuine property of the InN semiconductor. It is also shown that the N polar layers, which exhibit a 2D growth, have poorer PL emission than In polar layers. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Performance Analysis of GaN Capping Layer Thickness on GaN/AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N; Periasamy, C; Chaturvedi, N

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, we present an investigation of the impact of GaN capping layer and AlGaN layer thickness on the two-dimensional (2D)-electron mobility and the carrier concentration which was formed close to the AlGaN/GaN buffer layer for Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN and GaN/Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructures deposited on sapphire substrates. The results of our analysis clearly indicate that expanding the GaN capping layer thickness from 1 nm to 100 nm prompts an increment in the electron concentration at hetero interface. As consequence of which drain current was additionally increments with GaN cap layer thicknesses, and eventually saturates at approximately 1.85 A/mm for capping layer thickness greater than 40 nm. Interestingly, for the same structure, the 2D-electron mobility, decrease monotonically with GaN capping layer thickness, and saturate at approximately 830 cm2/Vs for capping layer thickness greater than 50 nm. A device with a GaN cap layer didn't exhibit gate leakage current. Furthermore, it was observed that the carrier concentration was first decrease 1.03 × 1019/cm3 to 6.65 × 1018/cm3 with AlGaN Layer thickness from 5 to 10 nm and after that it increases with the AlGaN layer thickness from 10 to 30 nm. The same trend was followed for electric field distributions. Electron mobility decreases monotonically with AlGaN layer thickness. Highest electron mobility 1354 cm2/Vs were recorded for the AlGaN layer thickness of 5 nm. Results obtained are in good agreement with published experimental data.

  11. Evidence for moving of threading dislocations during the VPE growth in GaN thin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwano, Noriyuki [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mie University, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Amano, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Akasaki Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Akasaki, Isamu [Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation was performed in detail to analyze the morphology of threading dislocations (TDs) in GaN thin layers with various thicknesses. The GaN layers were overgrown on an Al{sub 0.28}Ga{sub 0.72}N layer by the metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) method. In a GaN layer about 50 nm in thickness, TDs running up in the AlGaN layer pass into the GaN layer and most of them reach the top surface without bending. In thicker GaN layers, on the other hand, many of TDs form a hairpin-configuration on or above the interface of GaN and AlGaN to be annihilated. This difference in morphology of TDs indicates that the TDs have moved down inside the GaN layer. Since the formation of hairpins is attributed to a stress-relief, there should be an extra half-plane between the paired TDs. Therefore, the movement of TDs should be of ''climb motion''. Another example of possible TD movement inside a GaN layer is also described. It is emphasized that the possibility of TD-movements inside the thin film crystal during the growth should be taken into account in analysis of thin-layer growth through the behavior of TDs (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Understanding the Growth Mechanism of GaN Epitaxial Layers on Mechanically Exfoliated Graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianbao; Liu, Chenyang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Bin; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Wei; Jia, Zhigang; Yu, Chunyan; Gan, Lin; Xu, Bingshe; Jiang, Haiwei

    2018-04-27

    The growth mechanism of GaN epitaxial layers on mechanically exfoliated graphite is explained in detail based on classic nucleation theory. The number of defects on the graphite surface can be increased via O-plasma treatment, leading to increased nucleation density on the graphite surface. The addition of elemental Al can effectively improve the nucleation rate, which can promote the formation of dense nucleation layers and the lateral growth of GaN epitaxial layers. The surface morphologies of the nucleation layers, annealed layers and epitaxial layers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, where the evolution of the surface morphology coincided with a 3D-to-2D growth mechanism. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of GaN. Fast Fourier transform diffraction patterns showed that cubic phase (zinc-blend structure) GaN grains were obtained using conventional GaN nucleation layers, while the hexagonal phase (wurtzite structure) GaN films were formed using AlGaN nucleation layers. Our work opens new avenues for using highly oriented pyrolytic graphite as a substrate to fabricate transferable optoelectronic devices.

  13. m-plane GaN layers grown by rf-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy with varying Ga/N flux ratios on m-plane 4H-SiC substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, R.; Horita, M.; Suda, J.; Kimoto, T.

    2007-01-01

    A series of m-plane GaN layers with the Ga beam-equivalent pressure (BEP) as the only varied parameter was grown by rf-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on m-plane 4H-SiC substrates using AlN buffer layers. The smoothest growth surfaces and most complete film coalescence were found for the highest Ga BEP corresponding to the Ga droplet accumulation regime. However, better structural quality as assessed by x-ray rocking curves was observed for growth at a lower Ga BEP value below the droplet limit. The variation of rocking curve widths for planes inclined with respect to the epilayer c axis followed a different trend with Ga BEP than those of reflections parallel to the c axis. The GaN layers were found to exhibit a large residual compressive strain along the a axis

  14. MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keon-Hun; Park, Sung Hyun; Kim, Jong Hack; Kim, Nam Hyuk; Kim, Min Hwa [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Hyunseok [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon, 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 433-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    100 nm InN layer was grown on sapphire c-plane using a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. Low temperature (LT) GaN layer was grown on InN layer to protect InN layer from direct exposure to hydrogen flow during high temperature (HT) GaN growth and/or abrupt decomposition. Subsequently, thick HT GaN layer (2.5 {mu}m thick) was grown at 1000 {sup o}C on LT GaN/InN/sapphire template. Microstructure of epilayer-substrate interface was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the high angle annular dark field TEM image, the growth of columnar structured LT GaN and HT GaN with good crystallinity was observed. Though thickness of InN interlayer is assumed to be about 100 nm based on growth rate, it was not clearly shown in TEM image due to the InN decomposition. The lattice parameters of GaN layers were measured by XRD measurement, which shows that InN interlayer reduces the compressive strain in GaN layer. The relaxation of compressive strain in GaN layer was also confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) measurement. As shown in the PL spectra, red shift of GaN band edge peak was observed, which indicates the reduction of compressive strain in GaN epilayer.

  15. Rare earth zirconium oxide buffer layers on metal substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland

    2001-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0layer can be deposited using sol-gel or metal-organic decomposition. The laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  16. GaN Micromechanical Resonators with Meshed Metal Bottom Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Azadeh; Liu, Che-Yu; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Ku, Pei-Cheng; Rais-Zadeh, Mina

    2015-03-17

    This work describes a novel architecture to realize high-performance gallium nitride (GaN) bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators. The method is based on the growth of a thick GaN layer on a metal electrode grid. The fabrication process starts with the growth of a thin GaN buffer layer on a Si (111) substrate. The GaN buffer layer is patterned and trenches are made and refilled with sputtered tungsten (W)/silicon dioxide (SiO₂) forming passivated metal electrode grids. GaN is then regrown, nucleating from the exposed GaN seed layer and coalescing to form a thick GaN device layer. A metal electrode can be deposited and patterned on top of the GaN layer. This method enables vertical piezoelectric actuation of the GaN layer using its largest piezoelectric coefficient ( d 33 ) for thickness-mode resonance. Having a bottom electrode also results in a higher coupling coefficient, useful for the implementation of acoustic filters. Growth of GaN on Si enables releasing the device from the frontside using isotropic xenon difluoride (XeF₂) etch and therefore eliminating the need for backside lithography and etching.

  17. Study of buffer layer thickness on bulk heterojunction solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seunguk; Suman, C K; Lee, Donggu; Kim, Seohee; Lee, Changhee

    2010-10-01

    We studied the effect of the buffer layer (molybdenum-oxide (MoO3)) thickness on the performance of organic solar cell based on blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester fullerene derivative (PCBM). The thickness of MoO3 was varied from 1 nm to 30 nm for optimization of device performance. The photocurrent-voltage and impedance spectroscopy were measured under dark and AM1.5G solar simulated illumination of 100 mW/cm2 for exploring the role of the buffer layer thickness on carrier collection at an anode. The MoO3 thickness of the optimized device (efficiency approximately 3.7%) was found to be in the range of 5 approximately 10 nm. The short-circuit current and the shunt resistance decrease gradually for thicker MoO3 layer over 5 nm. The device can be modeled as the combination of three RC parallel circuits (each one for the active layer, buffer layer and interface between the buffer layer and the active layer) in series with contact resistance (Rs approximately 60 ohm).

  18. Growth and characterization of InAlN layers nearly lattice-matched to GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuel, J.M.; Morales, F.M.; Lozano, J.G.; Garcia, R.; Lim, T.; Kirste, L.; Aidam, R.; Ambacher, O.

    2011-01-01

    A set of InxAl1-xN films lattice-matched (LM) to GaN/sapphire substrates were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and studied using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy with the aim of implementing barrier and channels in high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Although all InAlN epilayers grow pseudomorphic to GaN, two sublayers with different compositions formed when a direct deposition onto the bare GaN buffer was carried out. On the other hand, heterostructures having single-layered In∝0.18Al∝0.82N are achieved when a spacer consisting of an AlN interlayer or an AlN/GaN/AlN stack is placed between the InAlN and the buffer. These spacers not only yield a better compositional and structural homogeneity of the InAlN, but also improve electrical properties with respect to HEMT applications. Compared to one single AlN interlayer, the use of a triple AlN/GaN/AlN multilayer further improves the structural quality of the InAlN film (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Characterization and growth mechanism of nonpolar and semipolar GaN layers grown on patterned sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Narihito; Tadatomo, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Nonpolar and semipolar GaN layers with markedly improved crystalline quality can be obtained by selective-area growth from the sapphire sidewalls of patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs). In this paper, we review the crystalline qualities of GaN layers grown on PSSs and their growth mechanism. We grew semipolar {1 1 −2 2} and {1 0 −1 1} GaN layers on r- and n-PSSs. The crystalline qualities of the GaN layers grown on the PSSs were higher than those of GaN layers grown directly on heteroepitaxial substrates. To reveal the growth mechanism of GaN layers grown on PSSs, we also grew various nonpolar and semipolar GaN layers such as m-GaN on a-PSS, {1 1 −2 2} GaN on r-PSS, {1 0 − 1  1} GaN on n-PSS, m-GaN on c-PSS and a-GaN on m-PSS. It was found that the nucleation of GaN on the c-plane-like sapphire sidewall results in selective growth from the sapphire sidewall, and nonpolar or semipolar GaN can be obtained. Finally, we demonstrated a light-emitting diode fabricated on a {1 1 −2 2} GaN layer grown on an r-PSS. (paper)

  20. Conductive and robust nitride buffer layers on biaxially textured substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Sambasivan [Chicago, IL; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Barnett, Scott A [Evanston, IL; Kim, Ilwon [Skokie, IL; Kroeger, Donald M [Knoxville, TN

    2009-03-31

    The present invention relates to epitaxial, electrically conducting and mechanically robust, cubic nitride buffer layers deposited epitaxially on biaxially textured substrates such as metals and alloys. The invention comprises of a biaxially textured substrate with epitaxial layers of nitrides. The invention also discloses a method to form such epitaxial layers using a high rate deposition method as well as without the use of forming gases. The invention further comprises epitaxial layers of oxides on the biaxially textured nitride layer. In some embodiments the article further comprises electromagnetic devices which may have superconducting properties.

  1. Implantation induced electrical isolation of sulphur doped GaN xAs1-x layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Lin, J.; Haq, A.; Sealy, B.

    2005-01-01

    The study of III-N-V semiconductor alloys, especially GaN x As 1-x has been increasing in the last few years. The strong dependence of the band gap on the nitrogen content has made this material important for a variety of applications, including long wavelength optoelectronic devices and high efficiency solar cells. We report on the effects of sulphur doping implants on the achieved electrical isolation in GaN x As 1-x layers using proton bombardment. Sulphur ions were implanted in MOCVD-grown GaN x As 1-x layers (1.4 μm thick with nominal x = 1%) with multiple energies creating approximately uniform doping profiles in the range of about 1 x 10 18 -5 x 10 19 cm -3 . Several proton implants were performed in order to find the threshold dose (minimum dose to achieve maximum sheet resistivity) for the electrical isolation of n-type GaN x As 1-x layers. Results show that the sheet resistance of n-type layers can be increased by about five orders of magnitude by proton implantation and the threshold dose to convert a conductive layer to a highly resistive one depends on the original free carrier concentration. The study of annealing temperature dependence of sheet resistivity in proton-isolated GaN x As 1-x layers shows that the electrical isolation can be preserved up to 450 and 500 deg. C when the implantation is performed at RT and 77 K with threshold dose, respectively. These results for n-type GaN x As 1-x layers are novel and have ramifications for device engineers

  2. The function of buffer layer in resistive switching device.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, B.; Prokop, V.; Střižík, L.; Zima, Vítězslav; Kutálek, P.; Vlček, Milan; Wágner, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 8 (2017), s. 291-295 ISSN 1584-8663 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : resistive switching * chalcogenide glasses * buffer layer Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.732, year: 2016 http://www.chalcogen.ro/291_ZhangB.pdf

  3. Substrate-induced magnetism in epitaxial graphene buffer layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramaniam, A; Medhekar, N V; Shenoy, V B

    2009-07-08

    Magnetism in graphene is of fundamental as well as technological interest, with potential applications in molecular magnets and spintronic devices. While defects and/or adsorbates in freestanding graphene nanoribbons and graphene sheets have been shown to cause itinerant magnetism, controlling the density and distribution of defects and adsorbates is in general difficult. We show from first principles calculations that graphene buffer layers on SiC(0001) can also show intrinsic magnetism. The formation of graphene-substrate chemical bonds disrupts the graphene pi-bonds and causes localization of graphene states near the Fermi level. Exchange interactions between these states lead to itinerant magnetism in the graphene buffer layer. We demonstrate the occurrence of magnetism in graphene buffer layers on both bulk-terminated as well as more realistic adatom-terminated SiC(0001) surfaces. Our calculations show that adatom density has a profound effect on the spin distribution in the graphene buffer layer, thereby providing a means of engineering magnetism in epitaxial graphene.

  4. Uniform GaN thin films grown on (100) silicon by remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Chen, Miin-Jang; Lin, Ming-Chih; Chen, Liang-Yih

    2015-01-01

    The growth of uniform gallium nitride (GaN) thin films was reported on (100) Si substrate by remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RP-ALD) using triethylgallium (TEG) and NH 3 as the precursors. The self-limiting growth of GaN was manifested by the saturation of the deposition rate with the doses of TEG and NH 3 . The increase in the growth temperature leads to the rise of nitrogen content and improved crystallinity of GaN thin films, from amorphous at a low deposition temperature of 200 °C to polycrystalline hexagonal structures at a high growth temperature of 500 °C. No melting-back etching was observed at the GaN/Si interface. The excellent uniformity and almost atomic flat surface of the GaN thin films also infer the surface control mode of the GaN thin films grown by the RP-ALD technique. The GaN thin films grown by RP-ALD will be further applied in the light-emitting diodes and high electron mobility transistors on (100) Si substrate. (paper)

  5. Bipolar characteristics of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction structure with AlGaN as buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Enchao; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xiao, Hongling; Wang, Cuimei; Yin, Haibo; Chen, Hong; Feng, Chun; Jiang, Lijuan; Hou, Xun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •2DEG and 2DHG coexist in the AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN DH-structure. •The sheet densities of 2DEG and 2DHG vary with buffer Al content and GaN thickness. •The conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. •Increasing buffer Al content provides better electron confinement. •Dislocation scattering is reduced in the DH-structure. -- Abstract: This is a theoretical study of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction (DH) structure with AlGaN as buffer layer. Our calculation shows that as the buffer Al content increases, though two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) sheet density decreases, the channel back-barrier caused by polarization-induced electric field in GaN provides better electron confinement. And under certain conditions the DH-structure shows bipolar characteristics, with an additional two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) formed at GaN/AlGaN interface. The influence of the buffer Al content and GaN channel thickness on the 2DEG and 2DHG sheet densities are investigated, and the conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. Also, the mobility inhibited by dislocation scattering is enhanced in DH-structure due to the enhancement of screening effect of the 2DEG

  6. Effects of thin heavily Mg-doped GaN capping layer on ohmic contact formation of p-type GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L L; Zhao, D G; Jiang, D S; Chen, P; Le, L C; Li, L; Liu, Z S; Zhang, S M; Zhu, J J; Wang, H; Zhang, B S; Yang, H

    2013-01-01

    The growth condition of thin heavily Mg-doped GaN capping layer and its effect on ohmic contact formation of p-type GaN were investigated. It is confirmed that the excessive Mg doping can effectively enhance the Ni/Au contact to p-GaN after annealing at 550 °C. When the flow rate ratio between Mg and Ga gas sources is 6.4% and the layer width is 25 nm, the capping layer grown at 850 °C exhibits the best ohmic contact properties with respect to the specific contact resistivity (ρ c ). This temperature is much lower than the conventional growth temperature of Mg-doped GaN, suggesting that the deep-level-defect induced band may play an important role in the conduction of capping layer. (paper)

  7. Effect of H, O intentionally doping on photoelectric properties in MOVPE-growth GaN layers

    KAUST Repository

    Ohkawa, Kazuhiro

    2017-10-24

    GaN crystal growth requires higher purity of materials. Some contaminants in NH3 gas could be the causal factor of defects in GaN crystals. These atoms act as donor or acceptor. In order to clearly demonstrate the effect of gaseous impurities such as H2O on the properties of undoped-GaN layer, high purity NH3 (N70) was used as NH3 source. The concentration of H2O in NH3 was varied at 32, 49, 75, 142, 266, 489, and 899 ppb, respectively. Under the same recipe, we deposited undoped-GaN epitaxial layer with purifier, and H2O-doped GaN series layers. As similar to the results of CO and CO2-doped GaN series, the increase tendency of carrier density changing with increasing H2O concentration. The FWHMs of XRC around (0002) remain stable, witnessing that the crystal quality of GaN layer remain good. LT (15K) PL of undoped-GaN and H2O-doped GaN were measured, the D0X emission peak intensity of all H2O-doped GaN are decreased drastically compared with undoped-GaN. H2O impurity was doped into GaN layer, which not only effects electrical properties and but also effects the radiative emission and furthermore effects PL intensity, its mechanism is discussed.

  8. Investigation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures on 200-mm silicon (111) substrates employing different buffer layer configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H-P; Perozek, J; Rosario, L D; Bayram, C

    2016-11-21

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures are grown on 200-mm diameter Si(111) substrates by using three different buffer layer configurations: (a) Thick-GaN/3 × {Al x Ga 1-x N}/AlN, (b) Thin-GaN/3 × {Al x Ga 1-x N}/AlN, and (c) Thin-GaN/AlN, so as to have crack-free and low-bow (GaN HEMT structures. The effects of buffer layer stacks (i.e. thickness and content) on defectivity, stress, and two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility and 2DEG concentration are reported. It is shown that 2DEG characteristics are heavily affected by the employed buffer layers between AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures and Si(111) substrates. Particularly, we report that in-plane stress in the GaN layer affects the 2DEG mobility and 2DEG carrier concentration significantly. Buffer layer engineering is shown to be essential for achieving high 2DEG mobility (>1800 cm 2 /V∙s) and 2DEG carrier concentration (>1.0 × 10 13  cm -2 ) on Si(111) substrates.

  9. Nanoscale imaging of surface piezoresponse on GaN epitaxial layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, T.; Calarco, R.; Meijers, R.; Lueth, H.

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces of GaN films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) with implemented piezoelectric force microscopy technique. A model of PFM based on the surface depletion region in GaN films is discussed. The local piezoelectric effect of the low frequency regime was found to be in phase with the applied voltage on large domains, corresponding to a Ga-face of the GaN layer. Low piezoresponse is obtained within the inter-domain regions. The use of frequencies near a resonance frequency enhances very much the resolution of piezo-imaging, but only for very low scanning speed the piezo-imaging can follow the local piezoelectric effect. An inversion of the PFM image contrast is obtained for frequencies higher than the resonance frequencies. The effect of a chemical surface treatment on the topography and the piezoresponse of the GaN films was also investigated. Textured surfaces with very small domains were observed after the chemical treatment. For this kind of surfaces, piezo-induced torsion rather than bending of the AFM cantilever dominates the contrast of the PFM images. A small memory effect was observed, and explained by surface charging and confinement of the piezoelectric effect within the carrier depletion region at the GaN surface

  10. Effects of Thickness of a Low-Temperature Buffer and Impurity Incorporation on the Characteristics of Nitrogen-polar GaN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fann-Wei; Chen, Yu-Yu; Feng, Shih-Wei; Sun, Qian; Han, Jung

    2016-12-01

    In this study, effects of the thickness of a low temperature (LT) buffer and impurity incorporation on the characteristics of Nitrogen (N)-polar GaN are investigated. By using either a nitridation or thermal annealing step before the deposition of a LT buffer, three N-polar GaN samples with different thicknesses of LT buffer and different impurity incorporations are prepared. It is found that the sample with the thinnest LT buffer and a nitridation step proves to be the best in terms of a fewer impurity incorporations, strong PL intensity, fast mobility, small biaxial strain, and smooth surface. As the temperature increases at ~10 K, the apparent donor-acceptor-pair band is responsible for the decreasing integral intensity of the band-to-band emission peak. In addition, the thermal annealing of the sapphire substrates may cause more impurity incorporation around the HT-GaN/LT-GaN/sapphire interfacial regions, which in turn may result in a lower carrier mobility, larger biaxial strain, larger bandgap shift, and stronger yellow luminescence. By using a nitridation step, both a thinner LT buffer and less impurity incorporation are beneficial to obtaining a high quality N-polar GaN.

  11. GaN growth on silane exposed AlN seed layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Zepeda, F. [Posgrado en Fisica de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Km. 107 Carret, Tijuana-Ensenada, C.P. 22860, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Contreras, O. [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condesada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 356, C.P. 22800, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Dadgar, A.; Krost, A. [Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, FNW-IEP, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The microstructure and surface morphology of GaN films grown on AlN seed layers exposed to silane flow has been studied by TEM and AFM. The epilayers were grown on silicon(111) substrates by MOCVD. The AlN seed layer surface was treated at different SiH{sub 4} exposure times prior to the growth of the GaN film. A reduction in the density of threading dislocations is observed in the GaN films and their surface roughness is minimized for an optimal SiH{sub 4} exposure time between 75-90 sec. At this optimal condition a step-flow growth mode of GaN film is predominant. The improvement of the surface and structure quality of the epilayers is observed to be related to an annihilation process of threading dislocations done by SiN{sub x} masking. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Microstructure of laterally overgrown GaN layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Cherns, David

    2001-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy study of plan-view and cross-section samples of epitaxial laterally overgrown (ELOG) GaN samples is described. Two types of dislocation with the same type of Burgers vector but different line direction have been observed. It is shown that threading edge dislocations bend to form dislocation segments in the c plane as a result of shear stresses developed in the wing material along the stripe direction. It is shown that migration of these dislocations involves both glide and climb. Propagation of threading parts over the wing area is an indication of high density of point defects present in the wing areas on the ELOG samples. This finding might shed light on the optical properties of such samples. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  13. Simulation study on single event burnout in linear doping buffer layer engineered power VDMOSFET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Yunpeng; Su Hongyuan; Hu Dongqing; Wu Yu; Jin Rui

    2016-01-01

    The addition of a buffer layer can improve the device's secondary breakdown voltage, thus, improving the single event burnout (SEB) threshold voltage. In this paper, an N type linear doping buffer layer is proposed. According to quasi-stationary avalanche simulation and heavy ion beam simulation, the results show that an optimized linear doping buffer layer is critical. As SEB is induced by heavy ions impacting, the electric field of an optimized linear doping buffer device is much lower than that with an optimized constant doping buffer layer at a given buffer layer thickness and the same biasing voltages. Secondary breakdown voltage and the parasitic bipolar turn-on current are much higher than those with the optimized constant doping buffer layer. So the linear buffer layer is more advantageous to improving the device's SEB performance. (paper)

  14. Enhanced optical output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on a silicon (111) substrate with a nanoporous GaN layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae; Chun, Jaeyi; Kim, Sang-Jo; Oh, Semi; Ha, Chang-Soo; Park, Jung-Won; Lee, Seung-Jae; Song, Jae-Chul; Baek, Jong Hyeob; Park, Seong-Ju

    2016-03-07

    We report the growth of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on a silicon (111) substrate with an embedded nanoporous (NP) GaN layer. The NP GaN layer is fabricated by electrochemical etching of n-type GaN on the silicon substrate. The crystalline quality of crack-free GaN grown on the NP GaN layer is remarkably improved and the residual tensile stress is also decreased. The optical output power is increased by 120% at an injection current of 20 mA compared with that of conventional LEDs without a NP GaN layer. The large enhancement of optical output power is attributed to the reduction of threading dislocation, effective scattering of light in the LED, and the suppression of light propagation into the silicon substrate by the NP GaN layer.

  15. Photo-induced wettability of TiO{sub 2} film with Au buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purkayastha, Debarun Dhar; Sangani, L. D. Varma; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Madhurima, V., E-mail: madhurima.v@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur-610004 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The effect of thickness of Au buffer layer (15-25 nm) between TiO{sub 2} film and substrate on the wettability of TiO{sub 2} films is reported. TiO{sub 2} films grown on Au buffer layer have a higher contact angle of 96-;100° as compared to 47.6o for the film grown without buffer layer. The transition from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity under UV irradiation occurs within 10 min. for the buffer layered films whereas it is almost 30 min. for the film grown without buffer layer. The enhanced photo induced hydrophilicity is shown to be surface energy driven.

  16. Growth optimization for thick crack-free GaN layers on sapphire with HVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, E.; Hennig, Ch.; Kissel, H.; Sonia, G.; Zeimer, U.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Conditions for optimized growth of thick GaN layers with crack-free surfaces by HVPE are reported. It was found that a 1:1 mixture of H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} as carrier gas leads to the lowest density of cracks in the surface. Crack formation also depends on the properties of the GaN/sapphire templates used. Best results have been obtained for 5 {mu}m thick GaN/sapphire templates grown by MOVPE with medium compressive strain {epsilon}{sub zz} of about 0.05%. But there is no simple dependence of the crack formation on the strain status of the starting layer indicating that the HVPE growth of GaN can itself introduce strong tensile strain. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Ion blocking and channeling studies of heteroepitaxial GaN layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flagmeyer, R.; Ehrlich, C.; Geist, V.; Otto, G.

    1978-01-01

    Ion channeling and blocking in backscattering measurements were used for the characterization of thin epitaxial GaN layers, which have varied lattice imperfections involved by different growth conditions. In particular, the following characteristics were examined: (1) the thickness and the uniformity of the layers, (2) the depth dependence of the crystalline imperfection, (3) the dislocation density, (4) the spread in the orientation distribution of tilted crystallites, and (5) some other types of imperfections, such as stacking faults, double positioning, twins and bending of the layer

  18. Effect of annealing on metastable shallow acceptors in Mg-doped GaN layers grown on GaN substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Pozina, Galia; Hemmingsson, Carl; Paskov, Plamen P.; Bergman, Peder; Monemar, Bo; Kawashima, T.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.; Usui, A.

    2008-01-01

    Mg-doped GaN layers grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on GaN substrates produced by the halide vapor phase technique demonstrate metastability of the near-band-gap photoluminescence (PL). The acceptor bound exciton (ABE) line possibly related to the C acceptor vanishes in as-grown samples within a few minutes under UV laser illumination. Annealing activates the more stable Mg acceptors and passivates C acceptors. Consequently, only the ABE line related to Mg is dominant in PL spectra...

  19. Epitaxial Single-Layer MoS2 on GaN with Enhanced Valley Helicity

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Yi

    2017-12-19

    Engineering the substrate of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides can couple the quasiparticle interaction between the 2D material and substrate, providing an additional route to realize conceptual quantum phenomena and novel device functionalities, such as realization of a 12-time increased valley spitting in single-layer WSe2 through the interfacial magnetic exchange field from a ferromagnetic EuS substrate, and band-to-band tunnel field-effect transistors with a subthreshold swing below 60 mV dec−1 at room temperature based on bilayer n-MoS2 and heavily doped p-germanium, etc. Here, it is demonstrated that epitaxially grown single-layer MoS2 on a lattice-matched GaN substrate, possessing a type-I band alignment, exhibits strong substrate-induced interactions. The phonons in GaN quickly dissipate the energy of photogenerated carriers through electron–phonon interaction, resulting in a short exciton lifetime in the MoS2/GaN heterostructure. This interaction enables an enhanced valley helicity at room temperature (0.33 ± 0.05) observed in both steady-state and time-resolved circularly polarized photoluminescence measurements. The findings highlight the importance of substrate engineering for modulating the intrinsic valley carriers in ultrathin 2D materials and potentially open new paths for valleytronics and valley-optoelectronic device applications.

  20. Polycrystalline GaN layer recrystallization by metal-induced method during the baking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagoda, A.; Stanczyk, B.; Dobrzanski, L.; Diduszko, R. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw 118 (Poland)

    2007-04-15

    Radio frequency reactive sputtering was used to produce gallium nitride films on thermally oxidized silicon substrates at room temperature. Metallic Ga (purity 6N) was used as the target, N{sub 2} and Ar were utilized as sputtering gases. Amorphous GaN was obtained by metal-induced crystallization with a Ni assistance. The nickel particles were scattered onto the surface by rf sputtering and their density was 2 x 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2} or 4 x 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2}, which corresponds to 0.02 nm and 0.04 nm thick layer. These values are less than a monolayer thickness, so they are not continuous. Samples were annealed at 700 C for 3 h and at 900 C for 5 min in a RTP furnace. The 2.5 {mu}m GaN layers grown on the Ni-coated SiO{sub 2} surface recrystallized during annealing forming crystals of (002) orientation. The catalytic regrowth mechanism of GaN is discussed on the basis of experimental results. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Epitaxial Single-Layer MoS2 on GaN with Enhanced Valley Helicity

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Yi; Xiao, Jun; Li, Jingzhen; Fang, Xin; Zhang, Kun; Fu, Lei; Li, Pan; Song, Zhigang; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yilun; Zhao, Mervin; Lu, Jing; Tang, Ning; Ran, Guangzhao; Zhang, Xiang; Ye, Yu; Dai, Lun

    2017-01-01

    Engineering the substrate of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides can couple the quasiparticle interaction between the 2D material and substrate, providing an additional route to realize conceptual quantum phenomena and novel device functionalities, such as realization of a 12-time increased valley spitting in single-layer WSe2 through the interfacial magnetic exchange field from a ferromagnetic EuS substrate, and band-to-band tunnel field-effect transistors with a subthreshold swing below 60 mV dec−1 at room temperature based on bilayer n-MoS2 and heavily doped p-germanium, etc. Here, it is demonstrated that epitaxially grown single-layer MoS2 on a lattice-matched GaN substrate, possessing a type-I band alignment, exhibits strong substrate-induced interactions. The phonons in GaN quickly dissipate the energy of photogenerated carriers through electron–phonon interaction, resulting in a short exciton lifetime in the MoS2/GaN heterostructure. This interaction enables an enhanced valley helicity at room temperature (0.33 ± 0.05) observed in both steady-state and time-resolved circularly polarized photoluminescence measurements. The findings highlight the importance of substrate engineering for modulating the intrinsic valley carriers in ultrathin 2D materials and potentially open new paths for valleytronics and valley-optoelectronic device applications.

  2. Suppression of the self-heating effect in GaN HEMT by few-layer graphene heat spreading elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volcheck, V. S.; Stempitsky, V. R.

    2017-11-01

    Self-heating has an adverse effect on characteristics of gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Various solutions to the problem have been proposed, however, a temperature rise due to dissipated electrical power still hinders the production of high power and high speed GaN devices. In this paper, thermal management of GaN HEMT via few-layer graphene (FLG) heat spreading elements is investigated. It is shown that integration of the FLG elements on top of the device structure considerably reduces the maximum temperature and improves the DC and small signal AC performance.

  3. Stacking and electric field effects in atomically thin layers of GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Dongwei; He, Haiying; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P

    2013-01-01

    Atomically thin layers of nitrides are a subject of interest due to their novel applications. In this paper, we focus on GaN multilayers, investigating their stability and the effects of stacking and electric fields on their electronic properties in the framework of density functional theory. Both bilayers and trilayers prefer a planar configuration rather than a buckled bulk-like configuration. The application of an external perpendicular electric field induces distinct stacking-dependent features in the electronic properties of nitride multilayers: the band gap of a monolayer does not change whereas that of a trilayer is significantly reduced. Such a stacking-dependent tunability of the band gap in the presence of an applied field suggests that multilayer GaN is a good candidate material for next generation devices at the nanoscale. (paper)

  4. Reducing interface recombination for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} by atomic layer deposited buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultqvist, Adam; Bent, Stacey F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Li, Jian V.; Kuciauskas, Darius; Dippo, Patricia; Contreras, Miguel A.; Levi, Dean H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Partial CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cell stacks with different atomic layer deposited buffer layers and pretreatments were analyzed by photoluminescence (PL) and capacitance voltage (CV) measurements to investigate the buffer layer/CIGS interface. Atomic layer deposited ZnS, ZnO, and SnO{sub x} buffer layers were compared with chemical bath deposited CdS buffer layers. Band bending, charge density, and interface state density were extracted from the CV measurement using an analysis technique new to CIGS. The surface recombination velocity calculated from the density of interface traps for a ZnS/CIGS stack shows a remarkably low value of 810 cm/s, approaching the range of single crystalline II–VI systems. Both the PL spectra and its lifetime depend on the buffer layer; thus, these measurements are not only sensitive to the absorber but also to the absorber/buffer layer system. Pretreatment of the CIGS prior to the buffer layer deposition plays a significant role on the electrical properties for the same buffer layer/CIGS stack, further illuminating the importance of good interface formation. Finally, ZnS is found to be the best performing buffer layer in this study, especially if the CIGS surface is pretreated with potassium cyanide.

  5. The effect of Cr buffer layer thickness on voltage generation of thin-film thermoelectric modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoshiri, Mizue; Mikami, Masashi; Ozaki, Kimihiro

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cr buffer layer thickness on the open-circuit voltage generated by thin-film thermoelectric modules of Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 (p-type) and Bi 2 Te 2.7 Se 0.3 (n-type) materials was investigated. A Cr buffer layer, whose thickness generally needs to be optimized to improve adhesion depending on the substrate surface condition, such as roughness, was deposited between thermoelectric thin films and glass substrates. When the Cr buffer layer was 1 nm thick, the Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivity of 1 µm thermoelectric thin films with the buffer layers were approximately equal to those of the thermoelectric films without the buffer layers. When the thickness of the Cr buffer layer was 1 µm, the same as the thermoelectric films, the Seebeck coefficients of the bilayer films were reduced by an electrical current flowing inside the Cr buffer layer and the generation of Cr 2 Te 3 . The open-circuit voltage of the thin-film thermoelectric modules decreased with an increase in the thickness of the Cr buffer layer, which was primarily induced by the electrical current flow. The reduction caused by the Cr 2 Te 3 generation was less than 10% of the total voltage generation of the modules without the Cr buffer layers. The voltage generation of thin-film thermoelectric modules could be controlled by the Cr buffer layer thickness. (paper)

  6. Stress engineering in GaN structures grown on Si(111) substrates by SiN masking layer application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymański, Tomasz, E-mail: tomasz.szymanski@pwr.edu.pl; Wośko, Mateusz; Paszkiewicz, Bogdan; Paszkiewicz, Regina [The Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wrocaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland); Drzik, Milan [International Laser Center, Ilkovicova 3, 841-04 Bratislava 4 (Slovakia)

    2015-07-15

    GaN layers without and with an in-situ SiN mask were grown by using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy for three different approaches used in GaN on silicon(111) growth, and the physical and optical properties of the GaN layers were studied. For each approach applied, GaN layers of 1.4 μm total thickness were grown, using silan SiH{sub 4} as Si source in order to grow Si{sub x}N{sub x} masking layer. The optical micrographs, scanning electron microscope images, and atomic force microscope images of the grown samples revealed cracks for samples without SiN mask, and micropits, which were characteristic for the samples grown with SiN mask. In situ reflectance signal traces were studied showing a decrease of layer coalescence time and higher degree of 3D growth mode for samples with SiN masking layer. Stress measurements were conducted by two methods—by recording micro-Raman spectra and ex-situ curvature radius measurement—additionally PLs spectra were obtained revealing blueshift of PL peak positions with increasing stress. The authors have shown that a SiN mask significantly improves physical and optical properties of GaN multilayer systems reducing stress in comparison to samples grown applying the same approaches but without SiN masking layer.

  7. Improved performance of GaN based light emitting diodes with ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo-Wei Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal quality, electrical and optical properties of GaN based light emitting diodes (LEDs with ex-situ sputtered physical vapor deposition (PVD aluminum nitride (AlN nucleation layers were investigated. It was found that the crystal quality in terms of defect density and x-ray diffraction linewidth was greatly improved in comparison to LEDs with in-situ low temperature GaN nucleation layer. The light output power was 3.7% increased and the reverse bias voltage of leakage current was twice on LEDs with ex-situ PVD AlN nucleation layers. However, larger compressive strain was discovered in LEDs with ex-situ PVD AlN nucleation layers. The study shows the potential and constrain in applying ex-situ PVD AlN nucleation layers to fabricate high quality GaN crystals in various optoelectronics.

  8. A new approach to epitaxially grow high-quality GaN films on Si substrates: the combination of MBE and PLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenliang; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Weijia; Zhu, Yunnong; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-04-22

    High-quality GaN epitaxial films have been grown on Si substrates with Al buffer layer by the combination of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technologies. MBE is used to grow Al buffer layer at first, and then PLD is deployed to grow GaN epitaxial films on the Al buffer layer. The surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown GaN epitaxial films on Si substrates are studied systematically. The as-grown ~300 nm-thick GaN epitaxial films grown at 850 °C with ~30 nm-thick Al buffer layer on Si substrates show high crystalline quality with the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for GaN(0002) and GaN(102) X-ray rocking curves of 0.45° and 0.61°, respectively; very flat GaN surface with the root-mean-square surface roughness of 2.5 nm; as well as the sharp and abrupt GaN/AlGaN/Al/Si hetero-interfaces. Furthermore, the corresponding growth mechanism of GaN epitaxial films grown on Si substrates with Al buffer layer by the combination of MBE and PLD is hence studied in depth. This work provides a novel and simple approach for the epitaxial growth of high-quality GaN epitaxial films on Si substrates.

  9. Dry etching of MgCaO gate dielectric and passivation layers on GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlad, M.; Voss, L.; Gila, B.P.; Abernathy, C.R.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.

    2006-01-01

    MgCaO films grown by rf plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and capped with Sc 2 O 3 are promising candidates as surface passivation layers and gate dielectrics on GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and metal-oxide semiconductor HEMTs (MOS-HEMTs), respectively. Two different plasma chemistries were examined for etching these thin films on GaN. Inductively coupled plasmas of CH 4 /H 2 /Ar produced etch rates only in the range 20-70 A/min, comparable to the Ar sputter rates under the same conditions. Similarly slow MgCaO etch rates (∼100 A/min) were obtained with Cl 2 /Ar discharges under the same conditions, but GaN showed rates almost an order of magnitude higher. The MgCaO removal rates are limited by the low volatilities of the respective etch products. The CH 4 /H 2 /Ar plasma chemistry produced a selectivity of around 2 for etching the MgCaO with respect to GaN

  10. Surface state of GaN after rapid-thermal-annealing using AlN cap-layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zammar, G., E-mail: georgio.elzammar@univ-tours.fr [Université François Rabelais, Tours, GREMAN, CNRS UMR 7347, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Khalfaoui, W. [Université François Rabelais, Tours, GREMAN, CNRS UMR 7347, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Oheix, T. [Université François Rabelais, Tours, GREMAN, CNRS UMR 7347, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); STMicroelectronics, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Yvon, A.; Collard, E. [STMicroelectronics, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Cayrel, F.; Alquier, D. [Université François Rabelais, Tours, GREMAN, CNRS UMR 7347, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Surface state of a crack-free AlN cap-layer reactive sputtered on GaN and annealed at high temperature showing a smooth, pit-free surface. - Highlights: • We deposit a crystalline AlN layer by reactive magnetron sputtering on GaN. • We show the effect of deposition parameters of AlN by reactive magnetron sputtering on the quality of the grown layer. • We demonstrate the efficiency of double cap-layer for GaN protection during high temperature thermal treatments. • We show an efficient selective etch of AlN without damaging GaN surface. - Abstract: Critical issues need to be overcome to produce high performance Schottky diodes on gallium nitride (GaN). To activate dopant, high temperature thermal treatments are required but damage GaN surface where hexagonal pits appear and prevent any device processing. In this paper, we investigated the efficiency of cap-layers on GaN during thermal treatments to avoid degradation. Aluminum nitride (AlN) and silicon oxide (SiO{sub x}) were grown on GaN by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, respectively. AlN growth parameters were studied to understand their effect on the grown layers and their protection efficiency. Focused ion beam was used to measure AlN layer thickness. Crystalline quality and exact composition were verified using X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Two types of rapid thermal annealing at high temperatures were investigated. Surface roughness and pits density were evaluated using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Cap-layers wet etching was processed in H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} at 120 °C for AlN and in HF (10%) for SiO{sub x}. This work reveals effective protection of GaN during thermal treatments at temperatures as high as 1150 °C. Low surface roughness was obtained. Furthermore, no hexagonal pit was observed on the surface.

  11. Electrical properties of cubic InN and GaN epitaxial layers as a function of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.R.L.; Chitta, V.A.; Abramof, E.

    2000-01-01

    Carrier concentration and mobility were measured for intrinsic cubic InN and GaN, and for Si-doped cubic GaN as a function of temperature. Metallic n-type conductivity was found for the InN, while background p-type conductivity was observed for the intrinsic GaN layer. Doping the cubic GaN with Si two regimes were observed. For low Si-doping concentrations, the samples remain p-type. Increasing the Si-doping level, the background acceptors are compensated and the samples became highly degenerated n-type. From the carrier concentration dependence on temperature, the activation energy of the donor and acceptor levels was determined. Attempts were made to determine the scattering mechanisms responsible for the behavior of the mobility as a function of temperature

  12. Excimer-laser-induced activation of Mg-doped GaN layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.-J.; Liu, W.-F.; Lee, C.-T.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the 248 nm excimer-laser-induced activation of the Mg-doped GaN layers. According to the observed photoluminescence results and the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, we found that the dissociation of the Mg-H complexes and the formation of hydrogenated Ga vacancies (i.e., V Ga H 2 ) and/or the Ga vacancies occupied by interstitial Mg during the laser irradiation process, led to an increase in the hole concentration

  13. Effect of a cathode buffer layer on the stability of organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Danbei; Zeng, Wenjin; Chen, Shilin; Su, Xiaodan; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    We present the effect of a cathode buffer layer on the performance and stability of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) based on a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Six kinds of cathode buffer layers, i.e. lithium fluoride, sodium chloride, NaCl/Mg, tris-(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminum, bathocuproine and 1,3,5-tris(2-N-phenylbenzimidazolyl)benzene, were inserted between the photoactive layer and an Al cathode, which played a dominant role in the device’s performance. Devices with the cathode buffer layers above exhibited improved performance. The degradation of these devices with encapsulation was further investigated in an inert atmosphere. The results indicated that devices with inorganic cathode buffer layers exhibited better stability than those with organic cathode buffer layers. (paper)

  14. Effect of the Ti-Nanolayer Thickness on the Self-Lift-off of Thick GaN Epitaxial Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugov, A. A.; Malahov, S. S.; Donskov, A. A.; Duhnovskii, M. P.; Knyazev, S. N.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Yugova, T. G.; Belogorokhov, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the type of substrate, sapphire substrate (c- and r-orientation) or GaN/Al_2O_3 template (c- and r-orientations), on the nitridation of an amorphous titanium nanolayer is shown. The effect of the titanium-nanolayer thickness on thick GaN epitaxial layer self-separation from the substrate is revealed. The titanium-nanolayer thickness at which thick GaN layer is reproducibly self-separated is within 20–40 nm.

  15. Numerical simulation of solar cells besed CZTS buffer layer (ZnO 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cds buffer layer has many advantages such as large bandgap, and the carrier density. Otherwise, the presence of cadmium is an inconvenient. Research work, are shifted on the possibility of replacing CdS by a buffer layer devoid of cadmium. This manuscript presents the numerical study, using SCAPS-1D program, the ...

  16. The origin of the residual conductivity of GaN films on ferroelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Cai, Zhuhua; Ziemer, Katherine; Doolittle, William Alan

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, the origin of the conductivity of GaN films grown on ferroelectric materials was investigated using XPS, AES, and XRD analysis tools. Depth profiles confirmed the existence of impurities in the GaN film originating from the substrates. Bonding energy analysis from XPS and AES verified that oxygen impurities from the substrates were the dominant origin of the conductivity of the GaN film. Furthermore, Ga-rich GaN films have a greater chance of enhancing diffusion of lithium oxide from the substrates, resulting in more substrate phase separation and a wider inter-mixed region confirmed by XRD. Therefore, the direct GaN film growth on ferroelectric materials causes impurity diffusion from the substrates, resulting in highly conductive GaN films. Future work needs to develop non-conductive buffer layers for impurity suppression in order to obtain highly resistive GaN films.

  17. Buffer layer investigations on MFIS capacitors consisting of ferroelectric poly[vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, K; Seime, B; Paloumpa, I; Mueller, K; Schmeisser, D

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present capacitance-voltage (CV) measurements on metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) capacitors with poly[vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene] (P[VDF/TrFE] as ferroelectric layer and SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and HfO 2 as buffering insulator layer. In order to discuss our data in a quantitative manner we perform fits to the data based on a model proposed by Miller and McWorther. The improvement of the polarization values and subsequently its effect on the hysteresis of the CV curve by the successive shrinking of the buffer layer thickness and the following choice of a high-k buffer material is demonstrated. Our data underline that a saturated polarization of P[VDF/TrFE] cannot be controlled with a SiO 2 buffer layer and the insertion of a high-k buffer layer is essential for further improvements of the characteristics of MFIS stacks.

  18. A novel GaN HEMT with double recessed barrier layer for high efficiency-energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hujun; Luo, Yehui; Wu, Qiuyuan; Yang, Yintang

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a novel GaN HEMT with high efficiency-energy characteristic is proposed. Different from the conventional structure, the proposed structure contains double recessed barriers layer (DRBL) beside the gate. The key idea in this work is to improve the microwave output characteristics. The simulated results show that the drain saturation current and peak transconductance of DRBL GaN HEMT is slightly decreased, the transconductance saturation flatness is increased by 0.5 V and the breakdown voltage is also enhanced too. Due to the both recessed barrier layer, the gate-drain/gate-source capacitance is decreased by 6.3% and 11.3%, respectively. The RF simulated results show that the maximum oscillation frequency for DRBL GaN HEMT is increased from 57 GHz to 64 GHz and the saturation power density is 8.7 W/mm at 600 MHz, 6.9 W/mm at 1200 MHz with the higher power added efficiency (PAE). Further investigation show that DRBL GaN HEMT can achieve to 6.4 W/mm and the maximum PAE 83.8% at 2400 MHz. Both are higher than the 5.0 W/mm and 80.3% for the conventional structure. When the operating frequency increases to X band, the DRBL GaN HEMT still exhibits the superior output performances. All the results show that the advantages and the potential capacities of DRBL GaN HEMT at high efficiency-energy are greater than the conventional GaN HEMT.

  19. Simulation study on single event burnout in linear doping buffer layer engineered power VDMOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunpeng, Jia; Hongyuan, Su; Rui, Jin; Dongqing, Hu; Yu, Wu

    2016-02-01

    The addition of a buffer layer can improve the device's secondary breakdown voltage, thus, improving the single event burnout (SEB) threshold voltage. In this paper, an N type linear doping buffer layer is proposed. According to quasi-stationary avalanche simulation and heavy ion beam simulation, the results show that an optimized linear doping buffer layer is critical. As SEB is induced by heavy ions impacting, the electric field of an optimized linear doping buffer device is much lower than that with an optimized constant doping buffer layer at a given buffer layer thickness and the same biasing voltages. Secondary breakdown voltage and the parasitic bipolar turn-on current are much higher than those with the optimized constant doping buffer layer. So the linear buffer layer is more advantageous to improving the device's SEB performance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61176071), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (No. 20111103120016), and the Science and Technology Program of State Grid Corporation of China (No. SGRI-WD-71-13-006).

  20. Integration of epitaxial Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} films on GaN/AlGaN/GaN/Si(111) substrates using rutile TiO{sub 2} buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elibol, K. [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Nguyen, M.D. [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); SolMateS B.V., Drienerlolaan 5, Building 6, 7522NB Enschede (Netherlands); International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet road, Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Hueting, R.J.E. [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Gravesteijn, D.J. [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); NXP Semiconductors Research, High Tech Campus 46, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Koster, G., E-mail: g.koster@utwente.nl [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Rijnders, G. [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-09-30

    The integration of ferroelectric layers on gallium nitride (GaN) offers a great potential for various applications. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT), in particular Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3}, is an interesting candidate. For that a suitable buffer layer should be grown on GaN in order to prevent the reaction between PZT and GaN, and to obtain PZT with a preferred orientation and phase. Here, we study pulsed laser deposited (100) rutile titanium oxide (R-TiO{sub 2}) as a potential buffer layer candidate for ferroelectric PZT. For this purpose, the growth, morphology and the surface chemical composition of R-TiO{sub 2} films were analyzed by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find optimally (100) oriented R-TiO{sub 2} growth on GaN (0002) using a 675 °C growth temperature and 2 Pa O{sub 2} deposition pressure as process conditions. More importantly, the R-TiO{sub 2} buffer layer grown on GaN/Si substrates prevents the unwanted formation of the PZT pyrochlore phase. Finally, the remnant polarization and coercive voltage of the PZT film on TiO{sub 2}/GaN/Si with an interdigitated-electrode structure were found to be 25.6 μC/cm{sup 2} and 8.1 V, respectively. - Highlights: • Epitaxial rutile TiO{sub 2} films were grown on GaN layer buffered Si substrate using pulsed laser deposition. • The rutile-TiO{sub 2} layer suppresses the formation of the pyrochlore phase in the epitaxial PZT film grown on GaN/Si. • An epitaxial PZT film on GaN/Si substrate with rutile TiO{sub 2} buffer layer exhibits good ferroelectric properties.

  1. Buffer layer annealing effects on the magnetization reversal process in Pd/Co/Pd systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassatoui, A.; Belhi, R.; Vogel, J.; Abdelmoula, K.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of annealing the buffer layer on the magnetization reversal behavior in Pd/Co/Pd thin films using magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. It was found that annealing the buffer layer at 150 °C for 1 h decreases the coercivity and increases the saturation magnetization and the effective magnetic anisotropy constant. This study also shows that the annealing induces a change of the magnetization reversal from a mixed nucleation and domain wall propagation process to one dominated by domain wall propagation. This result demonstrates that the main effect of annealing the buffer layer is to decrease the domain wall pinning in the Co layer, favoring the domain wall propagation mode. - Highlights: • The buffer layer surface morphology changes upon annealing of the buffer layer. • The coercivity decreases while the saturation magnetization and the effective anisotropy increase with the annealing of the buffer layer. • The reversal process changes from a mixed nucleation and domain wall propagation process to one dominated by domain wall propagation when annealing the buffer layer.

  2. Crystallinity Improvement of Zn O Thin Film on Different Buffer Layers Grown by MBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao-Ying, T.; Che-Hao, L.; Wen-Ming, Ch.; Yang, C.C.; Po-Ju, Ch.; Hsiang-Chen, W.; Ya-Ping, H.

    2012-01-01

    The material and optical properties of Zn O thin film samples grown on different buffer layers on sapphire substrates through a two-step temperature variation growth by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The thin buffer layer between the Zn O layer and the sapphire substrate decreased the lattice mismatch to achieve higher quality Zn O thin film growth. A Ga N buffer layer slightly increased the quality of the Zn O thin film, but the threading dislocations still stretched along the c-axis of the Ga N layer. The use of Mg O as the buffer layer decreased the surface roughness of the Zn O thin film by 58.8% due to the suppression of surface cracks through strain transfer of the sample. From deep level emission and rocking curve measurements it was found that the threading dislocations play a more important role than oxygen vacancies for high-quality Zn O thin film growth.

  3. Impact of the AlN seeding layer thickness on GaN orientation on high index Si-substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravash, Roghaiyeh; Blaesing, Juergen; Veit, Peter; Hempel, Thomas; Dadgar, Armin; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Germany). FNW/IEP/AHE

    2010-07-01

    Silicon is considered to be a reasonable alternative to substrates such as sapphire and SiC, because of its low price and availability in large diameters. Because of spontaneous and strain induced piezoelectric polarization field along the c-axis, leading to the separation of electrons and holes in quantum wells reducing the recombination efficiency, c-axis oriented GaN-based light emitters have a low efficiency, especially in the longer wavelength region. In order to reduce or eliminate these polarization effects, semi-polar or non-polar GaN-heterostructure is favored. In this work we investigated the growth of GaN applying a low temperature AlN seeding layer with various thicknesses. The impact of the AlN seeding layer on GaN orientation using different Si substrate orientations (e. g. (211), (711), (410), (100)+4.5 off) were investigated by x-ray diffraction measurements in Bragg-Brentano geometry and X-ray pole figure measurements. We found that the thickness of the AlN seeding layer plays a significant role in obtaining different GaN textures. Applying a about 4 nm AlN seeding layer we achieved a single crystalline GaN epilayer on Si (211) with a 18 tilted c-axis orientation. Some of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  4. Electron density and currents of AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with thin GaN/AlN buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairamis, A.; Zervos, Ch.; Georgakilas, A.; Adikimenakis, A.; Kostopoulos, A.; Kayambaki, M.; Tsagaraki, K.; Konstantinidis, G.

    2014-01-01

    AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures with thin GaN/AlN buffer layer have been analyzed theoretically and experimentally, and the effects of the AlN barrier and GaN buffer layer thicknesses on two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density and transport properties have been evaluated. HEMT structures consisting of [300 nm GaN/ 200 nm AlN] buffer layer on sapphire were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and exhibited a remarkable agreement with the theoretical calculations, suggesting a negligible influence of the crystalline defects that increase near the heteroepitaxial interface. The 2DEG density varied from 6.8 × 10 12 to 2.1 × 10 13 cm −2 as the AlN barrier thickness increased from 2.2 to 4.5 nm, while a 4.5 nm AlN barrier would result to 3.1 × 10 13 cm −2 on a GaN buffer layer. The 3.0 nm AlN barrier structure exhibited the highest 2DEG mobility of 900 cm 2 /Vs for a density of 1.3 × 10 13 cm −2 . The results were also confirmed by the performance of 1 μm gate-length transistors. The scaling of AlN barrier thickness from 1.5 nm to 4.5 nm could modify the drain-source saturation current, for zero gate-source voltage, from zero (normally off condition) to 0.63 A/mm. The maximum drain-source current was 1.1 A/mm for AlN barrier thickness of 3.0 nm and 3.7 nm, and the maximum extrinsic transconductance was 320 mS/mm for 3.0 nm AlN barrier.

  5. Electron density and currents of AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with thin GaN/AlN buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bairamis, A.; Zervos, Ch.; Georgakilas, A., E-mail: alexandr@physics.uoc.gr [Microelectronics Research Group, IESL, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1385, GR-71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Adikimenakis, A.; Kostopoulos, A.; Kayambaki, M.; Tsagaraki, K.; Konstantinidis, G. [Microelectronics Research Group, IESL, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1385, GR-71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2014-09-15

    AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures with thin GaN/AlN buffer layer have been analyzed theoretically and experimentally, and the effects of the AlN barrier and GaN buffer layer thicknesses on two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density and transport properties have been evaluated. HEMT structures consisting of [300 nm GaN/ 200 nm AlN] buffer layer on sapphire were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and exhibited a remarkable agreement with the theoretical calculations, suggesting a negligible influence of the crystalline defects that increase near the heteroepitaxial interface. The 2DEG density varied from 6.8 × 10{sup 12} to 2.1 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} as the AlN barrier thickness increased from 2.2 to 4.5 nm, while a 4.5 nm AlN barrier would result to 3.1 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} on a GaN buffer layer. The 3.0 nm AlN barrier structure exhibited the highest 2DEG mobility of 900 cm{sup 2}/Vs for a density of 1.3 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}. The results were also confirmed by the performance of 1 μm gate-length transistors. The scaling of AlN barrier thickness from 1.5 nm to 4.5 nm could modify the drain-source saturation current, for zero gate-source voltage, from zero (normally off condition) to 0.63 A/mm. The maximum drain-source current was 1.1 A/mm for AlN barrier thickness of 3.0 nm and 3.7 nm, and the maximum extrinsic transconductance was 320 mS/mm for 3.0 nm AlN barrier.

  6. Effects of Anodic Buffer Layer in Top-Illuminated Organic Solar Cell with Silver Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien-Lung Chiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient ITO-free top-illuminated organic photovoltaic (TOPV based on small molecular planar heterojunction was achieved by spinning a buffer layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS, on the Ag-AgOx anode. The PEDOT:PSS thin film separates the active layer far from the Ag anode to prevent metal quenching and redistributes the strong internal optical field toward dissociated interface. The thickness and morphology of this anodic buffer layer are the key factors in determining device performances. The uniform buffer layer contributes a large short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage, benefiting the final power conversion efficiency (PCE. The TOPV device with an optimal PEDOT:PSS thickness of about 30 nm on Ag-AgOx anode exhibits the maximum PCE of 1.49%. It appreciates a 1.37-fold enhancement in PCE over that of TOPV device without buffer layer.

  7. Electronic and optical device applications of hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolat, Sami; Tekcan, Burak; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, namely, thin film transistors (TFTs) and metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) photodetectors, based on GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) are demonstrated. Resistivity of GaN thin films and metal-GaN contact resistance are investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Effect of the plasma gas and postmetallization annealing on the performances of the TFTs as well as the effect of the annealing on the performance of MSM photodetectors are studied. Dark current to voltage and responsivity behavior of MSM devices are investigated as well. TFTs with the N 2 /H 2 PA-ALD based GaN channels are observed to have improved stability and transfer characteristics with respect to NH 3 PA-ALD based transistors. Dark current of the MSM photodetectors is suppressed strongly after high-temperature annealing in N 2 :H 2 ambient

  8. Thermal resistance of buffer layer in a ceramic wall of MHD generation channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Osami; Ebata, Yoshihiro; Hijikata, Kenichi.

    1982-01-01

    A wal l model is composed for obtaining the thermal resistance of the buffer layer. A buffer layer of the model is consisted to an adhesive layer and a buffer body. The adhesive layer is made of a copper plate, which is 0.3 mm thick, and adhered to the element by Refractory Method. The adhesive layer is consisted to three layers, i.e., Cu, Cu 2 O and CuO. These three layers seems to give rise to the thermal resistance. The buffer body is made of nickel wires of which radious is 0.4 mm and purity is 99.7%. All of the nickel wires are assembled in one direction which is parallel to a center line of the element, and bundled all together. Occupation ratio of nickel is about 78% in a sectional area of the buffer body. One end of the buffer body is soldered to adhesive layer by silver solder and opposite and is soldered to holder by lead solder. An element of the model is made of magnesia ceramics of which purity is about 99.9% and porosity is about 3%. A holder of the model is made of copper block. Results are as follows: (1) Thermal resistance of the buffer layer is from 1.9 to 2.5K/(W/cm 2 ). (2) Thermal resistance of the adhesive layer is from 0.43 to 0.87K/(W/cm 2 ). (3) Thermal resistance of the buffer body is calculated to about 0.7K/(W/cm 2 ) under the estimation at which the heat flows in the nickel wires only. (4) From above results, thermal resistance of silver soldering layer seems to be same as that of the adhesive layers. The buffer layer needs more value of the thermal resistance in order to apply to the MHD generation channel. Value of the thermal resistance is easily satisfied by changing of material of the buffer body, increase of thickness of the buffer layer and etc. Then this wall appears to be useful to an MHD generation channel wall. (author)

  9. Effect of Al/N ratio during nucleation layer growth on Hall mobility and buffer leakage of molecular-beam epitaxy grown AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, D.F.; Katzer, D.S.; Binari, S.C.; Shanabrook, B.V.; Zhou Lin; Smith, David J.

    2004-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures have been grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on semi-insulating 4H-SiC utilizing an AlN nucleation layer. The electron Hall mobility of these structures increases from 1050 cm 2 /V s to greater than 1450 cm 2 /V s when the Al/N flux ratio during the growth of the nucleation layer is increased from 0.90 to 1.07. Buffer leakage currents increase abruptly by nearly three orders of magnitude when the Al/N ratio increases from below to above unity. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that high buffer leakage is correlated with the presence of stacking faults in the nucleation layer and cubic phase GaN in the buffer, while low mobilities are correlated with high dislocation densities

  10. Optical and magnetic resonance studies of Mg-doped GaN homoepitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, E.R.; Murthy, M.; Freitas, J.A.; Storm, D.F.; Zhou, L.; Smith, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) at 24 GHz have been performed on a series of MBE-grown Mg-doped (10 17 -10 20 cm -3 ) GaN homoepitaxial layers. High-resolution PL at 5 K revealed intense bandedge emission with narrow linewidths (0.2-0.4 meV) attributed to annihilation of excitons bound to shallow Mg acceptors. In contrast to many previous reports for GaN heteroepitaxial layers doped with [Mg]>3x10 18 cm -3 , the only visible PL observed was strong shallow donor-shallow acceptor recombination with zero phonon line at 3.27 eV. Most notably, ODMR on this emission from a sample doped with [Mg] of 1x10 17 cm -3 revealed the first evidence for the highly anisotropic g-tensor (g parallel ∼2.19, g perpendicular ∼0) expected for Mg shallow acceptors in wurtzite GaN. This result is attributed to the much reduced dislocation densities (≤5x10 6 cm -3 ) and Mg impurity concentrations compared to those characteristic of the more conventional investigated Mg-doped GaN heteroepitaxial layers

  11. Formation of definite GaN p-n junction by Mg-ion implantation to n--GaN epitaxial layers grown on a high-quality free-standing GaN substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Takuya; Saijo, Yusuke; Kato, Shigeki; Mishima, Tomoyoshi; Nakamura, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    P-type conversion of n--GaN by Mg-ion implantation was successfully performed using high quality GaN epitaxial layers grown on free-standing low-dislocation-density GaN substrates. These samples showed low-temperature PL spectra quite similar to those observed from Mg-doped MOVPE-grown p-type GaN, consisting of Mg related donor-acceptor pair (DAP) and acceptor bound exciton (ABE) emission. P-n diodes fabricated by the Mg-ion implantation showed clear rectifying I-V characteristics and UV and blue light emissions were observed at forward biased conditions for the first time.

  12. Insulating gallium oxide layer produced by thermal oxidation of gallium-polar GaN: Insulating gallium oxide layer produced by thermal oxidation of gallium-polar GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, T. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Wei, D. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Nepal, N. [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States); Garces, N. Y. [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States); Hite, J. K. [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States); Meyer, H. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eddy, C. R. [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States); Baker, Troy [Nitride Solutions, Wichita, KS (United States); Mayo, Ashley [Nitride Solutions, Wichita, KS (United States); Schmitt, Jason [Nitride Solutions, Wichita, KS (United States); Edgar, J. H. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2014-02-24

    We report the benefits of dry oxidation of n -GaN for the fabrication of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures. GaN thin films grown on sapphire by MOCVD were thermally oxidized for 30, 45 and 60 minutes in a pure oxygen atmosphere at 850 °C to produce thin, smooth GaOx layers. Moreover, the GaN sample oxidized for 30 minutes had the best properties. Its surface roughness (0.595 nm) as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was the lowest. Capacitance-voltage measurements showed it had the best saturation in accumulation region and the sharpest transition from accumulation to depletion regions. Under gate voltage sweep, capacitance-voltage hysteresis was completely absent. The interface trap density was minimum (Dit = 2.75×1010 cm–2eV–1) for sample oxidized for 30 mins. These results demonstrate a high quality GaOx layer is beneficial for GaN MOSFETs.

  13. Development of Buffer Layer Technologies for LWIR and VLWIR HgCdTe Integration on Si

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golding, Terry D

    2005-01-01

    This program proposed to develop manufacturable, cost-effective buffer layer technologies that would allow either hybrid or monolithic integration of LWIR and VLWIR HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays...

  14. Synthesis and microstructural characterization of growth direction controlled ZnO nanorods using a buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Dong Chan; Lee, Jeong Yong; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2006-01-01

    The growth direction and morphology of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) were modulated by changing the growth temperature of previously deposited ZnO buffer layers that were used as a template. The ZnO nanorods grown on the low-temperature deposited buffer layer were regularly inclined with respect to the substrate surface and show in-plane alignment with azimuthally six-fold symmetry. In contrast, deposition of the buffer layer at higher growth temperature led to the formation of vertically well-aligned ZnO nanorods. In addition, the ZnO nanorods grown on the buffer layer deposited at low growth temperature show a growth direction of [1 0 1-bar 0], unlike the conventional ZnO nanorods showing a growth direction of [0001]. The microstructural analysis and atomic modelling of the formation of regularly inclined nanorods using transmission electron microscopy are presented

  15. Impacts of oxidants in atomic layer deposition method on Al2O3/GaN interface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Noriyuki; Kubo, Toshiharu; Yamada, Toshikazu; Egawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Mitsuaki

    2018-01-01

    The electrical interface properties of GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with an Al2O3 gate insulator formed by atomic layer deposition method using three kinds of oxidants were investigated by the capacitance-voltage technique, Terman method, and conductance method. We found that O3 and the alternate supply of H2O and O3 (AS-HO) are effective for reducing the interface trap density (D it) at the energy range of 0.15 to 0.30 eV taking from the conduction band minimum. On the other hand, we found that surface potential fluctuation (σs) induced by interface charges for the AS-HO oxidant is much larger than that for a Si MOS capacitor with a SiO2 layer formed by chemical vapor deposition despite the small D it values for the AS-HO oxidant compared with the Si MOS capacitor. This means that the total charged center density including the fixed charge density, charged slow trap density, and charged interface trap density for the GaN MOS capacitor is higher than that for the Si MOS capacitor. Therefore, σs has to be reduced to improve the performances and reliability of GaN devices with the Al2O3/GaN interfaces.

  16. Growth of GaN layers using Ga2O vapor obtained from Ga and H2O vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Tomoaki; Taniyama, Yuuki; Takatsu, Hiroaki; Juta, Masami; Kitamoto, Akira; Imade, Mamoru; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke; Isemura, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we performed growth of GaN layers using Ga 2 O vapor synthesized from Ga and H 2 O vapor. In this process, we employed H 2 O vapor instead of HCl gas in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) to synthesize Ga source gas. In the synthesis reaction of Ga 2 O, a Ga 2 O 3 whisker formed and covered Ga, which impeded the synthesis reaction of Ga 2 O. The formation of the Ga 2 O 3 whisker was suppressed in H 2 ambient at high temperatures. Then, we adopted this process to supply a group III precursor and obtained an epitaxial layer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement revealed that the epitaxial layer was single-crystalline GaN. Growth rate increased linearly with Ga 2 O partial pressure and reached 104 µm/h. (author)

  17. Analysis of influence of buffer layers on microwave propagation through high-temperature superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceremuga, J.; Barton, M.; Miranda, F.

    1994-01-01

    Methods of analysis of microwave propagation through superconducting thin films with buffer layers on dielectric substrates have been discussed. Expressions describing the transmission coefficient S 21 through the structure and the complex conductivity sigma of a superconductor in an analytical form have been derived. The derived equations are valid for microwave propagation in waveguides as well as in free space with relevant definition of impedances. Using the obtained solutions, the influences of buffer layers' parameters (thickness, relative permittivity and loss tangent) on the transmission coefficient has been investigated using MATLAB. Simulations have been performed for 10 GHz transmission through YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films on sapphire with SrTiO 3 and CeO 2 buffer layers and on silicon with CaF 2 and YSZ buffer layers. To illustrate the simulations, measurements of the transmission through YBCO film on sapphire with SrTiO 3 buffer layer have been performed. It has been shown that even lossy buffer layers have very little impact (smaller than 1% in magnitude and 0.3% in phase) on the transmission coefficient through superconducting thin films, providing their thickness is below 10 mu m. (author)

  18. Selective Excitation of Window and Buffer Layers in Chalcopyrite Devices and Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glynn, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burst, James M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beall, Carolyn L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bowers, Karen A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mansfield, Lorelle M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Window and buffer layers in chalcopyrite devices are well known to affect junctions, conduction, and photo-absorption properties of the device. Some of these layers, particularly 'buffers,' which are deposited directly on top of the absorber, exhibit metastable effects upon exposure to light. Thus, to understand device performance and/or metastability, it is sometimes desirable to selectively excite different layers in the device stack. Absorption characteristics of various window and buffer layers used in chalcopyrite devices are measured. These characteristics are compared with emission spectra of common and available light sources that might be used to optically excite such layers. Effects of the window and buffer absorption on device quantum efficiency and metastability are discussed. For the case of bath-deposited Zn(O,S) buffers, we conclude that this layer is not optically excited in research devices or modules. This provides a complimentary mechanism to the chemical differences that may cause long time constants (compared to devices with CdS buffers) associated with reaching a stable 'light-soaked' state.

  19. Optical losses in p-type layers of GaN ridge waveguides in the IR region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Ohad; Katz, Moti; Atar, Gil; Paltiel, Yossi; Sicron, Noam

    2017-07-01

    Optical losses in c-plane (0001) GaN ridge waveguides, containing Mg-doped layers, were measured at 1064 nm, using the Fabry-Perot method. The losses increase linearly with the modal content of the p-layer, indicating that the absorption in these waveguides is dominated by p-layer absorption. The p-layer absorption is strongly anisotropic with E⊥c losses 4 times higher than E∥c. The absorption is temperature independent between 10 °C and 60 °C, supporting the possibility that it is related to Mg-bound holes.

  20. Article with buffer layer and method of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamy, James W.; Ma, Zhixun; Kabagambe, Benjamin; Koram, Kwaku K.; Hung, Cheng-Hung; Nelis, Gary J.

    2017-11-14

    A method of forming a coating layer on a glass substrate in a glass manufacturing process includes: providing a first coating precursor material for a selected coating layer composition to at least one multislot coater to form a first coating region of the selected coating layer; and providing a second coating precursor material for the selected coating layer composition to the multislot coater to form a second coating region of the selected coating layer over the first region. The first coating precursor material is different than the second precursor coating material.

  1. Hybrid solar cells based on CuInS2 and organic buffer-sensitizer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereznev, S.; Koeppe, R.; Konovalov, I.; Kois, J.; Guenes, S.; Opik, A.; Mellikov, E.; Sariciftci, N.S.

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid solar cells on the basis of CuInS 2 (CIS) photoabsorber on Cu-tape (CISCuT) in combination with organic buffer layers of Zn-phthalocyanine (ZnPc), ZnPc:fullerene (ZnPc:C 60 ) composite and conductive polymer buffer layers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) were prepared using vacuum evaporation and spin-casting techniques. To prepare solar cells with an active area of 2 cm 2 , the appropriate deposition parameters and thickness of ZnPc, ZnPc:C 60 and PEDOT-PSS layers were selected experimentally. For preparation of semitransparent contact-window layers, chromium and gold were evaporated on the surface of ZnPc, ZnPc:C 60 and PEDOT-PSS films. It was found that an intermediate chromium layer improves PV properties of the structures with organic buffer layers. The photosensitivity at small illumination intensities of complete structures with ZnPc and ZnPc:C 60 layers increased more than one order of magnitude in comparison with the structures where the PEDOT-PSS buffer layer was deposited. The presence of C 60 in the composite-buffer layer results in increased photoconductivity. The best structure with composite ZnPc:C 60 buffer layer showed an open-circuit voltage of 560 mV, a short-circuit current density of around 10 mA/cm 2 and a photoconversion efficiency of around 3.3% under the light illumination with an intensity of 100 mW/cm 2 from a tungsten-halogen lamp. The low transmission of the semitransparent chromium-gold window layer is the reason for relatively low current density

  2. Control of strain in GaN by a combination of H2 and N2 carrier gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Kariya, Michihiko; Kosaki, Masayoshi; Yukawa, Yohei; Nitta, Shugo; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2001-01-01

    We study the effect of a combination of N 2 and H 2 carrier gases on the residual strain and crystalline properties of GaN, and we propose its application to the improvement of crystalline quality of GaN/Al 0.17 Ga 0.83 N multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. GaN was grown with H 2 or N 2 carrier gas (H 2 - or N 2 - GaN) on an AlN low-temperature-deposited buffer layer. A (0001) sapphire substrate was used. N 2 - GaN was grown on H 2 - GaN. The total thickness was set to be 1.5 μm, and the ratio of N 2 - GaN thickness to the total thickness, x, ranged from 0 to 1. With increasing x, the tensile stress in GaN increased. Photoluminescence intensity at room temperature was much enhanced. Moreover, the crystalline quality of GaN/Al 0.17 Ga 0.83 N MQW was much higher when the MQW was grown with N 2 on H 2 - GaN than when it was grown with H 2 on H 2 - GaN. These results were due to the achievement of control of strain in GaN using a combination of N 2 - GaN and H 2 - GaN. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  3. P-type surface effects for thickness variation of 2um and 4um of n-type layer in GaN LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, N. S. A. Abdul; Wahid, M. H. A.; Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Rashid, S.; Ramli, M. M.; Shahimin, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    The internal quantum efficiency of III-Nitrides group, GaN light-emitting diode (LED) has been considerably limited due to the insufficient hole injection and this is caused by the lack of performance p-type doping and low hole mobility. The low hole mobility makes the hole less energetic, thus reduced the performance operation of GaN LED itself. The internal quantum efficiency of GaN-based LED with surface roughness (texture) can be changed by texture size, density, and thickness of GaN film or by the combined effects of surface shape and thickness of GaN film. Besides, due to lack of p-type GaN, attempts to look forward the potential of GaN LED relied on the thickness of n-type layer and surface shape of p-type GaN layer. This work investigates the characteristics of GaN LED with undoped n-GaN layer of different thickness and the surface shape of p-type layer. The LEDs performance is significantly altered by modifying the thickness and shape. Enhancement of n-GaN layer has led to the annihilation of electrical conductivity of the chip. Different surface geometry governs the emission rate extensively. Internal quantum efficiency is also predominantly affected by the geometry of n-GaN layer which subjected to the current spreading. It is recorded that the IQE droop can be minimized by varying the thickness of the active layer without amplifying the forward voltage. Optimum forward voltage (I-V), total emission rate relationship with the injected current and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) for 2,4 µm on four different surfaces of p-type layer are also reported in this paper.

  4. In situ variations of the scintillation characteristics in GaN and CdS layers under irradiation by 1.6 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaubas, E., E-mail: eugenijus.gaubas@ff.vu.lt; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.; Tekorius, A.

    2015-12-15

    Evolution of the non-radiative and radiative recombination in GaN and CdS 2.5–20 μm thick layers has been examined by the in situ measurements of the 1.6 MeV proton induced luminescence and laser excited photoconductivity characteristics. The introduction rate of radiation defects has been evaluated by the comparative analysis of the laser and proton beam induced luminescence for the examined GaN and CdS layers.

  5. Buffer layers grown by replicating the texture of an original template tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sunme; Yoo, Jaeun; Park, Chan; Youm, Dojun

    2007-01-01

    We propose a fabrication method of the buffer layers, whose biaxial textures are replicated from an original template tape. The purpose of this method is economical texturing process for coated conductors. At first we prepared a biaxially textured metal tape (TM-tape). Then a sacrifice layer (SA), a buffer layer (BU) and a thick metallic layer (SM) were sequentially deposited on the TM-tape. SA-layer and BU-layer were deposited epitaxially to copy the texture of the TM-tape. SA-layer was dissoluble in water. SM-layer with the textured BU-layer was separated and could be used for a supporting tape for the further growth of a superconducting layer. In this way, it is possible to reuse the original textured TM-tape many times. In this paper, we report the results of our experiments, in which we used a biaxially Ni tape, BaO film, STO film, and a thick Ag film for TM-tape, SA-layer, BU-layer, and SM-layer, respectively. The Ag/STO layers were successfully separated form the Ni tape by dissolving the BaO layer in water. The texture quality of the STO layer was well secured after the separation

  6. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance

  7. Dependence of Magnetic Properties of Co/Pt Multilayers on Deposition Temperature of Pt Buffer Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tomotaka; Kobayashi, Tadashi; Masuda, Morio

    1993-04-01

    A 15-nm-thick Pt buffer layer was deposited on a glass slide at temperature Ts(Ptbuf) ranging from 30 to 300°C by e-gun evaporation. Following the cooling in vacuum to ambient temperature, Co and Pt layers have been alternately deposited on it. Very large perpendicular anisotropy and coercivity have been obtained at Ts(Ptbuf) higher than 200°C. The (111) preferred orientation of the Co/Pt multilayer as well as the Pt buffer layer became more pronounced with elevating Ts(Ptbuf), to which the enhancement of perpendicular anisotropy with elevating Ts(Ptbuf) might be ascribable.

  8. Simulation studies on the effect of a buffer layer on the external ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    parameters of hydrogenated amorphous silicon p–i–n solar cells ... of a buffer layer in between the p- and i-layers of the p–i–n solar cell on the external parameters such as dark .... H 1988 Photovoltaic specialist conference, in Conference re-.

  9. Dependence of magnetic properties on different buffer layers of Mn3.5Ga thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Sato, K.; Shima, T.; Doi, M.

    2018-05-01

    D022-Mn3.5Ga thin films were prepared on MgO (100) single crystalline substrates with different buffer layer (Cr, Fe, Cr/Pt and Cr/Au) using an ultra-high-vacuum electron beam vapor deposition system. From XRD patterns, a fundamental (004) peak has clearly observed for all samples. The relatively low saturation magnetization (Ms) of 178 emu/cm3, high magnetic anisotropy (Ku) of 9.1 Merg/cm3 and low surface roughness (Ra) of 0.30 nm were obtained by D022-Mn3.5Ga film (20 nm) on Cr/Pt buffer layer at Ts = 300 °C, Ta = 400 °C (3h). These findings suggest that MnGa film on Cr/Pt buffer layer is a promising PMA layer for future spin electronics devices.

  10. Improving the Efficiency Enhancement of Photonic Crystal Based InGaN Solar Cell by Using a GaN Cap Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Gundogdu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a high indium content (0.8 InGaN based solar cell design where the active InGaN layer is sandwiched between a GaN cap layer and a GaN spacer layer. The incorporation of the sacrificial cap layer allows for the etching of the front surface without removing the active InGaN resulting in a 50% enhancement of the short-circuit current density for a 15 nm-thick InGaN layer.

  11. Study of shallow trench isolation technology with a poly-Si sidewall buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juang, M H; Chen, C L; Jang, S L

    2008-01-01

    Shallow trench isolation (STI) technology with a poly-Si buffer layer at the trench sidewall has been studied. At the densification temperature of 950 °C, for the samples without using a poly-Si buffer layer, the resulting junction shows a leakage of about 700 nA cm −2 for a diode area of 100 × 100 µm 2 , primarily due to large peripheral junction leakage. The large leakage is ascribed to the defect generation caused by a thermally induced stress near the trench sidewall. The usage of a poly-Si buffer layer in the trench sidewall is found to significantly improve the junction characteristics. As a result, when a 40 nm poly-Si buffer layer is sandwiched between the Si substrate and the trench-fill silicon oxide, the resultant junctions show a leakage of only about 8 nA cm −2 . This result may reflect the considerably reduced thermally induced stress near the trench sidewall. Furthermore, at the densification temperature of 1100 °C, the usage of a poly-Si buffer layer can help to achieve excellent junctions with a leakage smaller than 5 nA cm −2 for a diode area of 100 × 100 µm 2

  12. Evaluation of methods for application of epitaxial layers of superconductor and buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The recent achievements in a number of laboratories of critical currents in excess of 1.0x10{sup 6} amp/cm{sup 2} at 77K in YBCO deposited over suitably textured buffer/substrate composites have stimulated interest in the potential applications of coated conductors at high temperatures and high magnetic fields. As of today, two different approaches for obtaining the textured substrates have been identified. These are: Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL) ion-beam assisted deposition called IBAD, to obtain a highly textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffer on nickel alloy strips, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) rolling assisted, bi-axial texturized substrate option called RABiTS. Similarly, based on the published literature, the available options to form High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) films on metallic, semi-metallic or ceramic substrates can be divided into: physical methods, and non-physical or chemical methods. Under these two major groups, the schemes being proposed consist of: - Sputtering - Electron-Beam Evaporation - Flash Evaporation - Molecular Beam Epitaxy - Laser Ablation - Electrophoresis - Chemical Vapor Deposition (Including Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition) - Sol-Gel - Metal-Organic Decomposition - Electrodeposition, and - Aerosol/Spray Pyrolysis. In general, a spool- to-spool or reel-to-reel type of continuous manufacturing scheme developed out of any of the above techniques, would consist of: - Preparation of Substrate Material - Preparation and Application of the Buffer Layer(s) - Preparation and Application of the HTS Material and Required Post-Annealing, and - Preparation and Application of the External Protective Layer. These operations would be affected by various process parameters which can be classified into: Chemistry and Material Related Parameters; and Engineering and Environmental Based Parameters. Thus, one can see that for successful development of the coated conductors manufacturing process, an

  13. Oblique-angle sputtered AlN nanocolumnar layer as a buffer layer in GaN-based LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lung-Chien; Tien, Ching-Ho; Liao, Wei-Chian; Luo, Yi-Min

    2011-01-01

    This work presents an aluminum nitride (AlN) nanocolumnar layer sputtered at various oblique angles and its application as a buffer layer for GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that are fabricated on sapphire substrates. The OA-AlN nanocolumnar layer has a diameter of about 30-60 nm. The GaN-based LED structure is perpendicularly extended from the OA-AlN nanocolumnar layer. Then, the nanocolumnar structure is merged into p-GaN layer to form a mesa structure with a diameter of about 200-600 nm on the surface of the GaN-based LED. Moreover, optical characteristics of the LED were studied using photoluminescence, along with the blue-shifts observed as well. - Research highlights: → An AlN nanocolumnar buffer layer prepared by oblique-angle (OA) deposition. → GaN-based LED structures were grown on a sapphire substrate with an AlN nanocolumnar buffer layer. → The OA-AlN nanocolumnar layer has a diameter of about 30-60 nm.

  14. Significant Improvement of Organic Thin-Film Transistor Mobility Utilizing an Organic Heterojunction Buffer Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Feng; Qian Xian-Rui; Huang Li-Zhen; Wang Hai-Bo; Yan Dong-Hang

    2011-01-01

    High-mobility vanadyl phthalocyanine (VOPc)/5,5‴-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-2,2':5',2″:5″,2‴-quaterthiophene (F2-P4T) thin-film transistors are demonstrated by employing a copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F 16 CuPc)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) heterojunction unit, which are fabricated at different substrate temperatures, as a buffer layer. The highest mobility of 4.08cm 2 /Vs is achieved using a F 16 CuPc/CuPc organic heterojunction buffer layer fabricated at high substrate temperature. Compared with the random small grain-like morphology of the room-temperature buffer layer, the high-temperature organic heterojunction presents a large-sized fiber-like film morphology, resulting in an enhanced conductivity. Thus the contact resistance of the transistor is significantly reduced and an obvious improvement in device mobility is obtained. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  15. Buffer layer between a planar optical concentrator and a solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, Manuel E. [Departamento de Ingeniería Matemática and CI" 2 MA, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Casilla 160-C (Chile); Barber, Greg D. [Penn State Institute of Energy and the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lakhtakia, Akhlesh [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Faryad, Muhammad [Department of Physics, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore 54792 (Pakistan); Monk, Peter B. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mallouk, Thomas E. [Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The effect of inserting a buffer layer between a periodically multilayered isotropic dielectric (PMLID) material acting as a planar optical concentrator and a photovoltaic solar cell was theoretically investigated. The substitution of the photovoltaic material by a cheaper dielectric material in a large area of the structure could reduce the fabrication costs without significantly reducing the efficiency of the solar cell. Both crystalline silicon (c-Si) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) were considered as the photovoltaic material. We found that the buffer layer can act as an antireflection coating at the interface of the PMLID and the photovoltaic materials, and the structure increases the spectrally averaged electron-hole pair density by 36% for c-Si and 38% for GaAs compared to the structure without buffer layer. Numerical evidence indicates that the optimal structure is robust with respect to small changes in the grating profile.

  16. Epitaxial Growth of Hard Ferrimagnetic Mn3Ge Film on Rhodium Buffer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Sugihara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mn\\(_3\\Ge has a tetragonal Heusler-like D0\\(_{22}\\ crystal structure, exhibiting a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and small saturation magnetization due to its ferrimagnetic spin structure; thus, it is a hard ferrimagnet. In this report, epitaxial growth of a Mn\\(_3\\Ge film on a Rh buffer layer was investigated for comparison with that of a film on a Cr buffer layer in terms of the lattice mismatch between Mn\\(_3\\Ge and the buffer layer. The film grown on Rh had much better crystalline quality than that grown on Cr, which can be attributed to the small lattice mismatch. Epitaxial films of Mn\\(_3\\Ge on Rh show somewhat small coercivity (\\(H_{\\rm c}\\ = 12.6 kOe and a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (\\(K_{\\rm u}\\ = 11.6 Merg/cm\\(^3\\, comparable to that of the film grown on Cr.

  17. Homoepitaxial growth of a-plane GaN layers by reaction between Ga2O vapor and NH3 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Tomoaki; Taniyama, Yuuki; Takatsu, Hiroaki; Juta, Masami; Kitamoto, Akira; Imade, Mamoru; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke; Isemura, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Growth of high-quality a-plane GaN layers was performed by reaction between Ga 2 O vapor and NH 3 gas at a high temperature. Smooth a-plane GaN epitaxial layers were obtained on a-plane GaN seed substrates sliced from thick c-plane GaN crystals. Growth rate increased with increasing Ga 2 O partial pressure. An a-plane GaN layer with a growth rate of 48 μm/h was obtained. The X-ray rocking curve (XRC) measurement showed that the full widths at half maximum (FWHMs) of GaN(112-bar0) with the incident beam parallel and perpendicular to the [0001] direction were 29–43 and 29–42 arcsec, respectively. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurement revealed that oxygen concentration decreased at a high temperature. These results suggest that growth of a-GaN layers using Ga 2 O vapor and NH 3 gas at a high temperature enables the generation of high-quality crystals. (author)

  18. Effect of GaN buffer polarization on electron distribution of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Degang; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jing; Li, Xiaojing; Li, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The formation of 2DEG in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is discussed in detail. A misunderstanding about the 2DEG sheet density expression is clarified. It is predicted by theoretical analysis and validated by self-consistent Schrodinger–Poisson numerical simulation that under the force of GaN polarization, large amounts of electrons will accumulate at the GaN/substrate interface in AlGaN/GaN/substrate HEMT structure. - Highlights: • The formation of 2DEG in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is discussed in detail. • Self-consistent Schrodinger–Poisson numerical simulation is used to modulate the AlGaN/GaN/substrate structure. • It is predicted by that large amounts of electrons will accumulate at the GaN/substrate interface.

  19. Effect of GaN buffer polarization on electron distribution of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Degang, E-mail: dgzhao@red.semi.ac.cn; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jing; Li, Xiaojing; Li, Xiang

    2016-06-15

    The formation of 2DEG in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is discussed in detail. A misunderstanding about the 2DEG sheet density expression is clarified. It is predicted by theoretical analysis and validated by self-consistent Schrodinger–Poisson numerical simulation that under the force of GaN polarization, large amounts of electrons will accumulate at the GaN/substrate interface in AlGaN/GaN/substrate HEMT structure. - Highlights: • The formation of 2DEG in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is discussed in detail. • Self-consistent Schrodinger–Poisson numerical simulation is used to modulate the AlGaN/GaN/substrate structure. • It is predicted by that large amounts of electrons will accumulate at the GaN/substrate interface.

  20. OPTIMISATION OF BUFFER SIZE FOR ENHANCING QOS OF VIDEO TRAFFIC USING CROSS LAYERED HYBRID TRANSPORT LAYER PROTOCOL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matilda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Video streaming is gaining importance, with the wide popularity of multimedia rich applications in the Internet. Video streams are delay sensitive and require seamless flow for continuous visualization. Properly designed buffers offer a solution to queuing delay. The diagonally opposite QoS metrics associated with video traffic poses an optimization problem, in the design of buffers. This paper is a continuation of our previous work [1] and deals with the design of buffers. It aims at finding the optimum buffer size for enhancing QoS offered to video traffic. Network-centric QoS provisioning approach, along with hybrid transport layer protocol approach is adopted, to arrive at an optimum size which is independent of RTT. In this combinational approach, buffers of routers and end devices are designed to satisfy the various QoS parameters at the transport layer. OPNET Modeler is used to simulate environments for testing the design. Based on the results of simulation it is evident that the hybrid transport layer protocol approach is best suited for transmitting video traffic as it supports the economical design.

  1. Microstructures of GaN1-xPx layers grown on (0001) GaN substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Tae-Yeon; Bae, In-Tae; Choi, Chel-Jong; Noh, D. Y.; Zhao, Y.; Tu, C. W.

    1999-03-01

    Transmission electron microscope (TEM), transmission electron diffraction (TED), and synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have been performed to investigate microstructural behavior of gas source molecular beam epitaxial GaN1-xPx layers grown on (0001) GaN/sapphire at temperatures (Tg) in the range 500-760 °C. TEM, TED, and XRD results indicate that the samples grown at Tg⩽600 °C undergo phase separation resulting in a mixture of GaN-rich and GaP-rich GaNP with zinc-blende structure. However, the samples grown at Tg⩾730 °C are found to be binary zinc-blende GaN(P) single crystalline materials. As for the 500 °C layer, the two phases are randomly oriented and distributed, whereas the 600 °C layer consists of phases that are elongated and inclined by 60°-70° clockwise from the [0001]α-GaN direction. The samples grown at Tg⩾730 °C are found to consist of two types of microdomains, namely, GaN(P)I and GaN(P)II; the former having twin relation to the latter.

  2. Atomic layer epitaxy of ZnO for applications in molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaN and InGaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godlewski, M.; Szczerbakow, A.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Barski, A.; Goldys, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    We report the successful atomic layer epitaxy growth of thin ZnO films and their use for GaN and InGaN epitaxy. The properties of ZnO epilayers, obtained by four different procedures, are analysed, as well as of GaN and InGaN films grown on ZnO-coated Si and GaAs by MBE. (author)

  3. Operation voltage behavior of organic light emitting diodes with polymeric buffer layers doped by weak electron acceptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Hyeon Soo; Cho, Sang Hee [Department of Information Display and Advanced Display Research Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jaewon; Park, Yongsup [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Min Chul, E-mail: mcsuh@khu.ac.kr [Department of Information Display and Advanced Display Research Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    We present polymeric buffer materials based on poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)-co-(1,4-phenylene -((4-sec-butylphenyl)imino)-1,4-phenylene)] (TFB) for highly efficient solution processed organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Doped TFB with 9,10-dicyanoanthracene, a weak electron acceptor results in significant improvement of current flow and driving voltage. Maximum current- and power-efficiency value of 12.6 cd/A and 18.1 lm/W are demonstrated from phosphorescent red OLEDs with this doped polymeric anode buffer system. - Highlights: • Polymeric buffer materials for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). • Method to control hole conductivity of polymeric buffer layer in OLED device. • Enhanced current density of buffer layers upon 9,10-dicyanoanthracene (DCA) doping. • Comparison of OLED devices having polymeric buffer layer with or without DCA. • Effect on operating voltage by doping DCA in the buffer layer.

  4. Simple solution-processed CuOX as anode buffer layer for efficient organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wenfei; Yang, Chunpeng; Bao, Xichang; Sun, Liang; Wang, Ning; Tang, Jianguo; Chen, Weichao; Yang, Renqiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Simple solution-processed CuO X hole transport layer for efficient organic solar cell. • Good photovoltaic performances as hole transport layer in OSCs with P3HT and PBDTTT-C as donor materials. • The device with CuO X as hole transport layer shows great improved stability compared with that of device with PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer. - Abstract: A simple, solution-processed ultrathin CuO X anode buffer layer was fabricated for high performance organic solar cells (OSCs). XPS measurement demonstrated that the CuO X was the composite of CuO and Cu 2 O. The CuO X modified ITO glass exhibit a better surface contact with the active layer. The photovoltaic performance of the devices with CuO X layer was optimized by varying the thickness of CuO X films through changing solution concentration. With P3HT:PC 61 BM as the active layer, we demonstrated an enhanced PCE of 4.14% with CuO X anode buffer layer, compared with that of PEDOT:PSS layer. The CuO X layer also exhibits efficient photovoltaic performance in devices with PBDTTT-C:PC 71 BM as the active layer. The long-term stability of CuO X device is better than that of PEDOT:PSS device. The results indicate that the easy solution-processed CuO X film can act as an efficient anode buffer layer for high-efficiency OSCs

  5. Epitaxial growth of ultra-thin NbN films on AlxGa1−xN buffer-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, S; Meledin, D; Desmaris, V; Pavolotsky, A; Belitsky, V; Rudziński, M; Pippel, E

    2014-01-01

    The suitability of Al x Ga 1−x N epilayers to deposit onto ultra-thin NbN films has been demonstrated for the first time. High quality single-crystal films with 5 nm thickness confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) have been deposited in a reproducible manner by means of reactive DC magnetron sputtering at elevated temperatures and exhibit critical temperatures (T c ) as high as 13.2 K and residual resistivity ratio (RRR) ∼1 on hexagonal GaN epilayers. On increasing the Al content x in the Al x Ga 1−x N epilayer above 20%, a gradual deterioration of T c to 10 K was observed. Deposition of NbN on bare silicon substrates served as a reference and comparison. Excellent spatial homogeneity of the fabricated films was confirmed by R(T) measurements of patterned micro-bridges across the entire film area. The superconducting properties of these films were further characterized by critical magnetic field and critical current measurements. It is expected that the employment of GaN material as a buffer-layer for the deposition of ultra-thin NbN films will prospectively benefit terahertz electronics, particularly hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers. (paper)

  6. Methods of producing free-standing semiconductors using sacrificial buffer layers and recyclable substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Aaron Joseph; Lin, Yong; Norman, Andrew; Alberi, Kirstin

    2015-05-26

    A method of producing semiconductor materials and devices that incorporate the semiconductor materials are provided. In particular, a method is provided of producing a semiconductor material, such as a III-V semiconductor, on a spinel substrate using a sacrificial buffer layer, and devices such as photovoltaic cells that incorporate the semiconductor materials. The sacrificial buffer material and semiconductor materials may be deposited using lattice-matching epitaxy or coincident site lattice-matching epitaxy, resulting in a close degree of lattice matching between the substrate material and deposited material for a wide variety of material compositions. The sacrificial buffer layer may be dissolved using an epitaxial liftoff technique in order to separate the semiconductor device from the spinel substrate, and the spinel substrate may be reused in the subsequent fabrication of other semiconductor devices. The low-defect density semiconductor materials produced using this method result in the enhanced performance of the semiconductor devices that incorporate the semiconductor materials.

  7. Benzocyclobutene (BCB) Polymer as Amphibious Buffer Layer for Graphene Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Zou, Jianjun; Huo, Shuai; Lu, Haiyan; Kong, Yuecan; Chen, Tangshen; Wu, Wei; Xu, Jingxia

    2015-08-01

    Owing to the scattering and trapping effects, the interfaces of dielectric/graphene or substrate/graphene can tailor the performance of field-effect transistor (FET). In this letter, the polymer of benzocyclobutene (BCB) was used as an amphibious buffer layer and located at between the layers of substrate and graphene and between the layers of dielectric and graphene. Interestingly, with the help of nonpolar and hydrophobic BCB buffer layer, the large-scale top-gated, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene transistors was prepared on Si/SiO2 substrate, its cutoff frequency (fT) and the maximum cutoff frequency (fmax) of the graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) can be reached at 12 GHz and 11 GHz, respectively.

  8. The roles of buffer layer thickness on the properties of the ZnO epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Kun, E-mail: ktang@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Huang, Shimin [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Gu, Shulin, E-mail: slgu@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhu, Shunming [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Ye, Jiandong [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Nanjing University Institute of Optoelectronics at Yangzhou, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Xu, Zhonghua; Zheng, Youdou [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The growth mechanism has been revealed for the ZnO buffers with different thickness. • The surface morphology has been determined as the key factor to affect the epitaxial growth. • The relation between the hexagonal pits from buffers and epi-films has been established. • The hexagonal pits formed in the epi-films have been attributed to the V-shaped defects inheriting from the dislocations in the buffers. • The structural and electrical properties of the V-defects have been presented and analyzed. - Abstract: In this article, the authors have investigated the optimization of the buffer thickness for obtaining high-quality ZnO epi-films on sapphire substrates. The growth mechanism of the buffers with different thickness has been clearly revealed, including the initial nucleation and vertical growth, the subsequent lateral growth with small grain coalescence, and the final vertical growth along the existing larger grains. Overall, the quality of the buffer improves with increasing thickness except the deformed surface morphology. However, by a full-scale evaluation of the properties for the epi-layers, the quality of the epi-film is briefly determined by the surface morphology of the buffer, rather than the structural, optical, or electrical properties of it. The best quality epi-layer has been grown on the buffer with a smooth surface and well-coalescent grains. Meanwhile, due to the huge lattice mismatch between sapphire and ZnO, dislocations are inevitably formed during the growth of buffers. More importantly, as the film grows thicker, the dislocations may attracting other smaller dislocations and defects to reduce the total line energy and thus result in the formation of V-shape defects, which are connected with the bottom of the threading dislocations in the buffers. The V-defects appear as deep and large hexagonal pits from top view and they may act as electron traps which would affect the free carrier concentration of the epi-layers.

  9. The roles of buffer layer thickness on the properties of the ZnO epitaxial films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Kun; Huang, Shimin; Gu, Shulin; Zhu, Shunming; Ye, Jiandong; Xu, Zhonghua; Zheng, Youdou

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The growth mechanism has been revealed for the ZnO buffers with different thickness. • The surface morphology has been determined as the key factor to affect the epitaxial growth. • The relation between the hexagonal pits from buffers and epi-films has been established. • The hexagonal pits formed in the epi-films have been attributed to the V-shaped defects inheriting from the dislocations in the buffers. • The structural and electrical properties of the V-defects have been presented and analyzed. - Abstract: In this article, the authors have investigated the optimization of the buffer thickness for obtaining high-quality ZnO epi-films on sapphire substrates. The growth mechanism of the buffers with different thickness has been clearly revealed, including the initial nucleation and vertical growth, the subsequent lateral growth with small grain coalescence, and the final vertical growth along the existing larger grains. Overall, the quality of the buffer improves with increasing thickness except the deformed surface morphology. However, by a full-scale evaluation of the properties for the epi-layers, the quality of the epi-film is briefly determined by the surface morphology of the buffer, rather than the structural, optical, or electrical properties of it. The best quality epi-layer has been grown on the buffer with a smooth surface and well-coalescent grains. Meanwhile, due to the huge lattice mismatch between sapphire and ZnO, dislocations are inevitably formed during the growth of buffers. More importantly, as the film grows thicker, the dislocations may attracting other smaller dislocations and defects to reduce the total line energy and thus result in the formation of V-shape defects, which are connected with the bottom of the threading dislocations in the buffers. The V-defects appear as deep and large hexagonal pits from top view and they may act as electron traps which would affect the free carrier concentration of the epi-layers.

  10. Strontium Titanate Buffer Layers on Cu/33%Ni Substrates using a Novel Solution Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallewatta, Pallewatta G A P; Yue, Zhao; Hui, Tian

    2013-01-01

    SrTiO3 is a widely studied perovskite material due to its advantages as a buffer template which can be simply applied between a metal substrate tape and a superconducting layer in 2G high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. In this study, heteroepitaxial SrTiO3 thin films were deposited on t...

  11. Growth and micro structural studies on Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A.K. [Univ. of Hyderabad (India); Pinto, R. [Solid State Electronics Group, Bombay (India)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Microstructure of Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) of radio frequency magnetron sputtered buffer layers was studied at various sputtering conditions on Si<100>, Sapphire and LaAlO{sub 3} <100> substrates. The effect of substrate temperatures upto 800 C and sputtering gas pressures in the range of 50 mTorr. of growth conditions was studied. The buffer layers of YSZ and STO showed a strong tendency for columnar structure with variation growth conditions. The buffer layers of YSZ and STO showed orientation. The tendency for columnar growth was observed above 15 mTorr sputtering gas pressure and at high substrate temperatures. Post annealing of these films in oxygen atmosphere reduced the oxygen deficiency and strain generated during growth of the films. Strong c-axis oriented superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 9}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) thin films were obtained on these buffer layers using pulsed laser ablation technique. YBCO films deposited on multilayers of YSZ and STO were shown to have better superconducting properties.

  12. Glycine buffered synthesis of layered iron(II)-iron(III) hydroxides (green rusts)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Weizhao; Huang, Lizhi; Pedersen, Emil Bjerglund

    2017-01-01

    Layered Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides (green rusts, GRs) are efficient reducing agents against oxidizing contaminants such as chromate, nitrate, selenite, and nitroaromatic compounds and chlorinated solvents. In this study, we adopted a buffered precipitation approach where glycine (GLY) was used...

  13. Improvement of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction by introducing a Ta buffer layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, N.H.; Han, D.S.; Jung, J.; Cho, J.; Kim, J.S.; Swagten, H.J.M.; You, C.Y.

    2015-01-01

    We report systematic measurements of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (iDMI) by employing Brillouin light scattering in Pt/Co/AlOx and Ta/Pt/Co/AlOx structures. By introducing a tantalum buffer layer, the saturation magnetization and the interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

  14. Sol-gel deposition of buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoup, Shara S.; Paranthamam, Mariappan; Beach, David B.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Goyal, Amit

    2000-01-01

    A method is disclosed for forming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a biaxially oriented metal substrate by using a sol-gel coating technique followed by pyrolyzing/annealing in a reducing atmosphere. This method is advantageous for providing substrates for depositing electronically active materials thereon.

  15. High-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with nitrogen as nucleation layer carrier gas grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, high-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with sheet resistivity greater than 106 Ω/□ have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD. We have observed that the growth of GaN nucleation layers (NLs under N2 ambient leads to a large full width at half maximum (FWHM of (102 X-ray diffraction (XRD line in the rocking curve about 1576 arc sec. Unintentional carbon incorporation can be observed in the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS measurements. The results demonstrate the self-compensation mechanism is attributed to the increased density of edge-type threading dislocations and carbon impurities. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown on the high-resistivity GaN template has also been fabricated, exhibiting a maximum drain current of 478 mA/mm, a peak transconductance of 60.0 mS/mm, an ON/OFF ratio of 0.96×108 and a breakdown voltage of 621 V.

  16. High-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with nitrogen as nucleation layer carrier gas grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Sun, Shichuang; Deng, Xuguang; Fu, Kai; Yu, Guohao; Song, Liang; Hao, Ronghui; Fan, Yaming; Cai, Yong; Zhang, Baoshun

    2017-12-01

    In this letter, high-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with sheet resistivity greater than 106 Ω/□ have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have observed that the growth of GaN nucleation layers (NLs) under N2 ambient leads to a large full width at half maximum (FWHM) of (102) X-ray diffraction (XRD) line in the rocking curve about 1576 arc sec. Unintentional carbon incorporation can be observed in the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements. The results demonstrate the self-compensation mechanism is attributed to the increased density of edge-type threading dislocations and carbon impurities. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown on the high-resistivity GaN template has also been fabricated, exhibiting a maximum drain current of 478 mA/mm, a peak transconductance of 60.0 mS/mm, an ON/OFF ratio of 0.96×108 and a breakdown voltage of 621 V.

  17. Final Report: Rational Design of Wide Band Gap Buffer Layers for High-Efficiency Thin-Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lordi, Vincenzo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The main objective of this project is to enable rational design of wide band gap buffer layer materials for CIGS thin-film PV by building understanding of the correlation of atomic-scale defects in the buffer layer and at the buffer/absorber interface with device electrical properties. Optimized wide band gap buffers are needed to reduce efficiency loss from parasitic absorption in the buffer. The approach uses first-principles materials simulations coupled with nanoscale analytical electron microscopy as well as device electrical characterization. Materials and devices are produced by an industrial partner in a manufacturing line to maximize relevance, with the goal of enabling R&D of new buffer layer compositions or deposition processes to push device efficiencies above 21%. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is the reference material for analysis, as the prototypical high-performing buffer material.

  18. Layer-based buffer aware rate adaptation design for SHVC video streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudumasu, Srinivas; Hamza, Ahmed; Asbun, Eduardo; He, Yong; Ye, Yan

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a layer based buffer aware rate adaptation design which is able to avoid abrupt video quality fluctuation, reduce re-buffering latency and improve bandwidth utilization when compared to a conventional simulcast based adaptive streaming system. The proposed adaptation design schedules DASH segment requests based on the estimated bandwidth, dependencies among video layers and layer buffer fullness. Scalable HEVC video coding is the latest state-of-art video coding technique that can alleviate various issues caused by simulcast based adaptive video streaming. With scalable coded video streams, the video is encoded once into a number of layers representing different qualities and/or resolutions: a base layer (BL) and one or more enhancement layers (EL), each incrementally enhancing the quality of the lower layers. Such layer based coding structure allows fine granularity rate adaptation for the video streaming applications. Two video streaming use cases are presented in this paper. The first use case is to stream HD SHVC video over a wireless network where available bandwidth varies, and the performance comparison between proposed layer-based streaming approach and conventional simulcast streaming approach is provided. The second use case is to stream 4K/UHD SHVC video over a hybrid access network that consists of a 5G millimeter wave high-speed wireless link and a conventional wired or WiFi network. The simulation results verify that the proposed layer based rate adaptation approach is able to utilize the bandwidth more efficiently. As a result, a more consistent viewing experience with higher quality video content and minimal video quality fluctuations can be presented to the user.

  19. Molecular beam epitaxy of InN layers on Sapphire, GaN and indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denker, Christian; Landgraf, Boris; Schuhmann, Henning; Malindretos, Joerg; Seibt, Michael; Rizzi, Angela [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Segura-Ruiz, Jaime; Gomez-Gomez, Maribel; Cantarero, Andres [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, Paterna (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Among the group-III nitrides semiconductors, InN is the one with the narrowest gap (0.67 eV), lowest effective electron mass and highest peak drift velocity. It is therefore a very interesting material for several applications, in particular semiconductor solar cells. Furthermore, the high electron affinity makes it suitable also as electrode material for organic solar cells. InN layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MOCVD GaN templates, on bare c-plane sapphire and on polycrystalline indium tin oxide. On all substrates the III-V ratio as well as the substrate temperature was varied. A RHEED analysis of InN growth on GaN showed a relatively sharp transition from N-rich and columnar growth to In-rich growth with droplet formation by increasing the In flux impinging on the surface. The InN layers on single crystalline substrates were characterized by SEM, AFM, XRD, PL and Raman. The InN layers on ITO were mainly analyzed with respect to the surface morphology with SEM. HRTEM in cross section gives insight into the structure of the interface to the ITO substrate.

  20. Efficient Polymer Solar Cells with Alcohol-Soluble Zirconium(IV Isopropoxide Cathode Buffer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Luo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interfacial materials are essential to the performance and stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs. Herein, solution-processed zirconium(IV isopropoxide (Zr[OCH(CH32]4, ZrIPO has been employed as an efficient cathode buffer layer between the Al cathode and photoactive layer. The ZrIPO buffer layer is prepared simply via spin-coating its isopropanol solution on the photoactive layer at room temperature without any post-treatment. When using ZrIPO/Al instead of the traditionally used Ca/Al cathode in PSCs, the short-circuit current density (Jsc is significantly improved and the series resistance of the device is decreased. The power conversion efficiency (PCE of the P3HT:PCBM-based device with ZrIPO buffer layer reaches 4.47% under the illumination of AM1.5G, 100 mW/cm2. A better performance with PCE of 8.07% is achieved when a low bandgap polymer PBDTBDD is selected as donor material. The results indicate that ZrIPO is a promising electron collection material as a substitute of the traditional low-work-function cathode for high performance PSCs.

  1. Multi-filamentary REBCO tapes fabricated by scratching a buffer layer along the tape longitudinal direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, Chihaya, E-mail: chihaya.kurihara@jp.fujikura.com [Fujikura Ltd., 1440, Mutsuzaki, Sakura, Chiba 285-8550 (Japan); Fujita, Shinji; Nakamura, Naonori; Igarashi, Mitsunori; Iijima, Yasuhiro [Fujikura Ltd., 1440, Mutsuzaki, Sakura, Chiba 285-8550 (Japan); Higashikawa, Kohei; Uetsuhara, Dai; Kiss, Takanobu; Iwakuma, Masataka [Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-Ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We developed new method of slitting tape between buffer layer processes for multi-filamentary tape. • By scratching buffer layer along the tape longitudinal direction, we find that REBCO layer is divided easily without damaging it. • We have developed 100 m class multi-filamentary REBCO tapes which are suitable for superconducting coils. - Abstract: A method for making multi-filamentary REBCO tapes by only scratching buffer layer was developed for coil application which requires accurate magnetic fields. By continuous I{sub c} measurement, we found that our new multi-filamentary tape could provide almost equal I{sub c} compared to conventional tapes. Then, using EBSD and RTR-SHPM methods, a divided structure of REBCO layer was surely confirmed. AC loss was also decreased. Furthermore, the result of delamination test of our new multi-filamentary tape showed enough mechanical property. As a result, we have succeeded in developing 100 m class multi-filamentary tape for superconducting coil.

  2. Multi-filamentary REBCO tapes fabricated by scratching a buffer layer along the tape longitudinal direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Chihaya; Fujita, Shinji; Nakamura, Naonori; Igarashi, Mitsunori; Iijima, Yasuhiro; Higashikawa, Kohei; Uetsuhara, Dai; Kiss, Takanobu; Iwakuma, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed new method of slitting tape between buffer layer processes for multi-filamentary tape. • By scratching buffer layer along the tape longitudinal direction, we find that REBCO layer is divided easily without damaging it. • We have developed 100 m class multi-filamentary REBCO tapes which are suitable for superconducting coils. - Abstract: A method for making multi-filamentary REBCO tapes by only scratching buffer layer was developed for coil application which requires accurate magnetic fields. By continuous I_c measurement, we found that our new multi-filamentary tape could provide almost equal I_c compared to conventional tapes. Then, using EBSD and RTR-SHPM methods, a divided structure of REBCO layer was surely confirmed. AC loss was also decreased. Furthermore, the result of delamination test of our new multi-filamentary tape showed enough mechanical property. As a result, we have succeeded in developing 100 m class multi-filamentary tape for superconducting coil.

  3. Modeling and performance analysis dataset of a CIGS solar cell with ZnS buffer layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Billal Hosen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the baseline data of the several semiconductor materials used in the model of a CIGS thin film solar cell with an inclusion of ZnS buffer layer. As well, input parameters, contact layer data and operating conditions for CIGS solar cell simulation with ZnS buffer layer have been described. The schematic diagram of photovoltaic solar cell has been depicted. Moreover, the most important performance measurement graph, J-V characteristic curve, resulting from CIGS solar cell simulation has been analyzed to estimate the optimum values of fill factor and cell efficiency. These optimum results have been obtained from the open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, and the maximum points of voltage and current density generated from the cell.

  4. Efficient small-molecule organic solar cells incorporating a doped buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Dei-Wei [Department of aviation and Communication Electronics, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung 820, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kan-Lin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Fortune Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung 831, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chien-Jung, E-mail: chien@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Yao-Jen [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Ray; Meen, Teen-Hang [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Formosa University, Hu-Wei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China)

    2013-06-01

    Small-molecule organic solar cells (OSCs) with an optimized structure of indium tin oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) (10 nm)/CuPc: fullerene (C{sub 60}) mixed (20 nm)/C{sub 60} (20 nm)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) (5 nm)/Ag were fabricated. In this study, the cesium carbonate-doped BPhen (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}:BPhen) was adopted as the buffer layer to enhance the efficiency of the OSCs. The photovoltaic parameters of the OSCs, such as the short-circuit current density and fill factor, depend on the doping concentration of Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in the BPhen layer. The cell with a Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}:BPhen (1:4) cathode buffer layer exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.51%, compared to 3.37% for the device with the pristine BPhen layer. The enhancement of PCE was attributed to the energy-level alignment between the C{sub 60} layer and the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}:BPhen layer. In addition, the characterization measured using atomic force microscopy shows that the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}:BPhen layers have smoother surfaces. - Highlight: • Cs2CO3-doped 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) cathode buffer layer. • Cs2CO3:BPhen layer with different ratios affects organic solar cells performance. • Cell with 1:4 (Cs2CO3:BPhen) ratio shows 3.51% power conversion efficiency.

  5. Investigation of CeO2 Buffer Layer Effects on the Voltage Response of YBCO Transition-Edge Bolometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohajeri, Roya; Nazifi, Rana; Wulff, Anders Christian

    2016-01-01

    The effect on the thermal parameters of superconducting transition-edge bolometers produced on a single crystalline SrTiO3 (STO) substrate with and without a CeO2 buffer layer was investigated. Metal-organic deposition was used to deposit the 20-nm CeO2 buffer layer, whereas RF magnetron sputtering...

  6. Effect of Cu buffer layer on magnetic anisotropy of cobalt thin films deposited on MgO(001 substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sheraz Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt thin films with 5 nm thickness were prepared on single-crystal MgO (001 substrates with different thickness Cu buffer (0 nm, 5 nm, 10 nm, 20 nm. The structure, magnetic properties and transport behaviors were investigated by employing low-energy-electron-diffraction (LEED, magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR. By comparing the magnetic properties of the sample as-deposited (without Cu buffer layer one with those having the buffer Cu, we found that the magnetic anisotropy was extremely affected by the Cu buffer layer. The magnetic anisotropy of the as-deposited, without buffer layer, sample shows the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA. We found that the symmetry of the magnetic anisotropy is changed from UMA to four-fold when the thickness of the Cu buffer layer reaches to 20 nm. Meanwhile, the coercivity increased from 49 Oe (without buffer layer to 300 Oe (with 20 nm Cu buffer, in the easy axis direction, as the thickness of the buffer layer increases. Moreover, the magnitudes of various magnetic anisotropy constants were determined from torque curves on the basis of AMR results. These results support the phenomenon shown in the MOKE.

  7. Current status of AlInN layers lattice-matched to GaN for photonics and electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butte, R; Carlin, J-F; Feltin, E; Gonschorek, M; Nicolay, S; Christmann, G; Simeonov, D; Castiglia, A; Dorsaz, J; Buehlmann, H J; Christopoulos, S; Hoegersthal, G Baldassarri Hoeger von; Grundy, A J D; Mosca, M; Pinquier, C; Py, M A; Demangeot, F; Frandon, J; Lagoudakis, P G; Baumberg, J J; Grandjean, N

    2007-01-01

    We report on the current properties of Al 1-x In x N (x ∼ 0.18) layers lattice-matched (LM) to GaN and their specific use to realize nearly strain-free structures for photonic and electronic applications. Following a literature survey of the general properties of AlInN layers, structural and optical properties of thin state-of-the-art AlInN layers LM to GaN are described showing that despite improved structural properties these layers are still characterized by a typical background donor concentration of (1-5) x 10 18 cm -3 and a large Stokes shift (∼800 meV) between luminescence and absorption edge. The use of these AlInN layers LM to GaN is then exemplified through the properties of GaN/AlInN multiple quantum wells (QWs) suitable for near-infrared intersubband applications. A built-in electric field of 3.64 MV cm -1 solely due to spontaneous polarization is deduced from photoluminescence measurements carried out on strain-free single QW heterostructures, a value in good agreement with that deduced from theoretical calculation. Other potentialities regarding optoelectronics are demonstrated through the successful realization of crack-free highly reflective AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors (R > 99%) and high quality factor microcavities (Q > 2800) likely to be of high interest for short wavelength vertical light emitting devices and fundamental studies on the strong coupling regime between excitons and cavity photons. In this respect, room temperature (RT) lasing of a LM AlInN/GaN vertical cavity surface emitting laser under optical pumping is reported. A description of the selective lateral oxidation of AlInN layers for current confinement in nitride-based light emitting devices and the selective chemical etching of oxidized AlInN layers is also given. Finally, the characterization of LM AlInN/GaN heterojunctions will reveal the potential of such a system for the fabrication of high electron mobility transistors through the report of a high two

  8. Characteristics of the epitaxy of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth using a nitrided titanium buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Chen-Yu; Li, Zhen-Yu; Chang, Jenq-Yang; Chi, Gou-Chung

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a buffer layer of nitrided titanium (Ti) achieved through the nitridation of a Ti metal layer on a sapphire substrate was used for the epitaxial growth of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) achieved by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The effect of in-situ Ti metal nitridation on the performance of these InGaN-based LEDs was then investigated. It was very clear that the use of the nitrided Ti buffer layer (NTBL) induced the formation of a nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth layer during the epitaxial growth. When evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, this epi-layer exhibited large in-plane compressive stress releasing with a Raman shift value of 567.9 cm -1 . Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results indicated that the InGaN-based LEDs with an NTBL have improved crystal quality, with a low threading dislocations density being yielded via the strain relaxation in the InGaN-based LEDs. Based on the results mentioned above, the electroluminescence results indicate that the light performance of InGaN-based LEDs with an NTBL can be enhanced by 45% and 42% at 20 mA and 100 mA, respectively. These results suggest that the strain relaxation and quality improvement in the GaN epilayer could be responsible for the enhancement of emission power. - Highlights: • The crystal-quality of InGaN-based LEDs with NTBL by NELOG was improved. • The InGaN-based LEDs with NTBL have strain releases by NELOG. • The optical properties of InGaN-based LEDs were shown by CL and EL measurements

  9. Solution-processed In2S3 buffer layer for chalcopyrite thin film solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a route to deposit In2S3 thin films from air-stable, low-cost molecular precursor inks for Cd-free buffer layers in chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells. Different precursor compositions and processing conditions were studied to define a reproducible and robust process. By adjusting the ink properties, this method can be applied in different printing and coating techniques. Here we report on two techniques, namely spin-coating and inkjet printing. Active area efficiencies of 12.8% and 12.2% have been achieved for In2S3-buffered solar cells respectively, matching the performance of CdS-buffered cells prepared with the same batch of absorbers.

  10. Solution-processed In2S3 buffer layer for chalcopyrite thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Lin, Xianzhong; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Wolf, Christian; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.; Klenk, Reiner

    2016-02-01

    We report a route to deposit In2S3 thin films from air-stable, low-cost molecular precursor inks for Cd-free buffer layers in chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells. Different precursor compositions and processing conditions were studied to define a reproducible and robust process. By adjusting the ink properties, this method can be applied in different printing and coating techniques. Here we report on two techniques, namely spin-coating and inkjet printing. Active area efficiencies of 12.8% and 12.2% have been achieved for In2S3-buffered solar cells respectively, matching the performance of CdS-buffered cells prepared with the same batch of absorbers.

  11. Improved Reliability of Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells by Double Anode Buffer Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hsun Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized hybrid planar heterojunction (PHJ of small molecule organic solar cells (SM-OSCs based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc as donor and fullerene (C60 as acceptor was fabricated, which obviously enhanced the performance of device by sequentially using both MoO3 and pentacene as double anode buffer layers (ABL, also known as hole extraction layer (HEL. A series of the vacuum-deposited ABL, acting as an electron and exciton blocking layer, were examined for their characteristics in SM-OSCs. The performance and reliability were compared between conventional ITO/ABL/CuPc/C60/BCP/Ag cells and the new ITO/double ABL/CuPc/C60/BCP/Ag cells. The effect on the electrical properties of these materials was also investigated to obtain the optimal thickness of ABL. The comparison shows that the modified cell has an enhanced reliability compared to traditional cells. The improvement of lifetime was attributed to the idea of double layers to prevent humidity and oxygen from diffusing into the active layer. We demonstrated that the interfacial extraction layers are necessary to avoid degradation of device. That is to say, in normal temperature and pressure, a new avenue for the device within double buffer layers has exhibited the highest values of open circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF, and lifetime in this work compared to monolayer of ABL.

  12. The investigation of stress in freestanding GaN crystals grown from Si substrates by HVPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonsang; Mikulik, Dmitry; Yang, Mino; Park, Sungsoo

    2017-08-17

    We investigate the stress evolution of 400 µm-thick freestanding GaN crystals grown from Si substrates by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) and the in situ removal of Si substrates. The stress generated in growing GaN can be tuned by varying the thickness of the MOCVD AlGaN/AlN buffer layers. Micro Raman analysis shows the presence of slight tensile stress in the freestanding GaN crystals and no stress accumulation in HVPE GaN layers during the growth. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the residual tensile stress in HVPE GaN is caused only by elastic stress arising from the crystal quality difference between Ga- and N-face GaN. TEM analysis revealed that the dislocations in freestanding GaN crystals have high inclination angles that are attributed to the stress relaxation of the crystals. We believe that the understanding and characterization on the structural properties of the freestanding GaN crystals will help us to use these crystals for high-performance opto-electronic devices.

  13. Environmental Modeling, The Buffer Priority layers for Phosphorus / Sediment) Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer opportunities by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank buffer opportunities with high P/sed removal., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Buffer Priority layers for Phosphorus / Sediment) Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer opportunities...

  14. About influence of buffer porous layers between epitaxial layers of heterostructure on distributions of concentrations of dopants in heterobipolar transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Pankratov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce an approach to manufacture a heterobipolar transistors. Framework this approach we consider doping by diffusion or by ion implantation of required parts of a heterostructure with special configuration and optimization of annealing of dopant and/or radiation defects. In this case one have possibility to manufacture bipolar transistors, which include into itself p-n-junctions with higher sharpness and smaller dimensions. We also consider influence of presents of buffer porous layers between epitaxial layers of heterostructure on distributions of concentrations of dopants in the considered transistors. An approach to decrease value of mismatch-induced stress has been considered.

  15. Vanadium oxide thin films deposited on silicon dioxide buffer layers by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sihai; Ma Hong; Wang Shuangbao; Shen Nan; Xiao Jing; Zhou Hao; Zhao Xiaomei; Li Yi; Yi Xinjian

    2006-01-01

    Thin films made by vanadium oxide have been obtained by direct current magnetron sputtering method on SiO 2 buffer layers. A detailed electrical and structural characterization has been performed on the deposited films by four-point probe method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At room temperature, the four-point probe measurement result presents the resistance of the film to be 25 kU/sheet. The temperature coefficient of resistance is - 2.0%/K. SEM image indicates that the vanadium oxide exhibits a submicrostructure with lamella size ranging from 60 nm to 300 nm. A 32 x 32-element test microbolometer was fabricated based on the deposited thin film. The infrared response testing showed that the response was 200 mV. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the vanadium oxide thin films on SiO 2 buffer layers is suitable for uncooled focal plane arrays applications

  16. Solution-processed In2S3 buffer layer for chalcopyrite thin film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Lan; Lin Xianzhong; Ennaoui Ahmed; Wolf Christian; Lux-Steiner Martha Ch.; Klenk Reiner

    2016-01-01

    We report a route to deposit In2S3 thin films from air-stable, low-cost molecular precursor inks for Cd-free buffer layers in chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells. Different precursor compositions and processing conditions were studied to define a reproducible and robust process. By adjusting the ink properties, this method can be applied in different printing and coating techniques. Here we report on two techniques, namely spin-coating ...

  17. ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S-based buffer layer deposition for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N [Littleton, CO

    2009-11-03

    The invention provides CBD ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S and spray deposited ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S buffer layers prepared from a solution of zinc salt, thiourea and ammonium hydroxide dissolved in a non-aqueous/aqueous solvent mixture or in 100% non-aqueous solvent. Non-aqueous solvents useful in the invention include methanol, isopropanol and triethyl-amine. One-step deposition procedures are described for CIS, CIGS and other solar cell devices.

  18. Non-Toxic Buffer Layers in Flexible Cu(In,GaSe2 Photovoltaic Cell Applications with Optimized Absorber Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Asaduzzaman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorber layer thickness gradient in Cu(In1−xGaxSe2 (CIGS based solar cells and several substitutes for typical cadmium sulfide (CdS buffer layers, such as ZnS, ZnO, ZnS(O,OH, Zn1−xSnxOy (ZTO, ZnSe, and In2S3, have been analyzed by a device emulation program and tool (ADEPT 2.1 to determine optimum efficiency. As a reference type, the CIGS cell with CdS buffer provides a theoretical efficiency of 23.23% when the optimum absorber layer thickness was determined as 1.6 μm. It is also observed that this highly efficient CIGS cell would have an absorber layer thickness between 1 μm and 2 μm whereas the optimum buffer layer thickness would be within the range of 0.04–0.06 μm. Among all the cells with various buffer layers, the best energy conversion efficiency of 24.62% has been achieved for the ZnO buffer layer based cell. The simulation results with ZnS and ZnO based buffer layer materials instead of using CdS indicate that the cell performance would be better than that of the CdS buffer layer based cell. Although the cells with ZnS(O,OH, ZTO, ZnSe, and In2S3 buffer layers provide slightly lower efficiencies than that of the CdS buffer based cell, the use of these materials would not be deleterious for the environment because of their non-carcinogenic and non-toxic nature.

  19. Electrically conducting oxide buffer layers on biaxially textured nickel alloy tapes by reel-to-reel MOCVD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadel, O; Samoilenkov, S V; Muydinov, R Yu; Schmidt, J; Keune, H; Wahl, G; Gorbenko, O Yu; Korsakov, I E; Melnikov, O V; Kaul, A R

    2006-01-01

    Reel-to-reel MOCVD process for continuous growth of electrically conducting buffer layers on biaxially textured Ni5W tapes has been developed. The new buffer layer architechture is presented: 200 nm (La, Ba) 2 CuO 4 /40 nm (La, Ba)MnO 3 /Ni5W. Constituting layers with high structural quality have been grown on moving tapes (in plane FWHM ≤ 6 0 and out of plane FWHM ≤ 3 0 )

  20. Analysis of reaction between c+a and -c+a dislocations in GaN layer grown on 4-inch Si(111) substrate with AlGaN/AlN strained layer superlattice by transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Yukari, E-mail: yukari@jfcc.or.jp [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Atsuta, Nagoya, 456-8587 (Japan); Watanabe, Arata [Research Center for Nano Devices and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan); Miyoshi, Makoto; Egawa, Takashi [Research Center for Nano Devices and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan); Innovation Center for Multi-Business of Nitride Semiconductors, Nagoya Institute of Technoloy, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    The behavior of dislocations in a GaN layer grown on a 4-inch Si(111) substrate with an AlGaN/AlN strained layer superlattice using horizontal metal-organic chemical vapor deposition was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Cross-sectional observation indicated that a drastic decrease in the dislocation density occurred in the GaN layer. The reaction of a dislocation (b=1/3[-211-3]) and anothor dislocation (b =1/3[-2113]) to form one dislocation (b =2/3[-2110]) in the GaN layer was clarified by plan-view observation using weak-beam dark-field and large-angle convergent-beam diffraction methods.

  1. Double-layered buffer to enhance the thermal performance in a high-level radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Heui-Joo; Choi, Jongwon

    2008-01-01

    A thermal performance is one of the most important factors in the design of a geological disposal system for high-level radioactive wastes. According to the conceptual design of the Korean Reference disposal System, the maximum temperature of its buffer with a domestic Ca-bentonite is close to the thermal criterion, 100 deg. C. In order to improve the thermal conductivity of its buffer, several kinds of additives are compared. Among the additives, graphite shows the best result in that the thermal conductivity of the bentonite block is more than 2.0 W/m deg. C. We introduced the concept of a double-layered buffer instead of a traditional bentonite block in order to use the applied additive more effectively. The thermal analysis, based upon the three-dimensional finite element method, shows that a double-layered buffer could reduce the maximum temperature on a canister's surface by 7 deg. C under identical conditions when compared with a single-layered buffer. An analytical solution was derived to efficiently analyze the effects of a double-layered buffer. The illustrative cases show that the temperature differences due to a double-layered buffer depend on the thickness of the buffer

  2. Enhancing the performance of organic thin-film transistors using an organic-doped inorganic buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Shui-Hsiang, E-mail: shsu@isu.edu.tw; Wu, Chung-Ming; Kung, Shu-Yi; Yokoyama, Meiso

    2013-06-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) with various buffer layers between the active layer and source/drain electrodes were investigated. The structure was polyethylene terephthalate/indium-tin oxide/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/pentacene/buffer layer/Au (source/drain). V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 4,4′,4″-tris{N,(3-methylpheny)-N-phenylamino}-triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) and m-MTDATA-doped V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films were utilized as buffer layers. The electrical performances of OTFTs in terms of drain current, threshold voltage, mobility and on/off current ratio have been determined. As a result, the saturation current of − 40 μA is achieved in OTFTs with a 10% m-MTDATA-doped V{sub 2}O{sub 5} buffer layer at a V{sub GS} of − 60 V. The on/off current ratio reaches 2 × 10{sup 5}, which is approximately double of the device without a buffer layer. The energy band diagrams of the electrode/buffer layer/pentacene were measured using ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy. The improvement in electrical characteristics of the OTFTs is attributable to the weakening of the interface dipole and the lowering of the barrier to enhance holes transportation from the source electrode to the active layer. - Highlights: • A buffer layer enhances the performance of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). • The buffer layer consists of organic-doped inorganic material. • Interface dipole is weakened at the active layer/electrodes interface of OTFTs.

  3. Effects of buffer layer temperature on the magnetic properties of NdFeB thin film magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.B.; Cho, S.H.; Kim, H.T.; Ryu, K.S.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, K.H.; Kapustin, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of the buffer layer temperature (T b ) on the magnetic properties and microstructure of [Mo/NdFeB/Mo]-type thin films have been investigated. The Mo-buffer layer with low T b is composed of fine grains while that with high T b has coarse grains. The subsequent NdFeB layer also grows with fine or coarse grains following the buffer layer structure. The NdFeB layer grown on a low T b buffer shows high coercivity and strong perpendicular anisotropy. The best magnetic properties of i H c =1.01 MA/m (12.7 kOe), B r =1.31 T (13.1 kG) and BH max =329 kJ/m 3 (41.4 MGOe) were obtained from the film with T b =400 deg. C

  4. Organic field-effect transistors with surface modification by using a PVK buffer layer on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyung, Gun Woo; Lee, Dong Hyung; Koo, Ja Ryong; Kim, Young Kwan [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hoon [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    We have fabricated pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a gate dielectric such as crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (c-PVA), with poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) buffer layer on a polyethersulfone (PES) flexible substrate, and with substrate heating at a temperature below 120 .deg. C, and we demonstrated the possibility of using an organic gate dielectric layer as a potential pentacene TFT with a PVK buffer layer for low-voltage operation on a plastic substrate. We report the excellent electrical properties of organic TFTs with a PVK buffer layer. The PVK buffer layer improves the performance of the devices and reduces the operating voltage of the devices. Our pentacene TFTs can be fabricated with mobilities > 2.54 cm{sup 2}/Vs and on/off current ratios > 7.5E5 and with flexible organic dielectrics and substrates.

  5. Porosity-induced relaxation of strains in GaN layers studied by means of micro-indentation and optical spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel; Gerland, Michel; Jouiad, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    We report the fabrication of porous GaNnanostructures using UV-assisted electroless etching of bulk GaN layer grown on c-plane sapphire substrate in a solution consisting of HF:CH3OH:H2O2. The morphology of the porous Ga

  6. Linearly polarized photoluminescence of anisotropically strained c-plane GaN layers on stripe-shaped cavity-engineered sapphire substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongmyeong; Moon, Daeyoung; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Donghyun; Yang, Duyoung; Jang, Jeonghwan; Park, Yongjo; Yoon, Euijoon

    2018-05-01

    Anisotropic in-plane strain and resultant linearly polarized photoluminescence (PL) of c-plane GaN layers were realized by using a stripe-shaped cavity-engineered sapphire substrate (SCES). High resolution X-ray reciprocal space mapping measurements revealed that the GaN layers on the SCES were under significant anisotropic in-plane strain of -0.0140% and -0.1351% along the directions perpendicular and parallel to the stripe pattern, respectively. The anisotropic in-plane strain in the GaN layers was attributed to the anisotropic strain relaxation due to the anisotropic arrangement of cavity-incorporated membranes. Linearly polarized PL behavior such as the observed angle-dependent shift in PL peak position and intensity comparable with the calculated value based on k.p perturbation theory. It was found that the polarized PL behavior was attributed to the modification of valence band structures induced by anisotropic in-plane strain in the GaN layers on the SCES.

  7. The role of inversion domain boundaries in fabricating crack-free GaN films on sapphire substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yong Nam, E-mail: ynahn81@gmail.com; Lee, Sung Hoon, E-mail: sunghoon.lee@corning.com; Lim, Sung Keun, E-mail: sk96.lim@samsung.com; Woo, Kwang Je, E-mail: kwangje.woo@corning.com; Kim, Hyunbin, E-mail: hyunbin.kim@corning.com

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Atomistic simulations of inversion domain boundary (IDB) in GaN were performed. • The existence of IDBs in GaN films leads to the reduction of the film stiffness. • A sudden reduction of IDB density induces a strong tensile stress within the films. • The density of IDB in GaN film can be controlled by adjusting GaCl/NH{sub 3} flow ratio. • A microstructure of GaN buffer layer for minimization of stress was proposed. - Abstract: Inversion domain boundaries (IDBs) are frequently found in GaN films grown on sapphire substrates. However, the lack of atomic-level understandings about the effects of the IDBs on the properties of GaN films has hindered to utilize the IDBs for the stress release that minimizes the crack-formation in GaN films. This study performed atomistic computational analyses to fundamentally understand the roles of the IDBs in the development of the stresses in the GaN films. A sudden reduction of the IDB density induces a strong intrinsic stress in the GaN films, possibly leading to the mud-cracking of the films. A gradual decrease in the IDB density was achieved by slowly reducing the GaCl flux during the growth process of GaN buffer layer on sapphire substrates, and allowed us to experimentally demonstrate the successful fabrication of 4-in. crack-free GaN films. This approach may contribute to the fabrication of larger crack-free GaN films.

  8. The role of inversion domain boundaries in fabricating crack-free GaN films on sapphire substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Yong Nam; Lee, Sung Hoon; Lim, Sung Keun; Woo, Kwang Je; Kim, Hyunbin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Atomistic simulations of inversion domain boundary (IDB) in GaN were performed. • The existence of IDBs in GaN films leads to the reduction of the film stiffness. • A sudden reduction of IDB density induces a strong tensile stress within the films. • The density of IDB in GaN film can be controlled by adjusting GaCl/NH 3 flow ratio. • A microstructure of GaN buffer layer for minimization of stress was proposed. - Abstract: Inversion domain boundaries (IDBs) are frequently found in GaN films grown on sapphire substrates. However, the lack of atomic-level understandings about the effects of the IDBs on the properties of GaN films has hindered to utilize the IDBs for the stress release that minimizes the crack-formation in GaN films. This study performed atomistic computational analyses to fundamentally understand the roles of the IDBs in the development of the stresses in the GaN films. A sudden reduction of the IDB density induces a strong intrinsic stress in the GaN films, possibly leading to the mud-cracking of the films. A gradual decrease in the IDB density was achieved by slowly reducing the GaCl flux during the growth process of GaN buffer layer on sapphire substrates, and allowed us to experimentally demonstrate the successful fabrication of 4-in. crack-free GaN films. This approach may contribute to the fabrication of larger crack-free GaN films

  9. The effect of the MgO buffer layer thickness on magnetic anisotropy in MgO/Fe/Cr/MgO buffer/MgO(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozioł-Rachwał, Anna, E-mail: a.koziolrachwal@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Nozaki, Takayuki; Zayets, Vadym; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Suzuki, Yoshishige [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2016-08-28

    The relationship between the magnetic properties and MgO buffer layer thickness d was studied in epitaxial MgO/Fe(t)/Cr/MgO(d) layers grown on MgO(001) substrate in which the Fe thickness t ranged from 0.4 nm to 1.1 nm. For 0.4 nm ≤ t ≤ 0.7 nm, a non-monotonic coercivity dependence on the MgO buffer thickness was shown by perpendicular magneto-optic Kerr effect magnetometry. For thicker Fe films, an increase in the buffer layer thickness resulted in a spin reorientation transition from perpendicular to the in-plane magnetization direction. Possible origins of these unusual behaviors were discussed in terms of the suppression of carbon contamination at the Fe surface and changes in the magnetoelastic anisotropy in the system. These results illustrate a method to control magnetic anisotropy in MgO/Fe/Cr/MgO(d) via an appropriate choice of MgO buffer layer thickness d.

  10. Growth of highly textured SnS on mica using an SnSe buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.F.; Fong, W.K.; Wang, W.; Surya, C.

    2014-01-01

    We report the growth of SnS thin films on mica substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Excellent 2D layered structure and strong (001) texture were observed with a record low rocking curve full width at half maximum of ∼ 0.101° for the SnS(004) diffraction. An interface model is used to investigate the nucleation of SnS on mica which indicates the co-existence of six pairs of lateral growth orientations and is in excellent agreement with the experimental Φ-scan measurements indicating 12 peaks separated by 30° from each other. To control the lateral growth of the SnS epilayers we investigate the utilization of a thin SnSe buffer layer deposited on the mica substrate prior to the growth of the SnS thin film. The excellent lattice match between SnSe and mica enhances the alignment of the nucleation of SnS and suppresses the minor lateral orientations along the mica[110] direction and its orthogonal axis. Detailed low-frequency noise measurement was performed to characterize the trap density in the films and our results clearly demonstrate substantial reduction in the density of the localized states in the SnS epilayer with the use of an SnSe buffer layer. - Highlights: • A record low rocking curve FWHM for deposited SnS on mica • Investigation of the nucleation of SnS on mica using the interface model • Investigation of nucleation mechanism by phi-scan measurement • Grain boundary formation from crystallites of various nucleation orientations • Suppression of nucleation orientations using an SnSe buffer layer

  11. Single phase semipolar (11 anti 22) GaN on (10 anti 10) sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploch, S.; Stellmach, J.; Schwaner, T.; Frentrup, M.; Wernicke, T.; Pristovsek, M.; Kneissl, M. [Institute of Solid States Physics, (Germany); Park, J.B.; Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M. [Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, TU Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    InGaN quantum well based light emitters grown on (0001) GaN suffer from poor quantum efficiencies with increasing indium mole fraction due to strong polarization fields along the polar crystal orientation. This effect can be greatly reduced by growing on semi- and non-polar GaN orientations. Semipolar (11 anti 22) GaN layers were deposited by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy on (10 anti 10) sapphire. After sapphire substrate nitridation at 1000 C, a GaN nucleation layer was deposited at high temperature, followed by the deposition of 1.5 nm thick GaN buffer layers. The samples show predominantly (11 anti 22) orientation with a small fraction of (10 anti 13) oriented domains. With increasing nitridation layer thickness the (10 anti 13) phase is suppressed leading to a very smooth surface morphology (rms roughness < 4nm). PL measurements show dominant basel plane stacking fault (BSF) I{sub 1} luminescence without any other defects. Transmission electron microscopy measurements reveal a high BSF density. The FWHM of the X-ray diffraction rocking curve measurements of the (1122) reflection decreases to 1193 arcsec and 739 arcsec along [1 anti 100] and [11 anti 23] respectively with increasing nucleation temperature. Using high temperature nucleation smooth and homogeneous (11 anti 22) phase GaN layers have been obtained.

  12. Microstructural characterization of chemical bath deposited and sputtered Zn(O,S) buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautron, E.; Buffière, M.; Harel, S.; Assmann, L.; Arzel, L.; Brohan, L.; Kessler, J.; Barreau, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims at investigating the microstructure of Zn(O,S) buffer layers relative to their deposition route, namely either chemical bath deposition (CBD) or RF co-sputtering process (PVD) under pure Ar. The core of the study consists of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization of the differently grown Zn(O,S) thin films on co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGSe) absorbers. It shows that the morphology of Zn(O,S) layer deposited on CIGSe using CBD process is made of a thin layer of well oriented ZnS sphalerite-(111) and/or ZnS wurtzite-(0002) planes parallel to CIGSe chalcopyrite-(112) planes at the interface with CIGSe followed by misoriented nanometer-sized ZnS crystallites in an amorphous phase. As far as (PVD)Zn(O,S) is concerned, the TEM analyses reveal two different microstructures depending on the S-content in the films: for [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.6, the buffer layer is made of ZnO zincite and ZnS wurtzite crystallites grown nearly coherently to each other, with (0002) planes nearly parallel with CIGSe-(112) planes, while for [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.3, it is made of ZnO zincite type crystals with O atoms substituted by S atoms, with (0002) planes perfectly aligned with CIGSe-(112) planes. Such microstructural differences can explain why photovoltaic performances are dependent on the Zn(O,S) buffer layer deposition route. - Highlights: ► Zn(O,S) layers were grown by chemical bath (CBD) or physical vapor (PVD) deposition. ► For CBD, a 3 nm ZnS layer is followed by ZnS nano-crystallites in an amorphous phase. ► For PVD with [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.3, the layer has a Zn(O,S) zincite structure. ► For PVD with [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.6, ZnS wurtzite and ZnO zincite phases are mixed

  13. Effects of buffer layer annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of hydrothermal grown ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, X.Q.; Kim, C.R.; Lee, J.Y.; Heo, J.H.; Shin, C.M. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, J.H. [Major of Nano Semiconductor, Korea Maritime University, 1 Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-Ku, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.C. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Korea Maritime University, 1 Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-Ku, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Son, C.S. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Silla University, Gwaebeop-dong, Sasang-gu, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Nano Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, W.G. [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, 861-1 Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Tan, S.T. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Zhao, J.L. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, X.W. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2009-02-01

    ZnO was deposited on bare Si(1 0 0), as-deposited, and annealed ZnO/Si(1 0 0) substrates by hydrothermal synthesis. The effects of a ZnO buffer layer and its thermal annealing on the properties of the ZnO deposited by hydrothermal synthesis were studied. The grain size and root mean square (RMS) roughness values of the ZnO buffer layer increased after thermal annealing of the buffer layer. The effect of buffer layer annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties was investigated by photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Hydrothermal grown ZnO deposited on ZnO/Si(1 0 0) annealed at 750 deg. C with the concentration of 0.3 M exhibits the best structural and optical properties.

  14. High Performance Nano-Constituent Buffer Layer Thin Films to Enable Low Cost Integrated On-the-Move Communications Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, M. W; Nothwang, W. D; Hubbard, C; Ngo, E; Hirsch, S

    2004-01-01

    .... Utilizing a coplanar device design we successfully designed, fabricated, characterized, and optimized a high performance Ta2O5 thin film passive buffer layer on Si substrates, which will allow...

  15. ZnO buffer layer for metal films on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon

    2014-09-16

    Dramatic improvements in metallization integrity and electroceramic thin film performance can be achieved by the use of the ZnO buffer layer to minimize interfacial energy between metallization and adhesion layers. In particular, the invention provides a substrate metallization method utilizing a ZnO adhesion layer that has a high work of adhesion, which in turn enables processing under thermal budgets typically reserved for more exotic ceramic, single-crystal, or metal foil substrates. Embodiments of the present invention can be used in a broad range of applications beyond ferroelectric capacitors, including microelectromechanical systems, micro-printed heaters and sensors, and electrochemical energy storage, where integrity of metallized silicon to high temperatures is necessary.

  16. Directed Vertical Diffusion of Photovoltaic Active Layer Components into Porous ZnO-Based Cathode Buffer Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jia-Jhen; Yang, Tsung-Yu; Lan, Yi-Kang; Wu, Wei-Ru; Su, Chun-Jen; Weng, Shih-Chang; Yamada, Norifumi L; Su, An-Chung; Jeng, U-Ser

    2018-04-01

    Cathode buffer layers (CBLs) can effectively further the efficiency of polymer solar cells (PSCs), after optimization of the active layer. Hidden between the active layer and cathode of the inverted PSC device configuration is the critical yet often unattended vertical diffusion of the active layer components across CBL. Here, a novel methodology of contrast variation with neutron and anomalous X-ray reflectivity to map the multicomponent depth compositions of inverted PSCs, covering from the active layer surface down to the bottom of the ZnO-based CBL, is developed. Uniquely revealed for a high-performance model PSC are the often overlooked porosity distributions of the ZnO-based CBL and the differential diffusions of the polymer PTB7-Th and fullerene derivative PC 71 BM of the active layer into the CBL. Interface modification of the ZnO-based CBL with fullerene derivative PCBEOH for size-selective nanochannels can selectively improve the diffusion of PC 71 BM more than that of the polymer. The deeper penetration of PC 71 BM establishes a gradient distribution of fullerene derivatives over the ZnO/PCBE-OH CBL, resulting in markedly improved electron mobility and device efficiency of the inverted PSC. The result suggests a new CBL design concept of progressive matching of the conduction bands. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. High-resolution electron microscopy study of Ni81Fe19 film with Co33Cr67 buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Q.Y.; Wang, Z.M.; Shen, F.; Du, Y.W.; Zhang, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) in permalloy Ni 81 Fe 19 film deposited on a 1.2 nm Co 33 Cr 67 buffer layer was significantly enhanced. The high-resolution electron microscopy was used to study the microstructure of Ni 81 Fe 19 film with and without Co 33 Cr 67 buffer layer. It was found that Co 33 Cr 67 buffer layer can induce good (1 1 1) texture, while without Co 33 Cr 67 buffer layer, Ni 81 Fe 19 film show randomly oriented grain structure. The Δρ/ρ enhancement is attributed to the decrease in the resistivity ρ of the Ni 81 Fe 19 film due to the formation of the large (1 1 1) textured grains in Ni 81 Fe 19 film with Co 33 Cr 67 buffer layer. However, the surface roughness of substrate may limit the (1 1 1) textured grain size and induce additional grain boundaries in Ni 81 Fe 19 film with Co 33 Cr 67 buffer layer, limit the enhancement of the AMR effect

  18. Growth kinetics for temperature-controlled atomic layer deposition of GaN using trimethylgallium and remote-plasma-excited NH{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pansila, P. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Kanomata, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Miura, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Ahmmad, B.; Kubota, S. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Hirose, F., E-mail: fhirose@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • We discuss the reaction mechanism of the low temperature GaN ALD. • The plasma-excited NH{sub 3} is effective in the nitridation of the TMG saturated GaN surface with surface temperatures in excess of 100 °C. • The temperature controlled ALD of GaN is examined using RT-TMG adsorption and plasma-excited NH{sub 3} treatment with the temperature of 115 °C. - Abstract: Fundamental surface reactions in the atomic layer deposition of GaN with trimethylgallium (TMG) and plasma-excited NH{sub 3} are investigated by multiple-internal-reflection infrared absorption spectroscopy (MIR-IRAS) at surface temperatures varying from room temperature (RT) to 400 °C. It is found that TMG is saturated at RT on GaN surfaces when the TMG exposure exceeds 8 × 10{sup 4} Langmuir (L), where 1 L corresponds to 1.33 × 10{sup −4} Pa s (or 1.0 × 10{sup −6} Torr s), and its saturation density reaches the maximum value at RT. Nitridation with the plasma-excited NH{sub 3} on the TMG-saturated GaN surface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nitridation becomes effective at surface temperatures in excess of 100 °C. The reaction models of TMG adsorption and nitridation on the GaN surface are proposed in this paper. Based on the surface analysis, a temperature-controlled ALD process consisting of RT-TMG adsorption and nitridation at 115 °C is examined, where the growth per cycle of 0.045 nm/cycle is confirmed. XPS analysis indicates that all N atoms are bonded as GaN. Atomic force microscopy indicates an average roughness of 0.23 nm. We discuss the reaction mechanism of GaN ALD in the low-temperature region at around 115 °C with TMG and plasma-excited NH{sub 3}.

  19. Growth kinetics for temperature-controlled atomic layer deposition of GaN using trimethylgallium and remote-plasma-excited NH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pansila, P.; Kanomata, K.; Miura, M.; Ahmmad, B.; Kubota, S.; Hirose, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We discuss the reaction mechanism of the low temperature GaN ALD. • The plasma-excited NH 3 is effective in the nitridation of the TMG saturated GaN surface with surface temperatures in excess of 100 °C. • The temperature controlled ALD of GaN is examined using RT-TMG adsorption and plasma-excited NH 3 treatment with the temperature of 115 °C. - Abstract: Fundamental surface reactions in the atomic layer deposition of GaN with trimethylgallium (TMG) and plasma-excited NH 3 are investigated by multiple-internal-reflection infrared absorption spectroscopy (MIR-IRAS) at surface temperatures varying from room temperature (RT) to 400 °C. It is found that TMG is saturated at RT on GaN surfaces when the TMG exposure exceeds 8 × 10 4 Langmuir (L), where 1 L corresponds to 1.33 × 10 −4 Pa s (or 1.0 × 10 −6 Torr s), and its saturation density reaches the maximum value at RT. Nitridation with the plasma-excited NH 3 on the TMG-saturated GaN surface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nitridation becomes effective at surface temperatures in excess of 100 °C. The reaction models of TMG adsorption and nitridation on the GaN surface are proposed in this paper. Based on the surface analysis, a temperature-controlled ALD process consisting of RT-TMG adsorption and nitridation at 115 °C is examined, where the growth per cycle of 0.045 nm/cycle is confirmed. XPS analysis indicates that all N atoms are bonded as GaN. Atomic force microscopy indicates an average roughness of 0.23 nm. We discuss the reaction mechanism of GaN ALD in the low-temperature region at around 115 °C with TMG and plasma-excited NH 3 .

  20. Elimination of macrostep-induced current flow nonuniformity in vertical GaN PN diode using carbon-free drift layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Hajime; Hayashi, Kentaro; Horikiri, Fumimasa; Narita, Yoshinobu; Konno, Taichiro; Yoshida, Takehiro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Mishima, Tomoyoshi

    2018-04-01

    In vertical GaN PN diodes (PNDs) grown entirely by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), large current nonuniformity was observed. This nonuniformity was induced by macrosteps on the GaN surface through modulation of carbon incorporation into the n-GaN crystal. It was eliminated in a hybrid PND consisting of a carbon-free n-GaN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and an MOCVD-regrown p-GaN layer. The hybrid PND showed a fairly low on-resistance (2 mΩ cm2) and high breakdown voltage (2 kV) even without a field plate electrode. These results clearly indicated the strong advantages of the HVPE-grown drift layer for improving power device performance, uniformity, and yield.

  1. Probing the dielectric response of the interfacial buffer layer in epitaxial graphene via optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather M.; Rigosi, Albert F.; Chowdhury, Sugata; Yang, Yanfei; Nguyen, Nhan V.; Tavazza, Francesca; Elmquist, Randolph E.; Newell, David B.; Hight Walker, Angela R.

    2017-11-01

    Monolayer epitaxial graphene (EG) is a suitable candidate for a variety of electronic applications. One advantage of EG growth on the Si face of SiC is that it develops as a single crystal, as does the layer below, referred to as the interfacial buffer layer (IBL), whose properties include an electronic band gap. Although much research has been conducted to learn about the electrical properties of the IBL, not nearly as much work has been reported on the optical properties of the IBL. In this work, we combine measurements from Mueller matrix ellipsometry, differential reflectance contrast, atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, as well as calculations from Kramers-Kronig analyses and density-functional theory, to determine the dielectric function of the IBL within the energy range of 1 eV to 8.5 eV.

  2. Growth kinetics for temperature-controlled atomic layer deposition of GaN using trimethylgallium and remote-plasma-excited NH3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansila, P.; Kanomata, K.; Miura, M.; Ahmmad, B.; Kubota, S.; Hirose, F.

    2015-12-01

    Fundamental surface reactions in the atomic layer deposition of GaN with trimethylgallium (TMG) and plasma-excited NH3 are investigated by multiple-internal-reflection infrared absorption spectroscopy (MIR-IRAS) at surface temperatures varying from room temperature (RT) to 400 °C. It is found that TMG is saturated at RT on GaN surfaces when the TMG exposure exceeds 8 × 104 Langmuir (L), where 1 L corresponds to 1.33 × 10-4 Pa s (or 1.0 × 10-6 Torr s), and its saturation density reaches the maximum value at RT. Nitridation with the plasma-excited NH3 on the TMG-saturated GaN surface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nitridation becomes effective at surface temperatures in excess of 100 °C. The reaction models of TMG adsorption and nitridation on the GaN surface are proposed in this paper. Based on the surface analysis, a temperature-controlled ALD process consisting of RT-TMG adsorption and nitridation at 115 °C is examined, where the growth per cycle of 0.045 nm/cycle is confirmed. XPS analysis indicates that all N atoms are bonded as GaN. Atomic force microscopy indicates an average roughness of 0.23 nm. We discuss the reaction mechanism of GaN ALD in the low-temperature region at around 115 °C with TMG and plasma-excited NH3.

  3. Copper variation in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells with indium sulphide buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiering, S., E-mail: stefanie.spiering@zsw-bw.de [Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW) Baden-Wuerttemberg, Industriestrasse 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Paetel, S.; Kessler, F. [Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW) Baden-Wuerttemberg, Industriestrasse 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Igalson, M.; Abdel Maksoud, H. [Warsaw University of Technology (WUT), Faculty of Physics, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-05-01

    In the manufacturing of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin film solar cells the application of a buffer layer on top of the absorber is essential to obtain high efficiency devices. Regarding the roll-to-roll production of CIGS cells and modules a vacuum deposition process for the buffer is preferable to the conventional cadmium sulphide buffer deposited in a chemical bath. Promising results have already been achieved for the deposition of indium sulphide buffer by different vacuum techniques. The solar device performance is very sensitive to the conditions at the absorber-buffer heterojunction. In view of optimization we investigated the influence of the Cu content in the absorber on the current-voltage characteristics. In this work the integral copper content was varied between 19 and 23 at.% in CIGS on glass substrates. An improvement of the cell performance by enhanced open circuit voltage was observed for a reduction to ~ 21 at.% when thermally evaporated indium sulphide was applied as the buffer layer. The influence of stoichiometry deviations on the transport mechanism and secondary barriers in the device was studied using detailed dark and light current-voltage analysis and admittance spectroscopy and compared to the reference CdS-buffered cells. We conclude that the composition of the absorber in the interface region affects current transport in In{sub x}S{sub y}-buffered and CdS-buffered cells in different ways hence optimal Cu content in those two types of devices is different. - Highlights: • Influence of Cu-variation in CIGS cells with In{sub x}S{sub y} buffer layer on cell performance • Enhanced efficiency by slight reduction of Cu-content to 21 at.% • Contribution of tunnelling-enhanced interface recombination for higher Cu-content.

  4. Optimization of the buffer layer of a side polished fiber slab coupler based on 3 D ADI beam propagation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cherl Hee; Kim, Cheol; Park, Jae Hee

    2008-01-01

    A side polished fiber slab coupler has been widely applied to a sensor, which has the advantages of short response time, simple manufacturing process, and reusability as well as in line fiber component. A new type of a side polished fiber sensor providing remote sensing with an improved performance was also recently developed. The side polished fiber slab coupler is modeled as a fiber to planar waveguide coupler with four layers, including the fiber cladding, a buffer layer, planar waveguide and overlay material. The coupling effects by the buffer layer of a side polished fiber slab coupler are analyzed by using 3 dimensional alternating direction implicit (ADI)beam propagation method, where the refractive index and thickness of the buffer layer were tuned for efficient light coupling. The coupling is easily tuned and more occurred by the refractive index and thickness of the buffer layer for efficient coupling. This study tried to optimize the buffer layer parameters for achieving the desired light coupling and power transfer performance

  5. Buffer free MOCVD growth of GaN on 4H-SiC: Effect of substrate treatments and UV-photoirradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, Maria; Giangregorio, Maria M.; Bruno, Giovanni [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM UdR Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Kim, Tong-Ho; Choi, Soojeong; Brown, April [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27709 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    GaN has been grown directly on the Si-face 4H-SiC(0001) substrates using remote plasma-assisted metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (RP-MOCVD) with UV-light irradiation. The effects of substrate pre-treatments and UV-photoirradiation of the growth surface on GaN nucleation and film morphology are investigated. Optical data from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements and morphological data show an improvement in nucleation and material quality with UV-light irradiation. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Control of residual carbon concentration in GaN high electron mobility transistor and realization of high-resistance GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.G. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, D.G., E-mail: dgzhao@red.semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, D.S.; Liu, Z.S.; Chen, P.; Le, L.C.; Yang, J.; Li, X.J. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, S.M.; Zhu, J.J.; Wang, H.; Yang, H. [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China)

    2014-08-01

    GaN films were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) under various growth conditions. The influences of MOCVD growth parameters, i.e., growth pressure, ammonia (NH{sub 3}) flux, growth temperature, trimethyl-gallium flux and H{sub 2} flux, on residual carbon concentration ([C]) were systematically investigated. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show that [C] can be effectively modulated by growth conditions. Especially, it can increase by reducing growth pressure up to two orders of magnitude. High-resistance (HR) GaN epilayer with a resistivity over 1.0 × 10{sup 9} Ω·cm is achieved by reducing growth pressure. The mechanism of the formation of HR GaN epilayer is discussed. An Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure with a HR GaN buffer layer and an additional low-carbon GaN channel layer is presented, exhibiting a high two dimensional electron gas mobility of 1815 cm{sup 2}/Vs. - Highlights: • Influence of MOCVD parameters on residual carbon concentration in GaN is studied. • GaN layer with a resistivity over 1 × 10{sup 9} Ω·cm is achieved by reducing growth pressure. • High electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures were prepared. • Control of residual carbon content results in HEMT with high 2-D electron gas mobility.

  7. P-6 : Impact of buffer layers on the self-aligned top-gate a-IGZO TFT characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nag, M.; en de rest

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present the impact of buffer layers deposited by various techniques such as plasma enhanced chemical deposition (PECVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques on self-aligned (SA) top gate amorphous-Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (a-IGZO) TFT

  8. Ultra-smooth epitaxial Ge grown on Si(001) utilizing a thin C-doped Ge buffer layer

    KAUST Repository

    Mantey, J.; Hsu, W.; James, J.; Onyegam, E. U.; Guchhait, S.; Banerjee, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present work on epitaxial Ge films grown on a thin buffer layer of C doped Ge (Ge:C). The growth rate of Ge:C is found to slow over time and is thus unsuitable for thick (>20 nm) layers. We demonstrate Ge films from 10 nm to >150 nm

  9. Comparison of trimethylgallium and triethylgallium as “Ga” source materials for the growth of ultrathin GaN films on Si (100) substrates via hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alevli, Mustafa; Haider, Ali; Kizir, Seda; Leghari, Shahid A.; Biyikli, Necmi

    2016-01-01

    GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMG) and triethylgallium (TEG) as gallium precursors are compared. Optimized and saturated TMG/TEG pulse widths were used in order to study the effect of group-III precursors. The films were characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Refractive index follows the same trend of crystalline quality, mean grain, and crystallite sizes. GaN layers grown using TMG precursor exhibited improved structural and optical properties when compared to GaN films grown with TEG precursor

  10. Comparison of trimethylgallium and triethylgallium as “Ga” source materials for the growth of ultrathin GaN films on Si (100) substrates via hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alevli, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafaalevli@marmara.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Marmara University, Göztepe Kadıköy, 34722 İstanbul (Turkey); Haider, Ali; Kizir, Seda; Leghari, Shahid A.; Biyikli, Necmi, E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara, Turkey and National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMG) and triethylgallium (TEG) as gallium precursors are compared. Optimized and saturated TMG/TEG pulse widths were used in order to study the effect of group-III precursors. The films were characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Refractive index follows the same trend of crystalline quality, mean grain, and crystallite sizes. GaN layers grown using TMG precursor exhibited improved structural and optical properties when compared to GaN films grown with TEG precursor.

  11. Ultra-smooth epitaxial Ge grown on Si(001) utilizing a thin C-doped Ge buffer layer

    KAUST Repository

    Mantey, J.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present work on epitaxial Ge films grown on a thin buffer layer of C doped Ge (Ge:C). The growth rate of Ge:C is found to slow over time and is thus unsuitable for thick (>20 nm) layers. We demonstrate Ge films from 10 nm to >150 nm are possible by growing pure Ge on a thin Ge:C buffer. It is shown that this stack yields exceedingly low roughness levels (comparable to bulk Si wafers) and contains fewer defects and higher Hall mobility compared to traditional heteroepitaxial Ge. The addition of C at the interface helps reduce strain by its smaller atomic radius and its ability to pin defects within the thin buffer layer that do not thread to the top Ge layer. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  12. Low temperature (100 °C) atomic layer deposited-ZrO2 for recessed gate GaN HEMTs on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Young-Chul; Lee, Jae-Gil; Meng, Xin; Lee, Joy S.; Lucero, Antonio T.; Kim, Si Joon; Young, Chadwin D.; Kim, Moon J.; Kim, Jiyoung

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of atomic layer deposited ZrO2 gate dielectrics, deposited at low temperature (100 °C), on the characteristics of recessed-gate High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) on Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN/Si is investigated and compared with the characteristics of those with ZrO2 films deposited at typical atomic layer deposited (ALD) process temperatures (250 °C). Negligible hysteresis (ΔVth 4 V), and low interfacial state density (Dit = 3.69 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2) were observed on recessed gate HEMTs with ˜5 nm ALD-ZrO2 films grown at 100 °C. The excellent properties of recessed gate HEMTs are due to the absence of an interfacial layer and an amorphous phase of the film. An interfacial layer between 250 °C-ZrO2 and GaN is observed via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. However, 100 °C-ZrO2 and GaN shows no significant interfacial layer formation. Moreover, while 100 °C-ZrO2 films maintain an amorphous phase on either substrate (GaN and Si), 250 °C-ZrO2 films exhibit a polycrystalline-phase when deposited on GaN and an amorphous phase when deposited on Si. Contrary to popular belief, the low-temperature ALD process for ZrO2 results in excellent HEMT performance.

  13. The role of Ag buffer layer in Fe islands growth on Ge (111) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tsu-Yi, E-mail: phtifu@phy.ntnu.edu.tw; Wu, Jia-Yuan; Jhou, Ming-Kuan; Hsu, Hung-Chan [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, 88, Sec. 4, Ting-Chou Rd, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-07

    Sub-monolayer iron atoms were deposited at room temperature on Ge (111)-c(2 × 8) substrates with and without Ag buffer layers. The behavior of Fe islands growth was investigated by using scanning tunneling microscope (STM) after different annealing temperatures. STM images show that iron atoms will cause defects and holes on substrates at room temperature. As the annealing temperature rises, iron atoms pull out germanium to form various kinds of alloyed islands. However, the silver layer can protect the Ag/Ge(111)-(√3×√3) reconstruction from forming defects. The phase diagram shows that ring, dot, and triangular defects were only found on Ge (111)-c(2 × 8) substrates. The kinds of islands found in Fe/Ge system are similar to Fe/Ag/Ge system. It indicates that Ge atoms were pulled out to form islands at high annealing temperatures whether there was a Ag layer or not. But a few differences in big pyramidal or strip islands show that the silver layer affects the development of islands by changing the surface symmetry and diffusion coefficient. The structure characters of various islands are also discussed.

  14. Semi-insulating Sn-Zr-O: Tunable resistance buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Teresa M.; Burst, James M.; Reese, Matthew O.; Perkins, Craig L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Highly resistive and transparent (HRT) buffer layers are critical components of solar cells and other opto-electronic devices. HRT layers are often undoped transparent conducting oxides. However, these oxides can be too conductive to form an optimal HRT. Here, we present a method to produce HRT layers with tunable electrical resistivity, despite the presence of high concentrations of unintentionally or intentionally added dopants in the film. This method relies on alloying wide-bandgap, high-k dielectric materials (e.g., ZrO{sub 2}) into the host oxide to tune the resistivity. We demonstrate Sn{sub x}Zr{sub 1−x}O{sub 2}:F films with tunable resistivities varying from 0.001 to 10 Ω cm, which are controlled by the Zr mole fraction in the films. Increasing Zr suppresses carriers by expanding the bandgap almost entirely by shifting the valence-band position, which allows the HRT layers to maintain good conduction-band alignment for a low-resistance front contact.

  15. Carbon thin films deposited by the magnetron sputtering technique using cobalt, copper and nickel as buffer-layers; Filmes finos de carbono depositados por meio da tecnica de magnetron sputtering usando cobalto, cobre e niquel como buffer-layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa e Silva, Danilo Lopes

    2015-11-01

    In this work, carbon thin films were produced by the magnetron sputtering technique using single crystal substrates of alumina c-plane (0001) and Si (111) and Si (100) substrates, employing Co, Ni and Cu as intermediate films (buffer-layers). The depositions were conducted in three stages, first with cobalt buffer-layers where only after the production of a large number of samples, the depositions using cooper buffer-layers were carried out on Si substrates. Then, depositions were performed with nickel buffer layers using single-crystal alumina substrates. The crystallinity of the carbon films was evaluated by using the technique of Raman spectroscopy and, then, by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphological characterization of the films was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and FEG-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD peaks related to the carbon films were observed only in the results of the samples with cobalt and nickel buffer-layers. The Raman spectroscopy showed that the carbon films with the best degree of crystallinity were the ones produced with Si (111) substrates, for the Cu buffers, and sapphire substrates for the Ni and Co buffers, where the latter resulted in a sample with the best crystallinity of all the ones produced in this work. It was observed that the cobalt has low recovering over the alumina substrates when compared to the nickel. Sorption tests of Ce ions by the carbon films were conducted in two samples and it was observed that the sorption did not occur probably because of the low crystallinity of the carbon films in both samples. (author)

  16. Fabrication of p-type porous GaN on silicon and epitaxial GaN

    OpenAIRE

    Bilousov, Oleksandr V.; Geaney, Hugh; Carvajal, Joan J.; Zubialevich, Vitaly Z.; Parbrook, Peter J.; Giguere, A.; Drouin, D.; Diaz, Francesc; Aguilo, Magdalena; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2013-01-01

    Porous GaN layers are grown on silicon from gold or platinum catalyst seed layers, and self-catalyzed on epitaxial GaN films on sapphire. Using a Mg-based precursor, we demonstrate p-type doping of the porous GaN. Electrical measurements for p-type GaN on Si show Ohmic and Schottky behavior from gold and platinum seeded GaN, respectively. Ohmicity is attributed to the formation of a Ga2Au intermetallic. Porous p-type GaN was also achieved on epitaxial n-GaN on sapphire, and transport measurem...

  17. Effect of Coating Parameters of the Buffer Layer on the Shape Ratio of TRISO-Coated Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIm, Weon Ju; Park, Jong Hoon; Park, Ji Yeon; Lee, Young Woo; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2005-01-01

    Fuel for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR's) consists of TRISO-coated particles. Fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FBCVD) has been applied to fabricate the TRISO-coated fuel particles. The TRISO particles consist of UO 2 microspheres coated with layers of porous pyrolytic carbon (PyC), inner dense PyC (IPyC), SiC, and outer dense PyC (OPyC). The porous PyC coating layer, called the buffer layer, attenuates fission recoils and provides void volume for gaseous fission products and carbon monoxide. The buffer layer, which has the highest coating rate among the coating layers, shows the largest variation of the coating thickness within a particle and a batch. This could be the most plausible source of an asphericity in the TRISO particles. The aspherical particles are expected to have an inferior fuel performance. Miller et al. have predicted that a larger stress is developed within the coating layers and thus the failure probability increases in the particles with high aspect ratios. Therefore, the shape of the TRISO-coated particles should be controlled properly and has been one of the important inspection items for the quality control of the fabrication process. In this paper, we investigated the effect of coating parameters of the buffer layer on the shape of the TRISO particles. The flow rate of coating gas and the coating temperature were varied to control the buffer layer. The asphericity of the TRISO-coated particles was evaluated for the various coating conditions of the buffer layer, but at constant coating parameters for the IPyC/SiC/OPyC layers

  18. Fe doping for making resistive GaN layers with low dislocation density; consequence on HEMTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougrioua, Z.; Lorenzini, P. [CRHEA-CNRS, rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Azize, M. [CRHEA-CNRS, rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); LUMILOG, 2720 Chemin St Bernard, 06220 Vallauris (France); Jimenez, A. [E. Politecnica. Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares (Spain); Brana, A.F.; Munoz, E. [ETSI Telecomunicacion, UPM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Beaumont, B.; Gibart, P. [LUMILOG, 2720 Chemin St Bernard, 06220 Vallauris (France)

    2005-05-01

    Highly resistive GaN (>10{sup 8} {omega}{sub {upsilon}}) is grown by MOVPE on sapphire with dislocation density in the range 10{sup 8} to 8 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}, using Fe modulation doping. High mobility 2DEGs are created at AlGaN/GaN:Fe interface for moderate Al composition: 2200 cm{sup 2}/V/s at n{sub s}{proportional_to}7.6 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. Good DC and RF small signal behaviour could be obtained in HEMTs processed on structures with less dislocated GaN:Fe template: I{sub DS}{sup max}=1.28 A/mm, g{sub m}{sup max} {proportional_to}290 mS/mm and f{sub T} {proportional_to}23 GHz were measured for 0.2 {mu}m transistors. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Optical properties of metastable shallow acceptors in Mg-doped GaN layers grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Pozina, Galia; Hemmingsson, Carl; Bergman, Peder; Kawashima, T.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.; Usui, A.; Monemar, Bo

    2010-01-01

    GaN layers doped by Mg show a metastable behavior of the near-band-gap luminescence caused by electron irradiation or UV excitation. At low temperatures < 30 K the changes in luminescence are permanent. Heating to room temperature recovers the initial low temperature spectrum shape completely. Two acceptors are involved in the recombination process as confirmed by transient PL. In as-grown samples a possible candidate for the metastable acceptor is C-N, while after annealing a second m...

  20. Atmospheric spatial atomic layer deposition of Zn(O,S) buffer layer for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, C.H.; Poodt, P.; Illeberi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxysulfide has been grown by spatial atomic layer deposition (S-ALD) and successfully applied as buffer layer in Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. S-ALD combines high deposition rates (up to nm/s) with the advantages of conventional ALD, i.e. excellent control of film composition and superior

  1. In-situ potential mapping of space charge layer in GaN nanowires under electrical field by off-axis electron holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In situ potential mapping of space charge (SC layer in a single GaN nanowire (NW contacted to the Au metal electrode has been conducted using off-axis electron holography in order to study the space distribution of SC layer under electric biases. Based on the phase image reconstructed from the complex hologram the electrostatic potential at the SC layer was clearly revealed; the SC width was estimated to be about 76 nm under zero bias condition. In order to study dynamic interrelation between the SC layer and bias conditions, the variation of the electrostatic potential due to change of the SC widths respond to the different bias conditions have also been examined. The measured SC layers are found to vary between 68 nm and 91 nm, which correspond to the saturated SC layers at the GaN-Au contact under the forward and reverse bias conditions, respectively. By plotting the square widths of the SC layer against the applied voltages, donor density of GaN NWs was derived to be about 4.3*106 cm−3. Our experiments demonstrate that in-situ electron holography under electric field can be a useful method to investigate SC layers and donor density in single NW and other heterostructures.

  2. Carbon thin films deposited by the magnetron sputtering technique using cobalt, copper and nickel as buffer-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa e Silva, Danilo Lopes

    2015-01-01

    In this work, carbon thin films were produced by the magnetron sputtering technique using single crystal substrates of alumina c-plane (0001) and Si (111) and Si (100) substrates, employing Co, Ni and Cu as intermediate films (buffer-layers). The depositions were conducted in three stages, first with cobalt buffer-layers where only after the production of a large number of samples, the depositions using cooper buffer-layers were carried out on Si substrates. Then, depositions were performed with nickel buffer layers using single-crystal alumina substrates. The crystallinity of the carbon films was evaluated by using the technique of Raman spectroscopy and, then, by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphological characterization of the films was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and FEG-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD peaks related to the carbon films were observed only in the results of the samples with cobalt and nickel buffer-layers. The Raman spectroscopy showed that the carbon films with the best degree of crystallinity were the ones produced with Si (111) substrates, for the Cu buffers, and sapphire substrates for the Ni and Co buffers, where the latter resulted in a sample with the best crystallinity of all the ones produced in this work. It was observed that the cobalt has low recovering over the alumina substrates when compared to the nickel. Sorption tests of Ce ions by the carbon films were conducted in two samples and it was observed that the sorption did not occur probably because of the low crystallinity of the carbon films in both samples. (author)

  3. Zinc Sulfide Buffer Layer for CIGS Solar Cells Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Wei You

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ZnS thin films were successfully synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD with starting materials of NH2-NH2, SC(NH22, and ZnSO4‧7H2O. ZnS thin films were deposited with different time on glass substrates by CBD at 80oC and pH=9. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns, it is found that the ZnS thin films exhibit cubic polycrystalline phase. It was found that the optimum deposition time is 90 min for preparing ZnS thin film that is suitable as buffer layer for CuIn1-xGaxSe2 solar cells. The thin film deposited for 90 min has high transmittance up to 80% in the spectra range from 350 nm to 800 nm, and the optical band gap is about 3.59 eV.

  4. Compact hematite buffer layer as a promoter of nanorod photoanode performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, R.; Cattarin, S.; Comisso, N.; Baratto, C.; Kaunisto, K.; Tkachenko, N. V.; Concina, I.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of a thin α-Fe2O3 compact buffer layer (BL) on the photoelectrochemical performances of a bare α-Fe2O3 nanorods photoanode is investigated. The BL is prepared through a simple spray deposition onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrate before the growth of a α-Fe2O3 nanorods via a hydrothermal process. Insertion of the hematite BL between the FTO and the nanorods markedly enhances the generated photocurrent, by limiting undesired losses of photogenerated charges at the FTO||electrolyte interface. The proposed approach warrants a marked improvement of material performances, with no additional thermal treatment and no use/dispersion of rare or toxic species, in agreement with the principles of green chemistry.

  5. Off-wall boundary conditions for turbulent flows obtained from buffer-layer minimal flow units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo; Pierce, Brian; Wallace, James

    2012-11-01

    There is strong evidence that the transport processes in the buffer region of wall-bounded turbulence are common across various flow configurations, even in the embryonic turbulence in transition (Park et al., Phys. Fl. 24). We use this premise to develop off-wall boundary conditions for turbulent simulations. Boundary conditions are constructed from DNS databases using periodic minimal flow units and reduced order modeling. The DNS data was taken from a channel at Reτ = 400 and a zero-pressure gradient transitional boundary layer (Sayadi et al., submitted to J . FluidMech .) . Both types of boundary conditions were first tested on a DNS of the core of the channel flow with the aim of extending their application to LES and to spatially evolving flows. 2012 CTR Summer Program.

  6. Chemical bath deposited zinc sulfide buffer layers for copper indium gallium sulfur-selenide solar cells and device analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Sambhu; Olsen, Larry C.

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium-free copper indium gallium sulfur-selenide (CIGSS) thin film solar cells have been fabricated using chemical bath deposited (CBD) zinc sulfide (ZnS) buffer layers. Shell Solar Industries provided high quality CIGSS absorber layers. The use of CBD-ZnS, which is a higher band gap material than CdS, improved the quantum efficiency of fabricated cells at lower wavelengths, leading to an increase in short circuit current. The best cell to date yielded an active area (0.43 cm 2 ) efficiency of 13.3%. The effect of the ZnS buffer layer thickness on device performance was studied carefully. This paper also presents a discussion of issues relevant to the use of the CBD-ZnS buffer material for improving device performance

  7. Superconducting NbN single-photon detectors on GaAs with an AlN buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Ekkehart; Merker, Michael; Ilin, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme (IMS), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Hertzstrasse 16, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    GaAs is the material of choice for photonic integrated circuits. It allows the monolithic integration of single-photon sources like quantum dots, waveguide based optical circuits and detectors like superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) onto one chip. The growth of high quality NbN films on GaAs is challenging, due to natural occurring surface oxides and the large lattice mismatch of about 27%. In this work, we try to overcome these problems by the introduction of a 10 nm AlN buffer layer. Due to the buffer layer, the critical temperature of 6 nm thick NbN films was increased by about 1.5 K. Furthermore, the critical current density at 4.2 K of NbN flim deposited onto GaAs with AlN buffer is 50% higher than of NbN film deposited directly onto GaAs substrate. We successfully fabricated NbN SNSPDs on GaAs with a AlN buffer layer. SNSPDs were patterned using electron-beam lithography and reactive-ion etching techniques. Results on the study of detection efficiency and jitter of a NbN SNSPD on GaAs, with and without AlN buffer layer will be presented and discussed.

  8. Effect of Alloy 625 Buffer Layer on Hardfacing of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Using Nickel Base Hardfacing Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Gopa; Das, C. R.; Albert, S. K.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Murugesan, S.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2016-04-01

    Dashpot piston, made up of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, is a part of diverse safety rod used for safe shutdown of a nuclear reactor. This component was hardfaced using nickel base AWS ER NiCr-B alloy and extensive cracking was experienced during direct deposition of this alloy on dashpot piston. Cracking reduced considerably and the component was successfully hardfaced by application of Inconel 625 as buffer layer prior to hardface deposition. Hence, a separate study was undertaken to investigate the role of buffer layer in reducing the cracking and on the microstructure of the hardfaced deposit. Results indicate that in the direct deposition of hardfacing alloy on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, both heat-affected zone (HAZ) formed and the deposit layer are hard making the thickness of the hard layer formed equal to combined thickness of both HAZ and deposit. This hard layer is unable to absorb thermal stresses resulting in the cracking of the deposit. By providing a buffer layer of Alloy 625 followed by a post-weld heat treatment, HAZ formed in the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is effectively tempered, and HAZ formed during the subsequent deposition of the hardfacing alloy over the Alloy 625 buffer layer is almost completely confined to Alloy 625, which does not harden. This reduces the cracking susceptibility of the deposit. Further, unlike in the case of direct deposition on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, dilution of the deposit by Ni-base buffer layer does not alter the hardness of the deposit and desired hardness on the deposit surface could be achieved even with lower thickness of the deposit. This gives an option for reducing the recommended thickness of the deposit, which can also reduce the risk of cracking.

  9. Formation of accessory mineral bed layers during erosion of bentonite buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, Timothy; Kanerva, Noora

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. dilute groundwater at a transmissive fracture interface, accessory phases within bentonite, such as quartz, feldspar, etc., might remain behind and form a filter bed or cake. As more and more montmorillonite is lost, the thickness of the accessory mineral bed increases and the continued transport of montmorillonite slows and possibly stops if the porosity of the filter bed is sufficiently compressed. Alternatively or concurrently, as the accessory mineral filter bed retains montmorillonite colloids, a filter cake composed of montmorillonite itself may be formed. Ultimately, depending on their extent, properties, and durability, such processes may provide the bentonite buffer system with an inherent, self-filtration mechanism which serves to limit the effects of colloidal erosion. A conceptual view of bentonite buffer extrusion and erosion in an intersecting fracture with formation of an accessory mineral filter bed and montmorillonite filter cake is presented in Figure 1. Due to the swelling pressure of the bentonite buffer, the situation described in Figure 1 may be analogous to that of the case of pressure filtration where a filter cake is formed by pressing a suspension through a filter medium and, by a mechanism known as expression, the filter cake is compressed by direct contact with a solid surface resulting in a reduction of its porosity. In order to examine whether the erosion of bentonite material through contact with dilute groundwater at a transmissive fracture interface could intrinsically result in 1) the formation of an accessory mineral filter bed and cake and/or 2) filter caking of montmorillonite itself, a series of laboratory tests were performed in a flow-through, horizontal, 1 mm aperture, artificial fracture system. Bentonite buffer material was simulated by using mixtures (75/25 weight percent ratio) of purified sodium montmorillonite and various additives serving as accessory mineral proxies

  10. Magnetic properties of Pr-Fe-B thick-film magnets deposited on Si substrates with glass buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, M.; Kurosaki, A.; Kondo, H.; Shimizu, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamashita, A.; Yanai, T.; Fukunaga, H.

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the magnetic properties of PLD-made Pr-Fe-B thick-film magnets deposited on Si substrates, an adoption of a glass buffer layer was carried out. The glass layer could be fabricated under the deposition rate of approximately 70 μm/h on a Si substrate using a Nd-YAG pulse laser in the vacuum atmosphere. The use of the layer enabled us to reduce the Pr content without a mechanical destruction and enhance (BH)max value by approximately 20 kJ/m3 compared with the average value of non-buffer layered Pr-Fe-B films with almost the same thickness. It is also considered that the layer is also effective to apply a micro magnetization to the films deposited on Si ones.

  11. Epitaxial Growth of MgxCa1-xO on GaN by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiabing; Zhou, Hong; Kim, Sang Bok; Alghamdi, Sami; Gong, Xian; Feng, Jun; Wang, Xinwei; Ye, Peide D; Gordon, Roy G

    2016-12-14

    We demonstrate for the first time that a single-crystalline epitaxial Mg x Ca 1-x O film can be deposited on gallium nitride (GaN) by atomic layer deposition (ALD). By adjusting the ratio between the amounts of Mg and Ca in the film, a lattice matched Mg x Ca 1-x O/GaN(0001) interface can be achieved with low interfacial defect density. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the lattice parameter of this ternary oxide nearly obeys Vegard's law. An atomically sharp interface from cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the high quality of the epitaxy. High-temperature capacitance-voltage characterization showed that the film with composition Mg 0.25 Ca 0.75 O has the lowest interfacial defect density. With this optimal oxide composition, a Mg 0.25 Ca 0.75 O/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility (MOS-HEMT) device was fabricated. An ultrahigh on/off ratio of 10 12 and a near ideal SS of 62 mV/dec were achieved with this device.

  12. Non-destructive determination of ultra-thin GaN cap layer thickness in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Anshu; Yadav, Brajesh S.; Raman, R.; Kapoor, Ashok K.

    2018-02-01

    Angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) investigations have been carried out to characterize the GaN cap layer in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure. The paper discusses the qualitative (presence or absence of a cap layer) and quantitative (cap layer thickness) characterization of cap layer in HEMT structure non-destructively using ARXPS measurements in conjunction with the theoretical modeling. Further the relative sensitive factor (RSF=σ/Ga σAl ) for Ga to Al ratio was estimated to be 0.963 and was used in the quantification of GaN cap layer thickness. Our results show that Al/Ga intensity ratio varies with the emission angle in the presence of GaN cap layer and otherwise remains constant. Also, the modeling of this intensity ratio gives its thickness. The finding of ARXPS was also substantiated by SIMS depth profiling studies.

  13. Non-destructive determination of ultra-thin GaN cap layer thickness in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Goyal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS investigations have been carried out to characterize the GaN cap layer in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure. The paper discusses the qualitative (presence or absence of a cap layer and quantitative (cap layer thickness characterization of cap layer in HEMT structure non-destructively using ARXPS measurements in conjunction with the theoretical modeling. Further the relative sensitive factor (RSF=σGaσAl for Ga to Al ratio was estimated to be 0.963 and was used in the quantification of GaN cap layer thickness. Our results show that Al/Ga intensity ratio varies with the emission angle in the presence of GaN cap layer and otherwise remains constant. Also, the modeling of this intensity ratio gives its thickness. The finding of ARXPS was also substantiated by SIMS depth profiling studies.

  14. Enhanced Optical and Electrical Properties of TiO_2 Buffered IGZO/TiO_2 Bi-Layered Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Daeil

    2016-01-01

    In and Ga doped ZnO (IGZO, 100-nm thick) thin films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering without intentional substrate heating on a bare glass substrate and a TiO_2-deposited glass substrate to determine the effect of the thickness of a thin TiO_2 buffer layer on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films. The thicknesses of the TiO_2 buffer layers were 5, 10 and 15 nm, respectively. As-deposited IGZO films with a 10 nm-thick TiO_2 buffer layer had an average optical transmittance of 85.0% with lower resistivity (1.83×10-2 Ω cm) than that of IGZO single layer films. The figure of merit (FOM) reached a maximum of 1.44×10-4 Ω-1 for IGZO/10 nm-thick TiO_2 bi-layered films, which is higher than the FOM of 6.85×10-5 Ω-1 for IGZO single layer films. Because a higher FOM value indicates better quality transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films, the IGZO/10 nm-thick TiO_2 bi-layered films are likely to perform better in TCO applications than IGZO single layer films.

  15. Spatially and spectrally resolved photoluminescence of InGaN MQWs grown on highly Si doped a-plane GaN buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunert, Martin; Wieneke, Matthias; Dempewolf, Anja; Bertram, Frank; Dadgar, Armin; Krost, Alois; Christen, Juergen [Institute of Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    A set of InGaN multi quantum well (MQW) samples grown by MOVPE on highly Si doped a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire templates has been investigated using spatially resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy ({mu}-PL). The Si doping level of nominal about 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} leads to three dimensionally grown crystallites mostly terminated by m-facets. The MQW thickness has been systematically varied from nominally 2.1 to 4.2 nm, as well as the InGaN growth temperature, which was varied from 760 C to 700 C. The growth of a-plane GaN based devices leads to a non-polar growth direction avoiding the polarization field affected Quantum-Confined-Stark-Effect. Spatially resolved PL studies show for all samples low near band edge (NBE) GaN emission intensity over the whole area under investigation accompanied by highly intense InGaN MQW emission for single crystallites. The MQW luminescence shows a systematic blueshift with increasing InGaN growth temperature due to lower In incorporation as well as a systematic redshift with increasing MQW thickness. Excitation power dependent spectra at 4 K as well as temperature dependent PL spectra will be presented.

  16. Cooptimization of Adhesion and Power Conversion Efficiency of Organic Solar Cells by Controlling Surface Energy of Buffer Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inhwa; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Jung-Yong; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2017-10-25

    Here, we demonstrate the cooptimization of the interfacial fracture energy and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT)-based organic solar cells (OSCs) by surface treatments of the buffer layer. The investigated surface treatments of the buffer layer simultaneously changed the crack path and interfacial fracture energy of OSCs under mechanical stress and the work function of the buffer layer. To investigate the effects of surface treatments, the work of adhesion values were calculated and matched with the experimental results based on the Owens-Wendt model. Subsequently, we fabricated OSCs on surface-treated buffer layers. In particular, ZnO layers treated with poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN) simultaneously satisfied the high mechanical reliability and PCE of OSCs by achieving high work of adhesion and optimized work function.

  17. Simple solution-processed CuO{sub X} as anode buffer layer for efficient organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wenfei [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Institute of Hybrid Materials, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yang, Chunpeng [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Bao, Xichang, E-mail: baoxc@qibebt.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Sun, Liang; Wang, Ning [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tang, Jianguo [Institute of Hybrid Materials, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chen, Weichao [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Yang, Renqiang, E-mail: yangrq@qibebt.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Simple solution-processed CuO{sub X} hole transport layer for efficient organic solar cell. • Good photovoltaic performances as hole transport layer in OSCs with P3HT and PBDTTT-C as donor materials. • The device with CuO{sub X} as hole transport layer shows great improved stability compared with that of device with PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer. - Abstract: A simple, solution-processed ultrathin CuO{sub X} anode buffer layer was fabricated for high performance organic solar cells (OSCs). XPS measurement demonstrated that the CuO{sub X} was the composite of CuO and Cu{sub 2}O. The CuO{sub X} modified ITO glass exhibit a better surface contact with the active layer. The photovoltaic performance of the devices with CuO{sub X} layer was optimized by varying the thickness of CuO{sub X} films through changing solution concentration. With P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM as the active layer, we demonstrated an enhanced PCE of 4.14% with CuO{sub X} anode buffer layer, compared with that of PEDOT:PSS layer. The CuO{sub X} layer also exhibits efficient photovoltaic performance in devices with PBDTTT-C:PC{sub 71}BM as the active layer. The long-term stability of CuO{sub X} device is better than that of PEDOT:PSS device. The results indicate that the easy solution-processed CuO{sub X} film can act as an efficient anode buffer layer for high-efficiency OSCs.

  18. Effect of Mg doping in ZnO buffer layer on ZnO thin film devices for electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Pushpa; Chakrabarti, P.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been grown on p-silicon (Si) substrate using magnesium doped ZnO (Mg: ZnO) buffer layer by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering method. In this paper, we have optimized the concentration of Mg (0-5 atomic percent (at. %)) ZnO buffer layer to examine its effect on ZnO thin film based devices for electronic and optoelectronic applications. The crystalline nature, morphology and topography of the surface of the thin film have been characterized. The optical as well as electrical properties of the active ZnO film can be tailored by varying the concentration of Mg in the buffer layer. The crystallite size in the active ZnO thin film was found to increase with the Mg concentration in the buffer layer in the range of 0-3 at. % and subsequently decrease with increasing Mg atom concentration in the ZnO. The same was verified by the surface morphology and topography studies carried out with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic electron microscopy (AFM) respectively. The reflectance in the visible region was measured to be less than 80% and found to decrease with increase in Mg concentration from 0 to 3 at. % in the buffer region. The optical bandgap was initially found to increase from 3.02 eV to 3.74 eV by increasing the Mg content from 0 to 3 at. % but subsequently decreases and drops down to 3.43 eV for a concentration of 5 at. %. The study of an Au:Pd/ZnO Schottky diode reveals that for optimum doping of the buffer layer the device exhibits superior rectifying behavior. The barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratio, reverse saturation current and series resistance of the Schottky diode were extracted from the measured current voltage (I-V) characteristics.

  19. GaN growth via HVPE on SiC/Si substrates: growth mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharofidinov, Sh Sh; Redkov, A. V.; Osipov, A. V.; Kukushkin, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article focuses on the study of GaN thin film growth via chloride epitaxy on SiC/Si hybrid substrate. SiC buffer layer was grown by a method of substitution of atoms, which allows one to reduce impact of mechanical stress therein on subsequent growth of III-nitride films. It is shown, that change in GaN growth conditions leads to change in its growth mechanism. Three mechanisms: epitaxial, spiral and stepwise growth are considered and mechanical stresses are estimated via Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Time-dependent dielectric breakdown of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 films on GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Sasaki, Toshio; Okubo, Satoshi; Horikawa, Kiyotaka; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    Atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) Al2O3 films are the most promising surface passivation and gate insulation layers in non-Si semiconductor devices. Here, we carried out an extensive study on the time-dependent dielectric breakdown characteristics of ALD-Al2O3 films formed on homo-epitaxial GaN substrates using two different oxidants at two different ALD temperatures. The breakdown times were approximated by Weibull distributions with average shape parameters of 8 or larger. These values are reasonably consistent with percolation theory predictions and are sufficiently large to neglect the wear-out lifetime distribution in assessing the long-term reliability of the Al2O3 films. The 63% lifetime of the Al2O3 films increases exponentially with a decreasing field, as observed in thermally grown SiO2 films at low fields. This exponential relationship disproves the correlation between the lifetime and the leakage current. Additionally, the lifetime decreases with measurement temperature with the most remarkable reduction observed in high-temperature (450 °C) O3-grown films. This result agrees with that from a previous study, thereby ruling out high-temperature O3 ALD as a gate insulation process. When compared at 200 °C under an equivalent SiO2 field of 4 MV/cm, which is a design guideline for thermal SiO2 on Si, high-temperature H2O-grown Al2O3 films have the longest lifetimes, uniquely achieving the reliability target of 20 years. However, this target is accomplished by a relatively narrow margin and, therefore, improvements in the lifetime are expected to be made, along with efforts to decrease the density of extrinsic Al2O3 defects, if any, to promote the practical use of ALD Al2O3 films.

  1. The growth of GaN films by alternate source gas supply hot-mesh CVD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komae, Yasuaki; Saitou, Takeshi [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Suemitsu, Maki; Ito, Takashi [Center of Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Endoh, Tetsuo [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakazawa, Hideki [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan); Narita, Yuzuru [Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Takata, Masasuke; Akahane, Tadashi [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Yasui, Kanji, E-mail: kyasui@vos.nagaokaut.ac.j [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2009-04-30

    Gallium nitride (GaN) films and Aluminium nitride (AlN) layers were deposited on SiC/Si (111) substrates by an alternating source gas supply or an intermittent supply of a source gas such as ammonia (NH{sub 3}), trimethylgallium (TMG) or trimethylaluminum (TMA) in a hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (CVD) apparatus. The AlN layer was deposited as a buffer layer using NH{sub 3} and TMA on a SiC layer grown by carbonization on Si substrates using propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}). GaN films were grown on an AlN layer by a reaction between NH{sub x} radicals generated on a ruthenium (Ru) coated tungsten (W)-mesh and TMG molecules. An alternating source gas supply or an intermittent supply of one of the source gases during the film growth are expected to be effective for the suppression of gas phase reactions and for the enhancement of precursor migration on the substrate surface. By the intermittent supply of alkylmetal gas only during the growth of the AlN layer, the defect generation in the GaN films was reduced. GaN film growth by intermittent supply on an AlN buffer layer, however, did not lead to the improvement of the film quality.

  2. Tuning the two-dimensional electron liquid at oxide interfaces by buffer-layer-engineered redox reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunzhong; Green, Robert J.; Sutarto, Ronny

    2017-01-01

    Polar discontinuities and redox reactions provide alternative paths to create two-dimensional electron liquids (2DELs) at oxide interfaces. Herein, we report high mobility 2DELs at interfaces involving SrTiO3 (STO) achieved using polar La7/8Sr1/8MnO3 (LSMO) buffer layers to manipulate both...... polarities and redox reactions from disordered overlayers grown at room temperature. Using resonant x-ray reflectometry experiments, we quantify redox reactions from oxide overlayers on STO as well as polarity induced electronic reconstruction at epitaxial LSMO/STO interfaces. The analysis reveals how...... these effects can be combined in a STO/LSMO/disordered film trilayer system to yield high mobility modulation doped 2DELs, where the buffer layer undergoes a partial transformation from perovskite to brownmillerite structure. This uncovered interplay between polar discontinuities and redox reactions via buffer...

  3. Comparison of different photoresist buffer layers in SPR sensors based on D-shaped POF and gold film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Nunzio; Pesavento, Maria; De Maria, Letizia; Galatus, Ramona; Mattiello, Francesco; Zeni, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    A comparative analysis of two optical fiber sensing platforms is presented. The sensors are based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in a D-shaped plastic optical fiber (POF) with a photoresist buffer layer between the exposed POF core and the thin gold film. We show how the sensor's performances change when the photoresist layer changes. The photoresist layers proposed in this analysis are SU-8 3005 and S1813. The experimental results are congruent with the numerical studies and it is instrumental for chemical and bio-chemical applications. Usually, the photoresist layer is required in order to increase the performance of the SPR-POF sensor.

  4. High Quality GaAs Epilayers Grown on Si Substrate Using 100 nm Ge Buffer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cheng Kuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present high quality GaAs epilayers that grow on virtual substrate with 100 nm Ge buffer layers. The thin Ge buffer layers were modulated by hydrogen flow rate from 60 to 90 sccm to improve crystal quality by electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD at low growth temperature (180°C. The GaAs and Ge epilayers quality was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD and spectroscopy ellipsometry (SE. The full width at half maximum (FWHM of the Ge and GaAs epilayers in XRD is 406 arcsec and 220 arcsec, respectively. In addition, the GaAs/Ge/Si interface is observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM to demonstrate the epitaxial growth. The defects at GaAs/Ge interface are localized within a few nanometers. It is clearly showed that the dislocation is well suppressed. The quality of the Ge buffer layer is the key of III–V/Si tandem cell. Therefore, the high quality GaAs epilayers that grow on virtual substrate with 100 nm Ge buffer layers is suitable to develop the low cost and high efficiency III–V/Si tandem solar cells.

  5. The growth of various buffer layer structures and their influence on the quality of (CdHg)Te epilayers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, GJ

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of various buffer layer structures on (100) GaAs for (CdHg)Te growth by organometallic vapour phase epitaxy (OMVPE) was investigated. The preferred epitaxial orientation of (100) GaAs/ (lll) CdTe was found to be unsuitable due...

  6. Performance improvement of MEH-PPV:PCBM solar cells using bathocuproine and bathophenanthroline as the buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao Dong; Zhao Su-Ling; Xu Zheng; Zhang Fu-Jun; Zhang Tian-Hui; Gong Wei; Yan Guang; Kong Chao; Wang Yong-Sheng; Xu Xu-Rong

    2011-01-01

    In this work, bathocuproine (BCP) and bathophenanthroline (Bphen), commonly used in small-molecule organic solar cells (OSCs), are adopted as the buffer layers to improve the performance of the polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV): [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction. By inserting BCP or Bphen between the active layer and the top cathode, all the performance parameters are dramatically improved. The power conversion efficiency is increased by about 70% and 120% with 5-nm BCP and 12-nm Bphen layers, respectively, when compared with that of the devices without any buffer layer. The performance enhancement is attributed to BCP or Bphen (i) increasing the optical field, and hence the absorption in the active layer, (ii) effectively blocking the excitons generated in MEH-PPV from quenching at organic/aluminum (Al) interface due to the large band-gap of BCP or Bphen, which results in a significant reduction in series resistance (R s ), and (iii) preventing damage to the active layer during the metal deposition. Compared with the traditional device using LiF as the buffer layer, the BCP-based devices show a comparable efficiency, while the Bphen-based devices show a much larger efficiency. This is due to the higher electron mobility in Bphen than that in BCP, which facilitates the electron transport and extraction through the buffer layer to the cathode. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  7. Influence of a ZnO Buffer Layer on the Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of ITO/ZnO Bi-Layered Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Sung-Bo; Moon, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Daeil; Kim, Jun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) films and ITO/ZnO bi-layered films were prepared on polycarbonate substrates by RF magnetron sputtering without intentional substrate heating. In order to consider the influence of the ZnO thickness on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of ITO/ZnO films, the thickness of the ZnO buffer layer was varied from 5 to 20 nm. As-deposited ITO films show an average optical transmittance of 79.2% in the visible range and an electrical resistivity of 3.0×10"-"4 Ωcm, while films with a 5-nm thick ZnO buffer layer film show an electrical resistivity of 2.6×10"-"4 Ωcm and films with a 20-nm thick ZnO buffer layer show an optical transmittance of 82.0%. Based on the figure of merit, it is concluded that the ZnO buffer layer enhances the optical and electrical performance of ITO films used as transparent conducting oxides in flexible display applications.

  8. Ion-induced crystal damage during plasma-assisted MBE growth of GaN layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, V.; Heinke, H.; Birkle, U.; Einfeldt, S.; Hommel, D.; Selke, H.; Ryder, P. L.

    1998-12-01

    Gallium nitride layers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on (0001)-oriented sapphire substrates using an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) and a radio frequency (rf) plasma source. An applied substrate bias was varied from -200 to +250 V, resulting in a change of the density and energy of nitrogen ions impinging the growth surface. The layers were investigated by high-resolution x-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Applying a negative bias during growth has a marked detrimental effect on the crystal perfection of the layers grown with an ECR plasma source. This is indicated by a change in shape and width of (0002) and (202¯5) reciprocal lattice points as monitored by triple axis x-ray measurements. In HRTEM images, isolated basal plane stacking faults were found, which probably result from precipitation of interstitial atoms. The crystal damage in layers grown with a highly negative substrate bias is comparable to that observed for ion implantation processes at orders of magnitude larger ion energies. This is attributed to the impact of ions on the growing surface. None of the described phenomena was observed for the samples grown with the rf plasma source.

  9. OPTIMISATION OF BUFFER SIZE FOR ENHANCING QOS OF VIDEO TRAFFIC USING CROSS LAYERED HYBRID TRANSPORT LAYER PROTOCOL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    S. Matilda; B. Palaniappan

    2011-01-01

    Video streaming is gaining importance, with the wide popularity of multimedia rich applications in the Internet. Video streams are delay sensitive and require seamless flow for continuous visualization. Properly designed buffers offer a solution to queuing delay. The diagonally opposite QoS metrics associated with video traffic poses an optimization problem, in the design of buffers. This paper is a continuation of our previous work [1] and deals with the design of buffers. It aims at finding...

  10. Anodic etching of GaN based film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer: Mechanism and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Qingxue; Liu, Rong; Xiao, Hongdi; Cao, Dezhong; Liu, Jianqiang; Ma, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • GaN film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer was etched by electrochemical etching. • Vertically aligned nanopores in n-GaN films were buried underneath the InGaN/GaN structures. • The relaxation of compressive stress in the MQW structure was found by PL and Raman spectra. - Abstract: A strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer, which consists of multiple quantum wells (MQW) and superlattices (SL) layers and can produce a blue wavelength spectrum, has been grown on n-GaN thin film, and then fabricated into nanoporous structures by electrochemical etching method in oxalic acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique reveals that the etching voltage of 8 V leads to a vertically aligned nanoporous structure, whereas the films etched at 15 V show branching pores within the n-GaN layer. Due to the low doping concentration of barriers (GaN layers) in the InGaN/GaN layer, we observed a record-low rate of etching (<100 nm/min) and nanopores which are mainly originated from the V-pits in the phase-separated layer. In addition, there exists a horizontal nanoporous structure at the interface between the phase-separated layer and the n-GaN layer, presumably resulting from the high transition of electrons between the barrier and the well (InGaN layer) at the interface. As compared to the as-grown MQW structure, the etched MQW structure exhibits a photoluminescence (PL) enhancement with a partial relaxation of compressive stress due to the increased light-extracting surface area and light-guiding effect. Such a compressive stress relaxation can be further confirmed by Raman spectra.

  11. Anodic etching of GaN based film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer: Mechanism and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Qingxue [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Liu, Rong [Department of Fundamental Theories, Shandong Institute of Physical Education and Sports, Jinan 250063 (China); Xiao, Hongdi, E-mail: hdxiao@sdu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Cao, Dezhong; Liu, Jianqiang; Ma, Jin [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • GaN film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer was etched by electrochemical etching. • Vertically aligned nanopores in n-GaN films were buried underneath the InGaN/GaN structures. • The relaxation of compressive stress in the MQW structure was found by PL and Raman spectra. - Abstract: A strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer, which consists of multiple quantum wells (MQW) and superlattices (SL) layers and can produce a blue wavelength spectrum, has been grown on n-GaN thin film, and then fabricated into nanoporous structures by electrochemical etching method in oxalic acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique reveals that the etching voltage of 8 V leads to a vertically aligned nanoporous structure, whereas the films etched at 15 V show branching pores within the n-GaN layer. Due to the low doping concentration of barriers (GaN layers) in the InGaN/GaN layer, we observed a record-low rate of etching (<100 nm/min) and nanopores which are mainly originated from the V-pits in the phase-separated layer. In addition, there exists a horizontal nanoporous structure at the interface between the phase-separated layer and the n-GaN layer, presumably resulting from the high transition of electrons between the barrier and the well (InGaN layer) at the interface. As compared to the as-grown MQW structure, the etched MQW structure exhibits a photoluminescence (PL) enhancement with a partial relaxation of compressive stress due to the increased light-extracting surface area and light-guiding effect. Such a compressive stress relaxation can be further confirmed by Raman spectra.

  12. Buffer layer dependence of magnetoresistance effects in Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si/MgO/Co50Fe50 tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingling; Kubota, Takahide; Takahashi, Shigeki; Kawato, Yoshiaki; Sonobe, Yoshiaki; Takanashi, Koki

    2018-05-01

    Buffer layer dependence of tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) effects was investigated in Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si (CFMS)/MgO/Co50Fe50 magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Pd, Ru and Cr were selected for the buffer layer materials, and MTJs with three different CFMS thicknesses (30, 5, and 0.8 nm) were fabricated. A maximum TMR ratio of 136% was observed in the Ru buffer layer sample with a 30-nm-thick CFMS layer. TMR ratios drastically degraded for the CFMS thickness of 0.8 nm, and the values were 26% for Cr buffer layer and less than 1% for Pd and Ru buffer layers. From the annealing temperature dependence of the TMR ratios, amounts of interdiffusion and effects from the lattice mismatch were discussed.

  13. GaN microring waveguide resonators bonded to silicon substrate by a two-step polymer process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashida, Ryohei; Sasaki, Takashi; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2018-03-20

    Using a polymer bonding technique, GaN microring waveguide resonators were fabricated on a Si substrate for future hybrid integration of GaN and Si photonic devices. The designed GaN microring consisted of a rib waveguide having a core of 510 nm in thickness, 1000 nm in width, and a clad of 240 nm in thickness. A GaN crystalline layer of 1000 nm in thickness was grown on a Si(111) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using a buffer layer of 300 nm in thickness for the compensation of lattice constant mismatch between GaN and Si crystals. The GaN/Si wafer was bonded to a Si(100) wafer by a two-step polymer process to prevent it from trapping air bubbles. The bonded GaN layer was thinned from the backside by a fast atom beam etching to remove the buffer layer and to generate the rib waveguides. The transmission characteristics of the GaN microring waveguide resonators were measured. The losses of the straight waveguides were measured to be 4.0±1.7  dB/mm around a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The microring radii ranged from 30 to 60 μm, where the measured free-spectral ranges varied from 2.58 to 5.30 nm. The quality factors of the microring waveguide resonators were from 1710 to 2820.

  14. Chemical solution deposited BaPbO3 buffer layers for lead zirconate titanate ferroelectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, T.-K.; Wu, J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Conductive perovskite BaPbO 3 (BPO) films have been prepared successfully by chemical solution deposition method through spin-coating on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates. The choice of baking temperature is a key factor on the development of conducting BPO perovskite phase. When the baking temperature is higher than 350 deg. C, the BPO films contain a high content of BaCO 3 phase after annealing at temperatures higher than 500 deg. C. If the baking temperature is chosen lower than 300 deg. C, such as 200 deg. C, the annealed BPO films consist mostly of perovskite with only traces of BaCO 3 . Choosing 200 deg. C as the baking temperature, the BPO films developed single perovskite phase at temperatures as low as 550 deg. C. The perovskite BPO phase is stable in the range of 550-650 deg. C and the measured sheet resistance of the BPO films is about 2-3 Ω/square. The perovskite BPO film as a buffer layer provides improvement in electric properties of lead zirconate titanate films

  15. Enhancement in electrical properties of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PTCDA/Ag by using calcium buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Muhammad; Hassan Sayyad, Muhammad; Wahab, Fazal; Aziz, Fakhra; Ullah, Irfan; Khan, Gulzar

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on electrical characterization of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PTCDA/Ca/Ag device based on 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) and calcium (Ca) buffer layer with improved junction properties. The I–V characteristics have been utilized to extract various electrical parameters such as ideality factor (n), barrier height (ϕ B ) and series resistance R s , which are found to be 1.9, 0.79 eV and 2.5 kΩ, respectively. The device shows good rectifying behavior, with a rectification ratio of 528, and also field-lowering mechanism with a linear dependence of log I on V 1/2 . The device reported in the present work shows 50% improvement in the rectification ratio and ideality factor as compared to our previously fabricated device. It appears from the experimental data that the transport mechanism in the PTCDA thin film is dominated by the Poole–Frenkel model of thermionic emission, which may be associated with high density of structural defects or traps present in the film

  16. Enhancement in electrical properties of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PTCDA/Ag by using calcium buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, Muhammad [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology Topi, KPK 23640 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, 23200 KPK (Pakistan); Hassan Sayyad, Muhammad [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology Topi, KPK 23640 (Pakistan); Wahab, Fazal [Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, 23200 KPK (Pakistan); Aziz, Fakhra, E-mail: fakhra69@yahoo.com [Department of Electronics, Jinnah College for Women, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120 (Pakistan); Ullah, Irfan; Khan, Gulzar [Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, 23200 KPK (Pakistan)

    2015-06-15

    This paper reports on electrical characterization of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PTCDA/Ca/Ag device based on 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) and calcium (Ca) buffer layer with improved junction properties. The I–V characteristics have been utilized to extract various electrical parameters such as ideality factor (n), barrier height (ϕ{sub B}) and series resistance R{sub s}, which are found to be 1.9, 0.79 eV and 2.5 kΩ, respectively. The device shows good rectifying behavior, with a rectification ratio of 528, and also field-lowering mechanism with a linear dependence of log I on V{sup 1/2}. The device reported in the present work shows 50% improvement in the rectification ratio and ideality factor as compared to our previously fabricated device. It appears from the experimental data that the transport mechanism in the PTCDA thin film is dominated by the Poole–Frenkel model of thermionic emission, which may be associated with high density of structural defects or traps present in the film.

  17. Single layers and multilayers of GaN and AlN in square-octagon structure: Stability, electronic properties, and functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüz, E.; Cahangirov, S.; Durgun, E.; Ciraci, S.

    2017-11-01

    Further to planar single-layer hexagonal structures, GaN and AlN can also form free-standing, single-layer structures constructed from squares and octagons. We performed an extensive analysis of dynamical and thermal stability of these structures in terms of ab initio finite-temperature molecular dynamics and phonon calculations together with the analysis of Raman and infrared active modes. These single-layer square-octagon structures of GaN and AlN display directional mechanical properties and have wide, indirect fundamental band gaps, which are smaller than their hexagonal counterparts. These density functional theory band gaps, however, increase and become wider upon correction. Under uniaxial and biaxial tensile strain, the fundamental band gaps decrease and can be closed. The electronic and magnetic properties of these single-layer structures can be modified by adsorption of various adatoms, or by creating neutral cation-anion vacancies. The single-layer structures attain magnetic moment by selected adatoms and neutral vacancies. In particular, localized gap states are strongly dependent on the type of vacancy. The energetics, binding, and resulting electronic structure of bilayer, trilayer, and three-dimensional (3D) layered structures constructed by stacking the single layers are affected by vertical chemical bonds between adjacent layers. In addition to van der Waals interaction, these weak vertical bonds induce buckling in planar geometry and enhance their binding, leading to the formation of stable 3D layered structures. In this respect, these multilayers are intermediate between van der Waals solids and wurtzite crystals, offering a wide range of tunability.

  18. Effect of annealing time and NH3 flow on GaN films deposited on amorphous SiO2 by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianbao; Liu, Chenyang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Bin; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Wei; Jia, Zhigang; Yu, Chunyan; Xu, Bingshe

    2018-05-01

    GaN polycrystalline films were successfully grown on amorphous SiO2 by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition to fabricate transferable devices using inorganic films. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy images show that by prolonging the annealing time, re-evaporation is enhanced, which reduced the uniformity of the nucleation layer and GaN films. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the decomposition rate of the nucleation layer increases when the annealing flow rate of NH3 is 500 sccm, which makes the unstable plane and amorphous domains decompose rapidly, thereby improving the crystallinity of the GaN films. Photoluminescence spectra also indicate the presence of fewer defects when the annealing flow rate of NH3 is 500 sccm. The excellent crystal structure of the GaN films grown under optimized conditions was revealed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. More importantly, the crystal structure and orientation of GaN grown on SiO2 are the same as that of GaN grown on conventional sapphire substrate when a buffer layer is used. This work can aid in the development of transferable devices using GaN films.

  19. A buffer-layer/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer optimization for thin film amorphous silicon based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinjoo; Dao, Vinh Ai [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Chonghoon [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyeongsik [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minbum; Jung, Junhee [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Doyoung [School of Electricity and Electronics, Ulsan College West Campus, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Junsin, E-mail: yi@yurim.skku.ac.kr [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    Amorphous silicon based (a-Si:H-based) solar cells with a buffer-layer/boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiO{sub x}:H(p)) window-layer were fabricated and investigated. In the first part, in order to reduce the Schottky barrier height at the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer heterointerface, we have used buffer-layer/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) for the window-layer, in which boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H(p)) or boron doped microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H(p)) is introduced as a buffer layer between the a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) and FTO of the a-Si:H-based solar cells. The a-Si:H-based solar cell using a μc-Si:H(p) buffer-layer shows the highest efficiency compared to the optimized bufferless, and a-Si:H(p) buffer-layer in the a-Si:H-based solar cells. This highest performance was attributed not only to the lower absorption of the μc-Si:H(p) buffer-layer but also to the lower Schottky barrier height at the FTO/window-layer interface. Then, we present the dependence of the built-in potential (V{sub bi}) and blue response of the devices on the inversion of activation energy (ξ) of the a-SiO{sub x}:H(p), in the μc-Si:H(p)/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer. The enhancement of both V{sub bi} and blue response is observed, by increasing the value of ξ. The improvement of V{sub bi} and blue response can be ascribed to the enlargement of the optical gap of a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) films in the μc-Si:H(p)/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer. Finally, the conversion efficiency was increased by 22.0%, by employing μc-Si:H(p) as a buffer-layer and raising the ξ of the a-SiO{sub x}:H(p), compared to the optimized bufferless case, with a 10 nm-thick a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer. - Highlights: • Low Schottky barrier height benefits fill factor, and open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}). • High band gap is beneficial for short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}). • Boron doped microcrystalline silicon is a suitable buffer-layer for

  20. Growth of β-Ga2O3 and GaN nanowires on GaN for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jih-Shang; Liu, Tai-Yan; Chen, Han-Wei; Chattopadhyay, Surjit; Hsu, Geng-Ming; Basilio, Antonio M; Hsu, Yu-Kuei; Tu, Wen-Hsun; Lin, Yan-Gu; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Li, Chien-Cheng; Wang, Sheng-Bo; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of Ga 2 O 3 and GaN nanowires (NWs) grown in situ from GaN were demonstrated. The PEC conversion efficiencies of Ga 2 O 3 and GaN NWs have been shown to be 0.906% and 1.09% respectively, in contrast to their 0.581% GaN thin film counterpart under similar experimental conditions. A low crystallinity buffer layer between the grown NWs and the substrate was found to be detrimental to the PEC performance, but the layer can be avoided at suitable growth conditions. A band bending at the surface of the GaN NWs generates an electric field that drives the photogenerated electrons and holes away from each other, preventing recombination, and was found to be responsible for the enhanced PEC performance. The enhanced PEC efficiency of the Ga 2 O 3 NWs is aided by the optical absorption through a defect band centered 3.3 eV above the valence band of Ga 2 O 3 . These findings are believed to have opened up possibilities for enabling visible absorption, either by tailoring ion doping into wide bandgap Ga 2 O 3 NWs, or by incorporation of indium to form InGaN NWs. (paper)

  1. Growth of β-Ga2O3 and GaN nanowires on GaN for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jih-Shang; Liu, Tai-Yan; Chattopadhyay, Surjit; Hsu, Geng-Ming; Basilio, Antonio M; Chen, Han-Wei; Hsu, Yu-Kuei; Tu, Wen-Hsun; Lin, Yan-Gu; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Li, Chien-Cheng; Wang, Sheng-Bo; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2013-02-08

    Enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of Ga(2)O(3) and GaN nanowires (NWs) grown in situ from GaN were demonstrated. The PEC conversion efficiencies of Ga(2)O(3) and GaN NWs have been shown to be 0.906% and 1.09% respectively, in contrast to their 0.581% GaN thin film counterpart under similar experimental conditions. A low crystallinity buffer layer between the grown NWs and the substrate was found to be detrimental to the PEC performance, but the layer can be avoided at suitable growth conditions. A band bending at the surface of the GaN NWs generates an electric field that drives the photogenerated electrons and holes away from each other, preventing recombination, and was found to be responsible for the enhanced PEC performance. The enhanced PEC efficiency of the Ga(2)O(3) NWs is aided by the optical absorption through a defect band centered 3.3 eV above the valence band of Ga(2)O(3). These findings are believed to have opened up possibilities for enabling visible absorption, either by tailoring ion doping into wide bandgap Ga(2)O(3) NWs, or by incorporation of indium to form InGaN NWs.

  2. Improved interface properties of yttrium oxide buffer layer on silicon substrate for ferroelectric random access memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Dong-Gun; Kwak, Dong-Joo; Yi Junsin

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we report upon an investigation into the feasibility of Y 2 O 3 films as buffer layers for metal ferroelectric insulator semiconductor type capacitors. Buffer layers were prepared by a two-step process of low temperature film growth using the RF reactive magnetron sputtering method and subsequent rapid thermal annealing. By applying an yttrium metal seed layer of 4 nm, unwanted SiO 2 layer generation was successfully suppressed at the interface between the buffer layer and the Si substrate. Increasing the post-annealing temperature above 700 deg. C reduced the surface roughness of the Y 2 O 3 films, and increasing the O 2 partial pressure from 10 to 20% increased the surface roughness from 4.0 to 15.1 nm. The Y 2 O 3 films, prepared using an O 2 partial pressure of 20% and annealed at 900 deg. C, exhibited the best surface roughness characteristics of the samples studied. For a substrate temperature above 400 deg. C and an O 2 partial pressure of 20%, we observed that a cubic Y 2 O 3 phase dominated the X-ray diffraction spectra. The lowest lattice mismatch achieved between the Y 2 O 3 film and the Si substrate was 1.75%. By using a two-step process, we reduced the leakage current density of Y 2 O 3 films by two orders of magnitude and the D it to as low as 8.72x10 10 cm -2 eV -1 . A Y 2 O 3 buffer layer grown at 400 deg. C in a 20% O 2 partial pressure and rapidly annealed at 900 deg. C in an oxygen enviroment exhibited the best overall properties for a single transistor ferroelectric random access memory

  3. Tandem organic light-emitting diodes with buffer-modified C60/pentacene as charge generation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Fei; Wang, Pei; Gan, Lin; Wang, Jing-jing

    2017-09-01

    Buffer-modified C60/pentacene as charge generation layer (CGL) is investigated to achieve effective performance of charge generation. Undoped green electroluminescent tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with multiple identical emissive units and using buffer-modified C60/pentacene organic semiconductor heterojunction (OHJ) as CGL are demonstrated to exhibit better current density and brightness, compared with conventional single-unit devices. The current density and brightness both can be significantly improved with increasing the thickness of Al. However, excessive thickness of Al seriously decreases the transmittance of films and damages the interface. As a result, the maximum current efficiency of 1.43 cd·A-1 at 30 mA·cm-2 can be achieved for tandem OLEDs with optimal thickness of Al. These results clearly demonstrate that Cs2CO3/Al is an effective buffer for C60/pentacene-based tandem OLEDs.

  4. Influence of a deep-level-defect band formed in a heavily Mg-doped GaN contact layer on the Ni/Au contact to p-GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiao-Jing; Zhao De-Gang; Jiang De-Sheng; Chen Ping; Zhu Jian-Jun; Liu Zong-Shun; Yang Jing; He Xiao-Guang; Yang Hui; Zhang Li-Qun; Zhang Shu-Ming; Le Ling-Cong; Liu Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The influence of a deep-level-defect (DLD) band formed in a heavily Mg-doped GaN contact layer on the performance of Ni/Au contact to p-GaN is investigated. The thin heavily Mg-doped GaN (p ++ -GaN) contact layer with DLD band can effectively improve the performance of Ni/Au ohmic contact to p-GaN. The temperature-dependent I–V measurement shows that the variable-range hopping (VRH) transportation through the DLD band plays a dominant role in the ohmic contact. The thickness and Mg/Ga flow ratio of p ++ -GaN contact layer have a significant effect on ohmic contact by controlling the Mg impurity doping and the formation of a proper DLD band. When the thickness of the p ++ -GaN contact layer is 25 nm thick and the Mg/Ga flow rate ratio is 10.29%, an ohmic contact with low specific contact resistivity of 6.97× 10 −4 Ω·cm 2 is achieved. (paper)

  5. Electrochemical preparation of MoO{sub 3} buffer layer deposited onto the anode in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gacitua, M.; Soto, G.; Valle, M.A. del [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Facultad de Quimica, Laboratorio de Electroquimica de Polimeros (LEP), Santiago (Chile); Boutaleb, Y.; Rehamnia, R. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Universite Badji Mokhtar, Annaba (Algeria); Cattin, L.; Louarn, G. [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel (IMN)-CNRS, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Nantes (France); Abe, S.Y. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee et de Technologie (LPMCT), Universite de Cocody (Ivory Coast); Lare, Y. [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, Universite de Lome, Lome (Togo); Morsli, M; Bernede, J.C. [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, LAMP, EA 3825, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, Nantes (France); Drici, A. [LEREC Departement de physique, Universite Badji Mokhtar, Annaba (Algeria)

    2010-08-15

    In this work the authors have studied the advantages of using electrochemically deposited molybdenum oxide as a buffer layer in an organic bilayer heterojunction solar cell arrangement. Furthermore, it has been probed that electrochemistry provides an alternative low cost, reproducible and less laborious method to prepare thin layered deposits. The precursor solution is composed by a concentrated molybdic acid solution in a sulphuric media in order to ensure the obtainment of low reduced molybdenum species. Therefore, by means of potentiostatic techniques, ITO/molybdenum oxide transparent anodes were tested for the photovoltaic device showing improved surface properties. XDR and AFM techniques were used to characterize the morphology of the deposits. The films with optimum thickness (5 nm) are amorphous. XPS analysis indicates that the best results in solar cell performance are in hand with a heterogeneous composition of the molybdenum oxide film presenting Mo{sup V} and Mo{sup VI} as predominant species. The MoO{sub 3} films deposited by cyclic voltammetry are not as homogeneous as those deposited by potentiostatic technique and only Mo{sup VI} species are present. These differences may justify the different behaviour of the solar cells using these different buffer layers. Only buffer layers deposited by potentiostatic technique allow improving the cells performances in the same way than those achieved by evaporation. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Feasibility study of using thin aluminum nitride film as a buffer layer for dual metal gate process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Seo; Cho, Byung Jin; Balasubramanian, N.; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of using an ultra thin aluminum nitride (AlN) buffer layer for dual metal gates CMOS process. Since the buffer layer should not affect the thickness of gate dielectric, it should be removed or consumed during subsequent process. In this work, it was shown that a thin AlN dielectric layer would be reacted with initial gate metals and would be consumed during subsequent annealing, resulting in no increase of equivalent oxide thickness (EOT). The reaction of AlN layer with tantalum (Ta) and hafnium (Hf) during subsequent annealing, which was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, shifted the flat-band voltage of AlN buffered MOS capacitors. No contribution to equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) was also an indication showing the full consumption of AIN, which was confirmed with TEM analysis. The work functions of gate metals were modulated through the reaction, suggesting that the consumption of AlN resulted in new thin metal alloys. Finally, it was found that the barrier heights of the new alloys were consistent with their work functions

  7. Si Complies with GaN to Overcome Thermal Mismatches for the Heteroepitaxy of Thick GaN on Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Atsunori; Choi, Woojin; Chen, Renjie; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2017-10-01

    Heteroepitaxial growth of lattice mismatched materials has advanced through the epitaxy of thin coherently strained layers, the strain sharing in virtual and nanoscale substrates, and the growth of thick films with intermediate strain-relaxed buffer layers. However, the thermal mismatch is not completely resolved in highly mismatched systems such as in GaN-on-Si. Here, geometrical effects and surface faceting to dilate thermal stresses at the surface of selectively grown epitaxial GaN layers on Si are exploited. The growth of thick (19 µm), crack-free, and pure GaN layers on Si with the lowest threading dislocation density of 1.1 × 10 7 cm -2 achieved to date in GaN-on-Si is demonstrated. With these advances, the first vertical GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors on Si substrates with low leakage currents and high on/off ratios paving the way for a cost-effective high power device paradigm on an Si CMOS platform are demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Simulating characteristics of Si/Ge tandem monolithic solar cell with Si1-xGex buffer layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnilenko A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of many efforts to propose new semiconductor materials and sophisticated constructions of solar cells, crystalline silicone remains the main photovoltaic material widely used up to now. There are various methods to enhance the efficiency of silicone solar cells. One of them is to combine silicone with an additional semiconductor material with the different bandgap to form a tandem construction. For example, the germanium sub-cell used as the bottom cascade for the silicone sub-cell in the tandem monolithic solar cell makes it possible to utilize the "red" sub-band of solar spectra increasing overall solar cell efficiency. The problem of the 4.2% mismatch in lattice constant between Si and Ge can be resolved in such a case by the use of SiGe buffer layer. In the paper the results of the computer simulation for Si/Ge tandem monolithic solar cell with Si1-xGex buffer layer are presented. In the solar cell under consideration, the step graded Si1-xGex buffer layer is located between the top silicone and the bottom germanium cascades to reduce the threading dislocation density in mismatched materials. The cascades are commutated by the use of the germanium tunnel diode between the bottom sub-cell and the buffer layer. For the solar cell modeling, the physically-based device simulator ATLAS of Silvaco TCAD software is employed to predict the electrical behavior of the semiconductor structure and to provide a deep insight into the internal physical processes. The voltage-current characteristic, photovoltaic parameters and the distribution of basic physical values are obtained for the investigated tandem solar cell. The influence of layer thicknesses on the photovoltaic parameters is studied. The calculated efficiency of the tandem solar cell reaches 13% which is a quarter more than the efficiency of a simple silicone solar cell with the same constructive parameters and under the same illumination conditions.

  9. Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide transparent conductive thin films with buffer layers for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xin-liang, E-mail: cxlruzhou@163.com; Wang, Fei; Geng, Xin-hua; Huang, Qian; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-dan

    2013-09-02

    Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. These natively textured HGZO thin films exhibit rough pyramid-like textured surface, high optical transmittances in the visible and near infrared region and excellent electrical properties. The experiment results indicate that tungsten-doped indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:W, IWO) buffer layers can effectively improve the surface roughness and enhance the light scattering ability of HGZO thin films. The root-mean-square roughness of HGZO, IWO (10 nm)/HGZO and IWO (30 nm)/HGZO thin films are 28, 44 and 47 nm, respectively. The haze values at the wavelength of 550 nm increase from 7.0% of HGZO thin film without buffer layer to 18.37% of IWO (10 nm)/HGZO thin film. The optimized IWO (10 nm)/HGZO exhibits a high optical transmittance of 82.18% in the visible and near infrared region (λ ∼ 400–1100 nm) and excellent electrical properties with a relatively low sheet resistance of 3.6 Ω/□ and the resistivity of 6.21 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm. - Highlights: • Textured hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide (HGZO) films were developed. • Tungsten-doped indium oxide (IWO) buffer layers were applied for the HGZO films. • Light-scattering ability of the HGZO films can be improved through buffer layers. • Low sheet resistance and high haze were obtained for the IWO(10 nm)/HGZO film. • The IWO/HGZO films are promising transparent conductive layers for solar cells.

  10. Preparation of SmBiO{sub 3} buffer layer on YSZ substrate by an improved chemical solution deposition route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaolei [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Pu, Minghua, E-mail: mhpu@home.swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhao, Yong [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The proper conditions for SBO growth are 794 °C for 60 min in flowing Ar gas, the temperature of epitaxial growth is relatively low. • The total time by SSD technique for organic solvent removing, salts decomposition and layer growth is not up to 2 h, which are much less than that needed for traditional CSD of over 10 h. • SBO layer on YSZ prepared by SSD technique are suitable for the growth of YBCO, The results may be the usable reference for continuous preparation of SBO buffer layer on IBAD-YSZ/Ni-based alloy tapes. - Abstract: A quick route for chemical solution deposition (CSD) has been developed to prepare SmBiO{sub 3} (SBO) layers on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates rapidly by using of solid state decomposition (SSD) technique. The proper conditions for volatilization of lactic acid, which as solvent in precursor coated layer, and SBO growth are 115°C for 30 min and 794°C for 60 min in flowing Ar gas. The coated layers are amorphous structure of mixture oxides and quasi-crystal structure of SBO before and after growth, respectively. The total time by this quick CSD route for organic solvent volatilization, salts decomposed and layer growth is not up to 2 h, which are much less than that needed for traditional CSD of over 10 h. SBO layer is directly epitaxial growth on YSZ substrate without any lattice rotation. SBO layer prepared by this quick route as well as that by traditional route are suitable for the growth of YBCO. The superconducting transition temperature and critical current density of the coated YBCO layer on SBO/YSZ obtained by this quick route are up to 90 K and 1.66 MA/cm{sup 2}. These results may be the usable reference for continuous preparation of SBO buffer layer on IBAD-YSZ/Ni-based alloy tapes.

  11. High-Quality GaN Epilayers Achieved by Facet-Controlled Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth on Sputtered AlN/PSS Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chenguang; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Kang; He, Longfei; Wu, Hualong; Liu, Ningyang; Zhang, Shan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhitao

    2017-12-13

    It is widely believed that the lack of high-quality GaN wafers severely hinders the progress in GaN-based devices, especially for defect-sensitive devices. Here, low-cost AlN buffer layers were sputtered on cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) to obtain high-quality GaN epilayers. Without any mask or regrowth, facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth was realized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The uniform coating of the sputtered AlN buffer layer and the optimized multiple modulation guaranteed high growth selectivity and uniformity of the GaN epilayer. As a result, an extremely smooth surface was achieved with an average roughness of 0.17 nm over 3 × 3 μm 2 . It was found that the sputtered AlN buffer layer could significantly suppress dislocations on the cones. Moreover, the optimized three-dimensional growth process could effectively promote dislocation bending. Therefore, the threading dislocation density (TDD) of the GaN epilayer was reduced to 4.6 × 10 7 cm -2 , which is about an order of magnitude lower than the case of two-step GaN on the PSS. In addition, contamination and crack in the light-emitting diode fabricated on the obtained GaN were also effectively suppressed by using the sputtered AlN buffer layer. All of these advantages led to a high output power of 116 mW at 500 mA with an emission wavelength of 375 nm. This simple, yet effective growth technique is believed to have great application prospects in high-performance TDD-sensitive optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  12. Group-III nitride based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with barrier/spacer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarkar, Prashant; Smorchkova, Ioulia P.; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh; Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Wu, Yifeng

    2005-02-01

    A Group III nitride based high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) is disclosed that provides improved high frequency performance. One embodiment of the HEMT comprises a GaN buffer layer, with an Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N (y=1 or y 1) layer on the GaN buffer layer. An Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5) barrier layer on to the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer, opposite the GaN buffer layer, Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer having a higher Al concentration than that of the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. A preferred Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer has y=1 or y.about.1 and a preferred Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer has 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. A 2DEG forms at the interface between the GaN buffer layer and the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer. Respective source, drain and gate contacts are formed on the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. The HEMT can also comprising a substrate adjacent to the buffer layer, opposite the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer and a nucleation layer between the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N buffer layer and the substrate.

  13. Study of the influence of Nb buffer layer on the exchange coupling induced at the Co/IrMn interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino, I.L.C., E-mail: isabel5cas@gmail.com [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180 (Brazil); Figueiredo, L.C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília 70910-900 (Brazil); Passamani, E.C.; Nascimento, V.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória 29075-910 (Brazil); Pelegrini, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia 74560-900 (Brazil); Baggio Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180 (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Nb buffer layer favors smooth/rough Co/IrMn interfaces, depending on its thickness. • Double and single-like hysteresis loop features depend on the Nb thickness. • Co uniaxial anisotropy induced exchange-bias in as-deposited sample. • Uniaxial and exchange-bias anisotropy directions depend on the Nb thickness. • Thicker Nb favors non-collinear anisotropies, while thinner Nb favors collinear. - Abstract: Hybrid Nb(t{sub Nb})/Co(10 nm)/IrMn(15 nm)/Nb(10 nm) heterostructured materials were prepared by DC Magnetron Sputtering and systematically studied by X-ray, magnetization and ferromagnetic resonance techniques. For thinner Nb buffer layer (≤10 nm), it was found that there is an inter-diffusion at Co/IrMn interface, which favors double-like hysteresis loop. For thicker Nb layers, however, a gradual transition from double to single-like hysteresis loops is observed and it is associated with the reduction of the Nb roughness, which also enhances the exchange coupling at the Co/IrMn interface. Nb grown on IrMn layer induces the formation of an NbIrMn alloy layer, while no evidence of inter-diffusion at the Co/Nb interface is observed. For rougher Nb buffer layers (t{sub Nb} < 50 nm), exchange bias and Co uniaxial anisotropies are pointing at the same direction (β∼zero), but for smoother Nb buffer layer (t{sub Nb} = 50 nm) a β angle of 150{sup o} is found. Exchange bias effect was measured in as-prepared and in field-cooled samples; being its presence, in as-prepared sample, attributed to the unidirectional anisotropy of the Co layer (its intensity is modified in case of sample with a CoIrMn alloy layer). Considering that the Si/Nb/Co/IrMn interfaces have different β values (t{sub Nb} = 35 and 50 nm), a study of the influence of magnetization direction, governed by exchange-biased layers, on superconducting properties of Nb films can be successfully done in this hybrid system.

  14. Electrothermal evaluation of thick GaN epitaxial layers and AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors on large-area engineered substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis J.; Koehler, Andrew D.; Tadjer, Marko J.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Nath, Anindya; Mahadik, Nadeemullah A.; Aktas, Ozgur; Odnoblyudov, Vladimir; Basceri, Cem; Hobart, Karl D.; Kub, Francis J.

    2017-12-01

    AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) device layers were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on commercial engineered QST™ substrates to demonstrate a path to scalable, cost-effective foundry processing while supporting the thick epitaxial layers required for power HEMT structures. HEMT structures on 150 mm Si substrates were also evaluated. The HEMTs on engineered substrates exhibited material quality, DC performance, and forward blocking performance superior to those of the HEMT on Si. GaN device layers up to 15 µm were demonstrated with a wafer bow of 1 µm, representing the thickest films grown on 150-mm-diameter substrates with low bow to date.

  15. Stable Inverted Low-Bandgap Polymer Solar Cells with Aqueous Solution Processed Low-Temperature ZnO Buffer Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient inverted low-bandgap polymer solar cells with an aqueous solution processed low-temperature ZnO buffer layer have been investigated. The low-bandgap material PTB-7 is employed so that more solar light can be efficiently harvested, and the aqueous solution processed ZnO electron transport buffer layer is prepared at 150°C so that it can be compatible with the roll-to-roll process. Power conversion efficiency (PCE of the inverted device reaches 7.12%, which is near the control conventional device. More importantly, the inverted device shows a better stability, keeping more than 90% of its original PCE after being stored for 625 hours, while PCE of the conventional device is only 75% of what it was. In addition, it is found that the ZnO thin film annealed in N2 can obviously increase PCE of the inverted device further to 7.26%.

  16. Investigations into alterntive substrate, absorber, and buffer layer processing for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, J.R.; Berens, T.A.; Keane, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    High-performance Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}(CIGS)-based solar cells are presently fabricated within a narrow range of processing options. In this contribution, alternative substrate, absorber, and buffer layer processing is considered. Cell performance varies considerably when alternative substrates are employed. These variations are narrowed with the addition of Na via a Na{sub 2}S compound. Sputtered and electrodeposited CIGS precursors and completed absorbers show promise as alternatives to evaporation. A recrystallization process is required to improve their quality. (In,Ga){sub y}Se buffer layers contribute to cell performance above 10. Further improvements in these alternatives will lead to combined cell performance greater than 10% in the near term.

  17. Large area flexible polymer solar cells with high efficiency enabled by imprinted Ag grid and modified buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Shudi; Lin, Jie; Liu, Kong; Yue, Shizhong; Ren, Kuankuan; Tan, Furui; Wang, Zhijie; Jin, Peng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    To take a full advantage of polymer semiconductors on realization of large-area flexible photovoltaic devices, herein, we fabricate polymer solar cells on the basis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with imprinted Ag grid as transparent electrode. The key fabrication procedure is the adoption of a modified PEDOT:PSS (PH1000) solution for spin-coating the buffer layer to form a compact contact with the substrate. In comparison with the devices with intrinsic PEDOT:PSS buffer layer, the advanced devices present a much higher efficiency of 6.51%, even in a large device area of 2.25 cm"2. Subsequent characterizations reveal that such devices show an impressive performance stability as the bending angle is enlarged to 180° and bending time is up to 1000 cycles. Not only providing a general methodology to construct high efficient and flexible polymer solar cells, this paper also involves deep insights on device working mechanism in bending conditions.

  18. Preparation of freestanding GaN wafer by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian; Li, Peng; Liang, Renrong; Xiao, Lei; Xu, Jun; Wang, Jing

    2018-05-01

    A freestanding GaN wafer was prepared on porous Si (111) substrate using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). To avoid undesirable effects of the porous surface on the crystallinity of the GaN, a GaN seed layer was first grown on the Si (111) bare wafer. A pattern with many apertures was fabricated in the GaN seed layer using lithography and etching processes. A porous layer was formed in the Si substrate immediately adjacent to the GaN seed layer by an anodic etching process. A 500-μm-thick GaN film was then grown on the patterned GaN seed layer using HVPE. The GaN film was separated from the Si substrate through the formation of cracks in the porous layer caused by thermal mismatch stress during the cooling stage of the HVPE. Finally, the GaN film was polished to obtain a freestanding GaN wafer.

  19. Influence of barrier layer indium on efficiency and wavelength of InGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) with and without semi-bulk InGaN buffer for blue to green regime emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Saiful [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Georgia Tech-CNRS, UMI 2958, Metz (France); CEA-LETI, Minatec Campus, Grenoble (France); Sundaram, Suresh; Li, Xin; El Gmili, Youssef [Georgia Tech-CNRS, UMI 2958, Metz (France); Jamroz, Miryam E.; Robin, Ivan C. [CEA-LETI, Minatec Campus, Grenoble (France); Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Georgia Tech-CNRS, UMI 2958, Metz (France); Salvestrini, Jean-Paul [Georgia Tech-CNRS, UMI 2958, Metz (France); LMOPS, University of Lorraine, EA4423, Metz (France)

    2017-08-15

    The effect of indium (In) in the barrier of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) has been studied for MQWs with and without semi-bulk InGaN buffer. From simulation, the optimum In content in the barrier with 3-5 nm width is 5-7% to get the optimal material quality and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of ∝65% for 450-480 nm emission range. Simulation shows a reduction of the potential barrier due to band flattening, a more homogeneous distribution of electrons and holes in the active region and subsequently, a more radiative recombination rate with InGaN as barrier layer. Both cathodoluminescence (CL) and photoluminescence (PL) experimental results show a blue-shift of emission wavelength along with an enhancement in the emission intensity when GaN barrier is replaced with InGaN barrier, for a MQW structure both with and without the semi-bulk InGaN buffer. We attribute this blue shift to the reduced polarization mismatch and increased effective bandgap. This InGaN barrier-related improvement in IQE and efficiency droop could be useful for the realization of longer wavelength ''green-gap'' range LEDs where poor IQE and efficiency droop are more prominent due to high indium (In) in the active region. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Study on CexLa1-xO2 Buffer Layer used in Coated Conductors by Chemical Solution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yue; Suo, Hongli; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Developing multi-functional single buffer layer is one of the most important challenges for simplification of coated conductors configuration. Ladoped CeO2 films were prepared by chemical solution method. And surface morphology and texture quality of the La-doped CeO2 films were investigated...... method. It suggects that Ce0.9La0.1O2 film prepared by chemical solution route have a promising prospect for the simplification of coated conductors configuration....

  1. Organometallic tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum complexes as buffer layers and dopants in inverted organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolkki, Antti; Kaunisto, Kimmo; Heiskanen, Juha P.; Omar, Walaa A.E.; Huttunen, Kirsi; Lehtimäki, Suvi; Hormi, Osmo E.O.; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq 3 ) is a frequently used material for organic light emitting diodes. The electronic properties and solubility can be tuned by chemical tailoring of the quinoline part, which makes it an interesting candidate for organic solar cells. Steady-state absorption and fluorescence, as well as time-resolved fluorescence properties of the parent Alq 3 and a series of complexes consisting of derivatives, such as 4-substituted pyrazol, methylpyrazol, arylvinyl, and pyridinoanthrene moieties, of the quinoline ligand, were studied in solutions and in thin films. Suitability of the complexes as anodic buffer layers or dopants in inverted organic solar cells based on the well known bulk heterojunction of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was tested. The devices equipped with the derivatives showed higher power conversion efficiency (η) compared to the photocells containing the parent Alq 3 . Open circuit voltage (V oc ) was increased when the derivatives were utilized as the anodic buffer layer. Doping of the P3HT:PCBM with a small amount of Alq 3 or its derivative improved short circuit current density, V oc , fill factor, and η, while the series resistance decreased. In addition, the devices were stable in air over several weeks without encapsulation. Possible mechanisms leading to the improvements in the photovoltaic performance by using the parent Alq 3 or its derivative as buffer layer or dopant are discussed. - Highlights: ► Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq 3 ) complexes in inverted organic solar cells. ► The Alq 3 complexes were used as an anodic buffer layer and as a dopant. ► Efficiency increased and the derivatives revealed varying open circuit voltage. ► Photovoltaic performance was stable after storage in a dark ambient atmosphere.

  2. Organometallic tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum complexes as buffer layers and dopants in inverted organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolkki, Antti, E-mail: antti.tolkki@tut.fi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101, Tampere (Finland); Kaunisto, Kimmo [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101, Tampere (Finland); Heiskanen, Juha P. [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101, Tampere (Finland); Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014, Oulu (Finland); Omar, Walaa A.E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014, Oulu (Finland); Chemistry Branch, Department of Science and Mathematics, Suez Canal University, Suez 43721 (Egypt); Huttunen, Kirsi; Lehtimaeki, Suvi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101, Tampere (Finland); Hormi, Osmo E.O. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014, Oulu (Finland); Lemmetyinen, Helge [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101, Tampere (Finland)

    2012-04-30

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) is a frequently used material for organic light emitting diodes. The electronic properties and solubility can be tuned by chemical tailoring of the quinoline part, which makes it an interesting candidate for organic solar cells. Steady-state absorption and fluorescence, as well as time-resolved fluorescence properties of the parent Alq{sub 3} and a series of complexes consisting of derivatives, such as 4-substituted pyrazol, methylpyrazol, arylvinyl, and pyridinoanthrene moieties, of the quinoline ligand, were studied in solutions and in thin films. Suitability of the complexes as anodic buffer layers or dopants in inverted organic solar cells based on the well known bulk heterojunction of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was tested. The devices equipped with the derivatives showed higher power conversion efficiency ({eta}) compared to the photocells containing the parent Alq{sub 3}. Open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) was increased when the derivatives were utilized as the anodic buffer layer. Doping of the P3HT:PCBM with a small amount of Alq{sub 3} or its derivative improved short circuit current density, V{sub oc}, fill factor, and {eta}, while the series resistance decreased. In addition, the devices were stable in air over several weeks without encapsulation. Possible mechanisms leading to the improvements in the photovoltaic performance by using the parent Alq{sub 3} or its derivative as buffer layer or dopant are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) complexes in inverted organic solar cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Alq{sub 3} complexes were used as an anodic buffer layer and as a dopant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficiency increased and the derivatives revealed varying open circuit voltage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photovoltaic performance was stable after storage in a dark ambient

  3. Enhanced magnetic properties of chemical solution deposited BiFeO3 thin film with ZnO buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajalakshmi, R.; Kambhala, Nagaiah; Angappane, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Enhanced magnetization of BiFeO 3 is important for strong magnetoelectric coupling. ► BiFeO 3 film with ZnO buffer layer was successfully synthesized by chemical method. ► Magnetization of BiFeO 3 has increased by more than 10 times with ZnO buffer layer. ► A mechanism for enhancement in ferromagnetism of BiFeO 3 film is proposed. - Abstract: Magnetic properties of BiFeO 3 films deposited on Si substrates with and without ZnO buffer layer have been studied in this work. We adopted the chemical solution deposition method for the deposition of BiFeO 3 as well as ZnO films. The x-ray diffraction measurements on the deposited films confirm the formation of crystalline phase of BiFeO 3 and ZnO films, while our electron microscopy measurements help to understand the morphology of few micrometers thick films. It is found that the deposited ZnO film exhibit a hexagonal particulate surface morphology, whereas BiFeO 3 film fully covers the ZnO surface. Our magnetic measurements reveal that the magnetization of BiFeO 3 has increased by more than ten times in BiFeO 3 /ZnO/Si film compared to BiFeO 3 /Si film, indicating the major role played by ZnO buffer layer in enhancing the magnetic properties of BiFeO 3 , a technologically important multiferroic material.

  4. Epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN tunnel junctions on Si substrates with TiN buffer layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN tunnel junctions on Si (100 substrates with a TiN buffer layer. A 50-nm-thick (200-oriented TiN thin film was introduced as the buffer layer for epitaxial growth of NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers on Si substrates. The fabricated NbN/AlN/NbN junctions demonstrated excellent tunneling properties with a high gap voltage of 5.5 mV, a large IcRN product of 3.8 mV, a sharp quasiparticle current rise with a ΔVg of 0.4 mV, and a small subgap leakage current. The junction quality factor Rsg/RN was about 23 for the junction with a Jc of 47 A/cm2 and was about 6 for the junction with a Jc of 3.0 kA/cm2. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that the NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers were grown epitaxially on the (200-orientated TiN buffer layer and had a highly crystalline structure with the (200 orientation.

  5. Epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN tunnel junctions on Si substrates with TiN buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Makise, Kazumasa; Terai, Hirotaka [Advanced ICT Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (Japan); Zhang, Lu [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Zhen, E-mail: zwang@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shanghai Tech University, Shanghai 201210 (China)

    2016-06-15

    We have developed epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN tunnel junctions on Si (100) substrates with a TiN buffer layer. A 50-nm-thick (200)-oriented TiN thin film was introduced as the buffer layer for epitaxial growth of NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers on Si substrates. The fabricated NbN/AlN/NbN junctions demonstrated excellent tunneling properties with a high gap voltage of 5.5 mV, a large I{sub c}R{sub N} product of 3.8 mV, a sharp quasiparticle current rise with a ΔV{sub g} of 0.4 mV, and a small subgap leakage current. The junction quality factor R{sub sg}/R{sub N} was about 23 for the junction with a J{sub c} of 47 A/cm{sup 2} and was about 6 for the junction with a J{sub c} of 3.0 kA/cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that the NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers were grown epitaxially on the (200)-orientated TiN buffer layer and had a highly crystalline structure with the (200) orientation.

  6. Multiple defects in GaInN multiple quantum wells grown on ELO GaN layers and on GaN substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiya, S.; Goto, O.; Hoshina, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Ikeda, M.

    2006-01-01

    A new type of structural defects was observed in GaInN multiple quantum well structures with higher In concentrations that were grown on low-threading-dislocation-density templates. The defects were investigated by using various kinds of transmission electron microscopy techniques, and were found to consist of planar defects and associated dislocations. The planar defects nucleate at the interfaces between the quantum well layers and barrier layers. The dislocations are created at the edge boundary of the planar defects and run almost along the c-axis towards the epi-surface. The planar defects are revealed to be inversion domains which are thought to be caused by the segregation of excess In-In bonds at the interface between the quantum well layer and the barrier layer. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Multiple defects in GaInN multiple quantum wells grown on ELO GaN layers and on GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomiya, S. [Materials Analysis Laboratory, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa (Japan); Goto, O.; Hoshina, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Ikeda, M. [Shiroishi Laser Center, Semiconductor Laser Division, MSNC, Sony Corporation, Miyagi (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    A new type of structural defects was observed in GaInN multiple quantum well structures with higher In concentrations that were grown on low-threading-dislocation-density templates. The defects were investigated by using various kinds of transmission electron microscopy techniques, and were found to consist of planar defects and associated dislocations. The planar defects nucleate at the interfaces between the quantum well layers and barrier layers. The dislocations are created at the edge boundary of the planar defects and run almost along the c-axis towards the epi-surface. The planar defects are revealed to be inversion domains which are thought to be caused by the segregation of excess In-In bonds at the interface between the quantum well layer and the barrier layer. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Enhanced Efficiency of Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes by Dispersing Dehydrated Nanotube Titanic Acid in the Hole-buffer Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, L., E-mail: qian_lei@126.com; Xu, Z.; Teng, F.; Duan, X.-X. [Beijing Jiaotong University, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology (China); Jin, Z.-S.; Du, Z.-L. [Henan University, Key Laboratory on special functional materials (China); Li, F.-S.; Zheng, M.-J. [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Peking University, Department of Physics (China); Wang, Y.-S. [Beijing Jiaotong University, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology (China)

    2007-06-15

    Efficiency of polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) with poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) as an emitting layer was improved if a dehydrated nanotubed titanic acid (DNTA) doped hole-buffer layer polyethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT) was used. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra indicated a stronger interaction between DNTA and sulfur atom in thiophene of PEDOT, which suppresses the chemical interaction between vinylene of MEH-PPV and thiophene of PEDOT. The interaction decreases the defect states in an interface region to result in enhancement in device efficiency, even though the hole transporting ability of PEDOT was decreased.

  9. Enhanced Efficiency of Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes by Dispersing Dehydrated Nanotube Titanic Acid in the Hole-buffer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, L.; Xu, Z.; Teng, F.; Duan, X.-X.; Jin, Z.-S.; Du, Z.-L.; Li, F.-S.; Zheng, M.-J.; Wang, Y.-S.

    2007-06-01

    Efficiency of polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) with poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl hexyloxy)- p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) as an emitting layer was improved if a dehydrated nanotubed titanic acid (DNTA) doped hole-buffer layer polyethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT) was used. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra indicated a stronger interaction between DNTA and sulfur atom in thiophene of PEDOT, which suppresses the chemical interaction between vinylene of MEH-PPV and thiophene of PEDOT. The interaction decreases the defect states in an interface region to result in enhancement in device efficiency, even though the hole transporting ability of PEDOT was decreased.

  10. The effects of ZnO buffer layers on the properties of phosphorus doped ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K-W; Lugo, F J; Lee, J H; Norton, D P

    2012-01-01

    The properties of phosphorus doped ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition were examined, specifically focusing on the effects of undoped ZnO buffer layers. In particular, buffer layers were grown under different conditions; the transport properties of as-deposited and rapid thermal annealed ZnO:P films were then examined. As-deposited films showed n-type conductivity. After rapid thermal annealing, the film on buffer layer grown at a low temperature showed the conversion of carrier type to p-type for specific growth conditions while the films deposited on buffer layer grown at a high temperature remained n-type regardless of growth condition. The films deposited on buffer layer grown at a low temperature showed higher resistivity and more significant change of the transport properties upon rapid thermal annealing. These results suggest that more dopants are incorporated in films with higher defect density. This is consistent with high resolution x-ray diffraction results for phosphorus doped ZnO films on different buffer layers. In addition, the microstructure of phosphorus doped ZnO films is substantially affected by the buffer layer.

  11. Characteristics of Mg-doped and In-Mg co-doped p-type GaN epitaxial layers grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S J; Lee, Y S; Suh, E-K; Senthil Kumar, M; An, M H

    2010-01-01

    Mg-doped and In-Mg co-doped p-type GaN epilayers were grown using the metal organic chemical vapour deposition technique. The effect of In co-doping on the physical properties of p-GaN layer was examined by high resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Hall effect, photoluminescence (PL) and persistent photoconductivity (PPC) at room temperature. An improved crystalline quality and a reduction in threading dislocation density are evidenced upon In doping in p-GaN from HRXRD and TEM images. Hole conductivity, mobility and carrier density also significantly improved by In co-doping. PL studies of the In-Mg co-doped sample revealed that the peak position is blue shifted to 3.2 eV from 2.95 eV of conventional p-GaN and the PL intensity is increased by about 25%. In addition, In co-doping significantly reduced the PPC effect in p-type GaN layers. The improved electrical and optical properties are believed to be associated with the active participation of isolated Mg impurities.

  12. Further contribution to the study of buffer layer on austenitic stainless stell overlays obtained by means of automatic submerged arc welding with electrode-wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colla, G.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of several buffer layer types on a 308 type austenitic stainless steel surface overlay having a 19-21% chromium and 10-12% nikel content have been analysed. Cladding passes have been deposited on carbon steel test samples by using automatic submerged arc welding process with electrode-wire. The experimental tests have involved buffer layers having seven different chemical compositions and the obtained results are reported and discussed in the paper. The achieved experimetal results allow selecting the most suitable buffer layer to be deposited in order to reach the required cladding performance in service

  13. Fabrication of the cube textured NiO buffer layer by line-focused infrared heating for coated conductor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jun-Ki; Kim, Won-Jeong; Tak, Jinsung; Kim, Cheol Jin

    2007-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of NiO on the bi-axially textured Ni-3 at.%W (Ni-3W) substrate as seed layer for coated conductor were studied. The bi-axially textured NiO was formed on the Ni-3W tapes using a line-focused infrared heater by oxidizing the surface of the substrate at 800-950 deg. C for 15-120 s in oxygen atmosphere. The thickness of the NiO layer could be controlled by changing heat-treatment, which was estimated as approximately 200-500 nm in the cross-sectional SEM micrographs of the NiO/Ni template. This thickness is enough to block the diffusion of the Ni in the substrate to the superconducting layer. The samples showed strong texture development of NiO layer. The sample oxidized at 900 deg. C with the tape transferring speed of 30 mm/h exhibited ω-scan full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for Ni-3W(2 0 0) and NiO(2 0 0) were 3.97 deg., and 3.67 deg., and φ-scan FWHM values for Ni-3W(1 1 1) and NiO(1 1 1) were 9.58 deg., and 8.79 deg., respectively. Also, the (1 1 1) pole-figure of the NiO buffer layer showed the good symmetry of the four peaks, securing the epitaxial growth of the buffer layers on the NiO layer. Also NiO layer exhibited root-mean-square roughness value of 39 nm by AFM (10 x 10 μm) investigation

  14. Effects of the annealing duration of the ZnO buffer layer on structural and optical properties of ZnO rods grown by a hydrothermal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, C.M.; Lee, J.Y.; Heo, J.H.; Park, J.H.; Kim, C.R. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, J.H. [Major of Nano Semiconductor, Korea Maritime University, 1 Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-Ku, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Son, C.S. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Silla University, Gwaebeop-dong, Sasang-gu, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Nano Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Tan, S.T. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Zhao, J.L. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, X.W. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2009-07-30

    In this study, the effects of the annealing duration of a zinc oxide (ZnO) buffer layer on structural and optical properties of ZnO rods grown by a hydrothermal process are discussed. A ZnO buffer layer was deposited on p-type Si (1 1 1) substrates by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. After that, ZnO rods were grown on the ZnO-buffer/Si (1 1 1) substrate by a hydrothermal process. In order to determine the optimum annealing duration of the buffer layer for the growth of ZnO rods, durations ranging from 0.5 to 30 min were tried. The morphology and crystal structure of the ZnO/ZnO-buffer/Si (1 1 1) were measured by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) measurement.

  15. Dependence of the Mg-related acceptor ionization energy with the acceptor concentration in p-type GaN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochen, Stéphane; Brault, Julien; Chenot, Sébastien; Dussaigne, Amélie; Leroux, Mathieu; Damilano, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Hall effect and capacitance-voltage C(V) measurements were performed on p-type GaN:Mg layers grown on GaN templates by molecular beam epitaxy with a high range of Mg-doping concentrations. The free hole density and the effective dopant concentration N A −N D as a function of magnesium incorporation measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy clearly reveal both a magnesium doping efficiency up to 90% and a strong dependence of the acceptor ionization energy Ea with the acceptor concentration N A . These experimental observations highlight an isolated acceptor binding energy of 245±25 meV compatible, at high acceptor concentration, with the achievement of p-type GaN:Mg layers with a hole concentration at room temperature close to 10 19 cm −3

  16. Propagation of misfit dislocations from buffer/Si interface into Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna [El Sobrante, CA; Maltez, Rogerio Luis [Porto Alegre, BR; Morkoc, Hadis [Richmond, VA; Xie, Jinqiao [Raleigh, VA

    2011-08-30

    Misfit dislocations are redirected from the buffer/Si interface and propagated to the Si substrate due to the formation of bubbles in the substrate. The buffer layer growth process is generally a thermal process that also accomplishes annealing of the Si substrate so that bubbles of the implanted ion species are formed in the Si at an appropriate distance from the buffer/Si interface so that the bubbles will not migrate to the Si surface during annealing, but are close enough to the interface so that a strain field around the bubbles will be sensed by dislocations at the buffer/Si interface and dislocations are attracted by the strain field caused by the bubbles and move into the Si substrate instead of into the buffer epi-layer. Fabrication of improved integrated devices based on GaN and Si, such as continuous wave (CW) lasers and light emitting diodes, at reduced cost is thereby enabled.

  17. Growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN)_1/(GaN)_1_–_2_0 short-period superlattices on +c-GaN template in dynamic atomic layer epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Naoki; Wang, Ke; Imai, Daichi; Itoi, Takaomi; Yoshikawa, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    The growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN)_1/(GaN)_1_–_2_0 short-period superlattices (SPSs) were investigated with their application to ordered alloys in mind. The SPSs were grown on +c-GaN template at 650 °C by dynamic atomic layer epitaxy in conventional plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It was found that coherent structured InN/GaN SPSs could be fabricated when the thickness of the GaN barrier was 4 ML or above. Below 3 ML, the formation of SPSs was quite difficult owing to the increased strain in the SPS structure caused by the use of GaN as a template. The effective or average In composition of the (InN)_1/(GaN)_4 SPSs was around 10%, and the corresponding InN coverage in the ∼1 ML-thick InN wells was 50%. It was found that the effective InN coverage in ∼1 ML-thick InN wells could be varied with the growth conditions. In fact, the effective In composition could be increased up to 13.5%, i.e., the corresponding effective InN coverage was about 68%, by improving the capping/freezing speed by increasing the growth rate of the GaN barrier layer.

  18. Effects of CdS Buffer Layers on Photoluminescence Properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Le Donne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS absorber layers grown by sputtering were investigated by photoluminescence before and after the chemical bath deposition of CdS in order to evaluate the possible passivation of point defects by Cd atoms at the absorber/buffer layer interface. According to the literature, a broad emission around 1.21 eV was observed at low temperature under above bandgap excitation of the as-grown CZTS samples. Broad bands at 1.075 eV and 0.85 eV were detected for the first time under below bandgap excitation of the as-grown CZTS samples at low temperature, which were explained in terms of radiative transitions involving point defect-related levels determined in the literature by first-principles calculations. The emissions observed in the as-grown samples were monitored by both above and below bandgap excitations also in standard CZTS solar cells produced on the same layers. The obtained results suggest that, as in the case of Cu(In, GaSe2, Cd atoms passivate point defects at the absorber/buffer layer interface also in CZTS.

  19. Crystallinity and superconductivity of as-grown MgB2 thin films with AlN buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Shimakage, H.; Wang, Z.; Kaya, N.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of aluminum nitride (AlN) buffer layers on the superconducting properties of MgB 2 thin film were investigated. The AlN buffer layers and as-grown MgB 2 thin films were deposited in situ using the multiple-target sputtering system. The best depositing condition for the AlN/MgB 2 bi-layer occurred when the AlN was deposited on c-cut sapphire substrates at 290 deg. C. The crystallinity of the AlN/MgB 2 bi-layer was studied using the XRD φ-scan and it showed that AlN and MgB 2 had the same in-plane alignment rotated at an angle of 30 deg. as compared to c-cut sapphire. The critical temperature of the MgB 2 film was 29.8 K and the resistivity was 50.0 μΩ cm at 40 K

  20. Low temperature step-graded InAlAs/GaAs metamorphic buffer layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, X Z; Wu, S D; Liu, C; Wang, W X; Guo, L W; Huang, Q; Zhou, J M

    2006-01-01

    Low-temperature step-graded InAlAs metamorphic buffer layers on GaAs substrate grown by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The strain relaxation and the composition of the top InAlAs layer were determined by high-resolution triple-axis x-ray diffraction measurements, which show that the top InAlAs layer is nearly fully relaxed. Surface morphology was observed by reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern and atomic force microscopy. Under a selected range of growth parameters, the root mean square surface roughness of the sample grown at 380 deg. C is 0.802 nm, which has the smallest value compared with those of other samples. Furthermore, The ω-2θ and ω scans of the triple-axis x-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence show the sample grown at 380 deg. C has better crystalline quality. With decreasing As overpressure at this growth temperature, crystalline quality became poor and could not maintain two dimensional growth with increasing overpressure. The carrier concentrations and Hall mobilities of the InAlAs/ InGaAs/GaAs MM-HEMT structure on low-temperature step-graded InAlAs metamorphic buffer layers grown in optimized conditions are high enough to make devices

  1. Studies on Ba(2)YNbO(6) Buffer Layers for Subsequent YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-x) Film Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sathiraju, Srinivas; Barnes, Paul N; Varanasi, Chakrapani; Wheeler, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we are reporting a dielectric oxide buffer Ba(2)YNbO(6) (BYNO) and its performance on various substrates for a potential buffer layer for the growth of YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-x) (YBCO) coated conductors. Ba(2)YNbO(6...

  2. Effects of buffer layer on the structural and electrical properties of InAsSb epilayers grown on GaAs(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayavel, P.; Nakamura, S.; Koyama, T.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2006-01-01

    InAsSb ternary epilayers with arsenic composition of 0.5 have been grown on GaAs(001) substrates. Linear-graded and step-graded InAsSb buffer layers with an InSb layer have been used to relax lattice mismatch between the epilayer and substrate. X-ray diffraction results of the epilayers indicate that an enhancement in the peak intensity of the buffer layer samples is due to improved crystalline quality of the epilayers. We find that the growth technique of the buffer layer strongly influences the surface morphology and roughness of the epilayer. Hall effect measurements of the step-graded buffer layer samples show an order of magnitude higher electron mobility than the direct and linear-graded buffer layer samples. These results demonstrate that high crystalline quality and electron mobility of the InAs 0.5 Sb 0.5 ternary epilayers can be achieved by using the step-graded InAsSb buffer layers. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Cube textured CeO2, BaZrO3 and LaAlO3 buffer layers on Ni based Substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deinhofer, C; Gritzner, G

    2006-01-01

    CeO 2 , BaZrO 3 as well as LaAlO 3 buffer layers were deposited on {100} Ni + 5 weight-% W substrates by a wet chemical technique. The solutions were prepared by dissolving the metal nitrates or acetates and zirconiumacetylacetonate, respectively, in mixtures of acetic acid, methanol and water. The solutions were applied by dip- or spincoating, dried at 135 deg. C and annealed at temperatures between 900 and 1 400 deg. C depending on the buffer layer for 15 min. under Ar-5% H 2 gas flow. Pole-figure measurements proved the exact texture of each buffer layer. Electron microscopy showed dense and smooth buffer layers

  4. A possibility of enhancing Jc in MgB2 film grown on metallic hastelloy tape with the use of SiC buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putri, W. B. K.; Kang, B.; Ranot, M.; Lee, J. H.; Kang, W. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have grown MgB 2 on SiC buffer layer by using metallic Hastelloy tape as the substrate. Hastelloy tape was chosen for its potential practical applications, mainly in the power cable industry. SiC buffer layers were deposited on Hastelloy tapes at 400, 500, and 600 degrees C by using a pulsed laser deposition method, and then by using a hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition technique, MgB 2 films were grown on the three different SiC buffer layers. An enhancement of critical current density values were noticed in the MgB 2 films on SiC/Hastelloy deposited at 500 and 600 degrees C. From the surface analysis, smaller and denser grains of MgB 2 tapes are likely to cause this enhancement. This result infers that the addition of SiC buffer layers may contribute to the improvement of superconducting properties of MgB 2 tapes.

  5. Hall-effect measurements of metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy-grown p-type homoepitaxial GaN layers with various Mg concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Masahiro; Takashima, Shinya; Tanaka, Ryo; Matsuyama, Hideaki; Ueno, Katsunori; Edo, Masaharu; Takahashi, Tokio; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Suda, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Mg-doped p-type gallium nitride (GaN) layers with doping concentrations in the range from 6.5 × 1016 cm-3 (lightly doped) to 3.8 × 1019 cm-3 (heavily doped) were investigated by Hall-effect measurement for the analysis of hole concentration and mobility. p-GaN was homoepitaxially grown on a GaN free-standing substrate by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. The threading dislocation density of p-GaN was 4 × 106 cm-2 measured by cathodoluminescence mapping. Hall-effect measurements of p-GaN were carried out at a temperature in the range from 130 to 450 K. For the lightly doped p-GaN, the acceptor concentration of 7.0 × 1016 cm-3 and the donor concentration of 3.2 × 1016 cm-3 were obtained, where the compensation ratio was 46%. We also obtained the depth of the Mg acceptor level to be 220 meV. The hole mobilities of 86, 31, 14 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 200, 300, 400 K, respectively, were observed in the lightly doped p-GaN.

  6. White OLED with high stability and low driving voltage based on a novel buffer layer MoOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Xueyin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang Zhilin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Cao Jin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Application, Ministry of Education, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Khan, M A [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Khizar-ul-Haq [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhu Wenqing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2007-09-21

    White organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), 4,4',4-prime-tris(N-3-methylphenyl-N-phenyl-amino) triphenylamine (m-MTDATA), tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) and molybdenum oxide (MoOx) as buffer layers have been investigated. The MoOx based device shows superior performance with low driving voltage, high power efficiency and much longer lifetime than those with other buffer layers. For the Cell using MoOx as buffer layer and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) as electron transporting layer (ETL), at the luminance of 1000 cd m{sup -2}, the driving voltage is 4.9 V, which is 4.2 V, 2 V and 0.7 V lower than that of the devices using CuPc (Cell-CuPc), m-MTDATA (Cell-m-MTDATA) and WO{sub 3} (Cell-WO{sub 3}) as buffer layers, respectively. Its power efficiency is 7.67 Lm W{sup -1}, which is 2.37 times higher than that of Cell-CuPc and a little higher than that of Cell-m-MTDATA. The projected half-life under the initial luminance of 100 cd m{sup -2} is 55 260 h, which is more than 4.6 times longer than that of Cell-m-MTDATA and Cell-CuPc. The superior performance of Cell-MoOx is attributed to its high hole injection ability and the stable interface between MoOx and organic material. The work function of MoOx has been measured by the contact potential difference method. The J-V curves of 'hole-only' devices indicate that a small hole injection barrier between MoOx/N,'-bis(naphthalene-1-y1)-N, N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) leads to a strong hole injection, resulting in a low driving voltage and a high stability.

  7. Anomalous Hall effect suppression in anatase Co:TiO2 by the insertion of an interfacial TiO2 buffer layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Y.J.; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Kim, Y.; Brock, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    We present the effect of introducing a TiO2 buffer layer at the SrTiO3 /Co:TiO2 interface on the magnetic and structural properties of anatase Co:TiO2 1.4 at. % Co. Inserting the buffer layer leads to suppression of the room-temperature anomalous Hall effect, accompanied by a reduced density of Co

  8. High quality InAsSb grown on InP substrates using AlSb/AlAsSb buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, B.-R.; Liao, C.; Cheng, K. Y.

    2008-01-01

    High quality InAsSb grown on semi-insulating InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy was achieved using AlSb/AlAsSb structure as the buffer layer. A 1000 A InAsSb layer grown on top of 1 μm AlSb/AlAsSb buffer layer showed a room temperature electron mobility of ∼12 000 cm 2 /V s. High structural quality and low misfit defect density were also demonstrated in the InAsSb layer. This novel AlSb/AlAsSb buffer layer structure with the AlAsSb layer lattice matched to InP substrates could enhance the performance of optoelectronic devices utilizing 6.1 A family of compound semiconductor alloys

  9. Formation mechanism of Al-depleted bands in MOVPE-AlGaN layer on GaN template with trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwano, Noriyuki [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ezaki, Tetsuya; Kurogi, Takuya [Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mie University, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    A microstructure in an AlGaN/GaN layer was analyzed in detail by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with special attention to the formation of steps on the surface. The AlGaN layer was grown by MOVPE on a GaN template with periodic trenches. It was revealed that there formed were Al-depleted bands in the AlGaN layer. These bands were generated from rather lower regions in the AlGaN layer or those above the trenches, and run upwards. Some of them reached the top surface to connect a macro step. The formation mechanism of the Al-depleted region is discussed in terms of thermodynamics. If the total bonding energy of atoms on the macro step of surface is assumed to be smaller than that of atoms on a flat surface, the Al-depletion can be explained provided that the local equilibrium in concentration is conserved during the growth of AlGaN layer. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Chemical-bath ZnO buffer layer for CuInS{sub 2} thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennaoui, A.; Weber, M.; Scheer, R.; Lewerenz, H.J. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Abt. Grenzflaechen, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-07-13

    ZnO buffer layers were grown by a chemical-bath deposition (CBD) in order to improve the interface quality in p-CuInS{sub 2} based solar cells, to improve the light transmission in the blue wavelength region, but also as an alternative to eliminate the toxic cadmium. The process consists of immersion of different substrates (glass, CIS) in a dilute solution of tetraamminezinc II, [Zn(NH{sub 2}){sub 4}]{sup 2+}, complex at 60-95C. During the growth process, a homogeneous growth mechanism which proceeds by the sedimentation of a mixture of ZnO and Zn(OH){sub 2} clusters formed in solution, competes with the heterogeneous growth mechanism. The mechanism consists of specific adsorption of a complex Zn(II) followed by a chemical reaction. The last process of growth results in thin, hard, adherent and specularly reflecting films. The characterization of the deposited CBD-ZnO layers was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical transmittance, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The as-deposited films on glass show hexagonal zincite structure with two preferred orientations (1 0 0) and (1 0 1). High optical transmittance up to 80% in the near-infrared and part of the visible region was observed. The low growth rate of the films on CIS suggests an atomic layer-by-layer growth process.The device parameters and performance are compared to heterojunction with a standard CdS buffer layer

  11. Effects of TiO{sub 2} buffer layer on the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} Nano rods grown by modified chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae-hyun; Ha, Jin-wook; Ryu, Hyukhyun [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In this study, we grew TiO{sub 2} nano rods on TiO{sub 2}-film buffered FTO substrate using modified chemical bath deposition (M-CBD). The TiO{sub 2} buffer layer was grown by spin coating method with different RPM (revolutions per minute) values and deposition cycles. We investigated the effects of the RPM values and the deposition cycles on the morphological, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} nano rods. In this work, we have also found that the morphological and structural properties of TiO{sub 2} nano rods affected the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} nano rods. And the maximum photocurrent density of 0.34 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.6V (vs.SCE) was obtained from the buffer layer deposition process condition of 4,000 RPM and two-times buffer layer depositions.

  12. The effect of buffer-layer on the steady-state energy release rate of a tunneling crack in a wind turbine blade joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeppe Bjørn; Sørensen, Bent F.; Kildegaard, Casper

    2018-01-01

    propagation of tunneling cracks. However, for wind turbine blade relevant material combinations it is found more effective to reduce the thickness of the adhesive layer since the stiffness mismatch between the existing laminate and the adhesive is already high. The effect of material orthotropy was found......The effect of a buffer-layer on the steady-state energy release rate of a tunneling crack in the adhesive layer of a wind turbine blade joint, loaded in tension, is investigated using a parametric 2D tri-material finite element model. The idea of embedding a buffer-layer in-between the adhesive...... and the basis glass fiber laminate to improve the existing joint design is novel, but the implications hereof need to be addressed.The results show that it is advantageous to embed a buffer-layer near the adhesive with controllable thickness-and stiffness properties in order to improve the joint design against...

  13. Performance and Metastability of CdTe Solar Cells with a Te Back-Contact Buffer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew

    Thin-film CdTe photovoltaics are quickly maturing into a viable clean-energy solution through demonstration of competitive costs and performance stability with existing energy sources. Over the last half decade, CdTe solar technology has achieved major gains in performance; however, there are still aspects that can be improved to progress toward their theoretical maximum efficiency. Perhaps equally valuable as high photovoltaic efficiency and a low levelized cost of energy, is device reliability. Understanding the root causes for changes in performance is essential for accomplishing long-term stability. One area for potential performance enhancement is the back contact of the CdTe device. This research incorporated a thin-film Te-buffer layer into the contact structure, between the CdTe and contact metal. The device performance and characteristics of many different back contact configurations were rigorously studied. CdTe solar cells fabricated with the Te-buffer contact showed short-circuit current densities and open-circuit voltages that were on par with the traditional back-contacts used at CSU. However, the Te-buffer contact typically produced 2% larger fill-factors on average, leading to greater conversation efficiency. Furthermore, using the Te buffer allowed for incorporation of 50% less Cu, which is used for p-type doping but is also known to decrease lifetime and stability. This resulted in an additional 3% fill-factor gain with no change in other parameters compared to the standard-Cu treated device. In order to better understand the physical mechanisms of the Te-buffer contact, electrical and material properties of the Te layer were extracted and used to construct a simple energy band diagram. The Te layer was found to be highly p-type (>1018 cm-3) and possess a positive valence-band offset of 0.35-0.40 eV with CdTe. An existing simulation model incorporating the Te-layer properties was implemented and validated by comparing simulated results of Cd

  14. Photoluminescence investigation of thick GaN films grown on Si substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.; Ahn, H. S.; Chang, J. H.; Yi, S. N.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    The optical properties of thick GaN films grown by hydried vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) using a low-temperature intermediate GaN buffer layer grown on a (111) Si substrate with a ZnO thin film were investigated by using photoluminescence (PL) measurement at 300 K and 77 K. The strong donor bound exciton (DBE) at 357 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 meV was observed at 77 K. The value of 15 meV is extremely narrow for GaN grown on Si substrate by HVPE. An impurity-related peak was also observed at 367 nm. The origin of impurity was investigated using Auger spectroscopy.

  15. Improving the Long-Term Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells with a Porous Al 2 O 3 Buffer Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Guarnera, Simone; Abate, Antonio; Zhang, Wei; Foster, Jamie M.; Richardson, Giles; Petrozza, Annamaria; Snaith, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Hybrid perovskites represent a new paradigm for photovoltaics, which have the potential to overcome the performance limits of current technologies and achieve low cost and high versatility. However, an efficiency drop is often observed within the first few hundred hours of device operation, which could become an important issue. Here, we demonstrate that the electrode's metal migrating through the hole transporting material (HTM) layer and eventually contacting the perovskite is in part responsible for this early device degradation. We show that depositing the HTM within an insulating mesoporous "buffer layer" comprised of Al2O3 nanoparticles prevents the metal electrode migration while allowing for precise control of the HTM thickness. This enables an improvement in the solar cell fill factor and prevents degradation of the device after 350 h of operation. (Graph Presented).

  16. Enhanced performance of C60 organic field effect transistors using a tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Hong; Cheng Xiaoman; Tian Haijun [Institute of Material Physics, Key Laboratory of Display Material and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Zhao Geng, E-mail: zheng_033@163.com [School of Science, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2011-09-15

    We have investigated the properties of C60-based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) with a tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) buffer layer inserted between the source/drain electrodes and the active material. The electrical characteristics of OFETs are improved with the insertion of Alq3 film. The peak field effect mobility is increased to 1.28 x 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2}/(V{center_dot}s) and the threshold voltage is decreased to 10 V when the thickness of the Alq3 is 10 nm. The reason for the improved performance of the devices is probably due to the prevention of metal atoms diffusing into the C60 active layer and the reduction of the channel resistance in Alq3 films. (semiconductor devices)

  17. Improving the Long-Term Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells with a Porous Al 2 O 3 Buffer Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Guarnera, Simone

    2015-02-05

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Hybrid perovskites represent a new paradigm for photovoltaics, which have the potential to overcome the performance limits of current technologies and achieve low cost and high versatility. However, an efficiency drop is often observed within the first few hundred hours of device operation, which could become an important issue. Here, we demonstrate that the electrode\\'s metal migrating through the hole transporting material (HTM) layer and eventually contacting the perovskite is in part responsible for this early device degradation. We show that depositing the HTM within an insulating mesoporous "buffer layer" comprised of Al2O3 nanoparticles prevents the metal electrode migration while allowing for precise control of the HTM thickness. This enables an improvement in the solar cell fill factor and prevents degradation of the device after 350 h of operation. (Graph Presented).

  18. Effect of film thickness, type of buffer layer, and substrate temperature on the morphology of dicyanovinyl-substituted sexithiophene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Alexandr A., E-mail: alexander.levin@iapp.de [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Levichkova, Marieta [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Heliatek GmbH, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Hildebrandt, Dirk; Klisch, Marina; Weiss, Andre [Heliatek GmbH, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Wynands, David; Elschner, Chris [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Pfeiffer, Martin [Heliatek GmbH, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Leo, Karl; Riede, Moritz [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-01-31

    The influence of film thickness, type of buffer underlayer, and deposition substrate temperature on the crystal structure, microstructure, and morphology of the films of dicyanovinyl-substituted sexithiophene with four butyl-chains (DCV6T-Bu{sub 4}) is investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray reflectivity methods. A neat Si wafer or a Si wafer covered by a 15 nm buffer underlayer of fullerene C{sub 60} or 9,9-Bis[4-(N,N-bis-biphenyl-4-yl-amino)phenyl]-9H-fluorene (BPAPF) is used as a substrate. The crystalline nature and ordered molecular arrangement of the films are recorded down to 6 nm film thickness. By using substrates heated up to 90 Degree-Sign C during the film deposition, the size of the DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} crystallites in direction perpendicular to the film surface increases up to value of the film thickness. With increasing deposition substrate temperature or film thickness, the DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} film relaxes, resulting in reducing the interplane distances closer to the bulk values. For the films of the same thickness deposited at the same substrate temperature, the DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} film relaxes for growth on Si to BPAPF to C{sub 60}. Thicker films grown at heated substrates are characterized by smaller density, higher roughness and crystallinity and better molecular ordering. A thin (up to about 6 nm-thick) intermediate layer with linear density-gradient is formed at the C{sub 60}/DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} interface for the films with buffer C{sub 60} layer. The XRD pattern of the DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} powder is indexed using triclinic unit cell parameters.

  19. Impact of annealing treatment before buffer layer deposition on Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hironiwa, Daisuke; Sakai, Noriyuki; Kato, Takuya; Sugimoto, Hiroki; Tang, Zeguo; Chantana, Jakapan; Minemoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 (CZTSSe) solar cells were fabricated with an annealing treatment before the deposition of buffer layers to improve their photovoltaic performance. The CZTSSe absorbers were produced by sulfurization and selenization of metallic precursors. The efficiency of the solar cells increased from 5.5% without the annealing treatment to 8.8% with the annealing treatment at a temperature of 200 °C before buffer layer fabrication. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed that the density of defects in the CZTSSe absorber that acted as non-radiative recombination centers decreased with the annealing treatment. The PL peak intensity exhibited a linear relationship with the open circuit voltage and the fill factor. In addition, the carrier density and hole mobility of the CZTSSe absorbers, which were respectively investigated by capacitance-voltage and Hall effect measurements, increased with the annealing treatment, thus improving cell performance. - Highlights: • Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 is fabricated by sulfurization and selenization. • The annealing treatment can effectively improve the cell performance. • The defect acting as recombination is decreased by annealing treatment. • Carrier density and hole mobility is increased by annealing treatment

  20. Growth of High-Quality GaAs on Ge by Controlling the Thickness and Growth Temperature of Buffer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu-Liang; Pan, Jiao-Qing; Yu, Hong-Yan; Li, Shi-Yan; Wang, Bao-Jun; Bian, Jing; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    High-quality GaAs thin films grown on miscut Ge substrates are crucial for GaAs-based devices on silicon. We investigate the effect of different thicknesses and temperatures of GaAs buffer layers on the crystal quality and surface morphology of GaAs on Ge by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Through high resolution x-ray diffraction measurements, it is demonstrated that the full width at half maximum for the GaAs epilayer (Ge substrate) peak could achieve 19.3 (11.0) arcsec. The value of etch pit density could be 4×104 cm-2. At the same time, GaAs surfaces with no pyramid-shaped pits are obtained when the buffer layer growth temperature is lower than 360°C, due to effective inhibition of initial nucleation at terraces of the Ge surface. In addition, it is shown that large island formation at the initial stage of epitaxial growth is a significant factor for the final rough surface and that this initial stage should be carefully controlled when a device quality GaAs surface is desired.

  1. The mechanism of the nano-CeO2 films deposition by electrochemistry method as coated conductor buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yuming; Cai, Shuang; Liang, Ying; Bai, Chuanyi; Liu, Zhiyong; Guo, Yanqun; Cai, Chuanbing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Crack-free CeO 2 film thicker than 200 nm was prepared on NiW substrate by ED method. • Different electrochemical processes as hydroxide/metal mechanisms were identified. • The CeO 2 precursor films deposited by ED method were in nano-scales. - Abstract: Comparing with conventional physical vapor deposition methods, electrochemistry deposition technique shows a crack suppression effect by which the thickness of CeO 2 films on Ni–5 at.%W substrate can reach a high value up to 200 nm without any cracks, make it a potential single buffer layer for coated conductor. In the present work, the processes of CeO 2 film deposited by electrochemistry method are detailed investigated. A hydroxide reactive mechanism and an oxide reactive mechanism are distinguished for dimethyl sulfoxide and aqueous solution, respectively. Before heat treatment to achieve the required bi-axial texture performance of buffer layers, the precursor CeO 2 films are identified in nanometer scales. The crack suppression for electrochemistry deposited CeO 2 films is believed to be attributed to the nano-effects of the precursors

  2. Development of in-situ control diagnostics for application of epitaxial superconductor and buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.C. Winkleman; T.V. Giel; Jason Cunningham

    1999-07-30

    The recent achievements of critical currents in excess of 1 x 10{sup 6} amp/cm{sup 2} at 77 K in YBCO deposited over suitably textured buffer/substrate composites have stimulated interest in the potential fabrication of these coated conductors as wire. Numerous approaches and manufacturing schemes for producing coated conductor wire are currently being developed. Recently, under the US DOE's sponsorship, the University of Tennessee Space Institute performed an extensive evaluation of leading coated conductor processing options. In general, it is their feeling that the science and chemistry that are being developed in the coated conductor wire program now need proper engineering evaluation to define the most viable options for a commercial fabrication process. All fabrication processes will need process control measurements. This report provides a specific review of the needs and available technologies for process control for many of the coated conductor processing options. This report also addresses generic process monitoring areas in which additional research and development is needed. The concentration is on the two different approaches for obtaining the textured substrates that have been identified as viable candidates. These are the Los Alamos National Laboratory's ion-beam assisted deposition, called IBAD, to obtain a highly textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffer on nickel alloy strips, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory's rolling assisted, bi-axially textured substrate option called RABiTS{trademark}.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF IN-SITU CONTROL DIAGNOSTICS FOR APPLICATION OF EPITAXIAL SUPERCONDUCTOR AND BUFFER LAYERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.C. Winkleman; T.V. Giel, Jr.; J. Cunningham

    1999-06-30

    The recent achievements of critical currents in excess of 1x10{sup 6}amp/cm{sup 2} at 77K in YBCO deposited over suitably textured buffer/substrate composites have stimulated interest in the potential fabrication of these coated conductors as wire. Numerous approaches and manufacturing schemes for producing coated conductor wire are currently being developed. Recently, under the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sponsorship, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) performed an extensive evaluation of leading coated conductor processing options. In general, it is our feeling that the science and chemistry that are being developed in the coated conductor wire program now need proper engineering evaluation to define the most viable options for a commercial fabrication process. All fabrication processes will need process control measurements. This report provides a specific review of the needs and available technologies for process control for many of the coated conductor processing options. This report also addresses generic process monitoring areas in which additional research and development is needed. The concentration is on the two different approaches for obtaining the textured substrates that have been identified as viable candidates. These are the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) ion-beam assisted deposition, called IBAD, to obtain a highly textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffer on nickel alloy strips, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) rolling assisted, bi-axially textured substrate option called RABiTS{trademark}.

  4. Effect of thermal annealing treatment with titanium chelate on buffer layer in inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhiyong [College of Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Wang, Ning, E-mail: ning_wang@outlook.com [School of Electrical and Electronic and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University 639798 (Singapore); Fu, Yan, E-mail: 1060945062@qq.com [College of Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The TIPD layer as electron extraction layer and instead of Ca or LiF. • Impact of the work function of TIPD layer by thermal annealing treatment. • Importance of TIPD layer as electron extraction layer for work function and potential barrier. - Abstract: The solution processable electron extraction layer (EEL) is crucial for polymer solar cells (PSCs). Here, we investigated titanium (diisopropoxide) bis(2,4-pentanedionate) (TIPD) as an EEL and fabricated inverted PSCs with a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) acting as the photoactive layer, with a structure of ITO/TIPD/P3HT:ICBA/MoO{sub 3}/Ag. After thermal annealing treatment at 150 °C for 15 min, the PSC performances increased from 3.85% to 6.84% and they achieve stable power conversion efficiency (PCE), with a similar PCE compared with TiO{sub 2} as an EEL by the vacuum evaporated method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) confirmed that the TIPD decomposed and formed the Ti=O bond, and the energy level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital increased. The space charge limited current (SCLC) measurements further confirmed the improvement in electron collection and the transport ability using TIPD as the EEL and thermal annealing.

  5. Inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells with the transfer-printed anodes and low-temperature-processed ultrathin buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Eiji; Sakai, Shota; Fukuda, Katsutoshi

    2018-03-01

    We studied the effects of a hole buffer layer [molybdenum oxide (MoO3) and natural copper oxide layer] and a low-temperature-processed electron buffer layer on the performance of inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells in a device consisting of indium-tin oxide (ITO)/poly(ethylene imine) (PEI)/titanium oxide nanosheet (TiO-NS)/poly(3-hexylthiopnehe) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM)/oxide/anode (Ag or Cu). The insertion of ultrathin TiO-NS (˜1 nm) and oxide hole buffer layers improved the open circuit voltage V OC, fill factor, and rectification properties owing to the effective hole blocking and electron transport properties of ultrathin TiO-NS, and to the enhanced work function difference between TiO-NS and the oxide hole buffer layer. The insertion of the TiO-NS contributed to the reduction in the potential barrier at the ITO/PEI/TiO-NS/active layer interface for electrons, and the insertion of the oxide hole buffer layer contributed to the reduction in the potential barrier for holes. The marked increase in the capacitance under positive biasing in the capacitance-voltage characteristics revealed that the combination of TiO-NS and MoO3 buffer layers contributes to the selective transport of electrons and holes, and blocks counter carriers at the active layer/oxide interface. The natural oxide layer of the copper electrode also acts as a hole buffer layer owing to the increase in the work function of the Cu surface in the inverted cells. The performance of the cell with evaporated MoO3 and Cu layers that were transfer-printed to the active layer was almost comparable to that of the cell with MoO3 and Ag layers directly evaporated onto the active layer. We also demonstrated comparable device performance in the cell with all-printed MoO3 and low-temperature-processed silver nanoparticles as an anode.

  6. Structure and magnetic properties of NdFeB thin films with Cr, Mo, Nb, Ta, Ti, and V buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, H.; O'Shea, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Layers of NdFeB of the form A(20 nm)/NdFeB(d nm)/A(20 nm) where A represents Cr, Mo, Nb, Ta, Ti, V were prepared on a silicon substrate by magnetron sputtering. The purpose is to determine how (i) the chosen buffer layer and (ii) NdFeB layer thickness d (especially d 2 Fe 14 B with no preferred crystalline orientation. Our highest coercivities occur for buffer layer elements from row five of the periodic table, 20 kOe (1600 kA/m) in a Nb buffered sample with d of 180 nm and 17 kOe (1350 kA/m) in a Mo buffered sample with d of 180 nm. Buffer layers from row four (Ti, V, and Cr) and row six (Ta) all give lower coercivities. Our largest energy product, 10.3 MG-Oe (82 kJ/m 3 ), is obtained for the Mo buffered sample. Average Nd 2 Fe 14 B crystallite size for this sample is 27 nm. Only the Cr and Ti buffered films show a large coercivity (≥2 kOe) for d of 54 nm with the Cr films showing the highest coercivity, 2.7 kOe (215 kA/m). In films subjected to a rapid thermal anneal (anneal time 30 s) we find that both the coercivity and energy product are larger than in samples subjected to a 20 min anneal. In our Nb buffered systems we obtain coercivities as high as 26.3 kOe (2090 kA/m) after a rapid thermal anneal

  7. Environmental Modeling, The Buffer Priority layers for Nitrogen Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer sites by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank opportunities with high nitrogen removal potential., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Buffer Priority layers for Nitrogen Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer sites by subwatershed. Land...

  8. AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with an AlGaN layer grown directly on reactive-ion-etched GaN showing a high electron mobility (>1300 cm2 V-1 s-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Makino, Shinya; Kanatani, Keito; Kuzuhara, Masaaki

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the metal-organic-vapor-phase-epitaxial growth behavior and electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN structures prepared by the growth of an AlGaN layer on a reactive-ion-etched (RIE) GaN surface without regrown GaN layers were investigated. The annealing of RIE-GaN surfaces in NH3 + H2 atmosphere, employed immediately before AlGaN growth, was a key process in obtaining a clean GaN surface for AlGaN growth, that is, in obtaining an electron mobility as high as 1350 cm2 V-1 s-1 in a fabricated AlGaN/RIE-GaN structure. High-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) were successfully fabricated with AlGaN/RIE-GaN wafers. With decreasing density of dotlike defects observed on the surfaces of AlGaN/RIE-GaN wafers, both two-dimensional electron gas properties of AlGaN/RIE-GaN structures and DC characteristics of HEMTs were markedly improved. Since dotlike defect density was markedly dependent on RIE lot, rather than on growth lot, surface contaminations of GaN during RIE were believed to be responsible for the formation of dotlike defects and, therefore, for the inferior electrical properties.

  9. Molecular orbital calculations for the formation of GaN layers on ultra-thin AlN/6H-SiC surface using alternating pulsative supply of gaseous trimethyl gallium (TMG) and NH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, See Yearl; Hwang, Jin Soo

    2001-01-01

    The steps for the generation of very thin GaN films on ultrathin AlN/6H-SiC surface by alternating a pulsative supply (APS) of trimethyl gallium and NH 3 gases have been examined by ASED-MO calculations. We postulate that the gallium clusters was formed with the evaporation of CH 4 gases via the decomposition of trimethyl gallium (TMG), dimethyl gallium (DMG), and monomethyl gallium (MMG). During the injection of NH 3 gas into the reactor, the atomic hydrogens were produced from the thermal decomposition of NH 3 molecule. These hydrogen gases activated the Ga-C bond cleavage. An energetically stable GaN nucleation site was formed via nitrogen incorporation into the layer of gallium cluster. The nitrogen atoms produced from the thermal degradation of NH 3 were expected to incorporate into the edge of the gallium cluster since the galliums bind weakly to each other (0.19 eV). The structure was stabilized by 2.08 eV, as an adsorbed N atom incorporated into a tetrahedral site of the Ga cluster. This suggests that the adhesion of the initial layer can be reinforced by the incorporation of nitrogen atom through the formation of large grain boundary GaN crystals at the early stage of GaN film growth

  10. Fully relaxed low-mismatched InAlAs layer on an InP substrate by using a two step buffer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plissard, S.R.; Coinon, C.; Androussi, Y.; Wallart, X.

    2010-01-01

    The strain relaxation in low mismatched InxAl1-xAs layers has been studied by triple axis x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. Using a two step buffer, a fully relaxed top layer has been grown by adapting the composition and thickness of a first "strained

  11. Efficiency enhancement of polymer solar cells by applying poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as a cathode buffer layer via spin coating or self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Zhang, Wenfeng; Xu, Chenhui; Bi, Xianghong; Chen, Boxue; Yang, Shangfeng

    2013-01-01

    A non-conjugated polymer poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was applied as a new cathode buffer layer in P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (BHJ-PSCs), by means of either spin coating or self-assembly, resulting in significant efficiency enhancement. For the case of incorporation of PVP by spin coating, power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/PVP/Al BHJ-PSC device (3.90%) is enhanced by 29% under the optimum PVP spin-coating speed of 3000 rpm, which leads to the optimum thickness of PVP layer of ~3 nm. Such an efficiency enhancement is found to be primarily due to the increase of the short-circuit current (J(sc)) (31% enhancement), suggesting that the charge collection increases upon the incorporation of a PVP cathode buffer layer, which originates from the conjunct effects of the formation of a dipole layer between P3HT:PCBM active layer and Al electrodes, the chemical reactions of PVP molecules with Al atoms, and the increase of the roughness of the top Al film. Incorporation of PVP layer by doping PVP directly into the P3HT:PCBM active layer leads to an enhancement of PCE by 13% under the optimum PVP doping ratio of 3%, and this is interpreted by the migration of PVP molecules to the surface of the active layer via self-assembly, resulting in the formation of the PVP cathode buffer layer. While the formation of the PVP cathode buffer layer is fulfilled by both fabrication methods (spin coating and self-assembly), the dependence of the enhancement of the device performance on the thickness of the PVP cathode buffer layer formed by self-assembly or spin coating is different, because of the different aggregation microstructures of the PVP interlayer.

  12. Atmospheric spatial atomic-layer-deposition of Zn(O, S) buffer layer for flexible Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells: From lab-scale to large area roll to roll processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, C.H.; Bolt, P.J.; Poodt, P.W.G.; Knaapen, R.; Brink, J. van den; Ruth, M.; Bremaud, D.; Illiberi, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript we present the first successful application of a spatial atomic-layer-deposition process to thin film solar cells. Zn(O,S) has been grown by spatial atomic layer deposition (S-ALD) at atmospheric pressure and applied as buffer layer in rigid and flexible CIGS cells by a lab-scale

  13. Ca/Alq3 hybrid cathode buffer layer for the optimization of organic solar cells based on a planar heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jouad, Z.; Barkat, L.; Stephant, N.; Cattin, L.; Hamzaoui, N.; Khelil, A.; Ghamnia, M.; Addou, M.; Morsli, M.; Béchu, S.; Cabanetos, C.; Richard-Plouet, M.; Blanchard, P.; Bernède, J. C.

    2016-11-01

    Use of efficient anode cathode buffer layer (CBL) is crucial to improve the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells. Here we show that using a double CBL, Ca/Alq3, allows improving significantly cell performances. The insertion of Ca layer facilitates electron harvesting and blocks hole collection, leading to improved charge selectivity and reduced leakage current, whereas Alq3 blocks excitons. After optimisation of this Ca/Alq3 CBL using CuPc as electron donor, it is shown that it is also efficient when SubPc is substituted to CuPc in the cells. In that case we show that the morphology of the SubPc layer, and therefore the efficiency of the cells, strongly depends on the deposition rate of the SubPc film. It is necessary to deposit slowly (0.02 nm/s) the SubPc films because at higher deposition rate (0.06 nm/s) the films are porous, which induces leakage currents and deterioration of the cell performances. The SubPc layers whose formations are kinetically driven at low deposition rates are more uniform, whereas those deposited faster exhibit high densities of pinholes.

  14. Physical-Layer Security of a Buffer-Aided Full-Duplex Relaying System

    KAUST Repository

    El Shafie, Ahmed

    2016-07-07

    This letter proposes a novel hybrid half-/full-duplex relaying scheme to enhance the relay channel security. A source node (Alice) communicates with her destination node (Bob) in the presence of a buffer-aided full-duplex relay node (Rooney) and a potential eavesdropper (Eve). Rooney adopts two different relaying, namely randomize-and-forward and decode-andforward relaying strategies, to improve the security of the legitimate system. In the first relaying strategy, Rooney uses a codebook different from that used at Alice. In the second relaying strategy, Rooney and Alice use the same codebooks. In addition, Rooney switches between half-duplex and full-duplex modes to further enhance the security of the legitimate system. The numerical results demonstrate that our proposed scheme achieves a significant average secrecy end-to-end throughput improvement relative to the conventional bufferless full-duplex relaying scheme.

  15. Physical-Layer Security of a Buffer-Aided Full-Duplex Relaying System

    KAUST Repository

    El Shafie, Ahmed; Salem, Ahmed Sultan; Al-Dhahir, Naofal

    2016-01-01

    This letter proposes a novel hybrid half-/full-duplex relaying scheme to enhance the relay channel security. A source node (Alice) communicates with her destination node (Bob) in the presence of a buffer-aided full-duplex relay node (Rooney) and a potential eavesdropper (Eve). Rooney adopts two different relaying, namely randomize-and-forward and decode-andforward relaying strategies, to improve the security of the legitimate system. In the first relaying strategy, Rooney uses a codebook different from that used at Alice. In the second relaying strategy, Rooney and Alice use the same codebooks. In addition, Rooney switches between half-duplex and full-duplex modes to further enhance the security of the legitimate system. The numerical results demonstrate that our proposed scheme achieves a significant average secrecy end-to-end throughput improvement relative to the conventional bufferless full-duplex relaying scheme.

  16. Electrical degradation on DC and RF characteristics of short channel AlGaN/GaN-on-Si hemt with highly doped carbon buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Jeong, Jun-Seok; Eom, Su-Keun; Lee, Jae-Gil; Seo, Kwang-Seok; Cha, Ho-Young

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of highly doped carbon (C) buffer on the microwave performance of AlGaN/GaN-on-Si high electron mobility transistor (HEMT).We fabricated AlGaN/GaN-on-Si HEMTs with two different buffer structures. One structure had an un-doped buffer layer and the other structure had C-doped buffer layer with the doping concentration of 1 × 1019 cm -3 with GaN channel thickness of 350 nm. Despite higher leakage current, the device fabricated on the un-doped buffer structure exhibited better transfer and current collapse characteristics which, in turn, resulted in superior small-signal characteristics and radio frequency (RF) output power. Photoluminescence and secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements were carried out to investigate the effects of the highly-doped C buffer on microwave characteristics.

  17. Epitaxial growth of high purity cubic InN films on MgO substrates using HfN buffer layers by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, R.; Ohta, J.; Shimomoto, K.; Fujii, T.; Okamoto, K.; Aoyama, A.; Nakano, T.; Kobayashi, A.; Fujioka, H.; Oshima, M.

    2009-01-01

    Cubic InN films have been grown on MgO substrates with HfN buffer layers by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). It has been found that the use of HfN (100) buffer layers allows us to grow cubic InN (100) films with an in-plane epitaxial relationship of [001] InN //[001] HfN //[001] MgO . X-ray diffraction and electron back-scattered diffraction measurements have revealed that the phase purity of the cubic InN films was as high as 99%, which can be attributed to the use of HfN buffer layers and the enhanced surface migration of the film precursors by the use of PLD. - Graphical abstract: Cubic InN films have been grown on MgO substrates with HfN buffer layers by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). It has been revealed that the phase purity of the cubic InN films was as high as 99 %, which can be attributed to the use of HfN buffer layers and the enhanced surface migration of the film precursors by the use of PLD.

  18. Effect of Ga2O3 buffer layer thickness on the properties of Cu/ITO thin films deposited on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Huihui; Yan Jinliang; Xu Chengyang; Meng Delan

    2014-01-01

    Cu and Cu/ITO films were prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates with a Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer using radio frequency (RF) and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. The effect of Cu layer thickness on the optical and electrical properties of the Cu film deposited on a PET substrate with a Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer was studied, and an appropriate Cu layer thickness of 4.2 nm was obtained. Changes in the optoelectrical properties of Cu(4.2 nm)/ITO(30 nm) films were investigated with respect to the Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer thickness. The optical and electrical properties of the Cu/ITO films were significantly influenced by the thickness of the Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer. A maximum transmission of 86%, sheet resistance of 45 Ω/□ and figure of merit of 3.96 × 10 −3 Ω −1 were achieved for Cu(4.2 nm)/ITO(30 nm) films with a Ga 2 O 3 layer thickness of 15 nm. (semiconductor materials)

  19. Finding the lost open-circuit voltage in polymer solar cells by UV-ozone treatment of the nickel acetate anode buffer layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuzhi; Sun, Gang; Li, Cong; Liu, Jiyan; Hu, Siqian; Zheng, Hua; Tan, Zhan'ao; Li, Yongfang

    2014-06-25

    Efficient polymer solar cells (PSCs) with enhanced open-circuit voltage (Voc) are fabricated by introducing solution-processed and UV-ozone (UVO)-treated nickel acetate (O-NiAc) as an anode buffer layer. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, NiAc partially decomposed to NiOOH during the UVO treatment. NiOOH is a dipole species, which leads to an increase in the work function (as confirmed by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy), thus benefitting the formation of ohmic contact between the anode and photoactive layer and leading to increased Voc. In addition, the UVO treatment improves the wettability between the substrate and solvent of the active layer, which facilitates the formation of an upper photoactive layer with better morphology. Further, the O-NiAc layer can decrease the series resistance (Rs) and increase the parallel resistance (Rp) of the devices, inducing enhanced Voc in comparison with the as-prepared NiAc-buffered control devices without UVO treatment. For PSCs based on the P3HT:PCBM system, Voc increases from 0.50 to 0.60 V after the NiAc buffer layer undergoes UVO treatment. Similarly, in the P3HT:ICBA system, the Voc value of the device with a UVO-treated NiAc buffer layer increases from 0.78 to 0.88 V, showing an enhanced power conversion efficiency of 6.64%.

  20. Evaluation of methods for application of epitaxial buffer and superconductor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-30

    The recent achievements of critical currents exceeding million amperes per square centimeter at 77K in YBCO deposited over suitably textured substrate have stimulated interest in the potential applications of coated conductors at high temperatures and in high magnetic fields. Currently, ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD), and rolling assisted bi-axially textured substrate (RABiTS), represent two available options for obtaining textured substrates. For applying suitable coatings of buffer and high temperature superconductor (HTS) material over textured substrates, several options are available which include sputtering, electron-beam evaporation, laser ablation, electrophoresis, chemical vapor deposition (including metal organics chemical vapor deposition), sol-gel, metal organics decomposition, electrodeposition and aerosol/spray pyrolysis. A commercial continuous long-length wire/tape manufacturing scheme developed out of any suitable combination of the above techniques would consist of operations involving preparation of the substrate and application of buffer, HTS and passivation/insulation materials and special treatment steps such as post-annealing. These operations can be effected by various process parameters that can be classified into chemistry, materials, engineering and environmental related parameters. Under the DOE-sponsored program, to carry out an engineering evaluation, first, the process flow schemes were developed for various candidate options identifying the major operating steps, process conditions, and process streams. Next, to evaluate quantifiable parameters such as process severity (e.g. temperature and pressure), coating thickness and deposition rate for HTS material, achieved maximum J{sub c} value (for films >1{micro}m thick) and cost of chemical and material utilization efficiency, the multi-attribute method was used to determine attributes/merits for various parameters and candidate options. To determine similar attribute values for the

  1. High-resolution synchrotron diffraction study of porous buffer InP(001) layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lomov, A. A.; Punegov, V. I.; Nohavica, Dušan; Chuev, M.A.; Vasiliev, A.L.; Novikov, D. V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2014), s. 1614-1625 ISSN 0021-8898 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : porous layers * X-ray reciprocal space mapping * indium phosphide Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2014

  2. Solution processed transition metal oxide anode buffer layers for efficiency and stability enhancement of polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, M. Yoosuf; Shamjid, P.; Abhijith, T.; Reddy, V. S.

    2018-01-01

    Polymer solar cells were fabricated with solution-processed transition metal oxides, MoO3 and V2O5 as anode buffer layers (ABLs). The optimized device with V2O5 ABL exhibited considerably higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to the devices based on MoO3 and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) ABLs. The space charge limited current measurements and impedance spectroscopy results of hole-only devices revealed that V2O5 provided a very low charge transfer resistance and high hole mobility, facilitating efficient hole transfer from the active layer to the ITO anode. More importantly, incorporation of V2O5 as ABL resulted in substantial improvement in device stability compared to MoO3 and PEDOT:PSS based devices. Unencapsulated PEDOT:PSS-based devices stored at a relative humidity of 45% have shown complete failure within 96 h. Whereas, MoO3 and V2O5 based devices stored in similar conditions retained 22% and 80% of their initial PCEs after 96 h. Significantly higher stability of the V2O5-based device is ascribed to the reduction in degradation of the anode/active layer interface, as evident from the electrical measurements.

  3. Preparation of MgO Films as Buffer Layers by Laser-ablation at Various Substrate Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling; WANG Chuanbin; WANG Fang; SHEN Qiang; ZHANG Lianmeng

    2011-01-01

    MgO thin films were deposited on Si(100) substrates by laser ablation under various substrate temperatures (Tsub),expecting to provide a candidate buffer layer for the textured growth of functional perovskite oxide films on Si substrates.The effect of Tsub on the preferred orientation,crystallinity and surface morphology of the films was investigated.MgO films in single-phase were obtained at 473-973 K.With increasing Tsub,the preferred orientation of the films changed from (200) to (111).The crystallinity and surface morphology was different too,depending on Tsub·At Tsub=673 K,the MgO film became uniform and smooth,exhibiting high crystallinity and a dense texture.

  4. Solvent effects of a dimethyldicyanoquinonediimine buffer layer as N-type material on the performance of organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eui Yeol; Oh, Se Young

    2014-08-01

    In the present work, we have fabricated organic photovoltaic cells consisting of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/DMDCNQI/Al using a dip-coating method with various solvent systems. We have investigated solvent effects (such as solubility, viscosity and vapor pressure) in deposition of a thin DMDCNQI buffer layer on the performance of organic photovoltaic cells. The solvent system which had low viscosity and good solubility properties, made a dense and uniform DMDCNQI ultra thin film, resulting in a high performance device. In particular, a prepared organic photovoltaic cell was fabricated using a cosolvent system (methanol:methylenechloride = 3:1) and showed a maximum power conversion efficiency of 4.53%.

  5. Ultraviolet light-absorbing and emitting diodes consisting of a p-type transparent-semiconducting NiO film deposited on an n-type GaN homoepitaxial layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Mutsumi; Chichibu, Shigefusa F.

    2017-05-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and related (Al,Ga,In)N alloys provide practical benefits in the production of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes operating in ultraviolet (UV) to green wavelength regions. However, obtaining low resistivity p-type AlN or AlGaN of large bandgap energies (Eg) is a critical issue in fabricating UV and deep UV-LEDs. NiO is a promising candidate for useful p-type transparent-semiconducting films because its Eg is 4.0 eV and it can be doped into p-type conductivity of sufficiently low resistivity. By using these technologies, heterogeneous junction diodes consisting of a p-type transparent-semiconducting polycrystalline NiO film on an n-type single crystalline GaN epilayer on a low threading-dislocation density, free-standing GaN substrate were fabricated. The NiO film was deposited by using the conventional RF-sputtering method, and the GaN homoepitaxial layer was grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. They exhibited a significant photovoltaic effect under UV light and also exhibited an electroluminescence peak at 3.26 eV under forward-biased conditions. From the conduction and valence band (EV) discontinuities, the NiO/GaN heterointerface is assigned to form a staggered-type (TYPE-II) band alignment with the EV of NiO higher by 2.0 eV than that of GaN. A rectifying property that is consistent with the proposed band diagram was observed in the current-voltage characteristics. These results indicate that polycrystalline NiO functions as a hole-extracting and injecting layer of UV optoelectronic devices.

  6. Charge recombination reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells by means of an electron beam-deposited TiO2 buffer layer between conductive glass and photoelectrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, Michele; Malara, Francesco; Martiradonna, Luigi; De Marco, Luisa; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Cingolani, Roberto; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    A thin anatase titanium dioxide compact film was deposited by electron beam evaporation as buffer layer between the conductive transparent electrode and the porous TiO 2 -based photoelectrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. The effect of such a buffer layer on the back transfer reaction of electrons to tri-iodide ions in liquid electrolyte-based cells has been studied by means of both electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit photovoltage decay analysis. The influence of the thickness has been also investigated and an increment in overall quantum conversion efficiency η as high as + 31% with respect to the standard cell - fabricated onto an uncoated conductive glass - has been revealed in the case of a 120 nm thick buffer layer.

  7. Sm-doped CeO2 single buffer layer for YBCO coated conductors by polymer assisted chemical solution deposition (PACSD) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.; Pu, M.H.; Sun, R.P.; Wang, W.T.; Wu, W.; Zhang, X.; Yang, Y.; Cheng, C.H.; Zhao, Y.

    2008-01-01

    An over 150 nm thick Sm 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9-x (SCO) single buffer layer has been deposited on bi-axially textured NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate. Highly in-plane and out-of-plane oriented, dense, smooth and crack free SCO single layer has been obtained via a polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition (PACSD) approach. YBCO thin film has been deposited equally via a PACSD route on the SCO-buffered NiW, the as grown YBCO yielding a sharp transition at T c0 = 87 K as well as J c (0 T, 77 K) ∼ 1 MA/cm 2 . These results indicates that RE (lanthanides other than Ce) doping may be an effective approach to improve the critical thickness of solution derived CeO 2 film, which renders it a promising candidate as single buffer layer for YBCO coated conductors

  8. High quality Ge epilayer on Si (1 0 0) with an ultrathin Si1-x Ge x /Si buffer layer by RPCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Guo, Qinglei; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Anli; Wang, Bei; Li, Ya; Wang, Gang

    2017-07-01

    The authors report a method to grow high quality strain-relaxed Ge epilayer on a combination of low temperature Ge seed layer and Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition system without any subsequent annealing treatment. Prior to the growth of high quality Ge epilayer, an ultrathin Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer with the thickness of 50 nm and a 460 nm Ge seed layer were deposited successively at low temperature. Then an 840 nm Ge epilayer was grown at high deposition rate with the surface root-mean-square roughness of 0.707 nm and threading dislocation density of 2.5  ×  106 cm-2, respectively. Detailed investigations of the influence of ultrathin low-temperature Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer on the quality of Ge epilayer were performed, which indicates that the crystalline quality of Ge epilayer can be significantly improved by enhancing the Ge concentration of Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer.

  9. Effect of a gate buffer layer on the performance of a 4H-SiC Schottky barrier field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xianjun; Yang Yintang; Chai Changchun; Duan Baoxing; Song Kun; Chen Bin

    2012-01-01

    A lower doped layer is inserted between the gate and channel layer and its effect on the performance of a 4H-SiC Schottky barrier field-effect transistor (MESFET) is investigated. The dependences of the drain current and small signal parameters on this inserted gate-buffer layer are obtained by solving one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) Poisson's equations. The drain current and small signal parameters of the 4H-SiC MESFET with a gate-buffer layer thickness of 0.15 μm are calculated and the breakdown characteristics are simulated. The results show that the current is increased by increasing the thickness of the gate-buffer layer; the breakdown voltage is 160 V, compared with 125 V for the conventional 4H-SiC MESFET; the cutoff frequency is 27 GHz, which is higher than 20 GHz of the conventional structure due to the lower doped gate-buffer layer. (semiconductor devices)

  10. Vertical current-flow enhancement via fabrication of GaN nanorod p–n junction diode on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Sung Ryong; Ram, S.D. Gopal; Lee, Seung Joo; Cho, Hak-dong; Lee, Sejoon; Kang, Tae Won; Kwon, Sangwoo; Yang, Woochul; Shin, Sunhye; Woo, Yongdeuk

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Uniaxial p–n junction diode in GaN nanorod is made by Hydride vapor phase epitaxy method. • The p–n junction diode property is clearly observed from the fabricated uniaxial p–n junction nanorod GaN nanorod. • Graphene is used as a current spreading layer to reduce the lateral resistance up to 700 times when compared with the commercial sapphire substrate, which is clearly explained with the aid of an equivalent circuit. • Kelvin Force Probe microscopy method is employed to visualize the p- and n- regions in a single GaN nanorod. - Abstract: Mg doped GaN nanorods were grown on undoped n-type GaN nanorods uniaxial on monolayer graphene by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) method. The monolayer graphene used as the bottom electrode and a substrate as well provides good electrical contact, acts as a current spreading layer, well suitable for the growth of hexagonal GaN nanorod. In addition it has a work function suitable to that of n-GaN. The formed p–n nanorods show a Schottky behavior with a turn on voltage of 3 V. Using graphene as the substrate, the resistance of the nanorod is reduced by 700 times when compared with the case without using graphene as the current spreading layer. The low resistance of graphene acts in parallel with the resistance of the GaN buffer layer, and reduces the resistance drastically. The formed p–n junction in a single GaN nanorod is visualized by Kelvin Force Probe Microscopy (KPFM) to have distinctively contrast p and n regions. The measured contact potential difference of p-and n-region has a difference of 103 mV which well confirms the formed regions are electronically different. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra give evidence of dopant related acceptor bound emission at 3.2 eV different from 3.4 eV of undoped GaN. The crystalline structure, compositional purity is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission and Scanning electron microcopies (SEM), (TEM), Energy dispersive analysis

  11. Vertical current-flow enhancement via fabrication of GaN nanorod p–n junction diode on graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Sung Ryong [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University-Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Department of physics, Dongguk University, Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Ram, S.D. Gopal; Lee, Seung Joo; Cho, Hak-dong; Lee, Sejoon [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University-Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Won, E-mail: twkang@dongguk.edu [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University-Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Clean Energy and Nano Convergence Centre, Hindustan University, Chennai 600 016 (India); Kwon, Sangwoo; Yang, Woochul [Department of physics, Dongguk University, Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sunhye [Soft-Epi Inc., 240 Opo-ro, Opo-eup, Gwangju-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Yongdeuk [Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Woosuk University, Chonbuk 565-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Uniaxial p–n junction diode in GaN nanorod is made by Hydride vapor phase epitaxy method. • The p–n junction diode property is clearly observed from the fabricated uniaxial p–n junction nanorod GaN nanorod. • Graphene is used as a current spreading layer to reduce the lateral resistance up to 700 times when compared with the commercial sapphire substrate, which is clearly explained with the aid of an equivalent circuit. • Kelvin Force Probe microscopy method is employed to visualize the p- and n- regions in a single GaN nanorod. - Abstract: Mg doped GaN nanorods were grown on undoped n-type GaN nanorods uniaxial on monolayer graphene by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) method. The monolayer graphene used as the bottom electrode and a substrate as well provides good electrical contact, acts as a current spreading layer, well suitable for the growth of hexagonal GaN nanorod. In addition it has a work function suitable to that of n-GaN. The formed p–n nanorods show a Schottky behavior with a turn on voltage of 3 V. Using graphene as the substrate, the resistance of the nanorod is reduced by 700 times when compared with the case without using graphene as the current spreading layer. The low resistance of graphene acts in parallel with the resistance of the GaN buffer layer, and reduces the resistance drastically. The formed p–n junction in a single GaN nanorod is visualized by Kelvin Force Probe Microscopy (KPFM) to have distinctively contrast p and n regions. The measured contact potential difference of p-and n-region has a difference of 103 mV which well confirms the formed regions are electronically different. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra give evidence of dopant related acceptor bound emission at 3.2 eV different from 3.4 eV of undoped GaN. The crystalline structure, compositional purity is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission and Scanning electron microcopies (SEM), (TEM), Energy dispersive analysis

  12. Influence of laser sputtering parameters on orientation of cerium oxide buffer layer on sapphire and properties of YBa2Cu3Ox superconducting film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhaev, P.B.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.; Skov, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Effect of laser sputtering parameters on crystalline properties of CeO 2 buffer layers grown on (1102) orientation sapphire substrate and on properties of YBa 2 Cu 3 O x superconducting thin films was studied. It was shown that depending on the sputtering conditions one might observe growth of CeO 2 (100) and (111) orientations. Varying heater temperature, chamber pressure and density of laser ray energy on the target one managed to obtain mono-oriented buffer layer of the desired orientation [ru

  13. Enhanced Optical and Electrical Properties of TiO{sub 2} Buffered IGZO/TiO{sub 2} Bi-Layered Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Daeil [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In and Ga doped ZnO (IGZO, 100-nm thick) thin films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering without intentional substrate heating on a bare glass substrate and a TiO{sub 2}-deposited glass substrate to determine the effect of the thickness of a thin TiO{sub 2} buffer layer on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films. The thicknesses of the TiO{sub 2} buffer layers were 5, 10 and 15 nm, respectively. As-deposited IGZO films with a 10 nm-thick TiO{sub 2} buffer layer had an average optical transmittance of 85.0% with lower resistivity (1.83×10-2 Ω cm) than that of IGZO single layer films. The figure of merit (FOM) reached a maximum of 1.44×10-4 Ω-1 for IGZO/10 nm-thick TiO{sub 2} bi-layered films, which is higher than the FOM of 6.85×10-5 Ω-1 for IGZO single layer films. Because a higher FOM value indicates better quality transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films, the IGZO/10 nm-thick TiO{sub 2} bi-layered films are likely to perform better in TCO applications than IGZO single layer films.

  14. Understanding Coulomb Scattering Mechanism in Monolayer MoS2 Channel in the Presence of h-BN Buffer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Min-Kyu; Moon, Byoung Hee; Ji, Hyunjin; Han, Gang Hee; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Gwanmu; Lim, Seong Chu; Suh, Dongseok; Lee, Young Hee

    2017-02-08

    As the thickness becomes thinner, the importance of Coulomb scattering in two-dimensional layered materials increases because of the close proximity between channel and interfacial layer and the reduced screening effects. The Coulomb scattering in the channel is usually obscured mainly by the Schottky barrier at the contact in the noise measurements. Here, we report low-temperature (T) noise measurements to understand the Coulomb scattering mechanism in the MoS 2 channel in the presence of h-BN buffer layer on the silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) insulating layer. One essential measure in the noise analysis is the Coulomb scattering parameter (α SC ) which is different for channel materials and electron excess doping concentrations. This was extracted exclusively from a 4-probe method by eliminating the Schottky contact effect. We found that the presence of h-BN on SiO 2 provides the suppression of α SC twice, the reduction of interfacial traps density by 100 times, and the lowered Schottky barrier noise by 50 times compared to those on SiO 2 at T = 25 K. These improvements enable us to successfully identify the main noise source in the channel, which is the trapping-detrapping process at gate dielectrics rather than the charged impurities localized at the channel, as confirmed by fitting the noise features to the carrier number and correlated mobility fluctuation model. Further, the reduction in contact noise at low temperature in our system is attributed to inhomogeneous distributed Schottky barrier height distribution in the metal-MoS 2 contact region.

  15. Ultra-thin fluoropolymer buffer layer as an anode stabilizer of organic light emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Nam Chul; Lee, Jaeho; Song, Myung-Won; Ahn, Nari; Kim, Mu-Hyun; Lee, Songtaek; Chin, Byung Doo

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of thin fluoro-acrylic polymer as an anode stabilizer on the lifetime of an organic light emitting device (OLED). Surface chemical properties of commercial fluoropolymer, FC-722 (Fluorad(TM) of 3M), on indium-tin oxide (ITO) were characterized by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. An OLED with 1 nm thick fluoropolymeric film showed identical brightness and efficiency behaviour and improved operational stability compared with the reference device with UV-O 3 treated ITO. The improvement in the lifetime was accompanied by the suppression of the voltage increase at the initial stage of constant-current driving, which can be attributed to the action of the FC-722 layer by smoothing the ITO surface. Fluoropolymer coating, therefore, improves the lifetime of the small molecular OLED by the simple and reliable anode-stabilizing process

  16. Efficient inverted bulk-heterojunction solar cells from low-temperature processing of amorphous ZnO buffer layers

    KAUST Repository

    Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan; Abdelsamie, Maged; El Labban, Abdulrahman; Aresu, Emanuele; Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy Olivier; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Beaujuge, Pierre; Amassian, Aram

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that solution-processed amorphous zinc oxide (a-ZnO) interlayers prepared at low temperatures (∼100 °C) can yield inverted bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells that are as efficient as nanoparticle-based ZnO requiring comparably more complex synthesis or polycrystalline ZnO films prepared at substantially higher temperatures (150-400 °C). Low-temperature, facile solution-processing approaches are required in the fabrication of BHJ solar cells on flexible plastic substrates, such as PET. Here, we achieve efficient inverted solar cells with a-ZnO buffer layers by carefully examining the correlations between the thin film morphology and the figures of merit of optimized BHJ devices with various polymer donors and PCBM as the fullerene acceptor. We find that the most effective a-ZnO morphology consists of a compact, thin layer with continuous substrate coverage. In parallel, we emphasize the detrimental effect of forming rippled surface morphologies of a-ZnO, an observation which contrasts with results obtained in polycrystalline ZnO thin films, where rippled morphologies have been reported to improve efficiency. After optimizing the a-ZnO morphology at low processing temperature for inverted P3HT:PCBM devices, achieving a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ca. 4.1%, we demonstrate inverted solar cells with low bandgap polymer donors on glass/flexible PET substrates: PTB7:PC71BM (PCE: 6.5% (glass)/5.6% (PET)) and PBDTTPD:PC71BM (PCE: 6.7% (glass)/5.9% (PET)). Finally, we show that a-ZnO based inverted P3HT:PCBM BHJ solar cells maintain ca. 90-95% of their initial PCE even after a full year without encapsulation in a nitrogen dry box, thus demonstrating excellent shelf stability. The insight we have gained into the importance of surface morphology in amorphous zinc oxide buffer layers should help in the development of other low-temperature solution-processed metal oxide interlayers for efficient flexible solar cells. This journal is

  17. Thin-film encapsulation of organic electronic devices based on vacuum evaporated lithium fluoride as protective buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yingquan; Ding, Sihan; Wen, Zhanwei; Xu, Sunan; Lv, Wenli; Xu, Ziqiang; Yang, Yuhuan; Wang, Ying; Wei, Yi; Tang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Encapsulation is indispensable for organic thin-film electronic devices to ensure reliable operation and long-term stability. For thin-film encapsulating organic electronic devices, insulating polymers and inorganic metal oxides thin films are widely used. However, spin-coating of insulating polymers directly on organic electronic devices may destroy or introduce unwanted impurities in the underlying organic active layers. And also, sputtering of inorganic metal oxides may damage the underlying organic semiconductors. Here, we demonstrated that by utilizing vacuum evaporated lithium fluoride (LiF) as protective buffer layer, spin-coated insulating polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and sputtered inorganic material Er2O3, can be successfully applied for thin film encapsulation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)-based organic diodes. By encapsulating with LiF/PVA/LiF trilayer and LiF/Er2O3 bilayer films, the device lifetime improvements of 10 and 15 times can be achieved. These methods should be applicable for thin-film encapsulation of all kinds of organic electronic devices. Moisture-induced hole trapping, and Al top electrode oxidation are suggest to be the origins of current decay for the LiF/PVA/LiF trilayer and LiF/Er2O3 bilayer films encapsulated devices, respectively.

  18. Improved hole-injection and power efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using an ultrathin cerium fluoride buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsin-Wei; Kao, Po-Ching; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was enhanced by depositing a CeF3 film as an ultra-thin buffer layer between the ITO and NPB hole transport layer, with the structure configuration ITO/CeF3 (1 nm)/NPB (40 nm)/Alq3 (60 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (150 nm). The enhancement mechanism was systematically investigated via several approaches. The work function increased from 4.8 eV (standard ITO electrode) to 5.2 eV (1-nm-thick UV-ozone treated CeF3 film deposited on the ITO electrode). The turn-on voltage decreased from 4.2 V to 4.0 V at 1 mA/cm2, the luminance increased from 7588 cd/m2 to 10820 cd/m2, and the current efficiency increased from 3.2 cd/A to 3.5 cd/A when the 1-nm-thick UV-ozone treated CeF3 film was inserted into the OLEDs.

  19. High Resolution 3D Experimental Investigation of Flow Structures and Turbulence Statistics in the Viscous and Buffer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jian; Malkiel, Edwin; Katz, Joseph

    2006-11-01

    Digital Holographic Microscopy is implemented to perform 3D velocity measurement in the near-wall region of a turbulent boundary layer in a square channel over a smooth wall at Reτ=1,400. The measurements are performed at a resolution of ˜1μm over a sample volume of 1.5x2x1.5mm (x^+=50, y^+=60, z^+=50), sufficient for resolving buffer layer structures and for measuring the instantaneous wall shear stress distributions from velocity gradients in the sublayer. The data provides detailed statistics on the spatial distribution of both wall shear stress components along with the characteristic flow structures, including streamwise counter-rotating vortex pairs, multiple streamwise vortices, and rare hairpins. Conditional sampling identifies characteristic length scales of 70 wall units in spanwise and 10 wall units in wall-normal direction. In the region of high stress, the conditionally averaged flow consists of a stagnation-like sweeping motion induced by a counter rotating pair of streamwise vortices. Regions with low stress are associated with ejection motion, also generated by pairs of counter-rotating vortices. Statistics on the local strain and geometric alignment between strain and vorticity shows that the high shear generating vortices are inclined at 45 to streamwise direction, indicating that vortices are being stretched. Results of on-going analysis examines statistics of helicity, strain and impacts of near-wall structures.

  20. Improved (0 0 1)-texture of FePt-C for heat-assisted magnetic recording media by insertion of Cr buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiroyama, T.; Wang, J.; Felicia, A.; Takahashi, Y.K.; Hono, K., E-mail: kazuhiro.hono@nims.go.jp

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Improvement of (0 0 1)-texture of prototype FePt-C granular films for heat heat assisted magnetic recording media. • Insertion of Cr buffer layer improves the crystallographic textures of the MgO underlayers, thereby reduces in-plane component in the FePt-C recording layer. • The growth in the grain size of the MgO underlayer as well as the (0 0 1)-texture of the MgO underlayer are the key factor in reducing the in-plane component in the FePt-C recording layer. - Abstract: FePt-C granular films deposited on MgO underlayers are the prototype media for heat-assisted magnetic recording. To reduce the in-plane magnetic component in the FePt-C media, we investigated the effect of Cr buffer layers on the crystallographic textures of the MgO underlayers and the resultant magnetic properties of the FePt-C layers. By growing a MgO underlayer on a Cr buffer layer, the (0 0 1) texture of the MgO underlayer is improved, on which the in-plane component of a FePt-C film is substantially reduced. We conclude that the growth in the grain size of the MgO underlayer is the key factor in reducing the in-plane component in the FePt-C recording layer.

  1. Digital to analog resistive switching transition induced by graphene buffer layer in strontium titanate based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tao; Qu, Bo; Du, Haiwei; Lin, Xi; Lin, Qianru; Wang, Da-Wei; Cazorla, Claudio; Li, Sean; Liu, Sidong; Chu, Dewei

    2018-02-15

    Resistive switching behaviour can be classified into digital and analog switching based on its abrupt and gradual resistance change characteristics. Realizing the transition from digital to analog switching in the same device is essential for understanding and controlling the performance of the devices with various switching mechanisms. Here, we investigate the resistive switching in a device made with strontium titanate (SrTiO 3 ) nanoparticles using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and direct electrical measurements. It is found that the well-known rupture/formation of Ag filaments is responsible for the digital switching in the device with Ag as the top electrode. To modulate the switching performance, we insert a reduced graphene oxide layer between SrTiO 3 and the bottom FTO electrode owing to its good barrier property for the diffusion of Ag ions and high out-of-plane resistance. In this case, resistive switching is changed from digital to analog as determined by the modulation of interfacial resistance under applied voltage. Based on that controllable resistance, potentiation and depression behaviours are implemented as well. This study opens up new ways for the design of multifunctional devices which are promising for memory and neuromorphic computing applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvement of electrical property of Si-doped GaN grown on r-plane sapphire by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, K.; Furuzuki, T.; Ohkawa, K.

    2006-01-01

    Electrical property of Si-doped GaN layers grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by atmospheric metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy was investigated. The electron mobility was drastically improved when GaN was grown by means of optimized combinations of growth temperature and low-temperature GaN buffer thickness. The highest room-temperature mobility of 220cm 2 /Vs was recorded at the carrier density of 1.1x10 18 cm -3 . Temperature dependence of electrical property revealed that the peak mobility of 234cm 2 /Vs was obtained at 249K. From the slope of carrier density as a function of inverse temperature, the activation energy of Si-donors was evaluated to be 11meV

  3. Light effect in photoionization of traps in GaN MESFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Arabshahi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Trapping of hot electron behavior by trap centers located in buffer layer of a wurtzite phase GaN MESFET has been simulated using an ensemble Monte Carlo simulation. The results of the simulation show that the trap centers are responsible for current collapse in GaN MESFET at low temperatures. These electrical traps degrade the performance of the device at low temperature. On the opposite, a light-induced increase in the trap-limited drain current, results from the photoionization of trapped carriers and their return to the channel under the influence of the built in electric field associated with the trapped charge distribution. The simulated device geometries and doping are matched to the nominal parameters described for the experimental structures as closely as possible, and the predicted drain current and other electrical characteristics for the simulated device including trapping center effects show close agreement with the available experimental data.

  4. Porosity-induced relaxation of strains in GaN layers studied by means of micro-indentation and optical spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel

    2012-05-04

    We report the fabrication of porous GaNnanostructures using UV-assisted electroless etching of bulk GaN layer grown on c-plane sapphire substrate in a solution consisting of HF:CH3OH:H2O2. The morphology of the porous GaNnanostructures was characterized for different etching intervals using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. The geometry and size of resultant pores do not appear to be affected by the etching time; however, the pore density was augmented for longer etching time. Micro-indentation tests were carried out to quantify the indentation modulus for different porous GaNnanostructures. Our results reveal a relationship between the elastic properties and the porosity kinetics, i.e., a decrease of the elastic modulus was observed with increasing porosity. The photoluminescence(PL) and Raman measurements carried out at room temperature for the etched samples having a high degree of porosity revealed a strong enhancement in intensity. Also, the peak of the PL wavelength was shifted towards a lower energy. The high intensity of PL was correlated to an increase of scattered photons within the porous media and to the reduction of the dislocation density.

  5. Photoluminescence studies of cubic phase GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (001) silicon covered with SiC layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godlewski, M.; Ivanov, V.Yu.; Bergman, J.P.; Monemar, B.; Barski, A.; Langer, R.

    1997-01-01

    In this work we evaluate optical properties of cubic phase GaN epilayers grown on top of (001) silicon substrate prepared by new process. Prior to the growth Si substrate was annealed at 1300-1400 o C in propane. The so-prepared substrate is covered within a thin (∼ 4 nm) SiC wafer, which allowed a successful growth of good morphological quality cubic phase GaN epilayers. The present results confirm recent suggestion on smaller ionization energies of acceptors in cubic phase GaN epilayers. (author)

  6. Effects of a GaSb buffer layer on an InGaAs overlayer grown on Ge(111) substrates: Strain, twin generation, and surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Y.; Nishigaichi, M.; Tenma, S.; Kato, K.; Katsube, S.

    2018-04-01

    InGaAs layers were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on nominal and vicinal Ge(111) substrates with inserting GaSb buffer layers. High-resolution X-ray diffraction using symmetric 333 and asymmetric 224 reflections was employed to analyze the crystallographic properties of the grown layers. By using the two reflections, we determined the lattice constants (the unit cell length a and the angle α between axes) of the grown layers with taking into account the rhombohedral distortion of the lattices of the grown layers. This allowed us the independent determination of the strain components (perpendicular and parallel components to the substrate surface, ε⊥ and ε//) and the composition x of the InxGa1-xAs layers by assuming the distortion coefficient D, which is defined as the ratio of ε⊥ against ε//. Furthermore, the twin ratios were determined for the GaSb and the InGaAs layers by comparing asymmetric 224 reflections from the twin domain with that from the normal domain of the layers. As a result, it has been shown that the twin ratio in the InGaAs layer can be decreased to be less than 0.1% by the use of the vicinal substrate together with annealing the GaSb buffer layer during the growth interruption before the InGaAs overgrowth.

  7. Probing defect states in polycrystalline GaN grown on Si(111) by sub-bandgap laser-excited scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, F.-M.; Schnedler, M.; Portz, V.; Huang, Y.-C.; Huang, B.-C.; Shih, M.-C.; Chang, C.-W.; Tu, L.-W.; Eisele, H.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Ebert, Ph.; Chiu, Y.-P.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the potential of sub-bandgap laser-excited cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to investigate the presence of defect states in semiconductors. The characterization method is illustrated on GaN layers grown on Si(111) substrates without intentional buffer layers. According to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, the GaN layers consist of nanoscale wurtzite and zincblende crystallites with varying crystal orientations and hence contain high defect state densities. In order to discriminate between band-to-band excitation and defect state excitations, we use sub-bandgap laser excitation. We probe a clear increase in the tunnel current at positive sample voltages during sub-bandgap laser illumination for the GaN layer with high defect density, but no effect is found for high quality GaN epitaxial layers. This demonstrates the excitation of free charge carriers at defect states. Thus, sub-bandgap laser-excited scanning tunneling spectroscopy is a powerful complimentary characterization tool for defect states.

  8. Development of biaxially textured buffer layers on rolled-Ni substrates for high current YBa2Cu3O7-y coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranthaman, M.; Goyal, A.; Norton, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the development of 3 buffer layer architectures with good biaxial textures on rolled-Ni substrates using vacuum processing techniques. The techniques include pulsed laser ablation, e-beam evaporation, dc and rf magnetron sputtering. The first buffer layer architecture consists of an epitaxial laminate of Ag/Pd(Pt)/Ni. The second buffer layer consists of an epitaxial laminate of CeO 2 /Pd/Ni. The third alternative buffer layer architecture consists of an epitaxial laminate of YSZ/CeO 2 /Ni. The cube (100) texture in the Ni was produced by cold rolling followed by recrystallization. Crystallographic orientations of the Pd, Ag, CeO 2 , and YSZ films grown were all (100). We recently demonstrated a critical- current density of 0.73x10 6 A/cm 2 at 77 K and zero field on 1.4 μm thick YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-y (YBCO) film. This film was deposited by pulsed laser ablation on a YBCO/YSZ/CeO 2 /Ni substrate

  9. In-situ laser processing and microstructural characteristics of YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films on Si with TiN buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, P.; Zheleva, T.; Narayan, J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have prepared high-quality superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 -δ (YBCO) thin films on Si(100) with TiN as a buffer layer using in-situ multitarget deposition system. Both TiN and YBCO thin films were deposited sequentially by KrF excimer laser ( | = 248 nm ) at substrate temperature of 650 C . Thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), four-point-probe ac resistivity, scanning electron microscopy (S E M), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Rutherford backscattering (RBS). The TiN buffer layer was epitaxial and the epitaxial relationship was found to be cube on cube with TiN parallel Si. YBCO thin films on Si with TiN buffer layer showed the transition temperature of 90-92K with T co (zero resistance temperature) of 84K. The authors have found that the quality of the buffer layer is very important in determining the superconducting transition temperature of the thin film. The effects of processing parameters and the correlation of microstructural features with superconducting properties are discussed in detail

  10. Characterization of a strongly textured non-ferromagnetic Cu-33 at%Ni substrate coated with a CeO2 buffer layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hui; Suo, H.L.; Yue, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    the fraction of the cube {001}〈100〉 texture is 99.8% and the fraction of boundary misorientations with angles greater than 10 is only 5%. The material is shown to be non-ferromagnetic at typical operating temperatures for coated conductors. Furthermore, it is shown that a CeO2 buffer layer can be successfully...

  11. Growth of thick La2Zr2O7 buffer layers for coated conductors by polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Yong; Xia, Yudong; Guo, Chunsheng; Cheng, C.H.; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Han

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develops a low-cost and high-efficient technology of fabricating LZO buffer layers. • Sufficient thickness LZO buffer layers have been obtained on NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate. • Highly biaxially textured YBCO thin film has been deposited on LZO/NiW. - Abstract: La 2 Zr 2 O 7 (LZO) epitaxial films have been deposited on LaAlO 3 (LAO) (1 0 0) single-crystal surface and bi-axially textured NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate by polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition, and afterwards studied with XRD, SEM and AFM approaches. Highly in-plane and out-of-plane oriented, dense, smooth, crack free and with a sufficient thickness (>240 nm) LZO buffer layers have been obtained on LAO (1 0 0) single-crystal surface; The films deposited on NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate are also found with high degree in-plane and out-of-plane texturing, good density with pin-hole-free, micro-crack-free nature and a thickness of 300 nm. Highly epitaxial 500 nm thick YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−x (YBCO) thin film exhibits the self-field critical current density (Jc) reached 1.3 MA/cm 2 at 77 K .These results demonstrate the LZO epi-films obtained with current techniques have potential to be a buffer layer for REBCO coated conductors

  12. Cube Texture Formation of Cu-33at.%Ni Alloy Substrates and CeO2 Buffer Layer for YBCO Coated Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hui; Li, Suo Hong; Ru, Liang Ya

    2014-01-01

    Cube texture formation of Cu-33 at.%Ni alloy substartes and CeO2 buffer layer prepared by chemical solution deposition on the textured substrate were investigated by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and XRD technics systematically. The results shown that a strong cube textured Cu-33at...

  13. In-plane aligned YBCO tape on textured YSZ buffer layer deposited on stainless steel substrate by laser ablation only with O{sup +} ion beam assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Xintang [Huazhong Univ. of Sci. and Technol., Wuhan (China). Nat. Lab. of Laser Technol.]|[Huazhong Normal Univ., Wuhan, HB (China). Dept. of Physics; Wang Youqing; Wang Qiuliang; Chen Qingming [Huazhong Univ. of Sci. and Technol., Wuhan (China). Nat. Lab. of Laser Technol.

    1999-08-16

    In this paper we have prepared YSZ buffer layers on stainless steel substrates by laser ablation only with O{sup +} ion beam assistance and YBCO films on YSZ/steel consequently. The relevant parameters of YSZ and YBCO film deposition are indicated. (orig.) 8 refs.

  14. In-plane aligned YBCO tape on textured YSZ buffer layer deposited on stainless steel substrate by laser ablation only with O+ ion beam assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xintang; Huazhong Normal Univ., Wuhan, HB; Wang Youqing; Wang Qiuliang; Chen Qingming

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we have prepared YSZ buffer layers on stainless steel substrates by laser ablation only with O + ion beam assistance and YBCO films on YSZ/steel consequently. The relevant parameters of YSZ and YBCO film deposition are indicated. (orig.)

  15. Effect of InSb/In0.9Al0.1Sb superlattice buffer layer on the structural and electronic properties of InSb films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Yang; Guan, Min; Cui, Lijie; Wang, Baoqiang; Zhu, Zhanping; Zeng, Yiping

    2017-07-01

    The effect of InSb/In0.9Al0.1Sb buffer layers on InSb thin films grown on GaAs (0 0 1) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is investigated. The crystal quality and the surface morphology of InSb are characterized by XRD and AFM. The carrier transport property is researched through variable temperature hall test. The sharp interface between InSb/In0.9Al0.1Sb is demonstrated important for the high quality InSb thin film. We try different superlattice buffer layers by changing ratios, 2-0.5, thickness, 300-450 nm, and periods, 20-50. According to the function of the dislocation density to the absolute temperature below 150 K with different periods of SL buffers, we can find that the number of periods of superlattice is a major factor to decrease the density of threading dislocations. With the 50 periods SL buffer layer, the electron mobility of InSb at the room temperature and liquid nitrogen cooling temperature is ∼63,000 and ∼4600 cm2/V s, respectively. We deduce that the interface in the SL structure works as a filter layer to prevent the dislocation propagating to the upper InSb thin films.

  16. The structure of InAlGaN layers grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy: effects of threading dislocations and inversion domains from the GaN template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ammar, H; Minj, A; Chauvat, M-P; Gamarra, P; Lacam, C; Morales, M; Ruterana, P

    2017-12-01

    Defects in quaternary InAlGaN barriers and their effects on crystalline quality and surface morphology have been studied. In addition to growth conditions, the quality of the GaN template may play an important role in the formation of defects in the barrier. Therefore, this work is focused on effects caused by threading dislocations (TDs) and inversion domains (IDs) originating from the underlying GaN. The effects are observed on the crystalline quality of the barrier and characteristic surface morphologies. Each type of TDs is shown to affect the surface morphology in a different way. Depending on the size of the corresponding hillock for a given pinhole, it was possible to determine the dislocation type. It is pointed out that the smallest pinholes are not connected to TDs whereas the large ones terminate either mixed type or edge type TDs. At sufficiently large layer thickness, the IDs originating from the GaN template lead to the formation of concentric trenches at the layer surface, and this is related to the change in growth kinetics on top and at the immediate surroundings of the ID. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  17. Hydrothermal Growth and Application of ZnO Nanowire Films with ZnO and TiO2Buffer Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Chunhua

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports the effects of the seed layers prepared by spin-coating and dip-coating methods on the morphology and density of ZnO nanowire arrays, thus on the performance of ZnO nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The nanowire films with the thick ZnO buffer layer (~0.8–1 μm thick can improve the open circuit voltage of the DSSCs through suppressing carrier recombination, however, and cause the decrease of dye loading absorbed on ZnO nanowires. In order to further investigate the effect of TiO2buffer layer on the performance of ZnO nanowire-based DSSCs, compared with the ZnO nanowire-based DSSCs without a compact TiO2buffer layer, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency and open circuit voltage of the ZnO DSSCs with the compact TiO2layer (~50 nm thick were improved by 3.9–12.5 and 2.4–41.7%, respectively. This can be attributed to the introduction of the compact TiO2layer prepared by sputtering method, which effectively suppressed carrier recombination occurring across both the film–electrolyte interface and the substrate–electrolyte interface.

  18. Numerical analysis of the influence of buffer layer thickness on the residual stresses in YBCO/La2Zr2O7/Ni superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Erdal; Sayman, Onur; Karakuzu, Ramazan; Ozman, Yilmaz

    2007-01-01

    The present paper addresses a numerical investigation of the influence of buffer layer thickness on the residual stress in YBCO/La 2 Zr 2 O 7 /Ni architectured materials under cryogenic conditions by using classical lamination theory (CLT) and finite element method (FEM) for coated conductor applications. YBCO/La 2 Zr 2 O 7 multilayer films were fabricated on Ni tape substrate using reel-to-reel sol-gel and pulse laser deposition (PLD) systems. The microstructural evolution of high temperature superconducting YBCO film and buffer layers with La 2 Zr 2 O 7 configuration grown on textured Ni tape substrates was investigated by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thermal stress analysis of YBCO/La 2 Zr 2 O 7 /Ni multilayer sample was performed by using CLT in the temperature range of 298-175 K in liquid helium media. The YBCO/La 2 Zr 2 O 7 /Ni sample strip was solved by using FEM for linear or nonlinear cases in the temperature range of 298-3 K in liquid helium media. SEM observations revealed that crack-free, pinhole-free, continuous superconducting film and buffer layer were obtained by sol-gel and PLD systems. In addition to microstructural observations, it was found that the largest compressive stresses and failure occur in La 2 Zr 2 O 7 buffer layer due to its smallest thermal expansion coefficient. The thickness of La 2 Zr 2 O 7 buffer layer affects the failure. The stress component of σ x is the smallest in Ni tape substrate due to its largest thickness

  19. Development and application of a green-chemistry solution deposition technique for buffer layer coating on cube-textured metal substrates in view of further deposition of rare-earth based superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallewatta, Pallewatta G A P

    which consist of YBCO superconducting coatings on cube-textured Ni based alloy tapes.  Before the epitaxial deposition this superconducting layer, a buffer layer is applied on the metal substrate as a diffusion barrier which is also required to transfer the strong texture of the underlying substrate......, allowing the epitaxial growth of the superconducting layer. State-of-the-art coated conductor hetero structures are mainly based on CeO2 based buffer stacks that consist of a sequence of several different buffer layers. Buffer layers deposited by continuous chemical deposition techniques, which...... is expected to be very advantageous in reel-to-reel applications. The thickness of these SrTiO3 monolayers was large enough to stop the nickel and copper diffusion from the Cu/Ni substrate. Hence, the developed high quality buffer layers are expected to be acting as efficient diffusion barriers and also...

  20. Influence of HEPES buffer on the local pH and formation of surface layer during in vitro degradation tests of magnesium in DMEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Naddaf Dezfuli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The human body is a buffered environment where pH is effectively maintained. HEPES is a biological buffer often used to mimic the buffering activity of the body in in vitro studies on the degradation behavior of magnesium. However, the influence of HEPES on the degradation behavior of magnesium in the DMEM pseudo-physiological solution has not yet been determined. The research aimed at elucidating the degradation mechanisms of magnesium in DMEM with and without HEPES. The morphologies and compositions of surface layers formed during in vitro degradation tests for 15–3600 s were characterized. The effect of HEPES on the electrochemical behavior and corrosion tendency was determined by performing electrochemical tests. HEPES indeed retained the local pH, leading to intense intergranular/interparticle corrosion of magnesium made from powder and an increased degradation rate. This was attributed to an interconnected network of cracks formed at the original powder particle boundaries and grain boundaries in the surface layer, which provided pathways for the corrosive medium to interact continuously with the internal surfaces and promoted further dissolution. Surface analysis revealed significantly reduced amounts of precipitated calcium phosphates due to the buffering activity of HEPES so that magnesium became less well protected in the buffered environment.

  1. Effect of plasma molybdenized buffer layer on adhesive properties of TiN film coated on Ti6Al4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Lin, E-mail: qinlin@tyut.edu.cn; Yi, Hong; Kong, Fanyou; Ma, Hua; Guo, Lili; Tian, Linhai; Tang, Bin

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • A molybdenized layer was prepared as a buffer layer under TiN film on Ti6Al4V. • The molybdenized layer can enhance adhesion strength of PVD coatings effectively. • The duplex treated samples increase elastic energy ratio in the impact tests. • The enhancement attributes to the hardness improvement and inverted-S shape elastic modulus profile of the modified layer. - Abstract: Effect of molybdenized buffer layer on adhesion strength of TiN film on Ti6Al4V alloy was investigated. The buffer layer composed of a dense molybdenum deposition layer, a rapid drop zone and a slow fall zone was prepared using double glow plasma surface alloying technique. Scratch tests and low energy repeated impact tests were adopted to comparatively evaluate the duplex treated layers and the single TiN samples. The results show that the critical load was increased from 62 N for the single TiN film to over 100 N for the duplex treated layer. The volume of impact pit, formed in impact tests, of the single TiN samples is 9.15 × 10{sup 6} μm{sup 3}, and about 1.5 times than that of the duplex treated samples. The Leeb hardness values reveal that about 70% impact energy was transferred to the single TiN samples to generate permanent deformation, while that was only about 47% for the duplex treated samples. The mechanism of improving adhesion strength is attributed to synergistic effect due to an inverted-S shape elastic modulus distribution produced by the molybdenized layer.

  2. Effects of Cr underlayer and Pt buffer layer on the interfacial structure and magnetic characteristics of sputtered FePt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, A.-C.; Hsu, J.-H.; Huang, H.L.; Kuo, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    This work develops a new method for growing L1 0 FePt(0 0 1) thin film on a Pt/Cr bilayer using an amorphous glass substrate. Semi-coherent epitaxial growth was initiated from the Cr(0 0 2) underlayer, continued through the Pt(0 0 1) buffer layer, and extended into the L1 0 FePt(0 0 1) magnetic layer. The squareness of the L1 0 FePt film in the presence of both a Cr underlayer and a Pt buffer layer was close to unity as the magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the film plane. The single L1 0 FePt(1 1 1) orientation was observed in the absence of a Cr underlayer. When a Cr underlayer is inserted, the preferred orientation switched from L1 0 FePt(1 1 1) to L1 0 FePt(0 0 1) and the magnetic film exhibited perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. However, in the absence of an Pt intermediate layer, the Cr atoms diffused directly into the FePt magnetic layer and prevented the formation of the L1 0 FePt(0 0 1) preferred orientation. When a Pt buffer layer was introduced between the FePt and Cr underlayer, the L1 0 FePt(0 0 1) peak appeared. The thickness of the Pt buffer layer also substantially affected the magnetic properties and atomic arrangement at the FePt/Pt and Pt/Cr interfaces

  3. Zigzag and Helical AlN Layer Prepared by Glancing Angle Deposition and Its Application as a Buffer Layer in a GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chien Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates an aluminum nitride (AlN nanorod structure sputtered by glancing angle deposition (GLAD and its application as a buffer layer for GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs that are fabricated on sapphire substrates. The ray tracing method is adopted with a three-dimensional model in TracePro software. Simulation results indicate that the zigzag AlN nanorod structure is an optimal buffer layer in a GaN-based LED. Furthermore, the light output power of a GaN-based LED with a zigzag AlN nanorod structure improves to as much as 28.6% at a forward current of 20 mA over that of the GaN-based LED with a normal AlN buffer layer.

  4. Improved InGaN/GaN quantum wells on treated GaN template with a Ga-rich GaN interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhilai; Shen, Xiyang; Wu, Zhengyuan; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Treated GaN template was achieved by in situ droplet epitaxy of a Ga-rich GaN interlayer on the conventional GaN template. InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) were grown on the conventional and treated GaN templates under the same growth conditions and then comprehensively characterized. The indium homogeneity in the InGaN layers and the interface sharpness between InGaN and GaN layers of the InGaN/GaN QWs on the treated GaN template were significantly improved. The emission intensity from the InGaN/GaN QWs on the treated GaN template was enhanced by 20% than that on the conventional GaN template, which was attributed to the strain reduction and the improvement in crystalline quality. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Biaxially oriented CdTe films on glass substrate through nanostructured Ge/CaF2 buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, R. J.; Su, P.-Y.; Bhat, I.; Zhang, S. B.; Lu, T.-M.; Wang, G.-C.

    2015-09-01

    Heteroepitaxial CdTe films were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on glass substrates through nanostructured Ge/CaF2 buffer layers which were biaxially oriented. It allows us to explore the structural properties of multilayer biaxial semiconductor films which possess small angle grain boundaries and to test the principle of a solar cell made of such low-cost, low-growth-temperature semiconductor films. Through the x-ray diffraction and x-ray pole figure analysis, the heteroepitaxial relationships of the mutilayered films are determined as [111] in the out-of-plane direction and CdTe//Ge//{ }{{{CaF}}2} in the in-plane direction. The I-V curves measured from an ITO/CdS/CdTe/Ge/CaF2/glass solar cell test structure shows a power conversion efficiency of ˜η = 1.26%, illustrating the initial success of such an approach. The observed non-ideal efficiency is believed to be due to a low shunt resistance and high series resistance as well as some residual large-angle grain boundary effects, leaving room for significant further improvement.

  6. Hard magnetic properties of rapidly annealed NdFeB thin films on Nb and V buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, H.; Evans, J.; O'Shea, M.J.; Du Jianhua

    2001-01-01

    NdFeB thin films of the form A (20 nm)/NdFeB(d nm)/A(20 nm), where d ranges from 54 to 540 nm and the buffer layer A is Nb or V were prepared on a Si(1 0 0) substrate by magnetron sputtering. The hard Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase is formed by a 30 s rapid anneal or a 20 min anneal. Average crystallite size ranged from 20 to 35 nm with the rapidly annealed samples having the smaller crystallite size. These samples also exhibited a larger coercivity and energy product than those treated by a 20 min vacuum anneal. A maximum coercivity of 26.3 kOe at room temperature was obtained for a Nb/NdFeB (180 nm)/Nb film after a rapid anneal at 725 deg. C. Initial magnetization curves indicate magnetization rotation rather than nucleation of reverse domains is important in the magnetization process. A Brown's equation analysis of the coercivity as a function of temperature allowed us to compare the rapidly annealed and 20 min annealed samples. This analysis suggests that rapid annealing gives higher quality crystalline grains than the 20 min annealed sample leading to the observed large coercivity in the rapidly annealed samples

  7. Structural and optical characterization of GaN heteroepitaxial films on SiC substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, M.; Wu, P.; Choi, S.; Kim, T.H.; Brown, A.S.; Losurdo, M.; Bruno, G.

    2006-01-01

    We have estimated the threading dislocation density and type via X-ray diffraction and Williamson-Hall analysis to elicit qualitative information directly related to the electrical and optical quality of GaN epitaxial layers grown by PAMBE on 4H- and 6H-SiC substrates. The substrate surface preparation and buffer choice, specifically: Ga flashing for SiC oxide removal, controlled nitridation of SiC, and use of AlN buffer layers all impact the resultant screw dislocation density, but do not significantly influence the edge dislocation density. We show that modification of the substrate surface strongly affects the screw dislocation density, presumably due to impact on nucleation during the initial stages of heteroepitaxy

  8. Structural and optical characterization of GaN heteroepitaxial films on SiC substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States) and Department of Physics, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States)]. E-mail: michael.morse@duke.edu; Wu, P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Choi, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Kim, T.H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Brown, A.S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States) and Department of Physics, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States)]. E-mail: abrown@ee.duke.edu; Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona, 4-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruno, G. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona, 4-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2006-10-31

    We have estimated the threading dislocation density and type via X-ray diffraction and Williamson-Hall analysis to elicit qualitative information directly related to the electrical and optical quality of GaN epitaxial layers grown by PAMBE on 4H- and 6H-SiC substrates. The substrate surface preparation and buffer choice, specifically: Ga flashing for SiC oxide removal, controlled nitridation of SiC, and use of AlN buffer layers all impact the resultant screw dislocation density, but do not significantly influence the edge dislocation density. We show that modification of the substrate surface strongly affects the screw dislocation density, presumably due to impact on nucleation during the initial stages of heteroepitaxy.

  9. Comparison of physical and electrical properties of GZO/ZnO buffer layer and GZO as source and drain electrodes of α-IGZO thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jia-Ling; Lin, Han-Yu; Su, Bo-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chu, Sheng-Yuan, E-mail: chusy@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liu, Ssu-Yin [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chia-Chiang; Wu, Chin-Jyi [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Mechanical and Systems Research Laboratories, Hsinchu 310, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The electrodes of bi-layer GZO/ ZnO and single-layer GZO in α-IGZO TFT were compared. • The TFT performances of two different structures were systematically investigated. • The bi-layer GZO/100-nm ZnO S/D electrodes showed the better TFT device properties. - Abstract: In this research, top-gate bottom-contact thin-film transistors (TFTs) made with amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (α-IGZO) active layers were grown using the radio-frequency sputtering technique. Two kinds of source and drain (S/D) electrodes, namely bi-layer GZO/100-nm ZnO buffer layer/Corning 1737 and single-layer GZO/Corning 1737, used in the TFT devices and the electric characteristics of the devices were compared. To explain the differences in the TFT performances with these different S/D electrodes, X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and contact angles were measured. The α-IGZO TFT with the bi-layer GZO/100-nm ZnO buffer layer structure as S/D electrodes exhibited superior device performance compared to that of the TFT with a single-layer GZO structure, with a higher thin film density (5.94 g/cm{sup 3}), lower surface roughness (0.817 nm), and larger surface energy (62.07 mJ/m{sup 2}) and better adhesion properties of neighboring α-IGZO films. In addition, the mechanisms responsible for the GZO/100-nm ZnO buffer layer/Corning 1737 structure S/D electrodes improving the device characteristics were systematically investigated. The α-IGZO TFT saturation mobility, subthreshold voltage, on/off current ratio, and the trap density of the GZO/100-nm ZnO buffer layer/Corning 1737 S/D electrodes were 13.5 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} S{sup −1}, 0.43 V/decade, 3.56 × 10{sup 7}, and 5.65 × 10{sup 12} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, respectively, indicating the potential of this bi-layer structure to be applied to large-area flat-panel displays.

  10. Comparison of physical and electrical properties of GZO/ZnO buffer layer and GZO as source and drain electrodes of α-IGZO thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jia-Ling; Lin, Han-Yu; Su, Bo-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chu, Sheng-Yuan; Liu, Ssu-Yin; Chang, Chia-Chiang; Wu, Chin-Jyi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The electrodes of bi-layer GZO/ ZnO and single-layer GZO in α-IGZO TFT were compared. • The TFT performances of two different structures were systematically investigated. • The bi-layer GZO/100-nm ZnO S/D electrodes showed the better TFT device properties. - Abstract: In this research, top-gate bottom-contact thin-film transistors (TFTs) made with amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (α-IGZO) active layers were grown using the radio-frequency sputtering technique. Two kinds of source and drain (S/D) electrodes, namely bi-layer GZO/100-nm ZnO buffer layer/Corning 1737 and single-layer GZO/Corning 1737, used in the TFT devices and the electric characteristics of the devices were compared. To explain the differences in the TFT performances with these different S/D electrodes, X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and contact angles were measured. The α-IGZO TFT with the bi-layer GZO/100-nm ZnO buffer layer structure as S/D electrodes exhibited superior device performance compared to that of the TFT with a single-layer GZO structure, with a higher thin film density (5.94 g/cm 3 ), lower surface roughness (0.817 nm), and larger surface energy (62.07 mJ/m 2 ) and better adhesion properties of neighboring α-IGZO films. In addition, the mechanisms responsible for the GZO/100-nm ZnO buffer layer/Corning 1737 structure S/D electrodes improving the device characteristics were systematically investigated. The α-IGZO TFT saturation mobility, subthreshold voltage, on/off current ratio, and the trap density of the GZO/100-nm ZnO buffer layer/Corning 1737 S/D electrodes were 13.5 cm 2 V −1 S −1 , 0.43 V/decade, 3.56 × 10 7 , and 5.65 × 10 12 eV −1 cm −2 , respectively, indicating the potential of this bi-layer structure to be applied to large-area flat-panel displays

  11. Effect of a SiO2 buffer layer on the characteristics of In2O3-ZnO-SnO2 films deposited on PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, B.-J.; Hong, J.-S.; Kim, S.-T.; Kim, H.-M.; Park, S.-H.; Kim, J.-J.; Ahn, J.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Transparent and conducting In 2 O 3 -ZnO-SnO 2 (IZTO) thin films were prepared on flexible PET substrates at room temperature by using an ion-gun-assisted sputtering technique. We mainly investigated the effect of a SiO 2 buffer layer, deposited in-between the film and the PET substrate, on the electrical stability of the film under various external stresses caused by moist-heat or violent temperature variations. The insertion of the SiO 2 layer improves structural, optical and electrical properties of the films: The IZTO/SiO 2 /PET film with a buffer shows a change (∼4 %) in the sheet resistance much smaller than that of the IZTO/PET film without a buffer (∼22 %), against a severe thermal stress of the repeated processes between quenching at -25 .deg. C and annealing at 100 .deg. C for 5 min at each process. Under a moist-heat stress at 90 % relative humidity at 80 .deg. C, the IZTO/SiO 2 /PET film responds with only a slight change (∼8.5 %) in the sheet resistance from 30.2 to 33.0 Ω/□ after being exposed for 240 h. The enhanced stability is understood to be the result of the buffer layers acting as a blocking barrier to water vapor or organic solvents diffusing from the PET substrate during deposition or annealing.

  12. Effect of H, O intentionally doping on photoelectric properties in MOVPE-growth GaN layers

    KAUST Repository

    Ohkawa, Kazuhiro; Wang, Yaxin

    2017-01-01

    such as H2O on the properties of undoped-GaN layer, high purity NH3 (N70) was used as NH3 source. The concentration of H2O in NH3 was varied at 32, 49, 75, 142, 266, 489, and 899 ppb, respectively. Under the same recipe, we deposited undoped-GaN epitaxial

  13. Simple O2 Plasma-Processed V2O5 as an Anode Buffer Layer for High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Xichang; Zhu, Qianqian; Wang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    A simple O2 plasma processing method for preparation of a vanadium oxide (V2O5) anode buffer layer on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass for polymer solar cells (PSCs) is reported. The V2O5 layer with high transmittance and good electrical and interfacial properties was prepared by spin coating...... the illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW/cm2). Compared to that of the control device with PBDTTT-C:PC71BM as the active layer and PEDOT:PSS (PCE of 6.52%) and thermally annealed V2O5 (PCE of 6.27%) as the anode buffer layer, the PCE was improved by 15.6 and 20.2%, respectively, after the introduction of a V2O5 (O2...... plasma) anode buffer layer. The improved PCE is ascribed to the greatly improved fill factor and enhanced short-circuit current density of the devices, which benefited from the change in the work function of V2O5, a surface with many dangling bonds for better interfacial contact, and the excellent charge...

  14. Electrical double layer modulation of hybrid room temperature ionic liquid/aqueous buffer interface for enhanced sweat based biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, Badrinath; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2018-08-03

    We have investigated the role of kosmotropic anionic moieties and chaotropic cationic moieties of room temperature hydrophilic ionic liquids in enhancing the biosensing performance of affinity based immunochemical biosensors in human sweat. Two ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM[BF 4 ]) and choline dihydrogen phosphate (Choline[DHP]) were investigated in this study with Choline[DHP] being more kosmotropic in nature having a more protein stabilizing effect based on the hofmeister series. Non-faradaic interfacial charge transfer has been employed as the mechanism for evaluating the formation and the biosensing of capture probe antibodies in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs)/aqueous human sweat interface. The charge of the ionic moieties were utilized to form compact electrical double layers around the antibodies for enhancing the stability of the antibody capture probes, which was evaluated through zeta potential measurements. The zeta potential measurements indicated stability of antibodies due to electrostatic repulsion of the RTIL charged moieties encompassing the antibodies, thus preventing any aggregation. Here, we report for the first time of non-faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy equivalent circuit model analysis for analyzing and interpreting affinity based biosensing at hybrid electrode/ionic liquid-aqueous sweat buffer interface guided by the choice of the ionic liquid. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cortisol two commonly occurring biomarkers in human sweat were evaluated using this method. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained using both ionic liquids for IL-6 was 0.2 pg mL -1 with cross-reactivity studies indicating better performance of IL-6 detection using Choline[DHP] and no response to cross-reactive molecule. The LOD of 0.1 ng/mL was achieved for cortisol and the cross-reactivity studies indicated that cortisol antibody in BMIM[BF 4 ] did not show any signal response to cross-reactive molecules

  15. Effects of V2O3 buffer layers on sputtered VO2 smart windows: Improved thermochromic properties, tunable width of hysteresis loops and enhanced durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Shiwei; Cao, Xun; Sun, Guangyao; Li, Ning; Chang, Tianci; Shao, Zewei; Jin, Ping

    2018-05-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is one of the most well-known thermochromic materials, which exhibits a notable optical change from transparent to reflecting in the infrared region upon a metal-insulator phase transition. For practical applications, VO2 thin films should be in high crystalline quality to obtain a strong solar modulation ability (ΔTsol). Meanwhile, narrow hysteresis loops and robust ambient durability are also indispensable for sensitivity and long-lived utilization, respectively. In this work, a series of high-quality V2O3/VO2 bilayer structures were grown on quartz glass substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering. Basically, the bottom V2O3 acts as the buffer layer to improve the crystallinity of the top VO2, while the VO2 serves as the thermochromic layer to guarantee the solar modulation ability for energy-saving. We observed an obvious increase in ΔTsol of 76% (from 7.5% to 13.2%) for VO2 films after introducing V2O3 buffer layers. Simultaneously, a remarkable reduction by 79% (from 21.9 °C to 4.7 °C) in width of hysteresis loop was obtained when embedding 60 nm V2O3 buffer for 60 nm VO2. In addition, VO2 with non-stoichiometry of V2O3±x buffer demonstrates a broadening hysteresis loops width, which is derived from the lattice distortion caused by lattice imperfection. Finally, durability of VO2 has been significantly improved due to positive effects of V2O3 buffer layer. Our results lead to a comprehensive enhancement in crystallinity of VO2 and shed new light on the promotion of thermochromic property by homologous oxides for VO2.

  16. P-type doping of GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    After implantation of As, As + Be, and As + Ga into GaN and annealing for short durations at temperatures as high as 1500 C, the GaN films remained highly resistive. It was apparent from c-RBS studies that although implantation damage did not create an amorphous layer in the GaN film, annealing at 1500 C did not provide enough energy to completely recover the radiation damage. Disorder recovered significantly after annealing at temperatures up to 1500 C, but not completely. From SIMS analysis, oxygen contamination in the AIN capping layer causes oxygen diffusion into the GaN film above 1400 C. The sapphire substrate (A1203) also decomposed and oxygen penetrated into the backside of the GaN layer above 1400 C. To prevent donor-like oxygen impurities from the capping layer and the substrate from contaminating the GaN film and compensating acceptors, post-implantation annealing should be done at temperatures below 1500 C. Oxygen in the cap could be reduced by growing the AIN cap on the GaN layer after the GaN growth run or by depositing the AIN layer in a ultra high vacuum (UHV) system post-growth to minimize residual oxygen and water contamination. With longer annealing times at 1400 C or at higher temperatures with a higher quality AIN, the implantation drainage may fully recover

  17. P-type doping of GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Raechelle Kimberly [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    After implantation of As, As + Be, and As + Ga into GaN and annealing for short durations at temperatures as high as 1500 C, the GaN films remained highly resistive. It was apparent from c-RBS studies that although implantation damage did not create an amorphous layer in the GaN film, annealing at 1500 C did not provide enough energy to completely recover the radiation damage. Disorder recovered significantly after annealing at temperatures up to 1500 C, but not completely. From SIMS analysis, oxygen contamination in the AIN capping layer causes oxygen diffusion into the GaN film above 1400 C. The sapphire substrate (A1203) also decomposed and oxygen penetrated into the backside of the GaN layer above 1400 C. To prevent donor-like oxygen impurities from the capping layer and the substrate from contaminating the GaN film and compensating acceptors, post-implantation annealing should be done at temperatures below 1500 C. Oxygen in the cap could be reduced by growing the AIN cap on the GaN layer after the GaN growth run or by depositing the AIN layer in a ultra high vacuum (UHV) system post-growth to minimize residual oxygen and water contamination. With longer annealing times at 1400 C or at higher temperatures with a higher quality AIN, the implantation drainage may fully recover.

  18. Mg-doped ZnO thin films deposited by the atomic layer chemical vapor deposition for the buffer layer of CIGS solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhao-Hui [Department of Electronics Engineering, Gachon University, Soojung-gu, Seongnam city 461-701, Gyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Center for Photovoltaic and Solar Energy, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen city 518055 (China); Cho, Eou-Sik [Department of Electronics Engineering, Gachon University, Soojung-gu, Seongnam city 461-701, Gyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Jik, E-mail: sjkwon@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Electronics Engineering, Gachon University, Soojung-gu, Seongnam city 461-701, Gyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Mg-doped ZnO film as CIGS buffer was prepared by ALD process. • The grain size of ZnO-like hexagonal phase decreased with Mg content. • The transmittance and crystallinity increased but the band gap decreased with temperature. - Abstract: Mg-doped ZnO [(Zn, Mg)O] thin films were prepared by atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (ALCVD) process with different Mg content, using diethyl zinc, biscyclopentadienyl magnesium, and water as the metal and oxygen sources, respectively. The ratio of Mg to Zn was varied by changing the pulse ratio of MgCp{sub 2} to DEZn precursor to study its effect on the properties of (Zn, Mg)O thin films. From the experimental results, it was shown that the grain size of the ZnO-like hexagonal phase (Zn, Mg)O decreased as the Mg content increased. But the transmittance and optical band gap of (Zn, Mg)O films increased with the increase of the Mg content. In addition, the effect of the substrate temperature on the properties of (Zn, Mg)O films was also investigated. The deposition rate, transmittance, and crystallinity of (Zn, Mg)O films increased as the substrate temperature increased. But its band gap decreased slightly with the increase of substrate temperature.

  19. Enhancement of hole-injection and power efficiency of organic light emitting devices using an ultra-thin ZnO buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.-H.; Chu, S.-Y.; Kao, P.-C.; Chen, Y.-C.; Yang, M.-R.; Tseng, Z.-L.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of using an anode buffer layer of ZnO on the electro-optical properties of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are reported. ZnO powders were thermal-evaporated and then treated with ultra-violet (UV) ozone exposure to make the ZnO layers. The turn-on voltage of OLEDs decreased from 4 V (4.2 cd/m 2 ) to 3 V (3.4 cd/m 2 ) and the power efficiency increased from 2.7 lm/W to 4.7 lm/W when a 1-nm-thick ZnO layer was inserted between indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes and α-naphthylphenylbiphenyl diamine (NPB) hole-transporting layers. X-ray and ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) results revealed the formation of the ZnO layer and showed that the work function increased by 0.59 eV when the ZnO/ITO layer was treated by UV-ozone for 20 min. The surface of the ZnO/ITO film became smoother than that of bare ITO film after the UV-ozone treatment. Thus, the hole-injection energy barrier was lowered by inserting an ZnO buffer layer, resulting in a decrease of the turn-on voltage and an increase of the power efficiency of OLEDs.

  20. Optimization by simulation of the nature of the buffer, the gap profile of the absorber and the thickness of the various layers in CZTSSe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadel, Meriem; Chadel, Asma; Moustafa Bouzaki, Mohammed; Aillerie, Michel; Benyoucef, Boumediene; Charles, Jean-Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Performances of ZnO/ZnS/CZTSSe polycrystalline thin film solar cells (Copper Zinc Tin Sulphur Selenium-solar cell) were simulated for different thicknesses of the absorber and ZnS buffer layers. Simulations were performed with SCAPS (Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator) software, starting with actual parameters available from industrial data for commercial cells processing. The influences of the thickness of the various layers in the structure of the solar cell and the gap profile of the CZTSSe absorber layer on the performance of the solar cell were studied in detail. Through considerations of recent works, we discuss possible routes to enhance the performance of CZTSSe solar cells towards a higher efficiency level. Thus, we found that for one specific thickness of the absorber layer, the efficiency of the CZTSSe solar cell can be increased when a ZnS layer replaces the usual CdS buffer layer. On the other hand, the efficiency of the solar cell can be also improved when the absorber layer presents a grad-gap. In this case, the maximum efficiency for the CZTSSe cell was found equal to 13.73%.

  1. Effect of oxygen pressure of SiOx buffer layer on the electrical properties of GZO film deposited on PET substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byung Du; Ko, Young Gun; Oh, Sang Hoon; Song, Jean-Ho; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2009-01-01

    The present work was made to investigate the effect of oxygen pressure of SiO x layer on the electrical properties of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films deposited on poly-ethylene telephthalate (PET) substrate by utilizing the pulsed-laser deposition at ambient temperature. For this purpose, the SiO x buffer layers were deposited at various oxygen pressures ranging from 13.3 to 46.7 Pa. With increasing oxygen pressure during the deposition of SiO x layer as a buffer, the electrical resistivity of GZO/SiO x /PET films gradually decreased from 7.6 x 10 -3 to 6.8 x 10 -4 Ω.cm, due to the enhanced mobility of GZO films. It was mainly due to the grain size of GZO films related to the roughened surface of the SiO x buffer layers. In addition, the average optical transmittance of GZO/SiO x /PET films in a visible regime was estimated to be ∼ 90% comparable to that of GZO deposited onto a glass substrate.

  2. Photovoltaic Properties in Interpenetrating Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells Utilizing MoO3 and ZnO Charge Transport Buffer Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Hori

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic thin-film solar cells with a conducting polymer (CP/fullerene (C60 interpenetrating heterojunction structure, fabricated by spin-coating a CP onto a C60 deposit thin film, have been investigated and demonstrated to have high efficiency. The photovoltaic properties of solar cells with a structure of indium-tin-oxide/C60/ poly(3-hexylthiophene (PAT6/Au have been improved by the insertion of molybdenum trioxide (VI (MoO3 and zinc oxide charge transport buffer layers. The enhanced photovoltaic properties have been discussed, taking into consideration the ground-state charge transfer between PAT6 and MoO3 by measurement of the differential absorption spectra and the suppressed contact resistance at the interface between the organic and buffer layers.

  3. Photovoltaic Properties in Interpenetrating Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells Utilizing MoO3 and ZnO Charge Transport Buffer Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Tetsuro; Moritou, Hiroki; Fukuoka, Naoki; Sakamoto, Junki; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    Organic thin-film solar cells with a conducting polymer (CP)/fullerene (C60) interpenetrating heterojunction structure, fabricated by spin-coating a CP onto a C60 deposit thin film, have been investigated and demonstrated to have high efficiency. The photovoltaic properties of solar cells with a structure of indium-tin-oxide/C60/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (PAT6)/Au have been improved by the insertion of molybdenum trioxide (VI) (MoO3) and zinc oxide charge transport buffer layers. The enhanced photovoltaic properties have been discussed, taking into consideration the ground-state charge transfer between PAT6 and MoO3 by measurement of the differential absorption spectra and the suppressed contact resistance at the interface between the organic and buffer layers. PMID:28883360

  4. Charge-collection efficiency of GaAs field effect transistors fabricated with a low temperature grown buffer layer: dependence on charge deposition profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMorrow, D.; Knudson, A.R.; Melinger, J.S.; Buchner, S.

    1999-01-01

    The results presented here reveal a surprising dependence of the charge-collection efficiency of LT GaAs FETs (field effect transistors) on the depth profile of the deposited charge. Investigation of the temporal dependence of the signal amplitude, carrier density contours, and potential contours reveals different mechanisms for charge collection arising from carriers deposited above and below the LT GaAs buffer layer, respectively. In particular, carriers deposited below the LT GaAs buffer layer dissipate slowly and give rise to a persistent charge collection that is associated with a bipolar-like gain process. These results may be of significance in understanding the occurrence of single-event upsets from protons, neutrons, and large-angle, glancing heavy-ion strikes. (authors)

  5. Optical characterization of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} solar cell buffer layers grown by chemical bath and physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigo, J.F.; Asenjo, B.; Herrero, J.; Gutierrez, M.T. [Department of Energy, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    In this paper, we study the optical properties of indium sulfide thin films to establish the best conditions to obtain a good solar cell buffer layer. The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} buffer layers have been prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and thermal evaporation (PVD). Optical behavior differences have been found between CBD and PVD In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films that have been explained as due to structural, morphological and compositional differences observed in the films prepared by both methods. The resultant refractive index difference has to be attributed to the lower density of the CBD films, which can be related to the presence of oxygen. Its higher refractive index makes PVD film better suited to reduce overall reflectance in a typical CIGS solar cell. (author)

  6. The importance of structural inhomogeneity in GaN thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Reis, Roberto dos; Weyher, Jan L.; Staszczak, Grzegorz; Jakieła, Rafał

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes two types of MOCVD-grown n-type GaN layers (Samples A and B) with similar carrier concentration but behaved differently under galvanic photo-etching. In order to understand this behavior, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for cross-section and plan-view samples, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and photoluminescence (PL) techniques were applied. SIMS studies showed that Si, C and O are approximately at the same concentration in both samples, but Sample B also contained Fe and Mg. Both GaN samples were grown on sapphire substrate with Ga growth polarity, which was confirmed by Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction (CBED). Despite a smaller layer thickness in Sample B, the density of edge dislocations is almost one order of magnitude lower than in Sample A. In addition, planar defects formed in this sample in the transition area between the undoped buffer and Si doped layers resulted in a substantial decrease in the density of screw dislocations at the sample surface. These planar defects most probably gave rise to the PL lines observed at 3.42 eV and 3.32 eV. The new PL lines that only appeared in Sample B might be related to Mg impurities found in this sample. There were no detectable gettering of these impurities at dislocations using different diffraction conditions. However, Fe rich platelets were found only in Sample B due to the presence of Fe as well as hexagonal features, similar to defects reported earlier in highly Mg-doped GaN. These structural and chemical non-uniformities between the two GaN samples can explain their different etching behaviors. This paper demonstrates that samples with similar carrier concentrations do not necessarily ensure similar structural and optical properties and that additional material characterization are needed to ensure that devices built on such samples have similar performance.

  7. LaNiO3 buffer layers for high critical current density YBa2Cu3O7-δ and Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8-δ films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.M.; Parilla, P.A.; Siegal, M.P.; Ginley, D.S.; Wang, Y.; Blaugher, R.D.; Price, J.C.; Overmyer, D.L.; Venturini, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate high critical current density superconducting films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) and Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 8-δ (Tl-2212) using LaNiO 3 (LNO) buffer layers. YBCO films grown on an LNO buffer layer have only a slightly lower J c (5 K, H=0) than films grown directly on a bare LaAlO 3 substrate. YBCO films grown on LNO buffer layers exhibit minor microstructural disorder and enhanced flux pinning. LNO-buffered Tl-2212 samples show large reductions in J c at all temperatures and fields compared to those grown on bare LaAlO 3 , correlating to both a-axis grain and nonsuperconducting phase formation. LNO could be a promising buffer layer for both YBCO and Tl-based superconducting films in coated conductor applications. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  8. LaNiO3 Buffer Layers for High Critical Current Density YBa2Cu3O7δ and Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8δ Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.M.; Parilla, P.A.; Siegal, M.P.; Ginley, D.S.; Wang, Y.-T.; Blaugher, R.D.; Price, J.C.; Overmyer, D.L.; Venturini, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate high critical current density superconducting films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) and Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 8-δ (Tl-2212) using LaNiO 3 (LNO) buffer layers. YBCO films grown on an LNO buffer layer have only a slightly lower J c (5K, H=0) than films grown directly on a bare LaAlO 3 substrate. It is noteworthy that YBCO films grown on LNO buffer layers exhibit minor microstructural disorder and enhanced flux pinning. LNO-buffered Tl-2212 samples show large reductions in J c at all temperatures and fields compared to those grown on bare LaAlO 3 , correlating to both a-axis grain and nonsuperconducting phase formation. With additional optimization, LNO could be a promising buffer layer for both YBCO and Tl-based superconducting films, perhaps ideally suited for coated conductor applications

  9. Growth of thick La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} buffer layers for coated conductors by polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin, E-mail: xzhang@my.swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhao, Yong, E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Xia, Yudong [State Key Lab of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Guo, Chunsheng [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Zhang, Yong [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhang, Han [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We develops a low-cost and high-efficient technology of fabricating LZO buffer layers. • Sufficient thickness LZO buffer layers have been obtained on NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate. • Highly biaxially textured YBCO thin film has been deposited on LZO/NiW. - Abstract: La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZO) epitaxial films have been deposited on LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) (1 0 0) single-crystal surface and bi-axially textured NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate by polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition, and afterwards studied with XRD, SEM and AFM approaches. Highly in-plane and out-of-plane oriented, dense, smooth, crack free and with a sufficient thickness (>240 nm) LZO buffer layers have been obtained on LAO (1 0 0) single-crystal surface; The films deposited on NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate are also found with high degree in-plane and out-of-plane texturing, good density with pin-hole-free, micro-crack-free nature and a thickness of 300 nm. Highly epitaxial 500 nm thick YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−x} (YBCO) thin film exhibits the self-field critical current density (Jc) reached 1.3 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K .These results demonstrate the LZO epi-films obtained with current techniques have potential to be a buffer layer for REBCO coated conductors.

  10. In situ analysis of the Zn(S,O) buffer layer preparation for chalcopyrite solar cells by Zn L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauermann, Iver; Kropp, Timo; Vottier, Damien; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Eberhardt, Wolfgang; Aziz, Emad F

    2009-02-23

    Bridging the gap between high-vacuum soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and real systems under ambient conditions probes chemical reactions in situ during deposition and annealing processes. The origin of highly efficient buffer layers in Zn(S,O) is the complex formation between Zn(2+) and the S=C group of thiourea (see schematic), which allows ligand-to-metal and metal-to-ligand charge transfer (LMCT and MLCT).

  11. Fabrication of Ni-5 at. %W Long Tapes with CeO2 Buffer Layer by Reel-to-Reel Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Lin; Tian, Hui; Yue, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    A 10-m-long homemade textured Ni-5at.%W (Ni5W) long tape with a CeO2 buffer layer has been prepared successfully by means of rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrate (RABiTS) route followed by a chemical solution deposition method in a reel-to-reel manner. Globally, the Ni5W substrate and CeO2...

  12. Determination of carrier diffusion length in GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Shopan; Zhang, Fan; Monavarian, Morteza; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Özgür, Ümit; Metzner, Sebastian; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Gil, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion lengths of photo-excited carriers along the c-direction were determined from photoluminescence (PL) and cross-sectional cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements in p- and n-type GaN epitaxial layers grown on c-plane sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The investigated samples incorporate a 6 nm thick In0.15Ga0.85N active layer capped with either 500 nm p-GaN or 1500 nm n-GaN. The top GaN layers were etched in steps and PL from the InGaN active region and the underlying layers was monitored as a function of the top GaN thickness upon photo-generation near the surface region by above bandgap excitation. Taking into consideration the absorption in the top GaN layer as well as active and underlying layers, the diffusion lengths at 295 K and at 15 K were measured to be 93 ± 7 nm and 70 ± 7 nm for Mg-doped p-type GaN and 432 ± 30 nm and 316 ± 30 nm for unintentionally doped n-type GaN, respectively, at photogenerated carrier densities of 4.2 × 1018 cm-3 using PL spectroscopy. CL measurements of the unintentionally doped n-type GaN layer at much lower carrier densities of 1017 cm-3 revealed a longer diffusion length of 525 ± 11 nm at 6 K.

  13. Study of an Amorphous Silicon Oxide Buffer Layer for p-Type Microcrystalline Silicon Oxide/n-Type Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells and Their Temperature Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweewat Krajangsang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide (i-a-SiO:H films were used as front and rear buffer layers in crystalline silicon heterojunction (c-Si-HJ solar cells. The surface passivity and effective lifetime of these i-a-SiO:H films on an n-type silicon wafer were improved by increasing the CO2/SiH4 ratios in the films. Using i-a-SiO:H as the front and rear buffer layers in c-Si-HJ solar cells was investigated. The front i-a-SiO:H buffer layer thickness and the CO2/SiH4 ratio influenced the open-circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF, and temperature coefficient (TC of the c-Si-HJ solar cells. The highest total area efficiency obtained was 18.5% (Voc=700 mV, Jsc=33.5 mA/cm2, and FF=0.79. The TC normalized for this c-Si-HJ solar cell efficiency was −0.301%/°C.

  14. Sm-doped CeO{sub 2} single buffer layer for YBCO coated conductors by polymer assisted chemical solution deposition (PACSD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G.; Pu, M.H.; Sun, R.P.; Wang, W.T.; Wu, W.; Zhang, X.; Yang, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Zhao, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)], E-mail: yzhao@home.swjtu.edu.cn

    2008-10-20

    An over 150 nm thick Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9-x} (SCO) single buffer layer has been deposited on bi-axially textured NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate. Highly in-plane and out-of-plane oriented, dense, smooth and crack free SCO single layer has been obtained via a polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition (PACSD) approach. YBCO thin film has been deposited equally via a PACSD route on the SCO-buffered NiW, the as grown YBCO yielding a sharp transition at T{sub c0} = 87 K as well as J{sub c}(0 T, 77 K) {approx} 1 MA/cm{sup 2}. These results indicates that RE (lanthanides other than Ce) doping may be an effective approach to improve the critical thickness of solution derived CeO{sub 2} film, which renders it a promising candidate as single buffer layer for YBCO coated conductors.

  15. Improvement of the surface morphology of a-plane InN using low-temperature InN buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikata, G.; Hirano, S.; Inoue, T.; Hijikata, Y.; Orihara, M.; Yaguchi, H.; Yoshida, S.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the improvement of the surface morphology of a-plane InN films grown by RF molecular beam epitaxy. By using low-temperature (LT) InN buffer layers, we could successfully obtain InN films with a smooth surface. The full width at half maximum values of the X-ray diffraction (11-20) rocking curve along the [0001]InN direction were 2870 arcsec and 3410 arcsec for a-plane InN samples grown at 500 C with and without LT-InN buffer layers, respectively. Thus, we could improve also the crystalline quality of a-plane InN films by using LT-InN buffer layers. We observed strong polarization anisotropy in the photoluminescence spectra of a-plane InN, which is typical of nonpolar wurtzite III-nitride films. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. In As{sub 1–x}Sb{sub x} heteroepitaxial structures on compositionally graded GaInSb and AlGaInSb buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseynov, R. R.; Tanriverdiyev, V. A. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan); Kipshidze, G., E-mail: gela.kishidze@stonybrook.ede [Stony Brook, Stony Brook University (United States); Aliyeva, Ye. N.; Aliguliyeva, Kh. V.; Abdullayev, N. A., E-mail: abnadir@mail.ru; Mamedov, N. T. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

    2017-04-15

    Unrelaxed InAs{sub 1–x}Sb{sub x} (x = 0.43 and 0.38) alloy layers are produced by molecular-beam epitaxy on compositionally graded GaInSb and AlGaInSb buffer layers. The high quality of the thin films produced is confirmed by the results of high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis and micro-Raman studies. The twomode type of transformation of the phonon spectra of InAs{sub 1–x}Sb{sub x} alloys is established.

  17. Field plated 0.15 μm GaN HEMTs for millimeter-wave application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Chunjiang; Li Zhonghui; Yu Xuming; Wang Quanhui; Wang Wen; Chen Tangsheng; Zhang Bin

    2013-01-01

    SiN dielectrically-defined 0.15 μm field plated GaN HEMTs for millimeter-wave application have been presented. The AlGaN/GaN hetero-structure epitaxial material for HEMTs fabrication was grown on a 3-inch SiC substrate with an Fe doped GaN buffer layer by metal-organic chemical deposition. Electron beam lithography was used to define both the gate footprint and the cap of the gate with an integrated field plate. Gate recessing was performed to control the threshold voltage of the devices. The fabricated GaN HEMTs exhibited a unit current gain cut-off frequency of 39 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation of 63 GHz. Load-pull measurements carried out at 35 GHz showed a power density of 4 W/mm with associated power gain and power added efficiency of 5.3 dB and 35%, respectively, for a 0.15 mm gate width device operated at a 24 V drain bias. The developed 0.15 μm gate length GaN HEMT technology is suitable for Ka band applications and is ready for millimeter-wave power MMICs development. (semiconductor devices)

  18. GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shunfeng; Waag, Andreas [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig University of Technology, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, GaN nanorods are emerging as a very promising novel route toward devices for nano-optoelectronics and nano-photonics. In particular, core-shell light emitting devices are thought to be a breakthrough development in solid state lighting, nanorod based LEDs have many potential advantages as compared to their 2 D thin film counterparts. In this paper, we review the recent developments of GaN nanorod growth, characterization, and related device applications based on GaN nanorods. The initial work on GaN nanorod growth focused on catalyst-assisted and catalyst-free statistical growth. The growth condition and growth mechanisms were extensively investigated and discussed. Doping of GaN nanorods, especially p-doping, was found to significantly influence the morphology of GaN nanorods. The large surface of 3 D GaN nanorods induces new optical and electrical properties, which normally can be neglected in layered structures. Recently, more controlled selective area growth of GaN nanorods was realized using patterned substrates both by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Advanced structures, for example, photonic crystals and DBRs are meanwhile integrated in GaN nanorod structures. Based on the work of growth and characterization of GaN nanorods, GaN nanoLEDs were reported by several groups with different growth and processing methods. Core/shell nanoLED structures were also demonstrated, which could be potentially useful for future high efficient LED structures. In this paper, we will discuss recent developments in GaN nanorod technology, focusing on the potential advantages, but also discussing problems and open questions, which may impose obstacles during the future development of a GaN nanorod based LED technology.

  19. Effect of a thermally evaporated bis (2-methyl-8-quninolinato)-4-phenylphenolate cathode buffer layer on the performance of polymer photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dal-Ho; Park, Jea-Gun

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the device characteristics of polymer photovoltaic (PV) cells based on a poly(3 hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenylC61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction with a cathode buffer layer of thermally evaporated bis (2-methyl-8-quninolinato)-4-phenylphenolate (BAlq). A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.46% was obtained with the insertion of a 4-nm-thick BAlq, which was ∼118% increase over that for the cell without a BAlq layer, under Air Mass 1.5 Global (AM 1.5 G) illumination, 100 mW/cm 2 . Moreover, we examined the charge carrier transport property, and found that the hole mobility of the cell was enhancement due to the insertion of a BAlq layer with a thickness of less than 4 nm, which accounted for the improved in the photocurrent and fill factor (FF) due to the better balance of charge carriers. Finally, the BAlq buffer layer was also demonstrated as an optical spacer that improved the optical absorption of the P3HT:PCBM layer, which accounted for the J sc enhancement of the device.

  20. Conductivity based on selective etch for GaN devices and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qian; Han, Jung

    2015-12-08

    This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

  1. Interfacial reactions of Ba 2YCu 3O 6+z with coated conductor buffer layer, LaMnO 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G.; Wong-Ng, W.; Kaduk, J. A.; Cook, L. P.

    2010-03-01

    Chemical interactions between the Ba 2YCu 3O 6+x superconductor and the LaMnO 3 buffer layers employed in coated conductors have been investigated experimentally by determining the phases formed in the Ba 2YCu 3O 6+x-LaMnO 3 system. The Ba 2YCu 3O 6+x-LaMnO 3 join within the BaO-(Y 2O 3-La 2O 3)-MnO 2-CuO x multi-component system is non-binary. At 810 °C ( pO2 = 100 Pa) and at 950 °C in purified air, four phases are consistently present along the join, namely, Ba 2-x(La 1+x-yY y)Cu 3O 6+z, Ba(Y 2-xLa x)CuO 5, (La 1-xY x)MnO 3, (La,Y)Mn 2O 5. The crystal chemistry and crystallography of Ba(Y 2-xLa x)CuO 5 and (La 1-xY x)Mn 2O 5 were studied using the X-ray Rietveld refinement technique. The Y-rich and La-rich solid solution limits for Ba(Y 2-xLa x)CuO 5 are Ba(Y 1.8La 0.2)CuO 5 and Ba(Y 0.1La 1.9)CuO 5, respectively. The structure of Ba(Y 1.8La 0.2)CuO 5 is Pnma (No. 62), a = 12.2161(5) Å, b = 5.6690(2) Å, c = 7.1468(3) Å, V = 494.94(4) Å 3, and D x = 6.29 g cm -3. YMn 2O 5 and LaMn 2O 5 do not form solid solution at 810 °C ( pO2 = 100 Pa) or at 950 °C (in air). The structure of YMn 2O 5 was confirmed to be Pbam (No. 55), a = 7.27832(14) Å, b = 8.46707(14) Å, c = 5.66495(10) Å, and V = 349.108(14) Å 3. A reference X-ray pattern was prepared for YMn 2O 5.

  2. Enhancement of TE polarized light extraction efficiency in nanoscale (AlN)m /(GaN)n (m>n) superlattice substitution for Al-rich AlGaN disorder alloy: ultra-thin GaN layer modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xin-he; Shi, Jun-jie; Zhong, Hong-xia; Huang, Pu; Ding, Yi-min; Yu, Tong-jun; Shen, Bo; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xihua

    2014-01-01

    The problem of achieving high light extraction efficiency in Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N is of paramount importance for the realization of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) optoelectronic devices. To solve this problem, we investigate the microscopic mechanism of valence band inversion and light polarization, a crucial factor for enhancing light extraction efficiency, in Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N alloy using the Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof hybrid functional, local-density approximation with 1/2 occupation, and the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof functional, in which the spin–orbit coupling effect is included. We find that the microscopic Ga-atom distribution can effectively modulate the valence band structure of Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N. Moreover, we prove that the valence band arrangement in the decreasing order of heavy hole, light hole, and crystal-field split-off hole can be realized by using nanoscale (AlN) m /(GaN) n (m>n) superlattice (SL) substituting for Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N disorder alloy as the active layer of optoelectronic devices due to the ultra-thin GaN layer modulation. The valence band maximum, i.e., the heavy hole band, has p x - and p y -like characteristics and is highly localized in the SL structure, which leads to the desired transverse electric (TE) polarized (E⊥c) light emission with improved light extraction efficiency in the DUV spectral region. Some important band-structure parameters and electron/hole effective masses are also given. The physical origin for the valence band inversion and TE polarization in (AlN) m /(GaN) n SL is analyzed in depth. (paper)

  3. Control of metamorphic buffer structure and device performance of In(x)Ga(1-x)As epitaxial layers fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H Q; Yu, H W; Luc, Q H; Tang, Y Z; Phan, V T H; Hsu, C H; Chang, E Y; Tseng, Y C

    2014-12-05

    Using a step-graded (SG) buffer structure via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, we demonstrate a high suitability of In0.5Ga0.5As epitaxial layers on a GaAs substrate for electronic device application. Taking advantage of the technique's precise control, we were able to increase the number of SG layers to achieve a fairly low dislocation density (∼10(6) cm(-2)), while keeping each individual SG layer slightly exceeding the critical thickness (∼80 nm) for strain relaxation. This met the demanded but contradictory requirements, and even offered excellent scalability by lowering the whole buffer structure down to 2.3 μm. This scalability overwhelmingly excels the forefront studies. The effects of the SG misfit strain on the crystal quality and surface morphology of In0.5Ga0.5As epitaxial layers were carefully investigated, and were correlated to threading dislocation (TD) blocking mechanisms. From microstructural analyses, TDs can be blocked effectively through self-annihilation reactions, or hindered randomly by misfit dislocation mechanisms. Growth conditions for avoiding phase separation were also explored and identified. The buffer-improved, high-quality In0.5Ga0.5As epitaxial layers enabled a high-performance, metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor on a GaAs substrate. The devices displayed remarkable capacitance-voltage responses with small frequency dispersion. A promising interface trap density of 3 × 10(12) eV(-1) cm(-2) in a conductance test was also obtained. These electrical performances are competitive to those using lattice-coherent but pricey InGaAs/InP systems.

  4. Nitrogen vacancies as a common element of the green luminescence and nonradiative recombination centers in Mg-implanted GaN layers formed on a GaN substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kazunobu; Takashima, Shinya; Edo, Masaharu; Ueno, Katsunori; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Takahashi, Tokio; Ishibashi, Shoji; Uedono, Akira; Chichibu, Shigefusa F.

    2017-06-01

    The photoluminescences of ion-implanted (I/I) and epitaxial Mg-doped GaN (GaN:Mg) are compared. The intensities and lifetimes of the near-band-edge and ultraviolet luminescences associated with a MgGa acceptor of I/I GaN:Mg were significantly lower and shorter than those of the epilayers, respectively. Simultaneously, the green luminescence (GL) became dominant. These emissions were quenched far below room temperature. The results indicate the generation of point defects common to GL and nonradiative recombination centers (NRCs) by I/I. Taking the results of positron annihilation measurement into account, N vacancies are the prime candidate to emit GL and create NRCs with Ga vacancies, (VGa) m (VN) n , as well as to inhibit p-type conductivity.

  5. Study of High Quality Indium Nitride Films Grown on Si(100 Substrate by RF-MOMBE with GZO and AlN Buffer Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wurtzite structure InN films were prepared on Si(100 substrates using radio-frequency metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy (RF-MOMBE system. Ga-doped ZnO (GZO and Amorphous AlN (a-AlN film were used as buffer layers for InN films growth. Structural, surface morphology and optical properties of InN films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and photoluminescence (PL. XRD results indicated that all InN films exhibited preferred growth orientation along the c-axis with different intermediate buffers. TEM images exhibit the InN/GZO growth by two-dimensional mode and thickness about 900 nm. Also, the InN films can be obtained by growth rate about ~1.8 μm/h. Optical properties indicated that the band gap of InN/GZO is about 0.79 eV. These results indicate that the control of buffer layer is essential for engineering the growth of InN on silicon wafer.

  6. Chemical bath deposition of thin semiconductor films for use as buffer layers in CuInS2 thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    A CulnS 2 thin film solar cell is a multilayered semiconductor device. The solar cells discussed have a layer sequence Mo/CulnS 2 /buffer/i-ZnO/ZnO:Ga, where a heterojunction establishes between the p-type absorber and the n-type front contact. Conventionally the buffer consists of CdS, deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Apart from providing process oriented benefits the buffer layer functions as a tool for engineering the energy band line-up at the heterojunction interface. Motivated through environmental concern and EU legislation it is felt necessary to substitute this potentially toxic layer by an alternative, Cd-free component. This thesis investigates the suitability of various Zn- and In-compounds, in particular In(OH,O) x S y , as alternative buffer layer materials using CBD. Initial experiments were carried out depositing Zn-based compounds from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the layers, the solution and the processed solar cells was performed. This thesis focuses on the investigation of the CBD process chemistry for the deposition of In-compound thin films. A careful study of the morphology and composition of the deposited thin films was conducted using electron microscopy (SEM, HREM), elastic recoil detection analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical transmission spectroscopy. This allowed conclusions concerning the nucleation and film growth mechanism from the chemical bath. Connections between bath chemistry, different growth phases, layer morphology and solar cell performance were sought and an improved deposition process was developed. As a result, Cd-free CulnS 2 thin film solar cells with efficiencies of up to 10.6%) (total area) could be produced. Overall the substitution of CdS is shown to be possible by different alternative compounds, such as Zn(OH,O) x S y or In(OH,O) x S y . In the case of In(OH,O) x S y , an understanding of the CBD process and the effect of different growth phases on the resulting solar cell

  7. Viability and proliferation of endothelial cells upon exposure to GaN nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniste, Tudor; Tiginyanu, Ion; Horvath, Tibor; Raevschi, Simion; Cebotari, Serghei; Lux, Marco; Haverich, Axel; Hilfiker, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing and promising field of interest in medicine; however, nanoparticle-cell interactions are not yet fully understood. The goal of this work was to examine the interaction between endothelial cells and gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor nanoparticles. Cellular viability, adhesion, proliferation, and uptake of nanoparticles by endothelial cells were investigated. The effect of free GaN nanoparticles versus the effect of growing endothelial cells on GaN functionalized surfaces was examined. To functionalize surfaces with GaN, GaN nanoparticles were synthesized on a sacrificial layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The uptake of GaN nanoparticles by porcine endothelial cells was strongly dependent upon whether they were fixed to the substrate surface or free floating in the medium. The endothelial cells grown on surfaces functionalized with GaN nanoparticles demonstrated excellent adhesion and proliferation, suggesting good biocompatibility of the nanostructured GaN.

  8. Buffer layers for growth of the YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub x films on silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Razumov, S V

    2001-01-01

    The results of the studies on the structural characteristics of the SrTiO sub 3 , NdGaO sub 3 and CeO sub 2 buffer layers, obtained through the ion-plasma spraying on the silicon substrates, are presented. It is shown that the phase composition and internal stresses in the films are strongly dependent on the deposition temperature. The technological conditions of growth of primarily oriented SrTiO sub 3 , NdGaO sub 3 and CeO sub 2 films are dortmund. The structural quality of the obtained buffer films is sufficient for further growth of the YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub x high-quality films on the silicon substrates

  9. Tunnel magnetoresistance of an as-deposited Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5-based magnetic tunnel junction on a Ta/Ru buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Lee, Gae Hun; Song, Yun Heub; Yim, Hae In

    2010-01-01

    A magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with a Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 (CFAS) heusler film on a conductive Ta/Ru buffer layer was fabricated for the first time. In the as-deposited state, a highly B2-ordered CFAS film was obtained by using the Ta/Ru buffer layer. The Ta (110) buffer layer causes a Ru (002) buffer layer, which leads to the growth of CFAS with a B2 structure and a completely flat CFAS film. After 600 .deg. C annealing, strain relaxation occurred in the Ta/Ru interface, and the surface roughness decreased; however, the B2-ordered CFAS film remained. Also, in the as-deposited state, a exchange-biased CFAS/AlO x /CFAS MTJ deposited on a Ta/Ru buffer layer exhibited a relatively high tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of 13% at room temperature, which resulted from the highly B2-ordered CFAS layer and the perfectly flat surface roughness resulting from the use of the Ta/Ru buffer layer.

  10. Taevo Gans / Ene Ammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammer, Ene

    1998-01-01

    Sisearhitekt Taevo Gansist. Tudengipõlvest, selle aja projektidest, sõpruskonnast, tandemist Summatavet & Gans, Venemaa tellimustest, kaastöölistest. Üksinda Hommilkumaal vene tarbekunsti näitusega 1974. a. 1988. a. loodud perefirmast "GaDis" (omanikud Taevo, Helle Gans, Riia Oja), mis nõustab ka "Wermot" mööbli osas. "GaDise" sisekujundusprojektidest, millega Taevo ja Helle Gans tegelevad üheskoos

  11. Preparation of a Novel Ce0.9La0.1O2/Gd2Zr2O7 Buffer Layer Stack on NiW Alloy Substrates by the MOD Route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2011-01-01

    An optimized buffer layer architecture prepared by a metal organic deposition method on biaxially textured metallic substrate is proposed and developed successfully. The major achievement of this work is to choose a ${\\rm Ce}_{0.9}{\\rm La}_{0.1}{\\rm O}_{2}$ layer as cap layer that possesses an ex...

  12. Study on advanced Ce0.9La0.1O2/Gd2Zr2O7 buffer layers architecture towards all chemical solution processed coated conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Ma, L.; Wu, W.

    2015-01-01

    2Zr2O7 buffer layer stack and the 200 nm thick YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) superconducting layer were sequentially deposited on textured NiW substrates using metal-organic deposition routes. The surface texture of the Gd2Zr2O7 barrier layer deteriorates when the film thickness increases to 80 nm, although...

  13. N-channel thin-film transistors based on 1,4,5,8-naphthalene tetracarboxylic dianhydride with ultrathin polymer gate buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanida, Shinji; Noda, Kei; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Matsushige, Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    N-channel operation of thin-film transistors based on 1,4,5,8-naphthalene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA) with a 9-nm-thick poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) gate buffer layer was examined. The uniform coverage of the ultrathin PMMA layer on an SiO 2 gate insulator, verified by X-ray reflectivity measurement, caused the increase of electron field-effect mobility because of the suppression of electron traps existing on the SiO 2 surface. In addition, air stability for n-channel operation of the NTCDA transistor was also improved by the PMMA layer which possibly prevented the adsorption of ambient water molecules onto the SiO 2 surface.

  14. GaInAs Junction FET with InP buffer layer prepared by selective ion implantation of Be and rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selders, J.; Wachs, H.J.; Jurgensen, H.

    1986-01-01

    GaInAs JFETs were fabricated on VPE-grown GaInAs layers. The pn junctions have been realised with Be ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing. The devices show a high transconductance of 130 mS/mm and an electron saturation velocity of 1.8 x 10 7 cm/s. Channel mobilities measured at the complete device are as high as 6800 cm 2 /Vs. These excellent device properties are due to the use of an undoped InP buffer layer which avoids the diffusion of Fe from the substrate into the active layer. The data were supported by S-parameter measurements which gave a frequency limit of 20 GHz for gate dimensions of 1.6 by 200 μm 2 . (author)

  15. Structure guided GANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feidao; Zhao, Huaici; Liu, Pengfei

    2017-11-01

    Generative adversarial networks (GANs) has achieved success in many fields. However, there are some samples generated by many GAN-based works, whose structure is ambiguous. In this work, we propose Structure Guided GANs that introduce structural similar into GANs to overcome the problem. In order to achieve our goal, we introduce an encoder and a decoder into a generator to design a new generator and take real samples as part of the input of a generator. And we modify the loss function of the generator accordingly. By comparison with WGAN, experimental results show that our proposed method overcomes largely sample structure ambiguous and can generate higher quality samples.

  16. Improvement in the Lifetime of Planar Organic Photovoltaic Cells through the Introduction of MoO3 into Their Cathode Buffer Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Cattin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, MoO3, which is typically used as an anode buffer layer in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVCs, has also been used as a cathode buffer layer (CBL. Here, we check its efficiency as a CBL using a planar heterojunction based on the CuPc/C60 couple. The CBL is a bi-layer tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3/MoO3. We show that the OPVC with MoO3 in its CBL almost immediately exhibits lower efficiency than those using Alq3 alone. Nevertheless, the OPVCs increase their efficiency during the first five to six days of air exposure. We explain this evolution of the efficiency of the OPVCs over time through the variation in the MoO3 work function due to air contamination. By comparison to a classical OPVC using a CBL containing only Alq3, if it is found that the initial efficiency of the latter is higher, this result is no longer the same after one week of exposure to ambient air. Indeed, this result is due to the fact that the lifetime of the cells is significantly increased by the presence of MoO3 in the CBL.

  17. MOD approach for the growth of epitaxial CeO2 buffer layers on biaxially textured Ni-W substrates for YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, M S; Paranthaman, M; Sathyamurthy, S; Aytug, T; Kang, S; Lee, D F; Goyal, A; Payzant, E A; Salama, K

    2003-01-01

    We have grown epitaxial CeO 2 buffer layers on biaxially textured Ni-W substrates for YBCO coated conductors using a newly developed metal organic decomposition (MOD) approach. Precursor solution of 0.25 M concentration was spin coated on short samples of Ni-3 at%W (Ni-W) substrates and heat-treated at 1100 C in a gas mixture of Ar-4%H 2 for 15 min. Detailed x-ray studies indicate that CeO 2 films have good out-of-plane and in-plane textures with full-width-half-maximum values of 5.8 deg. and 7.5 deg., respectively. High temperature in situ XRD studies show that the nucleation of CeO 2 films starts at 600 C and the growth completes within 5 min when heated at 1100 C. SEM and AFM investigations of CeO 2 films reveal a fairly dense microstructure without cracks and porosity. Highly textured YSZ barrier layers and CeO 2 cap layers were deposited on MOD CeO 2 -buffered Ni-W substrates using rf-magnetron sputtering. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was used to grow YBCO films on these substrates. A critical current, J c , of about 1.5 MA cm -2 at 77 K and self-field was obtained on YBCO (PLD)/CeO 2 (sputtered)/YSZ (sputtered)/CeO 2 (spin-coated)/Ni-W

  18. Functional solid additive modified PEDOT:PSS as an anode buffer layer for enhanced photovoltaic performance and stability in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Binrui; Gopalan, Sai-Anand; Gopalan, Anantha-Iyengar; Muthuchamy, Nallal; Lee, Kwang-Pill; Lee, Jae-Sung; Jiang, Yu; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Sae-Wan; Kim, Ju-Seong; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Kwon, Jin-Beon; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2017-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is most commonly used as an anode buffer layer in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). However, its hygroscopic and acidic nature contributes to the insufficient electrical conductivity, air stability and restricted photovoltaic (PV) performance for the fabricated PSCs. In this study, a new multifunctional additive, 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DOH), has been used in the PEDOT: PSS buffer layer to obtain modified properties for PEDOT: PSS@DOH and achieve high PV performances. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS@DOH films was markedly improved compared with that of PEDOT:PSS. The PEDOT:PSS@DOH film exhibited excellent optical characteristics, appropriate work function alignment, and good surface properties in BHJ-PSCs. When a poly(3-hexylthiohpene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend system was applied as the photoactive layer, the power conversion efficiency of the resulting PSCs with PEDOT:PSS@DOH(1.0%) reached 3.49%, outperforming pristine PEDOT:PSS, exhibiting a power conversion enhancement of 20%. The device fabricated using PEDOT:PSS@DOH (1.0 wt%) also exhibited improved thermal and air stability. Our results also confirm that DOH, a basic pyridine derivative, facilitates adequate hydrogen bonding interactions with the sulfonic acid groups of PSS, induces the conformational transformation of PEDOT chains and contributes to the phase separation between PEDOT and PSS chains. PMID:28338088

  19. In-plane aligned YBCO film on textured YSZ buffer layer deposited on NiCr alloy tape by laser ablation with only O+ ion beam assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Tang Huang

    2000-01-01

    High critical current density and in-plane aligned YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) film on a textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffer layer deposited on NiCr alloy (Hastelloy c-275) tape by laser ablation with only O + ion beam assistance was fabricated. The values of the x-ray phi-scan full width at half-maximum (FWHM) for YSZ(202) and YBCO(103) are 18 deg. and 11 deg., respectively. The critical current density of YBCO film is 7.9 x 105 A cm -2 at liquid nitrogen temperature and zero field, and its critical temperature is 90 K. (author)

  20. Cadmium free high efficiency Cu2ZnSn(S,Se4 solar cell with Zn1−xSnxOy buffer layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Asaduzzaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the simulation approach of a one-dimensional online simulator named A Device Emulation Program and Tool (ADEPT2.1 and the device performances of a thin film solar cell based on Cu2ZnSn(S,Se4 (CZTSSe absorber have been measured. Initiating with a thin film photovoltaic device structure consisting of n-ZnO:Al/i-ZnO/Zn1-xSnxOy (ZTO/CZTSSe/Mo/SLG stack, a graded space charge region (SCR and an inverted surface layer (ISL were inserted between the buffer and the absorber. The cadmium (Cd free ZTO buffer, a competitive substitute to the CdS buffer, significantly contributes to improve the open-circuit voltage, Voc without deteriorating the short-circuit current density, Jsc. The optimized solar cell performance parameters including Voc, Jsc, fill factor (FF, and efficiency (η were calculated from the current density-voltage curve, also known as J–V characteristic curve. The FF was determined as 73.17%, which in turns, yields a higher energy conversion efficiency of 14.09%.

  1. Molecular orbital calculations for the formation of GaN layers on ultra-thin AlN/6H-SiC surface using alternating pulsative supply of gaseous trimethyl gallium (TMG) and NH sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Seong, S Y

    2001-01-01

    The steps for the generation of very thin GaN films on ultrathin AlN/6H-SiC surface by alternating a pulsative supply (APS) of trimethyl gallium and NH sub 3 gases have been examined by ASED-MO calculations. We postulate that the gallium clusters was formed with the evaporation of CH sub 4 gases via the decomposition of trimethyl gallium (TMG), dimethyl gallium (DMG), and monomethyl gallium (MMG). During the injection of NH sub 3 gas into the reactor, the atomic hydrogens were produced from the thermal decomposition of NH sub 3 molecule. These hydrogen gases activated the Ga-C bond cleavage. An energetically stable GaN nucleation site was formed via nitrogen incorporation into the layer of gallium cluster. The nitrogen atoms produced from the thermal degradation of NH sub 3 were expected to incorporate into the edge of the gallium cluster since the galliums bind weakly to each other (0.19 eV). The structure was stabilized by 2.08 eV, as an adsorbed N atom incorporated into a tetrahedral site of the Ga cluster...

  2. Z L GAN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Z L GAN. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 43 Issue 4 April 2018 pp 59. Effect of scale size, orientation type and dispensing method on void formation in the CUF encapsulation of BGA · AIZAT ABAS FEI CHONG NG Z L GAN M H H ISHAK M Z ABDULLAH GEAN YUEN CHONG · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  3. GaN membrane MSM ultraviolet photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, A.; Konstantinidis, G.; Kostopoulos, A.; Dragoman, M.; Neculoiu, D.; Androulidaki, M.; Kayambaki, M.; Vasilache, D.; Buiculescu, C.; Petrini, I.

    2006-12-01

    GaN exhibits unique physical properties, which make this material very attractive for wide range of applications and among them ultraviolet detection. For the first time a MSM type UV photodetector structure was manufactured on a 2.2 μm. thick GaN membrane obtained using micromachining techniques. The low unintentionally doped GaN layer structure was grown by MOCVD on high resistivity (ρ>10kΩcm) oriented silicon wafers, 500μm thick. The epitaxially grown layers include a thin AlN layer in order to reduce the stress in the GaN layer and avoid cracking. Conventional contact lithography, e-gun Ni/Au (10nm /200nm) evaporation and lift-off techniques were used to define the interdigitated Schottky metalization on the top of the wafer. Ten digits with a width of 1μm and a length of 100μm were defined for each electrode. The distance between the digits was also 1μm. After the backside lapping of the wafer to a thickness of approximately 150μm, a 400nm thick Al layer was patterned and deposited on the backside, to be used as mask for the selective reactive ion etching of silicon. The backside mask, for the membrane formation, was patterned using double side alignment techniques and silicon was etched down to the 2.2μm thin GaN layer using SF 6 plasma. A very low dark current (30ρA at 3V) was obtained. Optical responsivity measurements were performed at 1.5V. A maximum responsivity of 18mA/W was obtained at a wavelength of 370nm. This value is very good and can be further improved using transparent contacts for the interdigitated structure.

  4. Stability enhancement of P3HT:PCBM polymer solar cells using thermally evaporated MoO3 anode buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, M. Yoosuf; Shamjid, P.; Abhijith, T.; Radhakrishnan, Thulasi; Reddy, V. S.

    2018-02-01

    Polymer solar cells have been fabricated with thermally evaporated MoO3 as anode buffer layer (ABL). The stability of MoO3 and PEDOT:PSS based devices was examined under different test conditions. The MoO3 based device exhibited a slightly better efficiency and significantly higher stability compared to PEDOT:PSS based device. At a relative humidity of 45% the unencapsulated PEDOT:PSS based device degraded completely within 96 h. On the other hand, MoO3 based device retained more than 60% of its initial efficiency after 96 h. The reason behind stability enhancement was investigated by measuring time-evolution of reflectance and hole-current. Experimental results revealed that the stability enhancement for MoO3 based device originates from the reduction in degradation of anode/active layer interface.

  5. The effect of Cu-rich sub-layer on the increased corrosion resistance of Cu-xZn alloys in chloride containing borate buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosev, Ingrid; Mikic, Tadeja Kosec; Gaberscek, Miran

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of Cu-xZn alloys, as well as their constituent metals, in a borate buffer containing chloride ions in the molar range from 0.01 to 1 M are studied. Characteristics of these materials under anodic polarization are compared and the composition and morphology of the corrosion products formed in the course of polarization experiment are analysed by SEM and EDS. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance measurements are used for characterization of the surface layers formed on Cu, Zn and Cu-40Zn alloy during 2-h immersion at E oc in a borate buffer containing two different concentrations of chloride ions. New aspects of the behaviour of brass under E oc condition are revealed. The improved corrosion resistance of brass in chloride media, if compared to zinc metal, is attributed to a Cu-rich layer formed by the selective dissolution of zinc. Based on the results, a structural model describing the improved corrosion resistance of Cu-40Zn alloy with respect to Zn metal is proposed

  6. Texture-enhanced Al-Cu electrodes on ultrathin Ti buffer layers for high-power durable 2.6 GHz SAW filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sulei; Wang, Weibiao; Xiao, Li; Lu, Zengtian; Li, Qi; Song, Cheng; Zeng, Fei; Pan, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Achieving high resistance to acoustomigration and electromigration in the electrodes used in high-power and high-frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters is important to mobile communications development. In this study, the effects of the Ti buffer layers on the textures and acoustomigration and electromigration resistances of the Al-Cu electrodes were studied comprehensively. The results demonstrate that both power durability and electromigration lifetime are positively correlated with the Al-Cu electrode texture quality. Ultrathin (˜2 nm) Ti can lead to the strongest Al-Cu (111) textured electrodes, with a full width at half maximum of the rocking curve of 2.09°. This represents a remarkable enhancement of the power durability of high-frequency 2.6 GHz SAW filters from 29 dBm to 35 dBm. It also produces lifetime almost 7 times longer than those of electrodes without Ti buffer layers in electromigration tests. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that these improved acoustomigration and electromigration resistances can be attributed primarily to the reductions in overall and large-angle grain boundaries in the highly Al-Cu (111) textured electrodes. Furthermore, the growth mechanism of highly Al-Cu texture films is discussed in terms of surface-interface energy balance.

  7. Epitaxial integration of CoFe2O4 thin films on Si (001) surfaces using TiN buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pilar; Marco, José F.; Prieto, José E.; Ruiz-Gomez, Sandra; Perez, Lucas; del Real, Rafael P.; Vázquez, Manuel; de la Figuera, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Epitaxial cobalt ferrite thin films with strong in-plane magnetic anisotropy have been grown on Si (001) substrates using a TiN buffer layer. The epitaxial films have been grown by ion beam sputtering using either metallic, CoFe2, or ceramic, CoFe2O4, targets. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford spectrometry (RBS) in random and channeling configuration have been used to determine the epitaxial relationship CoFe2O4 [100]/TiN [100]/Si [100]. Mössbauer spectroscopy, in combination with XRD and RBS, has been used to determine the composition and structure of the cobalt ferrite thin films. The TiN buffer layer induces a compressive strain in the cobalt ferrite thin films giving rise to an in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The degree of in-plane anisotropy depends on the lattice mismatch between CoFe2O4 and TiN, which is larger for CoFe2O4 thin films grown on the reactive sputtering process with ceramic targets.

  8. Tuning the Phase and Microstructural Properties of TiO2 Films Through Pulsed Laser Deposition and Exploring Their Role as Buffer Layers for Conductive Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, S.; Haseman, M. S.; Leedy, K. D.; Winarski, D. J.; Saadatkia, P.; Doyle, E.; Zhang, L.; Dang, T.; Vasilyev, V. S.; Selim, F. A.

    2018-04-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) is a semiconducting oxide of increasing interest due to its chemical and thermal stability and broad applicability. In this study, thin films of TiO2 were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on sapphire and silicon substrates under various growth conditions, and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical absorption spectroscopy and Hall-effect measurements. XRD patterns revealed that a sapphire substrate is more suitable for the formation of the rutile phase in TiO2, while a silicon substrate yields a pure anatase phase, even at high-temperature growth. AFM images showed that the rutile TiO2 films grown at 805°C on a sapphire substrate have a smoother surface than anatase films grown at 620°C. Optical absorption spectra confirmed the band gap energy of 3.08 eV for the rutile phase and 3.29 eV for the anatase phase. All the deposited films exhibited the usual high resistivity of TiO2; however, when employed as a buffer layer, anatase TiO2 deposited on sapphire significantly improves the conductivity of indium gallium zinc oxide thin films. The study illustrates how to control the formation of TiO2 phases and reveals another interesting application for TiO2 as a buffer layer for transparent conducting oxides.

  9. Modification of electron states in CdTe absorber due to a buffer layer in CdTe/CdS solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorenko, Y. G.; Major, J. D.; Pressman, A.; Phillips, L. J.; Durose, K.

    2015-01-01

    By application of the ac admittance spectroscopy method, the defect state energy distributions were determined in CdTe incorporated in thin film solar cell structures concluded on ZnO, ZnSe, and ZnS buffer layers. Together with the Mott-Schottky analysis, the results revealed a strong modification of the defect density of states and the concentration of the uncompensated acceptors as influenced by the choice of the buffer layer. In the solar cells formed on ZnSe and ZnS, the Fermi level and the energy position of the dominant deep trap levels were observed to shift closer to the midgap of CdTe, suggesting the mid-gap states may act as recombination centers and impact the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of the solar cells. For the deeper states, the broadening parameter was observed to increase, indicating fluctuations of the charge on a microscopic scale. Such changes can be attributed to the grain-boundary strain and the modification of the charge trapped at the grain-boundary interface states in polycrystalline CdTe

  10. Modification of electron states in CdTe absorber due to a buffer layer in CdTe/CdS solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorenko, Y. G., E-mail: y.fedorenko@liverpool.ac.uk; Major, J. D.; Pressman, A.; Phillips, L. J.; Durose, K. [Stephenson Institute for Renewable Energy and Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, Chadwick Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZF (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-28

    By application of the ac admittance spectroscopy method, the defect state energy distributions were determined in CdTe incorporated in thin film solar cell structures concluded on ZnO, ZnSe, and ZnS buffer layers. Together with the Mott-Schottky analysis, the results revealed a strong modification of the defect density of states and the concentration of the uncompensated acceptors as influenced by the choice of the buffer layer. In the solar cells formed on ZnSe and ZnS, the Fermi level and the energy position of the dominant deep trap levels were observed to shift closer to the midgap of CdTe, suggesting the mid-gap states may act as recombination centers and impact the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of the solar cells. For the deeper states, the broadening parameter was observed to increase, indicating fluctuations of the charge on a microscopic scale. Such changes can be attributed to the grain-boundary strain and the modification of the charge trapped at the grain-boundary interface states in polycrystalline CdTe.

  11. High dielectric constant and energy density induced by the tunable TiO2 interfacial buffer layer in PVDF nanocomposite contained with core-shell structured TiO2@BaTiO3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Penghao; Jia, Zhuye; Shen, Zhonghui; Wang, Peng; Liu, Xiaoru

    2018-05-01

    To realize application in high-capacity capacitors and portable electric devices, large energy density is eagerly desired for polymer-based nanocomposite. The core-shell structured nanofillers with inorganic buffer layer are recently supposed to be promising in improving the dielectric property of polymer nanocomposite. In this work, core-shell structured TO@BT nanoparticles with crystalline TiO2 buffer layer coated on BaTiO3 nanoparticle were fabricated via solution method and heat treatment. The thickness of the TO buffer layer can be tailored by modulating the additive amount of the titanate coupling agent in preparation process, and the apparent dielectric properties of nanocomposite are much related to the thickness of the TO layer. The relatively thin TO layer prefer to generate high polarization to increase dielectric constant while the relatively thick TO layer would rather to homogenize field to maintain breakdown strength. Simulation of electric field distribution in the interfacial region reveals the improving effect of the TO buffer layer on the dielectric properties of nanocomposite which accords with the experimental results well. The optimized nanoparticle TO@BT-2 with a mean thickness of 3-5 nm buffer layer of TO is effective in increasing both the ε and Eb in the PVDF composite film. The maximal discharged energy density of 8.78 J/cm3 with high energy efficiency above 0.6 is obtained in TO@BT-2/PVDF nanocomposite with 2.5 vol% loading close to the breakdown strength of 380 kV/mm. The present study demonstrates the approach to optimize the structure of core-shell nanoparticles by modulating buffer layer and provides a new way to further enlarge energy density in polymer nanocomposite.

  12. Effects of a highly Si-doped GaN current spreading layer at the n+-GaN/multi-quantum-well interface on InGaN/GaN blue-light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C. S.; Cho, H. K.; Choi, R. J.; Hahn, Y. B.; Lee, H. J.; Hong, C. H.

    2004-01-01

    Highly Si-doped GaN thin current spreading layer (CSL) with various carrier concentrations were inserted before the n + -GaN/multi-quantum-well (MQW) interface controlled by the growth rate and the modulated Si-doping in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and their effects were investigated by using capacitance-voltage (C-V), current-voltage (I-V), and output power measurements. The LEDs with a highly Si-doped CSL show enhanced I-V characteristics and increased output power with increasing carrier concentration up to some critical point in the CSL. This means that proper high Si-doping in some limited area before the interface may enhance the device performance through the current spreading effect.

  13. Efficiency enhancement of blue light emitting diodes by eliminating V-defects from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures through GaN capping layer control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sheng-Chieh; Li, Ming-Jui; Fang, Hsin-Chiao; Tu, Chia-Hao; Liu, Chuan-Pu

    2018-05-01

    A facile method for fabricating blue light-emitting diodes (B-LEDs) with small embedded quantum dots (QDs) and enhanced light emission is demonstrated by tuning the temperature of the growing GaN capping layer to eliminate V-defects. As the growth temperature increases from 770 °C to 840 °C, not only does the density of the V-defects reduce from 4.12 ∗ 108 #/cm2 nm to zero on a smooth surface, but the QDs also get smaller. Therefore, the growth mechanism of smaller QDs assisted by elimination of V-defects is discussed. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence results show that smaller embedded QDs can improve recombination efficiency, and thus achieve higher peak intensity with smaller peak broadening. Accordingly, the external quantum efficiency of the B-LEDs with smaller QDs is enhanced, leading to a 6.8% increase in light output power in lamp-form package LEDs.

  14. Contributed Review: Experimental characterization of inverse piezoelectric strain in GaN HEMTs via micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagnall, Kevin R.; Wang, Evelyn N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Micro-Raman thermography is one of the most popular techniques for measuring local temperature rise in gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, accurate temperature measurements based on changes in the Stokes peak positions of the GaN epitaxial layers require properly accounting for the stress and/or strain induced by the inverse piezoelectric effect. It is common practice to use the pinched OFF state as the unpowered reference for temperature measurements because the vertical electric field in the GaN buffer that induces inverse piezoelectric stress/strain is relatively independent of the gate bias. Although this approach has yielded temperature measurements that agree with those derived from the Stokes/anti-Stokes ratio and thermal models, there has been significant difficulty in quantifying the mechanical state of the GaN buffer in the pinched OFF state from changes in the Raman spectra. In this paper, we review the experimental technique of micro-Raman thermography and derive expressions for the detailed dependence of the Raman peak positions on strain, stress, and electric field components in wurtzite GaN. We also use a combination of semiconductor device modeling and electro-mechanical modeling to predict the stress and strain induced by the inverse piezoelectric effect. Based on the insights gained from our electro-mechanical model and the best values of material properties in the literature, we analyze changes in the E{sub 2} high and A{sub 1} (LO) Raman peaks and demonstrate that there are major quantitative discrepancies between measured and modeled values of inverse piezoelectric stress and strain. We examine many of the hypotheses offered in the literature for these discrepancies but conclude that none of them satisfactorily resolves these discrepancies. Further research is needed to determine whether the electric field components could be affecting the phonon frequencies apart from the

  15. Contributed Review: Experimental characterization of inverse piezoelectric strain in GaN HEMTs via micro-Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnall, Kevin R.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-01-01

    Micro-Raman thermography is one of the most popular techniques for measuring local temperature rise in gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, accurate temperature measurements based on changes in the Stokes peak positions of the GaN epitaxial layers require properly accounting for the stress and/or strain induced by the inverse piezoelectric effect. It is common practice to use the pinched OFF state as the unpowered reference for temperature measurements because the vertical electric field in the GaN buffer that induces inverse piezoelectric stress/strain is relatively independent of the gate bias. Although this approach has yielded temperature measurements that agree with those derived from the Stokes/anti-Stokes ratio and thermal models, there has been significant difficulty in quantifying the mechanical state of the GaN buffer in the pinched OFF state from changes in the Raman spectra. In this paper, we review the experimental technique of micro-Raman thermography and derive expressions for the detailed dependence of the Raman peak positions on strain, stress, and electric field components in wurtzite GaN. We also use a combination of semiconductor device modeling and electro-mechanical modeling to predict the stress and strain induced by the inverse piezoelectric effect. Based on the insights gained from our electro-mechanical model and the best values of material properties in the literature, we analyze changes in the E_2 high and A_1 (LO) Raman peaks and demonstrate that there are major quantitative discrepancies between measured and modeled values of inverse piezoelectric stress and strain. We examine many of the hypotheses offered in the literature for these discrepancies but conclude that none of them satisfactorily resolves these discrepancies. Further research is needed to determine whether the electric field components could be affecting the phonon frequencies apart from the inverse

  16. Band alignments and improved leakage properties of (La2O3)0.5(SiO2)0.5/SiO2/GaN stacks for high-temperature metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L. G.; Xu, B.; Guo, H. X.; Xia, Y. D.; Yin, J.; Liu, Z. G.

    2009-06-01

    The band alignments of (La2O3)0.5(SiO2)0.5(LSO)/GaN and LSO/SiO2/GaN gate dielectric stacks were investigated comparatively by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band offsets for LSO/GaN stack and LSO/SiO2/GaN stack are 0.88 and 1.69 eV, respectively, while the corresponding conduction band offsets are found to be 1.40 and 1.83 eV, respectively. Measurements of the leakage current density as function of temperature revealed that the LSO/SiO2/GaN stack has much lower leakage current density than that of the LSO/GaN stack, especially at high temperature. It is concluded that the presence of a SiO2 buffer layer increases band offsets and reduces the leakage current density effectively.

  17. Crystallographic tilt and in-plane anisotropies of an a-plane InGaN/GaN layered structure grown by MOCVD on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H F; Chi, D Z; Liu, W; Guo, S

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) was used to investigate the crystallographic tilts and structural anisotropies in epitaxial nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer. The substrate had an unintentional miscut of 0.14° towards its [–4 2 2 3] axis. However, HRXRD revealed a tilt of 0.26° (0.20°) between the ZnO (GaN) (11-20) and the Al 2 O 3 (1-102) atomic planes, with the (11-20) axis of ZnO (GaN) tilted towards its c-axis, which has a difference of 163° in azimuth from that of the substrate’s miscut. Excess broadenings in the GaN/ZnO (11-20) rocking curves (RCs) were observed along its c-axis. Specific analyses revealed that partial dislocations and anisotropic in-plane strains, rather than surface-related effects, wafer curvature or stacking faults, are the dominant factors for the structural anisotropy. The orientation of the partial dislocations is most likely affected by the miscut of the substrate, e.g. via tilting of the misfit dislocation gliding planes created during island coalescences. Their Burgers vector components in the growth direction, in turn, gave rise to crystallographic tilts in the same direction as that of the excess RC-broadenings. (paper)

  18. Crystallographic tilt and in-plane anisotropies of an a-plane InGaN/GaN layered structure grown by MOCVD on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. F.; Liu, W.; Guo, S.; Chi, D. Z.

    2016-03-01

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) was used to investigate the crystallographic tilts and structural anisotropies in epitaxial nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer. The substrate had an unintentional miscut of 0.14° towards its [-4 2 2 3] axis. However, HRXRD revealed a tilt of 0.26° (0.20°) between the ZnO (GaN) (11-20) and the Al2O3 (1-102) atomic planes, with the (11-20) axis of ZnO (GaN) tilted towards its c-axis, which has a difference of 163° in azimuth from that of the substrate’s miscut. Excess broadenings in the GaN/ZnO (11-20) rocking curves (RCs) were observed along its c-axis. Specific analyses revealed that partial dislocations and anisotropic in-plane strains, rather than surface-related effects, wafer curvature or stacking faults, are the dominant factors for the structural anisotropy. The orientation of the partial dislocations is most likely affected by the miscut of the substrate, e.g. via tilting of the misfit dislocation gliding planes created during island coalescences. Their Burgers vector components in the growth direction, in turn, gave rise to crystallographic tilts in the same direction as that of the excess RC-broadenings.

  19. Influence of Weak Base Addition to Hole-Collecting Buffer Layers in Polymer:Fullerene Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyeok Seo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of weak base addition to acidic polymer hole-collecting layers in normal-type polymer:fullerene solar cells. Varying amounts of the weak base aniline (AN were added to solutions of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS. The acidity of the aniline-added PEDOT:PSS solutions gradually decreased from pH = 1.74 (AN = 0 mol% to pH = 4.24 (AN = 1.8 mol %. The electrical conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS-AN films did not change much with the pH value, while the ratio of conductivity between out-of-plane and in-plane directions was dependent on the pH of solutions. The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE was obtained at pH = 2.52, even though all devices with the PEDOT:PSS-AN layers exhibited better PCE than those with the pristine PEDOT:PSS layers. Atomic force microscopy investigation revealed that the size of PEDOT:PSS domains became smaller as the pH increased. The stability test for 100 h illumination under one sun condition disclosed that the PCE decay was relatively slower for the devices with the PEDOT:PSS-AN layers than for those with pristine PEDOT:PSS layers.

  20. High efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film solar cells without intermediate buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, K.; Wiesner, H.; Asher, S.; Niles, D.; Bhattacharya, R.N.; Keane, J.; Contreras, M.A.; Noufi, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Electronic Materials and Devices Div.

    1998-09-01

    The nature of the interface between CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS) and the chemical bath deposited CdS layer has been investigated. The authors show that heat-treating the absorbers in Cd- or Zn-containing solutions in the presence of ammonium hydroxide sets up an interfacial reaction with the possibility of an ion exchange occurring between Cd and Cu. The characteristics of devices made in this manner suggest that the reaction generates a thin, n-doped region in the absorber. The authors suggest that this aspect might be more important than the CdS layer in the formation of the junction. It is quite possible that the CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} device is a buried, shallow junction with a CdS window layer, rather than a heterojunction between CdS and CIGS. The authors use these ideas to develop methods for fabricating diodes without CdS or Cd.

  1. Improved performances of organic light-emitting diodes with mixed layer and metal oxide as anode buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qin; Liu, Shouyin; Zhang, Shiming; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Shiyong

    2013-01-01

    We fabricated organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) employing 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl)-anthracene (MADN) as hole-transport material (HTM) instead of commonly used N,N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl,1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB). After inserting a 0.9 nm thick molybdenum oxide (MoOx) layer at the indium tin oxide (ITO)/MADN interface and a 5 nm thick mixed layer at the organic/organic heterojunction interface, the power conversion efficiency of the device can be increased by 4-fold.

  2. Theoretical study for heterojunction surface of NEA GaN photocathode dispensed with Cs activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Wang, Honggang; Wang, Meishan; Kong, Yike

    2016-09-01

    For the disadvantages of conventional negative electron affinity (NEA) GaN photocathodes activated by Cs or Cs/O, new-type NEA GaN photocathodes with heterojunction surface dispensed with Cs activation are investigated based on first-principle study with density functional theory. Through the growth of an ultrathin n-type GaN cap layer on p-type GaN emission layer, a p-n heterojunction is formed on the surface. According to the calculation results, it is found that Si atoms tend to replace Ga atoms to result in an n-type doped cap layer which contributes to the decreasing of work function. After the growth of n-type GaN cap layer, the atom structure near the p-type emission layer is changed while that away from the surface has no obvious variations. By analyzing the E-Mulliken charge distribution of emission surface with and without cap layer, it is found that the positive charge of Ga and Mg atoms in the emission layer decrease caused by the cap layer, while the negative charge of N atom increases. The conduction band moves downwards after the growth of cap layer. Si atom produces donor levels around the valence band maximum. The absorption coefficient of GaN emission layer decreases and the reflectivity increases caused by n-type GaN cap layer.

  3. Simulation for silicon-compatible InGaAs-based junctionless field-effect transistor using InP buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jae Hwa; Cho, Seongjae; Kang, In Man

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we present the optimized performances of indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs)-based compound junctionless field-effect transistors (JLFETs) using an indium phosphide (InP) buffer layer. The proposed InGaAs-InP material combination with little lattice mismatch provides a significant improvement in current drivability securing various potential applications. Device optimization is performed in terms of primary dc parameters and characterization is investigated by two-dimensional (2D) technology computer-aided design simulations. The optimization variables were the channel doping concentration (Nch), the buffer doping concentration (Nbf), and the channel thickness (Tch). For the optimally designed InGaAs JLFET, on-state current (Ion) of 325 µA µm-1, subthreshold swing (S) of 80 mV dec-1, and current ratio (Ion/Ioff) of 109 were obtained. In the end, the results are compared with the data of silicon (Si)-based JL MOSFETs to confirm the improvements.

  4. Photovoltaic Performance and Interface Behaviors of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells with a Sputtered-Zn(O,S) Buffer Layer by High-Temperature Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Tae Gun; Kim, Jeong Won; Lee, Woo-Jung; Cho, Dae-Hyung; Han, Won Seok; Chung, Yong-Duck

    2015-08-12

    We selected a sputtered-Zn(O,S) film as a buffer material and fabricated a Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cell for use in monolithic tandem solar cells. A thermally stable buffer layer was required because it should withstand heat treatment during processing of top cell. Postannealing treatment was performed on a CIGS solar cell in vacuum at temperatures from 300-500 °C to examine its thermal stability. Serious device degradation particularly in VOC was observed, which was due to the diffusion of thermally activated constituent elements. The elements In and Ga tend to out-diffuse to the top surface of the CIGS, while Zn diffuses into the interface of Zn(O,S)/CIGS. Such rearrangement of atomic fractions modifies the local energy band gap and band alignment at the interface. The notch-shape induced at the interface after postannealing could function as an electrical trap during electron transport, which would result in the reduction of solar cell efficiency.

  5. Impact of the deposition conditions of buffer and windows layers on lowering the metastability effects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Zn(S,O)-based solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghavi, Negar; Hildebrandt, Thibaud; Bouttemy, Muriel; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Lincot, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    The highest and most reproducible (Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) based solar-cell efficiencies are obtained by use of a very thin n-type CdS layer deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD). However because of both Cadmium's adverse environmental impact and the narrow bandgap of CdS (2.4-2.5 eV) one of the major objectives in the field of CIGSe technology remains the development and implementation in the production line of Cd-free buffer layers. The CBDZn( S,O) remains one the most studied buffer layer for replacing the CdS in Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based solar cells and has already demonstrated its potential to lead to high-efficiency solar cells up to 22.3%. However one of the key issue to implement a CBD-Zn(S,O) process in a CIGSe production line is the cells stability, which depends both on the deposition conditions of CBD-Zn(S,O) and on a good band alignment between CIGSe/Zn(S,O)/windows layers. The most common window layers applied in CIGSe solar cells consist of two layers : a thin (50-100 nm) and highly resistive i-ZnO layer deposited by magnetron sputtering and a transparent conducting 300-500 nm ZnO:Al layer. In the case of CBD-Zn(S,O) buffer layer, the nature and deposition conditions of both Zn(S,O) and the undoped window layer can strongly influence the performance and stability of cells. The present contribution will be specially focused on the effect of condition growth of CBD-Zn(S,O) buffer layers and the impact of the composition and deposition conditions of the undoped window layers such as ZnxMgyO or ZnxSnyO on the stability and performance of these solar cells.

  6. Structure and magnetic properties of Co2FeSi film deposited on Si/SiO2 substrate with Cr buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Payel; Basumatary, Himalay; Raja, M. Manivel

    2018-05-01

    Co2FeSi thin films of 25 nm thickness with 50 nm thick Cr buffer layer was deposited on thermally oxidized Si substrates. Structural and magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of annealing temperature and substrate temperatures. While the coercivity increases with increase in annealing temperature, it is found to decrease with increase in substrate temperature. A minimum coercivity of 18 Oe has been obtained for the film deposited at 550°C substrate temperature. This was attributed to the formation of L12 phase as observed from the GIXRD studies. The films with a good combination of soft magnetic properties and L21 crystal structure are suitable for spintronic applications.

  7. Effects of the Buffer Layers on the Adhesion and Antimicrobial Properties of the Amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Pai-Tsung; Chen, Guo-Ju; Jian, Sheng-Rui; Shih, Yung-Hui

    2011-06-01

    To extend the practical applications of the bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the preparation of the metallic glass coatings on various substrates becomes an important research issue. Among the interfacial properties of the coatings, the adhesion between films and substrates is the most crucial. In this study, amorphous Zr61Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5Si4 (ZrAlNiCuSi) thin films were deposited on SUS304 stainless steel at various sputtering powers by DC sputtering. According to the scratch tests, the introduction of the Cr and Ti buffer layers effectively improves the adhesion between the amorphous thin films and substrate without changing the surface properties, such as roughness and morphology. The antimicrobial results show that the biological activities of these microbes, except Acinetobacter baumannii, are effectively suppressed during the test period.

  8. Epataxial growth of the high-temperature superconductors YBa2Cu3O7-x on silicon single crystals with buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubig, A.

    1991-09-01

    In this work the growth of thin films of the high-temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x on Si(001) substrates has been investigated by Rutherford backscattering, channeling, X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and electrical measurements. Epitaxial buffer layers of electrically insulating, pure and yttria-stabilized ZrO 2 ([Y 2 O 3 ] 0.06 [ZrO 2 ] 0.94 = YSZ) as well as of metallic CoSi 2 were employed to largely prevent the interdiffusion and chemical reaction between the superconductor film and the substrate in spite of the high deposition temperatures of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x in the range of 600 to 800deg C. (orig.)

  9. Effect of processing conditions and methods on residual stress in CeO2 buffer layers and YBCO superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jie; Qin Wenfeng; Cui Xumei; Tao Bowan; Tang Jinlong; Li Yanrong

    2006-01-01

    CeO 2 layers have been fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique on (1 1 0 2) sapphire substrate. Microstructure of CeO 2 layers is characterized by X-ray diffraction as functions of substrate temperature. The effects of the substrate temperature on the residual stress have been studied. The results show that residual stress in CeO 2 film decreased with increasing substrate temperature, not the same development tendency as that of thermal stress. This means that the thermal stress is only a fraction of the residual stress. Moreover, YBCO superconducting films were prepared by direct current (DC) sputtering and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The residual stress and thermal stress of both YBCO films were measured. PLD processing apparently generated higher intrinsic compressive stresses in comparison to DC sputtering

  10. Efficiency improvement of flexible fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by inserting a spin-coating buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Shun-Hsi; Chen, Shen-Yaur; Su, Shin-Yuan; Juang, Fuh-Shyang

    2009-01-01