WorldWideScience

Sample records for gamma-activation x-ray fluorescence

  1. X-ray fluorescence holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu, Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-03-07

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy.

  2. X-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy. (topical review)

  3. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  4. X-ray emission spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despujols, J.

    1992-01-01

    Principles of X-ray emission spectrometry are first recalled, then wave-length dispersive and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer are described. They are essentially designed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements (Z>10). Sample preparation, calibration, corrections, interferences, accuracy are reviewed. Examples of use in different industries are given. (71 refs.)

  5. X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Sparks, C.J. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental set-up for x-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation was built and installed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Project. X-ray spectra were taken from numerous and varied samples in order to assess the potential of synchrotron radiation as an excitation source for multielement x-ray fluorescence analysis. For many applications, the synchrotron radiation technique is shown to be superior to other x-ray fluorescence methods, especially those employing electrons and protons as excitation sources

  6. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockett, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a glancing x-ray analytical technique which is used primarily to measure surface metal contamination on semiconductor substrates. This is a review of Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) applications for silicon semiconductor processing. In addition, some comments are made about the future of TXRF, and in particular, synchrotron radiation TXRF (SR-TXRF)

  7. Student X-Ray Fluorescence Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Homer D.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes the experimental arrangement for x-ray analysis of samples which involves the following: the radioisotopic x-ray disk source; a student-built fluorescence chamber; the energy dispersive x-ray detector, linear amplifier and bias supply; and a multichannel pulse height analyzer. (GS)

  8. X-ray fluorescence in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, C.V.; Gomes, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the X-ray fluorescence aplication in geology. It's showing the X-ray origin and excitation. About the instrumentation this work shows the following: X-ray tubes, colimators, analysers crystals, detectors, amplifiers, pulse height selector, and others electronic components. By X-ray fluorescente are done quantitative and qualitative geological analysis and this work shows this analysis and its detection limits. The problems determination is the example. In this work was done yet the comparative analysis of the various instrumental methods in geochemistry. (C.G.) [pt

  9. Apollo 15 X-ray fluorescence experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, I.; Trombka, J.; Gerard, J.; Schmadebeck, R.; Lowman, P.; Blodgett, H.; Yin, L.; Eller, E.; Lamothe, R.; Gorenstein, P.

    1971-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, carried in the SIM bay of the command service module was employed principally for compositional mapping of the lunar surface while in lunar orbit, and secondarily, for X-ray astronomical observations during the trans-earth coast. The lunar surface measurements involved observations of the intensity and characteristics energy distribution of the secondary or fluorescent X-rays produced by the interaction of solar X-rays with the lunar surface. The astronomical observations consisted of relatively long periods of measurements of X-rays from pre-selected galactic sources such as Cyg-X-1 and Sco X-1 as well as from the galactic poles.

  10. Capacity of X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Kregsamer, P.

    1997-01-01

    X-Ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) is a powerful analytical tool for the qualitative and quantitative determination of chemical elements in a sample. Two different detection principles are accepted widely: wavelength dispersive and energy dispersive. Various sources for XRF are discussed: X-ray tubes, accelerators for particle induced XRF, radioactive isotopes, and the use of synchrotron radiation. Applications include environmental, technical, medical, fine art, and forensic studies. Due to the demands of research and application special techniques like total reflection XRF (TXRF) were developed with ultimately achievable detection limits in the femtogram region. The elements detectable by XRF range from Be to U. (author)

  11. Escape probabilities for fluorescent x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, D.R.; Day, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Computation of the energy absorption efficiency of an x-ray photon detector involves consideration of the histories of the secondary particles produced in any initial or secondary interaction which may occur within the detector. In particular, the K or higher shell fluorescent x-rays which may be emitted following a photoelectric interaction can carry away a large fraction of the energy of the incident photon, especially if this energy is just above an absorption edge. The effects of such photons cannot be ignored and a correction term, depending upon the probability that the fluorescent x-rays will escape from the detector, must be applied to the energy absorption efficiency. For detectors such as x-ray intensifying screens, it has been usual to calculate this probability by numerical integration. In this note analytic expressions are derived for the escape probability of fluorescent photons from planar detectors in terms of exponential integral functions. Rational approximations for these functions are readily available and these analytic expressions therefore facilitate the computation of photon absorption efficiencies. A table is presented which should obviate the need for calculating the escape probability for most cases of interest. (author)

  12. Synchrotron x-ray microbeam characteristics for x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Atsuo; Noma, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis using a synchrotron x-ray microprobe has become an indispensable technique for non-destructive micro-analysis. One of the most important parameters that characterize the x-ray microbeam system for x-ray fluorescence analysis is the beam size. For practical analysis, however, the photon flux, the energy resolution and the available energy range are also crucial. Three types of x-ray microbeam systems, including monochromatic and continuum excitation systems, were compared with reference to the sensitivity, the minimum detection limit and the applicability to various types of x-ray spectroscopic analysis. 16 refs., 5 figs

  13. Effective X-ray beam size measurements of an X-ray tube and polycapillary X-ray lens system using a scanning X-ray fluorescence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gherase, Mihai R., E-mail: mgherase@csufresno.edu; Vargas, Andres Felipe

    2017-03-15

    Size measurements of an X-ray beam produced by an integrated polycapillary X-ray lens (PXL) and X-ray tube system were performed by means of a scanning X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) method using three different metallic wires. The beam size was obtained by fitting the SXRF data with the analytical convolution between a Gaussian and a constant functions. For each chemical element in the wire an effective energy was calculated based on the incident X-ray spectrum and its photoelectric cross section. The proposed method can be used to measure the effective X-ray beam size in XRF microscopy studies.

  14. X-ray Fluorescence Method for Trace Analysis and Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Shinjiro

    2000-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis has a long history as a conventional bulk elemental analysis with medium sensitivity. However, with the use of synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence method has become a unique analytical technique which can provide trace elemental information with the spatial resolution. To obtain quantitative information of trace elemental distribution by using the x-ray fluorescence method, theoretical description of x-ray fluorescence yield is described. Moreover, methods and...

  15. Silicon lithium detector for x ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cabal, A. E.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Noriega Scull, C.; Martinez Munoz, O.; Diaz Cepeda, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Silicon Lithium detector is the system for the detection of nuclear radiation. It transforms the charge that was produced inside of Silicon material as a result of the incidence of particles and X rays, in voltage pulses at the output of the preamplifier. In this work was made the adjustment of the technological process of manufacture of the detector. Also was made the design and construction of the cryostat and preamplifier and then the validation of the system in a Cuban Dewar. The system, which was made for the first time in our country, has an energy resolution of 185 eV for the Fe-55 source (E=5.9 KeV), which has permitted its implementation in energy dispersive X ray fluorescence. (author) [es

  16. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and radiation exposure to the detector and operator are minimum. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a comparatively new multielement analytical technique for trace element determinations [4,5]. It is a special variant of EDXRF where the X-ray beam falls at a flat polished sample support at an angle less than the ...

  17. Review of X-ray Tomography and X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shear, Trevor A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-16

    This literature review will focus on both laboratory and synchrotron based X-ray tomography of materials and highlight the inner workings of these instruments. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy will also be reviewed and applications of the tandem use of these techniques will be explored. The real world application of these techniques during the internship will also be discussed.

  18. Portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer of high sensitivity using X-ray tube excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatai, E.; Ando, L.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the three main methods of X-ray fluorescence analysis and their problems is given. The attainable accuracy and effectiveness of each method are discussed. The main properties of portable X-ray analyzers required by the industry are described. The results and experiences of R and D activities in ATOMKI (Debrecen, Hungary) for developing portable X-ray analyzers are presented. The only way for increasing the accuracy and decreasing the measuring time is the application of X-ray tube excitation instead of radioactive sources. The new ATOMKI equipment presently under construction and patenting uses X-ray tube excitation; it will increase the accuracy of concentration determination by one order of magnitude. (D.Gy.)

  19. X-ray Microprobe for Fluorescence and Diffraction Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (see unit 1.1) and x-ray excited fluorescence analysis are powerful techniques for the nondestructive measurement of crystal structure and chemical composition. X-ray fluorescence analysis is inherently nondestructive with orders of magnitude lower power deposited for the same detectable limit as with fluorescence excited by charged particle probes (Sparks, 1980). X-ray diffraction analysis is sensitive to crystal structure with orders-of-magnitude greater sensitivity to crystallographic strain than electron probes (Rebonato, et al. 1989). When a small-area x-ray microbeam is used as the probe, chemical composition (Z>14), crystal structure, crystalline texture, and crystalline strain distributions can be determined. These distributions can be studied both at the surface of the sample and deep within the sample (Fig. 1). Current state-of-the-art can achieve an ∼1 mm-D x-ray microprobe and an ∼0.1 mm-D x-ray microprobe has been demonstrated (Bilderback, et al., 1994). Despite their great chemical and crystallographic sensitivities, x-ray microprobe techniques have until recently been restricted by inefficient x-ray focusing optics and weak x-ray sources; x-ray microbeam analysis was largely superseded by electron techniques in the 50's. However, interest in x-ray microprobe techniques has now been revived (Howells, et al., 1983; Ice and Sparks, 1984; Chevallier, et al., 1997; Riekel 1992; Thompson, el al., 1992; and Making and Using... 1997) by the development of efficient x-ray focusing optics and ultra-high intensity synchrotron x-ray sources (Buras and Tazzari, 1984; Shenoy, et al., 1988). These advances have increased the achievable microbeam flux by more than 11 orders of magnitude (Fig. 2) (Ice, 1997); the flux in a tunable 1 mm-D beam on a 'so called' 3rd-generation synchrotron source such as the APS can exceed the flux in a fixed-energy mm2 beam on a conventional source. These advances make x-ray microfluorescence and x-ray

  20. Preparation of specimens for analysis by: X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banos L, L.

    2004-01-01

    Specimen preparation is one of the most important requirements in the analysis of samples by X-ray Diffraction and X-ray Fluorescence. This statement is especially true for samples containing different types of materials. There are many forms of specimen suitable for X-ray analysis and the type of the sample as received will generally determine the method of pretreatment. It is convenient to refer to the material received for analysis as the sample, and that, which is actually analyzed as the specimen. The powder Diffraction method assumes that the particles in the specimen are ideally random orientation and that there are enough crystallites in the specimen to achieve a representative intensity distribution for these crystallites. X ray Fluorescence is essentially a comparative method of analysis, it is vital that all standards and unknowns be presented to the spectrometer in a reproducible and identical manner. (Author) 3 refs., 6 figs

  1. Milli X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Eagle III Micro XRF unit is similar to a traditional XRF unit, with the primary difference being that the X-rays are focused by a polycapillary optic into a spot...

  2. X-ray fluorescence in investigations of archaeological finds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Hlozek, M.; Musilek, L.; Trojek, T.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence can be successfully used for analysing the elemental composition of the superficial layers of a measured object, especially for investigating surface coatings, deposits of adventitious materials on the surface, etc. An energy dispersive version of X-ray fluorescence analysis is used in our investigations for analysing various historic objects, art works and archaeological finds. Examples of the application of X-ray fluorescence to various archaeological finds from excavations in the Czech Republic are presented - shards of ancient glazed ceramics, moulds for casting metal products, the remains of a human finger with traces of brass, probably from a ring, etc

  3. X-ray fluorescence in investigations of archaeological finds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cechak, T. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Hlozek, M. [Institute of Archaeology and Museology, Masaryk University, Arna Novaka 1, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Musilek, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: musilek@fjfi.cvut.cz; Trojek, T. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2007-10-15

    X-ray fluorescence can be successfully used for analysing the elemental composition of the superficial layers of a measured object, especially for investigating surface coatings, deposits of adventitious materials on the surface, etc. An energy dispersive version of X-ray fluorescence analysis is used in our investigations for analysing various historic objects, art works and archaeological finds. Examples of the application of X-ray fluorescence to various archaeological finds from excavations in the Czech Republic are presented - shards of ancient glazed ceramics, moulds for casting metal products, the remains of a human finger with traces of brass, probably from a ring, etc.

  4. Use of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry to Determine Trace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the detection of trace elements in graphic. An X-ray spectrometer was constructed and used to carry out measurements on graphite spheres impregnated with different chemical elements. The intensities of the lines of these trace elements, as function of ...

  5. [Development of X-ray excited fluorescence spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Chen; Gu, Mu; Di, Wang; Cao, Dun-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Huang, Shi-Ming

    2009-08-01

    An X-ray excited fluorescence spectrometer was developed with an X-ray tube and a spectrometer. The X-ray tube, spectrometer, autocontrol method and data processing selected were roundly evaluated. The wavelength and detecting efficiency of the apparatus were calibrated with the mercury and tungsten bromine standard lamps, and the X-ray excited emission spectra of BaF2, Cs I (Tl) crystals were measured. The results indicate that the apparatus has advantages of good wavelength resolution, high stability, easy to operation and good radioprotection. It is a wery effective tool for exploration of new scintillation materials.

  6. Energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectrometric study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectrometric study of compositional differences in trace elements in dried Moringa oleifera leaves grown in two different agro-ecological locations in Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

  7. X-ray fluorescence analysis of Fe - Ni - Mo systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, E.E.; Ershov, A.V.; Mashin, A.I.; Mashin, N.I.; Rudnevskij, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Procedures for the X-ray fluorescence determination of the composition and thickness of Fe - Ni - Mo thin films and the concentration of elements in thick films of the Fe - Ni - Mo alloy are developed [ru

  8. System for Gamma an X rays fluorescence spectrometric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Abad, D.; Arista Romeu, E.; Bolanos Perez, L. and others

    1997-01-01

    A system for spectrometry of gamma or fluorescence X rays is presented. It sis composed by a Si(Li) semiconductors detector, a charge sensitive preamplifier, a high voltage power supply, a spectrometric amplifier and a monolithic 1024 channels multichannel analyzers or an IBM compatible 4096 channels add - on- card multichannel analyzer. The system can be configured as a 1024 or 4096 channels gamma or fluorescent X rays spectrometer

  9. X-ray fluorescent elemental analysis. Ch. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshev, V.; Kulipanov, G.; Skrinsky, A.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XFA) is used worldwide to define a quantitative content of the elements as well as to visualize the distribution of elements in different regions (element mapping). Utilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) to excite X-ray fluorescence enables the XFA method to be qualitatively improved. This chapter reviews the experimental work in especially the last decade (author). 71 refs.; 24 figs.; 3 tabs

  10. [The X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer Based on Pyroelectric Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi-fan; Fan, Rui-rui; Guo, Dong-ya; Zhang, Chun-lei; Gao, Min; Wang, Jin-zhou; Liu, Ya-qing; Zhou, Da-wei; Wang, Huan-yu

    2016-02-01

    Pyroelectric X-ray generator is implemented, and an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is accomplished by combining the pyroelectric X-ray generator with a high energy resolution silicon drift detector. Firstly, the parameters of the X-ray generator are decided by analyzing and calculating the influence of the thickness of the pyroelectriccrystal and the thickness of the target on emitted X-ray. Secondly, the emitted X-ray is measured. The energy of emitted X-ray is from 1 to 27 keV, containing the characteristic X-ray of Cu and Ta, and the max counting rate is more than 3 000 per second. The measurement also proves that the detector of the spectrometer has a high energy resolution which the FWMH is 210 eV at 8. 05 keV. Lastly, samples of Fe, Ti, Cr and high-Ti basalt are analyzed using the spectrometer, and the results are agreed with the elements of the samples. It shows that the spectrometer consisting of a pyroelectric X-ray generator and a silicon drift detector is effective for element analysis. Additionally, because each part of the spectrometer has a small volume, it can be easily modified to a portable one which is suitable for non-destructive, on-site and quick element analysis.

  11. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India has an ambitious program for such electricity generation using different types of ... and radiation exposure to the detector and operator are minimum. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a comparatively new multielement analytical ... Difference in EDXRF spectrum of a mixed Y and U solution containing.

  12. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (MapX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.; Marchis, F.; Bristow, T.; Thompson, K.

    2017-12-01

    Many planetary surface processes leave traces of their actions as features in the size range 10s to 100s of microns. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (MapX) will provide elemental imaging at 100 micron spatial resolution, yielding elemental chemistry at a scale where many relict physical, chemical, or biological features can be imaged and interpreted in ancient rocks on planetary bodies and planetesimals. MapX is an arm-based instrument positioned on a rock or regolith with touch sensors. During an analysis, an X-ray source (tube or radioisotope) bombards the sample with X-rays or alpha-particles / gamma-rays, resulting in sample X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). X-rays emitted in the direction of an X-ray sensitive CCD imager pass through a 1:1 focusing lens (X-ray micro-pore Optic (MPO)) that projects a spatially resolved image of the X-rays onto the CCD. The CCD is operated in single photon counting mode so that the energies and positions of individual X-ray photons are recorded. In a single analysis, several thousand frames are both stored and processed in real-time. Higher level data products include single-element maps with a lateral spatial resolution of 100 microns and quantitative XRF spectra from ground- or instrument- selected Regions of Interest (ROI). XRF spectra from ROI are compared with known rock and mineral compositions to extrapolate the data to rock types and putative mineralogies. When applied to airless bodies and implemented with an appropriate radioisotope source for alpha-particle excitation, MapX will be able to analyze biogenic elements C, N, O, P, S, in addition to the cations of the rock-forming elements >Na, accessible with either X-ray or gamma-ray excitation. The MapX concept has been demonstrated with a series of lab-based prototypes and is currently under refinement and TRL maturation.

  13. Joint reconstruction of x-ray fluorescence and transmission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Zichao Wendy; Chen, Si; Hong, Young Pyo; Jacobsen, Chris; Leyffer, Sven; Wild, Stefan M

    2017-06-12

    X-ray fluorescence tomography is based on the detection of fluorescence x-ray photons produced following x-ray absorption while a specimen is rotated; it provides information on the 3D distribution of selected elements within a sample. One limitation in the quality of sample recovery is the separation of elemental signals due to the finite energy resolution of the detector. Another limitation is the effect of self-absorption, which can lead to inaccurate results with dense samples. To recover a higher quality elemental map, we combine x-ray fluorescence detection with a second data modality: conventional x-ray transmission tomography using absorption. By using these combined signals in a nonlinear optimization-based approach, we demonstrate the benefit of our algorithm on real experimental data and obtain an improved quantitative reconstruction of the spatial distribution of dominant elements in the sample. Compared with single-modality inversion based on x-ray fluorescence alone, this joint inversion approach reduces ill-posedness and should result in improved elemental quantification and better correction of self-absorption.

  14. MSL Chemistry and Mineralogy X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Fluorescence (CheMin) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Blake, Dave; Harris, William; Morookian, John Michael; Randall, Dave; Reder, Leonard J.; Sarrazin, Phillipe

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Chemistry and Mineralogy Xray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) (CheMin) Instrument, an element of the landed Curiosity rover payload, which landed on Mars in August of 2012. The scientific goal of the MSL mission is to explore and quantitatively assess regions in Gale Crater as a potential habitat for life - past or present. The CheMin instrument will receive Martian rock and soil samples from the MSL Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling (SA/SPaH) system, and process it utilizing X-Ray spectroscopy methods to determine mineral composition. The Chemin instrument will analyze Martian soil and rocks to enable scientists to investigate geophysical processes occurring on Mars. The CheMin science objectives and proposed surface operations are described along with the CheMin hardware with an emphasis on the system engineering challenges associated with developing such a complex instrument.

  15. Quantitative X ray analysis system. User's manual and guide to X ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This guide covers trimmed and re-arranged version 3.6 of the Quantitative X ray Analysis System (QXAS) software package that includes the most frequently used methods of quantitative analysis. QXAS is a comprehensive quantitative analysis package that has been developed by the IAEA through research and technical contracts. Additional development has also been carried out in the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf where QXAS was extensively tested. New in this version of the manual are the descriptions of the Voigt-profile peak fitting, the backscatter fundamental parameters' and emission-transmission methods of chemical composition analysis, an expanded chapter on the X ray fluorescence physics, and completely revised and increased number of practical examples of utilization of the QXAS software package. The analytical data accompanying this manual were collected in the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratories in the years 2006/2007

  16. Instrument and method for X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, and crystal texture analysis without sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith (Inventor); Martins, Jose Vanderlei (Inventor); Arzoumanian, Zaven (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence instrument for analyzing samples having no sample preparation includes a X-ray source configured to output a collimated X-ray beam comprising a continuum spectrum of X-rays to a predetermined coordinate and a photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer disposed to receive X-rays output from an unprepared sample disposed at the predetermined coordinate upon exposure of the unprepared sample to the collimated X-ray beam. The X-ray source and the photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer are arranged in a reflection geometry relative to the predetermined coordinate.

  17. The Mapping X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (MAPX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David; Sarrazin, Philippe; Bristow, Thomas; Downs, Robert; Gailhanou, Marc; Marchis, Franck; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard; Sole, Vincente Armando; Thompson, Kathleen; hide

    2016-01-01

    MapX will provide elemental imaging at =100 micron spatial resolution over 2.5 X 2.5 centimeter areas, yielding elemental chemistry at or below the scale length where many relict physical, chemical, and biological features can be imaged and interpreted in ancient rocks. MapX is a full-frame spectroscopic imager positioned on soil or regolith with touch sensors. During an analysis, an X-ray source (tube or radioisotope) bombards the sample surface with X-rays or alpha-particles / gamma rays, resulting in sample X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Fluoresced X-rays pass through an X-ray lens (X-ray µ-Pore Optic, "MPO") that projects a spatially resolved image of the X-rays onto a CCD. The CCD is operated in single photon counting mode so that the positions and energies of individual photons are retained. In a single analysis, several thousand frames are stored and processed. A MapX experiment provides elemental maps having a spatial resolution of =100 micron and quantitative XRF spectra from Regions of Interest (ROI) 2 centimers = x = 100 micron. ROI are compared with known rock and mineral compositions to extrapolate the data to rock types and putative mineralogies. The MapX geometry is being refined with ray-tracing simulations and with synchrotron experiments at SLAC. Source requirements are being determined through Monte Carlo modeling and experiment using XMIMSIM [1], GEANT4 [2] and PyMca [3] and a dedicated XRF test fixture. A flow-down of requirements for both tube and radioisotope sources is being developed from these experiments. In addition to Mars lander and rover missions, MapX could be used for landed science on other airless bodies (Phobos/Deimos, Comet nucleus, asteroids, the Earth's moon, and the icy satellites of the outer planets, including Europa.

  18. Limestone rocks analysis by X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo M, G.; Ponce R, R.; Vazquez J, J.

    1996-01-01

    By request of a private company, employing basically X-ray fluorescence analysis (X RF), was established a fast and accurate method for the analysis of the major elements in limestone rocks. Additionally, for complementing analysis was determined by ion chromatography, the chlorides appearance and by atomic absorption of sodium. By gravimetry, was determined the losses by ignition and the alpha quartz. (Author)

  19. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry applied to soil analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Scapin Junior, Wilson Santo; Scapin, Marcos Antonio; Imakima, Kengo

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry applied to the soil analysis. A comparative study of the WD-XRFS and ED-XRFS techniques was carried out by using the following soil samples: SL-1, SOIL-7 and marine sediment SD-M-2/TM, from IAEA, and clay, JG-1a from Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ)

  20. Research Note: Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy Dispersive X-Ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique for the analysis of geological, biological and environmental samples is described. The technique has been applied in the analysis of 10 (geological, biological, environmental) standard reference materials. The accuracy and precision of the technique were attested ...

  1. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry - an introduction course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, V.L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental principles of the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, is presented the text is a synthesis of the most important literature in this area. The authors included are: E.P. Bertin, R. Jenkins, J.L. Devries, R. Muller, R. Tertian, F. Claisse e K.L. Willians. (author)

  2. Application of total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian crude oils from eight oil wells have been analysed for the following trace elements: Ni, Cr, Mn, V, Fe, Zn. Pb, Cu, Co and S using total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analytical method. Concentrations of these elements were found to range from 0.002 – 1.420 ppm. Results showed that Fe was the most ...

  3. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic determination of heavy metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic determination of heavy metals and trace elements in aerial parts of Origanum sipyleum L from Turkey. ... Among other constituents, arsenic, lead and uranium levels were < 1, 2.1 and < 3 ppm, respectively, in the powdered material while in the aqueous extract, the levels were < 1, < 2 and ...

  4. High-Definition X-Ray Fluorescence: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, W.M.; Chen, Z.W.

    2008-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is a well-established and powerful tool for nondestructive elemental analysis of virtually any material. It is widely used for environmental, industrial, pharmaceutical, forensic, and scientific research applications to measure the concentration of elemental constituents or contaminants. The fluorescing atoms can be excited by energetic electrons, ions, or photons. A particular EDXRF method, monochromatic microbeam X-ray fluorescence (MμEDXRF), has proven to be remarkably powerful in measurement of trace element concentrations and distributions in a large variety of important medical, environmental, and industrial applications. When used with state-of-the-art doubly curved crystal (DCC) X-ray optics, this technique enables high-sensitivity, compact, low-power, safe, reliable, and rugged analyzers for in situ, online measurements in industrial process, clinical, and field settings. This new optic-enabled MμEDXRF technique is known as high-definition X-Ray fluorescence (HD XRF). Selected applications of HD XRF are described in this paper including air particulate analysis, analysis of body fluid contamination at ppb levels, elemental mapping of brain tissue and bone samples, as well as analysis of toxins in toys and other consumer products.

  5. Measuring and interpreting X-ray fluorescence from planetary surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Alan; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Fraser, George; Kolbe, Michael; Krumrey, Michael; Mantero, Alfonso; Mantler, Michael; Peacock, Anthony; Pia, Maria-Grazia; Pullan, Derek; Schneider, Uwe G; Ulm, Gerhard

    2008-11-15

    As part of a comprehensive study of X-ray emission from planetary surfaces and in particular the planet Mercury, we have measured fluorescent radiation from a number of planetary analog rock samples using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by the BESSY II electron storage ring. The experiments were carried out using a purpose built X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer chamber developed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's national metrology institute. The XRF instrumentation is absolutely calibrated and allows for reference-free quantitation of rock sample composition, taking into account secondary photon- and electron-induced enhancement effects. The fluorescence data, in turn, have been used to validate a planetary fluorescence simulation tool based on the GEANT4 transport code. This simulation can be used as a mission analysis tool to predict the time-dependent orbital XRF spectral distributions from planetary surfaces throughout the mapping phase.

  6. Investigation of Pink Tourmalines by X-ray Fluorescent Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangariyavanich, A.; Na Songkhla, S.; Pimjum, S.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray fluorescent technique has been employed in the study of trace elements in six samples of gamma irradiated pink tourmalines, namely, red-pink (rubellite), light-pink, orange-pink, brownish orange-pink, purple red and purple orange-pink. The analysis of their characteristic X-ray indicated the existence of manganese in all samples. Trace amounts of iron, zinc, lead, bismuth or gallium were also investigated in certain samples. Since these elements were not present in red-pink tourmaline, therefore, we believed that manganese is the major cause of pink color in tourmaline while other elements produce various types of pink color

  7. Analysis of diatomaceous earth by x-ray fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.

    1985-01-01

    The use of diatomaceous earth in industry as filtering aids, mineral fillers, catalyst carriers, chromatographic supports, and paint additives is well documented. The diatomite matrix is well suited to x-ray analysis, but this application has not been cited in the literature. In our laboratory, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been used to support the analytical needs of diatomite product development. Lithium borate fusion and pressed powder techniques have been used to determine major, minor, and trace elements in diatomite and synthetic silicate samples. Conventional matrix correction models and fundamental parameters have been used to reduce x-ray measurements to accurate chemical analyses. Described are sample and standard preparation techniques, data reduction methods, applications, and results

  8. Development and applications of grazing exit micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, T.; Sato, Y.; Konishi, Y.; Ding, X.; Tsuji, K.

    2004-01-01

    A polycapillary X-ray lens is an effective optics to obtain a μm-size X-ray beam for micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-XRF). We developed a μ-XRF instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens, which also enabled us to perform Grazing Exit μ-XRF (GE-μ-XRF). The evaluated diameter of the primary X-ray beam was 48 μm at the focal distance of the X-ray lens. Use of this instrument enabled two-dimensional mapping of the elemental distributions during growth of the plant 'Quinoa'. The results of the mapping revealed elemental transition during growth. In addition, a small region of thin film was analyzed by GE-μ-XRF. We expect that GE-μ-XRF will become an effective method of estimating the film thickness of a small region

  9. Development and applications of grazing exit micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, T.; Sato, Y.; Konishi, Y.; Ding, X.; Tsuji, K. E-mail: tsuji@a-chem.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp

    2004-08-31

    A polycapillary X-ray lens is an effective optics to obtain a {mu}m-size X-ray beam for micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry ({mu}-XRF). We developed a {mu}-XRF instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens, which also enabled us to perform Grazing Exit {mu}-XRF (GE-{mu}-XRF). The evaluated diameter of the primary X-ray beam was 48 {mu}m at the focal distance of the X-ray lens. Use of this instrument enabled two-dimensional mapping of the elemental distributions during growth of the plant 'Quinoa'. The results of the mapping revealed elemental transition during growth. In addition, a small region of thin film was analyzed by GE-{mu}-XRF. We expect that GE-{mu}-XRF will become an effective method of estimating the film thickness of a small region.

  10. Proton-induced x-ray fluorescence CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Ahmad, Moiz; Matsuura, Taeko; Takao, Seishin; Matsuo, Yuto; Fahrig, Rebecca; Shirato, Hiroki; Umegaki, Kikuo; Xing, Lei

    2015-02-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of proton-induced x-ray fluorescence CT (pXFCT) imaging of gold in a small animal sized object by means of experiments and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. First, proton-induced gold x-ray fluorescence (pXRF) was measured as a function of gold concentration. Vials of 2.2 cm in diameter filled with 0%-5% Au solutions were irradiated with a 220 MeV proton beam and x-ray fluorescence induced by the interaction of protons, and Au was detected with a 3 × 3 mm(2) CdTe detector placed at 90° with respect to the incident proton beam at a distance of 45 cm from the vials. Second, a 7-cm diameter water phantom containing three 2.2-diameter vials with 3%-5% Au solutions was imaged with a 7-mm FWHM 220 MeV proton beam in a first generation CT scanning geometry. X-rays scattered perpendicular to the incident proton beam were acquired with the CdTe detector placed at 45 cm from the phantom positioned on a translation/rotation stage. Twenty one translational steps spaced by 3 mm at each of 36 projection angles spaced by 10° were acquired, and pXFCT images of the phantom were reconstructed with filtered back projection. A simplified geometry of the experimental data acquisition setup was modeled with the MC TOPAS code, and simulation results were compared to the experimental data. A linear relationship between gold pXRF and gold concentration was observed in both experimental and MC simulation data (R(2) > 0.99). All Au vials were apparent in the experimental and simulated pXFCT images. Specifically, the 3% Au vial was detectable in the experimental [contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) = 5.8] and simulated (CNR = 11.5) pXFCT image. Due to fluorescence x-ray attenuation in the higher concentration vials, the 4% and 5% Au contrast were underestimated by 10% and 15%, respectively, in both the experimental and simulated pXFCT images. Proton-induced x-ray fluorescence CT imaging of 3%-5% gold solutions in a small animal sized water phantom has been demonstrated

  11. In vivo X-ray fluorescence analysis for medical diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenberg, T.

    1981-05-01

    A Monte Carlo code has been constructed and used to simulate the energy distribution of scattered photons abtained in various in vivo X-ray fluorescence measurements. The structure of this distribution has been investigated and discussed. Studies of the response function of the Ge-decector used have made it possible to convert the calculated scatter spectra to pulse-height distributions. These studies have shown to be valuabel tools in designing in vivo X-ray fluorescence measurements. In vivo X-ray fluorescence measurements have been used for quantitative non-invasive measurements of the concentration of iodine-containing contrast media in rabbits without the use of blood or urine sampling. The biological half-life of the contrast medium in the soft tissue part of the nose (measured in vivo) was similar to that in serum (measured in vitro) when determined in the period 2-4 hours after injection. This result indicate the possibility of being able to use the method for clinical evaluation of kidney function. The method has been used in patients referred for urography and who had teherefore been injected with routine amounts of iodinecontaining urographic contrast medium. After urography, the elimination rates of urographic contrast medium from both serum and finger tissue were determined and copared during a two-hour period which began two hours after injection of contrast medium. A strong degree of correlation was found between the elimination rates from serum and finger tissue and also between the total clearances calculated from the serum and finger measurements respectively. Thus, after radiographic examinations quantitative estimation of kidney function may be obtained as a fringe benefit by external X-ray fluorescence measurements of the elimination from tissue of the contrast medium used. (author)

  12. Elemental analysis using a handheld X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groover, Krishangi D.; Izbicki, John

    2016-06-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey is collecting geologic samples from local stream channels, aquifer materials, and rock outcrops for studies of trace elements in the Mojave Desert, southern California. These samples are collected because geologic materials can release a variety of elements to the environment when exposed to water. The samples are to be analyzed with a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer to determine the concentrations of up to 27 elements, including chromium.

  13. X-ray fluorescence analysis of some roman silver coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daraban, L.; Cosma, C.; Fiat, T.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty ancient silver coins have been analyzed by the X-ray fluorescence method. For eliminating the effects that disturb the absolute quantitative measurements, we calculated, for each coin, the ratio between the elements that constitute the coin and related them to the silver concentration. From these measurements correlations diagrams have been obtained in which coins are grouped together depending on the silver sources and the purification technologies. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Identifications studies of Lauha Bhasma by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, S C; Reddy, K R C; Sastry, G V S

    2012-01-01

    Procedures for preparation of Lauha Bhasma are described in ancient texts of Ayurveda. These procedures also begin with different source material for iron such as Teekshna Lauha and Kanta Lauha etc. In the present study, we have selected different source materials viz. magnetite iron ore for Kanta Lauha and pure (Armco grade) iron turnings for Teekshna Lauha. The standard procedures of preparation of Lauha Bhasma are carried out in identical conditions for these two raw materials. The final product from the Puta are characterized by using X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to understanding the crystallographic form or forms of iron oxides and their composition at the end of each Puta. The iron content at the end of repeated Putas (18 for Kanta Lauha and 20 for Teekshna Lauha) have shown a decrease in case of Teekshna Lauha since the starting material is pure iron while it showed only marginal decreases in the case of Kanta Lauha because the Fe(3)O(4) of magnetite is undergoing oxidation to Fe(2)O(3). The trace elements remain within the Bhasma in the form of various oxides of Si, Al, Ca, etc.

  15. X-ray fluorescence activities at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vegetables grown on these soils etc. were analysed with this set-up. 2. Experiments on basic physical problems. 2.1 L X-ray fluorescence cross-section measurements. X-ray fluorescence cross-section data are used as important inputs in atomic, molecular and medical physics and also in X-ray fluorescence technique.

  16. CCD camera as feasible large-area-size x-ray detector for x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenyang; Sakurai, Kenji

    2017-06-01

    As X-ray fluorescence radiation isotropically spreads from the sample, one of the most important requirements for spectrometers for many years has been a large solid angle. Charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras are quite promising options because they have a fairly large area size, usually larger than 150 mm 2 . The present work has examined the feasibility of a commercially available camera with an ordinary CCD chip (1024 × 1024 pixels, the size of one pixel is 13 μm × 13 μm, designed for visible light) as an X-ray fluorescence detector. As X-ray photons create charges in the CCD chip, reading very quickly the amount is the key for this method. It is very simple if the charges always go into one pixel. As the charges quite often spread to several pixels, and sometimes can be lost, it is important to recover the information by filtering out the unsuccessful events. For this, a simple, versatile, and reliable scheme has been proposed. It has been demonstrated that the energy resolution of the present camera is 150 eV at Mn Kα, and also that its overall achievement in seeing minor elements is almost compatible with conventional X-ray fluorescence detectors. When the CCD camera is combined with a micro-pinhole collimator, full field X-ray fluorescence imaging with a spatial resolution of 20 μm becomes possible. Further feasibility in practical X-ray fluorescence analysis is discussed.

  17. Gaseous detectors for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Silva, A. L. M.

    2018-01-01

    The energy resolution capability of gaseous detectors is being used in the last years to perform studies on the detection of characteristic X-ray lines emitted by elements when excited by external radiation sources. One of the most successful techniques is the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis. Recent developments in the new generation of micropatterned gaseous detectors (MPGDs), triggered the possibility not only of recording the photon energy, but also of providing position information, extending their application to EDXRF imaging. The relevant features and strategies to be applied in gaseous detectors in order to better fit the requirements for EDXRF imaging will be reviewed and discussed, and some application examples will be presented.

  18. Fluorescence versus X-ray cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehrskov, Lars Lang; Larsen, Søren S; Kristensen, Billy B

    2016-01-01

    of fluorescent cholangiography to visualise the biliary anatomy. METHODS: Based on a non-inferiority design, patients with complicated gallstone disease are randomised to either -intraoperative conventional X-ray cholangiography (reference group, n = 60) or intraoperative fluorescent cholangiography (n = 60......). The primary outcome is visualisation of the junction between the cystic duct, the common hepatic duct and the common bile duct. CONCLUSION: The present study may show that fluorescent cholangiography is as valid for visualisation of important structures of the extrahepatic biliary tract as conventional X......INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative fluorescent cholangiography is a novel non-invasive imaging technique to visualise the extrahepatic biliary tract during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It has been proven feasible, fast and cost effective. Never-theless, there is only sparse data on the capacity...

  19. Fluorescence versus X-ray cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehrskov, Lars Lang; Larsen, Søren Schytt; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative fluorescent cholangiography is a novel non-invasive imaging technique to visualise the extrahepatic biliary tract during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It has been proven feasible, fast and cost effective. Never-theless, there is only sparse data on the capacity...... of fluorescent cholangiography to visualise the biliary anatomy. METHODS: Based on a non-inferiority design, patients with complicated gallstone disease are randomised to either -intraoperative conventional X-ray cholangiography (reference group, n = 60) or intraoperative fluorescent cholangiography (n = 60......). The primary outcome is visualisation of the junction between the cystic duct, the common hepatic duct and the common bile duct. CONCLUSION: The present study may show that fluorescent cholangiography is as valid for visualisation of important structures of the extrahepatic biliary tract as conventional X...

  20. X-ray Peltier cooled detectors for X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loupilov, A.; Sokolov, A.; Gostilo, V.

    2001-01-01

    The recent results on development of X-ray Si(Li), Si-planar and CdTe p-i-n detectors cooled by Peltier coolers for fabrication of laboratory and portable XRF analysers for different applications are discussed. Low detection limits of XRF analysers are provided by increasing of detectors sensitive surface; improvement of their spectrometrical characteristics; decreasing of front-end-electronics noise level; Peltier coolers and vacuum chambers cooling modes optimization. Solution of all mentioned tasks allowed to develop Peltier cooled detectors with the following performances: (1.) Si(Li) detectors: S=20 mm 2 , thickness=3.5 mm, 175 eV (5.9 keV), 430 eV (59.6 keV); S=100 mm 2 ; thickness=4.5 mm, 270 eV (5.9 keV), 485 eV (59.6 keV). (2.) Si-planar detector: S=10 mm 2 , thickness=0.4 mm, 230 eV (5.9 keV), 460 eV (59.6 keV). (3.) CdTe p-i-n detectors: S=16 mm 2 , thickness=0.5 mm, 350 eV (5.9 keV), 585 eV (59.6 keV). S=16 mm 2 , thickness=1.2 mm, 310 eV (5.9 keV), 600 eV (59.6 keV). Advantages and disadvantages of all types of detectors for X-ray fluorescence analysis are compared. Spectra are presented. Application of different XRF analysers based on developed detectors in medicine, environmental science, industry, cryminalistics and history of art are demonstrated

  1. X-ray Peltier cooled detectors for X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loupilov, A.; Sokolov, A.; Gostilo, V.

    2000-01-01

    The recent results on development of X-ray Si(Li), Si-planar and CdTe p-i- n detectors cooled by Peltier coolers for fabrication of laboratory and portable XRF analysers for different applications are discussed. Low detection limits of XRF analysers are provided by increasing of detectors sensitive surface; improvement of their spectrometrical characteristics; decreasing of front-end-electronics noise level; Peltier coolers and vacuum chambers cooling modes optimization. Solution of all mentioned tasks allowed to develop Peltier cooled detectors with the following performances: (1) Si(Li) detectors: S = 20 mm 2 , thickness = 3.5 mm, 175 eV (5.9 keV), 430 eV (59.6 keV); S = 100 mm 2 ; thickness = 4.5 mm, 270 eV (5.9 keV), 485 eV (59,6 keV). (2) Si-planar detector: S = 10 mm 2 , thickness = 0.4 mm, 230 eV (5.9 keV), 460 eV (59.6 keV). (3) CdTe p-i-n detectors: S = 16 mm 2 , thickness 0.5 mm, 350 eV (5.9 keV), 585 eV (59.6 keV). S = 16 mm 2 , thickness = 1.2 mm, 310 eV (5.9 keV), 600 eV (59.6 keV). Advantages and disadvantages of all types of detectors for X-ray fluorescence analysis are compared. Spectra are presented. Application of different XRF analysers based on developed detectors in medicine, environmental science, industry, criminalistics and history of art are demonstrated. (author)

  2. The Apollo 15 X-ray fluorescence experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, I.; Trombka, J.; Gerard, J.; Schmadebeck, R.; Lowman, P.; Blodgett, H.; Yin, L.; Eller, E.; Lamothe, R.; Gorenstein, P.

    1972-01-01

    The CSM spectrometric data on the lunar surface with respect to its chemical composition are presented for Al, Mg, and Si as Al/Si and Mg/Si ratios for the various features overflow by the spacecraft. The lunar surface measurements involved observations of the intensity and characteristic energy distribution of the secondary or fluorescent X-rays produced by the interaction of solar X-rays with the lunar surface. The results showed that the highlands and maria are chemically different, with the highlands having considerably more Al and less Mg than the maria. The mare-highland contact is quite sharp and puts a limit on the amount of horizontal transport of material. The X-ray data suggest that the dominant rock type of the lunar highlands is a plagioclase-rich pyroxene bearing rock, probably anorthositic gabbro or feldspathic basalt. Thus the moon appears to have a widespread differentiated crust (the highlands) systematically richer in Al and lower in Mg than the maria. This crust is pre-mare and may represent the first major internal differentiation of the moon.

  3. X-ray fluorescence holography and multiple-energy x-ray holography: A critical comparison of atomic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Len, P.M.; Gog, T.; Fadley, C.S.; Materlik, G.

    1997-01-01

    We compare x-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) and multiple-energy x-ray holography (MEXH), two techniques that have recently been used to obtain experimental three-dimensional atomic images. For single-energy holograms, these methods are equivalent by virtue of the optical reciprocity theorem. However, XFH can only record holographic information at the characteristic fluorescence energies of the emitting species, while MEXH can record holographic information at any energy above the fluorescent edge of the emitter, thus enabling the suppression of real-twin overlaps and other aberrations and artifacts in atomic images. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Improved fluorescent X-ray image intensifying screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeghem, W.K. van; Suys, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray image intensifying screen is described, which includes at least one fluorescent layer comprising phosphor particles dispersed in a binder and on top of such layer a protective layer containing a crosslinked polymer mass obtained by an acid-catalyzed reaction of a polymer or mixture of polymers containing reactive hydrogen atoms and a cross-linking agent, the cross-linking agent being an organic compound containing a plurality of etherified N-methylol groups. Examples are given of appropriate polymers and cross-linking agents. (author)

  5. Blood selenium content determination by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainardi, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of some elements in small amounts (traces) in the human body is of foremost importance for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. It has been recently shown that traces of selenium in blood are closely related to the occurrence of miotonic distrophy, a muscular disease that is affecting a significant percentage of the population. This work describes a simple procedure to determine selenium in human blood serum by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. Final quantification is achieved through the addition of titanium as an internal standard. (Author) [es

  6. Quantification procedures in micro X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanngiesser, Birgit

    2003-01-01

    For the quantification in micro X-ray fluorescence analysis standardfree quantification procedures have become especially important. An introduction to the basic concepts of these quantification procedures is given, followed by a short survey of the procedures which are available now and what kind of experimental situations and analytical problems are addressed. The last point is extended by the description of an own development for the fundamental parameter method, which renders the inclusion of nonparallel beam geometries possible. Finally, open problems for the quantification procedures are discussed

  7. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for analysis of mineralogical composition of regolith,...

  8. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop LUNA, a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for mineralogical analysis of regolith, rock...

  9. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence - an approach to nanoanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klockenkaemper, R.

    2000-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) is a powerful tool used for industrial production, geological prospecting and for environmental control. However, the method suffers from a lack of sensitivity so that analyses are restricted to microanalytical investigations. That means: the sample amount needed for analysis is above some 10 micrograms, concentrations to be determined have to be on the μg/ml level, and thin layers to be characterized must be of micrometer thickness. In contrast to conventional XRFA, total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is extremely sensitive and even allows nano-analytical investigations. Three different ways can be taken: (i) use of minute sample amounts of only 10 nano-grams, (ii) determination of extreme traces below ng/ml and (iii) surface analysis and depth profiling of shallow layers with nano-meter thickness. In this lecture, the basic physical phenomena of total reflection and standing waves are outlined. The experimental equipment for TXRF is sketched out and commercially available instruments of different manufacturers are compared. Furthermore, examples are given for the three kinds of nano-analytical applications: ultra-micro, analysis, ultra trace analysis and mono- and thin-layer analysis. (author)

  10. Preparation of tissue samples for X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwiej, Joanna; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena; Lankosz, Marek; Wojcik, Slawomir; Falkenberg, Gerald; Stegowski, Zdzislaw; Setkowicz, Zuzanna

    2005-01-01

    As is well-known, trace elements, especially metals, play an important role in the pathogenesis of many disorders. The topographic and quantitative elemental analysis of pathologically changed tissues may shed some new light on processes leading to the degeneration of cells in the case of selected diseases. An ideal and powerful tool for such purpose is the Synchrotron Microbeam X-ray Fluorescence technique. It enables the carrying out of investigations of the elemental composition of tissues even at the single cell level. The tissue samples for histopathological investigations are routinely fixed and embedded in paraffin. The authors try to verify the usefulness of such prepared tissue sections for elemental analysis with the use of X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Studies were performed on rat brain samples. Changes in elemental composition caused by fixation in formalin or paraformaldehyde and embedding in paraffin were examined. Measurements were carried out at the bending magnet beamline L of the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB in Hamburg. The decrease in mass per unit area of K, Br and the increase in P, S, Fe, Cu and Zn in the tissue were observed as a result of the fixation. For the samples embedded in paraffin, a lower level of most elements was observed. Additionally, for these samples, changes in the composition of some elements were not uniform for different analyzed areas of rat brain

  11. A portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with a diamond-like carbon coated X-ray reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimura, Shinsuke; Ohmori, Hitoshi

    2012-01-21

    A diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated quartz glass sample holder is used in a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer. A spot area of a water sample on the DLC sample holder becomes smaller than that on a quartz glass sample holder usually used in TXRF analysis because DLC is more hydrophobic. Therefore, the use of the DLC sample holder enhances fluorescent X-rays reaching a detector compared with the use of a quartz glass sample holder, leading to improvement in detection sensitivity. A detection limit of 28 pg is achieved for Cr in a river water sample when using the DLC sample holder.

  12. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and related techniques an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Margui, Eva

    2013-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) is a well-established analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of a wide variety of routine quality control and research samples. Among its many desirable features, it delivers true multi-element character analysis, acceptable speed and economy, easy of automation, and the capacity to analyze solid samples. This remarkable contribution to this field provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of basic principles, recent developments, instrumentation, sample preparation procedures, and applications of XRF analysis. If you are a professional in materials science, analytic chemistry, or physics, you will benefit from not only the review of basics, but also the newly developed technologies with XRF. Those recent technological advances, including the design of low-power micro- focus tubes and novel X-ray optics and detectors, have made it possible to extend XRF to the analysis of low-Z elements and to obtain 2D or 3D information on a microme...

  13. Soft X-ray fluorescence measurements of irradiated polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarski, R. P.; Ederer, D. L.; Pivin, J.-C.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Shamin, S. N.; Moewes, A.; Chang, G. S.; Whang, C. N.; Endo, K.; Ida, T.

    1998-11-01

    Fluorescent soft X-ray carbon Kα emission spectra (XES) have been used to characterize the bonding of carbon atoms in polyimide (PI) and polycarbosilane (PCS) films. The PI films have been irradiated with 40 keV nitrogen or argon ions, at fluences ranging from 1 × 10 14 to 1 × 10 16 cm -2. The PCS films have been irradiated with 5 × 10 15 carbon ions cm -2 of 500 keV and/or annealed at 1000°C. We find that the fine structure of the carbon XES of the PI films changes with implanted ion fluence above 1 × 10 14 cm -2 which we believe is due to the degradation of the PI into amorphous C:N:O. The width of the forbidden band as determined from the high-energy cut-off of the C Kα X-ray excitation decreases with the ion fluence. The bonding configuration of free carbon precipitates embedded in amorphous SiC which are formed in PCS after irradiation with C ions or combined treatments (irradiation and subsequent annealing) is close to either to that in diamond-like films or in silicidated graphite, respectively.

  14. Determination of technetium by total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez, J.I.; Greaves, E.D.; Nemeth, P.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a technique using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) for determination of Technetium produced by elution of chromatography generators with physiological saline solutions. The analysis with the 18.41 keV K α line of Technetium was accomplished with monochromatized K α radiation from a silver anode x-ray tube operated at 45 keV and 20 mA. This radiation at 22.104 keV is efficiently coupled to the 21.054 keV absorption edge of Tc. It is also of advantage in the direct analysis of organic and saline properties of the Tc-bearing samples. Quantification was accomplished by internal standard addition of Ga and using an interpolated value of the sensitivity for Tc between Molybdenum and Rhenium. Data processing was carried out with the QXAS-AXIL software package. System sensitivity was found adequate for direct Tc determination of eluted saline solutions. The interest and advantages of the use of the technique as an auxiliary in the synthesis and characterization of Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnosis in nuclear medicine are discussed. Detection limits in the matrices analyzed are reported. (author)

  15. Automating X-ray Fluorescence Analysis for Rapid Astrobiology Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R; Flannery, David T; Lanka, Ravi; Allwood, Abigail C; Bue, Brian D; Clark, Benton C; Elam, W Timothy; Estlin, Tara A; Hodyss, Robert P; Hurowitz, Joel A; Liu, Yang; Wade, Lawrence A

    2015-11-01

    A new generation of planetary rover instruments, such as PIXL (Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry) and SHERLOC (Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals) selected for the Mars 2020 mission rover payload, aim to map mineralogical and elemental composition in situ at microscopic scales. These instruments will produce large spectral cubes with thousands of channels acquired over thousands of spatial locations, a large potential science yield limited mainly by the time required to acquire a measurement after placement. A secondary bottleneck also faces mission planners after downlink; analysts must interpret the complex data products quickly to inform tactical planning for the next command cycle. This study demonstrates operational approaches to overcome these bottlenecks by specialized early-stage science data processing. Onboard, simple real-time systems can perform a basic compositional assessment, recognizing specific features of interest and optimizing sensor integration time to characterize anomalies. On the ground, statistically motivated visualization can make raw uncalibrated data products more interpretable for tactical decision making. Techniques such as manifold dimensionality reduction can help operators comprehend large databases at a glance, identifying trends and anomalies in data. These onboard and ground-side analyses can complement a quantitative interpretation. We evaluate system performance for the case study of PIXL, an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Experiments on three representative samples demonstrate improved methods for onboard and ground-side automation and illustrate new astrobiological science capabilities unavailable in previous planetary instruments. Dimensionality reduction-Planetary science-Visualization.

  16. Note: Portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with small vacuum chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimura, Shinsuke; Kudo, Shunpei; Nagai, Hiroki; Nakajima, Yoshihide; Ohmori, Hitoshi

    2013-04-01

    To improve the detection limits of a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer using white X-rays (i.e., both characteristic X-rays and continuum X-rays) from a 5 W X-ray tube, the measurement was performed in vacuum. The TXRF spectrum measured in vacuum was compared with that measured in air. The spectral background was significantly reduced when the scattering of the incident X-rays from air was reduced using a vacuum pump, leading to improvement in the detection limit. A detection limit of 8 pg was achieved for Cr when measuring in vacuum.

  17. Note: Portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with small vacuum chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimura, Shinsuke; Kudo, Shunpei; Nagai, Hiroki; Nakajima, Yoshihide; Ohmori, Hitoshi

    2013-04-01

    To improve the detection limits of a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer using white X-rays (i.e., both characteristic X-rays and continuum X-rays) from a 5 W X-ray tube, the measurement was performed in vacuum. The TXRF spectrum measured in vacuum was compared with that measured in air. The spectral background was significantly reduced when the scattering of the incident X-rays from air was reduced using a vacuum pump, leading to improvement in the detection limit. A detection limit of 8 pg was achieved for Cr when measuring in vacuum.

  18. Counter tube window and X-ray fluorescence analyzer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, R.; Holm, M.

    1973-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the best design tube window and X-ray fluorescence analyzer for quantitative analysis of Venusian dust and condensates. The principal objective of the project was to develop the best counter tube window geometry for the sensing element of the instrument. This included formulation of a mathematical model of the window and optimization of its parameters. The proposed detector and instrument has several important features. The instrument will perform a near real-time analysis of dust in the Venusian atmosphere, and is capable of measuring dust layers less than 1 micron thick. In addition, wide dynamic measurement range will be provided to compensate for extreme variations in count rates. An integral pulse-height analyzer and memory accumulate data and read out spectra for detail computer analysis on the ground.

  19. Handbook of practical X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckhoff, B.; Wedell, R.; Wolff, H.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) is a reliable multi-elemental and nondestructive analytical method widely used in research and industrial applications. This practical handbook provides self-contained modules featuring XRF instrumentation, quantification methods, and most of the current applications. The broad spectrum of topics is due to the efforts of a large number of authors from a variety of different types of institutions such as universities, research institutes, and companies. The book gives a survey of the theoretical fundamentals, analytical instrumentation, software for data processing, various excitation regimes including gracing incidents and microfocus measurements, quantitative analysis, applications in routine and micro analysis, mineralogy, biology, medicine, criminal investigations, archeology, metallurgy, abrasion, microelectronics, environmental air and water analysis. It gives the basic knowledge on this technique, information on analytical equipment and guides the reader to the various applications. This practical handbook is intended as a resource for graduate students, research scientists, and industrial users. (orig.)

  20. Uranium concentrate analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Guerra, J.P.; Bayon, A.; Roca, R.

    1978-01-01

    The determination of As, Ca, Fe, Mo, P, S, Si. Th, V and U in uranium concentrates by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy has been studied. As and U are determined in nitric solutions and for the rest of elements analysis is performed by a bead fusion technique using Li 2 B 4 O 7 and Li 2 CO 3 as fluxes. Although the uranium matrix minimizes the absorption and enhancement effects, because of the content variations of this element it is advisable to operate at a constant level of U 3 O 8 . Despite the high matrix absorption and the large dilution of the samples, sensitivity and speed are found to be satisfactory as the result of the use of a high sensitivity automatic spectrometer. The spectral interferences of Mo on S and P, and of Pb on As have been particularly considered. (author) [es

  1. A pattern recognition approach in X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lo I.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Seltzer, Stephen M.

    1989-05-01

    In many applications of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, quantitative information on the chemical components of the sample is not of primary concern. Instead, the XRF spectra are used to monitor changes in the composition among samples, or to select and classify samples with similar compositions. We propose in this paper that the use of pattern recognition technique in such applications may be more convenient than traditional quantitative analysis. The pattern recognition technique discussed here involves only one parameter, i.e., the normalized correlation coefficient and can be applied directly to raw data. Its computation is simple and fast, and can be easily carried out on a personal computer. The efficacy of this pattern recognition approach is illustrated with the analysis of experimental XRF spectra obtained from geological and alloy samples.

  2. Laboratory micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy instrumentation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Haschke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Micro-X-ray fluorescence offers the possibility for a position- sensitive and non-destructive analysis that can be used for the analysis of non-homogeneous materials and layer systems. This analytical technique has shown a dynamic development in the last 15 years and is used for the analysis of small particles, inclusions, of elemental distributions for a wide range of different applications both in research and quality control. The first experiments were performed on synchrotrons but there is a requirement for laboratory instruments which offers a fast and immediate access for analytical results. The book discuss the main components of a µ-XRF instrument and the different measurement modes, it gives an overview about the various instruments types, considers the special requirements for quantification of non-homogeneous materials and presents a wide range of application for single point and multi-point analysis as well as for distribution analysis in one, two and three dimensions.

  3. Analysis of solar blocker through portable X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Diego de Dio; Melquiades, Fabio Luiz; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Lopes, Fabio; Lonni, Audrey Stinghen G.; Oliveira, Frederico Minardi de; Duarte, Jose C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the concentration of TiO 2 by Energy Dispersion X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) viewing t obtain the FPS due to the physical barrier in the composition of solar blockers, and identifies possible present metals in the samples. A portable EDXRF equipment was used and 27 commercial of different brands and solar protection factors were analysed. Also, three formulations (A, B and C) were prepared and measured estimated in FPS-30 using 5% or TiO 2 . The quantification was performed through calibration curves with 1% to 30% standards of TiO 2 . As result, it was possible to determine the contribution to physical protection in the FPS, associated to the Ti concentration present in some solar blocker samples available in the market. Also, it was possible to detect the presence of various metals in solar protectors, such as Fe, Zn, Br and Sr, and identify chemical elements which were not mentioned and their formulation as well

  4. Gold nephropathy: tissue analysis by x-ray fluorescent spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viol, G.W.; Minielly, J.A.; Bistricki, T.

    1977-01-01

    Three patients developed proteinuria following gold therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. The clinical syndrome was a self-limiting proteinuria with normal renal function. By light and electron microscopic appearances the renal lesion was an epimembranous deposit form of membranous glomerulopathy. Immunofluorescent study showed granular deposits of IgG and C3 complement along glomerular basement membranes. By X-ray fluorescent spectroscopic examination, gold was seen to be present within the proximal convoluted tubular cells but was not identified in the glomerular subepithelial deposits. These findings are consistent with an immune-complex form of glomerulopathy in which gold is neither the antigen nor a hapten in the glomerular deposits, and they suggest the hypothesis that antibodies to tubular epithelial antigens induced by gold therapy may be a causative factor in the renal disease associated with gold therapy in rheumatoid arthritis

  5. Environmental studies in Khartoum area using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Elmagid, Suliman Alamin

    1996-06-01

    In the present work an attempt has been made for the analysis of some soil, plant, sediments and fish samples of relevance to environmental pollution in Khartoum area. These samples have been collected from different places in residential areas, so as to cover industrial areas, agricultural and residential areas, as well as Tuti Island as control area. Special attention has been dedicated to the analysis of lead concentrations resulting from automobile-emissions in soils and to other toxic metals such as Cr in some industries. The samples were analysed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique. The results obtained using XRF measurements and computer software called QXAS for data analysis. The concentrations of lead and some heavy metals such as Cr in soils from certain locations were alarming and may create pollution problems in the near future. The results obtained from different countries. The results are generally lower than the international limits. (Author)

  6. X-ray fluorescence in research on Czech cultural monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Kopecka, I.; Musilek, L.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis (RXRFA), as a non-destructive method, relatively simple and allowing measurements to be carried out in situ, is an excellent tool in research on various objects of art. A range of artefacts have been investigated by our laboratory, in part for the purposes of history of art and in part as a basis for restoration works - medieval frescoes in some Czech castles and churches, metal sculptures and objects of applied art, paints and inks of old manuscripts, paintings. Some of these are among the most valuable monuments in the Czech cultural heritage. The contribution of the results of the tests to the investigation of their 'life story' and, in some cases, to their conservation, is not negligible. Later additions and repairs can be recognised, and materials and technologies that are close to their historic counterparts can be used in restoration work

  7. use of x-ray fluorescence spectrometry to determine trace elements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    here, an X-ray spectrometer was constructed and used to detect the presence of trace elements in graphite matrix by their K fluorescence X-ray lines. Equipment. The spectrometer consisted of an X-ray tube. (as primary source), a sample holder and a turn-table carrying the analyzer crystal and the detector, all mounted on ...

  8. X-ray fluorescence activities at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X-ray fluorescence activities at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics are pursued around three facilities that we have in our division: (i) a Kevex 60 W X-ray generator, (ii) a curved crystal spectrometer (Spectroscan VY) and (iii) 109Cd and 241Am radioactive sources. With the Kevex X-ray generator, using an XYZ geometry, ...

  9. Direct comparison of soft x-ray images of organelles with optical fluorescence images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Masahiko; Kado, Masataka; Kishimoto, Maki; Nishikino, Masaharu; Ohba, Toshiyuki; Kaihori, Takeshi; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Yasuda, Keiko; Mikata, Yuji; Shinohara, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Soft x-ray microscopes operating in the water window region are capable of imaging living hydrated cells. Up to now, we have been able to take some soft x-ray images of living cells by the use of a contact x-ray microscope system with laser produced plasma soft x-ray source. Since the soft x-ray images are different from the optical images obtained with an ordinary microscope, it is very important to identify what is seen in the x-ray images. Hence, we have demonstrated the direct comparison between the images of organelles obtained with a fluorescence microscope and those with a soft x-ray microscope. Comparing the soft x-ray images to the fluorescence images, the fine structures of the organelles could be identified and observed. (author)

  10. Hyper-filter-fluorescer spectrometer for fusion x-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    The filter-fluorescer spectrometer (FFS) is a powerful tool for measuring x-ray spectrum from high fluence x-ray sources. However, this technique is limited to energies less than 120 keV, because there are no practical absorption edges available above this energy. In this paper, we present a new method of utilizing the filter-fluorescer system for x-ray spectral measurement above 120 keV. The new apparatus is called hyper-filter-fluorescer spectrometer

  11. Portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for nanogram Cr detection limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimura, Shinsuke; Kawai, Jun

    2007-03-15

    A portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is presented. The present spectrometer mainly consists of a 1.5-W X-ray tube, a waveguide type slit, a detector, and a sample carrier (a quartz optical flat), and these components are contained in an attache case-type box. Continuum X-rays emitted from the low-power X-ray tube are used for the excitation of the X-ray fluorescence, and the minimum detection limit for Cr is a few nanograms or the level of 1013 atoms/cm2.

  12. X-Ray Fluorescence, Energy Dispersive X-Ray And Neutron Activation Analysis Investigation Of Recent Egyptian One Pound Coin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.F.; Ghaly, W.A.; Mohsen, H.T.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is to identify and study the Egyptian one pound coin which appeared at the years 2005, 2007 and 2008 by using three different analytical techniques namely, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), Energy Dispersive x-ray (EDX) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The elemental composition for the one pound Egyptian coins is demonstrated. The analysis shows that the one pound which is mint in 2005 is differ from the other two coins at 2007 and 2008. A comparison of the analysis shows that the results obtained by these three techniques are in agreement with each other

  13. Development of portable X-ray diffractometer equipped with X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and its application to archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Daisuke; Ishizaki, Atsushi; Uda, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    A portable X-ray diffractometer equipped with an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was improved so as to obtain a diffraction pattern and a fluorescence spectrum in air from one and the same small area of a specimen. The reason why the portable XRD with an XRF spectrometer was specially designed for archaeology may be understood from the following facts: (1) some objects exhibited in museums are not allowed to be transferred from the open air to a vacuum, even if their volumes are small; (2) some objects are very difficult to move from their original sites; (3) some parts of exhibits are extremely fragile and cannot be examined in a vacuum; and (4) information on the chemical composition and structure from the same area of an object offers a better understanding of the constitutive materials of the object. Some examples of the use of a portable X-ray diffractometer equipped with an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in the field are also introduced. Experimental results of Sho-kannon, Snew's mask and Tutankhamun's golden mask are shown here. (author)

  14. Pinhole X-ray fluorescence imaging of gadolinium and gold nanoparticles using polychromatic X-rays: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seongmoon; Sung, Wonmo; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to develop a Monte Carlo (MC) model for pinhole K-shell X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging of metal nanoparticles using polychromatic X-rays. The MC model consisted of two-dimensional (2D) position-sensitive detectors and fan-beam X-rays used to stimulate the emission of XRF photons from gadolinium (Gd) or gold (Au) nanoparticles. Four cylindrical columns containing different concentrations of nanoparticles ranging from 0.01% to 0.09% by weight (wt%) were placed in a 5 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom. The images of the columns had detectable contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of 5.7 and 4.3 for 0.01 wt% Gd and for 0.03 wt% Au, respectively. Higher concentrations of nanoparticles yielded higher CNR. For 1×10 11 incident particles, the radiation dose to the phantom was 19.9 mGy for 110 kVp X-rays (Gd imaging) and 26.1 mGy for 140 kVp X-rays (Au imaging). The MC model of a pinhole XRF can acquire direct 2D slice images of the object without image reconstruction. The MC model demonstrated that the pinhole XRF imaging system could be a potential bioimaging modality for nanomedicine.

  15. Background approximation in automatic qualitative X-ray-fluorescent analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, J.; Tsanov, T.; Stefanov, R.; Jordanov, N.; Paunov, M.

    1982-01-01

    An empirical method of finding the dependence of the background intensity (Isub(bg) on the wavelength is proposed, based on the approximation of the experimentally found values for the background in the course of an automatic qualitative X-ray fluorescent analysis with pre-set curve. It is assumed that the dependence I(lambda) will be well approximated by a curve of the type Isub(bg)=(lambda-lambda sub(o)sup(fsub(1)(lambda))exp[fsub(2)(lambda)] where fsub(1) (lambda) and f 2 (lambda) are linear functions with respect to the sought parameters. This assumption was checked out on a ''pure'' starch background, in which it is not known beforehand which points belong to the background. It was assumed that the dependence I(lambda) can be found from all minima in the spectrum. Three types of minima has been distinguished: 1. the lowest point between two well-solved X-ray lines; 2. a minimum obtained as a result of statistical fluctuations of the measured signal; 3. the lowest point between two overlapped lines. The minima strongly deviating from the background are removed from the obtained set. The sum-total of the remaining minima serves as a base for the approximation of the dependence I(lambda). The unknown parameters are determined by means of the LSM. The approximated curve obtained by this method is closer to the real background than the background determined by the method described by Kigaki Denki, as the effect of all recorded minima is taken into account. As an example the PbTe spectrum recorded with crystal LiF 220 is shown graphically. The curve well describes the background of the spectrum even in the regions in which there are no minima belonging to the background. (authors)

  16. Layer thickness measurement using the X-ray fluorescence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengelkamp, B.

    1980-01-01

    Curium 244 having a gamma energy of about 15.5 keV is used as excitation emitter for contactless and continuous measuring of the thickness of metallic layers on iron strip. Soft gamma radiation is absorbed in matter according to the photo effect, so that X-ray fluorescence radiation is generated in the matter, which depends on the element and is radiated to all sides. For instance, it amounts for iron 6.4 keV and is measured with a specific ionisation chamber for this energy range. With increasing atomic number of the elements, the energy of fluorescence radiation increases and hence also the emission signal of the detector. The prerequisite for a usable measuring effect is an element distance of at least two and the thickness of the layer to be measured being in an optimum range. A signal dependent on the thickness of the layer is produced either by absorption of iron radiation (absorption method - aluminium and tin) or by build-up radiation of the material of the layer (emission method - zinc and lead). (orig./GSCH) [de

  17. Flow method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; Havrilla, George J [Los Alamos, NM; Miller, Thomasin C [Bartlesville, OK; Lewis, Cris [Los Alamos, NM; Mahan, Cynthia A [Los Alamos, NM; Wells, Cyndi A [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-04-14

    Method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence. A method for screening a mixture of potential pharmaceutical chemicals for binding to at least one target binder involves flow-separating a solution of chemicals and target binders into separated components, exposing them to an x-ray excitation beam, detecting x-ray fluorescence signals from the components, and determining from the signals whether or not a binding event between a chemical and target binder has occurred.

  18. Dispersive X-ray fluorescence applications in energy in environmental problems diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odino, R.; Souto, B.; Roca, S.; Campomar, W.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence energy was used to detect the grade of contamination due to a Portland cement factory. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the incidence of a Portland cement plant in the quality of air in its surroundings. Many contaminants (Cu, Pb, Ni, Br) do not come from the Portland cement industry but other industries in the zone

  19. Portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    313–319. Portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment for the analysis of cultural heritage. ROBERTO CESAREO. Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari, Italy. E-mail: cesareo@uniss.it. Abstract. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) especially in its portable version, gen-.

  20. Application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 76; Issue 2. Application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence ... Applicability of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry for trace elemental analysis of rainwater samples was studied. The study was used to develop these samples as rainwater standards ...

  1. High-throughput screening with micro-x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havrilla, George J.; Miller, Thomasin C.

    2005-01-01

    Micro-x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) is a useful characterization tool for high-throughput screening of combinatorial libraries. Due to the increasing threat of use of chemical warfare (CW) agents both in military actions and against civilians by terrorist extremists, there is a strong push to improve existing methods and develop means for the detection of a broad spectrum of CW agents in a minimal amount of time to increase national security. This paper describes a combinatorial high-throughput screening technique for CW receptor discovery to aid in sensor development. MXRF can screen materials for elemental composition at the mesoscale level (tens to hundreds of micrometers). The key aspect of this work is the use of commercial MXRF instrumentation coupled with the inherent heteroatom elements within the target molecules of the combinatorial reaction to provide rapid and specific identification of lead species. The method is demonstrated by screening an 11-mer oligopeptide library for selective binding of the degradation products of the nerve agent VX. The identified oligopeptides can be used as selective molecular receptors for sensor development. The MXRF screening method is nondestructive, requires minimal sample preparation or special tags for analysis, and the screening time depends on the desired sensitivity

  2. Renal function measured by X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boijsen, M.; Jacobsson, L.; Tylen, U.; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg

    1987-01-01

    In twenty-six patients injected with metrizoate during urography, plasma was analyzed for iodine concentration using X-ray fluorescence analysis, and total plasma clearance of contrast medium was calculated. Total plasma clearance of 51 Cr-EDTA was also determined, but not simultaneously, in order to find out if the urographic procedure would influence the kidneys to such an extent that the contrast medium clearance value would differ much from the 51 Cr-EDTA clearance value. The errors in the method were assessed and the total error of the contrast medium clearance determination was calculated. When comparing 51 Cr-EDTA and metrizoate clearance a correlation of 0.94 and a mean ratio of 1.046 (SD 0.138) was found. The assessable errors cannot fully explain the standard deviation, which might indicate a transient change in kidney function related to elements of the urographic procedure such as laxation with possible dehydration and/or the contrast medium dose. (orig.)

  3. A Brazilian tree collection analyzed by X ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, H.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Ferraz, E.S.B.; Haselberger, N.; Markowicz, A.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the inorganic components of wood is of great interest for several reasons, including the acquisition of basic data creating a data base of values for individual species. Knowing the wide variability in matrix composition (lignin, oil, resin, silica) and densities (0.39-1.09 g cm -3 ), 40 species of trees were analysed by X ray fluorescence (XRF) to determine the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cu, K, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr, and A. This technique is widely used because of its accuracy and simplicity of sample preparation, normally complex for this type of biological material. This multi-elemental analysis has proven suitable for wood, a material in which a wide range for each element was encountered in the different species studied: 0.3-5.2 for Br, 126-9074 for Ca, 2.2-11 for Cu, 108-5873 for K, 3.1-134 for Mn, 0.5-4.7 for Pb, 0.3-20 for Rb, 1.2-120 for Sr, and 1.1-20 for Zn (values given in μg g -1 ). (author)

  4. Portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This report describes the application of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry to characterize materials related to deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of contaminated facilities. Two portable XRF instruments manufactured by TN Spectrace were used in a technology evaluation as part of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) held at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) located at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The LSDP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Are (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate innovative technologies or technology applications potentially beneficial to the D and D of contaminated facilities. The portable XRF technology offers several potential benefits for rapid characterization of facility components and contaminants, including significant cost reduction, fast turnaround time,a nd virtually no secondary waste. Field work for the demonstration of the portable XRF technology was performed from August 28--September 3, 1996 and October 30--December 13, 1996

  5. Measurement uncertainty in Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floor, G. H.; Queralt, I.; Hidalgo, M.; Marguí, E.

    2015-09-01

    Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry is a multi-elemental technique using micro-volumes of sample. This work assessed the components contributing to the combined uncertainty budget associated with TXRF measurements using Cu and Fe concentrations in different spiked and natural water samples as an example. The results showed that an uncertainty estimation based solely on the count statistics of the analyte is not a realistic estimation of the overall uncertainty, since the depositional repeatability and the relative sensitivity between the analyte and the internal standard are important contributions to the uncertainty budget. The uncertainty on the instrumental repeatability and sensitivity factor could be estimated and as such, potentially relatively straightforward implemented in the TXRF instrument software. However, the depositional repeatability varied significantly from sample to sample and between elemental ratios and the controlling factors are not well understood. By a lack of theoretical prediction of the depositional repeatability, the uncertainty budget can be based on repeat measurements using different reflectors. A simple approach to estimate the uncertainty was presented. The measurement procedure implemented and the uncertainty estimation processes developed were validated from the agreement with results obtained by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and/or reference/calculated values.

  6. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of light elements with synchrotron radiation and special X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Bauer, V.; Kregsamer, P.; Goergl, R.; Pianetta, P.; Ryon, R.; Pahlke, S.; Fabry, L.

    1997-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) of light elements, such as C, O and Al (atomic numbers 5-13) generally has poor sensitivity and detection limits due to poor excitation and low fluorescent yields. Special excitation sources are necessary to compensate for these physical limitations. Synchrotron radiation is the ideal source for TXRF due to its high intensity and wide spectral range extending into the low energy region required for light elements. For more routine use, special X-ray tubes can be constructed. Experiments have been performed at the Standford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) using beamline III-4, which is specially designed for the sue of low energy photons. Light elements on Si wafers have been analyzed, leading to detection limits below 100 fg for Na, Mg and Al, which corresponds to about 10 9 atoms. A new vacuum chamber is introduced meeting the requirements of wafer handling without the risk of contamination and offering the possibility of scanning a certain area of the wafer. Boron was detected on a wafer with 10 14 atoms cm -2 implanted in the surface layer. A special windowless X-ray tube with Mo, Al and Si as anode materials was also tested. With the optimization of anode geometry, beam path and excitation conditions, a detection limit of 5 pg (corresponds to 10 11 atoms) for Al was achieved. (Author)

  7. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of light elements with synchrotron radiation and special X-ray tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Bauer, V.; Kregsamer, P.; Goergl, R. [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Wien (Austria); Pianetta, P. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab. (Canada); Ryon, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. CA (United States); Pahlke, S.; Fabry, L. [Wacker Siltronic AG, Burghausen (Germany)

    1997-06-20

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) of light elements, such as C, O and Al (atomic numbers 5-13) generally has poor sensitivity and detection limits due to poor excitation and low fluorescent yields. Special excitation sources are necessary to compensate for these physical limitations. Synchrotron radiation is the ideal source for TXRF due to its high intensity and wide spectral range extending into the low energy region required for light elements. For more routine use, special X-ray tubes can be constructed. Experiments have been performed at the Standford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) using beamline III-4, which is specially designed for the sue of low energy photons. Light elements on Si wafers have been analyzed, leading to detection limits below 100 fg for Na, Mg and Al, which corresponds to about 10{sup 9}atoms. A new vacuum chamber is introduced meeting the requirements of wafer handling without the risk of contamination and offering the possibility of scanning a certain area of the wafer. Boron was detected on a wafer with 10{sup 14} atoms cm{sup -2} implanted in the surface layer. A special windowless X-ray tube with Mo, Al and Si as anode materials was also tested. With the optimization of anode geometry, beam path and excitation conditions, a detection limit of 5 pg (corresponds to 10{sup 11} atoms) for Al was achieved. (Author).

  8. Romanian medieval earring analysis by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.guillot@univ-jfc.fr [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasmas, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Muja, Cristina [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasmas, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest (Romania); Vasile Parvan Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest, (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Several instrumental techniques of elemental analysis are now used for the characterization of archaeological materials. The combination between archaeological and analytical information can provide significant knowledge on the constituting material origin, heritage authentication and restoration, provenance, migration, social interaction and exchange. Surface mapping techniques such as X-Ray Fluorescence have become a powerful tool for obtaining qualitative and semi-quantitative information about the chemical composition of cultural heritage materials, including metallic archaeological objects. In this study, the material comes from the Middle Age cemetery of Feldioara (Romania). The excavation of the site located between the evangelical church and the parsonage led to the discovery of several funeral artifacts in 18 graves among a total of 127 excavated. Even if the inventory was quite poor, some of the objects helped in establishing the chronology. Six anonymous Hungarian denarii (silver coins) were attributed to Geza II (1141-1161) and Stefan III (1162-1172), placing the cemetery in the second half of the XII century. This period was also confirmed by three loop shaped earrings with the end in 'S' form (one small and two large earrings). The small earring was found during the excavation in grave number 86, while the two others were discovered together in grave number 113. The anthropological study shown that skeletons excavated from graves 86 and 113 belonged respectively to a child (1 individual, medium level preservation, 9 months +/- 3 months) and to an adult (1 individual). In this work, elemental mapping were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique from Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument offering detailed elemental images with a spatial resolution of 100{mu}m. The analysis revealed that the earrings were composed of copper, zinc and tin as major elements. Minor elements were also determined. The comparison between the two

  9. Quantum electrodynamics of the internal source x-ray holographies: Bremsstrahlung, fluorescence, and multiple-energy x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.; Sorensen, L.B.

    1997-01-01

    Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to derive the differential cross sections measured in the three new experimental internal source ensemble x-ray holographies: bremsstrahlung (BXH), fluorescence (XFH), and multiple-energy (MEXH) x-ray holography. The polarization dependence of the BXH cross section is also obtained. For BXH, we study analytically and numerically the possible effects of the virtual photons and electrons which enter QED calculations in summing over the intermediate states. For the low photon and electron energies used in the current experiments, we show that the virtual intermediate states produce only very small effects. This is because the uncertainty principle limits the distance that the virtual particles can propagate to be much shorter than the separation between the regions of high electron density in the adjacent atoms. We also find that using the asymptotic form of the scattering wave function causes about a 5 10% error for near forward scattering. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Measurement uncertainty in Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floor, G.H., E-mail: geerke.floor@gfz-potsdam.de [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences Section 3.4. Earth Surface Geochemistry, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Postdam (Germany); Queralt, I. [Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera ICTJA-CSIC, Solé Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Hidalgo, M.; Marguí, E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi s/n, 17071 Girona (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry is a multi-elemental technique using micro-volumes of sample. This work assessed the components contributing to the combined uncertainty budget associated with TXRF measurements using Cu and Fe concentrations in different spiked and natural water samples as an example. The results showed that an uncertainty estimation based solely on the count statistics of the analyte is not a realistic estimation of the overall uncertainty, since the depositional repeatability and the relative sensitivity between the analyte and the internal standard are important contributions to the uncertainty budget. The uncertainty on the instrumental repeatability and sensitivity factor could be estimated and as such, potentially relatively straightforward implemented in the TXRF instrument software. However, the depositional repeatability varied significantly from sample to sample and between elemental ratios and the controlling factors are not well understood. By a lack of theoretical prediction of the depositional repeatability, the uncertainty budget can be based on repeat measurements using different reflectors. A simple approach to estimate the uncertainty was presented. The measurement procedure implemented and the uncertainty estimation processes developed were validated from the agreement with results obtained by inductively coupled plasma — optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and/or reference/calculated values. - Highlights: • The uncertainty of TXRF cannot be realistically described by the counting statistics. • The depositional repeatability is an important contribution to the uncertainty. • Total combined uncertainties for Fe and Cu in waste/mine water samples were 4–8%. • Obtained concentrations agree within uncertainty with reference values.

  11. X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Turbulent Methane-Oxygen Shear Coaxial Flames (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    techniques to increasingly complex flames Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 3 X-Ray Diagnostics • X-ray...required • Two types of X-ray diagnostics radiography and fluorescence – Radiography has been widely used in sprays to obtain mass density measurements... Radiography - Radial EPL Profiles • Near-injector EPL profiles have elliptical shape expected from a solid liquid jet • Closest measurements were

  12. Feasibility study of total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis using a liquid metal jet X-ray tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maderitsch, A.; Smolek, S. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Wobrauschek, P., E-mail: wobi@ati.ac.at [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Takman, P. [Excillum AB, Finlandsgatan 14, 164 74 Kista (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    Total reflection X-ray spectroscopy (TXRF) is a powerful analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of trace and ultratrace elements in a sample with lower limits of detection (LLDs) of pg/g to ng/g in concentration and absolute high fg levels are attainable. Several X-ray sources, from low power (few W), 18 kW rotating anodes to synchrotron radiation, are in use for the excitation and lead accordingly to their photon flux delivered on the sample the detection limits specified. Not only the power, but also the brilliance and focal shape are of importance for TXRF. A microfocus of 50–100 μm spot size or the line focus of diffraction tubes is best suited. Excillum developed a new approach in the design of a source: the liquid metal jet anode. In this paper the results achieved with this source are described. A versatile TXRF spectrometer with vacuum chamber designed at Atominstitut was used for the experiments. A multilayer monochromator selecting the intensive Ga-Kα radiation was taken and the beam was collimated by 50 μm slits. Excellent results regarding geometric beam stability, high fluorescence intensities and low background were achieved leading to detection limits in the high fg range for Ni. A 100 mm{sup 2} silicon drift detector (SDD) collimated to 80 mm{sup 2} was used to collect the fluorescence radiation. The results from measurements on single element samples are presented. - Highlights: • Using a new X-ray source for TXRF • Liquid metal jet X-ray source from Excillum • Offers improvements for lab based TXRF spectrometers • Can also be important for related techniques.

  13. Energy response calibration of photon-counting detectors using x-ray fluorescence: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H-M; Ding, H; Ziemer, B P; Molloi, S

    2014-12-07

    Accurate energy calibration is critical for the application of energy-resolved photon-counting detectors in spectral imaging. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of energy response calibration and characterization of a photon-counting detector using x-ray fluorescence. A comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study was performed using Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) to investigate the optimal technique for x-ray fluorescence calibration. Simulations were conducted using a 100 kVp tungsten-anode spectra with 2.7 mm Al filter for a single pixel cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector with 3 × 3 mm(2) in detection area. The angular dependence of x-ray fluorescence and scatter background was investigated by varying the detection angle from 20° to 170° with respect to the beam direction. The effects of the detector material, shape, and size on the recorded x-ray fluorescence were investigated. The fluorescent material size effect was considered with and without the container for the fluorescent material. In order to provide validation for the simulation result, the angular dependence of x-ray fluorescence from five fluorescent materials was experimentally measured using a spectrometer. Finally, eleven of the fluorescent materials were used for energy calibration of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The optimal detection angle was determined to be approximately at 120° with respect to the beam direction, which showed the highest fluorescence to scatter ratio (FSR) with a weak dependence on the fluorescent material size. The feasibility of x-ray fluorescence for energy calibration of photon-counting detectors in the diagnostic x-ray energy range was verified by successfully calibrating the energy response of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The results of this study can be used as a guideline to implement the x-ray fluorescence calibration method for photon-counting detectors in a typical imaging laboratory.

  14. X-ray measurements from the cathode surface of glow discharge tube used as a compact X-ray fluorescence instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, K.; Wagatsuma, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nagata, S.; Hirokawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    As previously reported, when a high-voltage is applied to a Grimm glow discharge tube, high-energy electrons emitted from the cathode surface bombard the glass window, leading to X-ray emissions from the window. In this study, we have applied an energy-dispersive X-ray analysis to detect X-rays from the cathode which are excited by X-rays emitted from the glass window. Thus, we have proposed to utilize this glow discharge tube as a compact X-ray fluorescence instrument, to which both the X-ray emission source and the sample are directly attached. This compact X-ray fluorescence instrument has the same advantages of easy maintenance, exchangeable target and sample, and simple construction. The quantitative determination of Si, Ti, and Mn in Fe-Si, Fe-Ti, and Fe-Mn alloys was demonstrated with the detection limits of 21, 150 and 420 ppm, respectively. The X-ray measurement form the cathode is a useful method to directly monitor the cathode surface during the glow discharge process. This would be applied to understand and control the glow discharge processes. Moreover, the X-ray diffraction peaks as well as the fluorescent X-ray peaks were observed, indicating that the structure analysis of the cathode material would also be possible. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Numerical simulation study for atomic-resolution x-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Honglan; Gao Hongyi; Chen Jianwen; Xiong Shisheng; Xu Zhizhan; Wang Junyue; Zhu Peiping; Xian Dingchang

    2003-01-01

    Based on the principle of x-ray fluorescence holography, an iron single crystal model of a body-centred cubic lattice is numerically simulated. From the fluorescence hologram produced numerically, the Fe atomic images were reconstructed. The atomic images of the (001), (100), (010) crystallographic planes were consistent with the corresponding atomic positions of the model. The result indicates that one can obtain internal structure images of single crystals at atomic-resolution by using x-ray fluorescence holography

  16. Sampling, storage and sample preparation procedures for X ray fluorescence analysis of environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    X ray fluorescence (XRF) method is one of the most commonly used nuclear analytical technique because of its multielement and non-destructive character, speed, economy and ease of operation. From the point of view of quality assurance practices, sampling and sample preparation procedures are the most crucial steps in all analytical techniques, (including X ray fluorescence) applied for the analysis of heterogeneous materials. This technical document covers recent modes of the X ray fluorescence method and recent developments in sample preparation techniques for the analysis of environmental materials. Refs, figs, tabs

  17. X-ray fluorescence analyzers for investigating postmediaeval pottery from Southern Moravia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojek, Tomas; Hlozek, Matin; Cechak, Tomas; Musilek, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with an investigation of ceramic archaeological finds with the use of in-situ X-ray fluorescence analysis. Firstly, three configurations of X-ray fluorescence analyzers constructed and used at the Czech Technical University in Prague are described and compared for use in a non-destructive survey of siliceous materials. Detection limits, depth of analysis, the relation of the analyzed area, the homogeneity of the samples, and variations in the element concentrations are discussed. Secondly, many shards of postmediaeval pottery from Southern Moravia are analyzed with X-ray fluorescence analysis and some of them also with electron microprobe analysis. Selected results are described.

  18. X-ray fluorescence analyzers for investigating postmediaeval pottery from Southern Moravia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trojek, Tomas [Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic)], E-mail: tomas.trojek@fjfi.cvut.cz; Hlozek, Matin [Department of Archaeology and Museology, Faculty of Arts, Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic); Cechak, Tomas; Musilek, Ladislav [Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-04-15

    This paper deals with an investigation of ceramic archaeological finds with the use of in-situ X-ray fluorescence analysis. Firstly, three configurations of X-ray fluorescence analyzers constructed and used at the Czech Technical University in Prague are described and compared for use in a non-destructive survey of siliceous materials. Detection limits, depth of analysis, the relation of the analyzed area, the homogeneity of the samples, and variations in the element concentrations are discussed. Secondly, many shards of postmediaeval pottery from Southern Moravia are analyzed with X-ray fluorescence analysis and some of them also with electron microprobe analysis. Selected results are described.

  19. Microprocessor-based system for automatic X-ray diffraction and fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.M. de; Carmo, L.C.S. do; Pereira, V.J.E.; Soares, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    A data acquisition and processing device appropriate for X-ray analysis and goniometer control was built. The Z-80 based system as well as the whole architeture is described. The advantages and new possibilities of the automated instrument as compared to the traditional ones are listed. The X-ray diffraction and fluorescence techniques can take advantage of the automation. (Author) [pt

  20. The potential of L-shell X-ray fluorescence CT (XFCT) for molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence CT (XFCT), a novel modality proposed for high-sensitivity high-resolution molecular imaging of probes labelled with a high atomic-number element, has been performed with high-energy K-shell X-rays. XFCT performed with low-energy L-shell X-rays could, in principle, result in an increase of XFCT imaging sensitivity; however, the significant L-shell X-ray attenuation limits its use for imaging of small objects. This commentary discusses the advantages and drawbacks of L-shell XFCT imaging.

  1. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, Y.; Błachucki, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Neff, M.; Romano, V.

    2014-01-01

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO 2 optical fibers

  2. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Y; Błachucki, W; Dousse, J-Cl; Hoszowska, J; Neff, M; Romano, V

    2014-04-01

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO2 optical fibers.

  3. Synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis of the calibration samples used in surface sensitive total reflection and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Banaś, D.; Pajek, M.; Szlachetko, J.; Jagodziński, P.; Susini, J.; Salomé, M.

    2013-12-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) are surface sensitive techniques and can be used for detailed surface studies of different materials, including ultra-low concentration contamination or the lateral and depth distributions of elements. The calibration procedure typically used involves placing a micro-droplet (˜μl) of the standard solution onto a silicon wafer (or quartz backing). After evaporation of the solvent, the residual amount of elements is used as a reference standard. Knowledge of the distribution of residue material on the substrate surface is crucial for precise quantification. In the present work the investigation of the lateral distribution of elements in the multielemental calibrating samples, containing the 23 most commonly studied elements, by using the synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence is presented. The goal of this project was the study of a uniformity of the elemental distributions and determination of the residual elements morphology depending on the temperature of the drying process. The X-ray images were compared with optical and SEM images. Paper presents in details the experimental setup, sample preparation procedures, measurements and results. In the analysis of the X-ray images of the sample dried in high temperature the censoring approach was applied improving the quality of statistical analysis. The information on the elements distribution in the calibrating samples can be useful for developing more accurate calibration procedures applied in quantitative analysis of surface sensitive TXRF and GEXRF techniques.

  4. Application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Applicability of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry for trace elemental analysis of rainwater samples was studied. The study was used to develop these samples as rainwater standards by the National University of Singapore (NUS). Our laboratory was one of the participants to use TXRF for this study.

  5. In vivo x-ray fluorescence of lead and other toxic trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chettle, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The first in vivo x-ray fluorescence measurements of lead in bone used y-rays from a 57 Co source to excite Pb K x-rays. Later systems used γ-rays from 109 Cd to excite Pb K x-rays or polarized x-rays to excite Ph L x-rays. All three approaches involve an extremely low effective dose to the subject. Of the two K x-ray techniques, 109 Cd is more precise and more flexible in choice of measurement site. Pb L x-ray fluorescence (L-XRF) effectively samples lead at bone surfaces, whereas Ph K x-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) samples through the bulk of a bone. Both the polarized L-XRF and 109 Cd K-XRF achieve similar precision. Renal mercury has recently been determined using a polarized x-ray source, Both renal and hepatic cadmium can be measured using polarized x-rays in conjunction with a Si(Li) detector. Platinum and gold have been measured both by radioisotopic source excitation and by using polarized x-rays, but the latter is to be preferred. Applications of Pb K-XRF have shown that measured bone lead relates strongly to cumulative lead exposure. Secondly, biological half lives of lead in different bone types have been estimated from limited longitudinal data sets and from some cross sectional surveys. Thirdly, the effect of bone lead as an endogenous source of lead has been demonstrated and it has been shown that a majority of circulating blood lead can be mobilized from bone, rather than deriving from new exposure, in some retired lead workers. 35 refs., 5 tabs

  6. Micro-beam X-ray fluorescence and absorption imaging techniques at the IAEA Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzynek, Dariusz; Markowicz, A.; Bamford, S.; Chinea-Cano, E.; Bogovac, M.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray tube based, micro-beam X-ray fluorescence scanning spectrometer has been equipped with two energy dispersive X-ray detectors. The two-detector configuration allows for simultaneous collection of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and transmitted X-ray beam signals with a spatial resolution in the range of 10-50 μm, depending on the X-ray focussing element in use. The XRF signal is collected with a standard, liquid nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector. The X-ray beam transmitted through the sample is acquired with a thermoelectrically cooled, silicon drift (SD) detector. The data acquisition is carried out in a fully automatic way under control of the SPECTOR-LOCATOR software. The software controls the scanning procedure and X-ray spectra acquisition during the scan. The energy dispersive X-ray spectra collected at every 'pixel' are stored for off-line processing. For selected regions of interest (ROI's), the element maps are constructed and displayed on-line. The spectrometer has been used for mapping elemental distributions and for performing 2D- and 3D-tomograpic imaging of minute objects in X-ray absorption and in X-ray fluorescence mode. A unique feature of the described system is simultaneous utilization of the two detectors, Si(Li) and SD, which adds new options for quantitative analysis and data interpretation. Examples of elemental mapping and 3D tomographic imaging as well as the advanced features of the SPECTOR-LOCATOR measurement control and data acquisition software are presented in this work

  7. Application of an X-ray Fluorescence Instrument to Helicopter Wear Debris Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the application of an X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument to determine the composition of wear debris collected from helicopter magnetic chip detectors and oil filters. The Twin-X XRF...

  8. Detecting Metallic Primary Explosives with a Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hewitt, Alan D

    1997-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) analysis is a practical means of performing in-situ screening to establish the presence of high concentrations (>0.1% or 1000 ppm) of lead (Pb) and/or mercury (Hg...

  9. Forensic application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elemental characterization of ink samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhara, Sangita; Misra, N.L.; Maind, S.D.; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of applying Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for qualitative and quantitative differentiation of documents printed with rare earth tagged and untagged inks has been explored in this paper. For qualitative differentiation, a very small amount of ink was loosened from the printed documents by smoothly rubbing with a new clean blade without destroying the manuscript. 50 μL of Milli-Q water was put on this loose powder, on the manuscript, and was agitated by sucking and releasing the suspension two to three times with the help of a micropipette. The resultant dispersion was deposited on quartz sample support for Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectrum of tagged and untagged inks could be clearly differentiated. In order to see the applicability of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for quantitative determinations of rare earths and also to countercheck such determinations in ink samples, the amounts of rare earth in painted papers with single rare earth tagged inks were determined by digesting the painted paper in HNO 3 /HClO 4 , mixing this solution with the internal standard and recording their Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectra after calibration of the instrument. The results thus obtained were compared with those obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and were found in good agreement. The average precision of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determinations was 5.5% (1σ) and the average deviation of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determined values with that of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was 7.3%. These studies have shown that Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence offers a promising and potential application in forensic work of this nature.

  10. Certification of reference materials by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Leif Højslet; Heydorn, Kaj

    1985-01-01

    This paper studies the precision and accuracy that can be achieved using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the determination of total sulphur content in BCR 38 Fly Ash issued by the European Community Bureau of Reference.......This paper studies the precision and accuracy that can be achieved using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the determination of total sulphur content in BCR 38 Fly Ash issued by the European Community Bureau of Reference....

  11. Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis of components of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Havranek, E.; Dejmkova, E.

    1983-12-01

    The physical foundations and methodology are described of radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis. The sources are listed of air, water and soil pollution, and the transfer of impurities into biological materials is described. A detailed description is presented of the sampling of air, soil and biological materials and their preparation for analysis. Greatest attention is devoted to radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis of the components of the environment. (ES)

  12. Feasibility study of total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis using a liquid metal jet X-ray tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderitsch, A.; Smolek, S.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Takman, P.

    2014-09-01

    Total reflection X-ray spectroscopy (TXRF) is a powerful analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of trace and ultratrace elements in a sample with lower limits of detection (LLDs) of pg/g to ng/g in concentration and absolute high fg levels are attainable. Several X-ray sources, from low power (few W), 18 kW rotating anodes to synchrotron radiation, are in use for the excitation and lead accordingly to their photon flux delivered on the sample the detection limits specified. Not only the power, but also the brilliance and focal shape are of importance for TXRF. A microfocus of 50-100 μm spot size or the line focus of diffraction tubes is best suited. Excillum developed a new approach in the design of a source: the liquid metal jet anode. In this paper the results achieved with this source are described. A versatile TXRF spectrometer with vacuum chamber designed at Atominstitut was used for the experiments. A multilayer monochromator selecting the intensive Ga-Kα radiation was taken and the beam was collimated by 50 μm slits. Excellent results regarding geometric beam stability, high fluorescence intensities and low background were achieved leading to detection limits in the high fg range for Ni. A 100 mm2 silicon drift detector (SDD) collimated to 80 mm2 was used to collect the fluorescence radiation. The results from measurements on single element samples are presented.

  13. Provenance study of Gothic paintings from North-East Slovakia by handheld x-ray fluorescence, microscopy and x-ray microdiffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hradil, David; Hradilová, J.; Bezdička, Petr; Švarcová, Silvie

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2008), s. 376-382 ISSN 0049-8246 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Gothic paintings * X-ray fluorescence * X-ray microdiffraction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.390, year: 2008

  14. ISS Ammonia Leak Detection Through X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, Scott; Skinner, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia leaks are a significant concern for the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS has external transport lines that direct liquid ammonia to radiator panels where the ammonia is cooled and then brought back to thermal control units. These transport lines and radiator panels are subject to stress from micrometeorites and temperature variations, and have developed small leaks. The ISS can accommodate these leaks at their present rate, but if the rate increased by a factor of ten, it could potentially deplete the ammonia supply and impact the proper functioning of the ISS thermal control system, causing a serious safety risk. A proposed ISS astrophysics instrument, the Lobster X-Ray Monitor, can be used to detect and localize ISS ammonia leaks. Based on the optical design of the eye of its namesake crustacean, the Lobster detector gives simultaneously large field of view and good position resolution. The leak detection principle is that the nitrogen in the leaking ammonia will be ionized by X-rays from the Sun, and then emit its own characteristic Xray signal. The Lobster instrument, nominally facing zenith for its astrophysics observations, can be periodically pointed towards the ISS radiator panels and some sections of the transport lines to detect and localize the characteristic X-rays from the ammonia leaks. Another possibility is to use the ISS robot arm to grab the Lobster instrument and scan it across the transport lines and radiator panels. In this case the leak detection can be made more sensitive by including a focused 100-microampere electron beam to stimulate X-ray emission from the leaking nitrogen. Laboratory studies have shown that either approach can be used to locate ammonia leaks at the level of 0.1 kg/day, a threshold rate of concern for the ISS. The Lobster instrument uses two main components: (1) a microchannel plate optic (also known as a Lobster optic) that focuses the X-rays and directs them to the focal plane, and (2) a CCD (charge

  15. New approach to breast tumor detection based on fluorescence x-ray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuyama, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technical approach to breast-tumor detection is proposed. The technique is based on fluorescence x-ray analysis, and can identify a miniature malignant tumor within the breast. The primary beam intensity needed in fluorescence x-ray analysis is on a lower order of magnitude than that used in mammography. Thus, the newly-proposed technique would enable detection of a still tiny breast cancer while dramatically lowering the radiation dose. Field-emission x-ray sources might be a key for translating this concept into a medical technique.

  16. Method for detecting binding events using micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; Havrilla, George J.; Mann, Grace

    2010-12-28

    Method for detecting binding events using micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Receptors are exposed to at least one potential binder and arrayed on a substrate support. Each member of the array is exposed to X-ray radiation. The magnitude of a detectable X-ray fluorescence signal for at least one element can be used to determine whether a binding event between a binder and a receptor has occurred, and can provide information related to the extent of binding between the binder and receptor.

  17. X-ray fluorescence holography: A different approach to data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busetto, E.; Kopecky, M.; Lausi, A.; Menk, R.H.; Miculin, M.; Savoia, A.

    2000-01-01

    The images of nearest neighbors of gallium atoms in a GaAs crystal were obtained by the x-ray fluorescence holography technique. The fluorescence from gallium atoms was selected by means of a thin zinc foil filter that made possible the use of an x-ray silicon photodiode detector without energy resolution. This method makes possible the detection of a much higher signal with respect to all previous experiments, thus reducing drastically measuring times, that is a basic and essential step from contemporary demonstration experiments to possible practical applications of x-ray holography in structure analysis

  18. Scoria analysis by X-ray fluorescence with briquet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, G.R. da; Albert, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    The sample of scoria is triturated, using boric acid as agglomerative. The briquets are analyzed by X-ray quantometry, establishing the proportions of SiO 2 , P 2 O 5 , S, Cr 2 O 3 , V 2 O 5 , TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Mg O, Ca O, FeO and their basicity. The calibration curves are prepared with standard scoria samples, by chemical analysis. (C.G.C.) [pt

  19. X-ray fluorescence analysis of thin films at glancing-incident and -takeoff angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, K.; Sato, S.; Hirokawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a new analytical method, Glancing-Incidence and -Takeoff X-Ray Fluorescence (GIT-XRF) method for the first time. Here, we present an idea for a thin-film analysis and a surface analysis by the GIT-XRF method. In this method, the dependence of the fluorescent x-ray intensity on takeoff angle is measured at various incident angles of the primary x-ray. Compared with a total reflection x-ray fluorescence method, the GIT-XRF method allows a detailed thin-film analysis, because the thin film is cross-checked by many experimental curves. Moreover, a surface-sensitive analysis is also possible by the GIT-XRF method. (author)

  20. A microfocus X-ray fluorescence beamline at Indus-2 synchrotron radiation facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, M K; Gupta, P; Sinha, A K; Kane, S R; Singh, A K; Garg, S R; Garg, C K; Lodha, G S; Deb, S K

    2013-03-01

    A microfocus X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy beamline (BL-16) at the Indian synchrotron radiation facility Indus-2 has been constructed with an experimental emphasis on environmental, archaeological, biomedical and material science applications involving heavy metal speciation and their localization. The beamline offers a combination of different analytical probes, e.g. X-ray fluorescence mapping, X-ray microspectroscopy and total-external-reflection fluorescence characterization. The beamline is installed on a bending-magnet source with a working X-ray energy range of 4-20 keV, enabling it to excite K-edges of all elements from S to Nb and L-edges from Ag to U. The optics of the beamline comprises of a double-crystal monochromator with Si(111) symmetric and asymmetric crystals and a pair of Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing mirrors. This paper describes the performance of the beamline and its capabilities with examples of measured results.

  1. Fluorescence X-ray micro-spectroscopy activities at ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salome, M; Bleuet, P; Chalmin, E; Cloetens, P; Andrade, V De; Martinez-Criado, G; Petitgirard, S; Rak, M; Tresserras, J A Sans; Tucoulou, R; Susini, J; Bohic, S; Cauzid, J; Cotte, M; Szlachetko, J

    2009-01-01

    The X-ray Microscopy and Micro-analysis beamlines at ESRF operate complementary state-of-the-art instruments at ID21, ID22, ID18F and more recently ID22NI. Within a multi-modal strategy, these beamlines develop micro-imaging techniques with various contrast mechanisms (μXRF, μXANES, μXRD and phase contrast) and host experiments with scientific topics ranging from Geochemistry to Archeology, Environmental sciences, Biology and Material sciences. Future challenges include pushing spatial resolution down to the nano-scale and the development of innovative 3D micro-analysis techniques.

  2. Micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with x-ray single bounce metallic capillary optics for light element analysis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczka, Robert; Żukociński, Grzegorz; Łopucki, Rafał

    2017-05-01

    In the last 20 years, , due to the rapid development of X-ray optics, micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (micro-XRF) has become a powerful tool to determine the spatial distribution of major, minor, and trace elements within a sample. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) spectrometers for light element analysis (6 work was supported and co-funded by the European Union as part of the Operational Programme Development of Eastern Poland for 2007-2013, Priority I Innovative Economy, Measure I.3. Support for Innovations and The National Centre for Research and Development, Project no. TANGO1,267102/NCBR/2015

  3. Determination of a Thorium Content in Soil Samples by Means of Gamma-Activation Analysis and X-Ray Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maslov, O D; Gustova, M V; Dmitriev, S N

    2003-01-01

    A highly sensitive method based on the reaction ^{232}Th(\\gamma, n)^{231}Th (T_{1/2} = 25.5 h) is developed for determining thorium in soil and environmental samples with a thorium content at a level of 3x10^{-7} g/g. Samples were irradiated for 4 hours with a maximum photon energy of 24.5 MeV at a compact electron accelerator - the MT-25 microtron of FLNR, JINR. The average electron current was about 15 {\\mu}A. The irradiated samples were tested using an X-ray spectrometer with a Si(Li) detector and a resolution of 200 eV (Fe_{K\\alpha} - 6.4 keV).

  4. Automatic energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, J.C.; Carey, R.; Chopra, V.K.

    1983-01-01

    The invention discloses a number of improvements for an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system having computer supervised data collection, display and processing. The systems with which the improved circuitry and methods may be used include a dual interlocking bus structure so that the analyzer and computer functions communicate directly with each other and the user has immediate keyboard control of both. Such a system normally includes a system base control, a control console and a display console. The portions of the system which have been improved include a new type of ratemeter which gives a voltage output proportional to the intensity of the energy window or windows under consideration, an output which is an absolute digital representation of the intensity count rate, circuitry for input multiplexing and multiple output voltage buffering of the ratemeter to accomodate multiple single channel signals, and a new dead time correction to enable meaningful single channel intensity data to be handled by the system. An extension of the ratemeter is also disclosed for use in conjunction with X-ray mapping, enabling enhancements to be made on mapping SCA data

  5. [Determination of lead in workplace air by portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juntong; Liu, Yan; Chen, Ya; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Tong

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the permance index ofof portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in the determination of lead on filter membrane and to provide data for the determination of lead in workplace air. Irradiated with X-ray, the lead would emit specific X-ray fluorescence during the process from the excited state back to the ground state. Rapid determination of lead was completed using fluorescence energy and wave length for qualitative analysis and fluorescence intensity for quantitative measurement. Under set conditions, a series of customized calibration samples were measured to create a standard curve for quantitative analysis of lead on filter membrane. The regression equation obtained using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to determine the lead on filter membrane was y=0.004x-0.182 (r2= 0.9999). The linear range was 0.00 -10.40 mg/m3, the minimum detectable concentration was 0.53 µg/m3, and the minimum quantifiable concentration was 1.76µg/m3. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of within-run precision of samples with different concentrations was 0.48%-6.22%, the RSD of between-run precision was 2.51%-5.09%, and the degree of accuracy was in the calibration range of standard samples. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is a simple, rapid, repeatable, and accurate method for the determination of lead on filter membrane.

  6. X-ray fluorescence hologram data collection with a cooled avalanche photodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Matsubara, E I; Kishimoto, S; Mori, T; Tanaka, M

    2002-01-01

    A high counting rate X-ray detector with an appropriate energy resolution is desired for high quality X-ray fluorescence hologram measurements because a holographic pattern is detected as extremely small intensity variations of X-ray fluorescence on a large intensity background. A cooled avalanche photodiode (APD), which has about 10% energy resolution and is designed for a high counting rate, fits the above requirements. Reconstructed atomic images from experimental holograms using the APD system provide us a clear view of the first and second neighbor atoms around an emitter. The present result proved that a combination of this APD system and a synchrotron X-ray source enables us to measure a high quality hologram for a reasonable measurement time.

  7. Past, present and future roles of the x-ray fluorescence method for materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, R.

    1988-01-01

    The use of X-ray methods for materials characterisation include Wavelength and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, Powder and Single Crystal Diffractometry, plus various types of absorptionmetry. Over the recent years X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has become one of the most valuable methods for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of materials. In particular, the speed, accuracy and versatility of X-ray fluorescence are the most important features amoung the many which have made it the method of choice in over 15 000 laboratories all over the world. Included within the category of speciality spectrometers are Total Reflection Spectrometers (TRXRF), Synchrotron Source Spectrometers (SSXRF), and Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). One thing that each of these three special systems have in common is a very high sensitivity and ability to work with extremely low concentrations and/or small specimens

  8. Monte Carlo simulation applied in total reflection x-ray fluorescence: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meira, Luiza L. C.; Inocente, Guilherme F.; Vieira, Leticia D.; Mesa, Joel [Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica - Instituto de Biociencias de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    The X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a technique for the qualitative and quantitative determination of chemical constituents in a sample. This method is based on detection of the characteristic radiation intensities emitted by the elements of the sample, when properly excited. A variant of this technique is the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) that utilizes electromagnetic radiation as excitation source. In total reflection of X-ray, the angle of refraction of the incident beam tends to zero and the refracted beam is tangent to the sample support interface. Thus, there is a minimum angle of incidence at which no refracted beam exists and all incident radiation undergoes total reflection. In this study, we evaluated the influence of the energy variation of the beam of incident x-rays, using the MCNPX code (Monte Carlo NParticle) based on Monte Carlo method.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation applied in total reflection x-ray fluorescence: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Luiza L. C.; Inocente, Guilherme F.; Vieira, Letícia D.; Mesa, Joel

    2013-05-01

    The X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a technique for the qualitative and quantitative determination of chemical constituents in a sample. This method is based on detection of the characteristic radiation intensities emitted by the elements of the sample, when properly excited. A variant of this technique is the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) that utilizes electromagnetic radiation as excitation source. In total reflection of X-ray, the angle of refraction of the incident beam tends to zero and the refracted beam is tangent to the sample support interface. Thus, there is a minimum angle of incidence at which no refracted beam exists and all incident radiation undergoes total reflection. In this study, we evaluated the influence of the energy variation of the beam of incident x-rays, using the MCNPX code (Monte Carlo NParticle) based on Monte Carlo method.

  10. Quantitative schemes in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence implemented in AXIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchantchane, A.; Benamar, M.A.; Tobbeche, S.

    1995-01-01

    E.D.X.R.F (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) has long been used for quantitative analysis of many types of samples including environment samples. the software package AXIL (Analysis of x-ray spectra by iterative least quares) is extensively used for the spectra analysis and the quantification of x-ray spectra. It includes several methods of quantitative schemes for evaluating element concentrations. We present the general theory behind each scheme implemented into the software package. The spectra of the performance of each of these quantitative schemes. We have also investigated their performance relative to the uncertainties in the experimental parameters and sample description

  11. Energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence techniques in water pollution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holynska, B.

    1980-01-01

    Advantages and limitations of energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence methods for analysis of pollutants in water are discussed. The necessary equipment for X-ray measurement of insoluble and dissolved trace metals in water is described. Different techniques of enrichment of trace metals are presented: ion exchange on selective Chelex-100 exchanger, precipitation with chelating agents DDTC and APDC, and adsorption on activated carbon. Some results obtained using different preconcentration methods for trace metals determination in different waters are presented. (author)

  12. Application of confocal X-ray fluorescence micro-spectroscopy to the investigation of paint layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo; Wang, Guangfu; Ma, Yongzhong; Peng, Song; Sun, Weiyuan; Li, Fangzuo; Sun, Xuepeng; Ding, Xunliang

    2014-12-01

    A confocal micro X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) spectrometer based on polycapillary X-ray optics was used for the identification of paint layers. The performance of the confocal MXRF was studied. Multilayered paint fragments of a car were analyzed nondestructively to demonstrate that this confocal MXRF instrument could be used in the discrimination of the various layers in multilayer paint systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of the nuclear x-ray fluorescence method to prospecting for gold in-situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Xie, T.; Zhou, S.; Ge, L.

    1989-01-01

    Arsenic and chalcophile elements are often associated with gold, and can be considered indicator elements when prospecting for gold deposits. The nuclear geophysics X-ray fluorescence method can be used to search for hidden gold deposits by measuring fluorescence intensities of the indicator elements in situ. The method can speed geologic investigation and reduce exploration cost. Three types of portable radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analyzers, designed and manufactured by Chengdu College of Geology and Chongqing Geological Instrument Factory, are briefly introduced. These analyzers are widely used in different stages of geologic investigation for gold in China. In the two case histories presented five anomalous zones of X-ray fluorescence intensity related to gold mineralization are located and one hidden gold deposit is discovered with gold content of 23 g/t

  14. Apollo 16 geochemical X-ray fluorescence experiment: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, I.; Trombka, J.; Gerard, J.; Lowman, P.; Schmadebeck, R.; Blodgett, H.; Eller, E.; Yin, L.; Lamothe, R.; Osswald, G.

    1972-01-01

    The lunar surface was mapped with respect to Mg, Al, and Si, as Al/Si and Mg/Si ratios along the projected ground tracks swept out by the orbiting Apollo 16 spacecraft. The results confirm the observations made during the Apollo 15 flight and provide data for a number of features not covered before. The data are consistent with the idea that the moon has a widespread differentiated crust (the highlands). The Al/Si and Mg/Si chemical ratios correspond to that for anorthositic gabbro through gabbroic anorthosites or feldspathic basalts. The X-ray results suggest the occurrence of this premare crust or material similar to it as the Descartes landing site.

  15. Portable total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis in the identification of unknown laboratory hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying, E-mail: liu.ying.48r@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Imashuku, Susumu; Sasaki, Nobuharu; Ze, Long; Kawai, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Takano, Shotaro; Sohrin, Yoshiki [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Seki, Hiroko; Miyauchi, Hiroya [Kyoto Prefectural Technology Center for Small and Medium Enterprises, Chudojiminami machi, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto 600-8813 (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, a portable total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer was used to analyze unknown laboratory hazards that precipitated on exterior surfaces of cooling pipes and fume hood pipes in chemical laboratories. With the aim to examine the accuracy of TXRF analysis for the determination of elemental composition, analytical results were compared with those of wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, x-ray diffraction spectrometry (XRD), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Detailed comparison of data confirmed that the TXRF method itself was not sufficient to determine all the elements (Z > 11) contained in the samples. In addition, results suggest that XRD should be combined with XPS in order to accurately determine compound composition. This study demonstrates that at least two analytical methods should be used in order to analyze the composition of unknown real samples.

  16. Project Title: Radiochemical Analysis by High Sensitivity Dual-Optic Micro X-ray Fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havrilla, George J.; Gao, Ning

    2002-01-01

    A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries and double bent crystals, which focus X-rays. The polycapillary optic can be used to focus X-rays emitted by the X-ray tube thereby increasing the X-ray flux on the sample over 1000 times. Polycapillaries will also be used to collect the X-rays from the excitation site and screen the radiation background from the radioactive species in the specimen. This dual-optic approach significantly reduces the background and increases the analyte signal thereby increasing the sensitivity of the analysis. A doubly bent crystal used as the focusing optic produces focused monochromatic X-ray excitation, which eliminates the bremsstrahlung background from the X-ray source. The coupling of the doubly bent crystal for monochromatic excitation with a polycapillary for signal collection can effectively eliminate the noise background and radiation background from the specimen. The integration of these X-ray optics increases the signal-to-noise and thereby increases the sensitivity of the analysis for low-level analytes. This work will address a key need for radiochemical analysis of high-level waste using a non-destructive, multi-element, and rapid method in a radiation environment. There is significant potential that this instrumentation could be capable of on-line analysis for process waste stream characterization at DOE sites

  17. Chemical Characterization of Nuclear Materials: Development a New Combined X-Ray Fluorescence and Raman Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szaloki, I.; Gerenyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    New mobile analytical device based on combination of X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectrometer has been developed for prompt and quantitative characterization of chemical component from Al to U in nuclear waste or undeclared materials. The excitation source of the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is an air-cooled X-ray tube with Ag transmission anode. For collection of secondary X-ray photons and data processing, a compact Amptek X-ray detector system is applied with silicon drift X-ray detector. The XRF system operates in confocal mode with focal volume around 1-4 mm 3 . Varying the geometrical position and orientation of the sample optional part of its surface can be analyzed. The Raman unit includes thermoelectrically cooled laser source having 500 mW power at wavelength 785 nm. In order to obtain spectral information from sample surface a reflection-type probe is connected by optical fibres to the Raman spectrometer. A mini focusing optics is set up to the sensor-fibre that provides the system to operate as confocal optical device in reflection mode. The XRF spectrometer with X-ray detector, Raman probe and X-ray tube are mechanically fixed and hermetically connected to an aluminium chamber, which can be optionally filled with helium. The chamber is mounted on a vertical stage that provides moving it to the sample surface. A new model and computer code have been developed for XRF quantitative analysis which describes the mathematical relationship between the concentration of sample elements and their characteristic X-ray intensities. For verification of the calculations standard reference alloy samples were measured. The results was in good agreement with certified concentrations in range of 0.001-100 w%. According to these numerical results this new method is successfully applicable for quick and non-destructive quantitative analysis of waste materials without using standard samples. (author)

  18. Assembly of positioner of automated two-dimensional scan coupled to X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Leonardo Santiago Melgaço

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the design and assembling of a prototype automated positioner two-dimensional scanning coupled to X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The work aims to achieve a portable and easy to use, device of broad utility in the analysis of samples by X-ray fluorescence area of expertise and research. The two-dimensional scanning of the positioner is by means of two stepper motors controlled by a microcontroller PIC 16F877A, encoder and optical sensors. The user interacts with the XY table through an interface program for the Windows operating system, which communicates with the microcontroller through the serial port. The system of Fluorescence Spectroscopy incorporated into the positioner consists of a system commercially available system from the company AMPTEK, where the primary source of excitation of the sample was a source of 241 Am of 59.5 KeV emissions. Resolution and accuracy of tests were performed in the XY scanning process and reproducibility of the same kit with the fluorescence spectrometry X-ray. Qualitative tests by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in samples were performed to demonstrate the applicability and versatility of the project. It follows that the prototype illustrates a possible adequately to portable device for X-ray spectrometry of two-dimensional. (author)

  19. X-ray fluorescence in some rare earth and high Z elements excited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The K-shell X-ray fluorescence cross sections are determined experimentally for 10 ele- ments such as Pb, Hg, Ir, W, Lu, Tm, Dy, Tb, Gd and Nd at excitation energy of 661.6 keV associated with γ-rays of 137Cs radioisotope. The technique employed involves the measurement of total inten- sity of fluorescent K ...

  20. Surface characterization of selected polymer thin films by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innis, Vallerie Ann A.

    2006-01-01

    Development of available x-ray characterizations tools for grazing incidence techniques was done to be able to probe nano-size thin films. Alignment of a Philips x-ray powder diffractometer was improved to let it perform as an x-ray reflectometer. X-ray reflectometry was coupled with total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Evaluation of the performance of this grazing incidence techniques was done by preparing polymer thin films of carboxymethylcellulose, carrageenan and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The thickness of the films were varied by varying the process parameters such as concentration, spin speed and spin time. Angle-dispersive total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy profiles of three films showed film formation only in carrageenan and PVP. For both carrageenan and PVP, an increase in concentration yielded a corresponding increase in intensity of the fluorescent or scattered peaks. XRR profiles of carrageenan thin films yielded a mean value for the critical angle close to quartz substrate. Thickness measurements of the prepared carrageenan thin films showed that concentration was the main determinant for final film thickness over the other process parameters. Sulfur fluorescent intensity derived from the TXRF measurement showed a linear relationship with the measured thickness by XRR. For PVP, measured critical angle is lower than quartz. Poor adhesion of the polymer onto the substrate yielded a limited number of thickness measurements made from the XRR profiles. (Author)

  1. X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivera, P.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the XRF technique performed in our laboratories in the field of archaeology began in 1994. It started with the analysis of different samples, as an incisive tooth, a fragment of occipital, a rib fragment, a segment of dorsal vertebra and small glasses found in the internal surface of a Nazca Culture mummy. In the paleopathological study performed by Dr. Guido Lombardi a 109 Cd excitation source and an X ray spectrometry system were used. The elemental concentrations of Ca, Fe, Zn, and Sr were determined for the paleonutricion studies by using the relationships of Zn/Ca and Sr/Ca. The XRF technique also contributed to the mycobacterium tuberculosis detection in a mummy, supplementing other non destructive tests carried out previously. In recent years, 29 right clavicles belonging to mature individuals were analyzed out of 143 found in the Villa El Salvador area. Sr and Zn concentrations were used to determine the relative proportion of vegetable and animal foods in the population's diet under study. It was concluded that the old residents of this town manifested an omnivorous feeding with carnivorous tendency, due to consumption of products of marine origin. Ceramics have also been analyzed to determine the chemical composition of the paste which was used in the production process. 39 fragments of ceramic from the place called Lomo de Corvina of Villa El Salvador, low valley in Lurin town were analyzed. The analysis of these samples was focused on quantitative determination of Ti, Fe, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb, to complement the results obtained by neutron activation analysis. Identification of the pigments used for production of art objects is of great importance for its characterization, authentication and/or restoration. For this reason, we are currently working on identification of pigments used in the decoration of archaeological ceramics. This work started from construction of a portable XRF spectrometer based on a small size, low power X ray

  2. Multi-angular regolith effects on planetary soft X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näränen, J.; Parviainen, H.; Carpenter, J.; Muinonen, K.

    2009-04-01

    Fluorescent X-rays from the surfaces of airless planetary bodies in the inner solar system have been measured by instruments on several spacecraft. MESSENGER carries an X-ray spectrometer (XRS) on-board and has already attempted to obtain fluorescent X-rays from the Hermean surface. BepiColombo will later on carry an X-ray telescope (MIXS-T) along with a more conventional collimating detector (MIXS-C) to the Hermean orbit, supported by a next-generation X-ray solar monitor (SIXS). These instruments will provide unprecedented knowledge about the geochemical properties of the Hermean regolith. X-ray emission from planetary surfaces follows photoionisation by incident solar X-rays and charged particles and reveals information about the elemental composition of the surface. Analyses of X-ray spectra, obtained by orbiting spacecraft, use both the relative intensities of elemental emission lines (e.g., Ca/Si, Fe/Si) and absolute abundancies of the elements to determine the geochemistry of the target body. Historically, the analysis of X-ray spectra has largely assumed that surfaces can be considered as homogeneous plane-parallel media. It has been shown, however, that fluorescent line intensities are affected by the physical properties of the target surface (e.g., surface roughness of the regolith) as a function of the viewing and illumination geometry of observations in a way that cannot be explained by the traditional models. We describe experimental investigations where we simulated the effects of regolith properties on the fluorescent lines measured by an orbiting instrument, with a large variety of illumination and viewing angles. The planetary regolith analogue used in these experiments was a terrestrial, olivine rich basalt, which has been used by previous authors as an analogue to the lunar maria. The basalt samples were ground to powder and sieved to discriminate particles in the ranges, powders were then pressed into solid pellets. The separation of particles

  3. Determination of plutonium in nitric acid solutions using energy dispersive L X-ray fluorescence with a low power X-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Py, J. [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, F-25030 Besançon (France); Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique, Centre de Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Groetz, J.-E., E-mail: jegroetz@univ-fcomte.fr [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, F-25030 Besançon (France); Hubinois, J.-C.; Cardona, D. [Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique, Centre de Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2015-04-21

    This work presents the development of an in-line energy dispersive L X-ray fluorescence spectrometer set-up, with a low power X-ray generator and a secondary target, for the determination of plutonium concentration in nitric acid solutions. The intensity of the L X-rays from the internal conversion and gamma rays emitted by the daughter nuclei from plutonium is minimized and corrected, in order to eliminate the interferences with the L X-ray fluorescence spectrum. The matrix effects are then corrected by the Compton peak method. A calibration plot for plutonium solutions within the range 0.1–20 g L{sup −1} is given.

  4. Study of properties of chemically modified samples of halloysite mineral with X-ray fluorescence and X-ray powder diffraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaś, D.; Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.; Wudarczyk-Moćko, J.; Czech, K.; Garnuszek, M.; Słomkiewicz, P.; Szczepanik, B.

    2013-12-01

    Elemental and chemical composition of raw and activated samples of halloysite mineral using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF), total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) methods were determined. As the result, it has been shown that application of the complementary X-ray spectrometry techniques allows very precise observation of changes in composition of halloysite mineral samples caused by its chemical modifications. Sample preparation procedure and usability of the research methods applied are described in details. Procedure of activation of raw halloysite mineral samples by etching them in sulfuric acid of various concentrations has been described and discussed. The ability of the samples to adsorb lead from intentionally contaminated water was tested and confirmed.

  5. Simultaneous determination of actinides by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, V.H.

    1990-01-01

    The x-ray spectrometric simultaneous determination of uranium and plutonium in simulated Purex Process solutions is described. The method is accomplished by intensity measurements of the L α sub(1) lines. The thin film technique for sample preparation and thorium as an internal standard had been used. An evaporation technique had been also tested for low concentration uranium solutions. In the measurement range 0,05 - 130 U g/L, 0,5 - 20 Pu g/L linear calibration curves were effected. The standard deviation in the concentration range 10 to 130 g/L was 3,5%, 4% in the 1 to 10 g/L and 13% in 0,05 to 1 g/L for uranium determination and 4% for plutonium determination in the range of 1 to 20 g/L. The sensitivity of the method was about 3,62 μg to U and 3,95 μg to Pu. Uranium and plutonium do not reciprocally interfere with one another until U/Pu ≅ 90 m/m. The fission product as interfering elements were also verified. Finally, uranium and plutonium were determined in simulated Purex Process solutions within the requested accuracy for control method. (author)

  6. Analysis of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence: Quantitative approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, R. [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Modulo C-9, Laboratorio de TXRF, Crta. Colmenar, Km 15, Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: ramon.fernandez@uam.es; Garcia-Heras, M. [Grupo de Arqueometria de Vidrios y Materiales Ceramicos, Instituto de Historia, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/ Albasanz, 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper reports the quantitative methodologies developed for the compositional characterization of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence at two levels. A first quantitative level which comprises an acid leaching procedure, and a second selective level, which seeks to increase the number of detectable elements by eliminating the iron present in the acid leaching procedure. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been compared, at a quantitative level, with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in order to test its applicability to the study of this kind of materials. The combination of a solid chemical homogenization procedure previously reported with the quantitative methodologies here presented allows the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence to analyze 29 elements with acceptable analytical recoveries and accuracies.

  7. X-ray fluorescence application (WDXRFS) for determining thin films thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Valdirene O.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Salvador, Vera L.R.; Lima, Nelson B. de; Mitani, Solange E.; Samad, Ricardo E.

    2002-01-01

    Establishment of a method for the quantitative determination of the thickness of a thin films nickel simple on glass substrate, using the technique of Wavelength Dispersion X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (WD-XRFS) and the method of fundamental parameters. The advantages of using this technique are: precision, high sensitivity, non destructive analysis. A RIGAKU X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was used, model RIX 3000, 1996 of the X-ray Fluorescence Laboratory, Chemistry and Environment Center of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN - CNEN/SP. Films were obtained through the process of Physical Vapor Deposition in the Thin Films Laboratory, Laser and Applications Center of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN - CNEN/SP. Samples were analyzed with thickness between 10-100 nm and the results were satisfactory when compared with the technique Physical Vapor Deposition and theoretical values by mathematical expression for the calculation of thicknesses. (author)

  8. Analysis of eight argonne premium coal samples by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J.R.; Sellers, G.A.; Johnson, R.G.; Vivit, D.V.; Kent, J.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometric methods were used in the analysis of eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples. Trace elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, and Ce) in coal ash were determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry; major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe) in coal ash and trace elements (Cl and P) in whole coal were determined by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The results of this study will be used in a geochemical database compiled for these materials from various analytical techniques. The experimental XRF methods and procedures used to determine these major and trace elements are described.

  9. Demonstration of x-ray fluorescence imaging of a high-energy-density plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, M. J., E-mail: macdonm@umich.edu; Gamboa, E. J. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Keiter, P. A.; Fein, J. R.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; LeFevre, H. J.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Montgomery, D. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Biener, M. M.; Fournier, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Streit, J. [Schafer Corporation, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Experiments at the Trident Laser Facility have successfully demonstrated the use of x-ray fluorescence imaging (XRFI) to diagnose shocked carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde (CRF) foams doped with Ti. One laser beam created a shock wave in the doped foam. A second laser beam produced a flux of vanadium He-α x-rays, which in turn induced Ti K-shell fluorescence within the foam. Spectrally resolved 1D imaging of the x-ray fluorescence provided shock location and compression measurements. Additionally, experiments using a collimator demonstrated that one can probe specific regions within a target. These results show that XRFI is a capable alternative to path-integrated measurements for diagnosing hydrodynamic experiments at high energy density.

  10. Calculating the X-Ray Fluorescence from the Planet Mercury Due to High-Energy Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbine, T. H.; Trombka, J. I.; Bergstrom, P. M., Jr.; Christon, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    The least-studied terrestrial planet is Mercury due to its proximity to the Sun, which makes telescopic observations and spacecraft encounters difficult. Our lack of knowledge about Mercury should change in the near future due to the recent launching of MESSENGER, a Mercury orbiter. Another mission (BepiColombo) is currently being planned. The x-ray spectrometer on MESSENGER (and planned for BepiColombo) can characterize the elemental composition of a planetary surface by measuring emitted fluorescent x-rays. If electrons are ejected from an atom s inner shell by interaction with energetic particles such as photons, electrons, or ions, electrons from an outer shell can transfer to the inner shell. Characteristic x-rays are then emitted with energies that are the difference between the binding energy of the ion in its excited state and that of the ion in its ground state. Because each element has a unique set of energy levels, each element emits x-rays at a unique set of energies. Electrons and ions usually do not have the needed flux at high energies to cause significant x-ray fluorescence on most planetary bodies. This is not the case for Mercury where high-energy particles were detected during the Mariner 10 flybys. Mercury has an intrinsic magnetic field that deflects the solar wind, resulting in a bow shock in the solar wind and a magnetospheric cavity. Electrons and ions accelerated in the magnetosphere tend to follow its magnetic field lines and can impact the surface on Mercury s dark side Modeling has been done to determine if x-ray fluorescence resulting from the impact of high-energy electrons accelerated in Mercury's magnetosphere can be detected by MESSENGER. Our goal is to understand how much bulk chemical information can be obtained from x-ray fluorescence measurements on the dark side of Mercury.

  11. Grazing Incidence X-Ray Fluorescence of periodic structures – a comparison between X-ray Standing Waves and Geometrical Optics calculations.

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt Falk; Nowak Stanislaw H.; Beckhoff Burkhard; Dousse Jean-Claude; Schoengen Max

    2014-01-01

    Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence spectra of nano-scaled periodic line structures were recorded at the four crystal monochromator beamline in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II. For different tilt angles between the lines and the plane of incidence of the monochromatic synchrotron radiation, spectral features are observed which can be understood and explained with calculations of the emerging X-ray standing wave (XSW) ...

  12. Abstracts of the 8th Conference on total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis and related methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrauschek, P.

    2000-01-01

    The 8. conference on total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis and related methods held from 25.9 to 29.9.2000 contains 79 abstracts about x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) as a powerful tool used for industrial production, geological prospecting and for environmental control. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is also a tool used for chemical analysis in medicine, industry and research. (E.B.)

  13. High-efficiency logarithmic spiral monochromator for X-ray fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Bakulin, A S

    2000-01-01

    A spiral mosaic crystal monochromator system has been designed for high-efficiency collection of X-ray fluorescence. This is especially well suited for X-ray holography measurements, where a weak fluorescence signal must be separated from a strong background. Calculations show that pyrolytic graphite curved to a logarithmic spiral has a dramatically increased angular acceptance compared to standard graphite monochromator designs. The collection efficiency per unit area of graphite is improved by a factor of 200 compared to sagittal focusing geometries, while maintaining the intrinsic graphite energy resolution.

  14. X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANTS METHOD DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurgensen, A; David Missimer, D; Ronny Rutherford, R

    2007-08-08

    The x-ray fluorescence laboratory (XRF) in the Analytical Development Directorate (ADD) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop an x-ray fluorescence spectrometry method for elemental characterization of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pretreated low activity waste (LAW) stream to the LAW Vitrification Plant. The WTP is evaluating the potential for using XRF as a rapid turnaround technique to support LAW product compliance and glass former batching. The overall objective of this task was to develop an XRF analytical method that provides rapid turnaround time (<8 hours), while providing sufficient accuracy and precision to determine variations in waste.

  15. Three-dimensional x-ray fluorescence mapping of a gold nanoparticle-loaded phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Li, Yuhua; Liu, Hong, E-mail: liu@ou.edu [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Wang, Ge [Biomedical Imaging Cluster and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Wu, Xizeng [Department of Radiology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama 35233 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose : X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a promising technique with sufficient specificity and sensitivity for identifying and quantifying features in small samples containing high atomic number (Z) materials such as iodine, gadolinium, and gold. In this study, the feasibility of applying XRF to early breast cancer diagnosis and treatment is studied using a novel approach for three-dimensional (3D) x-ray fluorescence mapping (XFM) of gold nanoparticle (GNP)-loaded objects in a physical phantom at the technical level. Methods : All the theoretical analysis and experiments are conducted under the condition of using x-ray pencil beam and a compactly integrated x-ray spectrometer. The penetrability of the fluorescence x-rays from GNPs is first investigated by adopting a combination of BR12 with 70 mm/50 mm in thickness on the excitation/emission path to mimic the possible position of tumor goldin vivo. Then, a physical phantom made of BR12 is designed to translate in 3D space with three precise linear stages and subsequently the step by step XFM scanning is performed. The experimental technique named as background subtraction is applied to isolate the gold fluorescence from each spectrum obtained by the spectrometer. Afterwards, the attenuations of both the incident primary x-ray beam with energies beyond the gold K-edge energy (80.725 keV) and the isolated gold K{sub α} fluorescence x-rays (65.99 –69.80 keV) acquired after background subtraction are well calibrated, and finally the unattenuated K{sub α} fluorescence counts are used to realize mapping reconstruction and to describe the linear relationship between gold fluorescence counts and corresponding concentration of gold solutions. Results : The penetration results show that the goldK{sub α} fluorescence x-rays have sufficient penetrability for this phantom study, and the reconstructed mapping results indicate that both the spatial distribution and relative concentration of GNPs within the designed BR12 phantom

  16. X-Ray fluorescence determination of the mobile forms of toxic elements in meadow chernozems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, K.N.; Blank, A.B.; Shevtsov, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence method for determining mobile forms of Mn, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, and Pb in meadow chernozems was developed. It is based on the extraction of analytes with an acetate-ammonia buffer solution and the evaporation of the obtained filtrate with carbon powder followed by the X-ray fluorescence analysis of the dry residue. The effect of concomitants on the analytical signals of elements under determination was examined. It was suggested to spike samples with barium in order to decrease analytical errors. (author)

  17. Three-dimensional x-ray fluorescence mapping of a gold nanoparticle-loaded phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Li, Yuhua; Wang, Ge; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2014-03-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a promising technique with sufficient specificity and sensitivity for identifying and quantifying features in small samples containing high atomic number (Z) materials such as iodine, gadolinium, and gold. In this study, the feasibility of applying XRF to early breast cancer diagnosis and treatment is studied using a novel approach for three-dimensional (3D) x-ray fluorescence mapping (XFM) of gold nanoparticle (GNP)-loaded objects in a physical phantom at the technical level. All the theoretical analysis and experiments are conducted under the condition of using x-ray pencil beam and a compactly integrated x-ray spectrometer. The penetrability of the fluorescence x-rays from GNPs is first investigated by adopting a combination of BR12 with 70 mm/50 mm in thickness on the excitation/emission path to mimic the possible position of tumor goldin vivo. Then, a physical phantom made of BR12 is designed to translate in 3D space with three precise linear stages and subsequently the step by step XFM scanning is performed. The experimental technique named as background subtraction is applied to isolate the gold fluorescence from each spectrum obtained by the spectrometer. Afterwards, the attenuations of both the incident primary x-ray beam with energies beyond the gold K-edge energy (80.725 keV) and the isolated gold Kα fluorescence x-rays (65.99 -69.80 keV) acquired after background subtraction are well calibrated, and finally the unattenuated Kα fluorescence counts are used to realize mapping reconstruction and to describe the linear relationship between gold fluorescence counts and corresponding concentration of gold solutions. The penetration results show that the goldKα fluorescence x-rays have sufficient penetrability for this phantom study, and the reconstructed mapping results indicate that both the spatial distribution and relative concentration of GNPs within the designed BR12 phantom can be well identified and quantified. Although

  18. X-ray fluorescence analysis and optical emission spectrometry of an roman mirror from Tomis, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belc, M.; Bogoi, M.; Ionescu, D.; Guita, D.; Caiteanu, S.; Caiteanu, D.

    2000-01-01

    The miscellaneous population of Roman Empire, their diverse cultural tradition, their ability to assimilate the roman civilization spirits, had determined a permanent reassessment superimposed upon the roman contribution. Analysis was undertaken using optical emission spectrometry and non-destructive X-ray fluorescence. X-ray fluorescence analysis is a well-established method and is often used in archaeometry and other work dealing with valuable objects pertaining to the history of art and civilization. Roman mirror analysed has been found not to be made of speculum (a high tin bronze). (authors)

  19. Application of X-ray fluorescence in an investigation of photographic heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čechák, T.; Kopecká, I.; Trojek, T.; Štanzel, T.; Bártová, H.

    2015-11-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis uses ionizing radiation to study the elemental composition of materials. It is widely used for many purposes, including studies of various cultural and historic relicts and objects of art. This paper summarizes our experience with X-ray fluorescence analysis and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in investigating historical photographs by means of portable spectroscopic devices. The results of these measurements provide information about the composition of historical photographs and their toning. They can be used for comparing the processes used in fabricating the photographs, for assessing the quality of the paper and, in many cases, for information about how to repair damaged parts.

  20. Polychromatic excitation improves detection limits in total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis compared with monochromatic excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimura, Shinsuke; Kawai, Jun

    2010-08-01

    Detection limits obtained by a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer with or without a monochromator are compared. A 1 W X-ray tube (tube voltage: 20 kV) is used in this spectrometer. Polychromatic excitation improves the detection limits in TXRF analysis with the low power X-ray tube compared with monochromatic excitation. A detection limit of 26 pg is achieved for Co when using the weak polychromatic X-rays.

  1. The measurement of X-rays radiation temperature with a new developed filter-fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chuanfei; Lin Libin; Lou Fuhong; Peng Taiping

    2001-01-01

    The author introduces how to measure the energy spectra of X-rays by filter-fluorescence spectroscopy. The design principle and structure of new-developed double diaphragms and filter-fluorescence spectroscopy with 5 channels are depicted. The parameters of optimized spectroscopy by numerical method are given. The filter-fluorescence spectroscopy designed according as Rousseau balance principle improves signal-noises ratio

  2. X-Ray Fluorescence On-Stream Analysis of Standard Reference Solution Concentrations of Chromium Plating and Polishing Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sopok, Samuel

    1991-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence is evaluated as a means to quantitatively analyze standard reference solution concentrations of chromium plating and polishing solutions for chromium, sulfur, phosphorus, and iron...

  3. Analysis of kiwi fruit (Accented deliciosa) by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia S.; Oliveira, Marcia L. de; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Arthur, Valter; Almeida, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The search for a healthy life has led consumers to eat fruits and vegetables in place of manufactured products, however, the demand for minimally processed products has evolved rapidly. The kiwi has at least eight nutrients beneficial to health: calcium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, iron, potassium, sodium and has also high vitamin C, which has wide acceptance in consumer markets. Energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray (EDX) is the analytical technique used for elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample. It is a variant of fluorescence spectroscopy X-ray based on the sample through an investigation of interactions between electromagnetic radiation and matter, analyzing X-rays emitted by matter in response to being struck by charged particles. The aim of this study were to determine potassium, calcium, iron and bromine (K, Ca, Fe and Br, respectively) present in kiwifruit using the technique of fluorescence X-ray energy dispersive (EDXRF). Kiwifruit were peeled, washed and cut into slices and freeze-dried. After drying the sample was held digestion and subsequent reading of the same equipment in the X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive (EDXRF). The results indicated that the contents of potassium, calcium, iron and bromine are present in kiwifruit as expected when compared to Brazilian Table of Food Composition. (author)

  4. Application of x-ray fluorescence to the measurement of additives in paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchnea, A.; McNelles, L.A.; Sinclair, A.H.; Hewitt, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Titanium dioxide content in paper was measured by x-ray fluorescence analysis using an 55 Fe source and an x-ray proportional counter to determine the feasibility of an on-line instrument. X-ray calibration curves for 60- and 100-g/m 2 paper samples were obtained using neutron activation to measure the titanium dioxide concentration. The predictions of a simple model were in good agreement with the experimental calibration curves. The measurements and calculations were extended to investigate the effects of clay and moisture. The presence of clay has a significant effect on the x-ray fluorescence determination of the titanium dioxide concentration; however, this can be well accounted for by the model. The calculations indicated that the effect of typical moisture levels on the titanium dioxide determination was small and can be ignored. It is not possible to measure the clay content by x-ray fluorescence; however, preliminary results for the determination of calcium carbonate concentration are promising

  5. X-ray microprobe synchroton radiation X-ray fluorescence application on human teeth of renal insufficiency patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, A. F.; Marques, J. P.; Casaca, C.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2004-10-01

    This work reports on the measurements of elemental profiles in teeth collected from patients with renal insufficiency. Elemental concentrations of Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb Sr and Pb in different parts of teeth from patients with renal insufficiency are discussed and correlated with the corresponding values for healthy citizens. Both situations, patients with and without dialysis treatment were studied. The purpose of this work is to point out the influence of renal insufficiency together with long dialysis treatment, on teeth elemental content. An X-ray fluorescence set-up with microprobe capabilities, installed at the LURE synchrotron (France) was used for elemental determination. The resolution of the synchrotron microprobe was 100 μm and the energy of the incident photons was 19 keV. Teeth of citizens with renal insufficiency and those submitted since several years to dialysis treatment show a similar concentration with teeth of healthy subjects in what concerns the elemental distribution for Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Sr. However, higher levels of Pb were found in pulp region of diseased citizens when compared to values of healthy people. Very low concentrations of Ti, Co, Ni, Se, Br and Rb were found in all the analysed teeth. No difference was found in patients with and without dialysis treatment.

  6. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, X. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Kregsamer, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Streli, C. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at

    2006-11-15

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 {mu}l of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines.

  7. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, X.; Kregsamer, P.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 μl of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines

  8. Application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to small glass fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Yoshinori; Shimoyama, Masahiko; Nakanishi, Toshio; Ninomiya, Toshio; Nakai, Izumi

    2006-10-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been applied for trace elemental analysis of small glass fragments. A small glass sample (a fragment with weight less than 0.5 mg) was decomposed by 100 microg of HF/HNO3 acid; the material was condensed to 10 microl and was dried on a Si wafer. Since the size of the dried residue on the Si wafer was less than 1 cm in diameter, an incident X-ray beam with about 1 cm in width could effectively excite elemental components in such a small glass fragment. The precision of the present technique was checked by analyzing the glass fragments (forensic discrimination. Comparison of five elemental ratios of Ti/Sr, Mn/Sr, Zn/Sr, Rb/Sr, and Pb/Sr calculated from X-ray fluorescence spectra was effective in distinguishing glass fragments that could not be differentiated by their refractive indexes (RI).

  9. Mobile low power total reflexion x-ray fluorescence spectrometer with pg-detection-limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietsch, R.; Holz, Th.; Mai, H. [Fraunhofer Institute Material and Beam Technology, Dresden, (Germany); Waldschlaeger, U. [I.U.T. GmbH, Berlin, (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Full text: Total reflexion x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry is an efficient tool in trace element analysis. Conventional laboratory spectrometers can achieve detection limits in the pg-range. Unfortunately high power X-ray tubes (i.e. some kW) and LN{sub 2}-cooled Si(Li)-detectors are sometimes not applicable within mobile TXRF-spectrometers. Therefore a portable device for TXRF (PicoTAX{sub PS}) has been developed and the latest results will be presented. This device is a very compact combination of an air-cooled low power X-ray tube (Mo-anode, 40W) a Peltier-cooled PlN-diode detector and a high quality flat primary Ni/C X-ray mirror (2t= 7.84 nm, N100, R> 80%). The background radiation is reduced by means of this particular mirror. That way the achievable detection limits are comparable with conventional 1.5 kW TXRF- spectrometers. The characteristic parameters of X-ray source, detector and Ni/C mirror will be presented. Additionally, the performance of this portable TXRF-system will be demonstrated by selected examples. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. 1 fig.

  10. X-ray Fluorescence in Member States: Spain. Activities at the Laboratory of X ray Analytical Applications (LARX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queralt, Ignasi

    2009-01-01

    1. Determination of Metal Residues in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients According to Current Legislation by Using XRF Spectrometry. Safety and efficacy of pharmaceuticals are two fundamental issues of importance in drug therapy. Therefore, the determination of potential impurities in different stages of the manufacturing processes, and especially in the final product, is necessary to prevent potential risk to human health. Metals can be introduced in the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) through different sources (raw materials, reagents, catalysts, reactors, etc) and, consequently, they are potential impurities in the drug substances and are routinely monitored. 2. Application of XRF Spectrometry in Phytoremediation Activities Around Mining Areas. In the last decade, the use of plants for the stabilization (phytostabilization) and clean-up (phytoremediation) of metal contaminated environments has gained popularity among government agencies worldwide, as alternate or complementary cost-effective non-invasive technology to the engineering based remediation methods. In view of the considerable number of analyses necessary in phytoremediation and plant biology studies, it is important that the analytical procedures used for elemental determination in plant tissues should be fast and cheap, with simple sample preparation, and of adequate accuracy and precision. Last years, we have developed several analytical methodologies, using diverse configurations of XRF spectrometers (EDXRF, WDXRF, HE-P-EDXRF), to determine elemental composition of vegetation grown in mining areas. Recently, in collaboration with a research group from the Department of Chemical Engineering, Agriculture and Food Technology of the University of Girona (Spain), we have studied the possibilities and limitations of a low-cost benchtop energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (EDXRF) instrument to be employed as analytical technique for studying the potential use of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) for

  11. Thickness measurement of aluminum, titanium, titanium silicide, and tungsten silicide films by x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, S.; Lee, C.O.; Lee, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has received a great deal of attention in the last few years as a quantitative means of determining both the stoichiometry and thickness of many different kinds of films. Examples include Ag and Cu films on mica substrates, Sn-Pb alloys on steel substrates, Al-Ti multilayers on Cu substrates and oxide films on silicon substrates. In XRF the sample is irradiated with x-rays which in turn cause x-rays to be given off by the sample. These x-rays that are given off by the sample can then be analyzed both for energy and intensity. The energy of the x-rays is characteristic of the elemental makeup of the sample and the intensity of the x-rays is dependent on how much of the particular element is present. The intensity then can be related to the thickness of a film if the stoichiometry of the film can be assumed constant. With the increased interest in silicides and more recently, the self-aligned silicide (salicide) process (8-10) for VLSI applications, in-line process monitoring of silicide film thickness has become important to integrated circuit manufacturing. In this study, the number of x-ray photons given of by Al, Ti, titanium silicide, and tungsten silicide films on silicon-based substrates was quantified so that a film thickness for an unknown sample could then be determined easily. In addition, XRF is a more accurate technique, limited principally by the accuracy technique, limited principally by the accuracy of the reference used and the amount of time the x-ray photons are counted

  12. Use of a Superconducting Tunnel Junction for X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, L.

    2001-01-01

    A superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) in combination with a superconducting absorber of radiation may function as a highly resolving x-ray spectrometer. Electronic excitations, or quasiparticles, are created when a superconductor absorbs an x ray and are detected as an excess tunnel current through the junction. The number of quasiparticles created and the magnitude of the excess current is proportional to the energy of the absorbed x ray. This is similar to existing semiconductor-based spectrometers that measure electron-hole pairs, but with 1000 times more excitations. The energy measurement therefore can be up to 30 times more precise with a superconducting detector than with a semiconductor detector. This work describes the development and testing of an STJ spectrometer design for x-ray fluorescence applications. First, the basic principles of the STJ spectrometer are explained. This is followed by detailed simulations of the variance in the number of quasiparticles produced by absorption of an x ray. This variance is inherent in the detector and establishes an upper limit on the resolving power of the spectrometer. These simulations include effects due to the materials used in the spectrometer and to the multilayer structure of the device. Next, the spectrometer is characterized as functions of operating temperature, incident x-ray energy, and count rate. Many of these tests were performed with the spectrometer attached to a synchrotron radiation port. Finally, example x-ray fluorescence spectra of materials exposed to synchrotron radiation are presented. These materials are of interest to semiconductor processing and structural biology, two fields that will benefit immediately from the improved resolving power of the STJ spectrometer

  13. Proton induced X-Ray fluorescence study as a tool trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kady, Ahmed A.

    1978-01-01

    Usefulness and limitations of trace elemental analysis by high energy charged particles and photon induced X-ray have been discussed. Comparison with the well established neutron activation analysis technique is also given. Back-ground radiation due to bremsstrahlung from secondary electrons and due to charged particle bremsstrahlung have been reviewed for different projectiles. The sensitivity of elemental analysis by proton induced X-ray fluorescence have been examined by measuring the characteristic X-ray emission cross section for K and L transitions of many elements and for different proton energies and compared with theroretical values. The discussion given in this report show that with suitable proton generator and a high resolution X-ray detector, proton X-ray fluorescence technique is capable of analyzing many elements simultaneously at the part per million level and offers a rapid and reliable method for trace element analysis. Data on water, blood and tissue samples given in this report are few examples of many possible applications

  14. Development of an X-ray fluorescence holographic measurement system for protein crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato-Tomita, Ayana; Shibayama, Naoya; Okabe, Takahiro; Happo, Naohisa; Kimura, Koji; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Park, Sam-Yong; Sasaki, Yuji C.; Hayashi, Kouichi

    2016-01-01

    Experimental procedure and setup for obtaining X-ray fluorescence hologram of crystalline metalloprotein samples are described. Human hemoglobin, an α 2 β 2 tetrameric metalloprotein containing the Fe(II) heme active-site in each chain, was chosen for this study because of its wealth of crystallographic data. A cold gas flow system was introduced to reduce X-ray radiation damage of protein crystals that are usually fragile and susceptible to damage. A χ-stage was installed to rotate the sample while avoiding intersection between the X-ray beam and the sample loop or holder, which is needed for supporting fragile protein crystals. Huge hemoglobin crystals (with a maximum size of 8 × 6 × 3 mm 3 ) were prepared and used to keep the footprint of the incident X-ray beam smaller than the sample size during the entire course of the measurement with the incident angle of 0°-70°. Under these experimental and data acquisition conditions, we achieved the first observation of the X-ray fluorescence hologram pattern from the protein crystals with minimal radiation damage, opening up a new and potential method for investigating the stereochemistry of the metal active-sites in biomacromolecules.

  15. Development of an X-ray fluorescence holographic measurement system for protein crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato-Tomita, Ayana, E-mail: ayana.sato@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: shibayam@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: hayashi.koichi@nitech.ac.jp; Shibayama, Naoya, E-mail: ayana.sato@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: shibayam@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: hayashi.koichi@nitech.ac.jp; Okabe, Takahiro [Division of Biophysics, Department of Physiology, Jichi Medical University, Yakushiji, Shimotsuke 329-0498 (Japan); Happo, Naohisa [Department of Computer and Network Engineering, Graduate School of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University, Asa-Minami-Ku, Hiroshima 731-3194 (Japan); Kimura, Koji [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Matsushita, Tomohiro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Park, Sam-Yong [Drug Design Laboratory, Department of Medical Life Science, Yokohama City University, Suehiro, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Sasaki, Yuji C. [Department of Advanced Material Science, Graduate School of Frontier Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan); Hayashi, Kouichi, E-mail: ayana.sato@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: shibayam@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: hayashi.koichi@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Frontier Research Institute for Materials Science, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Experimental procedure and setup for obtaining X-ray fluorescence hologram of crystalline metalloprotein samples are described. Human hemoglobin, an α{sub 2}β{sub 2} tetrameric metalloprotein containing the Fe(II) heme active-site in each chain, was chosen for this study because of its wealth of crystallographic data. A cold gas flow system was introduced to reduce X-ray radiation damage of protein crystals that are usually fragile and susceptible to damage. A χ-stage was installed to rotate the sample while avoiding intersection between the X-ray beam and the sample loop or holder, which is needed for supporting fragile protein crystals. Huge hemoglobin crystals (with a maximum size of 8 × 6 × 3 mm{sup 3}) were prepared and used to keep the footprint of the incident X-ray beam smaller than the sample size during the entire course of the measurement with the incident angle of 0°-70°. Under these experimental and data acquisition conditions, we achieved the first observation of the X-ray fluorescence hologram pattern from the protein crystals with minimal radiation damage, opening up a new and potential method for investigating the stereochemistry of the metal active-sites in biomacromolecules.

  16. Precision evaluation of pressed pastille preparation different methods for X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Raquel Franco de Souza; Melo Junior, Germano; Sa, Jaziel Martins

    1997-01-01

    This work relates the comparison between the results obtained with the two different methods of preparing pressed pastilles from the crushed sample. In this study, the reproductivity is evaluated, aiming to define the method that furnishes a better analytic precision. These analyses were realized with a X-ray fluorescence spectrometer at the Geology Department of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte

  17. X-ray fluorescence analysis study. Final report, December 1, 1970-December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneip, T J; Laurer, G R

    1978-01-01

    This report has described the most significant experiments and the results obtained, during the development of a system for the detection and measurement of Pb in blood using radioisotope-excited x-ray fluorescence analysis, over the contract period. Briefly, the report described: detector selection; source selection; source-sample-detector geometry; sample preparation; system calibration; and separation technique. (PSB)

  18. In vivo applications of X-ray fluorescence in human subjects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is numerically the same as the physical dose (D in Gy). Also, in vivo X-ray fluorescence ... sure platinum [5], using this as a tool to track the kinetics of Pt in the context of using. Pt-containing drugs in cancer ..... Asian origin (China, Japan, Korea), whereas all the other 16 were Caucasian. The same distinction was maintained ...

  19. Elemental analysis of various biomass solid fractions in biorefineries by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sorensen, Hanne R.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2017-01-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) of solid samples from a biorefinery process was performed to study the behaviour of mineral elements in a process involving hydrothermal pretreatment of biomass (wheat straw, corn stover, sugarcane bagasse, palm oil empty fruit bunches...

  20. The X-ray fluorescent method for determination of total sulphur in bituminous coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widowska-Kusmierska, J.; Siess, K.

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescent technique for the determination of total sulphur covering concentrations from 0,1 to 10% has been applied for bituminous coals showing a great variability in qualitative and quantitative composition of mineral matter (ash). The described method is a quick one giving results during one hour. The obtained good accuracy of determinations gives prospects for wide industrial application. (author)

  1. X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient and medieval brass artifacts from south Moravia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hložek, M.; Komoróczy, Balázs; Trojek, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 70 (2012), s. 1250-1253 ISSN 0969-8043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : x-ray fluorescence analysis * brass * Moravia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.179, year: 2012

  2. Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry: A Long Overdue Addition to the Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    Portable Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzers have undergone significant improvements over the past decade. Salient advantages of XRF for elemental analysis include minimal sample preparation, multielement analysis capabilities, detection limits in the low parts per million (ppm) range, and analysis times on the order of 1 min.…

  3. Microanalysis of old violin varnishes by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bohlen, Alex; Meyer, Friedrich

    1997-07-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence was used to characterize elements (with Z>13) contained in varnishes applied by prominent violin makers during the last five centuries. Direct analyses of small flakes with masses varnish. Higher amounts of Fe, As and Pb were found in old products, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and Pb were used in more recent varnishes.

  4. Chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence, of niobium in high-strength plate steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iozzi, F.B.; Dias, M.J.P.

    1981-01-01

    The use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in quantitative analysis of niobium in steels, as an alternative solution for optical emission spectrometry, in the rapid chemical control of steel fabrication by LD type converters, is presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. The influence of scattering processes in quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Vrielink, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Existing theory was used to develop a fundamental parameter (FP) computer program for quantitative X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry in which scattering interactions are taken into account. The program is suited for polychromatic radiation and composite samples and is used to estimate the errors

  6. Some applications of x-ray fluorescence spectrography to the determination of uranium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.

    1959-04-01

    Several methods for the determination of uranium and thorium by X-ray fluorescence spectrography are described. In pure solutions the sensitivity for these elements is 5-10 ppm. For solutions containing gross concentrations of impurities, strontium is added as an internal standard. Precision and accuracy of the determinations are about 1% when working in the optimum concentration range. (author)

  7. Confirmation of molecular formulas of metallic complexes through X-ray fluorescence quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filgueiras, C.A.L.; Marques, E.V.; Machado, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry was employed to determined the metal content in a series of five transition element complexes (Mn, Ti, Zn, V). The results confirmed the molecular formulas of these complexes, already proposed on the basis of elemental microanalysis, solution condutimetry and other analytical methods. (C.L.B.) [pt

  8. Rapid extraction and x-ray fluorescence determination of gold in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, F.I.; Logunova, S.A.; Popov, A.M.; Krasnopevtseva, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    The optimal conditions for gold extractional recovery by melts of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids mixtures (C ≥ 16) with additions of di-2-ethylhexyldithiophosphoric acid, di-n-oxtylsulfide and alkylaniline were determined. A rapid method of extraction and X-ray fluorescence detection of gold in the presence of considerable amounts of Fe, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and Bi was developed

  9. Chlorophyll fluorescence and X-ray analyses to characterise and improve paddy rice seed quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, D.S.; Kodde, J.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of less-mature seeds or seeds with cracks in a paddy rice seed lot may result in lower seed quality. The potential of chlorophyll fluorescence to provide information on the maturity of single seeds and X-ray analyses to identify seeds with cracks was evaluated in relation to paddy rice

  10. X-ray fluorescence determination of cobalt in iron-manganese oceanic concretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, V.V.; Kustov, V.N.; Metelev, A.Yu.; Rakita, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    A method was developed for resolution of weak analytical lines for elements determined by radionuclide-excited X-ray fluorescence multi-element analysis. The method was used aboart for determining cobalt and some other commercially valuable elements in iron-manganese concretions of Pacific ocean 109 Cd was used as an ionizing radiation source

  11. A Fundamental Parameter-Based Calibration Model for an Intrinsic Germanium X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Leif Højslet; Pind, Niels

    1982-01-01

    A matrix-independent fundamental parameter-based calibration model for an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has been developed. This model, which is part of a fundamental parameter approach quantification method, accounts for both the excitation and detection probability. For each...

  12. Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junjing; Vine, David J; Chen, Si; Nashed, Youssef S G; Jin, Qiaoling; Phillips, Nicholas W; Peterka, Tom; Ross, Rob; Vogt, Stefan; Jacobsen, Chris J

    2015-02-24

    Trace metals play important roles in normal and in disease-causing biological functions. X-ray fluorescence microscopy reveals trace elements with no dependence on binding affinities (unlike with visible light fluorophores) and with improved sensitivity relative to electron probes. However, X-ray fluorescence is not very sensitive for showing the light elements that comprise the majority of cellular material. Here we show that X-ray ptychography can be combined with fluorescence to image both cellular structure and trace element distribution in frozen-hydrated cells at cryogenic temperatures, with high structural and chemical fidelity. Ptychographic reconstruction algorithms deliver phase and absorption contrast images at a resolution beyond that of the illuminating lens or beam size. Using 5.2-keV X-rays, we have obtained sub-30-nm resolution structural images and ∼90-nm-resolution fluorescence images of several elements in frozen-hydrated green algae. This combined approach offers a way to study the role of trace elements in their structural context.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF CHROMIUM-CONTAMINATED SOILS USING FIELD-PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed characterization of the underlying and adjacent soils near a chrome plating shop utilized field-portable X- ray fluorescence (XRF) as a screening tool. XRF permitted real-time acquisition of estimates for total metal content of soils. A trailer-mounted soil coring unit...

  14. Some aspects of detectors and electronics for x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, F.S.

    1976-08-01

    Some of the less recognized and potentially important parameters of the electronics and detectors used in X-ray fluorescence spectrometers are discussed. Detector factors include window (dead-layer) effects, time-dependent background and excess background. Noise parameters of field-effect transistors and time-variant pulse shaping are also discussed

  15. Modelling of a total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The simulation of the different stages involved in x-ray fluorescence emissions was carried out by writing a suite of computer programs using FORTRAN programming language. These computer simulated XRF stages were then integrated together to generate a general robust model which was run with the digital visual ...

  16. Non-destructive analysis of small irregularly shaped homogenous samples by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Vrielink, J.A.M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    2000-01-01

    A new calibration procedure is proposed for the non-destructive analysis of small sized samples of irregular shape by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The calibration is performed using normal calibration standards and measurements. The calculations for the calibration and the analysis of unknown

  17. Comparative analysis of toxic elements in snuff by analytical techniques of X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Mario; Olivera, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Six samples of different commercial brands of cigarettes expended in the Peruvian market have been analyzed along with two IAEA certified reference material using the technique of X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive. The results obtained in the study showed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn.

  18. Improving x-ray fluorescence signal for benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography by incident x-ray spectrum optimization: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Nivedh; Jones, Bernard L; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2014-10-01

    To develop an accurate and comprehensive Monte Carlo (MC) model of an experimental benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) setup and apply this MC model to optimize incident x-ray spectrum for improving production/detection of x-ray fluorescence photons from gold nanoparticles (GNPs). A detailed MC model, based on an experimental XFCT system, was created using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. The model was validated by comparing MC results including x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scatter photon spectra with measured data obtained under identical conditions using 105 kVp cone-beam x-rays filtered by either 1 mm of lead (Pb) or 0.9 mm of tin (Sn). After validation, the model was used to investigate the effects of additional filtration of the incident beam with Pb and Sn. Supplementary incident x-ray spectra, representing heavier filtration (Pb: 2 and 3 mm; Sn: 1, 2, and 3 mm) were computationally generated and used with the model to obtain XRF/scatter spectra. Quasimonochromatic incident x-ray spectra (81, 85, 90, 95, and 100 keV with 10 keV full width at half maximum) were also investigated to determine the ideal energy for distinguishing gold XRF signal from the scatter background. Fluorescence signal-to-dose ratio (FSDR) and fluorescence-normalized scan time (FNST) were used as metrics to assess results. Calculated XRF/scatter spectra for 1-mm Pb and 0.9-mm Sn filters matched (r ≥ 0.996) experimental measurements. Calculated spectra representing additional filtration for both filter materials showed that the spectral hardening improved the FSDR at the expense of requiring a much longer FNST. In general, using Sn instead of Pb, at a given filter thickness, allowed an increase of up to 20% in FSDR, more prominent gold XRF peaks, and up to an order of magnitude decrease in FNST. Simulations using quasimonochromatic spectra suggested that increasing source x-ray energy, in the investigated range of 81-100 ke

  19. Improving x-ray fluorescence signal for benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography by incident x-ray spectrum optimization: A Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Nivedh; Jones, Bernard L.; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an accurate and comprehensive Monte Carlo (MC) model of an experimental benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) setup and apply this MC model to optimize incident x-ray spectrum for improving production/detection of x-ray fluorescence photons from gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Methods: A detailed MC model, based on an experimental XFCT system, was created using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. The model was validated by comparing MC results including x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scatter photon spectra with measured data obtained under identical conditions using 105 kVp cone-beam x-rays filtered by either 1 mm of lead (Pb) or 0.9 mm of tin (Sn). After validation, the model was used to investigate the effects of additional filtration of the incident beam with Pb and Sn. Supplementary incident x-ray spectra, representing heavier filtration (Pb: 2 and 3 mm; Sn: 1, 2, and 3 mm) were computationally generated and used with the model to obtain XRF/scatter spectra. Quasimonochromatic incident x-ray spectra (81, 85, 90, 95, and 100 keV with 10 keV full width at half maximum) were also investigated to determine the ideal energy for distinguishing gold XRF signal from the scatter background. Fluorescence signal-to-dose ratio (FSDR) and fluorescence-normalized scan time (FNST) were used as metrics to assess results. Results: Calculated XRF/scatter spectra for 1-mm Pb and 0.9-mm Sn filters matched (r ≥ 0.996) experimental measurements. Calculated spectra representing additional filtration for both filter materials showed that the spectral hardening improved the FSDR at the expense of requiring a much longer FNST. In general, using Sn instead of Pb, at a given filter thickness, allowed an increase of up to 20% in FSDR, more prominent gold XRF peaks, and up to an order of magnitude decrease in FNST. Simulations using quasimonochromatic spectra suggested that increasing source x-ray energy, in the

  20. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of Kα and Kβ emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS

  1. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of K{alpha} and K{beta} emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS.

  2. Full Field X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging Using Micro Pore Optics for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.; Gailhanou, M.; Walter, P.; Schyns, E.; Marchis, F.; Thompson, K.; Bristow, T.

    2016-01-01

    Many planetary surface processes leave evidence as small features in the sub-millimetre scale. Current planetary X-ray fluorescence spectrometers lack the spatial resolution to analyse such small features as they only provide global analyses of areas greater than 100 mm(exp 2). A micro-XRF spectrometer will be deployed on the NASA Mars 2020 rover to analyse spots as small as 120m. When using its line-scanning capacity combined to perpendicular scanning by the rover arm, elemental maps can be generated. We present a new instrument that provides full-field XRF imaging, alleviating the need for precise positioning and scanning mechanisms. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer - "Map-X" - will allow elemental imaging with approximately 100µm spatial resolution and simultaneously provide elemental chemistry at the scale where many relict physical, chemical and biological features can be imaged in ancient rocks. The arm-mounted Map-X instrument is placed directly on the surface of an object and held in a fixed position during measurements. A 25x25 mm(exp 2) surface area is uniformly illuminated with X-rays or alpha-particles and gamma-rays. A novel Micro Pore Optic focusses a fraction of the emitted X-ray fluorescence onto a CCD operated at a few frames per second. On board processing allows measuring the energy and coordinates of each X-ray photon collected. Large sets of frames are reduced into 2d histograms used to compute higher level data products such as elemental maps and XRF spectra from selected regions of interest. XRF spectra are processed on the ground to further determine quantitative elemental compositions. The instrument development will be presented with an emphasis on the characterization and modelling of the X-ray focussing Micro Pore Optic. An outlook on possible alternative XRF imaging applications will be discussed.

  3. X-ray fluorescence analysis for trace element determination in foodstuff chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildanger, W.

    The physical fundamentals of X-ray fluorescence analysis are given and the routine spectrometers described. The basic principles are given of analytical methods used in qualitative and quantitative fluorescence analyses. Examples are given of the use of the method in a number of fields and the possibility and usefulness is discussed for the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs. The preparation of samples, preliminary concentration of components and calibration methods are discussed. (M.K.)

  4. X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. II. Determination of Uranium in ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez Polonio, J.; Crus Castillo, F. de la; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1961-01-01

    A method of analysis of uranium in ores by X-ray spectrometry was developed, using the internal standard technique. Strontium was found to be the most suitable internal standard for general use. A Norelco Philips X-ray fluorescent spectrometer was used in this work, equipped with a lithium fluoride crystal acting as a diffraction grating analyzer. The intensity of the uranium-L α 1 spectral line is calculated and related to corresponding strontium-K α spectral line, both detected with a Scintillation Counter. (Author) 31 refs

  5. Analysis of siliceous geologic materials by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Bayon, A.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of the elements Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe in siliceous geologic samples by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence is investigated using the most adequate excitation conditions: direct excitation mode (rhodium anode X-ray tube) for the former two elements, and the secondary targets titanium for K and Ca, and germanium for Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe. For the correction of matrix effects the use of ratio methods has been tested. Procedure files have been defined allowing the automatic simultaneous acquisition and processing of spectra. (author)

  6. Spatially resolved density and ionization measurements of shocked foams using x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, M. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Scott, H. A.; Biener, M. M.; Fein, J. R.; Fournier, K. B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Kemp, G. E.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; LeFevre, H. J.; Manuel, M. J. -E.; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P.

    2016-09-28

    We present experiments at the Trident laser facility demonstrating the use of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to simultaneously measure density, ionization state populations, and electron temperature in shocked foams. An imaging x-ray spectrometer obtained spatially resolved measurements of Ti K-α emission. Density profiles were measured from K-α intensity. Ti ionization state distributions and electron temperatures were inferred by fitting K-α spectra to spectra from CRETIN simulations. This work shows that XRF provides a powerful tool to complement other diagnostics to make equation of state measurements of shocked materials containing a suitable tracer element.

  7. X-ray fluorescence in Member States: Austria. Synchrotron radiation induced TXRF-XANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirer, Florian; Wobrauschek, Peter; Streli, Christina; Pepponi, Giancarlo

    2009-01-01

    X ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis was used in combination with Total reflection X ray Fluorescence (TXRF) at different Synchrotron Radiation (SR) facilities to perform elemental analysis and speciation at trace levels. TXRF-XANES was used to perform analysis of contaminations on Silicon wafer surfaces and determine the oxidation state of Fe. Urban aerosols were sampled size fractioned and the oxidation state of Fe was determined for each impactor stage again using TXRF-XANES. The feasibility of XANES analysis at trace element levels using different SR-XRF setups was demonstrated. (author)

  8. Surface extended x-ray absorption fine structure of low-Z absorbates using fluorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoehr, J.; Kollin, E.B.; Fischer, D.A.; Hastings, J.B.; Zaera, F.; Sette, F.

    1985-05-01

    Comparison of x-ray fluorescence yield (FY) and electron yield surface extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectra above the S K-edge for c(2 x 2) S on Ni(100) reveals an order of magnitude higher sensitivity of the FY technique. Using FY detection, thiophene (C 4 H 4 S) chemisorption on Ni(100) is studied with S coverages down to 0.08 monolayer. The molecule dissociates at temperatures as low as 100K by interaction with fourfold hollow Ni sites. Blocking of these sites by oxygen leaves the molecule intact

  9. X-ray fluorescence microtomography of SiC shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ice, G.E.; Chung, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Nagedolfeizi, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    TRISCO coated fuel particles contain a small kernel of nuclear fuel encapsulated by alternating layers of C and SiC. The TRISCO coated fuel particle is used in an advanced fuel designed for passive containment of the radioactive isotopes. The SiC layer provides the primary barrier for radioactive elements in the kernel. The effectiveness of this barrier layer under adverse conditions is critical to containment. The authors have begun the study of SiC shells from TRISCO fuel. They are using the fluorescent microprobe beamline 10.3.1. The shells under evaluation include some which have been cycled through a simulated core melt-down. The C buffer layers and nuclear kernels of the coated fuel have been removed by laser drilling through the SiC and then exposing the particle to acid. Elements of interest include Ru, Sb, Cs, Ce and Eu. The radial distribution of these elements in the SiC shells can be attributed to diffusion of elements in the kernel during the melt-down. Other elements in the shells originate during the fabrication of the TRISCO particles.

  10. A review of standardization issues for total reflection X-ray fluorescence and vapor phase decomposition/total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockett, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and vapor phase decomposition (VPD) followed by TXRF have become widespread methods for measuring surface metal contamination on silicon wafers. For quantification, TXRF and VPD/TXRF require reference samples. Since the approaches to making and using these reference samples have significantly varied among TXRF manufacturers and users worldwide, there exists some confusion about the quantification of TXRF and VPD/TXRF. This paper summarizes the basic issues behind TXRF and VPD/TXRF quantification using reference samples. (author)

  11. [Nondestructive imaging of elements distribution in biomedical samples by X-ray fluorescence computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qun; Deng, Biao; Lü, Wei-Wei; Du, Guo-Hao; Yan, Fu-Hua; Xiao, Ti-Qiao; Xu, Hong-Jie

    2011-10-01

    X-ray fluorescence computed tomography is a stimulated emission tomography that allows nondestructive reconstruction of the elements distribution in the sample, which is important for biomedical investigations. Owing to the high flux density and easy energy tunability of highly collimated synchrotron X-rays, it is possible to apply X-ray fluorescence CT to biomedical samples. Reported in the present paper, an X-ray fluorescence CT system was established at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility for the investigations of trace elements distribution inside biomedical samples. By optimizing the experiment setup, the spatial resolution was improved and the data acquisition process was obviously speeded up. The maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization algorithm was introduced for the image reconstruction, which remarkably improved the imaging accuracy of element distributions. The developed system was verified by the test sample and medical sample respectively. The results showed that the distribution of interested elements could be imaged correctly, and the spatial resolution of 150 m was achieved. In conclusion, the developed system could be applied to the research on large-size biomedical samples, concerning imaging accuracy, spatial resolution and data collection time.

  12. Problems of exposure measurement with extended sources. Case of X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, J.L.

    A number of problems involved in the measurement of exposure rates in X-ray or gamma-ray beams from extended sources were studied. A mathematical model simulating an experimental device producing practically monoenergetic X-ray beams (X-ray fluorescence method) was developed. The theoretical results were in good agreement with experimental data previously published. From this theoretical analogy, it was possible to determine the influence of various parameters of a free-air ionization chamber, and several corrective coefficients were evaluated and measured. The experiments were performed with a mesh-grid free-air chamber especially fitted to wide beams. The results were compared with those of cavity chambers used in the same expermental conditions [fr

  13. Inorganic chemical investigation by X-ray fluorescence analysis - The Viking Mars Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulmin, P., III; Rose, H. J., Jr.; Baird, A. K.; Clark, B. C.; Keil, K.

    1973-01-01

    The inorganic chemical investigation experiment added in August 1972 to the Viking Lander scientific package uses an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in which four sealed, gas-filled proportional counters detect X-rays emitted from samples of the Martian surface materials irradiated by X-rays from radioisotope sources (Fe-55 and Cd-109). The instrument is inside the Lander body, and samples are to be delivered to it by the Viking Lander Surface Sampler. Instrument design is described along with details of the data processing and analysis procedures. The results of the investigation will characterize the surface materials of Mars as to elemental composition with accuracies ranging from a few tens of parts per million (at the trace-element level) to a few per cent (for major elements) depending on the element in question.

  14. Optimizing Monocapillary Optics for Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction, Fluorescence Imaging, and Spectroscopy Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, Donald H.; Kazimirov, Alexander; Gillilan, Richard; Cornaby, Sterling; Woll, Arthur; Zha, Chang-Sheng; Huang Rong

    2007-01-01

    A number of synchrotron x-ray applications such as powder diffraction in diamond anvil cells, microbeam protein crystallography, x-ray fluorescence imaging, etc. can benefit from using hollow glass monocapillary optics to improve the flux per square micron on a sample. We currently draw glass tubing into the desired elliptical shape so that only one-bounce under total reflection conditions is needed to bring the x-ray beam to a focus at a 25 to 50 mm distance beyond the capillary tip. For modest focal spot sizes of 10 to 20 microns, we can increase the intensity per square micron by factors of 10 to 1000. We show some of the results obtained at CHESS and Hasylab with capillaries focusing 5 to 40 keV radiation, their properties, and how even better the experimental results could be if more ideal capillaries were fabricated in the future

  15. Reference-free total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of semiconductor surfaces with synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckhoff, Burkhard; Fliegauf, Rolf; Kolbe, Michael; Müller, Matthias; Weser, Jan; Ulm, Gerhard

    2007-10-15

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a well-established method to monitor lowest level contamination on semiconductor surfaces. Even light elements on a wafer surface can be excited effectively when using high-flux synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray range. To meet current industrial requirements in nondestructive semiconductor analysis, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) operates dedicated instrumentation for analyzing light element contamination on wafer pieces as well as on 200- and 300-mm silicon wafer surfaces. This instrumentation is also suited for grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis and conventional energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of buried and surface nanolayered structures, respectively. The most prominent features are a high-vacuum load-lock combined with an equipment front end module and a UHV irradiation chamber with an electrostatic chuck mounted on an eight-axis manipulator. Here, the entire surface of a 200- or a 300-mm wafer can be scanned by monochromatized radiation provided by the plane grating monochromator beamline for undulator radiation in the PTB laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II. This beamline provides high spectral purity and high photon flux in the range of 0.078-1.86 keV. In addition, absolutely calibrated photodiodes and Si(Li) detectors are used to monitor the exciting radiant power respectively the fluorescence radiation. Furthermore, the footprint of the excitation radiation at the wafer surface is well-known due to beam profile recordings by a CCD during special operation conditions at BESSY II that allow for drastically reduced electron beam currents. Thus, all the requirements of completely reference-free quantitation of TXRF analysis are fulfilled and are to be presented in the present work. The perspectives to arrange for reference-free quantitation using X-ray tube-based, table-top TXRF analysis are also addressed.

  16. Soft-x-ray fluorescence study of buried silicides in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, J.A.; Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Multilayer films made by alternate deposition of two materials play an important role in electronic and optical devices such as quantum-well lasers and x-ray mirrors. In addition, novel phenomena like giant magnetoresistance and dimensional crossover in superconductors have emerged from studies of multilayers. While sophisticated x-ray techniques are widely used to study the morphology of multilayer films, progress in studying the electronic structure has been slower. The short mean-free path of low-energy electrons severely limits the usefulness of photoemission and related electron free path of low-energy electrons severely limit spectroscopies for multilayer studies. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) is a bulk-sensitive photon-in, photon-out method to study valence band electronic states. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) measured with partial photon yield can give complementary bulk-sensitive information about unoccupied states. Both these methods are element-specific since the incident x-ray photons excite electrons from core levels. By combining NEXAFS and SXF measurements on buried layers in multilayers and comparing these spectra to data on appropriate reference compounds, it is possible to obtain a detailed picture of the electronic structure. Results are presented for a study of a Fe/Si multilayer system.

  17. A portable semi-micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for archaeometrical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkadas, Ch.; Karydas, A. G.

    2004-10-01

    A portable semi-micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometer was developed in the Laboratory for Material Analysis of the N.C.S.R "Demokritos". It utilizes a novel end-window, battery-operated, low-power X-ray tube (40 kV, 40 μA) with Au as anode material, a peltier cooled Si-PIN X-ray detector and associated electronics. The unique design of the probe-like X-ray tube anode allows very close coupling of any optical component to the tube anode, as well as to the sample position. A 240 μm pin-hole collimator was used to form the semi-microbeam. Monte Carlo calculations, as well as several sets of measurements, were performed, in order to determine the optimum geometrical and operational parameters. Preliminary results about the performance of our spectrometer are presented and compared to those reported in the literature for other micro-XRF instruments utilizing various optical elements (pin-holes, poly-capillary lenses) for focusing X-rays. The potential of this semi-micro-XRF spectrometer in the archaeometrical research is also discussed.

  18. X-ray fluorescence from the element with atomic number Z=120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frégeau, M O; Jacquet, D; Morjean, M; Bonnet, E; Chbihi, A; Frankland, J D; Rivet, M F; Tassan-Got, L; Dechery, F; Drouart, A; Nalpas, L; Ledoux, X; Parlog, M; Ciortea, C; Dumitriu, D; Fluerasu, D; Gugiu, M; Gramegna, F; Kravchuk, V L; Marchi, T; Fabris, D; Corsi, A; Barlini, S

    2012-03-23

    An atomic clock based on x-ray fluorescence yields has been used to estimate the mean characteristic time for fusion followed by fission in reactions 238U + 64Ni at 6.6  MeV/A. Inner shell vacancies are created during the collisions in the electronic structure of the possibly formed Z=120 compound nuclei. The filling of these vacancies accompanied by a x-ray emission with energies characteristic of Z=120 can take place only if the atomic transitions occur before nuclear fission. Therefore, the x-ray yield characteristic of the united atom with 120 protons is strongly related to the fission time and to the vacancy lifetimes. K x rays from the element with Z=120 have been unambiguously identified from a coupled analysis of the involved nuclear reaction mechanisms and of the measured photon spectra. A minimum mean fission time τ(f)=2.5×10(-18)  s has been deduced for Z=120 from the measured x-ray multiplicity.

  19. Soft-x-ray fluorescence study of buried silicides in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, J.A.; Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Multilayer films made by alternate deposition of two materials play an important role in electronic and optical devices such as quantum-well lasers and x-ray mirrors. In addition, novel phenomena like giant magnetoresistance and dimensional crossover in superconductors have emerged from studies of multilayers. While sophisticated x-ray techniques are widely used to study the morphology of multilayer films, progress in studying the electronic structure has been slower. The short mean-free path of low-energy electrons severely limits the usefulness of photoemission and related electron free path of low-energy electrons severely limit spectroscopies for multilayer studies. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) is a bulk-sensitive photon-in, photon-out method to study valence band electronic states. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) measured with partial photon yield can give complementary bulk-sensitive information about unoccupied states. Both these methods are element-specific since the incident x-ray photons excite electrons from core levels. By combining NEXAFS and SXF measurements on buried layers in multilayers and comparing these spectra to data on appropriate reference compounds, it is possible to obtain a detailed picture of the electronic structure. Results are presented for a study of a Fe/Si multilayer system

  20. A flexible setup for angle-resolved X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with laboratory sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanier, M., E-mail: mspanier@physik.tu-berlin.de; Herzog, C.; Grötzsch, D.; Kramer, F.; Mantouvalou, I.; Malzer, W.; Kanngießer, B. [Institute for Optics and Atomic Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Lubeck, J.; Weser, J.; Streeck, C.; Beckhoff, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestraße 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is one of the standard tools for the analysis of stratified materials and is widely applied for the investigation of electronics and coatings. The composition and thickness of the layers can be determined quantitatively and non-destructively. Recent work showed that these capabilities can be extended towards retrieving stratigraphic information like concentration depth profiles using angle-resolved XRF (ARXRF). This paper introduces an experimental sample chamber which was developed as a multi-purpose tool enabling different measurement geometries suited for transmission measurements, conventional XRF, ARXRF, etc. The chamber was specifically designed for attaching all kinds of laboratory X-ray sources for the soft and hard X-ray ranges as well as various detection systems. In detail, a setup for ARXRF using an X-ray tube with a polycapillary X-ray lens as source is presented. For such a type of setup, both the spectral and lateral characterizations of the radiation field are crucial for quantitative ARXRF measurements. The characterization is validated with the help of a stratified validation sample.

  1. An imaging X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for near earth objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.P.; Brunton, A.N.; Fraser, G.W.

    1999-01-01

    We propose a novel imaging X-ray spectrometer to be flown on a space mission to a Near Earth Object (NEO) (the Moon, a near Earth asteroid or a comet). In either of the first two cases the instrument will record X-ray fluorescence excited from the surface by the solar X-ray flux to form 'compositional maps' of its surface, providing valuable information on the evolution of these objects. In the case of a comet, the device will study the X-ray emission resulting from its interaction with the solar wind. During cruise when the spacecraft is en-route to the NEO the instrument will be used to make astronomical observations of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), X-ray binary stars and coronal sources in star clusters such as the Pleiades or Hyades. The instrument, proposed for ESA's SMART-1 mission, is a miniature telescope, of 37.5 cm focal length, based on microchannel plate (MCP) optics and charged coupled device (CCD) detectors providing both imaging and a medium resolution ∼50-100 eV spectroscopic capability; sufficient to resolve the L lines of Ca, Ti, Fe, and the K lines of O, Mg, Al and Si with an angular resolution ∼10 arcmin and a 6x6 deg. field of view

  2. Improvement of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer sensitivity by flowing nitrogen gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imashuku, Susumu; Tee, Deh Ping; Kawai, Jun

    2012-07-01

    The intensity of Ar Kα line was reduced by a factor of 17 times by flowing more than 400 mL min- 1 of N2 gas through gas pipe placed at the gap between the X-ray detector and the sample stage of the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer. The signal-to-background ratios of characteristic X-rays with energies less than 8 keV were improved by flowing N2 gas owing to the reduction of peak pileups related to the Ar Kα peak. The improvement of the signal-to-background ratios became significant as the energies of the characteristic X-rays approached that of the Ar Kα line (2.96 keV) for characteristic X-rays with energies less than 5 keV. When 1 μL of solution containing 10 mg L- 1 cadmium (10 ng) was measured with the TXRF spectrometer by flowing N2 gas, Cd Lα line was clearly observed, although the Cd Lα line overlapped with the Ar K lines without flowing N2 gas. The lower limit of detection of cadmium evaluated from the Cd Lα line was improved from 7.0 to 2.2 ng by flowing N2 gas. This N2 gas flowing technique can be applied to trace element analysis of cadmium in solutions which do not contain potassium such as leaching solutions from products containing cadmium in TXRF and conventional XRF measurements.

  3. Fission times studies of the Z=124 superheavy nucleus by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airiau, Maud

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1960's nuclear structure model have predicted the existence of an island of stability of superheavy elements. It should be located around the next magic numbers expected at N=172 or 184 and between Z=114 and 126 depending on the model. Very high fission barrier of a few MeV are predicted to be generated by microscopic effects for those nuclei for which large fission times distributions extended to very high fission times are induced. Fission time measurements of the superheavy element Z=124 have been made by us using the X-ray fluorescence technique, a method based on the filling of inner-shell electronic vacancies created during the collision leading to the formation of the compound nucleus. The aim of this experiment was to detect in coincidence both fission fragments and characteristic X-rays from the Z=124, created by the reaction 238 U+ 70,76 Ge. The main difficulty was to identify those X-rays due to the fact that gamma-rays from fission fragments were emitted in the same energy range, which affected our photon multiplicities for any fragment selection. This new difficulty brings an important limitation to the study of some particular superheavy elements by the X-ray fluorescence method. K X-rays spectra have been simulated using MCDF (Multi-Configuration-Dirac-Fock) and then compared to the experimental ones in order to get a maximal K X-ray multiplicity compatible with our data. The extracted results were about 6-7% for 76 Ge and from 12 to 14% for 70 Ge. Those values remain compatible with the experimental signature of long lifetime component observed for the same system but using a blocking technique in single crystals. (author) [fr

  4. Determination of uranium in complex matrices using radioisotope induced energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    Uranium is the principal fuel for nuclear reactors and the main raw material for nuclear weapons. Uranium is a very heavy metal which can be used as an abundant source of concentrated energy. Uranium occurs in most rocks with concentrations ranging from 2 to 4 parts per million and is as common in the Earth’s crust as tin, tungsten and molybdenum. Uranium occurs in seawater, and can be recovered from the oceans. Uranium also occurs in rock phosphate used as fertilizers. Uranium can be determined in all these sources by Radioisotope Induced Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (RIEDXRF). In the light of the above facts I want to bring out the potential of RIEDXRF in determining U in many of the applications. In my talk application of RIEDXRF for the determination of U in sea water, in rock phosphates, in resins, and how EXAFS has been used in studying UL3 chemical shifts of U in elemental form and compounds will be presented. The experimental set up consists of an annular radioisotope source whose photon output falls on the sample kept directly opposite the source. X-rays in reflection geometry falls on the Be window of the Liq N 2 cooled X-ray Semiconductor Si(Li) detector of a resolution of 170 eV at 5.9 keV X-ray and U L-X-rays are detected, determined and stored in a PCA for off-line analysis. The methodology developed, the results obtained and the conclusions will be detailed in the presentation and will review all the work carried out by me in NPD, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre for determination of uranium by Radioisotope Induced Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence and related techniques. (author)

  5. Analytical characterization of a new mobile X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction instrument combined with a pigment identification case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Voorde, Lien; Vekemans, Bart; Verhaeven, Eddy; Tack, Pieter; De Wolf, Robin; Garrevoet, Jan; Vandenabeele, Peter; Vincze, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    A new, commercially available, mobile system combining X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence has been evaluated which enables both elemental analysis and phase identification simultaneously. The instrument makes use of a copper or molybdenum based miniature X-ray tube and a silicon-Pin diode energy-dispersive detector to count the photons originating from the samples. The X-ray tube and detector are both mounted on an X-ray diffraction protractor in a Bragg–Brentano θ:θ geometry. The mobile instrument is one of the lightest and most compact instruments of its kind (3.5 kg) and it is thus very useful for in situ purposes such as the direct (non-destructive) analysis of cultural heritage objects which need to be analyzed on site without any displacement. The supplied software allows both the operation of the instrument for data collection and in-depth data analysis using the International Centre for Diffraction Data database. This paper focuses on the characterization of the instrument, combined with a case study on pigment identification and an illustrative example for the analysis of lead alloyed printing letters. The results show that this commercially available light-weight instrument is able to identify the main crystalline phases non-destructively, present in a variety of samples, with a high degree of flexibility regarding sample size and position. - Highlights: • New X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction instrument for non-destructive analysis • Commercially available, mobile system • One of the lightest and most compact of its kind • Characterization, data acquisition and analysis are performed. • Results of measurements on pigment model samples and cultural heritage materials

  6. Analytical characterization of a new mobile X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction instrument combined with a pigment identification case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Voorde, Lien, E-mail: lien.vandevoorde@ugent.be [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, X-ray Microspectroscopy and Imaging Research Group, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Vekemans, Bart [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, X-ray Microspectroscopy and Imaging Research Group, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Verhaeven, Eddy [Antwerp University, Faculty of Design Sciences, Mutsaardstraat 31, B-2000 Antwerpen (Belgium); Tack, Pieter; De Wolf, Robin; Garrevoet, Jan [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, X-ray Microspectroscopy and Imaging Research Group, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Vandenabeele, Peter [Ghent University, Department of Archaeology, Archaeometry Research Group, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 35, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Vincze, Laszlo [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, X-ray Microspectroscopy and Imaging Research Group, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2015-08-01

    A new, commercially available, mobile system combining X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence has been evaluated which enables both elemental analysis and phase identification simultaneously. The instrument makes use of a copper or molybdenum based miniature X-ray tube and a silicon-Pin diode energy-dispersive detector to count the photons originating from the samples. The X-ray tube and detector are both mounted on an X-ray diffraction protractor in a Bragg–Brentano θ:θ geometry. The mobile instrument is one of the lightest and most compact instruments of its kind (3.5 kg) and it is thus very useful for in situ purposes such as the direct (non-destructive) analysis of cultural heritage objects which need to be analyzed on site without any displacement. The supplied software allows both the operation of the instrument for data collection and in-depth data analysis using the International Centre for Diffraction Data database. This paper focuses on the characterization of the instrument, combined with a case study on pigment identification and an illustrative example for the analysis of lead alloyed printing letters. The results show that this commercially available light-weight instrument is able to identify the main crystalline phases non-destructively, present in a variety of samples, with a high degree of flexibility regarding sample size and position. - Highlights: • New X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction instrument for non-destructive analysis • Commercially available, mobile system • One of the lightest and most compact of its kind • Characterization, data acquisition and analysis are performed. • Results of measurements on pigment model samples and cultural heritage materials.

  7. Study of properties of chemically modified samples of halloysite mineral with X-ray fluorescence and X-ray powder diffraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaś, D.; Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.; Wudarczyk-Moćko, J.; Czech, K.; Garnuszek, M.; Słomkiewicz, P.; Szczepanik, B.

    2013-01-01

    Elemental and chemical composition of raw and activated samples of halloysite mineral using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF), total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) methods were determined. As the result, it has been shown that application of the complementary X-ray spectrometry techniques allows very precise observation of changes in composition of halloysite mineral samples caused by its chemical modifications. Sample preparation procedure and usability of the research methods applied are described in details. Procedure of activation of raw halloysite mineral samples by etching them in sulfuric acid of various concentrations has been described and discussed. The ability of the samples to adsorb lead from intentionally contaminated water was tested and confirmed. - Author-Highlights: • We measured elemental and chemical composition of raw and activated halloysite mineral samples. • We showed that X-ray techniques allow precise study of changes in the sample composition. • We describe procedure of activation of the samples by etching them in sulfuric acid. • We tested ability of halloysite mineral to absorb lead from contaminated water

  8. Development of confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy at the Cornell high energy synchrotron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woll, A.R.; Huang, R.; Mass, J.; Bisulca, C.; Bilderback, D.H.; Gruner, S.; Gao, N.

    2006-01-01

    A confocal X-ray fluorescence microscope was built at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) to obtain compositional depth profiles of historic paintings. The microscope consists of a single-bounce, borosilicate monocapillary optic to focus the incident beam onto the painting and a commercial borosilicate polycapillary lens to collect the fluorescent X-rays. The resolution of the microscope was measured by scanning a variety of thin metal films through this confocal volume while monitoring the fluorescence signal. The capabilities of the technique were then probed using test paint microstructures with up to four distinct layers, each having a thickness in the range of 10-80 microns. Results from confocal XRF were compared with those from stand-alone XRF and visible light microscopy of the paint cross-sections. A large area, high-resolution scanner is currently being built to perform 3D scans on moderately sized paintings. (orig.)

  9. Characterization of energy response for photon-counting detectors using x-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huanjun; Cho, Hyo-Min; Barber, William C; Iwanczyk, Jan S; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the feasibility of characterizing a Si strip photon-counting detector using x-ray fluorescence. X-ray fluorescence was generated by using a pencil beam from a tungsten anode x-ray tube with 2 mm Al filtration. Spectra were acquired at 90° from the primary beam direction with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector based on an edge illuminated Si strip detector. The distances from the source to target and the target to detector were approximately 19 and 11 cm, respectively. Four different materials, containing silver (Ag), iodine (I), barium (Ba), and gadolinium (Gd), were placed in small plastic containers with a diameter of approximately 0.7 cm for x-ray fluorescence measurements. Linear regression analysis was performed to derive the gain and offset values for the correlation between the measured fluorescence peak center and the known fluorescence energies. The energy resolutions and charge-sharing fractions were also obtained from analytical fittings of the recorded fluorescence spectra. An analytical model, which employed four parameters that can be determined from the fluorescence calibration, was used to estimate the detector response function. Strong fluorescence signals of all four target materials were recorded with the investigated geometry for the Si strip detector. The average gain and offset of all pixels for detector energy calibration were determined to be 6.95 mV/keV and -66.33 mV, respectively. The detector's energy resolution remained at approximately 2.7 keV for low energies, and increased slightly at 45 keV. The average charge-sharing fraction was estimated to be 36% within the investigated energy range of 20-45 keV. The simulated detector output based on the proposed response function agreed well with the experimental measurement. The performance of a spectral imaging system using energy-resolved photon-counting detectors is very dependent on the energy calibration of the detector. The proposed x-ray fluorescence technique

  10. Characterization of aluminum nitride based films with high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, D. F.; Siozios, A.; Patsalas, P.

    2018-02-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectra of Al based films are measured, using a lab-scale wavelength dispersive flat crystal spectrometer. Various structures of AlN films were studied, like single layered, capped, stratified, nanostructured, crystalline, or amorphous. By optimizing the set-up for enhanced energy resolution and detection efficiency, the measured line shapes of Κα, Kβ, and KLL radiative Auger transitions are shown to be adequately detailed to allow chemical characterization. The chemistry identification is based on the pattern comparison of the emitted line shape from the chemically unknown film and the reference line shapes from standard materials, recorded under identical experimental conditions. The ultimate strength of lab-scale high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy on film analysis is verified, in cases that ordinary applied techniques like X-ray photoelectron and X-ray diffraction fail, while the characterization refers to the non-destructive determination of the bulk properties of the film and not to its surface, as the probed depth is in the micrometer range.

  11. Multi-elemental analysis of marine sediments of Sorsogon Bay using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, Ralph Roly A.; Quirit, Leni L.; Rosales, Colleen Marciel F.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sta Maria, Efren J.

    2011-01-01

    Metal composition and nutrient loadings of our bodies of water, when uncontrolled, may cause harmful bacterial contamination and pose threats in aquatic and human life. Toxic and trace element inputs in Sorsogon Bay sediments were determined using nuclear analytical techniques, more specifically, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, in this study. Pre-treated marine sediment samples from Sorsogon Bay were homogenized using SPEX # 8000 mixer/mill and agate mortar and pestle, pelletized into 31-mm flat discs using SPEX 3630 X-Press and analyzed using PAN Analytical Epsilon 5 EDX X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer with the emission and transmission method using silver and germanium secondary targets. Spectrum fitting performed using AXIL (Analysis of X-ray Spectra by Iterative Least-Squares Fitting), a subprogram in Quantitative X-ray Analysis System developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency and Quantitative Analysis of Environmental Samples program, was used for quantification of results. Results indicate generally moderate to high metal enrichment, specifically manganese, lead, cadmium, zinc and copper. Mercury and iron level enrichment are found to be low, marking an improvement from previous studies indicating high enrichment of these metals. (author)

  12. Study of uranium contamination of ground water in Punjab using X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alrakabi, Muhanad; Singh, Gurjeet; Bhalla, Atul; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Sanjeev; Rai, Bimal; Singh, N.; Shahi, J.S.; Mehta, D.; Srivastava, Alok

    2010-01-01

    A number of reports have appeared in public media about uranium ingestion being a possible cause for cancer and increased birth rate abnormalities among children in the Malwa region of Punjab state in India. These reports link problems like cancer and Autism, with the presence of uranium in the ground waters of Malwa region. The concentration of uranium in drinking water from sources as varied as ground water, canal water supply and reverse osmosis system have been investigated using X-ray fluorescence technique. Samples from the thermal power plants in the regions and nearby ground waters were also analyzed to identify the source of contamination. The samples were collected with assistance of the officials from the Government of Punjab. More than half a litre of each of the water samples was dried at 60 deg-80 deg in an oven. Residue was collected using larger quantities of water samples in case of RO water samples. The elemental analysis of the residue was carried out using the Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer consisting of an 42 Mo-anode X-ray tube (Panalytical, 2.5 kW) as an excitation source and a Si(Li) detector. A combination of selective absorbers of 30 Zn, 38 Sr, and 39 Y was used in the incident beam for improving the detection limit for Uranium by reducing the background and removing the 42 Mo K X-rays. The detection limit in ppb/litre depends upon the amount of residue

  13. Single-shot beam profile diagnostics for x-ray FEL's using gas fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yiping; Zhu, Diling; Weninger, Clemens; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Chollet, Matthieu; Damiani, Daniel S.; Glownia, James M.; Hastings, Jerome B.; Nelson, Silke; Song, Sanghoon; Robert, Aymeric

    2017-06-01

    We report experimental demonstration of capturing single-shot X-ray Free-electron Laser (FEL) beam profiles using gas fluorescence. The measurement was carried out at the Linac Coherent Light Source using 7 keV hard X-rays propagating through ambient air. The nitrogen fluorescence emitted upon the passage of the X-ray FEL beam were imaged using a highly sensitive optical setup, and there was sufficient optical yield that single-shot measurements were feasible. By taking two orthogonal and simultaneous images, the beam trajectory could be determined in a nearly non-invasive manner, and is best suited for photon energies in the soft X-ray regime, where such a diagnostic capability has been largely unavailable previously. The integrated intensity of the images could also serve as a non-invasive intensity monitor, complementary to current implementations of gas- and solidbased monitors. High repetition-rate Free-electron Lasers can greatly benefit from such a new diagnostic tool for eliminating potential thermal damages.

  14. Optimizing detector geometry for trace element mapping by X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Jacobsen, Chris; Kirz, Janos; Vogt, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Trace metals play critical roles in a variety of systems, ranging from cells to photovoltaics. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) microscopy using X-ray excitation provides one of the highest sensitivities available for imaging the distribution of trace metals at sub-100 nm resolution. With the growing availability and increasing performance of synchrotron light source based instruments and X-ray nanofocusing optics, and with improvements in energy-dispersive XRF detectors, what are the factors that limit trace element detectability? To address this question, we describe an analytical model for the total signal incident on XRF detectors with various geometries, including the spectral response of energy dispersive detectors. This model agrees well with experimentally recorded X-ray fluorescence spectra, and involves much shorter calculation times than with Monte Carlo simulations. With such a model, one can estimate the signal when a trace element is illuminated with an X-ray beam, and when just the surrounding non-fluorescent material is illuminated. From this signal difference, a contrast parameter can be calculated and this can in turn be used to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for detecting a certain elemental concentration. We apply this model to the detection of trace amounts of zinc in biological materials, and to the detection of small quantities of arsenic in semiconductors. We conclude that increased detector collection solid angle is (nearly) always advantageous even when considering the scattered signal. However, given the choice between a smaller detector at 90° to the beam versus a larger detector at 180° (in a backscatter-like geometry), the 90° detector is better for trace element detection in thick samples, while the larger detector in 180° geometry is better suited to trace element detection in thin samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Analyses of archaeological pottery samples using X-ray fluorescence technique for provenance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamilarasu, S.; Swain, K.K.; Singhal, R.K; Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Velraj, G.

    2015-01-01

    Archaeological artifacts reveal information on past human activities, artifact preparation technology, art and possible trade. Ceramics are the most stable and abundant material in archaeological context. Pottery is the most abundant tracers in all archaeological excavations. Compared to major elements, elements present at trace concentrations levels are source specific and they maintain same concentration levels in source clay as well as finished products e.g., fired clay potteries. As it is difficult to find out exact source or origin, provenance study is carried out first to establish whether objects under study are from the same or different sources/origin. Various analytical techniques like instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), Ion beam analysis (IBA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) have been used for obtaining elemental concentrations in archaeological potteries. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry provides a non-destructive means for elemental characterization of a wide range of archaeological materials. Ten archaeological pottery samples were collected from Kottapuram, Kerala under the supervision of archaeological survey of India. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry using a handheld Olympus Innov-X Delta XRF device, ACD BARC, has been used for chemical characterization of the pottery samples. The instrument is equipped with the Delta Rhodium (Rh) anode X-Ray tube and uses a Silicon Drift Detector (resolution <200 eV at 5.95 keV Mn Kα X-ray). NIST 2781 SRM was analyzed for quality control purpose. Ten elements namely Fe, Ti, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, Zr, Mo and Se were chosen for cluster analysis and their concentration values were utilized for multivariate statistical analysis using WinSTAT 9.0

  16. Monitoring the mass of UF6 gas and uranium deposits in aluminium pipes using X-ray fluorescence and X-ray transmission gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, T.W.; Smith, S.M.

    1984-12-01

    In order to determine the enrichment of UF 6 gas in centrifuge plant pipework it is necessary to measure the mass of the gas (pressure) and the mass per unit area of any uranium deposited on the pipe. This paper shows that it is possible to determine the pressure of the UF 6 gas in pipes 120 mm in diameter using an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Results are also given of transmission measurements made using a low power X-ray generator operated at two different applied voltages. A method of using the two measurements to determine the mass per unit area of deposited uranium is described. (author)

  17. Energy dispersive detector for white beam synchrotron x-ray fluorescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Matthew D., E-mail: Matt.Wilson@stfc.ac.uk; Seller, Paul; Veale, Matthew C. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Campus,UK (United Kingdom); Connolley, Thomas [Diamond Light Source, I12 Beamline, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Dolbnya, Igor P.; Malandain, Andrew; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source, B16 Beamline, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Grant, Patrick S.; Liotti, Enzo; Lui, Andrew [Department of Materials, University of Oxford Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    A novel, “single-shot” fluorescence imaging technique has been demonstrated on the B16 beamline at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron using the HEXITEC energy dispersive imaging detector. A custom made furnace with 200µm thick metal alloy samples was positioned in a white X-ray beam with a hole made in the furnace walls to allow the transmitted beam to be imaged with a conventional X-ray imaging camera consisting of a 500 µm thick single crystal LYSO scintillator, mirror and lens coupled to an AVT Manta G125B CCD sensor. The samples were positioned 45° to the incident beam to enable simultaneous transmission and fluorescence imaging. The HEXITEC detector was positioned at 90° to the sample with a 50 µm pinhole 13 cm from the sample and the detector positioned 2.3m from pinhole. The geometric magnification provided a field of view of 1.1×1.1mm{sup 2} with one of the 80×80 pixels imaging an area equivalent to 13µm{sup 2}. Al-Cu alloys doped with Zr, Ag and Mo were imaged in transmission and fluorescence mode. The fluorescence images showed that the dopant metals could be simultaneously imaged with sufficient counts on all 80x80 pixels within 60 s, with the X-ray flux limiting the fluorescence imaging rate. This technique demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously image and identify multiple elements on a spatial resolution scale ~10µm or higher without the time consuming need to scan monochromatic energies or raster scan a focused beam of X-rays. Moving to high flux beamlines and using an array of detectors could improve the imaging speed of the technique with element specific imaging estimated to be on a 1 s timescale.

  18. Energetic electron processes fluorescence effects for structured nanoparticles X-ray analysis and nuclear medicine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taborda, A.; Desbrée, A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-HOM/SDI/LEDI, BP-17, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Carvalho, A. [IEQUALTECS, Lda, Rua Dr. Francisco Sá Carneiro, 36, 2500-065 S. Gregório CLD (Portugal); Chaves, P.C. [C" 2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, EN10 km 139.7, 2685-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Reis, M.A., E-mail: mareis@ctn.tecnico.ulisboa.pt [IEQUALTECS, Lda, Rua Dr. Francisco Sá Carneiro, 36, 2500-065 S. Gregório CLD (Portugal); C" 2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, EN10 km 139.7, 2685-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2016-08-15

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles are widely used as contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and can be modified for improved imaging or to become tissue-specific or even protein-specific. The knowledge of their detailed elemental composition characterisation and potential use in nuclear medicine applications, is, therefore, an important issue. X-ray fluorescence techniques such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), can be used for elemental characterisation even in problematic situations where very little sample volume is available. Still, the fluorescence coefficient of Fe is such that, during the decay of the inner-shell ionised atomic structure, keV Auger electrons are produced in excess to X-rays. Since cross-sections for ionisation induced by keV electrons, for low atomic number atoms, are of the order of 10{sup 3} barn, care should be taken to account for possible fluorescence effects caused by Auger electrons, which may lead to the wrong quantification of elements having atomic number lower than the atomic number of Fe. Furthermore, the same electron processes will occur in iron oxide nanoparticles containing {sup 57}Co, which may be used for nuclear medicine therapy purposes. In the present work, simple approximation algorithms are proposed for the quantitative description of radiative and non-radiative processes associated with Auger electrons cascades. The effects on analytical processes and nuclear medicine applications are quantified for the case of iron oxide nanoparticles, by calculating both electron fluorescence emissions and energy deposition on cell tissues where the nanoparticles may be embedded.

  19. Energetic electron processes fluorescence effects for structured nanoparticles X-ray analysis and nuclear medicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda, A.; Desbrée, A.; Carvalho, A.; Chaves, P. C.; Reis, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles are widely used as contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and can be modified for improved imaging or to become tissue-specific or even protein-specific. The knowledge of their detailed elemental composition characterisation and potential use in nuclear medicine applications, is, therefore, an important issue. X-ray fluorescence techniques such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), can be used for elemental characterisation even in problematic situations where very little sample volume is available. Still, the fluorescence coefficient of Fe is such that, during the decay of the inner-shell ionised atomic structure, keV Auger electrons are produced in excess to X-rays. Since cross-sections for ionisation induced by keV electrons, for low atomic number atoms, are of the order of 103 barn, care should be taken to account for possible fluorescence effects caused by Auger electrons, which may lead to the wrong quantification of elements having atomic number lower than the atomic number of Fe. Furthermore, the same electron processes will occur in iron oxide nanoparticles containing 57Co, which may be used for nuclear medicine therapy purposes. In the present work, simple approximation algorithms are proposed for the quantitative description of radiative and non-radiative processes associated with Auger electrons cascades. The effects on analytical processes and nuclear medicine applications are quantified for the case of iron oxide nanoparticles, by calculating both electron fluorescence emissions and energy deposition on cell tissues where the nanoparticles may be embedded.

  20. Precision scan-imaging for paperboard quality inspection utilizing X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlin, B.; Reza, S.; Fröjdh, C.; Nordin, T.

    2018-01-01

    Paperboard is typically made up of a core of cellulose fibers [C6H10O5] and a coating layer of [CaCO3]. The uniformity of these layers is a critical parameter for the printing quality. Current quality control methods include chemistry based visual inspection methods as well as X-ray based methods to measure the coating thickness. In this work we combine the X-ray fluorescence signals from the Ca atoms (3.7 keV) in the coating and from a Cu target (8.0 keV) placed behind the paper to simultaneously measure both the coating and the fibers. Cu was selected as the target material since its fluorescence signal is well separated from the Ca signal while its fluorescence's still are absorbed sufficiently in the paper. A laboratory scale setup is built using stepper motors, a silicon drift detector based spectrometer and a collimated X-ray beam. The spectroscopic image is retrieved by scanning the paperboard surface and registering the fluorescence signals from Ca and Cu. The exposure time for this type of setups can be significantly improved by implementing spectroscopic imaging sensors. The material contents in the layers can then be retrieved from the absolute and relative intensities of these two signals.

  1. Application of the X-ray fluorescence analysis and X-ray diffraction in geochemical studies of the Pleistocene tills from Holy Cross Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Ludwikowska-Kȩdzia, M.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.; Wudarczyk-Moćko, J.

    2013-12-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis methods (wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (WDXRF) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF)) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) have been applied in complementary geochemical studies of the Pleistocene till samples. The XRPD technique gave information about the mineral composition of the analyzed samples while the WDXRF and TXRF studies allowed the fast elemental analysis. The till samples were collected from different regions of Holy Cross Mountains (located in central Poland) which are still not unambiguously described in the context of the geochemical studies of the Quaternary sediments. The analysis was concentrated on the geochemical composition of the till samples both for materials occurring on the surface (characterized by continuous weathering processes) and for samples taken from core borehole. The overriding purpose of these studies is determination of the local lithotype of the tills and its lithologic and petrographic diagnostic properties, including the chemical composition of clay and minerals found in the clay. In the presented work the experimental sets up, sample preparation procedure and measurements programme will be discussed in details. Finally, the elemental and mineral compositions will be presented for studied different groups of the samples.

  2. Observation of X-ray shadings in synchrotron radiation-total reflection X-ray fluorescence using a color X-ray camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane, E-mail: ursula.fittschen@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Menzel, Magnus [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Scharf, Oliver [IfG Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Radtke, Martin; Reinholz, Uwe; Buzanich, Günther [BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany); Lopez, Velma M.; McIntosh, Kathryn [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Streli, Christina [Atominstitut, TU Wien, Vienna (Austria); Havrilla, George Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Absorption effects and the impact of specimen shape on TXRF analysis has been discussed intensively. Model calculations indicated that ring shaped specimens should give better results in terms of higher counts per mass signals than filled rectangle or circle shaped specimens. One major reason for the difference in signal is shading effects. Full field micro-XRF with a color X-ray camera (CXC) was used to investigate shading, which occurs when working with small angles of excitation as in TXRF. The device allows monitoring the illuminated parts of the sample and the shaded parts at the same time. It is expected that sample material hit first by the primary beam shade material behind it. Using the CXC shading could be directly visualized for the high concentration specimens. In order to compare the experimental results with calculation of the shading effect the generation of controlled specimens is crucial. This was achieved by “drop on demand” technology. It allows generating uniform, microscopic deposits of elements. The experimentally measured shadings match well with those expected from calculation. - Highlights: • Use of a color X-ray camera and drop on demand printing to diagnose X-ray shading • Specimens were obtained uniform and well-defined in shape and concentration by printing. • Direct visualization and determination of shading in such specimens using the camera.

  3. Probing symmetry and symmetry breaking in resonant soft-x-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K.; Guo, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Conventional non-resonant soft X-ray emission brings about information about electronic structure through its symmetry and polarization selectivity, the character of which is governed by simple dipole rules. For centro-symmetric molecules with the emitting atom at the inversion center these rules lead to selective emission through the required parity change. For the more common classes of molecules which have lower symmetry or for systems with degenerate core orbitals (delocalized over identical sites), it is merely the local symmetry selectivity that provides a probe of the local atomic orbital contribution to the molecular orbital. For instance, in X-ray spectra of first row species the intensities essentially map the p-density at each particular atomic site, and, in a molecular orbital picture, the contribution of the local p-type atomic orbitals in the LCAO description of the molecular orbitals. The situation is different for resonant X-ray fluorescence spectra. Here strict parity and symmetry selectivity gives rise to a strong frequency dependence for all molecules with an element of symmetry. In addition to symmetry selectivity the strong frequency dependence of resonant X-ray emission is caused by the interplay between the shape of a narrow X-ray excitation energy function and the lifetime and vibrational broadenings of the resonantly excited core states. This interplay leads to various observable effects, such as linear dispersion, resonance narrowing and emission line (Stokes) doubling. Also from the point of view of polarization selectivity, the resonantly excited X-ray spectra are much more informative than the corresponding non-resonant spectra. Examples are presented for nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide molecules.

  4. X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) imaging of gold nanoparticle-loaded objects using 110 kVp x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Seong-Kyun; Jones, Bernard L; Siddiqi, Arsalan K; Liu, Fang; Manohar, Nivedh; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2010-02-07

    A conventional x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) technique requires monochromatic synchrotron x-rays to simultaneously determine the spatial distribution and concentration of various elements such as metals in a sample. However, the synchrotron-based XFCT technique appears to be unsuitable for in vivo imaging under a typical laboratory setting. In this study we demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, the possibility of performing XFCT imaging of a small animal-sized object containing gold nanoparticles (GNPs) at relatively low concentrations using polychromatic diagnostic energy range x-rays. Specifically, we created a phantom made of polymethyl methacrylate plastic containing two cylindrical columns filled with saline solution at 1 and 2 wt% GNPs, respectively, mimicking tumors/organs within a small animal. XFCT scanning of the phantom was then performed using microfocus 110 kVp x-ray beam and cadmium telluride (CdTe) x-ray detector under a pencil beam geometry after proper filtering of the x-ray beam and collimation of the detector. The reconstructed images clearly identified the locations of the two GNP-filled columns with different contrast levels directly proportional to gold concentration levels. On the other hand, the current pencil-beam implementation of XFCT is not yet practical for routine in vivo imaging tasks with GNPs, especially in terms of scanning time. Nevertheless, with the use of multiple detectors and a limited number of projections, it may still be used to image some objects smaller than the current phantom size. The current investigation suggests several modification strategies of the current XFCT setup, such as the adoption of the quasi-monochromatic cone/fan x-ray beam and XFCT-specific spatial filters or pinhole detector collimators, in order to establish the ultimate feasibility of a bench-top XFCT system for GNP-based preclinical molecular imaging applications.

  5. Multielement characterization of atmospheric pollutants by x-ray fluorescence analysis and instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancitelli, L.A.; Tanner, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    The simultaneous measurement of a wide spectrum of elements in aerosols collected on air filters and in rainwater can yield information on the origin, transport, and removal of atmospheric pollutants. In order to determine the elemental content of these aerosols, a pair of highly sensitive, precise and complementing instrumental techniques, x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis, have been developed and employed. Data are presented on the results of combined x-ray fluorescence and activation analysis of aerosols collected in a number of urban areas of the USA and from the 80th median sampling network in March 1972. From a comparison of these ratios in granite and diabase with those of filters placed in urban areas, it is evident that Zn, Se, Sb, Hg, and Pb levels have been increased by as much as several orders of magnitude. Al, Co, La, Fe, Eu, Sm, Tb, Ta, Hf, and Th appear to exist at levels compatible with an earth's crust origin

  6. Elemental analysis of waste glass by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Jurgensen, A.R.; Resce, J.L.; Ragsdale, R.G.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique is reported which shows promise for the elemental analysis of low-level mixed waste glasses. This technique can be used for both quantitative laboratory analysis and process control. The glass-forming melts are cast into graphite molds and resulting disks are annealed and polished. The disk is then analyzed with a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and the elemental intensities are converted into concentration with a fundamental parameters routine without the use of matrix-matched standards. Precision of elemental determinations are all better than one percent relative standard deviation. The XRF analysis has been compared with a reference method utilizing conventional wet chemical dissolution techniques followed by atomic spectroscopic determination. Results show that there is no significant difference between these two techniques, however, the XRF technique is much simpler and faster than the wet chemical methods

  7. Application of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique to trace elements determination in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Navarrete, M.; Tejeda, S.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have identified an important number of toxic elements along with organic carcinogen molecules and radioactive isotopes in tobacco. In this work we have analyzed by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence 9 brands of cigarettes being manufactured and distributed in the Mexican market. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology standards and a blank were equally treated at the same time. Results show the presence of some toxic elements such as Pb and Ni. These results are compared with available data for some foreign brands, while their implications for health are discussed. It can be confirmed that the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence method provides precise (reproducible) and accuracy (trueness) data for 15 elements concentration in tobacco samples

  8. X-ray fluorescence/Auger-electron coincidence spectroscopy of vacancy cascades in atomic argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, U.

    1996-01-01

    Argon L 2.3 -M 2.3 M 2.3 Auger-electron spectra were measured in coincidence with Kα fluorescent x-rays in studies of Ar K-shell vacancy decays at several photon energies above the K-threshold and on the 1s-4p resonance in atomic argon. The complex spectra recorded by conventional electron spectroscopy are greatly simplified when recorded in coincidence with fluorescent x-rays, allowing a more detailed analysis of the vacancy cascade process. The resulting coincidence spectra are compared with Hartree-Fock calculations which include shake-up transitions in the resonant case. Small energy shifts of the coincidence electron spectra are attributed to post-collision interaction with 1s photoelectrons

  9. Determination of copper in geological materials by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Bayon, A.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence has been applied to the determination of copper content of geological materials in the concentration range of 0.01 to % CuO. A molybdenum target tube Is used, samples being presented in finely-ground powder form. Various methods for the correction for background and Instrumental copper interferences have been considered. To correct for matrix effects different tube scattered primary radiations have been tested as references or internal standards. MoK(41 - (C) provides the most suitable results. The use of influence empirical coefficients for the effect of iron on copper and of mass absorption coefficients has also been considered. For samples with a high content of lead, several procedures to correct for I t s influence have been investigated. Comparison between data obtained by X-ray fluorescence and wet-chemical techniques indicated good agreement. (Author) 6 refs

  10. Beer analysis by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.D.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian Legislation and the nutritive values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL). The measurements were performed at the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 {mu}L of sample beers containing just an internal standard, used to correct geometry effects, were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The measuring time was 100 s and the detection limits obtained varied from 1{mu}g.L{sup -1} for Mn and Fe to 15{mu}g.L{sup -1} for P. (author)

  11. Beer analysis by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Zucchi, Orgheda L.D.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian Legislation and the nutritive values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL). The measurements were performed at the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 μL of sample beers containing just an internal standard, used to correct geometry effects, were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The measuring time was 100 s and the detection limits obtained varied from 1μg.L -1 for Mn and Fe to 15μg.L -1 for P. (author)

  12. Role of importance of X-ray fluorescence analysis of forensic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shailendra; Sharma, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In the field of forensic science, it is very important to investigate the evidential samples obtained at various crime scenes. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is used widely in forensic science [1]. Its main strength is its non-destructive nature, thus preserving evidence [2, 3]. In this paper, we report the application of XRF to examine the evidences like purity gold and silver jewelry (Indian Ornaments), remnants of glass pieces and paint chips recovered from crime scenes. The experimental measurements on these samples have been made using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (LAB Center XRF-1800) procured from Shimazdu Scientific Inst., USA. The results are explained in terms of quantitative/ qualitative analysis of trace elements. (author)

  13. Single particle transfer for quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Esaka, Konomi T.; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The technique of single particle transfer was applied to quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry. The technique was evaluated by performing quantitative analysis of individual Cu particles with diameters between 3.9 and 13.2 μm. The direct quantitative analysis of the Cu particle transferred onto a Si carrier gave a discrepancy between measured and calculated Cu amounts due to the absorption effects of incident and fluorescent X-rays within the particle. By the correction for the absorption effects, the Cu amounts in individual particles could be determined with the deviation within 10.5%. When the Cu particles were dissolved with HNO 3 solution prior to the TXRF analysis, the deviation was improved to be within 3.8%. In this case, no correction for the absorption effects was needed for quantification

  14. Ultraminiature X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for in-situ geochemical analysis on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Baird, A. K.

    1973-01-01

    A spectrometer based upon the X-ray fluorescence method of elemental analysis has been developed in an ultraminiature, rugged form suitable for a spacecraft mission to Mars. The instrument employs two radioisotope sources (Fe-55 and Cd-109) which irradiate adjacent areas on a regolith sample. Fluorescent X rays emitted by the sample are detected by four thin-window proportional counters. Using pulse-height discrimination, the energy spectra are determined. Virtually all elements above sodium in the periodic table are detected if present at sufficient levels. Minimum detection limits range from 30 ppm to 2% depending upon the element and the matrix. For most elements, they are below 0.5%. Accuracies also depend upon the matrix, but are generally better than plus or minus 0.5% for all elements of atomic number greater than 14. Elements below sodium are also detected, but as a single group. Ambiguities of identification of the elements producing the observed spectra are minimal.

  15. Analysis of beers from Brazil with synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, S.; Vives, A.E.S.; Brienza, S.M.B.; Zucchi, O.L.A.D.; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Nascimento Filho, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this study the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers were determined by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian legislation and the nutritional values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL, USA). The measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory, in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 μl of beers containing an internal standard used to correct geometry effects was analyzed without pretreatment. The measuring time was 100 seconds and the detection limits obtained varied from 1 μg x l -1 for Mn and Fe to 15 μg x l -1 for P. (author)

  16. Nondestructive analysis of silver in gold foil using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Masaaki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Nakanishi, Toshio; Shimoda, Osamu; Nishiwaki, Yoshinori; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Small particles of gold foil detached from an indoor decoration might be important evidence to associate a suspect with a crime scene. We have investigated the application of elemental analysis using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to discriminate small particles of gold foil. Eight kinds of gold foil samples collected in Japan were used in the experiments. As a result of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, only two elements, gold and silver, were detected from all gold foil samples. The intensity ratios of AgK α /AuL α showed good correlation with the content ratios of Ag/Au. The variation of intensity ratio within a same sample was sufficiently small compared with those of different samples. Therefore the comparison of this intensity ratio can be an effective method to discriminate small particles originating from different types of gold foil. (author)

  17. From papyrus to paper: Elemental characterization by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manso, M.; Costa, M.; Carvalho, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    The use of the elemental composition, determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to characterize ancient and modern papyrus and parchment, and newspaper from three different years is reported. The concentrations of S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb were determined in these samples in order to proceed to its characterization. From this work, we can conclude that the obtained results allow distinguishing modern and ancient documents by its elemental amount. It was observed, with few exceptions, that the modern samples present lower elemental concentration than the older ones. Furthermore, in the newspaper samples the number of detected elements depends on the newspaper's age, and decreases from the oldest (1919) to the most recent (2005). X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is a good elemental technique with the main advantage of being non-destructive, which makes it the perfect tool for the elemental analysis of cultural heritage

  18. An evaluation of the x-ray-fluorescence analysis of rocks and silicates under routine conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoch, H.

    1975-01-01

    This report correlates the analytical results obtained by four laboratories using X-ray-fluorescence analysis on ten reference silicate samples that were incorporated in the analytical programmes required by the Geological Survey of the Republic of South Africa over a five-year period. The results and their statistical treatment are given, together with a comparison of the results for similar material issued by the Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques and the British Ceramic Research Association using wet-chemical methods. This study shows that the analysis, by X-ray-fluorescence measurement, of rocks and silicate samples for the commonly determined constituents is more precise than analysis by classical wet-chemical procedures [af

  19. Laboratory total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis for low concentration samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampai, D. [INFN-LNF, XLab Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 40, Frascati I-00044 (Italy); Dabagov, S.B. [INFN-LNF, XLab Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 40, Frascati I-00044 (Italy); RAS P.N. Lebedev Phys. Inst. and Nat. Res. Nucl. Univ. MEPhI Moscow (Russian Federation); Polese, C. [INFN-LNF, XLab Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 40, Frascati I-00044 (Italy); Dip. DICMA, Univ. Roma “Sapienza”, Via Eudossiana 18, Rome (Italy); Liedl, A. [INFN-LNF, XLab Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 40, Frascati I-00044 (Italy); Dip. Scienze Geologiche, Univ. Roma3, Largo San Leonardo Murialdo 1, Rome (Italy); Cappuccio, G. [INFN-LNF, XLab Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 40, Frascati I-00044 (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative elemental determination for concentrations in the ppb range requires a careful preparation of the sample. In particular, for elemental analysis of very low concentration samples, less than 1 ng/mm{sup 2}, a very bright X-ray source, typically synchrotron radiation (SR) in total external reflection fluorescence regime (SR-TXRF), is required. Here, we wish to demonstrate that a conventional source combined with a polycapillary semi-lens can provide a quasi-parallel beam intense enough for desktop TXRF analysis of low concentration samples. - Highlights: • Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for very low concentration analisys. • Qualitative and quantitative information from trace elements in the ppb range. • Conventional source with polycapillary optics instead Synchrotron Radiation. • Possibility to perform the technique in all kind of laboratories.

  20. A set-up of micro-X-ray fluorescence system based on polycapillary X-ray optics and applications for archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Pan Qiuli; Ding Xunliang; Liu Zhiguo

    2008-01-01

    The paper concerns in the structures, performances and characteristics and applications for archaeology of a new micro-X-ray fluorescence system based on rotating anode X-ray generator and polycapillary X-ray optics. The polycapillary X-ray optics used here can focus the primary X-ray beam down to some tens of micrometers in diameters that allows for non-destructive and local analysis of sub-mm samples with minor/ trace level sensitivity. In order to prove the potentials of this instrument used in archaeology, a piece of Chinese ancient blue and white porcelain produced in Ming Dynasty was analyzed. The results show that intensities of Mn-Kα, Co-Kα are variable in agree with the thick of blue glaze. The correlation analysis indicates the Mn and Co have the best correlations. So, the concentrations or ratios of Mn and Co are crucial to determine the provenance and identify from a fake one of Chinese ancient blue and white porcelain. (authors)

  1. Non-scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope: application to real time micro-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, K.; Eba, H.

    2000-01-01

    So far, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) micro-imaging has been performed by a 2D positional scan of a sample against a collimated beam. Obtaining information on specific elements in a nondestructive manner is an attractive prospect for many scientific applications. Furthermore, a synchrotron micro-beam can enhance the spatial resolution down to 0.1 μm. However, the total measuring time becomes quite long (a few hours to a half day), since one needs a number of scanning points in order to obtain a high-quality image. It is possible to obtain an x-ray image with 1 M pixels and with 20 μm resolution in a very short time of 20 sec - 3 min using a non-scanning XRF microscope, which is based on completely different concept. In the present report, we discuss the application of this technique to real time micro-imaging. The experiments were carried out at BL-4A, Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan. We employed a grazing-incidence arrangement to make primary x-rays illuminate the whole sample surface. We adopted parallel-beam optics and extremely-close-geometry in order to detect x-ray fluorescence with a CCD camera. The selective-excitation capability of tunable monochromatic synchrotron radiation is a feasible method for distinguishing the elements of interest. One can obtain an image of each element by differentiating the images obtained above and below the absorption edges of interest. The growth of metallic dendrites from a solution dropped on a substrate was studied successfully. Several different growth patterns, corresponding to concentration and other conditions for diffusion, were observed as x-ray images. Since the present technique requires only 40 sec for each shot, it is possible to record a growing process through repeated exposures like a movie. The authors would like to thank Prof. A. Iida (Photon Factory) for his valuable comments. (author)

  2. Analysis of noble metal on automotive exhaust catalysts by radioisotope-induce x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgart, M.F.

    1976-01-01

    A technique was developed for the in-situ analysis of noble metals deposited on monolithic automotive exhaust catalysts. This technique is based on radioisotope-induced x-ray fluorescence, and provides a detailed picture of the distribution of palladium and platinum on catalyst samples. The experimental results for the cross section of a monolithic exhaust catalyst, analyzed in increments of 0.2 cm 3 , are compared with analyses for palladium and platinum obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis

  3. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Radiation hazard during utilization; Tragbare Roentgenfluoreszenzspektrometer. Strahlungsgefaehrdung bei der Verwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiess, Lothar

    2015-07-01

    The question in relation to radiation hazards of a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is: In which time and for which instrument the hand dose is surmounted according radiation protection recommendations? The contribution shows the complexity of radiation protection. In each case of application the user should always be aware which dose leaves the equipment and how this radiation is absorbed. This is the only way of comparison with the legal dose limits.

  4. Determination of low concentrations of thorium in geological materials by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Bayon, A.

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence method for the determination of thorium in geological samples down to 2 ppm ThO 2 has been developed. To achieve this determination limit an exposed area of the sample 42.5 mm in diameter is used, working with a molybdenum target tube operated at 90 kV and 30 m A. Corrections for background and line interference of the Rb Kα radiation have been carefully considered and empirical correction coefficients calculated. (Author) 3 refs

  5. Quantitative determination of uranium in organic solution by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyt, D.V. de; Colangelo, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescent method for the determination of uranium in tributilphosphate-kerosene-nitriacid solution has been developed. Chemical properties of the matrix elements were studied in order to select a convenient procedure to determine samples and standards on the same way. The method avoids the destruction of the organic material and has proved to be very useful for the fast control of uranium concentration. (Author) [es

  6. Fast, versatile x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in impregnated wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabæk, I.; Christensen, Leif Højslet

    1985-01-01

    The present paper describes an energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in bis(tri-n-butyl)tin-oxide impregnated wood. The proposed method is of the backscatter/fundamental parameter type. Its versatility, precision, and accuracy is demonstrated by analyses of eleven samples...... of sapwood of Baltic Redwood. The results obtained are compared with those from neutron activation analysis....

  7. Multielemental analysis of surface sediments in Havana bay (Cuba) using X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelen, A.; Corrales, Y.; Lopez, N.; Manso Guevara, M. V.; Casanova, A. O.; Alessandro, K. D'; Diaz, O.; Espen, P. Van; Beltran, J.; Soto, J.

    2006-01-01

    Multielemental Analysis was performed in Superficial Sediments in Havana Bay. Twenty one samples were analysed by Dispersive Energy X- Ray Fluorescence using an spectrometer based on Si (Li) semiconductor detector an a 109 Cd source. The results showed a similar behaviour in the levels of contamination related with neutron activation analysis. The data suggest that an anthropogenic input into the bay from domestic sewage and industries occurred. (Full text)

  8. Measurements of Strontium Levels in Human Bone In Vivo Using Portable X-ray Fluorescence (XRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Aaron J; Mostafaei, Farshad; Lin, Yanfen; Xu, Jian; Nie, Linda H

    2017-08-01

    Measurement of bone strontium (Sr) is vital to determining the effectiveness of Sr supplementation, which is commonly used for the treatment of osteoporosis. Previous technology uses radioisotope sources and bulky equipment to measure bone Sr. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for bone Sr measurement and validates it using data from a population of 238 children. We identified correlations between bone Sr and age in our participants.

  9. Application of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence for the determination of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastegar, F.; Hadj-Boussaad, D.E.; Heimburger, R.; Leroy, M.J.F.; Ruch, C.

    1990-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is applied to rare earth element determination. The multi-element capability and lower detection limits offered by this instrument enable the simultaneous determination of rare earth elements in micro-samples at very different concentrations (few ppb to some hundred ppm). Problems of multi-element determination are studied in various compositions and with different interfering L-lines. Precision and reproducibility are presented for several rare earth samples [fr

  10. Determination of cesium and selenium in cultivated mushrooms using radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, L.; Bumbalova, A.; Harangozo, M.; Toelgyessy, J.; Tomecek, O.

    2000-01-01

    Cesium and selenium intake of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), with these elements previously added to culture medium, has been examined from the viewpoint of health- and environmental protection. The process of measuring has been carried out by the radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique. Treatments of the elementary substance with Se salt appears to influence the Se content of the mushrooms to a significant extent. Cs intake is of considerable importance, as this element is accumulated by mushrooms. (author)

  11. Criteria to stablish an absolute semiquantitative analytic method by x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria, Fernando.

    1990-01-01

    This work had been developed by fluorescence x-ray laboratory of Nuclear Studies Centre form Ecuador, it pretent to stablish an appropiate discernement of a FRX spectrum to know the concentration range form sample elements, minerals principaly, submit to a FRX. The study tries to stablish the best way to calibration the instruments like the adecuate samples preparation to do the analysis by FRX

  12. X-ray fluorescence analysis of metal concentration in an alloy electroplating bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, R.A.

    1980-06-01

    An energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis system has been developed for rapid, simultaneous analysis of gold and copper concentrations in an aqueous electroplating bath. The speed and repeatability of the system make it well suited for in-process control. Data collection and reduction are automatic. The analysis requires less than 10 minutes from taking the sample to printing the gold and copper concentrations

  13. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of cerium in ferrosilicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marbec, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    The cerium was determined in ferrosilicon samples by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques (XRF) techniques, with a secondary target of gadolinium. The methods employed were: comparison and linear regression with reference materials with cerium concentration between 0.4 and 1.0%. The samples were prepared in the form of pellets and the analytical results are reported as an average of five determinations with a confidence limits at 95% probability. (Author) [es

  14. Analysis of trace elements in medicinal plants with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekinci, N.; Polat, R.; Budak, G.; Ekinci, R.

    2004-01-01

    Mankind still depend on traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases and ailments. Elemental composition and concentration of medicinal plants have been investigated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The elements present in medicinal plants are P, Cl, K, Ca, S, Al, Ti, V, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Mo, In, Sn, I and Ce. The physical basis of the used analytical method, the experimental set up and the procedure of sample preparation are presented. (author)

  15. Determination of potassium concentration in organic samples by means of x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Moran, R.L.; Szgedi, S.

    1993-01-01

    By means of x-ray fluorescence analysis and the inner standard method using KH 2 PO 4 as the added chemical compound, potassium concentration of roots, stems , leaf, flowers and grains from Quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd). which was previously treated with a nitrogen ed fertilizers has been determined taking into account the increasing effect the average atomic number due to used standard. Experimental errors are lower than 10 %

  16. Determination of pollutants in dwellings by neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Navarrete, M.; Cabrera, L.; Vilchis, V.

    1997-01-01

    Metallic pollutants were measured in dwellings in Mexico city by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and x-ray fluorescence techniques. Monitoring was performed in the west side of the city and in the winter season. In general the average concentration of contaminants collected, when compared with average concentrations reported in a previous paper, have increased with time and in the particular case of lead and mercury some samples are above the indicative WHO maximum levels. (author)

  17. The X-ray-fluorescence facility at ANKA, Karlsruhe: Minimum detection limits and micro probe capabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, R; Hagelstein, M

    2003-01-01

    At the recently constructed synchrotron radiation facility ANKA at Karlsruhe, Germany, a beamline partially dedicated to X-ray fluorescence has been constructed where TXRF and micro probe SRXRF experiments can be performed. The beam line with its retractable double multilayer monochromator is described. First measurements on reference samples allow a preliminary characterization of beam line parameters like exploitable energy range and the energy resolution as well as the sensitivity of the set-up in means of minimum detection limits.

  18. New x-ray optical system for fluorescence beamline at Hasylab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkenberg, G.; Tschentscher, T.

    2000-01-01

    Beamline L at HASYLAB/DESY is actually dedicated to micro x-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) experiments using the white beam from a bending magnet of the storage ring DORIS III. To extend the applicability of beamline L to other x-ray fluorescence techniques, such as synchrotron radiation total reflection x-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) and micro x-ray absorption near edge structures in fluorescence mode (μ-XANES), new x-ray optics have been designed and are under installation at the moment. The suitability of beamline L for SR-TXRF experiments has been shown previously in a number of studies using temporary setups for beam monochromatization and collimation. The new optical system comprises a slit system, a pair of x-ray mirrors for focussing, collimation and high energy cut-off (12 keV and 30 keV), a double multilayer monochromator for broad bandpass applications (TXRF) and a double perfect-crystal monochromator for spectroscopy (XANES, speciation). The multilayer monochromator will utilize a pair of NiC with a spacing of 4.0 nm for the energy range 2-10 keV and a second pair of WB 4 C with a spacing of 3.0 nm for the range 4-30 keV. To extend the energy range for broad bandpass applications to higher photon energies SiGe gradient crystals are foreseen (ΔE/E ∼ 10 -3 ). For the perfect-crystal monochromator we have chosen a pair of Ge 111 crystals for the energy range 2-10 keV and Si 111 crystals for 7-90 keV. To enable the use of low photon energies down to 2 keV the monochromator vessel is sealed to the ring vacuum by a 25 μm thick carbon window. The mirrors and monochromators deflect the beam vertically and can be moved out of the beam independently. Fixed exit geometry permits the illumination of the same sample spot with different wavelength and energy bands. All optical elements accept the full vertical beam opening in order to enable both vertical and horizontal geometries for sample and detector. (author)

  19. Fluorescence x-ray standing wave study on (AlAs)(GaAs) superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Lessmann, A; Munkholm, A; Schuster, M; Riechert, H; Materlik, G

    1999-01-01

    X-ray standing waves (XSW) were used to investigate the structure of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown (AlAs) sub 3 (GaAs) sub 7 short-period superlattices (SPSL). The modulation of the Al K, As L, and Ga L x-ray fluorescence induced by XSW was measured at the zero-order superlattice (SL) satellite (AlAs)(GaAs)(004,0) and the GaAs(004) substrate Bragg reflection. From the shape of the fluorescence yield modulations and the diffraction pattern, a model of the interfaces is derived by comparing the experimental data with dynamical calculations of the x-ray wave field distribution and reflectivity. A straightforward analysis of the fluorescence measurements at the SL satellite shows that in AlAs layers a high crystalline order is established, whereas in GaAs layers a fraction of the Ga and As atoms is not on ideal lattice sites, but is displaced towards the substrate. The data can be explained by a model in which, at each AlAs/GaAs interface of the GaAs layers, two Ga atom planes are displaced by 0.035 nm and 0...

  20. X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient and medieval brass artifacts from south Moravia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlozek, M. [Methodical Centre of Conservation-Technical Museum in Brno, Purkynova 105, 612 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Komoroczy, B. [Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, 612 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trojek, T., E-mail: tomas.trojek@fjfi.cvut.cz [Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-15

    This paper deals with an investigation of archeological finds using X-ray fluorescence analysis and microanalysis. The main aim of the investigation was to prove the production of brass in the South Moravian Region (part of the Czech Republic) in former times. The probable brass production technology is described. Various objects dating back to Antiquity and to the Middle Ages were investigated using two X-ray fluorescence systems, and the results of the analyses are discussed. The measurements showed, e.g., that fragments of Roman scale armor and a belt fitting dating back to Antiquity were made of brass. Brass was also identified on the surfaces of various ancient and medieval molds and melting pots. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semiquantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of archeological finds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two different gilding techniques of a brass belt terminal found in Brno. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of brass before the Great Moravian period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence of brass casting in the 12th century in Brno.

  1. Analysis of metals in organic compounds by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de

    2000-01-01

    Using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with an X-ray tube filtered with Ti. It was possible to determine the concentration of the elements at ppm level of several elements: K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Pb in two types of organic compound enough used in the agriculture: organic compound of urban garbage (Fertilurb) and aviary bed (birds manure). The experimental setup is composed of: x-ray tube (Oxford, 30 kV, 50 μA and W anode), an ORTEC Si-Li detector, with an energy resolution of about 180 eV at 5.9 keV and an ORTEC multichannel-analyser. The X-ray beam is quasi- monochromatic by using Ti filter. The samples were prepared in pellet form with superficial density in the range of 100 mg/cm 2 . The fundamental parameter method was used in order to verify the elemental concentration. The radiation transmission method was going used to the radiation absorption effects correction in the samples. (author)

  2. X-ray fluorescence analysis of cultural artefacts — Applications to the Czech heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojek, T.; Musílek, L.; Čechák, T.

    2014-02-01

    X-ray florescence analysis is an excellent non-destructive tool for analysing the elemental composition of materials in a wide range of works of art. The Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionising Radiation at CTU-FNSPE has used radionuclide or X-ray tube excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence for many kinds of artefacts, including frescos, paintings, manuscripts, metal sculptures and other objects, ceramics, jewellery, various archaeological finds, etc. The method used is more or less "traditional", i.e., semiconductor spectrometry of excited X-rays, with some optional choices—capillary optics for collimation of exciting beams and two-dimensional scanning. The "hardware" complex is supplemented by techniques for estimating the depth distribution of measured elements, for suppressing surface effects, for in situ non-contact measurements, etc. Extending the measurable range to lighter elements and decreasing the detection limits is one of the achievements that has been attained by improving the instrumentation and techniques that are used. This paper gives a brief review of works carried out at the Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionising Radiation at CTU-FNSPE.

  3. LabVIEW control software for scanning micro-beam X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Pawel; Czyzycki, Mateusz; Furman, Leszek; Kolasinski, Krzysztof; Lankosz, Marek; Mrenca, Alina; Samek, Lucyna; Wegrzynek, Dariusz

    2012-05-15

    Confocal micro-beam X-ray fluorescence microscope was constructed. The system was assembled from commercially available components - a low power X-ray tube source, polycapillary X-ray optics and silicon drift detector - controlled by an in-house developed LabVIEW software. A video camera coupled to optical microscope was utilized to display the area excited by X-ray beam. The camera image calibration and scan area definition software were also based entirely on LabVIEW code. Presently, the main area of application of the newly constructed spectrometer is 2-dimensional mapping of element distribution in environmental, biological and geological samples with micrometer spatial resolution. The hardware and the developed software can already handle volumetric 3-D confocal scans. In this work, a front panel graphical user interface as well as communication protocols between hardware components were described. Two applications of the spectrometer, to homogeneity testing of titanium layers and to imaging of various types of grains in air particulate matter collected on membrane filters, were presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. X-ray optics for scanning fluorescence microscopy and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryon, R.W.; Warburton, W.K.

    1992-05-01

    Scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy is analogous to scanning electron microscopy. Maps of chemical element distribution are produced by scanning with a very small x-ray beam. Goal is to perform such scanning microscopy with resolution in the range of <1 to 10 μm, using standard laboratory x-ray tubes. We are investigating mirror optics in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. K-B optics uses two curved mirrors mounted orthogonally along the optical axis. The first mirror provides vertical focus, the second mirror provides horizontal focus. We have used two types of mirrors: synthetic multilayers and crystals. Multilayer mirrors are used with lower energy radiation such as Cu Kα. At higher energies such as Ag Kα, silicon wafers are used in order to increase the incidence angles and thereby the photon collection efficiency. In order to increase the surface area of multilayers which reflects x-rays at the Bragg angle, we have designed mirrors with the spacing between layers graded along the optic axis in order to compensate for the changing angle of incidence. Likewise, to achieve a large reflecting surface with silicon, the wafers are placed on a specially designed lever arm which is bent into a log spiral by applying force at one end. In this way, the same diffracting angle is maintained over the entire surface of the wafer, providing a large solid angle for photon collection

  5. Determination of silver in waste fixer solution by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino

    2010-01-01

    Fixer solution used in film radiography processing. Wastes containing silver (Ag) prohibited to discharge into the environment. Because silver is a valueable commodity, it is managed by recovering silver in various methods. Therefore it is necessary to determine the concentration of silver in the waste. X-ray Fluorescence/XRF analysis is one of element analysis method which non destructive or just a very simple sample preparation. The analysis was done by exited the material using low energy gamma radiation or X-ray radiation, so the atom will emit the X-rays characteristic which measured using X-ray/XRF spectrometer. Am-241 was used as gamma radiation source. The volume of sample and standard solution of each 5 mL contained in vial, without treatment. The calculation is performed by comparison to Ag standard solution. Concentration calibration curve was prepared based on concentration variation of standard solution. The measurement of 5 samples results the silver concentration in the fixer waste was 1600 ± 80 ppm. The data of analysis required in the management of fixer waste. (author)

  6. Determinations of silicon and phosphorus in Pepperbush standard reference material by neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Nishio, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kusakabe, Toshio; Iwata, Shiro.

    1987-01-01

    Silicon and phosphorus contents in Pepperbush standard reference material were determined by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence methods. In neutron activation analysis, β-ray spectra of 32 P produced by 31 P(n,γ) 32 P reaction on Pepperbush and standard samples were measured by a low background β-ray spectrometer. In X-ray fluorescence analysis, the standard samples were prepared by mixing the Pepperbush powder with silicon dioxide and diammonium hydrogenphosphate. Characteristic X-rays from the samples were analyzed by a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. From the β and X-ray intensities, silicon and phosphorus contents in Pepperbush were determined to be 1840 ± 80 and 1200 ± 50 μg g -1 , respectively. (author)

  7. Simulation study of two-energy X-ray fluorescence holograms reconstruction algorithm to remove twin images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Honglan; Hu Wen; Luo Hongxin; Deng Biao; Du Guohao; Xue Yanling; Chen Rongchang; Shi Shaomeng; Xiao Tiqiao

    2008-01-01

    Unlike traditional outside-source holography, X-ray fluorescence holography is carded out with fluorescent atoms in a sample as source light for holographic imaging. With the method, three-dimensional arrangement of atoms into crystals can be observed obviously. However, just like traditional outside-source holography, X-ray fluorescence holography suffers from the inherent twin-image problem, too. With a 27-Fe-atoms cubic lattice as model, we discuss in this paper influence of the photon energy of incident source in removing twin images in reconstructed atomic images by numerical simulation and reconstruction with two-energy X-ray fluorescence holography. The results indicate that incident X-rays of nearer energies have better effect of removing twin images. In the detector of X-ray holography, minimum difference of the two incident energies depends on energy resolution of the monochromator and detector, and for inside source X-ray holography, minimum difference of the two incident energies depends on difference of two neighboring fluorescent energies emitting from the element and energy resolution of detector. The spatial resolution of atomic images increases with the incident energies. This is important for experiments of X-ray fluorescence holography, which is being developed on Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. (authors)

  8. Characterization of "oil on copper" paintings by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch, A; Ramón, A; Álvarez-Pérez, A; Queralt, I

    2012-02-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence is a common analytical tool for layer thickness measurements in quality control processes in the coating industry, but there are scarce microanalytical applications in order to ascertain semi-quantitative or quantitative information of painted layers. "Oil on copper" painting becomes a suitable material to be analysed by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, due to the metallic nature of substrate and the possibility of applying layered models as used in coating industry. The aim of this work is to study the suitability of a quantitative energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methodology for the assessment of the areal distribution of pigments and the characterization of painting methods on such kind of pictorial artworks. The method was calibrated using standard reference materials: dried droplets of monoelemental standard solutions laid on a metallic plate of copper. As an example of application, we estimated pigment mass distribution of two "oil on copper" paintings from the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. Pictorial layers have been complementarily analysed by X-ray diffraction. Apart of the supporting media made of copper or brass, we could identify two different superimposed layers: (a) a preparation layer mainly composed by white lead and (b) the pictorial layer of variable composition depending on the pigments used by the artist on small areas of the painting surface. The areal mass distribution of the different elements identified in the painting pigments (Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) have been determined by elemental mapping of some parts of the artworks.

  9. Analysis of Precious Stones Deposited in Various Rock Samples of Mogok Region by energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyi Kyi San; Soe Lwin; Win Win Thar; Sein Htoon

    2004-06-01

    The analysis of precious stones deposited in various rock samples of Mogok region were investigated by the energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. The x-ray machine with Rh target was used to excite the characteristic x-ray from the sample. X-rays emitted from the sample were measured by a high resolution, cooled Si (Li) detector. The calibration was made by the measurement of minerals which composed in each kind of precious stones. The kind of precious stone deposited in the rocks sample was determined by the measurement of minerals from the rock samples compared with those obtained from each kind of precious stones

  10. Feasibility study for the in vivo measurement of lead in bone using L-x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Slatkin, D.N.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    Lead deposits in bone were detected by x-ray fluorescence using x-rays from either a 125 I or a 109 Cd source. Measurements were taken from tibia in intact human legs, post-mortem. On the basis of preliminary measurements, it was concluded that an exposure of one rad is adequate for determination of lead in bone. Both the advantages and the disadvantages of L-x-rays, used in the technique developed for this study, are compared with those of K-x-rays

  11. Semi-empirical model for fluorescence lines evaluation in diagnostic x-ray beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, Marco; Andreani, Lucia; Labanti, Claudio; Costa, Paulo Roberto; Rossi, Pier Luca; Baldazzi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic x-ray beams are composed of bremsstrahlung and discrete fluorescence lines. The aim of this study is the development of an efficient model for the evaluation of the fluorescence lines. The most important electron ionization models are analyzed and implemented. The model results were compared with experimental data and with other independent spectra presented in the literature. The implemented peak models allow the discrimination between direct and indirect radiation emitted from tungsten anodes. The comparison with the independent literature spectra indicated a good agreement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A High-Speed Detector System for X-ray Fluorescence Microprobes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddons,P.D.; Dragone, A.; De Geronimo, g.; Kuczewski, A.; Kuczewski, J.; O

    2006-10-29

    We have developed a high-speed system for collecting x-ray fluorescence microprobe data, based on ASICs developed at BNL and high-speed processors developed by CSIRO. The system can collect fluorescence data in a continuous raster scan mode, and present elemental images in real time using Ryan's Dynamic Analysis algorithm. We will present results from a 32-element prototype array illustrating the concept. The final instrument will have 384 elements arranged in a square array around a central hole.

  13. A setup for synchrotron-radiation-induced total reflection X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near-edge structure recently commissioned at BESSY II BAMline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittschen, U; Guilherme, A; Böttger, S; Rosenberg, D; Menzel, M; Jansen, W; Busker, M; Gotlib, Z P; Radtke, M; Riesemeier, H; Wobrauschek, P; Streli, C

    2016-05-01

    An automatic sample changer chamber for total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis in TXRF geometry was successfully set up at the BAMline at BESSY II. TXRF and TXRF-XANES are valuable tools for elemental determination and speciation, especially where sample amounts are limited (TXRF requires a well defined geometry regarding the reflecting surface of a sample carrier and the synchrotron beam. The newly installed chamber allows for reliable sample positioning, remote sample changing and evacuation of the fluorescence beam path. The chamber was successfully used showing accurate determination of elemental amounts in the certified reference material NIST water 1640. Low limits of detection of less than 100 fg absolute (10 pg ml(-1)) for Ni were found. TXRF-XANES on different Re species was applied. An unknown species of Re was found to be Re in the +7 oxidation state.

  14. A new method for x-ray fluorescence analysis of contaminated material. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grodzins, Lee; Niland, John

    2002-05-23

    Niton has successfully completed the objectives of the Phase II program to build a hand-held, x-ray fluorescent analyzer optimized for DOE decontamination and decommissioning activities in the field. A two-pound x-ray fluorescence analyzer was developed that contains 3 radioactive sources, emitting 3 widely spaced monochromatic x-rays, to give the lowest detection limits for the full range of toxic elements, from chromium to plutonium. A rapid, fundamental- parameters algorithm was developed that yields quantitative results in less than 1 second. High-resolution silicon drift detectors and silicon PIN diodes give excellent efficiency and speed. These results from Phase II have been introduced into the XL 300, 700 and 800 commercial products series. More than 800 of these instruments, yielding revenues of more than $20 million dollars, have been sold since the first 3-source instrument was introduced in 1998. A direct consequence of the Phase II funding has been the growth of Niton from 20 people to its present size of 60.

  15. A new method for x-ray fluorescence analysis of contaminated material. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzins, Lee; Niland, John

    2002-01-01

    Niton has successfully completed the objectives of the Phase II program to build a hand-held, x-ray fluorescent analyzer optimized for DOE decontamination and decommissioning activities in the field. A two-pound x-ray fluorescence analyzer was developed that contains 3 radioactive sources, emitting 3 widely spaced monochromatic x-rays, to give the lowest detection limits for the full range of toxic elements, from chromium to plutonium. A rapid, fundamental- parameters algorithm was developed that yields quantitative results in less than 1 second. High-resolution silicon drift detectors and silicon PIN diodes give excellent efficiency and speed. These results from Phase II have been introduced into the XL 300, 700 and 800 commercial products series. More than 800 of these instruments, yielding revenues of more than $20 million dollars, have been sold since the first 3-source instrument was introduced in 1998. A direct consequence of the Phase II funding has been the growth of Niton from 20 people to its present size of 60

  16. Measurement of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel by self-induced x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Andrew S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rudy, Cliff R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Steve J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Charlton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stafford, A [TEXAS A& M; Strohmeyer, D [TEXAS A& M; Saavadra, S [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Direct measurement of the plutonium content in spent nuclear fuel is a challenging problem in non-destructive assay. The very high gamma-ray flux from fission product isotopes overwhelms the weaker gamma-ray emissions from plutonium and uranium, making passive gamma-ray measurements impossible. However, the intense fission product radiation is effective at exciting plutonium and uranium atoms, resulting in subsequent fluorescence X-ray emission. K-shell X-rays in the 100 keV energy range can escape the fuel and cladding, providing a direct signal from uranium and plutonium that can be measured with a standard germanium detector. The measured plutonium to uranium elemental ratio can be used to compute the plutonium content of the fuel. The technique can potentially provide a passive, non-destructive assay tool for determining plutonium content in spent fuel. In this paper, we discuss recent non-destructive measurements of plutonium X-ray fluorescence (XRF) signatures from pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods. We also discuss how emerging new technologies, like very high energy resolution microcalorimeter detectors, might be applied to XRF measurements.

  17. Determination of minor and trace elements in kidney stones by x-ray fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali; Heisinger, Brianne J.; Sinha, Vaibhav; Lee, Hyong-Koo; Liu, Xin; Qu, Mingliang; Duan, Xinhui; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2014-03-01

    The determination of accurate material composition of a kidney stone is crucial for understanding the formation of the kidney stone as well as for preventive therapeutic strategies. Radiations probing instrumental activation analysis techniques are excellent tools for identification of involved materials present in the kidney stone. In particular, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be very useful for the determination of minor and trace materials in the kidney stone. The X-ray fluorescence measurements were performed at the Radiation Measurements and Spectroscopy Laboratory (RMSL) of department of nuclear engineering of Missouri University of Science and Technology and different kidney stones were acquired from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Presently, experimental studies in conjunction with analytical techniques were used to determine the exact composition of the kidney stone. A new type of experimental set-up was developed and utilized for XRF analysis of the kidney stone. The correlation of applied radiation source intensity, emission of X-ray spectrum from involving elements and absorption coefficient characteristics were analyzed. To verify the experimental results with analytical calculation, several sets of kidney stones were analyzed using XRF technique. The elements which were identified from this techniques are Silver (Ag), Arsenic (As), Bromine (Br), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Gallium (Ga), Germanium (Ge), Molybdenum (Mo), Niobium (Nb), Rubidium (Rb), Selenium (Se), Strontium (Sr), Yttrium (Y), Zirconium (Zr). This paper presents a new approach for exact detection of accurate material composition of kidney stone materials using XRF instrumental activation analysis technique.

  18. Scanning protein analysis of electrofocusing gels using X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Iida, Yutaka; Suzuki, Yoshinari; Ishizaka, Yukihito; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Shimura, Mari

    2013-05-01

    Recently, "metallomics," in addition to genomics and proteomics, has become a focus as a novel approach to identify sensitive fluctuations in homeostasis that accompany metabolic processes, such as stress responses, differentiation, and proliferation. Cellular elements and associated protein behavior provide important clues for understanding cellular and disease mechanism(s). It is important to develop a system for measuring the native status of the protein. In this study, we developed an original freeze-dried electrofocusing native gel over polyimide film (native-gel film) for scanning protein analysis using synchrotron radiation excited X-ray fluorescence (SPAX). To our knowledge, this is the first report detailing the successful mapping of metal-associated proteins of electrofocusing gels using X-ray fluorescence. SPAX can provide detection sensitivity equivalent to that of LA-ICP-MS. In addition to this increased sensitivity, SPAX has the potential to be combined with other X-ray spectroscopies. Our system is useful for further applications in proteomics investigating cellular element-associated protein behaviors and disease mechanisms.

  19. Dual x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and method for fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bary W.; Shepard, Chester L.

    2005-02-22

    Disclosed are an X-ray fluorescence (SRF) spectrometer and method for on-site and in-line determination of contaminant elements in lubricating oils and in fuel oils on board a marine vessel. An XRF source block 13 contains two radionuclide sources 16, 17 (e.g. Cd 109 and Fe 55), each oriented 180 degrees from the other to excite separate targets. The Cd 109 source 16 excites sample lube oil flowing through a low molecular weight sample line 18. The Fe 55 source 17 excites fuel oil manually presented to the source beam inside a low molecular weight vial 26 or other container. Two separate detectors A and B are arranged to detect the fluorescent x-rays from the targets, photons from the analyte atoms in the lube oil for example, and sulfur identifying x-rays from bunker fuel oil for example. The system allows both automated in-line and manual on-site analysis using one set of signal processing and multi-channel analyzer electronics 34, 37 as well as one computer 39 and user interface 43.

  20. Development of a compact grazing exit X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for fast trace elemental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, Takafumi, E-mail: ashidatakafumi@gmail.com; Tsuji, Kouichi

    2014-11-01

    A compact grazing exit X-ray fluorescence (GE-XRF) spectrometer was developed in the laboratory. An Al cylindrical collimator for the primary X-rays was placed just above the sample stage. This collimator also played the role of an exit slit to detect fluorescent X-rays at small grazing exit angles. Therefore, no additional exit slit was used in this setup, leading to a compact design. The entire size of the analysis equipment was 80 mm × 200 mm × 170 mm (horizontal × vertical × height). The maximum exit angle was adjusted to the height of the sample stage. The background was drastically reduced at grazing exit angles, enabling trace elemental analysis. A calibration curve was obtained using 10 μL Ga solutions. Accordingly, the detection limit for Ga was evaluated to be 20 ppb. - Highlights: • We developed a compact GE-XRF spectrometer. • The dimension of GE-XRF spectrometer was 80 mm × 200 mm × 170 mm. • A detection limit of 20 ppb for Ga was obtained. • Analytical performance was comparable with that of a table-top TXRF spectrometer.

  1. X-ray fluorescence methods for investigations of lipid/protein membrane models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Natalia N; Yurieva, Eleonora A; Zheludeva, Svetlana I; Kovalchuk, Michail V; Stepina, Nina D; Tolstikhina, Alla L; Gaynutdinov, Ratmir V; Urusova, Dariya V; Matkovskaya, Tatiana A; Rubtsov, Alexandr M; Lopina, Olga D; Erko, Alexsey I; Konovalov, Oleg V

    2005-07-01

    The protective effect of the bisphosphonate drug xydiphone (K,Na-ethidronate) on membrane-bound enzyme damaged by lead ions has been studied. A protein/lipid film of Ca-ATPase/phosphatedylethanolamine deposited on a silicon substrate was used as a model system. The position of lead ions within the molecular film before and after the xydiphone treatment was determined using the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence method. This technique is based on the simultaneous measurement of the X-ray reflection and the yield of the fluorescence radiation excited by X-ray inelastic scattering. The possibility of directly locating lead ions is the main advantage of this approach. Xydiphone has been found to effectively eliminate lead ions that have been incorporated into Ca-ATPase molecules during a preliminary incubation in lead acetate solution. The lead ions that were bound at the sites of the Ca-ATPase attachment to the phospholipid monolayer have proved to be inaccessible for xydiphone. A preliminary incubation of Ca-ATPase in the xydiphone solution precluded the incorporation of lead ions into the protein.

  2. Radiography imaging of cultural heritage obtained with a modified portable X-Ray Fluorescence System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Cuevas, Ariadna; Velazquez Maldonado, Luis Ramon

    2011-01-01

    The sufficiency of imaging quality of the radiographies obtained with a modified portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was evaluated for the study of cultural heritage. The proposed instrument use an X-ray tube with Pd anode (2 mm) that allows a maximum voltage and current of 50 kV and 1 mA respectively and a collimation system permit to irradiate a square shape region in the analyzed object by the projection of light beam with the same shape on its surface. The spatial resolution of the obtained radiographic image make possible to localize and well define pentimenti in painting, identify filling materials in a painting under restoration process, the radiogrametry of archaeological bone and the identification of a petrified sphere from an archaeological discovery. The radiographic analysis is proposed for study of physical anthropology in Cuba. (author)

  3. The studies of post-medieval glass by multivariate and X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kierzek, J.; Kunicki-Goldfinger, J.

    2002-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis of the results obtained by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis has been used in the study of baroque vessel glasses originated from central Europe. X-ray spectrometry can be applied as a completely non-destructive, non-sampling and multi-element method. It is very useful in the studies of valuable historical artefacts. For the last years, multivariate statistical analysis has been developed as an important tool for the archaeometric purposes. Cluster, principal component and discriminant analysis were applied for the classification of the examined objects. The obtained results show that these statistical tools are very useful and complementary in the studies of historical objects. (author)

  4. Metals determination in wood treated by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Silva, Richard Maximiliano da Cunha [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: maxcunha@cena.usp.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel da Silva; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Barroso, Regina Cely [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes the use of X-Ray fluorescence analysis for distribution and quantification of metals in the hardwood (Eucalyptus sp) and softwood (Pinus sp) treated with CCA (copper-chromium-arsenic). The sapwood/heartwood for hardwood sample and the growth-rings for softwood sample were analyzed. The samples were scanned in 320 mm steps in the vertical direction. For excitation of the elements a white beam synchrotron radiation of {approx} 320 x 180 mm was employed and for the X-ray detection a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn and As were determined. Fundamental parameters were used to quantify the elements concentrations. (author)

  5. Metals determination in wood treated by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel da Silva; Tomazello Filho, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the use of X-Ray fluorescence analysis for distribution and quantification of metals in the hardwood (Eucalyptus sp) and softwood (Pinus sp) treated with CCA (copper-chromium-arsenic). The sapwood/heartwood for hardwood sample and the growth-rings for softwood sample were analyzed. The samples were scanned in 320 mm steps in the vertical direction. For excitation of the elements a white beam synchrotron radiation of ∼ 320 x 180 mm was employed and for the X-ray detection a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn and As were determined. Fundamental parameters were used to quantify the elements concentrations. (author)

  6. Physical aspects of quantitative particles analysis by X-ray fluorescence and electron microprobe techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowicz, A.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present both physical fundamentals and recent advances in quantitative particles analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and electron microprobe (EPXMA) techniques. A method of correction for the particle-size effect in XRF analysis is described and theoretically evaluated. New atomic number- and absorption correction procedures in EPXMA of individual particles are proposed. The applicability of these two correction methods is evaluated for a wide range of elemental composition, X-ray energy and sample thickness. Also, a theoretical model for composition and thickness dependence of Bremsstrahlung background generated in multielement bulk specimens as well as thin films and particles are presented and experimantally evaluated. Finally, the limitations and further possible improvements in quantitative particles analysis by XFR and EPXMA are discussed. 109 refs. (author)

  7. Determination of low concentrations of thorium in granites using X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, H.M.; Sato, I.M.; Iyer, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    An analytical method for the accurate determination of low concentrations of thorium in rocks using X-ray fluorescence technique, was developed. A tungsten tube was utilized for the production of X-rays. The samples were prepared in the form of double layer pressed pellets using boric acid as a binding agent. The concentration of thorium was determined by measuring the intensity of the characteristic first order Th L α line. The calibration was carried out with USGS rock standards AGV-1, GSP-1 and G-2. Seven granite rocks samples from Granite Mountains of Wyoming, USA, supplied by Dr. Stuckless. Also were analysed. The results obtained were compared with values obtained in others laboratories using different analytical methods. The analyses show that the thorium is concentrated in accessory minerals and presented a non-uniform distribution, making sampling an important factor in the analysis of thorium. A discussion of the precision and accuracy of the method is presented. (Author) [pt

  8. Elemental investigation on Spanish dinosaur bones by x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, Antonio; Golosio, Bruno; Stegel, Giovanni; Piga, Giampaolo; Lasio, Barbara; Oliva, Piernicola; Enzo, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the chemical composition results obtained on a collection of 18 dinosaur fossil bones from Spain studied using a portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer together with a reverse Monte Carlo numerical technique of data analysis. This approach is applied to the hypothesis of arbitrarily rough surfaces in order to account for the influence of the surface state of specimens on the chemical content evaluation. It is confirmed that the chemical content of elements is essential for understanding the changes brought about by diagenetic and taphonomic processes. However, for precise knowledge of what changes fossil bones have undergone after animal life and burial, it is necessary to use a multi-technique approach making use of other instruments like x-ray diffraction in order to describe accurately the transformations undergone by the mineralogical and bioinorganic phases and the properties of specific molecular groups. (paper)

  9. Reverse engineering the ancient ceramic technology based on X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciau, Philippe; Leon, Yoanna; Goudeau, Philippe; Fakra, Sirine C.; Webb, Sam; Mehta, Apurva

    2011-07-06

    We present results of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe analyses of ancient ceramic cross-sections aiming at deciphering the different firing protocols used for their production. Micro-focused XRF elemental mapping, Fe chemical mapping and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy were performed on pre-sigillata ceramics from southern Gaul, and terra Sigillata vessels from Italy and southern Gaul. Pieces from the different workshops and regions showed significant difference in the starting clay material, clay conditioning and kiln firing condition. By contrast, sherds from the same workshop exhibited more subtle differences and possible misfirings. Understanding the precise firing conditions and protocols would allow recreation of kilns for various productions. Furthermore, evolution and modification of kiln design would shed some light on how ancient potters devised solutions to diverse technological problems they encountered.

  10. Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis at the ESRF ID18F microprobe

    CERN Document Server

    Vekemans, B; Somogyi, A; Drakopoulos, M; Kempenaers, L; Simionovici, A; Adams, F

    2003-01-01

    The new ID18F end-station at the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF) in Grenoble (France) is dedicated to sensitive and accurate quantitative micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis at the ppm level with accuracy better than 10% for elements with atomic numbers above 18. For accurate quantitative analysis, given a high level of instrumental stability, major steps are the extraction and conversion of experimental X-ray line intensities into elemental concentrations. For this purpose a two-step quantification approach was adopted. In the first step, the collected XRF spectra are deconvoluted on the basis of a non-linear least-squares fitting algorithm (AXIL). The extracted characteristic line intensities are then used as input for a detailed Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code dedicated to XRF spectroscopy taking into account specific experimental conditions (excitation/detection) as well as sample characteristics (absorption and enhancement effects, sample topology, heterogeneity etc.). The iterative u...

  11. A wavelet-based Gaussian method for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wavelet-based Gaussian method (WGM for the peak intensity estimation of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF. The relationship between the parameters of Gaussian curve and the wavelet coefficients of Gaussian peak point is firstly established based on the Mexican hat wavelet. It is found that the Gaussian parameters can be accurately calculated by any two wavelet coefficients at the peak point which has to be known. This fact leads to a local Gaussian estimation method for spectral peaks, which estimates the Gaussian parameters based on the detail wavelet coefficients of Gaussian peak point. The proposed method is tested via simulated and measured spectra from an energy X-ray spectrometer, and compared with some existing methods. The results prove that the proposed method can directly estimate the peak intensity of EDXRF free from the background information, and also effectively distinguish overlap peaks in EDXRF spectrum.

  12. Application of X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF): thickness and chemical composition determination of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Valdirene de Oliveira.

    2004-01-01

    In this work a procedure is described for thickness and quantitative chemical composition of thin films by wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) using Fundamental Parameters method. This method was validated according to quality assurance standard and applied sample Al, Cr, TiO2, Ni, ZrO2 (single thickness) and Ni/Cr (double thickness) on glass; Ni on steel and metallic zinc and TiO2 on metallic iron (single thickness), all the sample were prepared for physical deposition of vapor (PVD). The thickness had been compared with Absorption (FRX-A) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) methods; the result showed good efficiency of the fundamental parameters method. Sample structural characteristics analyzed by X ray diffraction (XRD) showed any influence in the thickness determinations. (author)

  13. Elemental investigation on Spanish dinosaur bones by x-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Antonio; Piga, Giampaolo; Lasio, Barbara; Golosio, Bruno; Oliva, Piernicola; Stegel, Giovanni; Enzo, Stefano

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we examine the chemical composition results obtained on a collection of 18 dinosaur fossil bones from Spain studied using a portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer together with a reverse Monte Carlo numerical technique of data analysis. This approach is applied to the hypothesis of arbitrarily rough surfaces in order to account for the influence of the surface state of specimens on the chemical content evaluation. It is confirmed that the chemical content of elements is essential for understanding the changes brought about by diagenetic and taphonomic processes. However, for precise knowledge of what changes fossil bones have undergone after animal life and burial, it is necessary to use a multi-technique approach making use of other instruments like x-ray diffraction in order to describe accurately the transformations undergone by the mineralogical and bioinorganic phases and the properties of specific molecular groups.

  14. X-ray fluorescence as a tool for investigating archaeological finds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cechak, T. [Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionising Radiation, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Hlozek, M. [Department of Archaeology and Museology, Masaryk University, Faculty of Arts, Arna Novaka 1, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: musilek@fjfi.cvut.cz; Musilek, L.; Trojek, T. [Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionising Radiation, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2007-09-21

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) is an outstanding method for investigations of various objects of historic and cultural significance, as it is non-destructive, can be used without any sampling of the analysed artefacts and, if necessary, measurements can be carried out in situ. The laboratory at CTU FNSPE is equipped for XRFA with radionuclides {sup 55}Fe, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am and with a small X-ray tube (30 kV) as excitation sources, and with Si(Li) and Si-PIN semiconductor spectrometers for detecting XRF spectra. This paper deals with XRFA of archaeological finds. Practical examples are selected from investigations of ceramic objects from excavations in the Czech Republic.

  15. ROLE OF X-RAY FLUORESCENCE IN A MODERN GEOCHEMICAL LABORATORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Joseph E.

    1985-01-01

    Because modern geochemical laboratories can seldom have all new analytical equipment, it is clear that priorities must be assigned and choices made when selecting each new instrument. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy has come to play a vital role in this environment largely because it is a dependable, multielement, rapid method that covers a wide range of elemental concentrations, commonly with only one sample preparation. The following discussion centers on the role of modern XRF instrumentation in the resolution of geochemical problems. In order to present a comprehensive view of this role, this paper draws upon a great deal of information from numerous X-ray laboratories visited in the United States and Canada.

  16. 3D imaging of transition metals in the zebrafish embryo by X-ray fluorescence microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Daisy; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Vogt, Stefan; Yi, Hong; Will, Fabian; Richter, Heiko; Shin, Chong Hyun; Fahrni, Christoph J

    2014-09-01

    Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography has emerged as a powerful technique for the 3D visualization of the elemental distribution in biological samples. The mechanical stability, both of the instrument and the specimen, is paramount when acquiring tomographic projection series. By combining the progressive lowering of temperature method (PLT) with femtosecond laser sectioning, we were able to embed, excise, and preserve a zebrafish embryo at 24 hours post fertilization in an X-ray compatible, transparent resin for tomographic elemental imaging. Based on a data set comprised of 60 projections, acquired with a step size of 2 μm during 100 hours of beam time, we reconstructed the 3D distribution of zinc, iron, and copper using the iterative maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) reconstruction algorithm. The volumetric elemental maps, which entail over 124 million individual voxels for each transition metal, revealed distinct elemental distributions that could be correlated with characteristic anatomical features at this stage of embryonic development.

  17. Characterization of AlGaInN layers using X-ray diffraction and fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, Lars; Hums, Christoph; Blaesing, Juergen; Krost, Alois; Dadgar, Armin [Institute of Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Quantum well structures for nitride-based LEDs are mainly grown in c-direction, whereby the quantum confined Stark-effect (QCSE) reduces the overlap of the electron and hole wave function and with it the internal quantum efficiency. The reason for that is the difference in polarization of the quantum well and barrier materials. In order to balance these polarizations, quaternary (AlGaIn)N layers for the later use as barrier material have been grown. In addition to the bandgap energy, another parameter, the polarization, can be controlled in this way. As a standard characterization method X-ray diffraction measurements have been performed. Due to the impossibility of fully determining the composition using this method, total reflection X-ray-fluorescence (TXRF) has been used to get the missing information. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Development of a software for reconstruction of X-ray fluorescence intensity maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Andre Pereira de; Braz, Delson; Mota, Carla Lemos, E-mail: apalmeid@gmail.co, E-mail: delson@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: clemos@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Barroso, Regina Cely; Pinto, Nivia Graciele Villela, E-mail: cely@uerj.b, E-mail: lfolive@uerj.b, E-mail: nitatag@gmail.co [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho, E-mail: simone@if.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Moreira, Silvana, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2009-07-01

    The technique of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using SR microbeams is a powerful analysis tool for studying elemental composition in several samples. One application of this technique is the analysis done through the mapping of chemical elements forming a matrix of data. The aim of this work is the presentation of the program MapXRF, an in-house software designed to optimize the processing and mapping of fluorescence intensities data. This program uses spectra generated by QXAS as input data and separates the intensities of each chemical element found in the fluorescence spectra in files themselves. From these files, the program generates the intensity maps that can be visualized in any program of treatment of images. The proposed software was tested using fluorescence data obtained in the XRF beamline of XRF at Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS), Brazil. Automatic 2D scans were performed and element distribution maps were obtained in the form of a matrix of data. (author)

  19. Development of a reconstruction software of elemental maps by micro X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Andre Pereira de; Braz, Delson; Mota, Carla Lemos, E-mail: apalmeid@gmail.co, E-mail: delson@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: clemos@con.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Barroso, Regina Cely; Pinto, Nivia Graciele Villela, E-mail: cely@uerj.b, E-mail: lfolive@uerj.b, E-mail: nitatag@gmail.co [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2009-07-01

    The technique of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using SR microbeams is a powerful analysis tool for studying elemental composition in several samples. One application of this technique is the analysis done through the mapping of chemical elements forming a matrix of data. The aim of this work is the presentation of the program MapXRF, an in-house software designed to optimize the processing and mapping of fluorescence intensities data. This program uses spectra generated by QXAS as input data and separates the intensities of each chemical element found in the fluorescence spectra in files themselves. From these files, the program generates the intensity maps that can be visualized in any program of treatment of images. The proposed software was tested using fluorescence data obtained in the XRF beamline at National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Brazil. Automatic 2D scans were performed and element distribution maps were obtained in form of a matrix of data. (author)

  20. Development of a reconstruction software of elemental maps by micro X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Andre Pereira de; Braz, Delson; Mota, Carla Lemos; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Barroso, Regina Cely; Pinto, Nivia Graciele Villela; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho; Moreira, Silvana

    2009-01-01

    The technique of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using SR microbeams is a powerful analysis tool for studying elemental composition in several samples. One application of this technique is the analysis done through the mapping of chemical elements forming a matrix of data. The aim of this work is the presentation of the program MapXRF, an in-house software designed to optimize the processing and mapping of fluorescence intensities data. This program uses spectra generated by QXAS as input data and separates the intensities of each chemical element found in the fluorescence spectra in files themselves. From these files, the program generates the intensity maps that can be visualized in any program of treatment of images. The proposed software was tested using fluorescence data obtained in the XRF beamline at National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Brazil. Automatic 2D scans were performed and element distribution maps were obtained in form of a matrix of data. (author)

  1. Development of a software for reconstruction of X-ray fluorescence intensity maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Andre Pereira de; Braz, Delson; Mota, Carla Lemos; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Barroso, Regina Cely; Pinto, Nivia Graciele Villela; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho; Moreira, Silvana

    2009-01-01

    The technique of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using SR microbeams is a powerful analysis tool for studying elemental composition in several samples. One application of this technique is the analysis done through the mapping of chemical elements forming a matrix of data. The aim of this work is the presentation of the program MapXRF, an in-house software designed to optimize the processing and mapping of fluorescence intensities data. This program uses spectra generated by QXAS as input data and separates the intensities of each chemical element found in the fluorescence spectra in files themselves. From these files, the program generates the intensity maps that can be visualized in any program of treatment of images. The proposed software was tested using fluorescence data obtained in the XRF beamline of XRF at Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS), Brazil. Automatic 2D scans were performed and element distribution maps were obtained in the form of a matrix of data. (author)

  2. Development of glancing-incidence and glancing-take-off X-ray fluorescence apparatus for surface and thin-film analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki; Yamada, Takashi; Utaka, Tadashi

    1997-01-01

    We have studied X-ray fluorescence analysis under glancing incidence and glancing take-off conditions. Recently, we have developed a third apparatus for detecting glancing-incidence and take-off X-ray fluorescence, which makes it possible to measure the incident-angle dependence, the take-off-angle dependence. X-ray reflectivity, and X-ray diffraction. Primarily, we have measured the take-off angular dependence of X-ray fluorescence using this apparatus. Glancing take-off X-ray fluorescence has some advantages in comparison with glancing-incidence X-ray fluorescence. The surface density and the absolute angles were determined by analysing the take-off angle dependence of the fluorescent X-rays emitted from identical atoms with the aid of the reciprocity theorem. (Author)

  3. Study of the elemental composition of Chenopodium Quinoa Willd by fast neutron activation analysis and X ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Moran, R.L.; Szegedi, S.; Llopiz, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    By means of x-ray fluorescence and fast neutron activation analysis the nitrogen content has been determined in samples of roots, stems, leaf, flowers and grains from Quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd), which was previously treated with fertilizer

  4. Airborne particulate matter (PM) filter analysis and modeling by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and X-ray standing wave (XSW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgese, L; Salmistraro, M; Gianoncelli, A; Zacco, A; Lucchini, R; Zimmerman, N; Pisani, L; Siviero, G; Depero, L E; Bontempi, E

    2012-01-30

    This work is presented as an improvement of a recently introduced method for airborne particulate matter (PM) filter analysis [1]. X-ray standing wave (XSW) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) were performed with a new dedicated laboratory instrumentation. The main advantage of performing both XSW and TXRF, is the possibility to distinguish the nature of the sample: if it is a small droplet dry residue, a thin film like or a bulk sample. Another advantage is related to the possibility to select the angle of total reflection to make TXRF measurements. Finally, the possibility to switch the X-ray source allows to measure with more accuracy lighter and heavier elements (with a change in X-ray anode, for example from Mo to Cu). The aim of the present study is to lay the theoretical foundation of the new proposed method for airborne PM filters quantitative analysis improving the accuracy and efficiency of quantification by means of an external standard. The theoretical model presented and discussed demonstrated that airborne PM filters can be considered as thin layers. A set of reference samples is prepared in laboratory and used to obtain a calibration curve. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method for quantitative analysis of air PM filters is affordable and reliable without the necessity to digest filters to obtain quantitative chemical analysis, and that the use of XSW improve the accuracy of TXRF analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A structural study of bone changes in knee osteoarthritis by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhupakorn, Bura; Thienpratharn, Suwittaya; Kidkhunthod, Pinit

    2017-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage and thickening of subchondral bone. The present study investigated the changing of biochemical components of cartilage and bone compared between normal and OA people. Using Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniquesincluding X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) were employed for the bone changes in kneeosteoarthritisstudies. The bone samples were collected from various osteoarthritis patients with both male and female in the ages range between 20 and 74 years old. SR-XRF results excited at 4240 eV for Ca elements show a majority three main groups, based on their XRF intensities, 20-36 years, 40-60 years and over 70 years, respectively. By employing XAS techniques, XANES features can be used to clearly explain in term of electronic transitions occurring in bone samples which are affected from osteoarthritis symptoms. Moreover, a structural change around Ca ions in bone samples is obviously obtained by EXAFS results indicating an increase of Ca-amorphous phase when the ages increase.

  6. Parameter study of self-absorption effects in Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure analysis of arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirer, F.; Pepponi, G.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Kregsamer, P.; Zoeger, N.; Falkenberg, G.

    2008-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis in combination with X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis is a powerful method to perform chemical speciation studies at trace element levels. However, when measuring samples with higher concentrations and in particular standards, damping of the oscillations is observed. In this study the influence of self-absorption effects on TXRF-XANES measurements was investigated by comparing measurements with theoretical calculations. As(V) standard solutions were prepared at various concentrations and dried on flat substrates. The measurements showed a correlation between the damping of the oscillations and the As mass deposited. A Monte-Carlo simulation was developed using data of the samples shapes obtained from confocal white light microscopy. The results showed good agreement with the measurements; they confirmed that the key parameters are the density of the investigated atom in the dried residues and the shape of the residue, parameters that combined define the total mass crossed by a certain portion of the incident beam. The study presents a simple approach for an a priori evaluation of the self-absorption in TXRF X-ray absorption studies. The consequences for Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and XANES measurements under grazing incidence conditions are discussed, leading to the conclusion that the damping of the oscillations seems to make EXAFS of concentrated samples non feasible. For XANES 'fingerprint' analysis samples should be prepared with a deposited mass and sample shape leading to an acceptable absorption for the actual investigation

  7. Direct Determination of Oxidation States of Uranium in Mixed-Valent Uranium Oxides Using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Kaushik; Khooha, Ajay; Das, Gangadhar; Tiwari, M K; Misra, N L

    2017-01-03

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF)-based X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy has been used to determine the oxidation state of uranium in mixed-valent U 3 O 8 and U 3 O 7 uranium oxides. The TXRF spectra of the compounds were measured using variable X-ray energies in the vicinity of the U L 3 edge in the TXRF excitation mode at the microfocus beamline of the Indus-2 synchrotron facility. The TXRF-based X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (TXRF-XANES) spectra were deduced from the emission spectra measured using the energies below and above the U L 3 edge in the XANES region. The data processing using TXRF-XANES spectra of U(IV), U(V), and U(VI) standard compounds revealed that U present in U 3 O 8 is a mixture of U(V) and U(VI), whereas U in U 3 O 7 is mixture of U(IV) and U(VI). The results obtained in this study are similar to that reported in literature using the U M edge. The present study has demonstrated the possibility of application of TXRF for the oxidation state determination and elemental speciation of radioactive substances in a nondestructive manner with very small amount of sample requirement.

  8. Quantitative comparison of X-ray fluorescence microtomography setups: Standard and confocal collimator apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chukalina, M. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology RAS, 142432, Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation)], E-mail: marina@ipmt-hpm.ac.ru; Simionovici, A. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, University of Grenoble, BP 53, 38041, Grenoble (France)], E-mail: alexandre.simionovici@ujf-grenoble.fr; Zaitsev, S. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology RAS, 142432, Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation)], E-mail: zaitsev@ipmt-hpm.ac.ru; Vanegas, C.J. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology RAS, 142432, Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation)], E-mail: vanegas@ipmt-hpm.ac.ru

    2007-07-15

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest for fluorescence spectroscopy, as provided by modern setups which allow 2D and 3D imaging of elemental distributions. Two directions are currently under development: the SR-based fluorescence tomography in polar scanning geometry, provided by the new generation of X-ray microprobes and the confocal scanning geometry, which can be fielded in both SR and laboratory environments. The new probes bring forth a new age in fluorescence spectrometry: high resolution, high intensity and high sensitivity which allow 3D elemental mapping of volumes. The major task now is the development of these complex tools into fully quantitative probes, reproducible and straightforward for general use. In this work we analyze two X-ray fluorescence microtomography techniques: an apparatus tomography using a confocal collimator for the data collection and a standard first generation Computed Tomography (CT) in the parallel scanning scheme. We calculate the deposited dose (amount of energy deposited and distributed in the sample during the data collection time) and find the conditions for the choice of the tomography scheme.

  9. Technique of sample preparation for analysis of gasoline and lubricating oils by X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila P, P.

    1990-03-01

    The X-ray fluorescence laboratory of the National Institute of Nuclear Research when not having a technique for the analysis of oils it has intended, with this work, to develop a preparation technique for the analysis of the metals of Pb, Cr, Ni, V and Mo in gasolines and oils, by means of the spectrometry by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The obtained results, its will be of great utility for the one mentioned laboratory. (Author)

  10. Uncertainty calculations for the measurement of in vivo bone lead by x-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, J M; Fleming, D E B

    2009-04-21

    In order to quantify the bone lead concentration from an in vivo x-ray fluorescence measurement, typically two estimates of the lead concentration are determined by comparing the normalized x-ray peak amplitudes from the Kalpha(1) and Kbeta(1) features to those of the calibration phantoms. In each case, the normalization consists of taking the ratio of the x-ray peak amplitude to the amplitude of the coherently scattered photon peak in the spectrum. These two Pb concentration estimates are then used to determine the weighted mean lead concentration of that sample. In calculating the uncertainties of these measurements, it is important to include any covariance terms where appropriate. When determining the uncertainty of the lead concentrations from each x-ray peak, the standard approach does not include covariance between the x-ray peaks and the coherently scattered feature. These spectral features originate from two distinct physical processes, and therefore no covariance between these features can exist. Through experimental and simulated data, we confirm that there is no observed covariance between the detected Pb x-ray peaks and the coherently scattered photon signal, as expected. This is in direct contrast to recent work published by Brito (2006 Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6125-39). There is, however, covariance introduced in the calculation of the weighted mean lead concentration due to the common coherent normalization. This must be accounted for in calculating the uncertainty of the weighted mean lead concentration, as is currently the case. We propose here an alternative approach to calculating the weighted mean lead concentration in such a way as to eliminate the covariance introduced by the common coherent normalization. It should be emphasized that this alternative approach will only apply in situations in which the calibration line intercept is not included in the calculation of the Pb concentration from the spectral data: when the source of the intercept is

  11. Improvement of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer sensitivity by flowing nitrogen gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imashuku, Susumu, E-mail: imashuku.susumu.2m@kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tee, Deh Ping; Kawai, Jun

    2012-07-15

    The intensity of Ar K{alpha} line was reduced by a factor of 17 times by flowing more than 400 mL min{sup -1} of N{sub 2} gas through gas pipe placed at the gap between the X-ray detector and the sample stage of the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer. The signal-to-background ratios of characteristic X-rays with energies less than 8 keV were improved by flowing N{sub 2} gas owing to the reduction of peak pileups related to the Ar K{alpha} peak. The improvement of the signal-to-background ratios became significant as the energies of the characteristic X-rays approached that of the Ar K{alpha} line (2.96 keV) for characteristic X-rays with energies less than 5 keV. When 1 {mu}L of solution containing 10 mg L{sup -1} cadmium (10 ng) was measured with the TXRF spectrometer by flowing N{sub 2} gas, Cd L{alpha} line was clearly observed, although the Cd L{alpha} line overlapped with the Ar K lines without flowing N{sub 2} gas. The lower limit of detection of cadmium evaluated from the Cd L{alpha} line was improved from 7.0 to 2.2 ng by flowing N{sub 2} gas. This N{sub 2} gas flowing technique can be applied to trace element analysis of cadmium in solutions which do not contain potassium such as leaching solutions from products containing cadmium in TXRF and conventional XRF measurements. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intensity of Ar K{alpha} line was decreased by a factor of 17 times by flowing N{sub 2} gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S/N of characteristic X-rays with energies less than 8 keV were improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection limit of cadmium calculated from Cd L{alpha} line was improved from 7.0 to 2.2 ng by flowing N{sub 2} gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This technique can be applied to trace element analysis of Cd in leaching solutions.

  12. Radioisotope induced energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence - a diagnostic tool in clinical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) - an ideal technique for detecting trace elements in drugs have been used for analyzing drugs marked as Zn supplements (Jasad Bhasm) used for growth in children and Ayurvedic medicines containing toxic elements such as Arsenic (As) and Mercury (Hg). Folklore medicines obtained as plants extracts from Manipur plants were also analyzed for their composition. Zn supplements (Jasad Bhasm) manufactured by various manufacturers were analyzed for their trace elements besides Zn and were compared with laboratory preparations. Similarly the Ayurvedic medicines from different companies were analyzed for their metal composition. All samples in powder form were pelletized and analyzed using an X-ray spectrometer consisting of a Cd 109 radioisotope source, Si (Li) detector of resolution 170 eV at 5.9 KeV Mn X-ray, preamplifier, amplifier and a PC based multichannel analyzer. Varying amounts of trace elements were detected in Jasad Bhasm and interesting results (As and Hg) were seen in the Ayurvedic medicines in addition to other trace elements such as K,Ca,Fe,Cu and Zn. In Manipur plant extracts Sr was predominantly seen in most samples. Their levels of toxicity and significance to human health and diseases will be discussed in the remaining sections of the paper

  13. Integration of X-ray micro tomography and fluorescence for applications on natural building stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanckele, J; Cnudde, V; Pieters, K; Jacobs, P; Boone, M; Loo, D Van; De Witte, Y; Vlassenbroeck, J; Dierick, M; Masschaele, B; Hoorebeke, L Van

    2009-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is an excellent, non-destructive analysis tool for characterising many different materials. In geosciences, 3D visualisation is becoming of prime importance in characterising internal structures of various rock types. It enables new approaches in petrophysical research of rock components, including pore and mineral distribution. Although CT provides a lot of information, this technique is limited concerning information on chemical element distribution. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) on the other hand is an excellent technique to obtain the missing information on chemical properties. At the recently established 'Centre for X-ray Tomography' of Ghent University (UGCT) a micro- and nanoCT scanner has been constructed. It is expected that by combination of high-resolution CT and XRF it will be possible to characterise the spatial mineral and element distribution. The combination of both techniques has been applied on natural building stones, in order to get a better insight into some geological parameters (porosity, pore structure, mineral distribution, colour, grain orientation, etc.). Afterwards, the integration of the Morpho+ software tool provides us a 3D quantification of the resulting data.

  14. X-ray fluorescence and computed radiography analysis of a famous brazilian painting from XIX century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Davi F.; Rocha, Henrique S.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu

    2009-01-01

    This work used Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Computed Radiography (CR) to evaluate the general conditions of the painting 'Gioventu' (Eliseu Visconti, 1898), identifying possible problems, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and the pigments used by the artist. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 μA, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. Several spectra were obtained in each color, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The spectra were analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL (IAEA). The results revealed that the drawings were made over a preparatory layer of lead white. Some pigments identified were: yellow, red and brown ochre; umbra; vermilion; cobalt blue; etc. The experimental setup used in the CR analysis consisted of an Oxford X-ray source, operating at 50 kV and 200 μA, placed at 85 cm from the painting, a GE CR 50P portable computed radiography scanner and a Fuji imaging plate detector. The exposure time was 600 s. The radiographic images revealed that the painting was in a good state of conservation and also a complete composition hidden underneath the visible paint layer.(author)

  15. Methodology for determination of inorganic elements in vitamin supplements by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Lucas Y.; Portezan Filho, Otavio; Perreira, Paulo S.; Lopes, Fabio; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Melquiades, Fabio L.

    2009-01-01

    A methodology is present for qualification of inorganic elements in alimentary supplements, using a portable system of low power X-ray, in the analysis of two commercial products, both found as pills. The PXRF (Portable X-ray Fluorescence) is a X-ray mini tube, Ag filter at tube exit, a Si-Pin semiconductor and a Ag collimator at the detector entry, specific circuitry for this type of system and a microcomputer for the data acquisition and analysis. Samples and standards were diluted in boric acid, and the samples were prepared in a 1:10 rate, and the standards vary of 1:2, 1;5, 1:10. 1:15 and 1:100. Results were obtained for Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu e Zn, with values varying from 0.14 to 8.45 for the sample A, and from 0.17 to 17.94 for the sample B. The PXRF portable system demonstrated to be a multi elementary analysis tool with high analytical speed, and can be applied in situ no only for quality control but also for monitoring of inspection organism

  16. [Application of in situ micro energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis in mineralogy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai; Ge, Liang-Quan; Gu, Yi; Zhang, Qing-Xian; Xiong, Sheng-Qing

    2013-11-01

    Thirteen rock samples were collected for studying the variation of element content in the mineral during the alteration process from Xinjiang, China. The IED-6000 in situ micro energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence developed by CDUT was applied to get chemical and physical data from minerals. The non-destructive spectrometer is based on a low-power Mo-anode X-ray tube and a Si-PIN peltier cooled X-ray detector. The unique design of the tube's probe allows very close coupling of polycapillary and makes the use of micro-area measurement feasible and efficient. The spectrometer can be integrated into any microscope for analysis. The long axis diameter of beam spot is about 110 microm. According to micro-EDXRF measurement, the tetrahedrite was corrected to pyrite, improving the efficiency and accuracy of the mineral identification. The feldspar of mineralized rock sample is rich in Cu and Zn which can be used as prospecting indicator elements. Element content of Cr, Mn and Co shows negative correlation with the degree of mineralization.

  17. Determination of rare earth elements in pure solutions by X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuada, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence method for the determination of rare earth elements in pure solutions is described. The thin film sample preparation technique, by dropping the solution on filter paper as supporting material, has been utilized. The best conditions for X-ray spectrometer operation have been stablished. The analytical lines and internal standard have been selected, defining measurement conditions for each rare earth elements. With the settled parameters, the rare earth elements in pure solutions were determined. The concentration range during the runs was from 0,05 to 5 gRE/L, depending on the element. The standard deviation was less than 10% and the accuracy was between 0,2 to 10% as a function of the concentration. The main interfering lines of others lanthanides were studied for each element, and the method was also applied to fission products represented by the rare earth alements. The method is suitable for individual rare earth element determination in presence of some lanthanides. However, in solutions containing a mixture of all rare earth elements, the X-ray emission spectrum is very complex, making it difficult to get accurated measurements. In relation to fission products represented by rare earth elements, only Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm could be analised in presence of uranium and other fission products. (Author) [pt

  18. Synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence analysis: A tool to increase accuracy in microscopic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, F

    2003-01-01

    Microscopic X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has potential for development as a certification method and as a calibration tool for other microanalytical techniques. The interaction of X-rays with matter is well understood and modelling studies show excellent agreement between experimental data and calculations using Monte Carlo simulation. The method can be used for a direct iterative calculation of concentrations using available high accuracy physical constants. Average accuracy is in the range of 3-5% for micron sized objects at concentration levels of less than 1 ppm with focused radiation from SR sources. The end-station ID18F of the ESRF is dedicated to accurate quantitative micro-XRF analysis including fast 2D scanning with collection of full X-ray spectra. Important aspects of the beamline are the precise monitoring of the intensity of the polarized, variable energy beam and the high reproducibility of the set-up measurement geometry, instrumental parameters and long-term stability.

  19. TX 2000: total reflection and 45o energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasti, F.; Torboli, A.; Valdes, M.

    2000-01-01

    This equipment, developed by Ital Structures, combines two kinds of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques, the first using total reflection geometry and the second conventional 45 o geometry. The equipment is completely controlled by a PC and to reach the condition of total reflection is very easy because it is enough to load the file with the right position for the corresponding energy. In this apparatus we used an x-ray tube with an alloy anode of Mo/W with a long fine focus at 2200 W. To monochromatize the x-ray beam while choosing, for example, the Mo K alpha or W L alpha or a piece of white spectrum of 33 keV, we use a highly reflective multilayer made of Si/W with 2d = 45.5 A o . The detector used in the equipment is a lithium drifted silicon detector (Si(Li)) with an excellent energy resolution of 135 eV at 5.9 keV and 1000 cps. We developed two programs written in Windows 95, 98 and NT for a 32 bit microprocessor. The first one is called TYACQ32 and has the following functions: first, complete control of the hardware, second automatic alignment of the TX 2000 spectrometer and third acquisition of spectra. The second program is EDXRF32. This is a program to accomplish spectrum and quantitative analysis for TXRF and EDXRF 45 o degrees analysis. (author)

  20. Optimization of an in vivo X-ray fluorescence mercury measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Meara, J.M.; Boerjesson, J.; Chettle, D.R.; McNeill, F.E.

    2004-01-01

    A non-invasive in vivo X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method of measuring renal mercury concentrations has previously been reported, as a potential occupational monitoring tool for those who work with this toxic element [Phys. Med. Biol. 40 (1995) 413]. However, the detection limits remain high compared to the typical values anticipated in these populations. Our approach for further enhancing the XRF renal mercury detection limit has been threefold: investigations of the ideal filtration and tube voltage with a conventional tungsten anode X-ray tube, and the replacement of the existing tungsten X-ray tube with a Fluorex tube [Phys. Med. Biol. 36 (1991) 1573]. In all cases the systems were compared by Monte Carlo simulation to that reported by Boerjesson et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 40 (1995) 413]. The optimal filtration was found to be a 0.035 cm uranium filter, positioned after the polarizer. Modest improvement was achieved by increasing the tungsten tube voltage from 160 [Phys. Med. Biol. 40 (1995) 413] to 200 kV, decreasing the system detection limit by 27% for the same subject dose. It was found that the Fluorex tube did not improve the system sensitivity for a given dose rate, either when the tube was used for direct excitation or in a polarized configuration. Despite the improved performance reported here at 200 kV, detection limits remain high compared to typical levels in occupationally exposed individuals

  1. Application of radionuclide sources for excitation in energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, P.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is in broad application in many fields of science where elemental determinations are necessary. Solid and liquid samples are analyzed by this method. Solids are introduced in thin or thick samples as melted glass, pellets, powders or as original specimen. The excitation of X-ray spectra can be performed by specific and polychromic radiation of X-ray tubes, by protons, deuterons, α-particles, heavy ions and synchrotron radiation from accelerators and by α-particles, X- and γ-rays and by bremsstrahlung generated by β - -particles from radionuclide sources. The radionuclides are devided into groups with respect to their decay mode and the energy of the emitted radiation. The broad application of radionuclides in XRF excitation is shown in examples as semi-quantitative analysis of glasses, as quantitative analysis of coarse ceramics and as quantitative determination of heavy elements (mainly actinides) in solutions. The advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide excitation in XRF analysis are discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. Multilayers quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis applied to easel paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Viguerie, Laurence; Sole, V Armando; Walter, Philippe

    2009-12-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) allows a rapid and simple determination of the elemental composition of a material. As a non-destructive tool, it has been extensively used for analysis in art and archaeology since the early 1970s. Whereas it is commonly used for qualitative analysis, recent efforts have been made to develop quantitative treatment even with portable systems. However, the interpretation of the results obtained with this technique can turn out to be problematic in the case of layered structures such as easel paintings. The use of differential X-ray attenuation enables modelling of the various layers: indeed, the absorption of X-rays through different layers will result in modification of intensity ratio between the different characteristic lines. This work focuses on the possibility to use XRF with the fundamental parameters method to reconstruct the composition and thickness of the layers. This method was tested on several multilayers standards and gives a maximum error of 15% for thicknesses and errors of 10% for concentrations. On a painting test sample that was rather inhomogeneous, the XRF analysis provides an average value. This method was applied in situ to estimate the thickness of the layers a painting from Marco d'Oggiono, pupil of Leonardo da Vinci.

  3. X-ray fluorescence and computed radiography analysis of a famous brazilian painting from XIX century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Davi F.; Rocha, Henrique S.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear], e-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br; Pedreira, Andrea [Museu Nacional de Belas Artes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work used Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Computed Radiography (CR) to evaluate the general conditions of the painting 'Gioventu' (Eliseu Visconti, 1898), identifying possible problems, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and the pigments used by the artist. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 {mu}A, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. Several spectra were obtained in each color, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The spectra were analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL (IAEA). The results revealed that the drawings were made over a preparatory layer of lead white. Some pigments identified were: yellow, red and brown ochre; umbra; vermilion; cobalt blue; etc. The experimental setup used in the CR analysis consisted of an Oxford X-ray source, operating at 50 kV and 200 {mu}A, placed at 85 cm from the painting, a GE CR 50P portable computed radiography scanner and a Fuji imaging plate detector. The exposure time was 600 s. The radiographic images revealed that the painting was in a good state of conservation and also a complete composition hidden underneath the visible paint layer.(author)

  4. Observation of X-ray shadings in synchrotron radiation-total reflection X-ray fluorescence using a color X-ray camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane; Menzel, Magnus; Scharf, Oliver; Radtke, Martin; Reinholz, Uwe; Buzanich, Günther; Lopez, Velma M.; McIntosh, Kathryn; Streli, Christina; Havrilla, George Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Absorption effects and the impact of specimen shape on TXRF analysis has been discussed intensively. Model calculations indicated that ring shaped specimens should give better results in terms of higher counts per mass signals than filled rectangle or circle shaped specimens. One major reason for the difference in signal is shading effects. Full field micro-XRF with a color X-ray camera (CXC) was used to investigate shading, which occurs when working with small angles of excitation as in TXRF. The device allows monitoring the illuminated parts of the sample and the shaded parts at the same time. It is expected that sample material hit first by the primary beam shade material behind it. Using the CXC shading could be directly visualized for the high concentration specimens. In order to compare the experimental results with calculation of the shading effect the generation of controlled specimens is crucial. This was achieved by “drop on demand” technology. It allows generating uniform, microscopic deposits of elements. The experimentally measured shadings match well with those expected from calculation.

  5. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence and archaeometry: Application in the Argentinean cultural heritage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Cristina [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Laboratorio de Quimica de Sistemas Heterogeneos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, P. Colon 850 (C1063ACU), Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: Cristina.Vazquez@cnea.gov.ar; Albornoz, Ana [Agencia Rio Negro Cultura, Museo de la Patagonia F.P.Moreno, Centro Civico s/n Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Hajduk, Adam [CONICET, Museo de la Patagonia F.P.Moreno, Centro Civico s/n Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Elkin, Dolores [CONICET Instituto Nacional de Antropologia y Pensamiento Latinoamericano, 3 de febrero 1378 (C1426AEL) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Custo, Graciela; Obrustky, Alba [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-12-15

    Archaeometry is an interdisciplinary research area involved in the development and use of scientific methods in order to answer questions concerned with the human history. In this way the knowledge of archaeological objects through advanced chemical and physical analyses permits a better preservation and conservation of the cultural heritage and also reveals materials and technologies used in the past. In this sense, analytical techniques play an important role in order to provide chemical information about cultural objects. Considering the non destructive characteristic of this study, analytical techniques must be adequate in order to prevent any alteration or damage and in addition to allow the conservation of their integrity. Taking into account the irreplaceable character of the archaeological and artistic materials considered in this study, analytical techniques must be adequate in order to prevent any alteration or damage and in addition to allow the conservation of their integrity. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry as a geometric variant of conventional X-ray fluorescence is a proved microanalytical technique considering the small amount of sample required for the analysis. A few micrograms are enough in order to reveal valuable information about elemental composition and in this context it is highly recommended for artwork studies. In this paper a case study is presented in which Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry has been successfully employed in the archaeometry field. Examples from Argentinean cultural heritage sites related with the determination of pigments in paintings on canvas and in rock sites as well as in underwater archaeology research are shown.

  6. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence and archaeometry: Application in the Argentinean cultural heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina; Albornoz, Ana; Hajduk, Adam; Elkin, Dolores; Custo, Graciela; Obrustky, Alba

    2008-01-01

    Archaeometry is an interdisciplinary research area involved in the development and use of scientific methods in order to answer questions concerned with the human history. In this way the knowledge of archaeological objects through advanced chemical and physical analyses permits a better preservation and conservation of the cultural heritage and also reveals materials and technologies used in the past. In this sense, analytical techniques play an important role in order to provide chemical information about cultural objects. Considering the non destructive characteristic of this study, analytical techniques must be adequate in order to prevent any alteration or damage and in addition to allow the conservation of their integrity. Taking into account the irreplaceable character of the archaeological and artistic materials considered in this study, analytical techniques must be adequate in order to prevent any alteration or damage and in addition to allow the conservation of their integrity. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry as a geometric variant of conventional X-ray fluorescence is a proved microanalytical technique considering the small amount of sample required for the analysis. A few micrograms are enough in order to reveal valuable information about elemental composition and in this context it is highly recommended for artwork studies. In this paper a case study is presented in which Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry has been successfully employed in the archaeometry field. Examples from Argentinean cultural heritage sites related with the determination of pigments in paintings on canvas and in rock sites as well as in underwater archaeology research are shown

  7. [Establishment and Improvement of Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer Detection Model Based on Wavelet Transform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Wang, Ji-hua; Lu, An-xiang; Han, Ping

    2015-04-01

    The concentration of Cr, Cu, Zn, As and Pb in soil was tested by portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Each sample was tested for 3 times, then after using wavelet threshold noise filtering method for denoising and smoothing the spectra, a standard curve for each heavy metal was established according to the standard values of heavy metals in soil and the corresponding counts which was the average of the 3 processed spectra. The signal to noise ratio (SNR), mean square error (MSE) and information entropy (H) were taken to assess the effects of denoising when using wavelet threshold noise filtering method for determining the best wavelet basis and wavelet decomposition level. Some samples with different concentrations and H3 B03 (blank) were chosen to retest this instrument to verify its stability. The results show that: the best denoising result was obtained with the coif3 wavelet basis at the decomposition level of 3 when using the wavelet transform method. The determination coefficient (R2) range of the instrument is 0.990-0.996, indicating that a high degree of linearity was found between the contents of heavy metals in soil and each X-ray fluorescence spectral characteristic peak intensity with the instrument measurement within the range (0-1,500 mg · kg(-1)). After retesting and calculating, the results indicate that all the detection limits of the instrument are below the soil standards at national level. The accuracy of the model has been effectively improved, and the instrument also shows good precision with the practical application of wavelet transform to the establishment and improvement of X-ray fluorescence spectrometer detection model. Thus the instrument can be applied in on-site rapid screening of heavy metal in contaminated soil.

  8. Sample preparation of waste water to determine metallic contaminants by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Olivos, Javier.

    1987-01-01

    Trace X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy analysis in liquid samples is preceded by sample preparation, which usually consists in the precipitation of the metallic ions and concentration over a thin cellulose filter. The samples preparation of waste water by this method is not efficient, due to the great amount of organic and insoluble matter that they contain. The purpose of this work was to determine the optimal value of pH in order to adsorbe all the insoluble matter contained in a waste water sample in the activated charcoal, so that the metallic ions could be precipitated and concentrated on a thin filter and determinated by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. A survey about the adsorption of some ions in activated charcoal in function of the pH was made for the following: Cr 3+ , Fe 3+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Se 2+ , Hg 2+ , and Pb 2+ . It was observed that at pH 0, the ions are not adsorbed, but Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ are adsorbed in small amount; at pH 14, the ions are adsorbed, excluding Se, which is not adsorbed at any value of pH. If a waste water sample is treated at pH 0 with activated charcoal to adsorbe the organic and insoluble matter, most of the metallic ions are not adsorbed by the activated charcoal and could be precipitated with APDC (ammonium 1-pirrolidine dithio carbamate salt) and concentrated on a thin filter. The analysis of the metallic ions contained on the filter and those adsorbed in the activated charcoal by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, gave the total amount of the ions in the sample. (author)

  9. Analysis of agricultural soils by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos

    2000-03-01

    In this work, we describe an Energy Dispersive x-ray Fluorescence System with a x-ray tube excitation for trace analysis of environmental samples (soil). The system was used to analyze the contamination of metals in treated soils with doses of 10, 20 and 30 ton/ha of compound organic of urban garbage of the type Fertilurb and 10 ton/ha of aviary bed (manure of birds). Samples of roots and foliages of plant radishes cultivated in these soils were also analyzed. The soil samples were collected in five different depths of 0,5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. The experimental set-up is composed by an OXFORD X-ray (30 kV, 50 μA and W anode), an ORTEC Si-Li detector, with an energy resolution of about 180 eV at 5.9 keV and an ORTEC multichannel-analyser. The X-ray spectrum tube is quasi-monochromatic by using of Ti filter. Samples were prepared in pellet form with superficial density in the range of 100 mg/cm 2 . The fundamental parameter method was used in order to verify the elemental concentration. It was possible to determine the concentrations of thirteen elements: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb in the treated soils with compounds organic. The results indicate that the values found for K, Ca, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb are significantly above the upper confidence limits for the control soil (α = 0.05). There is a real different between these elements compared to their relationship in the control soils, (α=0,05). There is a real difference between these elements compared to their relationship in the control soils, confirming the influence of the organic compounds in the soil. (author)

  10. Determination of coal ash content by the combined x-ray fluorescence and scattering spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, I. F.; Baturin, A. A.; Mikhailov, A. I.; Borisova, S. S.; Fomina, L. P.

    2018-02-01

    An alternative method is proposed for the determination of the inorganic constituent mass fraction (ash) in solid fuel by the ratio of Compton and Rayleigh X-ray scattering peaks IC/IR subject to the iron fluorescence intensity. An original X-ray optical scheme with a Ti/Mo (or Sc/Cu) double-layer secondary radiator allows registration of the combined fluorescence-and-scattering spectrum at the specified scattering angle. An algorithm for linear calibration of the Compton-to-Rayleigh IC/IR ratio is proposed which uses standard samples with two certified characteristics: mass fractions of ash (Ad) and iron oxide (WFe2O3). Ash mass fractions have been determined for coals of different deposits in the wide range of Ad from 9.4% to 52.7% mass and WFe2O3 from 0.3% to 4.95% mass. Due to the high penetrability of the probing radiation with energy E > 17 keV, the sample preparation procedure is rather simplified in comparison with the traditional method of Ad determination by the sum of fluorescence intensities of all constituent elements.

  11. The capabilities of total reflection X-ray fluorescence in the polymeric analytical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the capabilities of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) as analytical technique specially focused in high-viscosity polymer dispersions. Appropriate sample preparation procedures are described taking into account the time stability of these dispersions. Special remarks considering different ways for drying samples in order to obtain the most uniform deposited film are investigated focusing on the behavior of aqueous and viscous systems. Due to the difficulty found for obtaining a homogeneous mixture between sample and internal standard in such systems, the use of Compton incoherent scattering is discussed as an alternative procedure for trace quantification in high viscous systems without any mixing processes

  12. The capabilities of total reflection X-ray fluorescence in the polymeric analytical field*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Cristina

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the capabilities of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) as analytical technique specially focused in high-viscosity polymer dispersions. Appropriate sample preparation procedures are described taking into account the time stability of these dispersions. Special remarks considering different ways for drying samples in order to obtain the most uniform deposited film are investigated focusing on the behavior of aqueous and viscous systems. Due to the difficulty found for obtaining a homogeneous mixture between sample and internal standard in such systems, the use of Compton incoherent scattering is discussed as an alternative procedure for trace quantification in high viscous systems without any mixing processes.

  13. The use of x-ray fluorescence in the detection of inorganic elements in medicines drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Tatiana Pereira da Silva de; Ricci Junior, Eduardo; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues

    1997-01-01

    Based on the instrumental wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique of analysis (W D-X R F), the inorganic elements in four samples of commercial medicines drugs were analyzed. The samples were used without any chemical separation of the elements or chemical pre-treatment. Eleven elements could be identified, namely Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. However, Si, Ti and Mn have not been mentioned in the printed instructions for the use of the medicines drugs by the producers. (author)

  14. Determination of low concentrations of uranium in granite samples by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Diaz-Guerra, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    An x-ray fluorescence method for the determination of uranium in granite samples for concentrations ranging from 3 to 100 ppm U 3 O 8 has been developed. To this purpose a sample holder, specially designed, allowing the irradiation of sample surfaces 42.5 mm in diameter and a molybdenum tube operating with a power of 2700 W (90 kV, 30 mA) are used. The background influence and the spectral interferences from rubidium and strontium have been taken into account and specific correction coefficients have been computed. A Basic program facilitates the report of the analytical results. (author)

  15. Trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke by x-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Shaikh, G.N.; Sadasivan, S.

    1986-01-01

    Trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke of a large number of commonly available brands of cigarettes were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence. This work supplements the data on the same samples gathered by INAA and reported earlier. Data on some toxic elements like Pb, Cu and Ni that could not be measured by INAA are presented. A number of chewing and snuff tobacco samples were also analyzed. The concentrations of Ca, K, Cl, Br, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti and Zn in all these samples are presented and their relative hazards are discussed. (author)

  16. Fast neutron activation analysis and radioisotope X-ray fluorescence study on KALEWA and NAMMA coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naing-Win

    1981-07-01

    Kalewa coal was studied with Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA) technique, employing KAMAN A-710 neutron generator and HP(Ge) detector coupled to ''Canberra'' series 30 MCA. Sequential irradiation and dual aluminium foil monitoring method was employed. Simultaneous multielement analysis was carried out. Namma Coal was studied with radioisotope X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique, employing Co-57 exciter source and HP(Ge) detector coupled to ''Canberra'' series 40 MCA. In both FNAA and XRF study, the results obtained were compared to that obtained with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) technique. Finally, the results were reviewed together with those obtained from similar work on coal with FNAA and XRF techniques. (author)

  17. An x-ray fluorescence study of lake sediments from ancient Turkey using synchrotron radiation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatas, A.; Alp, E. E.; Friedman, E. S.; Jennings, G.; Johnson, C. E.; Lai, B.; Mini, S. M.; Sato, Y.; Wilkinson, T. J.; Yener, K. A.

    1999-03-10

    Sediments from relic Lake Golbasi were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence with synchrotrons radiation to determine changes in element concentrations over time with selected elements serving as proxies for environmental change. Increases in Ca and Sr suggest soil formation during a dry period, from ca. 4500 BC to ca. 200 AD at which point K, Rb, Zr, Ti, and Y increase, indicating the return of a wet environment. Soil erosion, represented by Cr and Ni, increases ca. 7000 BC, probably as a consequence of environmental change, prior to suggested exploitation of natural resources by the newly urbanized society of the third millennium BC.

  18. The x-rays fluorescence applied to the analysis of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    This work is based on the utilization of the Fluorescence of X Rays. This technique of non destructive trial, has the purpose to establish a routine method, for the control of the conformation of industrial samples used. It makes an analysis with a combination of the algorithms of Rasberry-Heinrich and Claisse-Thinh. Besides, the numerical implementation of non usual techniques in this type of analysis. Such as the Linear Programming applied to the solution of super determined systems, of equations and the utilization of methods of relaxation to facilitate the convergence to the solutions. (author) [es

  19. Determination of heavy metals in Damascus drinking water using total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E. H.; Karajo, J.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry and chemical preconcentration have applied for multi-elemental analysis of Damascus drinking water. Water was taken directly from taps of several city sectors and analyzed for the following trace elements: Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Pb. The detection limits were found to be in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 μg/l. The mean levels of trace elements in the Damascus drinking water were below the World Health Organization drinking water quality guidelines. (author)

  20. Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence at BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, M. K.; Singh, A. K.; Das, Gangadhar; Chowdhury, Anupam; Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-01

    Determination of ultra trace elements is important in many disciplines both in basic and applied sciences. Numerous applications show their importance in medical science, environmental science, materials science, food processing and semiconductor industries and in maintaining the quality control of ultra pure chemicals and reagents. We report commissioning of a synchrotron based total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) facility on the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2. This paper describes the performance of the BL-16 TXRF spectrometer and the detailed description of its capabilities through examples of measured results.

  1. Heavy metals analysis in blood by the X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Novara, Ana Ma.

    1988-05-01

    The analytical procedure for determination of heavy metals in blood is described. Blood was taken from active smelter workers, samples were stored in special flasks at 2 grades C. After freeze drying, dried samples was analyzed using X-ray fluorescence, sources excited: Pu-238 and Cd-109 was used. Br in Pb interferences were corrected. The agreement of the results with values in similar workers is satisfactory Median Pb level was 42.6 micro grams/100 ml (total blood), Cu was less 2.5 micro grams/g (dry blood) and Zn was 11 micro grams/g (dry blood). (author)

  2. Analysis of zirconia and alumina products and raw materials by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boix, A.; Draignaud, M.; Debras-Guedon, J.

    1975-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method of analysis for various raw materials and materials based on zirconia, alumina and silica was developed. The measurements were made on beads made from the sample and a borax based flux, in the proportions 1:10. A repeatability test allowed the relative standard deviation to be estimated for the three main constituents: SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 : it is at the level of 1%. The element analyzed are: Si, Al, Fe, Ti, Ca, Hf and Zr [fr

  3. Pattern recognition on X-ray fluorescence records from Copenhagen lake sediments using principal component analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Norman; Garcia, Emanuel; Kroon, Aart

    2014-01-01

    Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was performed on chemical data of two sediment cores from an urban fresh-water lake in Copenhagen, Denmark. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning provided the underlying datasets on 13 variables (Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Pb). Principle...... Component Analysis helped to trace geochemical patterns and temporal trends in lake sedimentation. The PCA models explained more than 80 % of the original variation in the datasets using only 2 or 3 principle components. The first principle component (PC1) was mostly associated with geogenic elements (Si, K...

  4. Analyses of lake sediments from Itaipú dam using x-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Felipe Rodrigues; Novacoski, Ezequiel J.; Melquiades, Fábio L.

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to use principal component analysis (PCA), with data from Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) of sediment samples from Itaipú artificial beaches, to find correlations between metal concentrations present in the sediments and physical-chemical properties. Samples were collected at nine points at Itaipu dam lake dam from 80 cm depth of water column, dried at room temperature and grinded in a mortar to obtain a particle size lower than 70 μm. The samples with higher concentration of organic matter and metal ions have correlation with the smaller sample size, i.e., clay.

  5. Use of X-ray fluorescence for metal determination in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidorizzi, Lorenza

    1996-01-01

    X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry was used to determine metals and non-metals in polyester polymers. The greatest advantage of this technique over others like Atomic Absorption or Plasma Emission is that no sample previous treatment (like calcination or acid digestion) is required. Other advantage of this method is its fastness allowing a complete analysis in just few minutes. On the other hand, this method requires metals higher than 15 ppm. Below those values there is a loss of the analysis' precision. Another advantage of this technique is the possibility of making qualitative metal analysis, scanning unknown samples and identifying the found peaks automatically. (author)

  6. Thorium determination by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry in simulated thorex process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, M.; Matsuda, H.T.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence method for thorium determination in aqueous and organic (TBP-n-dodecane) solutions is described. The thin film-technique for sample preparation and a suitable internal standard have been used. Some parameters as analytical line, internal standard, filter paper, paper geometry, sample volume and measurement conditions were studied. Uranium, fission products, corrosion products and thorex reagent components were studied as interfering elements in the thorium analysis, as well as the matrix effect by using the thorex process simulated solutions the method to thorium determination in irradiated thorium solutions was applied. (M.J.C.) [pt

  7. In-Situ Silver Acetylide Silver Nitrate Explosive Deposition Measurements Using X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covert, Timothy Todd

    2014-09-01

    The Light Initiated High Explosive facility utilized a spray deposited coating of silver acetylide - silver nitrate explosive to impart a mechanical shock into targets of interest. A diagnostic was required to measure the explosive deposition in - situ. An X - ray fluorescence spectrometer was deployed at the facility. A measurement methodology was developed to measure the explosive quantity with sufficient accuracy. Through the use of a tin reference material under the silver based explosive, a field calibration relationship has been developed with a standard deviation of 3.2 % . The effect of the inserted tin material into the experiment configuration has been explored.

  8. A high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for near edge absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanoff, V.; Hamalainen, K.; Siddons, D.P.; Hastings, J.B.; Berman, L.E.; Cramer, S.; Smith, G.

    1991-01-01

    A high resolution fluorescence spectrometer using a Johann geometry in a back scattering arrangement was developed. The spectrometer, with a resolution of 0.3 eV at 6.5 keV, combined with an incident beam, with a resolution of 0.7 eV, form the basis of a high resolution instrument for measuring x-ray absorption spectra. The advantages of the instrument are illustrated with the near edge absorption spectrum of dysprosium nitrate. 10 refs., 4 figs

  9. Confocal X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for in-situ analyses of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojek, Tomáš; Prokeš, Radek; Šefců, Radka; Bilavčíková, Hana; Čechák, Tomáš

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the properties of the newly constructed device for confocal X-ray fluorescence analysis that was tested with a sample plate consisting of 19 combinations of two single pigment layers. The preparation of this experimental wooden board with layered systems was based on knowledge of the panel painting techniques of Bohemian collections from the National Gallery in Prague dating back to the 14th and 15th centuries. The design of the confocal setup allows its transport and the in-situ measurement of paintings in depositories or even in exhibition areas. The advantages of our confocal setup with movable collimating optics are also described.

  10. The analysis, by a fusion procedure and X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry, of silicates and slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, J.J.; Balaes, A.M.E.

    1980-01-01

    A glass-disc fusion method is described for the analysis, by X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry, of slags and silicate materials. The data are corrected for detector dead time and short-term instrumental drift. Corrections are made for matrix variations by use of the Lachange-Traill mathematical model, and the results are processed on a mini-computer, an iterative procedure being used in the solving of the simultaneous equations. As the alpha-correction coefficients of the Lachange-Traill model are not truly constant, a modified version of the model is proposed [af

  11. Data processing of X-ray fluorescence analysis using an electronic computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakubovich, A.L.; Przhiyalovskij, S.M.; Tsameryan, G.N.; Golubnichij, G.V.; Nikitin, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    Considered are problems of data processing of multi-element (for 17 elements) X-ray fluorescence analysis of tungsten and molybdenum ores. The analysis was carried out using silicon-lithium spectrometer with the energy resolution of about 300 eV and a 1024-channel analyzer. A characteristic radiation of elements was excited with two 109 Cd radioisotope sources, their general activity being 10 mCi. The period of measurements was 400 s. The data obtained were processed with a computer using the ''Proba-1'' and ''Proba-2'' programs. Data processing algorithms and computer calculation results are presented

  12. Elemental Characterization of minerals in Chenopodium quinoa grains by the X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivera de Lescano, Paula; Nieto Aco, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In order to characterize by the technique of X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive quinoa grain for human consumption, 8 samples of different trademarks of quinoa, which are distributed in the local market were analyzed; together one reference materials certified by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was analyzed. The results show the presence of elements such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr, the same as compared to data reported in various studies in neighboring countries like Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia. (authors).

  13. Exploratory analysis for the identification of false banknotes using portable X-ray Fluorescence spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamalloa Jara, M A; Luízar Obregón, C; Araujo Del Castillo, C

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if a portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometer can recognize the security features in banknotes that are reproducible by counterfeiters. Peruvian Nuevo Sol banknotes were studied: 4 genuine and 3 fake ones, in 11 points of analysis for each one, at all 77 data set. The correlation analysis of spectra among original notes was 1.0, and there was no correlation with fake banknotes. pXRF prove that two security features were reproducible for counterfeiters. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of industrial paint samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, L.H.; Drabaek, I.

    1986-01-01

    An energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence method for the direct, simultaneous determination of major and minor elements in coatings is described. The method relies on the back-scatter/fundamental parameter concept and provides a general solution to matrix problems. The method has been implemented and verified on spectrometers based both on tube excitation and radioisotope excitation. Results demonstrating some performance characteristics are presented. Sample inhomogeneity problems that impede quantification of low-Z elements in some types of paint are discussed. (Auth.)

  15. Laboratory total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis for low concentration samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampai, D.; Dabagov, S. B.; Polese, C.; Liedl, A.; Cappuccio, G.

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative elemental determination for concentrations in the ppb range requires a careful preparation of the sample. In particular, for elemental analysis of very low concentration samples, less than 1 ng/mm2, a very bright X-ray source, typically synchrotron radiation (SR) in total external reflection fluorescence regime (SR-TXRF), is required. Here, we wish to demonstrate that a conventional source combined with a polycapillary semi-lens can provide a quasi-parallel beam intense enough for desktop TXRF analysis of low concentration samples.

  16. First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola; Tsuji, Kouichi; Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón; Margui, Eva; Streli, Christina; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Stosnach, Hagen; Yamada, Takashi; Vandenabeele, Peter; Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael; Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K.; Bennun, Leonardo; Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina; Depero, Laura E.

    2014-11-01

    Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique.

  17. Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence at BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, M. K., E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in; Singh, A. K., E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in; Das, Gangadhar, E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in; Chowdhury, Anupam, E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in; Lodha, G. S., E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in [Indus Synchrotrons Utilisation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Determination of ultra trace elements is important in many disciplines both in basic and applied sciences. Numerous applications show their importance in medical science, environmental science, materials science, food processing and semiconductor industries and in maintaining the quality control of ultra pure chemicals and reagents. We report commissioning of a synchrotron based total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) facility on the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2. This paper describes the performance of the BL-16 TXRF spectrometer and the detailed description of its capabilities through examples of measured results.

  18. Environmental trace-element analysis using a benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosnach, Hagen

    2005-07-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is an established technique for trace-element analysis in various types of samples. Though expensive large-scale systems restricted the applications in the past, in this study the capability of a benchtop system for trace elemental analysis is reported. The suitability of this system for the mobile on-site analysis of heavy metal contaminated soils and sediments is reported as well as the possibilities and restrictions of TXRF for additional applications, including trace-element analysis of water, glass and biological samples.

  19. Determination of metal-ligand stoichiometries for inorganic complexes using total reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, E D; Bennun, L; Gomez, J; Nemeth, P; Sajo-Bohus, L

    The methods usually used to determine the ratio metal-ligand in inorganic complexes require a set of solutions with different concentrations for both the ligand and metal. We propose a new method using the total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique, in which the ratio between metal and ligand is determined precisely, easily, and quickly. Experimental results provide evidence that for different chemical complexes, the ligand-metal ratio determined by this technique deviates at most from stoichiometric values by 6%. The technique is restricted usually to elements with Z above 14, and its detection limit is on the order of 10(-8) g/g.

  20. Separation of substandard tin ores by x-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, N.I.; Konovalov, V.M.; Kamenskij, Yu.V.; Neverov, A.D.; Ogorodnikov, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of pure tin ores on X-ray fluorescence separation (XFS) is carried out. The volumes of lump sampling are substantiated; several variants of technical and economical efficiency of XFS application have been calculated. It is shown that at XFS of -400+25 mm classes conditional as to tin content intermediate product with high efficiency factor may be prepared. Separation of -25+10 mm class is unsuitable, as it doesn't allow to increase tin content to conditional, and the process efficiency is low

  1. Characterization of the Carancas-Puno meteorite by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffractometry and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceron Loayza, Maria L., E-mail: malucelo@hotmail.com; Bravo Cabrejos, Jorge A. [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Laboratorio de Analisis de Suelos, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru)

    2011-11-15

    We report the results of the study of a meteorite that impacted an inhabited zone on 15 September 2007 in the neighborhood of the town of Carancas, Puno Region, about 1,300 km south of Lima. The analysis carried out by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffractometry and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy (at room temperature and at 4.2 K), reveal the presence in the meteorite sample of magnetic sites assigned to taenite (Fe,Ni) and troilite (Fe,S) phases, and of two paramagnetic doublets assigned to Fe{sup 2 + }, one associated with olivine and the other to pyroxene. In accord with these results, this meteorite is classified as a type IV chondrite meteorite.

  2. First combined total reflection X-ray fluorescence and grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of aeolian dust archived in Antarctica and Alpine deep ice cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cibin, G. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX110DE (United Kingdom); IMONT/EIM, Ente Italiano della Montagna, P.za dei Caprettari 70, 00176 Roma (Italy); Universita' degli Studi di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, L.go S. Leonardo Murialdo 1, 00146 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: giannantonio.cibin@diamond.ac.uk; Marcelli, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, P.O. Box 13, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Maggi, V. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Sala, M. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra ' A. Desio' , Sez. Mineralogia, Via Mangiagalli 34, 20133 Milano (Italy); Marino, F.; Delmonte, B. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Albani, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Siena, Dottorato in Scienze Polari, via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pignotti, S. [IMONT/EIM, Ente Italiano della Montagna, P.za dei Caprettari 70, 00176 Roma (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    Aeolian mineral dust archived in polar and mid latitude ice cores represents a precious proxy for assessing environmental and climatic variations at different timescales. In this respect, the identification of dust mineralogy plays a key role. In this work we performed the first preliminary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments on mineral dust particles extracted from Antarctic and from Alpine firn cores using grazing incidence geometry at the Fe K-edge. A dedicated high vacuum experimental chamber was set up for normal-incidence and total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy analyses on minor amounts of mineral materials at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Results show that this experimental technique and protocol allows recognizing iron inclusion mineral fraction on insoluble dust in the 1-10 {mu}g range.

  3. Elemental analysis of the ancient bronze coins by x-ray fluorescence technique using simultaneously radioisotope source and x-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen The Quynh; Truong Thi An; Tran Duc Thiep; Nguyen Dinh Chien; Dao Tran Cao; Nguyen Quang Liem

    2004-01-01

    The results on elemental analysis of the Vietnamese ancient bronze coins during the time of the Nguyen dynasty (19th century) are presented. The samples were provided by the vietnam National Historical Museum and the elemental analysis was performed on the home-made model EDS-XT-99-01 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in the Institute of Materials Science, NCST of Vietnam. The samples exited simultaneously by radioisotope source and X-ray tube. The analytical results show the similarity in the elemental composition of the coins issued by different kings of the Nguyen dynasty, but there is the difference in the concentration of the used elements. Another interesting point is that all the coins have zinc (Zn) in their composition, which shows clearly the influence of the occidental metallurgical technology on the money-making technique in Vietnam during the 19th century. (author)

  4. Characterization of Japanese color sticks by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manso, M.; Valadas, S.; Pessanha, S.; Guilherme, A.; Queralt, I.; Candeias, A.E.; Carvalho, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    This work comprises the use of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) techniques for the study of the composition of twentieth century traditional Japanese color sticks. By using the combination of analytical techniques it was possible to obtain information on inorganic and organic pigments, binders and fillers present in the sticks. The colorant materials identified in the sticks were zinc and titanium white, chrome yellow, yellow and red ochre, vermillion, alizarin, indigo, Prussian and synthetic ultramarine blue. The results also showed that calcite and barite were used as inorganic mineral fillers while Arabic gum was the medium used. EDXRF offered great potential for such investigations since it allowed the identification of the elements present in the sample preserving its integrity. However, this information alone was not enough to clearly identify some of the materials in study and therefore it was necessary to use XRD and FTIR techniques.

  5. Combined phase and X-Ray fluorescence imaging at the sub-cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosior, Ewelina

    2013-01-01

    This work presents some recent developments in the field of hard X-ray imaging applied to biomedical research. As the discipline is evolving quickly, new questions appear and the list of needs becomes bigger. Some of them are dealt with in this manuscript. It has been shown that the ID22NI beamline of the ESRF can serve as a proper experimental setup to investigate diverse aspects of cellular research. Together with its high spatial resolution, high flux and high energy range the experimental setup provides bigger field of view, is less sensitive to radiation damages (while taking phase contrast images) and suits well chemical analysis with emphasis on endogenous metals (Zn, Fe, Mn) but also with a possibility for exogenous one's like these found in nanoparticles (Au, Pt, Ag) study. Two synchrotron-based imaging techniques, fluorescence and phase contrast imaging were used in this research project. They were correlated with each other on a number of biological cases, from bacteria E.coli to various cells (HEK 293, PC12, MRC5VA, red blood cells). The explorations made in the chapter 5 allowed preparation of more established and detailed analysis, described in the next chapter where both techniques, X-ray fluorescence and phase contrast imaging, were exploited in order to access absolute metal projected mass fraction in a whole cell. The final image presents for the first time true quantitative information at the sub-cellular level, not biased by the cell thickness. Thus for the first time a fluorescence map serves as a complete quantitative image of a cell without any risk of misinterpretation. Once both maps are divided by each other pixel by pixel (fluorescence map divided by the phase map) they present a complete and final result of the metal (Zn in this work) projected mass fraction in ppm of dry weight. For the purpose of this calculation the analysis was extended to calibration (non-biological) samples. Polystyrene spheres of a known diameter and known

  6. Case Studies on Facility Characterization with X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, K.T.; Brooksbank, R.D.; Meszaros, J.M.; Towery, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    A hand-held x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer is being used to characterize facilities in support of demolition activities at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Approximately 500 facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy site are being demolished under the ETTP Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) project. Facility characterization is being conducted to provide data for waste profiling and identify hazards to demolition workers. XRF spectrometry is a non-destructive analytical technique used to identify and quantify the elemental composition of a substance based on the intensity of its characteristic X-ray emission wavelength or energy. The Innov-X Systems R Model XT-245S XRF analyzer used at ETTP is equipped with a silver anode x-ray tube and a Si PIN diode detector. X-rays are generated by electrical current, eliminating the need for radioactive isotopes. Electronic components can be powered by either a lithium-ion battery or an A/C adapter, and the instrument is controlled by an iPAQ R pocket personal computer. The unit has two primary operating modes. Alloy analysis mode measures percent levels of elements in metals such as a pipes, valves, equipment, or construction materials. Soil mode provides parts-per-million (ppm) quantities in bulk solids like concrete dust, residue, paint chips, or soil. The hand-held unit can analyze material in place, or it can analyze samples in a test stand by remote operation. This paper present some case studies demonstrating a variety of XRF applications for facility characterization: Metal Materials Characterization, Lead Paint Identification, Hot Spot Delineation, Bulk Solids Testing. XRF has been the analytical technique of choice for identifying metal alloy components and has also been useful in analyzing bulk materials. Limitations of XRF testing include the inability to directly analyze elements with low atomic weights. Light elements such as beryllium and aluminum do not emit

  7. Portable x-ray fluorescence for the analysis of chromium in nail and nail clippings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, David E.B.; Ware, Chris S.

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of chromium content in human nail or nail clippings could serve as an effective biomarker of chromium status. The feasibility of a new portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) approach to chromium measurement was investigated through analysis of nail and nail clipping phantoms. Five measurements of 180 s (real time) duration were first performed on six whole nail phantoms having chromium concentrations of 0, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 µg/g. Using nail clippers, these phantoms were then converted to nail clippings, and assembled into different mass groups of 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg for additional measurements. The amplitude of the chromium Kα characteristic x-ray energy peak was examined as a function of phantom concentration for all measurement conditions to create a series of calibration lines. The minimum detection limit (MDL) for chromium was also calculated for each case. The chromium MDL determined from the whole nail intact phantoms was 0.88±0.03 µg/g. For the clipping phantoms, the MDL ranged from 1.2 to 3.3 µg/g, depending on the mass group analyzed. For the 40 mg clipping group, the MDL was 1.2±0.1 µg/g, and higher mass collections did not improve upon this result. This MDL is comparable to chromium concentration levels seen in various studies involving human nail clippings. Further improvements to the portable XRF technique would be required to detect chromium levels expected from the lower end of a typical population. - Highlights: • Portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) was explored as a technique to assess levels of chromium in human nails or nail clippings. • Results were found to depend on the mass of clipping sample provided. • Minimum detection limits for chromium were similar to concentration levels found in previous studies of human nail clippings.

  8. Assessing arsenic and selenium in a single nail clipping using portable X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, David E.B.; Nader, Michel N.; Foran, Kelly A.; Groskopf, Craig; Reno, Michael C.; Ware, Chris S.; Tehrani, Mina; Guimarães, Diana; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility of measuring arsenic and selenium contents in a single nail clipping was investigated using a small-focus portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument with monochromatic excitation beams. Nail clipping phantoms supplemented with arsenic and selenium to produce materials with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 µg/g were used for calibration purposes. In total, 10 different clippings were analyzed at two different measurement positions. Energy spectra were fit with detection peaks for arsenic K α , selenium K α , arsenic K β , selenium K β , and bromine K α characteristic X-rays. Data analysis was performed under two distinct conditions of fitting constraint. Calibration lines were established from the amplitude of each of the arsenic and selenium peaks as a function of the elemental contents in the clippings. The slopes of the four calibration lines were consistent between the two conditions of analysis. The calculated minimum detection limit (MDL) of the method, when considering the K α peak only, ranged from 0.210±0.002 µg/g selenium under one condition of analysis to 0.777±0.009 µg/g selenium under another. Compared with previous portable XRF nail clipping studies, MDLs were substantially improved for both arsenic and selenium. The new measurement technique had the additional benefits of being short in duration (~3 min) and requiring only a single nail clipping. The mass of the individual clipping used did not appear to play a major role in signal strength, but positioning of the clipping is important. - Highlights: • Portable X-ray fluorescence was used to assess As and Se in nail clipping phantoms. • Calibration lines were consistent between two different conditions of data analysis. • This new XRF approach was sensitive and required only a single nail clipping.

  9. Preparation of uranium standard solutions for x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.M.; Cate, J.L.; Pickles, W.L.

    1978-03-01

    A method has been developed for gravimetrically preparing uranium nitrate standards with an estimated mean error of 0.1% (1 sigma) and a maximum error of 0.2% (1 sigma) for the total uranium weight. Two source materials, depleted uranium dioxide powder and NBS Standard Reference Material 960 uranium metal, were used to prepare stock solutions. The NBS metal proved to be superior because of the small but inherent uncertainty in the stoichiometry of the uranium oxide. These solutions were used to prepare standards in a freeze-dried configuration suitable for x-ray fluorescence analysis. Both gravimetric and freeze-drying techniques are presented. Volumetric preparation was found to be unsatisfactory for 0.1% precision for the sample size of interest. One of the primary considerations in preparing uranium standards for x-ray fluorescence analysis is the development of a technique for dispensing a 50-μl aliquot of a standard solution with a precision of 0.1% and an accuracy of 0.1%. The method developed corrects for variation in aliquoting and for evaporation loss during weighing. Two sets, each containing 50 standards have been produced. One set has been retained by LLL and one set retained by the Savannah River project

  10. The determination, by x-ray-fluorescence spectrometry, of gold and uranium on resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, J.J.; Balaes, A.M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The problems encountered in the determination of gold and uranium that are present simultaneously in a sample of resin were considered, and new background positions, as well as correction factors for background lift and partial spectral overlap, were determined for use in the X-ray-fluorescence measurement of these elements. The agreement between the results obtained by the use of the X-ray-fluorescence method and those obtained by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry were found to be satisfactory. The relative standard deviation in the former measurements is 0,005 at a concentration of 1000 p.p.m., and the working range of the calibrations is 15 to 1000 p.p.m. These limits can be extended by further dilution of the sample. The limits of determination are 6 p.p.m. in the briquette prepared from a sample of resin and 18 p.p.m. in the sample when the maximum mass of the sample is 3 g. The procedure is intended primarily for use in the rapid determination of gold and uranium when no analyses for other elements are required. The time taken for the analysis is 2 hours for 10 samples when 6 standards are used. A computer programme that was developed for the processing of the data is appended as part of a laboratory method

  11. Heavy metals analysis in fishes by the X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Novara, Ana Ma.

    1986-04-01

    Among the sources of contamination in human beings we find ingestion of heavy metals. As it is common practice to pour industrial wastes in waters where fishes feed, some toxic elements present in water may pass to human beings through ingestion. It is therefore important to determine the concentrations of heavy metals present in fishes, mainly in those living in waters close to industrial zones or villages. Concentrations of heavy metals in tissue of fishes amount to ppm, hence making necessary the use of very sensitive analytical techniques which do not require a too complex preparation of the sample in order to avoid the loss or contamination of interesting elements of analysis while handling them, thus falsifying the results. The X-Ray Fluorescence method covers these requirements and is not destructive nor multi-elemental. The development of the technique of element analysis in fishes by X-Ray Fluorescence comprised several aspects. from sampling and storage to quantification, specially stressing the preparation of samples. The work was carried out with a Si-Li detector/monitor for solid state and associated electronic equipment. Cd-109 and Pu-238 sources were used to produce excitation, detection limits near 1 ppm were obtained in the majority of elements the technique attained for the analysis of this kind of samples fulfills the celerity, precision, accuracy, and sensitivity requirements. (author)

  12. Quantitative analysis of thorium in the presence of rare earth by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Camila S. de; Taam, Isabel; Vianna, Claudio A.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of Thorium in ores is normally associated to other elements such as Uranium and Cerium, as well as some Rare-Earths (RE). The separation of these elements by traditional analytic chemistry techniques is both time and reagent consuming, thus increasing the analysis cost. The hereby proposed method consists in the direct determination of Thorium in rare earths ores and compounds by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy without any prior chemical separation from other matrix elements. This non-destructive technique is used to determine which elements are present in solid and liquid samples, as well as their concentrations. The studied matrix contains Lanthanum, Cerium, Praseodymium, Neodymium, Samarium, Gadolinium and Yttrium. This study evaluated the analytical lines of radiation emission for each rare earth contained in the matrix, comparing it to the Thorium main analytical line. The Thorium quantification was measured through the Th L line, where there is no influence or interference from the rare earths analytical lines. The studied samples are certified standards and the obtained results have been compared to Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) titration results, an already well-established and widely trusted method. We also measured the matrix effect thus using complex rare earths liquor. This liquor contains also elements commonly found in monazites sands: phosphates, aluminum, iron. Obtained results state the efficiency of X-ray Fluorescence to determine Thorium in the presence of rare earths without any prior chemical separation. (author)

  13. Mapping Metal Elements of Shuangbai Dinosaur Fossil by Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Qun, Y.; Ablett, J.

    2008-01-01

    The metal elements mapping of Shuangbai dinosaur fossil, was obtained by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF). Eight elements, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Y and Sr were determined. Elements As and Y were detected for the first time in the dinosaur fossil. The data indicated that metal elements are asymmetrical on fossil section. This is different from common minerals. Mapping metals showed that metal element As is few. The dinosaur most likely belongs to natural death. This is different from Zigong dinosaurs which were found dead from poisoning. This method has been used to find that metals Fe and Mn are accrete, and the same is true for Sr and Y. This study indicated that colloid granule Fe and Mn, as well as Sr and Y had opposite electric charges in lithification process of fossils. By this analysis, compound forms can be ascertained. Synchrotron light source x-ray fluorescence is a complementary method that shows mapping of metal elements at the dinosaur fossil, and is rapid, exact and intuitionist. This study shows that dinosaur fossil mineral imaging has a potential in reconstructing the paleoenvironment and ancient geology.

  14. A robust X-ray fluorescence technique for multielemental analysis of solid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos; Foteinis, Spyros; Paigniotaki, Katherine; Papadogiannakis, Minos

    2016-02-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) quantitation software programs are widely used for analyzing environmental samples due to their versatility but at the expense of accuracy. In this work, we propose an accurate, robust, and versatile technique for multielemental X-ray fluorescence analytical applications, by spiking solid matrices with standard solutions. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)-certified soil standards were spiked with standard solutions, mixed well, desiccated, and analyzed by an energy dispersive XRF. Homogenous targets were produced and low error calibration curves, for the added and not added, neighboring, elements, were obtained. With the addition of few elements, the technique provides reliable multielemental analysis, even for concentrations of the order of milligram per kilogram (ppm). When results were compared to the ones obtained from XRF commercial quantitation software programs, which are widely used in environmental monitoring and assessment applications, they were found to fit certified values better. Moreover, in all examined cases, results were reliable. Hence, this technique can also be used to overcome difficulties associated with interlaboratory consistency and for cross-validating results. The technique was applied to samples with an environmental interest, collected from a ship/boat repainting area. Increased copper, zinc, and lead loads were observed (284, 270, and 688 mg/kg maximum concentrations in soil, respectively), due to vessels being paint stripped and repainted.

  15. Determination of ultratrace concentrations of uranium and thorium in natural waters by x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.H. Jr.; Brooksbank, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    An x-ray fluorescence method for the simultaneous determination of uranium and thorium at the less than 1 ppM level in natural waters is described. Uranium and thorium are coprecipitated with an internal standard, yttrium, and incorporated into an iron-aluminum hydroxide carrier. The hydroxide precipitate is filtered, and the filter disk is analyzed by the energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. Matrix interferences caused by the presence of unpredictable anions and cations are compensated for by the internal standard. The U/Y and Th/Y ratios are linear over the 5- to 100-μg range of interest, and the detection limit of each element on the filter disk is 2 μg (3 sigma). Relative standard deviation was 17% at the 15-μg and 4% at the 100-μg level for thorium and 11% at the 11-μg and 2% at the 100-μg level for uranium. Analysis of spiked solutions showed a recovery of 19.6 +- 0.3 μg for uranium and 19.8 +- 0.3 μg for thorium at the 20-μg level, and the normal lower reporting limit is 5 μg. Fifty disks can be routinely measured during a normal working day

  16. Elemental concentration analysis in prostate tissues using total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, R. G.; Palumbo, A.; Souza, P. A. V. R.; Pereira, G. R.; Canellas, C. G. L.; Anjos, M. J.; Nasciutti, L. E.; Lopes, R. T.

    2014-02-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) currently represents the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in men, representing 21% of all cancer cases. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is an illness prevailing in men above the age of 50, close to 90% after the age of 80. The prostate presents a high zinc concentration, about 10-fold higher than any other body tissue. In this work, samples of human prostate tissues with cancer, BPH and normal tissue were analyzed utilizing total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation technique (SR-TXRF) to investigate the differences in the elemental concentrations in these tissues. SR-TXRF analyses were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, São Paulo. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. By using Mann-Whitney U test it was observed that almost all elements presented concentrations with significant differences (α=0.05) between the groups studied.

  17. Bromine and bromide content in soils: Analytical approach from total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Helena; Queralt, Ignasi; Tapias, Josefina; Candela, Lucila; Margui, Eva

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring total bromine and bromide concentrations in soils is significant in many environmental studies. Thus fast analytical methodologies that entail simple sample preparation and low-cost analyses are desired. In the present work, the possibilities and drawbacks of low-power total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) for the determination of total bromine and bromide contents in soils were evaluated. The direct analysis of a solid suspension using 20 mg of fine ground soil (TXRF analysis can be directly performed by depositing 10 μL of the internal standardized soil extract sample on a quartz glass reflector in a measuring time of 1500 s. The bromide limit of detection by this approach was 10 μg L(-1). Good agreement was obtained between the TXRF results for the total bromine and bromide determinations in soils and those obtained by other popular analytical techniques, e.g. energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (total bromine) and ionic chromatography (bromide). As a study case, the TXRF method was applied to study bromine accumulation in two agricultural soils fumigated with a methyl bromide pesticide and irrigated with regenerated waste water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analytical approaches for determination of bromine in sediment core samples by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkova, Galina V; Aisueva, Tatyana S; Finkelshtein, Alexander L; Ivanov, Egor V; Shchetnikov, Alexander A

    2016-11-01

    Bromine has been recognized as a valuable indicator for paleoclimatic studies. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) methods were applied to study the bromine distributions in lake sediment cores. Conventional WDXRF technique usually requires relatively large mass of a sediment sample and a set of calibration samples. Some analytical approaches were developed to apply WDXRF to small sediment core samples in the absence of adequate calibration samples with a known Br content. The mass of a sample to be analyzed was reduced up to 200-300mg and the internal standard method with correction using fundamental parameters was developed for Br quantification. TXRF technique based on the direct analysis of a solid suspension using 20mg of sediment sample by internal standard method was additionally tested. The accuracy of the WDXRF and TXRF techniques was assessed by the comparative analysis of reference materials of sediments, soil and biological samples. In general, good agreement was achieved between the reference values and the measured values. The detection limits of Br were 1mg/kg and 0.4mg/kg for WDXRF and TXRF respectively. The results of the Br determination obtained with different XRF techniques were comparable to each other and used for paleoclimatic reconstructions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chlorine determination in (U, Pu)C fuel by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Nand Lal; Dhara, Sangita; Mudher, Khush Dev Singh; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Thakur, Uday Kumar; Shah, Dipti; Sawant, R.M.; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    A Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) method for the determination of chlorine in (U,Pu)C has been developed. The method involves calibration of the instrument with standard solutions and validation of TXRF determination of chlorine using synthetic standard solutions. Cl K α line excited with W L α source was used for TXRF determinations of chlorine. Chlorine present in trace amounts in (U,Pu)C samples was first separated by pyro hydrolysis. The evolved chlorine, in form of HCl, was collected in 5 mM NaOH solution. This solution was analyzed for chlorine by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry using cobalt as an internal standard. The TXRF detection limit of chlorine was found to be 3.6 pg with sample size of 30 μL. In order to assess the applicability of TXRF method for chlorine determinations in other nuclear materials, one U 3 O 8 trace element standard was also analyzed for chlorine in similar way. The precision of the method was found to be 25% (1 σ) at ng level in most of the cases. (author)

  20. Determination of Fission Products in Irradiated Fuel by X-Ray Fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Andersen, Niels Hessel

    X-ray fluorescence i s a well e s t a b l i s h e d analytical tool for measuring elemental composition of fairly large (~ 5 cm2) "cold" samples. A version of t h i s technique has been developed for a n a l y s i s of radial d i s t r i b u t i o n of f i s s i o n products Xe, Cs and Ba...... in irradiated U02 fuel samples. About 0.1 mm thin s l i c e s of fuel p e l l e t s (full cross sections) are irradiated by 50 keV X-rays. The i n t e n s i t y of the Xe (Cs, Ba) Ko fluorescence radiation generated i s measured by means of a Ge detector f i t t ed with a collimator. The s l i t i s 0.5 mm wide...

  1. Combined evaluation of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence and X-ray reflectivity data for improved profiling of ultra-shallow depth distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerle, D; Meirer, F; Pepponi, G; Demenev, E; Giubertoni, D; Wobrauschek, P; Streli, C

    2014-09-01

    The continuous downscaling of the process size for semiconductor devices pushes the junction depths and consequentially the implantation depths to the top few nanometers of the Si substrate. This motivates the need for sensitive methods capable of analyzing dopant distribution, total dose and possible impurities. X-ray techniques utilizing the external reflection of X-rays are very surface sensitive, hence providing a non-destructive tool for process analysis and control. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) is an established technique for the characterization of single- and multi-layered thin film structures with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range. XRR spectra are acquired by varying the incident angle in the grazing incidence regime while measuring the specular reflected X-ray beam. The shape of the resulting angle-dependent curve is correlated to changes of the electron density in the sample, but does not provide direct information on the presence or distribution of chemical elements in the sample. Grazing Incidence XRF (GIXRF) measures the X-ray fluorescence induced by an X-ray beam incident under grazing angles. The resulting angle dependent intensity curves are correlated to the depth distribution and mass density of the elements in the sample. GIXRF provides information on contaminations, total implanted dose and to some extent on the depth of the dopant distribution, but is ambiguous with regard to the exact distribution function. Both techniques use similar measurement procedures and data evaluation strategies, i.e. optimization of a sample model by fitting measured and calculated angle curves. Moreover, the applied sample models can be derived from the same physical properties, like atomic scattering/form factors and elemental concentrations; a simultaneous analysis is therefore a straightforward approach. This combined analysis in turn reduces the uncertainties of the individual techniques, allowing a determination of dose and depth profile of the implanted

  2. Medieval glass from the Cathedral in Paderborn: a comparative study using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and inductively coupled laser ablation mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hormes, J. [University of Saskatchewan, Canadian Light Source Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Louisiana State University, CAMD, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Roy, A.; Bovenkamp, G.L. [Louisiana State University, CAMD, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Simon, K. [University of Goettingen, Geochemistry, Centre for Geosciences, Goettingen (Germany); Kim, C.Y. [University of Saskatchewan, Canadian Light Source Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Boerste, N. [Faculty for Theology Paderborn, Paderborn (Germany); Gai, S. [LWL - Archaeologie fuer Westfalen, Muenster (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    We have investigated four stained glass samples recovered from an archaeological excavation at the Cathedral in Paderborn (Germany) between 1978 and 1980. On two of the samples there are parts of paintings. Concentrations of major elements were determined using two independent techniques: LA-ICP-MS (a UV laser ablation microsampler combined with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and synchrotron radiation X-ray excited X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF). The SR-XRF data were quantified by using the program package PyMCA developed by the software group of the ESRF in Grenoble. Significant differences were found between the concentrations determined by the two techniques that can be explained by concentration gradients near the surface of the glasses caused, for example, by corrosion/leaching processes and the different surface sensitivities of the applied techniques. For several of the elements that were detected in the glass and in the colour pigments used for the paintings X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra were recorded in order to determine the chemical speciation of the elements of interest. As was expected, most elements in the glass were found as oxides in their most stable form. Two notable exceptions were observed: titanium was not found as rutile - the most stable form of TiO{sub 2} - but in the form of anatase, and lead was not found in one defined chemical state but as a complex mixture of oxide, sulphate, and other compounds. (orig.)

  3. Multispecies Biofilms Transform Selenium Oxyanions into Elemental Selenium Particles: Studies Using Combined Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Imaging and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Soo In; George, Graham N.; Lawrence, John R.; Kaminskyj, Susan G. W.; Dynes, James J.; Lai, Barry; Pickering, Ingrid J.

    2016-10-04

    Selenium (Se) is an element of growing environmental concern, because low aqueous concentrations can lead to biomagnification through the aquatic food web. Biofilms, naturally occurring microbial consortia, play numerous important roles in the environment, especially in biogeochemical cycling of toxic elements in aquatic systems. The complexity of naturally forming multispecies biofilms presents challenges for characterization because conventional microscopic techniques require chemical and physical modifications of the sample. Here, multispecies biofilms biotransforming selenium oxyanions were characterized using X-ray fluorescence imaging (XFI) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). These complementary synchrotron techniques required minimal sample preparation and were applied correlatively to the same biofilm areas. Sub-micrometer XFI showed distributions of Se and endogenous metals, while Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated the presence of elemental Se (Se0). Nanoscale carbon K-edge STXM revealed the distributions of microbial cells, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and lipids using the protein, saccharide, and lipid signatures, respectively, together with highly localized Se0 using the Se LIII edge. Transmission electron microscopy showed the electron-dense particle diameter to be 50–700 nm, suggesting Se0 nanoparticles. The intimate association of Se0 particles with protein and polysaccharide biofilm components has implications for the bioavailability of selenium in the environment.

  4. Quantitative analysis and metallic coating thickness measurements by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrea, Denis; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel; Moga, Sorin; Boicea, Niculae

    2009-01-01

    Full text: This paperwork covers the use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for determining the concentration and the coating thickness on metallic samples. The analysis method presented here may also be applicable to other coatings, providing that the elemental nature of the coating and substrate are compatible with the technical aspects of XRF, such as the absorption coefficient of the system, primary radiation, fluorescent radiation and type of detection. For the coating thickness measurement it was used the substrate-line attenuation method and a computing algorithm was developed. Its advantage relies in the fact that no special calibration with standard samples having different layer thickness is needed. The samples used for evaluation were metallic pieces of iron with zinc-nickel coatings of different thickness obtained by electrochemical deposition. (authors)

  5. Quantitative analysis and metallic coating thickness measurements by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrea, Denis; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel; Moga, Sorin; Boicea, Niculae

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with the use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for determining the concentration and the coating thickness on metallic samples. The analysis method presented here may also be applicable to other coatings, providing that the elemental nature of the coating and substrate are compatible with the technical aspects of XRF, such as the absorption coefficient of the system, primary radiation, fluorescent radiation and type of detection. For the coating thickness measurement it was used the substrate-line attenuation method and an algorithm was developed. Its advantage relies in the fact that no special calibration with standard samples having different layer thickness is needed. The samples used for evaluation were metallic pieces of iron with zinc-nickel coatings of different thickness obtained by electrochemical deposition. (authors)

  6. Diffraction enhanced imaging and x-ray fluorescence microtomography for analyzing biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, H.S.; Pereira, G.R.; Lopes, R.T. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear-COPPE/UFRJ-RJ (Brazil); Anjos, M.J. [Instituto de Fisica-UERJ-RJ (Brazil); Faria, P. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer-INCa-RJ (Brazil); Kellermann, G.; Perez, C.A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron-Campinas-SP (Brazil); Tirao, G. [Faculdad de Mat. Astronomia y Fisica (FAMAF), UNC. Cordoba (Argentina); Mazzaro, I. [Laboratorio de Optica de Raios X e Instrumentacao-UFPR-Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Giles, C. [Laboratorio de Cristalografia Aplicada e Raios X-UNICAMP-Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-15

    In this work, breast tissue samples were investigated in order to verify the distribution of certain elements by x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XRFCT) correlated with the characteristics and pathology of each tissue observed by diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI). The DEI system can show details in low attenuation tissues. It is based on the contrast imaging obtained by extinction, diffraction and refraction characteristics and can improve reduction in false positive and false negative diagnoses. XRFCT allows mapping of all elements within the sample, since even a minute fluorescence signal can be detected. DEI imaging techniques revealed the complex structure of the disease, confirmed by the histological section, and showed microstructures in all planes of the sample. The XRFCT showed the distribution of Zn, Cu and Fe at higher concentration. (authors)

  7. Multielemental analysis in Brazilian cigarettes using total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Moreira, Silvana

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify major and trace elements in conventional and light Brazilian cigarettes, Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF) was used. The fluorescence measurements were carried out at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas - Sao Paulo. This technique enables detection limit is in the ngg -1 range, which is very useful in elemental tobacco smoke analysis, since it presents most of its elements at a trace level. The major elements identified in tobacco samples were: S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Cd, and the trace elements were: Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Ba. However in tobacco smoke samples, there were only two major elements: K and Ca, the others were present a trace level. The rate transfer of tobacco to tobacco smoke was about 2.5 % for all elements studied. (author)

  8. Optimization of a fluorescence X-ray source and background studies for a prospective CNNS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, Andreas; Ciemniak, Christian; Feilitzsch, Franz von; Guetlein, Achim; Haag, Nils; Hofmann, Martin; Isaila, Christian; Lanfranchi, Jean-Come; Oberauer, Lothar; Pfister, Sebastian; Potzel, Walter; Roth, Sabine; Schoenert, Stefan; Sivers, Moritz von; Strauss, Raimund [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, E15 (Germany); Lachenmaier, Tobias [Eberhard Karls Universitaet, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Coherent Neutrino Nucleus Scattering (CNNS) is predicted by the Standard Model but hasn't been measured yet. A good background discrimination and shielding is essential for the achievement of a prospective experiment. We show the results of simulations for background discrimination and suppression using a myon veto system in combination with a shielding around a cryostat. With CNNS, the expected nuclear recoil energy for reactor anti-neutrinos is in the range of fluorescence are discussed and measured energy spectra will be shown. Finally results of an improved fluorescence x-ray source with nine clearly separated energy lines between {proportional_to}1 keV and 6.5 keV are shown.

  9. Determination of rare-earth elements in rocks by isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1970-01-01

    Isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry furnishes a rapid determination of rare-earth elements in unprepared rock samples. The samples are excited by 241Am γ-rays, generating X-ray spectra on a multichannel pulse-height analyser. Gaussian peaks of the Kα and Kβ X-ray energies are treated...... by the least-squares method to yield the fractions of La, Ce, Pr, and Nd in the samples. A calibration was established between the fractions of Ce and Nd and their abundances determined by mass spectrometry. Statistical considerations indicated that detection limits are of the order of 10 ppm. An X...

  10. Non-conventional applications of a noninvasive portable X-ray diffraction/fluorescence instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiari, Giacomo [Getty Conservation Institute, Science Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sarrazin, Philippe [Examinart LLC, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Heginbotham, Arlen [The J. Paul Getty Museum, Sculpture and Decorative Arts Conservation, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Noninvasive techniques have become widespread in the cultural heritage analytical domain. The popular handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) devices give the elemental composition of all the layers that X-rays can penetrate, but no information on how atoms are bound together or at which depth they are located. A noninvasive portable X-ray powder diffraction/X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) device may offer a solution to these limitations, since it can provide information on the composition of crystalline materials. This paper introduces applications of XRD beyond simple phase recognition. The two fundamental principles for XRD are: (1) the crystallites should be randomly oriented, to ensure proper intensity to all the diffraction peaks, and (2) the material should be positioned exactly in the focal plane of the instrument, respecting its geometry, as any displacement of the sample would results in 2θ shifts of the diffraction peaks. In conventional XRD, the sample is ground and set on the properly positioned sample holder. Using a noninvasive portable instrument, these two requirements are seldom fulfilled. The position, size and orientation of a given crystallite within a layered structure depend on the object itself. Equation correlating the displacement (distance from the focal plane) versus peak shift (angular difference in 2θ from the standard value) is derived and used to determine the depth at which a given substance is located. The quantitative composition of two binary Cu/Zn alloys, simultaneously present, was determined measuring the cell volume and using Vegard's law. The analysis of the whole object gives information on the texture and possible preferred orientations of the crystallites, which influences the peak intensity. This allows for the distinction between clad and electroplated daguerreotypes in the case of silver and between ancient and modern gilding for gold. Analyses of cross sections can be carried out successfully. Finally, beeswax, used in

  11. Determination of $L_{3}$ subshell X-ray production cross-sections and fluorescence yields of Pb, Th and U

    CERN Document Server

    Simsek, O

    2000-01-01

    A study of L/sub 3/ subshell X-ray production cross-sections and fluorescence yields by using characteristic K X-rays as the exciting radiation is described. Only the L/sub 3/ subshells of Pb, Th and U were excited by the characteristic K X-rays of the elements used as secondary sources. The cross-sections for the production of L/sub l/, L/sub alpha / and L/sub beta / groups of L/sub 3/ subshell X-rays of Pb, Th and U have been measured using photoionization by Rb, Nb and Mo K X-rays. The measured L/sub 3/ X-ray production cross-section values for Pb, Th and U are in good agreement with the theoretical ones evaluated using L/sub 3/ subshell fluorescence yield omega /sub 3/, fractions of the radiative width F/sub 3i/ and L/sub 3/ subshell photoionization cross-section sigma /sub 3/. The L/sub 3/ subshell fluorescence yields ( omega /sub 3/) have also been computed using the presently measured cross-section values and the theoretical L/sub 3/ subshell photoionization cross-section values. These results are comp...

  12. Considerations on the ideal sample shape for Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horntrich, C., E-mail: chorn@ati.ac.at; Kregsamer, P.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2011-11-15

    Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence analysis (TXRF) is widely used in semiconductor industry for the analysis of silicon wafer surfaces. Typically an external standard is used for the calibration of the spectrometer. This is sensitive to errors in quantification. For small sample amounts the thin film approximation is valid, absorption effects of the exciting and the detected radiation are neglected and the relation between sample amount and fluorescence intensity is linear. For higher total sample amounts deviations from linearity have been observed (saturation effect). These deviations are one of the difficulties for external standard quantification. A theoretical determination of the ideal TXRF sample shape is content of the presented work with the aim to improve the calibration process and therefore the quantification. The fluorescence intensity emitted by different theoretical sample shapes was calculated, whereby several parameters have been varied (excitation energy, density, diameter/height ratio of the sample). It was investigated which sample shape leads to the highest fluorescence intensity and exhibits the lowest saturation effect. The comparison of the different sample shapes showed that the ring shape matches the ideal TXRF sample shape best. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this work the ideal TXRF sample shape is theoretically determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different theoretical sample shapes were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ring shape matches the ideal TXRF sample shape best. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It leads to the highest fluorescence intensity and the lowest saturation effect.

  13. Resonant inelastic scattering in dilute magnetic semiconductors by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Institute of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Jia, J.J.; Underwood, J.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    As modern, technologically important materials have become more complex, element specific techniques have become invaluable in studying the electronic structure of individual components from the system. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) and absorption (SXA) spectroscopies provide a unique means of measuring element and angular momentum density of electron states, respectively, for the valence and conducting bands in complex materials. X-ray absorption and the decay through x-ray emission are generally assumed to be two independent one-photon processes. Recent studies, however have demonstrated that SXF excited near the absorption threshold generate an array of spectral features that depend on nature of materials, particularly on the localization of excited states in s and d-band solids and that these two processes can no be longer treated as independent. Resonant SXF offers thus the new way to study the dynamics of the distribution of electronic valence states in the presence of a hole which is bound to the electron low lying in the conduction band. This process can simulate the interaction between hole-electron pair in wide gap semiconductors. Therefore such studies can help in understanding of transport and optics phenomena in the wide gap semiconductors. The authors report the result of Mn and S L-resonant emission in Zn{sub 1{minus}x}Mn{sub x}S (with x=0.2 and 0.3) and MnS as the energy of exciting radiation is tuned across the Mn and S L{sub 3,2} absorption edge, along with the resonant excited spectra from elemental Mn as a reference.

  14. X-ray fluorescence analysis in environmental radiological surveillance using HPGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera Peraza, E. [Department of Environmental Radiological Surveillance, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), P.O. Box 31109, Miguel de Cervantes no. 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)]. E-mail: eduardo.herrera@cimav.edu.mx; Renteria Villalobos, M. [Department of Environmental Radiological Surveillance, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), P.O. Box 31109, Miguel de Cervantes no. 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Montero Cabrera, M.E. [Department of Environmental Radiological Surveillance, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), P.O. Box 31109, Miguel de Cervantes no. 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Munoz Romero, A. [Department of Environmental Radiological Surveillance, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), P.O. Box 31109, Miguel de Cervantes no. 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2004-10-08

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has been proven to be a valuable tool for determining trace quantities of heavy metals, such as uranium and lead, in different types of samples. The present paper demonstrates the applicability of XRF spectrometry to measure the concentrations of these heavy metals in samples from natural ore and soil. The values of uranium concentrations in rock from the Pena Blanca uranium ore, in Chihuahua, Mexico, were calculated for the purpose of precertifying the rock powders samples. The comparison with other techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and electron microscopy, was used to complete the precertification process, so that the sample powders may be used as secondary standards. The source-sample-detector geometry and the incident angle are the most important factors for obtaining low detection limits. The selected system uses a {sup 57}Co source of about 0.1 mCi to excite the K X-rays from uranium and lead. X-rays were recorded on a CANBERRA HPGe coaxial detector. The comparative results for two incident angles (90 deg and 180 deg ) performed previously by other authors show that the best geometry is the backscattering geometry. In the present paper, using EGS4 code system with Monte Carlo simulation, it was possible to determine the location and distribution of background produced by the Compton edge in the optimized geometry. This procedure allowed to find the minimum detectable concentration of uranium and lead, which was experimentally calculated using standards. The possibility of performing in vivo measurements rapidly and easily, as well as the factors affecting accuracy and the minimum detectable concentration in several samples are also discussed.

  15. X-ray fluorescence analysis in environmental radiological surveillance using HPGe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Peraza, E.; Renteria Villalobos, M.; Montero Cabrera, M.E.; Munoz Romero, A.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has been proven to be a valuable tool for determining trace quantities of heavy metals, such as uranium and lead, in different types of samples. The present paper demonstrates the applicability of XRF spectrometry to measure the concentrations of these heavy metals in samples from natural ore and soil. The values of uranium concentrations in rock from the Pena Blanca uranium ore, in Chihuahua, Mexico, were calculated for the purpose of precertifying the rock powders samples. The comparison with other techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and electron microscopy, was used to complete the precertification process, so that the sample powders may be used as secondary standards. The source-sample-detector geometry and the incident angle are the most important factors for obtaining low detection limits. The selected system uses a 57 Co source of about 0.1 mCi to excite the K X-rays from uranium and lead. X-rays were recorded on a CANBERRA HPGe coaxial detector. The comparative results for two incident angles (90 deg and 180 deg ) performed previously by other authors show that the best geometry is the backscattering geometry. In the present paper, using EGS4 code system with Monte Carlo simulation, it was possible to determine the location and distribution of background produced by the Compton edge in the optimized geometry. This procedure allowed to find the minimum detectable concentration of uranium and lead, which was experimentally calculated using standards. The possibility of performing in vivo measurements rapidly and easily, as well as the factors affecting accuracy and the minimum detectable concentration in several samples are also discussed

  16. Risk and benefit of diffraction in Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonow, Wilhelm; Rammlmair, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence mapping (μ-EDXRF) is a fast and non-destructive method for chemical quantification and therefore used in many scientific fields. The combination of spatial and chemical information is highly valuable for understanding geological processes. Problems occur with crystalline samples due to diffraction, which appears according to Bragg's law, depending on the energy of the X-ray beam, the incident angle and the crystal parameters. In the spectra these peaks can overlap with element peaks suggesting higher element concentrations. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of diffraction, the possibility of diffraction removal and potential geoscientific applications for X-ray mapping. In this work the μ-EDXRF M4 Tornado from Bruker was operated with a Rh-tube and polychromatic beam with two SDD detectors mounted each at ± 90° to the tube. Due to the polychromatic beam the Bragg condition fits for several mineral lattice planes. Since diffraction depends on the angle, it is shown that a novel correction approach can be applied by measuring from two different angles and calculating the minimum spectrum of both detectors gaining a better limit of quantification for this method. Furthermore, it is possible to use the diffraction information for separation of differently oriented crystallites within a monomineralic aggregate and obtain parameters like particle size distribution for the sample, as it is done by thin section image analysis in cross-polarized light. Only with μ-EDXRF this can be made on larger samples without preparation of thin sections.

  17. In vivo elemental analysis in occupational medicine using X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoffersson, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    A technique for the in vivo determination of cadmium in the kidney cortex using X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) has been developed for clinical use. The method uses the Cd K-alfa X-rays. The radiation from the tube was polarized by scattering at 90 degrees in a plastic disc. Using a Si(Li) detector the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of cadmium in the renal cortex was about 6 ppm for an effective dose equivalent of 3 micro-Sievert. The precision of the method was estimated to be about 23 percent. The clinical usefulness was confirmed by studying 20 occupationally exposed cadmium workers and three controls. The cadmium workers showed levels of cadmium in the kidney in the range 47-317 ppm, and controls showed levels below 30 ppm. Using XRF in vivo large-scale measurements of lead in the fingerbone of more than 100 lead workers were performed. The technique used included two 57-Co sources for excitation and a higher-purity Ge detector for the analysis of the Pb K-alfa X-rays. The MDC was about 20 ppm for an effective dose equivalent of 0.1 micro-Sievert. The precision of the method was estimated to be about 15 per cent. The in vivo measurements showed levels of fingerbone-Pb up to 148 ppm. The existence of a significant endogenous exposure from lead in the skeleton was confirmed. The fingerbone-Pb was correlated to time-integrated blood-Pb indicating that it could be used as a rough estimated of time-integrated exposure. The results from the measurements were used to develop a three-compartment (cortical bone, trabecular bone, blood/soft tissues) model. Using this model, lead levels in fingerbone, vertebrae and blood could be predicted in good agreement with observations. (author)

  18. Inorganic chemical investigation by x-ray fluorescence analysis: The Viking Mars Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulmin, P.; Baird, A.K.; Clark, B. C.; Keil, Klaus; Rose, H.J.

    1973-01-01

    The inorganic chemical investigation added in August 1972 to the Viking Lander scientific package will utilize an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in which four sealed, gas-filled proportional counters will detect X-rays emitted from samples of the Martian surface materials irradiated by X-rays from radioisotope sources (55Fe and 109Cd). The output of the proportional counters will be subjected to pulse-height analysis by an on-board step-scanning single-channel analyzer with adjustable counting periods. The data will be returned to Earth, via the Viking Orbiter relay system, and the spectra constructed, calibrated, and interpreted here. The instrument is inside the Lander body, and samples are to be delivered to it by the Viking Lander Surface Sampler. Calibration standards are an integral part of the instrument. The results of the investigation will characterize the surface materials of Mars as to elemental composition with accuracies ranging from a few tens of parts per million (at the trace-element level) to a few percent (for major elements) depending on the element in question. Elements of atomic number 11 or less are determined only as a group, though useful estimates of their individual abundances maybe achieved by indirect means. The expected radiation environment will not seriously hamper the measurements. Based on the results, inferences can be drawn regarding (1) the surface mineralogy and lithology; (2) the nature of weathering processes, past and present, and the question of equilibrium between the atmosphere and the surface; and (3) the extent and type of differentiation that the planet has undergone. The Inorganic Chemical Investigation supports and is supported by most other Viking Science investigations. ?? 1973.

  19. Micro energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of polychrome lead-glazed Portuguese faiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilherme, A.; Pessanha, S.; Carvalho, M.L.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Coroado, J.

    2010-01-01

    Several glazed ceramic pieces, originally produced in Coimbra (Portugal), were submitted to elemental analysis, having as premise the pigment manufacture production recognition. Although having been produced in Coimbra, their location changed as time passed due to historical reasons. A recent exhibition in Coimbra brought together a great number of these pieces and in situ micro Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF) analyses were performed in order to achieve some chemical and physical data on the manufacture of faiences in Coimbra. A non-commercial μ-EDXRF equipment for in situ analysis was employed in this work, carrying some important improvements when compared to the conventional ones, namely, analyzing spot sizes of about 100 μm diameter. The combination of a capillary X-ray lens with a new generation of low power microfocus X-ray tube and a drift chamber detector enabled a portable unit for micro-XRF with a few tens of μm lateral resolution. The advantages in using a portable system emphasized with polycapillary optics enabled to distinguish proximal different pigmented areas, as well as the glaze itself. These first scientific results on the pigment analysis of the collection of faiences seem to point to a unique production center with own techniques and raw materials. This conclusion arose with identification of the blue pigments having in its constitution Mn, Fe Co and As and the yellows as a result of the combination between Pb and Sb. A statistical treatment was used to reveal groups of similarities on the pigments elemental profile.

  20. Microbialite Biosignature Analysis by Mesoscale X-ray Fluorescence (μXRF) Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Michael M.; Quezergue, Kimbra; Pope, Michael C.

    2017-11-01

    As part of its biosignature detection package, the Mars 2020 rover will carry PIXL, the Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry, a spatially resolved X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) spectrometer. Understanding the types of biosignatures detectable by μXRF and the rock types μXRF is most effective at analyzing is therefore an important goal in preparation for in situ Mars 2020 science and sample selection. We tested mesoscale chemical mapping for biosignature interpretation in microbialites. In particular, we used μXRF to identify spatial distributions and associations between various elements ("fluorescence microfacies") to infer the physical, biological, and chemical processes that produced the observed compositional distributions. As a test case, elemental distributions from μXRF scans of stromatolites from the Mesoarchean Nsuze Group (2.98 Ga) were analyzed. We included five fluorescence microfacies: laminated dolostone, laminated chert, clotted dolostone and chert, stromatolite clast breccia, and cavity fill. Laminated dolostone was formed primarily by microbial mats that trapped and bound loose sediment and likely precipitated carbonate mud at a shallow depth below the mat surface. Laminated chert was produced by the secondary silicification of microbial mats. Clotted dolostone and chert grew as cauliform, cryptically laminated mounds similar to younger thrombolites and was likely formed by a combination of mat growth and patchy precipitation of early-formed carbonate. Stromatolite clast breccias formed as lag deposits filling erosional scours and interstromatolite spaces. Cavities were filled by microquartz, Mn-rich dolomite, and partially dolomitized calcite. Overall, we concluded that μXRF is effective for inferring genetic processes and identifying biosignatures in compositionally heterogeneous rocks.

  1. Uses of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis in agronomic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Filho, V.F.; Carneiro, A.E.V.; Silva, L.R.N.; Mendes Filho, M.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary study on the use of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis to estimate element composition in samples of agronomic interest samples (lake sediment, whole animal dried blood, calcined animal bone, animal muscle, fish homogenate, tomato leaves and wheat flour) was carried out. Pellets with 0.82 g.cm sup(-2) were excited by radioactive sources ( sup(55)Fe - 53.3 MBq, sup(236)Pu - 1.02 GBq and sup(241)Am - 3.7 GBq) and the characteristic X-rays were detected for 30 minutes with a Si(Li) detector. With the sup(55)Fe source it was possible to clearly detect simultaneously several peaks from elements of the samples, such as Si and Ti in lake sediment, P and Ca in bone, Ca in blood and K in all samples (except bone). Using another source, sup(235)Pu, and Fe, Zn, K and Ca in almost all samples, whereas with the sup(241)Am source it was possible to detect Ba peaks in sediment and bone, and Zr and Ce in sediment. (author)

  2. X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Pre-Federal American Currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddell, Mark; Manukyan, Khachatur; Aprahamian, Ani; Wiescher, Michael; Jordan, Louis

    2017-09-01

    X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) was used to study 17th and 18th century Mexican, Potosí, and Massachusetts silver colonial coins from the University of Notre Dame's Rare Books and Special Collections. Using different configurations and devices, we have learned more about the limitations and optimizations of the method. We have developed a moveable stand that may be used for XRF mapping of coin surfaces. We created standard silver alloy materials for quantification of the elemental composition of the coins. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy was applied to determine the precise composition of the standards for accurate and non-destructive analyses of the colonial coins. XRF measurements were performed using two different XRF spectrometers, in both air and vacuum conditions, as well as an x-ray beam tube of varying diameters from 2 mm, 1 mm, and 0.03 mm. We quantified both the major elements and the bulk and surface impurities for 90 coins. We are using PCA to look at possible correlations between compositions of coinage from different geographical regions. Preliminary data analyses suggest that Massachusetts coins were minted using silver from Latin American sources. These results are of great interest to historians in tracing the origins of the currency. This work was made possible by the Notre Dame College of Science Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships (COS-SURF).

  3. Radiography and X-ray fluorescence used to analyze cultural and artistic artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Kajiya, Elizabeth M.; Campos, Pedro H.O.V. de; Almeida, Paula A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2003 the analyses of artistic and cultural heritage objects at LAMFI-USP (Laboratorio de Analises de Materiais com Feixes Ionicos), initially restricted to ion beam methods, are growing steadily. Since then, alternative methodologies and procedures have been incorporated to better characterize these objects, which possess distinct physical characteristics and also high cultural and monetary value. The examinations in this kind of objects were expanded to other non-destructive analytical techniques like portable EDXRF (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) analysis, X-ray radiography, visible photography, UV (ultraviolet) and IR (infrared) light imaging that are helping to better understand these art objects, particularly paintings. These techniques are helping the analyses of the conservation state of the objects and also revealing characteristics of the painter such as underlying drawings, which help understand the creative process of the artist. These new procedures of analysis are aimed to enable better analytic research in archaeology and artistic and cultural heritage objects and to provide results that subsidize authentic investigations of art objects as well as the origin of archaeological artifacts, while stimulating archeometry and 'arteometry' research in Brazilian Museums. (author)

  4. Spatially resolved synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence analyses of rare Rembrandt silverpoint drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, I.; Radtke, M.; Berger, A.; Goerner, W.; Merchel, S.; Riesemeier, H.; Bevers, H.

    2006-01-01

    New analyses of a series of very rare silverpoint drawings that were executed by Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (1606-1669) which are kept today in the Kupferstichkabinett (Museum of Prints and Drawings) of the State Museums of Berlin are reported here. Analysis of these drawings requires particular attention because the study has to be fully non-destructive and extremely sensitive. The metal alloy on the paper does not exceed some hundreds of μg/cm 2 . Therefore, synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) is - together with external micro-proton-induced X-ray emission - the only well-suited method for the analyses of metalpoint drawings. In some primary work, about 25 German and Flemish metalpoint drawings were investigated using spatially resolved SR-XRF analysis at the BAMline at BESSY. This study enlarges the existing French-German database of metalpoint drawings dating from the 15th and 16th centuries, as these Rembrandt drawings originate from the 17th century where this graphical technique was even rarer and already obsolete. It also illustrates how SR-XRF analysis can reinforce art historical assumptions on the dating of drawings and their connection. (orig.)

  5. Characterization of aerosol in the atmosphere at Syowa Station by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Aoyama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The particle size distribution has been continuously measured by optical particle counter at Syowa Station. Physical and chemical properties of particulate matter have been analyzed in the laboratory after arriving in Japan. However, the properties of particles may be changed in this case. In the present work, the atmospheric particulate matter at Syowa Station, Antarctica was characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF at Syowa Station. The advantages of this method have non destructive, rapid and simple analysis. The particle samples were collected on a Teflon filter; the obtained particles were measured by XRF (HORIBA, X-ray Analytical Microscope XGT-5000 on site soon for elemental analysis. The obtained results show that collected particles mainly contain sea salt (Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca and soil (Si, Fe origin components. The particles from sea salt and soil origin increased under blizzard and strong wind condition. Sulfur increased in summer, and decreased in winter while particles from sea salt decreased in summer.

  6. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence from useless tyres samples with a Si PIN detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Fabio; Scheibel, Viviane; Melquiades, Fabio Luiz; Moraes, Liz Mary Bueno de

    2005-01-01

    The concentration of Zn from discard tyre samples is of environmental interest, since on its production are used S for the rubber vulcanization process, and Zn O as reaction catalyze. The useless tyres are been used for asphalt pave, burn in cement industry and thermoelectric power plant and in erosion control of agriculture areas. Analyses of these samples requires frequently chemical digestion that is expensive and take a long time. Trying to eliminate these limitations, the objective of this work was use Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF) with a portable system as the technique is multi elementary and needs a minimum sample preparation. Five useless tyres samples were grind in a knife mill and after this in a cryogenic mill, and analyzed in pellets form, using a X ray mini tube (Ag target, Mo l ter, 25 kV/20 A ) for 200 s and a Si-PIN semiconductor detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. Were obtained Zn concentrations in the range of 40.6 to 44.2 g g 1 , representing nearly 0.4. (author)

  7. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence attachment module modified for analysis in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Kregsamer, P.; Meirer, F.; Jokubonis, C.; Markowicz, A.; Wegrzynek, D.; Chinea-Cano, E.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the design of the low cost Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence attachment module available since 1986 from Atominstitut (WOBRAUSCHEK-module) which can be attached to existing X-ray equipment, a new version was developed which allows the analysis of samples in vacuum. This design was in particular possible as the Peltier cooled light weight Silicon Drift Detector is following all adjustment procedures for total reflection as angle rotation and linear motion. The detector is mounted through a vacuum feed and O-ring tightening to the small vacuum chamber. The standard 30 mm round quartz, Si-wafer or Plexiglas reflectors are used to carry the samples. The reflectors are placed on the reference plane with the dried sample down looking facing in about 0.5 mm distance the up looking detector window. The reflectors are resting on 3 steel balls defining precisely the reference plane for the adjustment procedure. As the rotation axis of the module is in the plane of the reflector surface, angle dependent experiments can be made to distinguish between film and particulate type contamination of samples. Operating with a Mo anode at 50 kV and 40 mA with a closely attached multilayer monochromator and using a 10 mm 2 KETEK silicon drift detector with 8 μm Be window, a sensitivity of 70 cps/ng for Rb was measured and detection limits of 2 pg were obtained

  8. Spectrum reconstruction method based on the detector response model calibrated by x-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruizhe; Li, Liang; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2017-02-07

    Accurate estimation of distortion-free spectra is important but difficult in various applications, especially for spectral computed tomography. Two key problems must be solved to reconstruct the incident spectrum. One is the acquisition of the detector energy response. It can be calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, which requires detailed modeling of the detector system and a high computational power. It can also be acquired by establishing a parametric response model and be calibrated using monochromatic x-ray sources, such as synchrotron sources or radioactive isotopes. However, these monochromatic sources are difficult to obtain. Inspired by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrum modeling, we propose a feasible method to obtain the detector energy response based on an optimized parametric model for CdZnTe or CdTe detectors. The other key problem is the reconstruction of the incident spectrum with the detector response. Directly obtaining an accurate solution from noisy data is difficult because the reconstruction problem is severely ill-posed. Different from the existing spectrum stripping method, a maximum likelihood-expectation maximization iterative algorithm is developed based on the Poisson noise model of the system. Simulation and experiment results show that our method is effective for spectrum reconstruction and markedly increases the accuracy of XRF spectra compared with the spectrum stripping method. The applicability of the proposed method is discussed, and promising results are presented.

  9. Laboratory Scale X-ray Fluorescence Tomography: Instrument Characterization and Application in Earth and Environmental Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforce, Brecht; Vermeulen, Bram; Garrevoet, Jan; Vekemans, Bart; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Janssen, Colin; Vincze, Laszlo

    2016-03-15

    A new laboratory scale X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging instrument, based on an X-ray microfocus tube equipped with a monocapillary optic, has been developed to perform XRF computed tomography experiments with both higher spatial resolution (20 μm) and a better energy resolution (130 eV @Mn-K(α)) than has been achieved up-to-now. This instrument opens a new range of possible applications for XRF-CT. Next to the analytical characterization of the setup by using well-defined model/reference samples, demonstrating its capabilities for tomographic imaging, the XRF-CT microprobe has been used to image the interior of an ecotoxicological model organism, Americamysis bahia. This had been exposed to elevated metal (Cu and Ni) concentrations. The technique allowed the visualization of the accumulation sites of copper, clearly indicating the affected organs, i.e. either the gastric system or the hepatopancreas. As another illustrative application, the scanner has been employed to investigate goethite spherules from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, revealing the internal elemental distribution of these valuable distal ejecta layer particles.

  10. Imaging metals in proteins by combining electrophoresis with rapid x-ray fluorescence mapping.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, L.; Chishti, Y.; Khare, T.; Giometti, C.; Levina, A.; Lay, P. A.; Vogt, S.; Univ. of Sydney; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence points toward a very dynamic role for metals in biology. This suggests that physiological circumstance may mandate metal ion redistribution among ligands. This work addresses a critical need for technology that detects, identifies, and measures the metal-containing components of complex biological matrixes. We describe a direct, user-friendly approach for identifying and quantifying metal?protein adducts in complex samples using native- or SDS-PAGE, blotting, and rapid synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping with micro-XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) of entire blots. The identification and quantification of each metal bound to a protein spot has been demonstrated, and the technique has been applied in two exemplary cases. In the first, the speciation of the in vitro binding of exogenous chromium to blood serum proteins was influenced markedly by both the oxidation state of chromium exposed to the serum proteins and the treatment conditions, which is of relevance to the biochemistry of Cr dietary supplements. In the second case, in vivo changes in endogenous metal speciation were examined to probe the influence of oxygen depletion on iron speciation in Shewanella oneidensis.

  11. Radiography and X-ray fluorescence used to analyze cultural and artistic artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Kajiya, Elizabeth M.; Campos, Pedro H.O.V. de; Almeida, Paula A.D., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br, E-mail: elizabethkajiya@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Since 2003 the analyses of artistic and cultural heritage objects at LAMFI-USP (Laboratorio de Analises de Materiais com Feixes Ionicos), initially restricted to ion beam methods, are growing steadily. Since then, alternative methodologies and procedures have been incorporated to better characterize these objects, which possess distinct physical characteristics and also high cultural and monetary value. The examinations in this kind of objects were expanded to other non-destructive analytical techniques like portable EDXRF (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) analysis, X-ray radiography, visible photography, UV (ultraviolet) and IR (infrared) light imaging that are helping to better understand these art objects, particularly paintings. These techniques are helping the analyses of the conservation state of the objects and also revealing characteristics of the painter such as underlying drawings, which help understand the creative process of the artist. These new procedures of analysis are aimed to enable better analytic research in archaeology and artistic and cultural heritage objects and to provide results that subsidize authentic investigations of art objects as well as the origin of archaeological artifacts, while stimulating archeometry and 'arteometry' research in Brazilian Museums. (author)

  12. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) for direct analysis of aerosol particle samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, E; Zacco, A; Benedetti, D; Borgese, L; Colombi, P; Stosnach, H; Finzi, G; Apostoli, P; Buttini, P; Depero, L E

    2010-04-14

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have a great impact on the environment and on human health. Routine analysis of the particles usually involves only the mass determination. However, chemical composition and phases provide fundamental information about the particles' origins and can help to prevent health risks. For example, these particles may contain heavy metals such as Pb, Ni and Cd, which can adversely affect human health. In this work, filter samples were collected in Brescia, an industrial town located in Northern Italy. In order to identify the chemical composition and the phases of the atmospheric aerosols, the samples were analysed by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry with a laboratory instrument and X-ray microdiffraction at Synchrotron Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington (Cheshire, UK). The results are discussed and correlated to identify possible pollution sources. The novelty of this analytical approach is that filter samples for TXRF were analysed directly and did not require chemical pretreatment to leach elements from the aerosol particulates. The results of this study clearly show that TXRF is a powerful technique for the analysis of atmospheric aerosols on 'as-received' filters, thereby leaving samples intact and unaltered for possible subsequent analyses by other methods. In addition, the low detection limits for many elements (low ng/cm2) indicate that this method may hold promise in various application fields, such as nanotechnology.

  13. In vivo monitoring of toxic metals: assessment of neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    To date, cadmium, lead, aluminum, and mercury have been measured in vivo in humans. The possibilities of monitoring other toxic metals have also been demonstrated, but no human studies have been performed. Neutron activation analysis appears to be most suitable for Cd and Al measurements, while x-ray fluorescence is ideally suited for measurement of lead in superficial bone. Filtered neutron beams and polarized x-ray sources are being developed which will improve in vivo detection limits. Even so, several of the current facilities are already suitable for use in epidemiological studies of selected populations with suspected long-term low-level ''environmental'' exposures. Evaluation and diagnosis of patients presenting with general clinical symptoms attributable to possible toxic metal exposure may be assisted by in vivo examination. Continued in vivo monitoring of industrial workers, especially follow-up measurements, will provide the first direct assessment of changes in body burden and a direct measure of the biological life-times of these metals in humans. 50 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Standard test methods for chemical analysis of ceramic whiteware materials using wavelength dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of ten major elements (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, P2O5, MnO, and LOI in ceramic whitewares clays and minerals using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF). The sample is first ignited, then fused with lithium tetraborate and the resultant glass disc is introduced into a wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The disc is irradiated with X-rays from an X-ray tube. X-ray photons emitted by the elements in the samples are counted and concentrations determined using previously prepared calibration standards. (1) In addition to 10 major elements, the method provides a gravimetric loss-on-ignition. Note 1—Much of the text of this test method is derived directly from Major element analysis by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, included in Ref (1). 1.2 Interferences, with analysis by WDXRF, may result from mineralogical or other structural effects, line overlaps, and matrix effects. The structure of the...

  15. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence studies of trace elements in biomedical samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubala-Kukus, A. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland)]. E-mail: Aldona.Kubala-Kukus@pu.kielce.pl; Braziewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Pajek, M. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland)

    2004-08-31

    Application of the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis in the studies of trace element contents in biomedical samples is discussed in the following aspects: (i) a nature of trace element concentration distributions, (ii) censoring approach to the detection limits, and (iii) a comparison of two sets of censored data. The paper summarizes the recent results achieved in this topics, in particular, the lognormal, or more general logstable, nature of concentration distribution of trace elements, the random left-censoring and the Kaplan-Meier approach accounting for detection limits and, finally, the application of the logrank test to compare the censored concentrations measured for two groups. These new aspects, which are of importance for applications of the TXRF in different fields, are discussed here in the context of TXRF studies of trace element in various samples of medical interest.

  16. Grazing angle X-ray fluorescence from periodic structures on silicon and silica surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.H., E-mail: nowak@ifg-adlershof.de [Physics Department, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Banaś, D. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Błchucki, W.; Cao, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl. [Physics Department, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Hönicke, P. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Hoszowska, J. [Physics Department, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Jabłoński, Ł. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Kayser, Y. [Physics Department, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Pajek, M. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Reinhardt, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Savu, A.V. [Microsystems Laboratory (LMIS1), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Szlachetko, J. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-08-01

    Various 3-dimensional nano-scaled periodic structures with different configurations and periods deposited on the surface of silicon and silica substrates were investigated by means of the grazing incidence and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence techniques. Apart from the characteristics which are typical for particle- and layer-like samples, the measured angular intensity profiles show additional periodicity-related features. The latter could be explained by a novel theoretical approach based on simple geometrical optics (GO) considerations. The new GO-based calculations were found to yield results in good agreement with experiment, also in cases where other theoretical approaches are not valid, e.g., periodic particle distributions with an increased surface coverage.

  17. Elemental analysis of special materials by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasany, S.M.; Habib-Ur-Rehman; Rashid, A.; Rashid, F.

    1989-01-01

    The special materials like phosphor bronze for P, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn and Pb; midl steel for P, S, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Nb, Sb and W; special alloys for Ti and Mo, zircaloy and zirconium oxide for Hf; and ziron ore for Zr were analyzed by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS). The measured values along with certified values, precision and accuracy are given for all analyzed elements. In most cases the precision is within ±2% and accuracy is ±4%. The precision and accuracy for S, P, Ni and Hf are poor at low concentrations. It is established that precise and accurate determination of Ti and Mo in special alloys is possible using XRFS. (author) 3 refs.; 4 figs.; 6 tabs

  18. Chemical analysis of coal by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence utilizing artificial standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Accurate determinations of the elemental composition of coal by classical methods can be quite difficult and are normally very time consuming. X-ray fluorescence utilizing the powder method, however, has the ability of providing accurate and rapid analyses. Unfortunately, well characterized standards, although available, are not plentiful. In addition, the durability of stability of ground and pelletized coal samples is poor resulting in deterioration with time. As a result, artificial coal standards were prepared from certified geological materials by fusing in lithium tetraborate in percentages approximating expected ash contents and compositions in coal. Since the lithium tetraborate comprises about the same percentage of the standard as does the carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in coal, the ground and pelletized coal sample can be assayed against the fused calibration curves by compensating for the differences in the mass absorption coefficients of the two matrices. 5 figures, 4 tables

  19. Mapping metals in Parkinson's and normal brain using rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Bogdan F Gh; George, Martin J; McCrea, Richard P E; Devon, Richard M; George, Graham N; Hanson, Akela D; Chapman, L Dean; Nichol, Helen; Bergmann, Uwe; Garachtchenko, Alex V; Luening, Katharina; Kelly, Michael E; Harder, Sheri M; Pickering, Ingrid J

    2009-01-01

    Rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence (RS-XRF) is a synchrotron technology that maps multiple metals in tissues by employing unique hardware and software to increase scanning speed. RS-XRF was validated by mapping and quantifying iron, zinc and copper in brain slices from Parkinson's disease (PD) and unaffected subjects. Regions and structures in the brain were readily identified by their metal complement and each metal had a unique distribution. Many zinc-rich brain regions were low in iron and vice versa. The location and amount of iron in brain regions known to be affected in PD agreed with analyses using other methods. Sample preparation is simple and standard formalin-fixed autopsy slices are suitable. RS-XRF can simultaneously and non-destructively map and quantify multiple metals and holds great promise to reveal metal pathologies associated with PD and other neurodegenerative diseases as well as diseases of metal metabolism.

  20. Exams for attribution of sevres porcelain by x-ray fluorescence in Havana museums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Cuevas, Ariadna; Nazco Torres, Julio

    2010-01-01

    Analysis with X-ray fluorescence on Sevres porcelain was performed in order to determine criteria from the scientific examination that may support the attribution of special pieces. Multielemental chemical analyses of decorations colours, marks and glazed porcelain body were related to specific historic information about used materials and procedure of Sevres french manufactory. The used portable XRF spectrometer allows non destructive and in situ studies of Havana's collections with adequate sensibility for this application. Collections of Havana City Museum, Decorative Art Museum and Napoleonic Museum and some pieces of different background were studied. Non typical pigments used in Sevres allows to identify non genuine Sevres decorations while cluster analysis on porcelain body differentiates Sevres and 'surdecor' porcelains from Sevres style non genuine porcelains. (author)

  1. Exams for attribution of sevres porcelain by x-ray fluorescence in Havana museums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Cuevas, Ariadna; Nazco Torres, Julio

    2009-01-01

    Analysis with X-ray fluorescence on Sevres porcelain was performed in order to determine criteria from the scientific examination that may support the attribution of special pieces. Multielemental chemical analyses of decorations colours, marks and glazed porcelain body were related to specific historic information about used materials and procedure of Sevres french manufactory. The used portable XRF spectrometer allows non destructive and in situ studies of Havana's collections with adequate sensibility for this application. Collections of Havana City Museum, Decorative Art Museum and Napoleonic Museum and some pieces of different background were studied. Non typical pigments used in Sevres allows to identify non genuine Sevres decorations while cluster analysis on porcelain body differentiates Sevres and 'surdecor' porcelains from Sevres style non genuine porcelains. (author)

  2. X-ray fluorescence analysis of wear metals in used lubricating oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, W. E.; Kelliher, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Used oils from several aircraft at NASA's Langley Research Center were analyzed over a three year period using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic emission spectrometry. The results of both analyses are presented and comparisons are made. Fe and Cu data for oil from four internal combustion engines are provided and XRF and atomic emission spectrometry measurements were found to be in perfect agreement. However, distributions were found in the case of oil from a jet aircraft engine whereby the latter method gave values for total iron concentration in the oil and did not distinguish between suspended particles and oil additives. XRF does not have these particle-size limitations; moreover, it is a faster process. It is concluded that XRF is the preferred method in the construction of a man-portable oil wear analysis instrument.

  3. Metals determination in coffee sample by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [ Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inorganic concentration in five brands of coffee, three of them nationally marketed and the others of an exportation kind. The samples were prepared by infusion with deionized water. To carry out the calibration, standard solutions were prepared with different concentrations of Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn and Se. The measurements were carried out using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Si (Li) semiconductor detector for detection. By employing Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF) it was possible to evaluate the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Ba. The detection limits for 300 s counting time were in the range of 0.03 (Ca) to 30 ng.g{sup -1} (Rb), respectively. (author)

  4. Metals determination in coffee sample by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inorganic concentration in five brands of coffee, three of them nationally marketed and the others of an exportation kind. The samples were prepared by infusion with deionized water. To carry out the calibration, standard solutions were prepared with different concentrations of Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn and Se. The measurements were carried out using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Si (Li) semiconductor detector for detection. By employing Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF) it was possible to evaluate the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Ba. The detection limits for 300 s counting time were in the range of 0.03 (Ca) to 30 ng.g -1 (Rb), respectively. (author)

  5. Solving of some environmental pollution problems by X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piorek, S.

    1980-01-01

    The application of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis for environmental pollution control is described. The paper gives details of both sampling and measurement procedures for air particles and plant samples. The usability of the method is shown on some examples typical in environment protection practice. For instance with simultaneous sampling of air in more than one place, one can identify the polluting source and determine the contribution of this source to the total level of local pollution as well. It is possible with the EDXRF to investigate short and long-term concentration variations of metals in air including the distance factor too. Analysis of plant samples was performed in order to evaluate the contribution of automotive traffic to environmental pollution in areas of national parks. Examples of application of the method described in the paper give evidence of the EDXRF as a good tool for investigating environmental pollution. (author)

  6. The determination of trace elements in uranium ores by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, W. van Z.

    1983-11-01

    The determination of 17 trace elements (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, U, V, Y, Zn and Zr) in uranium ores by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry was investigated in this study. The determination of major elements was also necessary for the calculation of mass absorption coefficients. Initially a method was developed for the determination of the elements of interest in unmineralised silicates. Correction for absorption of radiation by the sample were made by means of mass absorption coefficients which were obtained from the relation between the inverse of the mass absorption coefficient and the intensity of the Compton scattering peak. The Feather and Willis method was used for determining the background intensity at the peak positions as well as for mass absorption coefficients. It was observed that the background intensity in the region of the uranium lines increases with increasing uranium content of the sample

  7. Quantitative microanalysis of hafnium - zirconium system by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, C.A.; Hussain, M.A.; Saeed, K.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence technique has been used for the analysis of Hf in the presence of Zr by developing a method. In this method the spectral interference of Hf lines by Zr is eliminated completely and the Hf detection is accomplished using the most efficient Li line of its L-series. The principle of the method is based on the extinction properties of crystals for some orders of reflection. Ge(III) is used as the analyzing crystal. This method can be used accurately to detect Hf in any concentration of Zr at least from about 20 ppm to 100%. Also no information about the expected range of the analyte sample, is required in advance. (authors)

  8. Radioisotopic-excited x-ray fluorescent system for PPM measurement of toxic heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leddicotte, G.W.; Tolea, F.; Hansen, J.S.

    1974-01-01

    In agricultural research there is a continual awareness of the need to determine the role trace elements have as micronutrients in soil-plant systems. Similarly, these agronomic needs have a strong relationship to the concern other life sciences researchers have about the roles and effects of toxic trace elements on the natural environment and the physiological well-being of man and animals. However, in order for these interest areas to carry out more effective study efforts, more practical and precise analytical methodology and devices need to be developed. This report describes a research effort to develop an analytical system for micronutient as well as toxic elements based on x-ray fluorescence

  9. Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry for the analyses of Cultural Heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridolfi, S

    2012-01-01

    Field Portable Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (FP-EDXRF) is particularly useful to analyze works of art, mainly because of his noninvasive and multielemental capability. In many situations FP-EDXRF is the only non invasive technique that can be realistically used to gain some information about the chemical composition of precious and unique objects. Many kind of works, such as paintings, bronzes, precious metals alloys, inks, stones, stamps and more can be studied using a field portable EDXRF system. This manuscript highlights some drawbacks that have to be kept in mind to fulfill a valid measurement such as the need for other backup methods to support portable XRF results or the problem of the non-homogeneity of the sample. This manuscript will also present three examples to demonstrate the usefulness of FP-EDXRF with paintings on canvas, ancient bronzes and sulfur surface analyses.

  10. Grazing angle X-ray fluorescence from periodic structures on silicon and silica surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.H.; Banaś, D.; Błchucki, W.; Cao, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hönicke, P.; Hoszowska, J.; Jabłoński, Ł.; Kayser, Y.; Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Pajek, M.; Reinhardt, F.; Savu, A.V.; Szlachetko, J.

    2014-01-01

    Various 3-dimensional nano-scaled periodic structures with different configurations and periods deposited on the surface of silicon and silica substrates were investigated by means of the grazing incidence and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence techniques. Apart from the characteristics which are typical for particle- and layer-like samples, the measured angular intensity profiles show additional periodicity-related features. The latter could be explained by a novel theoretical approach based on simple geometrical optics (GO) considerations. The new GO-based calculations were found to yield results in good agreement with experiment, also in cases where other theoretical approaches are not valid, e.g., periodic particle distributions with an increased surface coverage

  11. Determination of trace metals in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, V.L.R.; Imakuma, K.

    1988-04-01

    A method is described for the simultaneous determination of low concentrations of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, without the use of chemical treatment. The lower limits of detection range from 2 μg g -1 for nickel and manganese to 5 μg g -1 for copper. Samples are prepared in the form of double-layer pellets with boric acid as a binding agent. Standards are prepared in a U 3 O 8 matrix, which is more chemically stable than UO 2 and has similar matrix behaviour. The correlation coefficients for calibration curves are better than 0.999. Erros range from 2.4 % for chromium to 6.8 % for nickel. (author) [pt

  12. Use of X-ray fluorescence analysis for the determination of hafnium in zircalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, I.M.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Lordello, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of hafnium at trace levels (ppm) in the presence of zirconium by X-ray fluorescence technique is presented. The samples were prepared in the form of double-layer pellets, with boric acid as the binding material. The most sensitive first order line of hafnium HfLα (0.157 nm), which is used analyticaly, has approximately 67% overlapping with second order line of zirconium ZrKα 1 , (0.079 nm). As the excitation potencial of zirconium is larger than hafnium, the best condition was selected, so that the interference of zirconium intensity would not be significant in hafnium analytical line. The method allowed the determination of hafnium above 5.0 ppm (LLd = 1.5 ppm) with an accuracy of less than 10%. (Author) [pt

  13. X-Ray fluorescence of microquantities of hafnium in zirconium by precipitation as thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigoda de Leyt, Dora; Caridi, A.F.; Deibe, Jorge

    1988-01-01

    The importance of Zr and Hf in the nuclear industry represents and increasing need for the development of reliable chemical methods to determine Hf traces in Zr matrix. A precipitation method in amoniacal medium was developed. A thin film is obtained where matrix effects are absent or minimized. Hf in the range of 5-70.10 -9 Kg in a 5.10 -6 Kg Zr matrix was studied. Fluorescence Hf Lα and Hf Lβ X-rays are excited by a W-anode tube 17 kV-25mA and 50kV-25mA. Radiation scattered by the tube was used as internal standard. Bartlett criterion was used for the regression analysis. Determination limit was fixed in 5±4. 10 -9 Kg Hf at a 95 % probability. (Author) [es

  14. Possible use of pattern recognition for the analysis of Mars rover X-ray fluorescence spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lo I; Trombka, Jacob I.; Seltzer, Stephen M.; Johnson, Robert G.; Philpotts, John A.

    1989-01-01

    On the Mars rover sample-return mission, the rover vehicle will collect and select samples from different locations on the Martian surface to be brought back to earth for laboratory studies. It is anticipated that an in situ energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer will be on board the rover. On such a mission, sample selection is of higher priority than in situ quantitative chemical anlaysis. With this in mind, a pattern recognition technique is proposed as a simple, direct, and speedy alternative to detailed chemical analysis of the XRF spectra. The validity and efficacy of the pattern recognition technique are demonstrated by the analyses of laboratory XRF spectra obtained from a series of geological samples, in the form both of standardized pressed pellets and as unprepared rocks. It is found that pattern recognition techniques applied to the raw XRF spectra can provide for the same discrimination among samples as a knowledge of their actual chemical composition.

  15. Determination of rubidium and strontium in geological materials by X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.

    1979-01-01

    In order to determine whole-rock ages by the Rb/Sr procedure, an X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method for the determination of both elements has been developed. The samples are pressed into boric acid backed and ringed pellets with this material as a binding agent. Matrix corrections are made following the determination od the mass absorption coefficients, based on the intensity of the Compton-scattered peak of MoKα. or MoKβ 1 .3. The U. S. Geological Survey granodiorite GSP-1 is used as a reference standard. Spectral-line interferences have been carefully studied and the empirical correction factors determined. A BASIC language program for calculating the Rb and Sr concentrations and the Rb/Sr ratios has been written. (Author) 7 refs

  16. Total and available metal contents in sediments by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Sobrinho, Gilmar A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: silvana@fecf.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil); Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2002-07-01

    In this work the total and available contents of Al, Si, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Ba, Ce and Pb in sediments from river Atibaia were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique. The detection limits for K series varies from 200 ng.mL{sup -1} for Al to 2 ng.mL{sup -1} for Zn while for L series the value varies from 20 ng.mL{sup -1} for Ba to 10 ng.mL{sup -1} for Pb. The samples were submitted to two different processes, in order to obtain the total and biological available metal contents. The information about metal content is a important parameter for a correct evaluation about the hydrologic cycle in Piracicaba basin. All the measure were carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas, SP, Brazil, using a white beam for excitation. (author)

  17. Results of quantitative analysis of Celtic glass artefacts by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokubonis, C.; Wobrauschek, P. E-mail: wobi@ati.ac.at; Zamini, S.; Karwowski, M.; Trnka, G.; Stadler, P

    2003-04-18

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry measurements were applied on more than 200 Celtic glass artifacts from the middle and late periods of the La Tene Culture ({approx}250-50 BC) which were found in the area that is presently Austria. This analysis yielded approximately 14 000 concentration data on 25 elements which could give analytical results for major, minor, and trace elements. Both bulk-material and ornamentation were analyzed. Coloring and opacifying elements were found in accordance with literature. In particular the concentration data of Zr and Sr show strong clustering and in comparison with archaeological chronology of the analyzed artifacts an excellent agreement of present historic knowledge was found.

  18. Impurities determination in uranium eluates by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina; Bellavigna, Horacio J.; Eppis, Maria R.; Ramella, Jose L.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical control of impurities in nuclear materials is indispensable in order to assure an efficient operation of the reactors. The maximum concentration admitted depends of the elements and in most cases are in the parts per billion range. Conventional analytical methods require a pre-concentration treatment of the sample and a previous separation of the matrix (uranium). This paper investigates the use of the total reflection X-ray fluorescence as an alternative methodology for the determination of impurities in nuclear materials, namely K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and As. The detection limits obtained were in the range of 0.1 to 20 ng/ml for a 1000 seconds counting time. (author)

  19. Discriminating red spray paints by optical microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaert, Filip; Bernard, Magali

    2004-02-10

    Red spray paints from different European suppliers were characterised to determine the discriminating power of a sequence of analysing techniques. A total of 51 red spray paints were analysed with the help of three techniques: (1) optical microscopy, (2) Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and (3) X-ray fluorescence. Infrared spectra were classified according to binder type, filler and pigment composition and a searchable spectral library was created. Due to the difference in the elemental composition of spray paints, a further discrimination was possible. The microscopic analysis was not taken into consideration for classification purposes. The structure of the substrate under a paint coating strongly affects the surface characteristics of this spray paint. Together with the spectral library, a database of information of spray paints was build.

  20. Applications of X-ray fluorescence analysis in the textile industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, E.; Sarmany, J.

    1983-01-01

    A process and an equipment have been developed based on the measurement of X-ray fluorescence of impurity atoms excited by irradiation, for testing the efficiency of new detergents, washing machines, processes and textile finishing. About 16 impurity elements in the ranges from strontium to barium and phosphorus to titanium can be measured by 55 Fe radiation source. Using other radiation sources, the process and the equipment are suitable for determining even more elements. The experiments and the comparative evaluations showed that the process was reproducible and precise results could be obtained for the determination of dirt-releasing properties and dirt-proof finishing technologies of polyester textiles and of the cleaning efficiency of various carpet detergents etc. (Sz.J.)

  1. X-ray fluorescence system for thin film composition analysis during deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formica, Sarah P.; Lee, Susanne M.

    2005-01-01

    A fast-response-time X-ray fluorescence (XRF) system was designed with a monolithic polycapillary focusing optic for in situ composition profiling during materials deposition. The polycapillary optic produced 10 5 times more intensity at the sample than a pinhole, allowing the detector placement to be outside most deposition chambers. The resultant XRF signals were so strong that measurement times were comparable to monolayer growth times. XRF line scans from Ge 1-x Sn x thin films were used to map Sn concentration versus surface position with a 10 μm resolution. The extrapolated instrumental detection limit using a 20 W Cu source was 10 12 atoms (ng). XRF from a 100-nm ion-implanted Ge 0.72 Sn 0.28 sample demonstrated the system's ability to monitor initial growth stages during deposition

  2. Account of spectral dependence of instrumental factor in quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershin, N.V.; Mosichev, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    A new method for calibration of X-ray fluorescence spectrometers using scanning spectrometric channel is proposed. The method is based on a separate account of matrix and instrumental effects and needs no calibration standards for the element analysed. For calibration in the whole spectral range of XRS (0.03-1.0 nm) it is sufficient to have from 10 to 15 pure element emitters made of most wide spread elements. The method provides rapid development of quantitative analysis for the elements which are not provided with standard samples and preparation of pure element emitters for which is impossible or problematic. The practical verification of the method was made by analysing a set of 146 standard samples covering a wide group of alloys. The mean relative error of the method was 3-5 % in an analytical range of 0.1-3.0 wt %

  3. X-Ray Fluorescence to Determine Zn in Bolivian Children using Hair Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellería Narvaez, C.A.; Fernández Alcázar, S.; Barrientos Zamora, F.G.; Chungara Castro, J.; Luna Lauracia, I.; Mamani Tola, H.; Mita Peralta, E.; Muñoz Gosálvez, A.O. [Centro de Investigaciones y Aplicaciones Nucleares (CIAN-Viacha), Viacha (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Romero Bolaños, L.E. [Instituto Boliviano de Ciencia y Tecnología Nuclear Av. 6 de Agosto 2905, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Ramírez Ávila, G.M., E-mail: gramirez@ulb.ac.be [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, Campus Universitario Cota Cota, Casilla 8635, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2014-06-15

    As a first step in the evaluation of nutritional levels in Bolivian children (8–13 years-old), we carried out X-Ray Fluorescence measurements in hair samples of children belonging to different social classes and living either in rural areas or in cities. The aim of this study is to contribute to health policies tending to improve the global health of children and consequently avoid malnutrition. Our method intends to have maximum reliability and at the same time be as simple as possible from an experimental point of view. Additionally, we use this method to determine some other elements such as Fe, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, the latter three considered as contaminants that could be present in children living in areas which neighbor mines and industries. This work will be complemented by some biological and medical tests.

  4. Determination of impurities in magnesium and aluminium by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Diaz-Guerra, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of traces of Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si and of Bi, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, Sn, Ti, V and Zn in samples of magnesium and aluminium, respectively, by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, are studied. An automatic sequential spectrometer with an on-line computer for the treatment of data has been employed. The most suitable measurement parameters have been chosen for each element in order to achieve detection limits to a few p.p.m. For magnesium in the form of drillings the analyses are performed with satisfactory results for most impurities by pressing the samples into briquettes and employing metallic discs as standards. Correction methods for the spectral interferences of Ti on V, and V on Cr have been applied. (author)

  5. [Determination of 12 elements in coal ash by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Guo, Fen; Gu, Song-hai

    2008-06-01

    A method for the determination of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, SO3, TiO2, K2O, Na2O, P2O5, MgO, MnO and BaO in coal ash by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with melt sample preparation was developed. This method solved the problems of determination accuracy of S by using the 12:22 mix flux and oxide to lower the melt temperature. Using the soil standard sample and mixing the soil standard sample and coal ash standard sample solved the problem that there are not enough standard samples for coal ash analysis by XRF. The accuracy and precision of this method are acceptable, and the results are comparable to the those obtained by wet chemical method.

  6. Measuring iron in the brain using quantitative susceptibility mapping and X-ray fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weili; Nichol, Helen; Liu, Saifeng; Cheng, Yu-Chung N; Haacke, E Mark

    2013-09-01

    Measuring iron content in the brain has important implications for a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), derived from magnetic resonance images, has been used to measure total iron content in vivo and in post mortem brain. In this paper, we show how magnetic susceptibility from QSM correlates with total iron content measured by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The relationship between susceptibility and ferritin iron was estimated at 1.10±0.08 ppb susceptibility per μg iron/g wet tissue, similar to that of iron in fixed (frozen/thawed) cadaveric brain and previously published data from unfixed brains. We conclude that magnetic susceptibility can provide a direct and reliable quantitative measurement of iron content and that it can be used clinically at least in regions with high iron content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. X-ray spectra of Hercules X-1. 1: Iron line fluorescence from a subrelativistic shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray spectrum of Hercules X-1 was observed in the energy range 2-24 keV from August 29 to September 3, 1975. A broad iron line feature is observed in the normal high state spectrum. The line equivalent width is given along with its full-width-half-maximum energy. Iron line fluorescence from an opaque, cool shell of material at the Alfven surface provides the necessary luminosity in this feature. The line energy width can be due to Doppler broadening if the shell is forced to corotate with the pulsar at a radius 800 million cm. Implications of this model regarding physical conditions near Her X-1 are discussed.

  8. Evaluation on determination of iodine in coal by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Jackson, J.C.; Palmer, C.; Zheng, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    A quick and inexpensive method of relative high iodine determination from coal samples was evaluated. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provided a detection limit of about 14 ppm (3 times of standard deviations of the blank sample), without any complex sample preparation. An analytical relative standard deviation of 16% was readily attainable for coal samples. Under optimum conditions, coal samples with iodine concentrations higher than 5 ppm can be determined using this EDXRF method. For the time being, due to the general iodine concentrations of coal samples lower than 5 ppm, except for some high iodine content coal, this method can not effectively been used for iodine determination. More work needed to meet the requirement of determination of iodine from coal samples for this method. Copyright ?? 2005 by The Geochemical Society of Japan.

  9. Instrumental aspects of tube-excited energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.; Nullens, H.; Espen, P. van

    1983-01-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is an attractive and widely used method for sensitive multi-element analysis. The method suffers from the extreme density of spectral components in a rather limited energy range which implies the need for computer based spectrum analysis. The method of iterative least squares analysis is the most powerful tool for this. It requires a systematic and accurate description of the spectral features. Other important necessities for accurate analysis are the calibration of the spectrometer and the correction for matrix absorption effects in the sample; they can be calculated from available physical constants. Ours and similar procedures prove that semi-automatic analyses are possible with an accuracy of the order of 5%. (author)

  10. X-ray fluorescence analysis of archaeological finds and art objects: Recognizing gold and gilding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojek, Tomáš; Hložek, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Many cultural heritage objects were gilded in the past, and nowadays they can be found in archeological excavations or in historical buildings dating back to the Middle Ages, or from the modern period. Old gilded artifacts have been studied using X-ray fluorescence analysis and 2D microanalysis. Several techniques that enable the user to distinguish gold and gilded objects are described and then applied to investigate artifacts. These techniques differ in instrumentation, data analysis and numbers of measurements. The application of Monte Carlo calculation to a quantitative analysis of gilded objects is also introduced. - Highlights: ► Three techniques of gilding identification with XRF analysis are proposed. ► These techniques are applied to gold and gilded art and archeological objects. ► Composition of a substrate material is determined by a Monte Carlo simulation.

  11. Forensic classification of counterfeit banknote paper by X-ray fluorescence and multivariate statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongling; Yin, Baohua; Zhang, Jie; Quan, Yangke; Shi, Gaojun

    2016-09-01

    Counterfeiting of banknotes is a crime and seriously harmful to economy. Examination of the paper, ink and toners used to make counterfeit banknotes can provide useful information to classify and link different cases in which the suspects use the same raw materials. In this paper, 21 paper samples of counterfeit banknotes seized from 13 cases were analyzed by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence. After measuring the elemental composition in paper semi-quantitatively, the normalized weight percentage data of 10 elements were processed by multivariate statistical methods of cluster analysis and principle component analysis. All these paper samples were mainly classified into 3 groups. Nine separate cases were successfully linked. It is demonstrated that elemental composition measured by XRF is a useful way to compare and classify papers used in different cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Tsuji, Kouichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigación (SIdI), Laboratorio de TXRF, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Margui, Eva [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Girona (Spain); Streli, Christina [TU Wien, Atominstitut,Radiation Physics, Vienna (Austria); Pepponi, Giancarlo [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Stosnach, Hagen [Bruker Nano GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Yamada, Takashi [Rigaku Corporation, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Vandenabeele, Peter [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya); Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi (Kenya); Bennun, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción (Chile); Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina [Gerencia Química, Laboratorio B025, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, San Martín (Argentina); Depero, Laura E., E-mail: laura.depero@unibs.it [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique. - Highlights: • The discussion of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples (18 laboratories of 10 countries) is reported. • Drinking, waste, and desalinated water samples were tested. • Data dispersion sources were identified: sample concentration, preparation, fitting procedure, and quantification. • The protocol for TXRF analysis of drinking water is proposed.

  13. Validation of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for determining osseous or dental origin of unknown material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Smith, Michael A; Thomas, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    Forensic anthropological examinations typically involve the analysis of human skeletal remains, but in cases where samples are very small and/or physically compromised, it may first be necessary to determine whether the material is even osseous or dental in origin. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) is a technique that reveals the elemental composition of materials and is hypothesized to have utility in such cases. XRF analysis was conducted on a variety of tissues and materials in unaltered and altered (damaged) states. With few exceptions, osseous and dental tissues in unaltered and altered conditions contained characteristic levels of calcium and phosphorus, while other materials did not. Materials could be accurately identified as osseous or dental in origin based on the calcium and phosphorus levels identified by XRF, and we therefore conclude that XRF analysis is a valid and effective means of determining osseous or dental origin of unknown material. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Determination of halide ions in solution by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Jamar, Steven; Wellens, Sil; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-02-04

    An accurate quantitative determination of halide ions X (X = Cl, Br, I) in aqueous solution by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is not possible using the traditional acidic internal standards. In general, the standard solutions are highly acidic (e.g., Ga(NO3)3 in HNO3) to avoid precipitation of hydroxides of the standard element and to obtain a stable and reliable standard. In acidic solutions, dissolved halide salts can exchange their cation for a proton. The resulting volatile HX compounds can evaporate during the drying procedure of the TXRF sample preparation. In this technical note, we show that an alkaline Cu(NH3)4(NO3)2 standard can be used for the determination of chlorine, bromine and iodine without facing problems of HX evaporation.

  15. Recent trends in total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoboszlai, Norbert; Polgári, Zsófia; Mihucz, Victor G; Záray, Gyula

    2009-02-02

    This review is focused on the application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry in the field of biological research. In the last decade, most papers were published by authors who applied laboratory-scale TXRF equipments. The application of synchrotron radiation as excitation source (SR-TXRF) shows a slowly increasing tendency. In the cited papers the micro-, trace and multielement capability of these TXRF techniques was demonstrated in the clinical and medical laboratory practice, as well as in various plant physiological studies. For speciation of elements in biological matrices, the TXRF was used as element specific detector following an off-line separation step (e.g., thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography), however, these off-line methods are not competitive with the on-line coupled HPLC-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

  16. Bromate determination in water after membrane complexation and total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzistavros, Vasilios S; Koulouridakis, Pavlos E; Aretaki, Ioanna I; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G

    2007-04-01

    A new method for the determination of trace levels of bromates by selective membrane collection is presented. Various membranes containing a few micrograms of different complexing reagents in a poly(vinyl chloride) matrix were tested. These membranes were produced on the surface of quartz glass (reflectors), and they were immersed in solutions containing bromate and bromide ions. At the first stage the prepared membranes collected both bromate and bromide ions, so different bromide masking agents were put in the analyzed solutions to avoid bromide collection. By the end of the equilibration time, the reflectors were left to dry, and they were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The poly(vinyl chloride) with aliquat-336 membrane and o-dianisidin complexing agent gave the best results. The minimum detection limit was equal to 0.9 ng/mL for ultrapure water and 1.0 ng/mL for drinking water.

  17. Multi-elemental analysis of produced water by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, P M; Anjos, M J; Melo, D M A; Melo, M A F; Gonçalves, L M; Silva, C N; Lopes, R T

    2008-02-15

    The synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SRTXRF) technique was used for the analysis of heavy metals in produced water samples from oil field in Rio Grande do Norte, in order to determine potential sources of pollution. Since the inorganic components in produced water generally resembling sea water, pre-concentration procedures have been applied to increase the concentration of the analyte of interest and to minimize the salt matrix effects. This technique allows us to determine the contents of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg and Pb in 20 produced water samples. The great majority of the sampling points presented low elemental concentration value. However, in some sample, the Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Hg concentration were higher than the established limits by the Brazilian legislation.

  18. Characterization of hypoglycemiant plants by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchi, Orghêda L A D; Moreira, Silvana; de Jesus, Edgar F O; Neto, Helio Salvio; Salvador, Marcos J

    2005-03-01

    In this work, synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SRTXRF) was used to determine trace elements in eight hypoglycemiant plants (Trigonella foenum graecum, Panax ginseng, Pfaffia paniculata, Myrcia speciosa, Zea mays, Harpagophytum procumbens, Syzygium jambolona, and Bauhinia forficate). The elements P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr were detected in all medicinal plants investigated, whereas Si, S, Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Se, Nb, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, Hg, and Pb were detected only in some of the samples. The concentration of elements in hypoglycemiant plants varied from 0.15 microg/g of Co to 3.0 x 10(4) microg/g of K and the mean of experimental limit of detection for these elements were 0.14 and 3.6 microg/g, respectively.

  19. An elemental correlation study in cancerous breast tissue by total reflection x-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, U; Braziewicz, J; Banaś, D; Kubala-Kukuś, A; Góźdź, S; Pajek, M; Smok, J; Urbaniak, A

    1997-01-01

    The total reflection x-ray fluorescence method (TRXRF) has been employed to determine of P, S, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, and Pb concentration in the benign breast tumor tissue from 68 women and in the cancerous breast tissue from 26 women. Concentrations of most of elements show enhancement in cancerous breast tissue. Examined elements compete for binding sites in the cell, change its enzymatic activity, and exert direct or indirect action on the carcinogenic process accelerating the growth of tumors. Inhibition of enzymatic activity caused by variation in trace element concentrations results in immunological breakdown of the body system. An attempt has been made to correlate measured trace element concentrations with the clinical stage of cancer. Physical bases of used analytical method, experimental setup, and the procedure of sample preparation are described.

  20. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence polymer spectra: classification by taxonomy statistic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Cristina; Boeykens, Susana; Bonadeo, H

    2002-07-19

    The aim of this work is to explore the use of chemometric tools for the classification of synthetic and natural polymers with a mean molecular weight greater than 10(6). Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) spectra were obtained and analyzed in order to retrieve matrix information and to illustrate the calibration procedure. The intensities of the coherent and incoherent scattered peaks were specially selected for this purpose. The polymers studied were aqueous solutions of scleroglucan, polyacrilamide, polyoxyethylene oxide, glucomannan, 2,3,6-tri-o-ethylamylose and xhantan, in concentrations upto 1% (m/m). matlab software was used for numerical calculations. Using a combination of principal component analysis and cluster analysis, the differences in composition of various analyzed polymers can be visualized.