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Sample records for gamma skyshine calculations

  1. Code system BCG for gamma-ray skyshine calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryufuku, Hiroshi; Numakunai, Takao; Miyasaka, Shun-ichi; Minami, Kazuyoshi.

    1979-03-01

    A code system BCG has been developed for calculating conveniently and efficiently gamma-ray skyshine doses using the transport calculation codes ANISN and DOT and the point-kernel calculation codes G-33 and SPAN. To simplify the input forms to the system, the forms for these codes are unified, twelve geometric patterns are introduced to give material regions, and standard data are available as a library. To treat complex arrangements of source and shield, it is further possible to use successively the code such that the results from one code may be used as input data to the same or other code. (author)

  2. Evaluation of skyshine dose due to gamma-rays from a cobalt-60 irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Okamoto, Shinichi; Ohnishi, Tokuhiro; Tsujii, Yukio

    1991-01-01

    We attempted to evaluate skyshine dose due to gamma-rays from a cobalt-60 irradiation facility. As the first step, the results of measurements and calculations were compared of the skyshine dose due to gamma-rays from the cobalt-60 source of 1.45 PBq set in the No.4 irradiation room of our laboratory. Distances of measuring points from the cobalt source were in the range from 17 m to about 100 m in the site of our office. Calculation was carried out with simplified single scattering method. The calculated values of the skyshine dose were higher than the measured values. For more precise evaluation of the skyshine dose, the following factors are to be considered; the dose rate distribution on the roof above the source and the attenuation of gamma-rays by air. (author)

  3. Monte Carlo calculation of ''skyshine'' neutron dose from ALS [Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moin-Vasiri, M.

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics on ''skyshine'' neutron dose from ALS: Sources of radiation; ALS modeling for skyshine calculations; MORSE Monte-Carlo; Implementation of MORSE; Results of skyshine calculations from storage ring; and Comparison of MORSE shielding calculations

  4. Calculations of skyshine from an intense portable electron linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, G.P.; Hughes, H.G.; Fry, D.A.; Haynie, J.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Shaughnessy, C.H.

    1994-12-31

    The MCNP Monte carlo code has been used at Los Alamos to calculate skyshine and terrain albedo efects from an intense portable electron linear accelerator that is to be used by the Russian Federation to radiograph nuclear weapons that may have been damaged by accidents. Relative dose rate profiles have been calculated. The design of the accelerator, along with a diagram, is presented.

  5. Accelerator skyshine: Tyger, tyger, burning bright

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapleton, G.B.; Thomas, R.H.

    1992-06-01

    Neutron skyshine is, in most cases, the dominant source of radiation exposure to the general public from operation of well-shielded, high-energy accelerators. To estimate this exposure, tabulated solutions of the transport of neutrons through the air are frequently used. In previous works on skyshine, these tabular data have been parameterized into simple empirical equations that are easy and fast to use but are limited to distances greater than a few hundred meters from the accelerator. Our current report has refined this earlier work by including more realistic assumptions of neutron differential energy spectrum and angular distribution. These improved calculations essentially endorse the earlier parameterizations but make possible reasonably accurate dose estimates much closer to the skyshine source than before

  6. Validity of the four-parameter empirical formula in approximating the response functions for gamma-ray, neutron, and secondary gamma-ray skyshine analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Harima, Y; Sakamoto, Y

    2003-01-01

    A four-parameter approximating formula, R=A e sup a x sup b f(x), accurately represents the skyshine line beam response function (LBRF) as a function of the distance (x) of the source-to-detector separation. Here, A is a constant for a given source energy and f(x)=e sup c sup x x sup d sup x is a damping factor. The four parameters are obtained as follows. (1) The value of parameter a corresponds to that of the LBRF at x=1 meter, which is the result of integrating the basic dose spectrum due to a single scattering particle from an emitted beam for a specified angle and a specified source energy. (2) The value of parameter b corresponds to the slope of a straight line of the response function, log R vs. log x, in the range of small distance from a source, where a single scattering particle dominates. (3) The damping factor (f(x)) represents the attenuation trend of the LBRF at distances far from the source; the values of parameters c and d control the quantity of attenuation. The necessary reference LBRF data ...

  7. Neutron Skyshine Considerations For The NIF Shielding Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M S; Mecozzi, J M; Tobin, M T

    2004-01-28

    A series of coupled neutron-photon transport Monte-Carlo calculations was performed to estimate the roof shielding required to limit the skyshine dose to less than 1 mrem/y at the site boundary when conducting DT experiments with annual fusion yields up to 1200 MJ (4.2E20 neutrons/y). The NIF shielding design consists of many different components. The basic components include 10-cm-thick Al chamber with 40-cm-thick target chamber gunite shield having multiple penetrations, 1.83-m-thick concrete Target Bay walls, 1.37-m-thick concrete roof, and multiple concrete floors with numerous penetrations. Under this shielding configuration, the skyshine dose at the nearest site-boundary was calculated to be less than 0.2 mrem/y for all possible target illumination configurations. The potential dose at the site boundary would be about one-tenth of the cosmic neutron dose that we measured with bubble neutron detectors on board a commercial roundtrip flight from SF to Rochester. This incremental dose increase is well within the normal fluctuations (noise) of the natural background radiation in the Livermore area. The skyshine dose has no impact on the public. The skyshine dose trends at ground and elevated levels are plotted as a function of distance from 20 m to 1000 m from the center of the target bay. The differential neutron and photon energy flux emerging from the NIF roof and at several locations on the ground is plotted to show how it shifts with distance. The results of this study are compared with the neutron skyshine studies done at high-energy accelerators by R. H. Thomas.

  8. Skyshine - a paper tiger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindi, A.; Thomas, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    The study of the transport to large distances of radiation produced by high-energy accelerators is of fundamental interest and important in the calculation of the exposure of the population living in their environment. The most significant of the experimental data accumulated since the construction of the early particle accelerators and their theoretical interpretation are reviewed. (author)

  9. Skyshine analysis using various nuclear data files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharkov, V.P.; Dikareva, O.F.; Kartashev, I.A.; Kiselev, A.N.; Nomura, Y.; Tsubosaka, A.

    2000-01-01

    The calculations of the spacial distributions of dose rate for neutron and secondary photons, thermal neutron fluxes and space-energy distributions of neutron and photons near the air-ground interface were performed by MCNP and DORT codes. Different nuclear data files were used (ENDF/B-IV, ENDF/B-VI, FENDL-2, JENDL-3.2). Either the standard pointwise libraries (MCNP) or special libraries prepared by NJOY code from ENDF/B and others' files were used. Prepared multigroup coupled neutron and photon cross sections libraries for DORT code had CASK-40 group energy structures. The libraries contain pointwise or multigroup cross sections data for all elements included in the atmosphere and ground composition. The validation of the calculated results was performed with using the experimental data obtained for the series of measurements at RA reactor. (author)

  10. Gamma-ray spectral calculations for uranium borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, D.A.; Evans, M.L.; Jain, M.

    1980-06-01

    Gamma-ray transport calculations were performed to determine the energy distribution of gamma rays inside a borehole introduced into an infinite medium. The gamma rays from the naturally occurring radioactive isotopes of potassium, thorium, and uranium were uniformly distributed in a sandstone formation (having a porosity of 0.30 and a saturation of 1.0) surrounding the borehole. A sonde was placed coaxially inside the borehole. Parametric studies were done to determine how the borehole radius, borehole fluid, and borehole casing influence the gamma-ray flux inside the sonde

  11. Secondary gamma-ray data for shielding calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Sunichi

    1979-01-01

    In deep penetration transport calculations, the integral design parameters is determined mainly by secondary particles which are produced by interactions of the primary radiation with materials. The shield thickness and the biological dose rate at a given point of a bulk shield are determined from the contribution from secondary gamma rays. The heat generation and the radiation damage in the structural and shield materials depend strongly on the secondary gamma rays. In this paper, the status of the secondary gamma ray data and its further problems are described from the viewpoint of shield design. The secondary gamma-ray data in ENDF/B-IV and POPOP4 are also discussed based on the test calculations made for several shield assemblies. (author)

  12. Calculation method for gamma dose rates from Gaussian puffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thykier-Nielsen, S.; Deme, S.; Lang, E.

    1995-06-01

    The Lagrangian puff models are widely used for calculation of the dispersion of releases to the atmosphere. Basic output from such models is concentration of material in the air and on the ground. The most simple method for calculation of the gamma dose from the concentration of airborne activity is based on the semi-infinite cloud model. This method is however only applicable for puffs with large dispersion parameters, i.e. for receptors far away from the release point. The exact calculation of the cloud dose using volume integral requires large computer time usually exceeding what is available for real time calculations. The volume integral for gamma doses could be approximated by using the semi-infinite cloud model combined with correction factors. This type of calculation procedure is very fast, but usually the accuracy is poor because only a few of the relevant parameters are considered. A multi-parameter method for calculation of gamma doses is described here. This method uses precalculated values of the gamma dose rates as a function of E γ , σ y , the asymmetry factor - σ y /σ z , the height of puff center - H and the distance from puff center R xy . To accelerate the calculations the release energy, for each significant radionuclide in each energy group, has been calculated and tabulated. Based on the precalculated values and suitable interpolation procedure the calculation of gamma doses needs only short computing time and it is almost independent of the number of radionuclides considered. (au) 2 tabs., 15 ills., 12 refs

  13. Calculation method for gamma-dose rates from spherical puffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thykier-Nielsen, S.; Deme, S.; Lang, E.

    1993-05-01

    The Lagrangian puff-models are widely used for calculation of the dispersion of atmospheric releases. Basic output from such models are concentrations of material in the air and on the ground. The most simple method for calculation of the gamma dose from the concentration of airborne activity is based on semi-infinite cloud model. This method is however only applicable for points far away from the release point. The exact calculation of the cloud dose using the volume integral requires significant computer time. The volume integral for the gamma dose could be approximated by using the semi-infinite cloud model combined with correction factors. This type of calculation procedure is very fast, but usually the accuracy is poor due to the fact that the same correction factors are used for all isotopes. The authors describe a more elaborate correction method. This method uses precalculated values of the gamma-dose rate as a function of the puff dispersion parameter (δ p ) and the distance from the puff centre for four energy groups. The release of energy for each radionuclide in each energy group has been calculated and tabulated. Based on these tables and a suitable interpolation procedure the calculation of gamma doses takes very short time and is almost independent of the number of radionuclides. (au) (7 tabs., 7 ills., 12 refs.)

  14. Calculation of Dose Gamma Ray Build up Factor in Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gamma ray buildup factor was calculated by analyzing the narrow- beam and broad-beam geometry equations using Taylor's formula for isotropic sources and homogeneous materials. The buildup factor was programmed using MATLAB software to operate with any radiation energy (E), atomic number (Z) and the ...

  15. A formalism for independent checking of Gamma Knife dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai Jensan; Engler, Mark J.; Rivard, Mark J.; Mahajan, Anita; Borden, Jonathan A.; Zheng Zhen

    2001-01-01

    For stereotactic radiosurgery using the Leksell Gamma Knife system, it is important to perform a pre-treatment verification of the maximum dose calculated with the Leksell GammaPlan[reg] (D LGP ) stereotactic radiosurgery system. This verification can be incorporated as part of a routine quality assurance (QA) procedure to minimize the chance of a hazardous overdose. To implement this procedure, a formalism has been developed to calculate the dose D CAL (X,Y,Z,d av ,t) using the following parameters: average target depth (d av ), coordinates (X,Y,Z) of the maximum dose location or any other dose point(s) to be verified, 3-dimensional (3-dim) beam profiles or off-center-ratios (OCR) of the four helmets, helmet size i, output factor O i , plug factor P i , each shot j coordinates (x,y,z) i,j , and shot treatment time (t i,j ). The average depth of the target d av was obtained either from MRI/CT images or ruler measurements of the Gamma Knife Bubble Head Frame. D CAL and D LGP were then compared to evaluate the accuracy of this independent calculation. The proposed calculation for an independent check of D LGP has been demonstrated to be accurate and reliable, and thus serves as a QA tool for Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery

  16. Calculation of gamma ray exposure rates from uranium ore bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.E.; Wilson, O.J.

    1980-02-01

    The planning of operations associated with uranium mines often requires that estimates be made of the exposure rates from various ore bodies. A straight-forward method of calculating the exposure rate from an arbitrarily shaped body is presented. Parameters for the calculation are evaluated under the assumption of secular equilibrium of uranium with its daughters and that the uranium is uniformly distributed throughout an average soil mixture. The spectral distribution of the emitted gamma rays and the effect of air attenuation are discussed. Worked examples are given of typical situations encountered in uranium mines

  17. Beta and gamma dose calculations for PWR and BWR containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.B.

    1989-07-01

    Analyses of gamma and beta dose in selected regions in PWR and BWR containment buildings have been performed for a range of fission product releases from selected severe accidents. The objective of this study was to determine the radiation dose that safety-related equipment could experience during the selected severe accident sequences. The resulting dose calculations demonstrate the extent to which design basis accident qualified equipment could also be qualified for the severe accident environments. Surry was chosen as the representative PWR plant while Peach Bottom was selected to represent BWRs. Battelle Columbus Laboratory performed the source term release analyses. The AB epsilon scenario (an intermediate to large LOCA with failure to recover onsite or offsite electrical power) was selected as the base case Surry accident, and the AE scenario (a large break LOCA with one initiating event and a combination of failures in two emergency cooling systems) was selected as the base case Peach Bottom accident. Radionuclide release was bounded for both scenarios by including spray operation and arrested sequences as variations of the base scenarios. Sandia National Laboratories used the source terms to calculate dose to selected containment regions. Scenarios with sprays operational resulted in a total dose comparable to that (2.20 x 10 8 rads) used in current equipment qualification testing. The base case scenarios resulted in some calculated doses roughly an order of magnitude above the current 2.20 x 10 8 rad equipment qualification test region. 8 refs., 23 figs., 12 tabs

  18. Monte Carlo calculation for discrimination of inelastic scattering from thermal capture Gamma in borehole experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahriari, M.; Soharbpour, M.

    1997-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculation using MCNP code has been carried out to determine the time dependent responses of pulsed neutron gamma spectrometry tools. Inelastic scattering and thermal capture gamma count rates after each 14 MeV neutron pulse has been calculated and is shown that the pulse height response of the inelastic gamma rays can be easily separated from the thermal capture gamma response in the time domain. There by it is possible to improve the precision of the carbon oxygen ratios in the borehole formations

  19. Calculation of the gamma radiation levels in and around the NET-DN tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoejerup, C.F.

    1989-07-01

    Calculations of the gamma doses at a TOKAMAK fusion reactor, the NET-DN (1988) are presented. Neutron fluxes in the structures of the reactor are calculated by Monte Carlo methods (MCNP-2) and activations from the neutron induced reactions are determined by the ACTIVA computer programme. By Monte Carlo methods and the application of an approximative reciprocity principle, the gamma fluxes and doses are finally calculated. (author)

  20. Evaluation of 3D Gamma index calculation implemented in two commercial dosimetry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Aitang; Arumugam, Sankar; Deshpande, Shrikant; George, Armia; Vial, Philip; Holloway, Lois; Goozee, Gary

    2015-01-01

    3D Gamma index is one of the metrics which have been widely used for clinical routine patient specific quality assurance for IMRT, Tomotherapy and VMAT. The algorithms for calculating the 3D Gamma index using global and local methods implemented in two software tools: PTW- VeriSoft® as a part of OCTIVIUS 4D dosimeter systems and 3DVHTM from Sun Nuclear were assessed. The Gamma index calculated by the two systems was compared with manual calculated for one data set. The Gamma pass rate calculated by the two systems was compared using 3%/3mm, 2%/2mm, 3%/2mm and 2%/3mm for two additional data sets. The Gamma indexes calculated by the two systems were accurate, but Gamma pass rates calculated by the two software tools for same data set with the same dose threshold were different due to the different interpolation of raw dose data by the two systems and different implementation of Gamma index calculation and other modules in the two software tools. The mean difference was -1.3%±3.38 (1SD) with a maximum difference of 11.7%.

  1. Exact calculations of nuclear-recoil energies from prompt gamma decays resulting from neutron capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, J.H.

    1981-07-20

    The results of an accurate determination of the recoil spectrum from (n, ..gamma..) reactions in molybdenum are presented. The recoil spectrum has been calculated from nuclear level structure data and measured branching ratios. Angular correlations between successive gammas have been accounted for using the standard theoretical techniques of Racah algebra and the density matrix formalism.

  2. Photoneutron and capture gamma dose calculations for a radiotherapy room made of high density concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesbahi Asghar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron and capture gamma ray dose equivalent along the maze and entrance door of a radiation therapy room made of high density concrete was calculated using analytical and Monte Carlo methods. The room geometry and the 18 MV photon beam of a Varian 2100C/D linac were simulated using MCNPX MC code. Four analytical methods including Kersey, French, McCall, and Wu-McGinley methods were used in the current study. Average difference of 13-30% was seen between analytical and MC methods along the maze for photoneutron calculations. The difference between Wu-McGinley and MC methods was about 17% for capture gamma ray calculations. It was concluded that the analytical methods overestimate both neutron and capture gamma ray dose equivalents compared to MC. Moreover, it was shown that the analytical methods can be used as conservative estimators for neutron and capture gamma calculations.

  3. Isodose distributions and dose uniformity in the Portuguese gamma irradiation facility calculated using the MCNP code

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, C

    2001-01-01

    A systematic study of isodose distributions and dose uniformity in sample carriers of the Portuguese Gamma Irradiation Facility was carried out using the MCNP code. The absorbed dose rate, gamma flux per energy interval and average gamma energy were calculated. For comparison purposes, boxes filled with air and 'dummy' boxes loaded with layers of folded and crumpled newspapers to achieve a given value of density were used. The magnitude of various contributions to the total photon spectra, including source-dependent factors, irradiator structures, sample material and other origins were also calculated.

  4. Assessment of neutron skyshine near unmodified Accumulator Debuncher storage rings under Mu2e operational conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossairt, J.Donald; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    Preliminary plans for providing the proton beam needed by the proposed Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will require the transport of 8 GeV protons to the Accumulator/Debuncher where they be processed into an intensity and time structure useful for the experiment. The intensities involved are far greater that those encountered with antiprotons of the same kinetic energy in the same beam enclosures under Tevatron Collider operational conditions, the operating parameters for which the physical facilities of the Antiproton Source were designed. This note explores some important ramifications of the proposed operation for radiation safety and demonstrates the need for extensive modifications of significant portions of the shielding of the Accumulator Debuncher storage rings; notably that underneath the AP Service Buildings AP10, AP30, and AP50. While existing shielding is adequate for the current operating mode of the Accumulator/Debuncher as part of the Antiproton Source used in the Tevatron Collider program, without significant modifications of the shielding configuration in the Accumulator/Debuncher region and/or beam loss control systems far more effective than seen in most applications at Fermilab, the proposed operational mode for Mu2e is not viable for the following reasons: 1. Due to skyshine alone, under normal operational conditions large areas of the Fermilab site would be exposed to unacceptable levels of radiation where most of the Laboratory workforce and some members of the general public who regularly visit Fermilab would receive measurable doses annually, contrary to workforce, public, and DOE expectations concerning the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. 2. Under normal operational conditions, a sizeable region of the Fermilab site would also require fencing due to skyshine. The size of the areas involved would likely invite public inquiry about the significant and visible enlargement of Fermilab's posted radiological areas. 3. There

  5. Augmentation of ENDF/B fission product gamma-ray spectra by calculated spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katakura, J.; England, T.R.

    1991-11-01

    Gamma-ray spectral data of the ENDF/B-V fission product decay data file have been augmented by calculated spectra. The calculations were performed with a model using beta strength functions and cascade gamma-ray transitions. The calculated spectra were applied to individual fission product nuclides. Comparisons with several hundred measured aggregate gamma spectra after fission were performed to confirm the applicability of the calculated spectra. The augmentation was extended to a preliminary ENDF/B-VI file, and to beta spectra. Appendix C provides information on the total decay energies for individual products and some comparisons of measured and aggregate values based on the preliminary ENDF/B-VI files. 15 refs., 411 figs

  6. Neutron and gamma ray transport calculations in shielding system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masukawa, Fumihiro; Sakamoto, Hiroki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In the shields for radiation in nuclear facilities, the penetrating holes of various kinds and irregular shapes are made for the reasons of operation, control and others. These penetrating holes and gaps are filled with air or the substances with relatively small shielding performance, and radiation flows out through them, which is called streaming. As the calculation techniques for the shielding design or analysis related to the streaming problem, there are the calculations by simplified evaluation, transport calculation and Monte Carlo method. In this report, the example of calculation by Monte Carlo method which is represented by MCNP code is discussed. A number of variance reduction techniques which seem effective for the analysis of streaming problem were tried. As to the investigation of the applicability of MCNP code to streaming analysis, the object of analysis which are the concrete walls without hole and with horizontal hole, oblique hole and bent oblique hole, the analysis procedure, the composition of concrete, and the conversion coefficient of dose equivalent, and the results of analysis are reported. As for variance reduction technique, cell importance was adopted. (K.I.)

  7. Calculation Analysis of Calibration Factors of Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jun; Zhu Jinhui; Xie Honggang; He Qinglin

    2009-01-01

    To determine the calibration factors of an airborne gamma-ray spectrometer measuring large area gamma-ray emitting source at deferent flying height, a series of Monte Carlo simulations were drawn. Response energy spectrums of NaI crystals in airplane caused by nature-decay-series calibration-pads, and calibration factors on different heights above Cs-137 plane source, were obtained. The calculated results agreed with the experimental data well. (authors)

  8. Nuclear data production, calculation and measurement: a global overview of the gamma heating issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueton O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The gamma heating evaluation in different materials found in current and future generations of nuclear reactor (EPRTM, GENIV, MTR-JHR, is becoming an important issue especially for the design of many devices (control rod, heavy reflector, in-core & out-core experiments…. This paper deals with the works started since 2009 in the Reactor Studies Department of CEA Cadarache in ordre to answer to several problematic which have been identified as well for nuclear data production and calculation as for experimental measurement methods. The selected subjects are: Development of a Monte Carlo code (FIFRELIN to simulate the prompt fission gamma emission which represents the major part of the gamma heating production inside the core Production and qualification of new evaluations of nuclear data especially for radiative capture and inelastic neutron scattering which are the main sources of gamma heating out-core Development and qualification of a recommended method for the total gamma heating calculation using the Monte Carlo simulation code TRIPOLI-4 Development, test and qualification of new devices dedicated to the in-core gamma heating measurement as well in MTR-JHR as in zero power facilities (EOLE-MINERVE of CEA, Cadarache to increase the experimental measurement accuracy.

  9. Use of gamma logging for calculating reserves of hydrogenic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polkanov, Yu.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, in studies of hydrogenic deposits of uranium, great importance was laid on investigating the effect of radium halos, incorrect accounting of which leads to overestimates of the depth of the mineralization and to errors in determining the uranium content by radiographic methods. Radium halos are located both in the rear and in the front of ore deposits. Ores located in the front of ore deposits are primarily formed from the diffusion of radium into rocks near the ores. Radium halos located in the rear of the deposits are called residual halos. They are caused by the retention of radium in sections from which the uranium already has been carried away. In order to consider the radium halos, which are confined to zones of stratified oxidation and adjoining ore intervals, one uses the dependence of the edge mass fraction of radium at the boundaries of the (uranium) ore intervals on the average radium mass fraction in the intervals. This method makes it possible to separate with satisfactory accuracy sections on the γ-ray logging curves which corresponds to zones of stratified oxidation (red-colored rock) and to exclude them in calculating the reserves

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of the Leksell Gamma Knife: I. Source modelling and calculations in homogeneous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskvin, Vadim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)]. E-mail: vmoskvin@iupui.edu; DesRosiers, Colleen; Papiez, Lech; Timmerman, Robert; Randall, Marcus; DesRosiers, Paul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2002-06-21

    The Monte Carlo code PENELOPE has been used to simulate photon flux from the Leksell Gamma Knife, a precision method for treating intracranial lesions. Radiation from a single {sup 60}Co assembly traversing the collimator system was simulated, and phase space distributions at the output surface of the helmet for photons and electrons were calculated. The characteristics describing the emitted final beam were used to build a two-stage Monte Carlo simulation of irradiation of a target. A dose field inside a standard spherical polystyrene phantom, usually used for Gamma Knife dosimetry, has been computed and compared with experimental results, with calculations performed by other authors with the use of the EGS4 Monte Carlo code, and data provided by the treatment planning system Gamma Plan. Good agreement was found between these data and results of simulations in homogeneous media. Owing to this established accuracy, PENELOPE is suitable for simulating problems relevant to stereotactic radiosurgery. (author)

  11. Improved calculation of displacements per atom cross section in solids by gamma and electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piñera, Ibrahin, E-mail: ipinera@ceaden.edu.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, CEADEN, 30 St. 502, Playa 11300, Havana (Cuba); Cruz, Carlos M.; Leyva, Antonio; Abreu, Yamiel; Cabal, Ana E. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, CEADEN, 30 St. 502, Playa 11300, Havana (Cuba); Espen, Piet Van; Remortel, Nick Van [University of Antwerp, CGB, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We present a calculation procedure for dpa cross section in solids under irradiation. • Improvement about 10–90% for the gamma irradiation induced dpa cross section. • Improvement about 5–50% for the electron irradiation induced dpa cross section. • More precise results (20–70%) for thin samples irradiated with electrons. - Abstract: Several authors had estimated the displacements per atom cross sections under different approximations and models, including most of the main gamma- and electron-material interaction processes. These previous works used numerical approximation formulas which are applicable for limited energy ranges. We proposed the Monte Carlo assisted Classical Method (MCCM), which relates the established theories about atom displacements to the electron and positron secondary fluence distributions calculated from the Monte Carlo simulation. In this study the MCCM procedure is adapted in order to estimate the displacements per atom cross sections for gamma and electron irradiation. The results obtained through this procedure are compared with previous theoretical calculations. An improvement in about 10–90% for the gamma irradiation induced dpa cross section is observed in our results on regard to the previous evaluations for the studied incident energies. On the other hand, the dpa cross section values produced by irradiation with electrons are improved by our calculations in about 5–50% when compared with the theoretical approximations. When thin samples are irradiated with electrons, more precise results are obtained through the MCCM (in about 20–70%) with respect to the previous studies.

  12. Shielding study of a fusion machine. Elaboration of a global shielding calculation scheme for the Tokamak tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diop, C.M'B.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis presents a global shielding calculation scheme for neutron and gamma rays arising from the Tokamak TORE SUPRA fusion device, in which a deuterium plasma is used. To study the shield parameters we have elabored a important chaining of neutron and gamma transport codes, TRIPOLI, ANISN, MERCURE 4, allowing to evaluate the radial and skyshine components of the dose rate behind the concrete shield. The study of thermonuclear neutron activation is fundamental to define a tokamak exploitation strategy. For this, two formalisme have been developed. They are based on a modelization of the activation reaction rates according to TRIPOLI, ANISN, and MERCURE 4 codes capabilities. The first one calculates, in one dimensional geometry, the desactivation gamma dose rate inside the vacuum chamber. The second one is a tridimensional model which determines the spatial variation of the gamma dose rate in the machine room. The problem of the existence of runaway electrons and associated secondaries radiations, bremsstrahlung gamma rays particularly, is approched. The results which are presented have contributed to define the parameters of the concrete shield and a strategy for TORE SUPRA Tokamak exploitation [fr

  13. Calculation of calibration factors and layout criteria for gamma scanning of waste drums from nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inder Schmitten, W.; Sohnius, B.; Wehner, E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper present a procedure to calculate calibration factors for converting the measured gamma rate of waste drums into activity content and a layout and free release measurement criterion for waste drums. A computer program is developed that simulates drum scanning technique, which calculates calibration factors and eliminates laborious experimental measurements. The calculated calibration factors exhibit good agreement with experimentally determined values. By checking the calculated calibration factors for trial equipment layouts (including the waste drum and the scanning facility) using the layout and free release measurement criterion, a layout can be achieved that clearly determines whether there can be free release of a waste drum

  14. Calculated site substitution in ternary gamma'-Ni3Al: Temperature and composition effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    The temperature and composition dependence of the site substitution behavior of ternary additions to Ni3Al is examined on the basis of first-principles calculations of the total energies of ternary, partially ordered (gamma') alloys. The calculations are performed by means of the linear muffin......-tin orbitals method in conjunction with the local-density and multisublattice coherent-potential approximations and include all 3d, 4d, 5d, and noble metals. The calculations show the existence of simple trends in the alloying behavior of the gamma' phase which may be explained in a Friedel-like model based...... diagram for the elements Co, Pd, Cu, and Ag incorrectly has been interpreted as evidence for strong Ni site preference and that, in fact, these elements are expected to exhibit only weak Ni site preference....

  15. Experimental verification of gamma-efficiency calculations for scintillation detectors in ANGLE 4 software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabet Abouzeid A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ANGLE software for semiconductor detector efficiency calculations - long existing and widely accepted tool in quantitative gamma spectrometry - has been recently extended to scintillation NaI detectors. The extension features in the latest edition (ANGLE 4 and it is briefly outlined. Discretization of reference efficiency curve, meaning possibility of using ANGLE 4 for particular gamma energies without constructing the complete reference efficiency curve, is particularly emphasized. This yields both in enhanced practicality and higher accuracy, while reducing the potential for systematic errors. The present work is primarily focussed on experimental verification of ANGLE 4 for NaI detectors. Two detectors (2 ´ 2 and 3 x 3 inches were employed in the experiment. Commercially calibrated gamma sources (in the forms of quasi point and cylinder and homemade solutions (diluted from calibrated ones were measured at various distances from the detector(s, ranging 0 cm to 50 cm. Energy range observed was 59 keV to 1408 keV. Versatility of counting conditions, in terms of detectors and sources used, gamma energies observed, source detector separations, etc., was aimed at creating as large experimental evidence as possible for verification purposes. Experimentally obtained efficiencies are compared with those calculated by ANGLE 4. Very good agreement is obtained - well within the experimental uncertainties - thus proving the reliability of the software.

  16. Program complex for calculating albedo characteristics of neutron and gamma radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhezlov, A.M.; Zhurov, Yu.V.; Makhon'kov, A.S.; Chernyaev, A.

    1987-01-01

    The RADIUS (FORTRAN-DUBNA, BESM-6 computers) - RADIUS-M (FORTRAN-4 ES computers) program complex, designed to obtain albedo characteristics of neutron and gamma radiation for plane, cylindrical and spherical multilayer reflectors within wide range of energy and angles with regard to scattered particle spatial distribution, is described briefly. The RADIUS program is the KUPOL program modification and designed to calculate differential and integral albedo of neutrons and gamma photons in plane one- and two-layer reflectors. The RADIUS-M program realizes calculational algorithm of twice differential, differential and integral albedo from multilayer plane, cylindrical and spherical reflectors. Local estimation of flux into a point detector using multigroup constant systems is the base of the technique. Particle path in a reflector is simulated according to the maximal cross-section method

  17. Calculation of point isotropic buildup factors of gamma rays for water and lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. H.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available   Exposure buildup factors for water and lead have been calculated by the Monte-Carlo method for an isotropic point source in an infinite homogeneous medium, using the latest cross secions available on the Internet. The types of interactions considered are ,photoelectric effect, incoherent (or bound-electron Compton. Scattering, coherent (or Rayleigh scattering and pair production. Fluorescence radiations have also been taken into acount for lead. For each material, calculations were made at 10 gamma ray energies in the 40 keV to 10 MeV range and up to penetration depths of 10 mean free paths at each energy point. The results presented in this paper can be considered as modified gamma ray exposure buildup factors and be used in radiation shielding designs.

  18. Dose Distribution Calculation Using MCNPX Code in the Gamma-ray Irradiation Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Ho

    1991-02-01

    60 Co-gamma irradiators have long been used for foods sterilization, plant mutation and development of radio-protective agents, radio-sensitizers and other purposes. The Applied Radiological Science Research Institute of Cheju National University has a multipurpose gamma irradiation facility loaded with a MDS Nordin standard 60 Co source (C188), of which the initial activity was 400 TBq (10,800 Ci) on February 19, 2004. This panoramic gamma irradiator is designed to irradiate in all directions various samples such as plants, cultured cells and mice to administer given radiation doses. In order to give accurate doses to irradiation samples, appropriate methods of evaluating, both by calculation and measurement, the radiation doses delivered to the samples should be set up. Computational models have been developed to evaluate the radiation dose distributions inside the irradiation chamber and the radiation doses delivered to typical biolological samples which are frequently irradiated in the facility. The computational models are based on using the MCNPX code. The horizontal and vertical dose distributions has been calculated inside the irradiation chamber and compared the calculated results with measured data obtained with radiation dosimeters to verify the computational models. The radiation dosimeters employed are a Famer's type ion chamber and MOSFET dosimeters. Radiation doses were calculated by computational models, which were delivered to cultured cell samples contained in test tubes and to a mouse fixed in a irradiation cage, and compared the calculated results with the measured data. The computation models are also tested to see if they can accurately simulate the case where a thick lead shield is placed between the source and detector. Three tally options of the MCNPX code, F4, F5 and F6, are alternately used to see which option produces optimum results. The computation models are also used to calculate gamma ray energy spectra of a BGO scintillator at

  19. Neutrons and Gamma-Ray Dose Calculations in Subcritical Reactor Facility Using MCNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Xoubi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear experimental, training and teaching laboratories such as a subcritical reactor facility, huge measures of external radiation doses could be caused by neutron and gamma radiation. It becomes imperative to place the health and safety of staff and students in the reactor facility under proper scrutiny. The protection of these individuals against ionization radiation is facilitated by expected dose mapping and shielding calculations. A three-dimensional (3D Monte Carlo model was developed to calculate the dose rate from neutrons and gamma, using the ANSI/ANS-6.1.1 and the ICRP-74 flux-to-dose conversion factors. Estimation for the dose was conducted across 39 areas located throughout the reactor hall of the facility and its training platform. It was found that the range of the dose rate magnitude is between 7.50 E−01 μSv/h and 1.96 E−04 μSv/h in normal operation mode. During reactor start-up/shut-down mode, it was observed that a large area of the facility can experience exposure to a significant radiation field. This field ranges from 2.99 E+03 μSv/h to 3.12 E+01 μSv/h. There exists no noticeable disparity between results using the ICRP-74 or ANSI/ANS-6.1.1 flux-to-dose rate conversion factors. It was found that the dose rate due to gamma rays is higher than that of neutrons.

  20. Calculation of neutron and gamma-ray flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.G.; Lee, S.Y.; Yook, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors for neutrons and gamma rays based on the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) N666. These data are used to calculate the dose rate distribution of neutron and gamma ray in radiation fields. Neutron flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors for energies from 2.5 x 10 -8 to 20 MeV are presented; the corresponding energy range for gamma rays is 0.01 to 15 MeV. Flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors were calculated, under the assumption that radiation energy distribution has nonlinearity in the phantom, have different meaning from those values obtained by monoenergetic radiation. Especially, these values were determined with the cross section library. The flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors obtained in this work were in a good agreement to the values presented by ANSI. Those data will be useful for the radiation shielding analysis and the radiation dosimetry in the case of continuous energy distributions. (author)

  1. Fission products detection in irradiated TRIGA fuel by means of gamma spectroscopy and MCNP calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnazzo, M; Borio di Tigliole, A; Böck, H; Villa, M

    2018-05-01

    Aim of this work was the detection of fission products activity distribution along the axial dimension of irradiated fuel elements (FEs) at the TRIGA Mark II research reactor of the Technische Universität (TU) Wien. The activity distribution was measured by means of a customized fuel gamma scanning device, which includes a vertical lifting system to move the fuel rod along its vertical axis. For each investigated FE, a gamma spectrum measurement was performed along the vertical axis, with steps of 1 cm, in order to determine the axial distribution of the fission products. After the fuel elements underwent a relatively short cooling down period, different fission products were detected. The activity concentration was determined by calibrating the gamma detector with a standard calibration source of known activity and by MCNP6 simulations for the evaluation of self-absorption and geometric effects. Given the specific TRIGA fuel composition, a correction procedure is developed and used in this work for the measurement of the fission product Zr 95 . This measurement campaign is part of a more extended project aiming at the modelling of the TU Wien TRIGA reactor by means of different calculation codes (MCNP6, Serpent): the experimental results presented in this paper will be subsequently used for the benchmark of the models developed with the calculation codes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A new approximating formula for calculating gamma-ray buildup factors in multilayer shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assad, A.; Chiron, M.; Nimal, J.C.; Diop, C.M.; Ridoux, P.

    1999-01-01

    This study proposes a new approximating formula for calculating gamma-ray buildup factors in multilayer shields. The formula combines the buildup factors of single-layer shields with products and quotients. The feasibility of the formula for reproducing the buildup factors was tested by using point isotropic buildup factors calculated with the SN1D discrete ordinates code as reference data. The dose buildup factors of single-, double-, and multilayer shields composed of water, aluminum, iron, and lead were calculated for a spherical geometry in the energy range between 10 MeV and 40 keV and for total thicknesses of up to 30 mean free paths. The calculation of the buildup factors takes into account the bound electron effect of Compton scattering (incoherent scattering), the coherent scattering, the pair production, and the secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence. The tests have shown that the approximating formula reproduces the reference data of double-layer shields very well for most cases. With the same parameters and with a new physical consideration that takes into account in a global way the degradation of the gamma-ray energy spectrum, the buildup factors of three- and five-layer shields were also very well reproduced

  3. Calculation of the secondary gamma radiation by the Monte Carlo method at displaced sampling from distributed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Eh.E.; Fadeev, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    A possibility to use displaced sampling from a bulk gamma source in calculating the secondary gamma fields by the Monte Carlo method is discussed. The algorithm proposed is based on the concept of conjugate functions alongside the dispersion minimization technique. For the sake of simplicity a plane source is considered. The algorithm has been put into practice on the M-220 computer. The differential gamma current and flux spectra in 21cm-thick lead have been calculated. The source of secondary gamma-quanta was assumed to be a distributed, constant and isotropic one emitting 4 MeV gamma quanta with the rate of 10 9 quanta/cm 3 xs. The calculations have demonstrated that the last 7 cm of lead are responsible for the whole gamma spectral pattern. The spectra practically coincide with the ones calculated by the ROZ computer code. Thus the algorithm proposed can be offectively used in the calculations of secondary gamma radiation transport and reduces the computation time by 2-4 times

  4. Calculation of the gamma-dose rate from a continuously emitted plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebschmann, W.; Papadopoulos, D.

    1975-06-01

    A computer model is presented which calculates the long term gamma dose rate caused by the radioactive off-gas continuously emitted from a stack. The statistical distribution of the wind direction and velocity and of the stability categories is taken into account. The emitted activity, distributed in the atmosphere according to this statistics, is assumed to be concentrated at the mesh points of a three-dimensional grid. The grid spacing and the integration limits determine the accuracy as well as the computer time needed. When calculating the dose rate in a given wind direction, the contribution of the activity emitted into the neighbouring sectors is evaluated. This influence is demonstrated in the results, which are calculated with a error below 3% and compared to the dose rate distribution curves of the submersion model and the model developed by K.J. Vogt. (orig.) [de

  5. A verification calculation of drum and pulley overhead travelling crane on gamma irradiator ISG-500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamsurrijal Ramdja; Ari Satmoko; Sutomo Budihardjo

    2010-01-01

    It has been verified the calculation of drum and pulleys on cranes as facility the gamma irradiator ISG-500. Drum is a device for rolling steel ropes while the pulley is a circular pieces called disks, and both of which are made from metal or non-metal to transmit motion and force. It has been verified the calculation of forces on the drum, drum diameter and length, and pressuring force occurred on the drums. Likewise to the pulley, the pulley diameter calculations verification, size of disc and shaft power pulleys. From the verification results, it will be obtained whether the data drums and pulley device are safe or not safe to be used. (author)

  6. Transport calculations of gamma ray flux density and dose rate about implantable californium-252 sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A; Lin, B I; Windham, J P; Kereiakes, J G

    1976-07-01

    Gamma flux density and dose rate distributions have been calculated about implantable californium-252 sources for an infinite tissue medium. Point source flux densities as a function of energy and position were obtained from a discrete-ordinates calculation, and the flux densities were multiplied by their corresponding kerma factors and added to obtain point source dose rates. The point dose rates were integrated over the line source to obtain line source dose rates. Container attenuation was accounted for by evaluating the point dose rate as a function of platinum thickness. Both primary and secondary flux densities and dose rates are presented. The agreement with an independent Monte Carlo calculation was excellent. The data presented should be useful for the design of new source configurations.

  7. The application of semianalytic method for calculating the thickness of biological shields of nuclear reactors. Part 2. Attenuation of gamma rays. An example of shield's thickness calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukaszek, W.; Kucypera, S.

    1982-01-01

    The semianalytic method was used for calculating the attenuation of gamma rays and the thickness of biological shield of graphite moderated reactor. A short description of computer code as well as the exemplary results of calculations are given. (A.S.)

  8. Approximate techniques for calculating gamma ray dose rates in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    Although today's computers have made three-dimensional discrete ordinates transport codes a virtual reality, there is still a need for approximate techniques for estimating radiation environments. This paper discusses techniques for calculating gamma ray dose rates in nuclear power plants where Compton scattering is the dominant attenuation mechanism. The buildup factor method is reviewed; its use and misuse are discussed. Several useful rules-of-thumb are developed. The paper emphasizes the need for understanding the fundamental physics and draws heavily on the old, classic references

  9. The effect of gamma-ray transport on afterheat calculations for accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J.F.; Sanz, J.

    2000-05-01

    Radioactive afterheat is an important source term for the release of radionuclides in fusion systems under accident conditions. Heat transfer calculations are used to determine time-temperature histories in regions of interest, but the true source term needs to be the effective afterheat, which considers the transport of penetrating gamma rays. Without consideration of photon transport, accident temperatures may be overestimated in others. The importance of this effect is demonstrated for a simple, one-dimensional problem. The significance of this effect depends strongly on the accident scenario being analyzed.

  10. On calculation of detection efficiency of gamma spectrometers with germanium detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, O.

    2001-01-01

    High resolution gamma spectrometer represents a powerful analysis technique of use in various fields from basic research to the study of environmental radioactivity, from medical investigations to geological surveys. Direct experimental calibration cannot cover the large range of measurement configurations of interest. Actually, it can be appropriately applied in an only limited number of cases, as for instance, in case of point-like sources or liquid phase volume sources. To assist the treatment of experimental calibration of germanium detectors, in the frame of Atomic and Nuclear Physics Chair of Department of Physics, a number of calculation methods were developed. These methods are generally based on Monte Carlo simulation but simplified and fast analytical methods were also worked out. Initially, these studies were dedicated to application in the field of environmental activity and radiation protection, but later on these were extended also to other fields as, for instance, the neutron activation or radionuclide metrology. First, the effects of matrices were calculated for the case of volume sources. Applying the matrix corrections allows obtaining the source calibration curves on the basis of experimental calibration data obtained with liquid sources, in the same geometry. An algorithm based on Monte Carlo calculation and using techniques of correlated selection was obtained. This algorithm can be implemented in the gamma analysis programs giving for the first time the possibility of correct evaluation of matrix effects even during the analysis of gamma spectra. We used a set of additive relations applicable in case of volume sources with negligible self-absorption and obtained a number of linear relations useful in calibrating the large volume sources in presence of self-absorption, based on small volume standard sources. Also, we proposed analytical relations useful in the case of measurements of large volume samples, in case of Marinelli geometry. To

  11. The effect of gamma-ray transport on afterheat calculations for accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J.F.; Sanz, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive afterheat is an important source term for the release of radionuclides in fusion systems under accident conditions. Heat transfer calculations are used to determine time-temperature histories in regions of interest, but the true source term needs to be the effective afterheat, which considers the transport of penetrating gamma rays. Without consideration of photon transport, accident temperatures may be overestimated in others. The importance of this effect is demonstrated for a simple, one-dimensional problem. The significance of this effect depends strongly on the accident scenario being analyzed

  12. Calculation of gamma-rays and fast neutrons fluxes with the program Mercure-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, A.; Dupont, C.; Totth, B.

    1978-01-01

    The program MERCURE-4 evaluates gamma ray or fast neutron attenuation, through laminated or bulky three-dimensionnal shields. The method used is that of line of sight point attenuation kernel, the scattered rays being taken into account by means of build-up factors for γ and removal cross sections for fast neutrons. The integration of the point kernel over the range of sources distributed in space and energy, is performed by the Monte-Carlo method, with an automatic adjustment of the importance functions. Since it is operationnal the program MERCURE-4 has been intensively used for many various problems, for example: - the calculation of gamma heating in reactor cores, control rods and shielding screens, as well as in experimental devices and irradiation loops; - the evaluation of fast neutron fluxes and corresponding damage in structural materials of reactors (vessel steels...); - the estimation of gamma dose rates on nuclear instrumentation in the reactors, around the reactor circuits and around spent fuel shipping casks

  13. New possibilities for improving the accuracy of parameter calculations for cascade gamma-ray decay of heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Sukhovoj, A M; Khitrov, V A

    2001-01-01

    The level density and radiative strength functions which accurately reproduce the experimental intensity of two- step cascades after thermal neutron capture and the total radiative widths of the compound states were applied to calculate the total gamma-ray spectra from the (n,gamma) reaction. In some cases, analysis showed far better agreement with experiment and gave insight into possible ways in which these parameters need to be corrected for further improvement of calculation accuracy for the cascade gamma-decay of heavy nuclei.

  14. GAMMA-CLOUD: a computer code for calculating gamma-exposure due to a radioactive cloud released from a point source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Osamu; Sawaguchi, Yusuke; Kaneko, Masahito.

    1979-01-01

    A computer code, designated GAMMA-CLOUD, has been developed by specialists of electric power companies to meet requests from the companies to have a unified means of calculating annual external doses from routine releases of radioactive gaseous effluents from nuclear power plants, based on the Japan Atomic Energy Commission's guides for environmental dose evaluation. GAMMA-CLOUD is written in FORTRAN language and its required capacity is less than 100 kilobytes. The average γ-exposure at an observation point can be calculated within a few minutes with comparable precision to other existing codes. (author)

  15. Calculation of “LS-curves” for coincidence summing corrections in gamma ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Tim; Korun, Matjaž

    2006-01-01

    When coincidence summing correction factors for extended samples are calculated in gamma-ray spectrometry from full-energy-peak and total efficiencies, their variation over the sample volume needs to be considered. In other words, the correction factors cannot be computed as if the sample were a point source. A method developed by Blaauw and Gelsema takes the variation of the efficiencies over the sample volume into account. It introduces the so-called LS-curve in the calibration procedure and only requires the preparation of a single standard for each sample geometry. We propose to replace the standard preparation by calculation and we show that the LS-curves resulting from our method yield coincidence summing correction factors that are consistent with the LS values obtained from experimental data.

  16. Neutron and gamma ray calculation for Hiroshima-type atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru; Takada, Jun [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Iwatani, Kazuo; Oka, Takamitsu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Shoichiro; Hasai, Hiromi

    1998-03-01

    We looked at the radiation dose of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb again in 1986. We gave it the name of ``Dosimetry System 1986`` (DS86). We and other groups have measured the expose dose since 1986. Now, the difference between data of {sup 152}Eu and the calculation result on the basis of DS86 was found. To investigate the reason, we carried out the calculations of neutron transport and neutron absorption gamma ray for Hiroshima atomic bomb by MCNP3A and MCNP4A code. The problems caused by fast neutron {sup 32}P from sulfur in insulator of pole. To correct the difference, we investigated many models and found agreement of all data within 1 km. (S.Y.)

  17. Neutron-gamma flux and dose calculations in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brovchenko Mariya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with Monte Carlo simulations, aiming to determine the neutron and gamma responses outside the vessel and in the basemat of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR. The model is based on the Tihange-I Belgian nuclear reactor. With a large set of information and measurements available, this reactor has the advantage to be easily modelled and allows validation based on the experimental measurements. Power distribution calculations were therefore performed with the MCNP code at IRSN and compared to the available in-core measurements. Results showed a good agreement between calculated and measured values over the whole core. In this paper, the methods and hypotheses used for the particle transport simulation from the fission distribution in the core to the detectors outside the vessel of the reactor are also summarized. The results of the simulations are presented including the neutron and gamma doses and flux energy spectra. MCNP6 computational results comparing JEFF3.1 and ENDF-B/VII.1 nuclear data evaluations and sensitivity of the results to some model parameters are presented.

  18. Neutron-gamma flux and dose calculations in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovchenko, Mariya; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Burn, Kenneth W.; Console Camprini, Patrizio; Duhamel, Isabelle; Peron, Arthur

    2017-09-01

    The present work deals with Monte Carlo simulations, aiming to determine the neutron and gamma responses outside the vessel and in the basemat of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The model is based on the Tihange-I Belgian nuclear reactor. With a large set of information and measurements available, this reactor has the advantage to be easily modelled and allows validation based on the experimental measurements. Power distribution calculations were therefore performed with the MCNP code at IRSN and compared to the available in-core measurements. Results showed a good agreement between calculated and measured values over the whole core. In this paper, the methods and hypotheses used for the particle transport simulation from the fission distribution in the core to the detectors outside the vessel of the reactor are also summarized. The results of the simulations are presented including the neutron and gamma doses and flux energy spectra. MCNP6 computational results comparing JEFF3.1 and ENDF-B/VII.1 nuclear data evaluations and sensitivity of the results to some model parameters are presented.

  19. Calculated nuclide compositions and gamma-ray exposure rates for fallout from the HARRY, SMOKY, and ANNIE events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-03-03

    The results of computer calculations of the nuclide composition and associated external gamma-ray exposure rates for fallout from the HARRY, SMOKY, and ANNIE events are documented. The fission product distribution is calculated for each event with the appropriate neutron spectrum and the fractions of fissions due to each fissionable material. Also calculated are the total number of microcuries per square meter and the gamma-ray exposure rates (mR/h, 1 meter above ground level) for the 152 fission products and 25 neutron-induced nuclides. The normalized data are presented in 9 Appendices. (DLS)

  20. GAMSOURCE - WRS system module number 38474 for calculating gamma-ray sources produced by neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstone, M.J.

    1978-06-01

    The WRS Modular Programming System has been developed as a means by which programmes may be more efficiently constructed, maintained and modified. In this system a module is a self-contained unit typically composed of one or more Fortran routines, and a programme is constructed from a number of such modules. This report describes one WRS module, the function of which is to calculate the source strength of gamma-rays arising from neutron capture in a system represented in one-dimensional geometry. The information given in this manual is of use both to the programmer wishing to incorporate the module in a programme, and to the user of such a programme. (author)

  1. Survivor dosimetry. Part D. Graphical comparisons of measurements and calculations for neutrons and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbert, Stephen D.; Cullings, Harry M.

    2005-01-01

    An important part of validating the DS02 dosimetry system is the comparison of calculated initial neutron and gamma-ray radiation activation from the atomic bombs with all measurements that have been made, both before and during this current dosimetry reevaluation. All measurements that were made before the year 2002 are listed in Table 5 of Chapter 4. Many of these measurements have been compared to previous versions of the dosimetry systems for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In this section the measurements are compared to the new dosimetry system DS02. For the purposes of showing historical context, they are also compared to the previous dosimetry system DS86. References for these measurements are found in Chapter 4. (J.P.N.)

  2. First-principles calculations on anharmonic vibrational frequencies of polyethylene and polyacetylene in the Gamma approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keçeli, Murat; Hirata, So; Yagi, Kiyoshi

    2010-07-21

    The frequencies of the infrared- and/or Raman-active (k=0) vibrations of polyethylene and polyacetylene are computed by taking account of the anharmonicity in the potential energy surfaces (PESs) and the resulting phonon-phonon couplings explicitly. The electronic part of the calculations is based on Gaussian-basis-set crystalline orbital theory at the Hartree-Fock and second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation levels, providing one-, two-, and/or three-dimensional slices of the PES (namely, using the so-called n-mode coupling approximation with n=3), which are in turn expanded in the fourth-order Taylor series with respect to the normal coordinates. The vibrational part uses the vibrational self-consistent field, vibrational MP2, and vibrational truncated configuration-interaction (VCI) methods within the Gamma approximation, which amounts to including only k=0 phonons. It is shown that accounting for both electron correlation and anharmonicity is essential in achieving good agreement (the mean and maximum absolute deviations less than 50 and 90 cm(-1), respectively, for polyethylene and polyacetylene) between computed and observed frequencies. The corresponding values for the calculations including only one of such effects are in excess of 120 and 300 cm(-1), respectively. The VCI calculations also reproduce semiquantitatively the frequency separation and intensity ratio of the Fermi doublet involving the nu(2)(0) fundamental and nu(8)(pi) first overtone in polyethylene.

  3. For a Better Estimation of Gamma Heating in Experimental Reactors and Devices: Stakes and Work Plan from Calculation Methods to Nuclear Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Matthieu; Vaglio-Gaudard, Claire; Lyoussi, Abdallah; Reynard-Carette, Christelle

    2013-06-01

    The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is an international Material-Testing Reactor currently under construction at CEA Cadarache. The determination of gamma heating levels in this future commercial reactor is of crucial importance as gamma heating affects both safety and performance parameters of the JHR. Required accuracy (5% at one standard deviation) makes it necessary to calibrate bias and uncertainty associated with JHR gamma-heating calculations. Main steps of bias determination for gamma-heating calculations include, firstly, the development of a calculation methodology with controlled use of physical approximations; secondly, the interpretation of gamma-heating measurements so as to determine bias supposed to be only due to nuclear data. (authors)

  4. Implementing displacement damage calculations for electrons and gamma rays in the Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the Monte Carlo displacement damage calculation method in the Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System (PHITS) was improved to calculate displacements per atom (DPA) values due to irradiation by electrons (or positrons) and gamma rays. For the damage due to electrons and gamma rays, PHITS simulates electromagnetic cascades using the Electron Gamma Shower version 5 (EGS5) algorithm and calculates DPA values using the recoil energies and the McKinley-Feshbach cross section. A comparison of DPA values calculated by PHITS and the Monte Carlo assisted Classical Method (MCCM) reveals that they were in good agreement for gamma-ray irradiations of silicon and iron at energies that were less than 10 MeV. Above 10 MeV, PHITS can calculate DPA values not only for electrons but also for charged particles produced by photonuclear reactions. In DPA depth distributions under electron and gamma-ray irradiations, build-up effects can be observed near the target's surface. For irradiation of 90-cm-thick carbon by protons with energies of more than 30 GeV, the ratio of the secondary electron DPA values to the total DPA values is more than 10% and increases with an increase in incident energy. In summary, PHITS can calculate DPA values for all particles and materials over a wide energy range between 1 keV and 1 TeV for electrons, gamma rays, and charged particles and between 10-5 eV and 1 TeV for neutrons.

  5. Motor power calculation for driving conveyor chain in gamma irradiator BATAN 2x250 k curie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari Satmoko; Syamsurrijal Ramdja; Sutomo Budihardjo

    2010-01-01

    Recently, an Irradiator BATAN 2X250 k Curie for agricultural product is under design. The installation is provided by the gamma source about 2x250 k Curie. Agricultural products are carried into carriers and these carriers are hanged on the conveyor chain. The chain moves into a radiation chamber following the trajectoire. The chain is drived by motor. For this reason, the calculation is performed to determine the motor power. After resolving the force equilibrium equation, the force and power of the motor needed to drive the chain are obtained. Numerical method by using V Basic language is used to resolve the equation. The calculation result shows the correlation between friction coefficient and motor power. From the evaluation, it is decided that the friction coefficient should be less than 0,015. By this friction, the motor power is about 3. 13 k Watt. From the evaluation, it is also obtained that the radius of the curve trajectory shall not be too small. Combination between high friction and small curve radius could lead to the locked condition in which high power motor are not be able to move the conveyor chain). (author)

  6. Comparison of measured and calculated neutron and gamma-ray energy spectra behind an in-line shielded duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, R.T.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.; Chapman, G.T.; Tang, J.S.

    1982-05-01

    Integral experiments that measure the transport of approx. 14 MeV neutrons through a 0.30-m-diameter duct having a length-to-diameter ratio of 2.83 that is partially plugged with a 0.15 m diameter, 0.51 m long shield comprised of alternating layers of stainless steel type 304 and borated polyethylene have been carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Measured and calculated neutron and gamma ray energy spectra are compared at several locations relative to the mouth of the duct. The measured spectra were obtained using an NE-213 liquid scintillator detector with pulse shape discrimination methods used to simultaneously resolve neutron and gamma ray events. The calculated spectra were obtained using a computer code network that incorporates two radiation transport methods: discrete ordinates (with P 3 multigroup cross sections) and Monte Carlo (with continuous point cross sections). The two radiation transport methods are required to account for neutrons that singly scatter from the duct to the detectors. The calculated and measured neutron energy spectra above 850 keV agree with 5 to 50% depending on detector location and neutron energy. The calculated and measured gamma ray energy spectra above 750 keV are also in favorable agreement, approx. 5 to 50%, depending on detector location and gamma ray energy

  7. A point-kernel shielding code for calculations of neutron and secondary gamma-ray 1cm dose equivalents: PKN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotegawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1991-09-01

    A point-kernel integral technique code, PKN, and the related data library have been developed to calculate neutron and secondary gamma-ray dose equivalents in water, concrete and iron shields for neutron sources in 3-dimensional geometry. The comparison between calculational results of the present code and those of the 1-dimensional transport code ANISN = JR, and the 2-dimensional transport code DOT4.2 showed a sufficient accuracy, and the availability of the PKN code has been confirmed. (author)

  8. Burn up calculations and validation by gamma scanning of a TRIGA HEU fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, R. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan).; Karimzadeh, S.; Boeck, H.; Villa, M.; Stummer, T. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Atominstitut

    2013-03-15

    The TRIGA Mark II research reactor operated by Atominstitut (Vienna/Austria) is one of the few TRIGA reactors, which still utilizes several High Enriched Uranium (HEU) Zirconium-Hydride (U-Zr-H) fuel elements. Its current core is a completely mixed core with 3 different types of fuel elements including one HEU type with 70 % enrichment and a stainless steel cladding. The present paper calculates the burn up of the FLIP (Fuel Lifetime Improvement Program) fuel using the burn up code ORIGEN2 and validates the theoretical results by high resolution gamma spectrometry using a unique fuel scanning device (FSD) developed at the Atominstitut especially for TRIGA fuel. For this purpose a FLIP fuel element was removed from the reactor core and stored in the research reactor pool for an appropriate cooling period. The fuel element was then transferred into the fuel scanning device to determine the Cesium-137 isotope distribution along the axis of the fuel element. The comparison between theoretical predictions and experimental results is the highlight of the present paper. (orig.)

  9. Calculation of gamma-ray attenuation parameters for locally developed shielding material: Polyboron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripan Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the mass attenuation coefficient (μm has been calculated analytically for a locally developed shielding material, polyboron, and compared with the values obtained from the WinXCom code, a Windows version of the XCOM database at the photon energy range 0.001 MeV–20 MeV. A good agreement has been observed between these two values. The linear attenuation coefficients (μ and relaxation lengths (λ have also been calculated from the obtained μm values and their variations with photon energy have been plotted. For comparison, other four shielding materials- ordinary concrete, pure polyethylene, borated polyethylene and water have also been studied. The obtained result shows that μm, μ and λ strongly depends on the photon energy, chemical composition and density of the shielding materials. The values of μm and μ of polyboron have been found greater than those of pure polyethylene and borated polyethylene but less than those of ordinary concrete and water at low photon energy range; and at the intermediate photon energy range (0.125 MeV–6 MeV, all the sample materials have approximately the same μm values. It has also been noticed that polyboron has the medial relaxation length (λ over the entire photon energy range. The total mass attenuation coefficient (μm and linear attenuation coefficient (μ, Half Value Layer (HVL and Tenth Value Layer (TVL of the five sample materials for some common gamma sources have been worked out and the transmission curves have been plotted. The curves exhibit that the transmission factor of the sample materials decreases with the increase in shielding thickness. The results of this study can be utilized to comprehend the shielding effectiveness of this locally developed material.

  10. Activation of the JET vacuum vessel: a comparison of calculated with measured gamma-radiation fluxes and dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.; Avery, A.; Verschuur, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    The gamma-radiation dose-rates inside the JET vacuum vessel due to induced radioactivity were measured at intervals throughout the 1986 period of operation, and the decay gamma energy spectrum was measured during the subsequent lengthy shutdown. The dose-rates were found to be in good agreement with values calculated using the neutron yield records compiled from the time-resolved neutron yield monitor responses for individual discharges. This result provides strong support for the reliability of the neutron yield monitor calibration. (author)

  11. ParShield: A computer program for calculating attenuation parameters of the gamma rays and the fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmahroug, Y.; Tellili, B.; Souga, C.; Manai, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Description of the theoretical method used by the ParShield program. • Description of the ParShield program. • Test and validation the ParShield program. - Abstract: This study aims to present a new computer program called ParShield which determines the neutron and gamma-ray shielding parameters. This program can calculate the total mass attenuation coefficients (μ t ), the effective atomic numbers (Z eff ) and the effective electron densities (N eff ) for gamma rays and it can also calculate the effective removal cross-sections (Σ R ) for fast neutrons for mixtures and compounds. The results obtained for the gamma rays by using ParShield were compared with the results calculated by the WinXcom program and the measured results. The obtained values of (Σ R ) were tested by comparing them with the measured results,the manually calculated results and with the results obtained by using MERCSFN program and an excellent agreement was found between them. The ParShield program can be used as a fast and effective tool to choose and compare the shielding materials, especially for the determination of (Z eff ) and (N eff ), there is no other programs in the literature which can calculate

  12. Accounting for detector crystal edge rounding in gamma-efficiency calculations theoretical elaboration and application in ANGLE software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaljević Nikola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In absolute and semi-empirical calculations of full gamma-energy peak efficiencies (ep, geometrical/compositional data characterizing the detector should be known in much detail. Among these, detector crystal edge rounding (bulletization, if neglected, may lead to large systematic errors, especially for low gamma-energies and close counting geometries. The errors show quadratic dependence on the extent of bulletization (bulletization radius. Mathematical/analytical solution to the problem - not reported so far - is elaborated in the present work. Relevant mathematical formulae are derived for a number of counting arrangements most frequently encountered in gamma-spectrometry practice (point, disc, cylinder, and Marinelli sources. These are subsequently programmed for numerical calculations and are now part of commercially available ANGLE software. Extensive calculation testing is performed for HPGe (both p- and n-type and LEPD detectors (several sizes each, with various sources (point, disc, cylinder, Marinelli and counting geometries (0-20 cm source-to-detector distance. Energy range considered was 10-3000 keV. To elucidate the significance of the issue, an error propagation study was conducted: results with bulletization taken into account are compared to those when bulletization was neglected. Corresponding errors are tabulated in an extensive Excel file. The file comprises about 152 000 error calculation results which are available for download; a few characteristic ones are selected for presenting in the paper. ANGLE proved handy (in programming and fast (in calculations when accomplishing this task. The data convincingly illustrate the impact of detector bulletization on gamma-efficiency and thus the need to account for. Even only slight bulletization (1-2 mm bulletization radius is not negligible in many realistic counting situations. Reader/analyst can (1 compare his/her counting situation with these data so as to get the first

  13. Calculation of the energy spectrum of atmospheric gamma-rays between 1 and 1000 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, I.M.; Dutra, S.L.G.; Palmeira, R.A.R.

    The energy spectrum of atmospheric gamma-rays at 4 g/cm 2 has been calculated for cut-off rigidities of 4.5, 10 and 16 GV. The considered processes for the production of these gamma-rays were the π 0 decay plus the bremsstrahlung from primary, secondary like splash and re-entrant albedo electrons. The calculations indicated that the spectrum could be fitted to a power law in energy, with the exponential index varying from 1.1 in the energy range 1 - 10 MeV, to 1.4 in the energy range 10 - 200 MeV and 1.8 in the energy range 200 - 1000 MeV. These results are discussed [pt

  14. An assessment of the feasibility of using Monte Carlo calculations to model a combined neutron/gamma electronic personal dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, J.E.; Witts, D.; Tanner, R.J.; Bartlett, D.T.; Burgess, P.H.; Edwards, A.A.; More, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    A Monte Carlo facility has been developed for modelling the response of semiconductor devices to mixed neutron-photon fields. This utilises the code MCNP for neutron and photon transport and a new code, STRUGGLE, which has been developed to model the secondary charged particle transport. It is thus possible to predict the pulse height distribution expected from prototype electronic personal detectors, given the detector efficiency factor. Initial calculations have been performed on a simple passivated implanted planar silicon detector. This device has also been irradiated in neutron, gamma and X ray fields to verify the accuracy of the predictions. Good agreement was found between experiment and calculation. (author)

  15. A new option of SAMPO80 (a minicomputer program for gamma spectrum analysis) for detection limit calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zombori, P.; Steger, F.

    1986-01-01

    The code SAMPO80 is widely used for evaluation of gamma spectra. The program system containing 3 independent parts performs peak shape calibration, automatic peak search, peak fitting and nuclide identification. Fulfilling the demands of low level counting, a fourth part was added to SAMPO80 for the calculation of detection limits. The program determines the limit of detection for any nuclide found in the spectrum by the program or specified by the user previously. It is a special advantage that the limits of detection are calculated from the measured spectrum, taking the effect of other radionuclides into account. (author)

  16. Diffractive Photon Production in $\\gamma p$ and $\\gamma \\gamma$ Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Evanson, N G

    1999-01-01

    We study the diffractive production of photons in gamma-p and gamma-gamma collisions. We specifically compute the rates for gamma*-p -> gamma-X and for gamma*-gamma* -> gamma-gamma, where X denotes the proton dissociation. We focus on the rates at large momentum transfers, -t >> Lambda^2, where we are most confident in the use of QCD perturbation theory. However, our calculations do allow us to study the -t -> 0 behaviour of the gamma*-gamma*-> gamma-gamma process in the region where the incoming photons are sufficiently virtual.

  17. Improvement of gamma-ray Sn transport calculations including coherent and incoherent scatterings and secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence: Determination of gamma-ray buildup factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsos, S.; Diop, C.M.; Assad, A.; Nimal, J.C.; Ridoux, P.

    1996-01-01

    Improvements of gamma-ray transport calculations in S n codes aim at taking into account the bound-electron effect of Compton scattering (incoherent), coherent scattering (Rayleigh), and secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence. A computation scheme was developed to take into account these phenomena by modifying the angular and energy transfer matrices, and no modification in the transport code has been made. The incoherent and coherent scatterings as well as the fluorescence sources can be strictly treated by the transfer matrix change. For bremsstrahlung sources, this is possible if one can neglect the charged particles path as they pass through the matter (electrons and positrons) and is applicable for the energy range of interest for us (below 10 MeV). These improvements have been reported on the kernel attenuation codes by the calculation of new buildup factors. The gamma-ray buildup factors have been carried out for 25 natural elements up to 30 mean free paths in the energy range between 15 keV and 10 MeV

  18. Computer program calculates gamma ray source strengths of materials exposed to neutron fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, P. C.; Ricks, L. O.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program contains an input library of nuclear data for 44 elements and their isotopes to determine the induced radioactivity for gamma emitters. Minimum input requires the irradiation history of the element, a four-energy-group neutron flux, specification of an alloy composition by elements, and selection of the output.

  19. Measurement and calculation of fast neutron and gamma spectra in well defined cores in LR-0 reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košťál, Michal; Matěj, Zdeněk; Cvachovec, František; Rypar, Vojtěch; Losa, Evžen; Rejchrt, Jiří; Mravec, Filip; Veškrna, Martin

    2017-02-01

    A well-defined neutron spectrum is essential for many types of experimental topics and is also important for both calibration and testing of spectrometric and dosimetric detectors. Provided it is well described, such a spectrum can also be employed as a reference neutron field that is suitable for validating selected cross sections. The present paper aims to compare calculations and measurements of such a well-defined spectra in geometrically similar cores of the LR-0 reactor with fuel containing slightly different enrichments (2%, 3.3% and 3.6%). The common feature to all cores is a centrally located dry channel which can be used for the insertion of studied materials. The calculation of neutron and gamma spectra was realized with the MCNP6 code using ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, JENDL-3.3, ROSFOND-2010 and CENDL-3.1 nuclear data libraries. Only minor differences in neutron and gamma spectra were found in the comparison of the presented reactor cores with different fuel enrichments. One exception is the gamma spectrum in the higher energy region (above 8MeV), where more pronounced variations could be observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234 , 236 , 238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Krticka, M.; Kawano, T.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.

    2015-10-01

    Calculations of the neutron-capture cross section at low neutron energies (10 eV through 100's of keV) are very sensitive to the nuclear level density and radiative strength function. These quantities are often poorly known, especially for radioactive targets, and actual measurements of the capture cross section are usually required. An additional constraint on the calculation of the capture cross section is provided by measurements of the cascade gamma spectrum following neutron capture. Recent measurements of 234 , 236 , 238U(n, γ) emission spectra made using the DANCE 4 π BaF2 array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will be presented. Calculations of gamma-ray spectra made using the DICEBOX code and of the capture cross section made using the CoH3 code will also be presented. These techniques may be also useful for calculations of more unstable nuclides. This work was performed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396) and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734).

  1. Frontal midline theta rhythm and gamma power changes during focused attention on mental calculation: an MEG beamformer analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Ryouhei; Canuet, Leonides; Ishihara, Tsutomu; Aoki, Yasunori; Ikeda, Shunichiro; Hata, Masahiro; Katsimichas, Themistoklis; Gunji, Atsuko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Nakahachi, Takayuki; Iwase, Masao; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Frontal midline theta rhythm (Fmθ) appears widely distributed over medial prefrontal areas in EEG recordings, indicating focused attention. Although mental calculation is often used as an attention-demanding task, little has been reported on calculation-related activation in Fmθ experiments. In this study we used spatially filtered MEG and permutation analysis to precisely localize cortical generators of the magnetic counterpart of Fmθ, as well as other sources of oscillatory activity associated with mental calculation processing (i.e., arithmetic subtraction). Our results confirmed and extended earlier EEG/MEG studies indicating that Fmθ during mental calculation is generated in the dorsal anterior cingulate and adjacent medial prefrontal cortex. Mental subtraction was also associated with gamma event-related synchronization, as an index of activation, in right parietal regions subserving basic numerical processing and number-based spatial attention. Gamma event-related desynchronization appeared in the right lateral prefrontal cortex, likely representing a mechanism to interrupt neural activity that can interfere with the ongoing cognitive task. PMID:24966825

  2. Frontal midline theta rhythm and gamma power changes during focused attention on mental calculation: an MEG beamformer analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryouhei eIshii

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Frontal midline theta rhythm (Fmθ appears widely distributed over medial prefrontal areas in EEG recordings, indicating focused attention. Although mental calculation is often used as an attention-demanding task, little has been reported on calculation-related activation in Fmθ experiments. In this study we used spatially filtered MEG and permutation analysis to precisely localize cortical generators of the magnetic counterpart of Fmθ, as well as other sources of oscillatory activity associated with mental calculation processing (i.e., arithmetic subtraction. Our results confirmed and extended earlier EEG/MEG studies indicating that Fmθ during mental calculation is generated in the dorsal anterior cingulate and adjacent medial prefrontal cortex. Mental subtraction was also associated with gamma event-related synchronization, as an index of activation, in right parietal regions subserving basic numerical processing and number-based spatial attention. Gamma event-related desynchronization appeared in the right lateral prefrontal cortex, likely representing a mechanism to interrupt neural activity that can interfere with the ongoing cognitive task.

  3. Monte Carlo calculation of the total probability for gamma-Ray interaction in toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1983-01-01

    Interaction and absorption probabilities for gamma-rays with energies between 1 and 1000 KeV have been computed and tabulated. Toluene based scintillator solution has been assumed in the computation. Both, point sources and homogeneously dispersed radioactive material have been assumed. These tables may be applied to cylinders with radii between 1.25 cm and 0.25 cm and heights between 4.07 cm and 0.20 cm. (Author) 26 refs

  4. Results of calculations of external gamma radiation exposure rates from fallout and the related radionuclide compositions. Operation Tumbler-Snapper, 1952

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-07-01

    This report presents data on calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from Events that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex

  5. SOILD: A computer model for calculating the effective dose equivalent from external exposure to distributed gamma sources in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; LePoire, D.; Yu, C.; Schafetz, S.; Mehta, P.

    1991-01-01

    The SOLID computer model was developed for calculating the effective dose equivalent from external exposure to distributed gamma sources in soil. It is designed to assess external doses under various exposure scenarios that may be encountered in environmental restoration programs. The models four major functional features address (1) dose versus source depth in soil, (2) shielding of clean cover soil, (3) area of contamination, and (4) nonuniform distribution of sources. The model is also capable of adjusting doses when there are variations in soil densities for both source and cover soils. The model is supported by a data base of approximately 500 radionuclides. 4 refs

  6. Gamma-point lattice free energy estimates from O(1) force calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Johannes; Vegge, Tejs

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method for estimating the vibrational free energy of crystal (and molecular) structures employing only a single force calculation, for a particularly displaced configuration, in addition to the calculation of the ground state configuration. This displacement vector is the sum...

  7. Calculation of the detection limits for radionuclides identified in gamma-ray spectra based on post-processing peak analysis results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korun, M; Vodenik, B; Zorko, B

    2018-03-01

    A new method for calculating the detection limits of gamma-ray spectrometry measurements is presented. The method is applicable for gamma-ray emitters, irrespective of the influences of the peaked background, the origin of the background and the overlap with other peaks. It offers the opportunity for multi-gamma-ray emitters to calculate the common detection limit, corresponding to more peaks. The detection limit is calculated by approximating the dependence of the uncertainty in the indication on its value with a second-order polynomial. In this approach the relation between the input quantities and the detection limit are described by an explicit expression and can be easy investigated. The detection limit is calculated from the data usually provided by the reports of peak-analyzing programs: the peak areas and their uncertainties. As a result, the need to use individual channel contents for calculating the detection limit is bypassed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling for Dose Rate Calculation of the External Exposure to Gamma Emitters in Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allam, K. A.; El-Mongy, S. A.; El-Tahawy, M. S.; Mohsen, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    Based on the model proposed and developed in Ph.D thesis of the first author of this work, the dose rate conversion factors (absorbed dose rate in air per specific activity of soil in nGy.hr - 1 per Bq.kg - 1) are calculated 1 m above the ground for photon emitters of natural radionuclides uniformly distributed in the soil. This new and simple dose rate calculation software was used for calculation of the dose rate in air 1 m above the ground. Then the results were compared with those obtained by five different groups. Although the developed model is extremely simple, the obtained results of calculations, based on this model, show excellent agreement with those obtained by the above-mentioned models specially that one adopted by UNSCEAR. (authors)

  9. DETEF a Monte Carlo system for the calculation of gamma spectrometers efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, N.; Mann, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method program DETEF calculates the efficiency of cylindrical NaI, Csi, Ge or Si, detectors for photons energy until 2 MeV and several sample geometric. These sources could be punctual, plane cylindrical or rectangular. The energy spectrum appears on the screen simultaneously with the statistical simulation. The calculated and experimental estimated efficiencies coincidence well in the standards deviations intervals

  10. Results of calculations of external gamma radiation exposure rates from local fallout and the related radionuclide compositions of two hypothetical 1-MT nuclear bursts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, H.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents data on calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and local surface deposition of related radionuclides resulting from two hypothetical 1-Mt nuclear bursts. Calculations are made of the debris from two types of bombs: one containing /sup 235/U as a fissionable material (designated oralloy), the other containing /sup 238/U (designated tuballoy). 4 references.

  11. Personal dosimetry calculations by means of radio pharmacokinetic and gamma graphic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga de Murphy, C.; Ferro F, G.; Pedraza L, M.; Montoya M, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    The determination of the absorbed radiation dose is an essential factor to assess the risk to patient with a diagnostic study of nuclear medicine but over all it is indispensable for predicting the efficiency of individualized radio pharmacotherapy and weighting up the risk/benefit of the treatment. In studies for diagnostic or/and treatment of nuclear medicine generally the absorbed radiation dose is not determined for each patient since the methods for estimating it are laborious and include complex models such biological as mathematical, therefore is very important to have a relatively easy method. The obtained data with 99m Tc-Abp., a new radiopharmaceutical for osseous gammagraphy, were used with the purpose of exemplifying a practical method. The radio pharmacokinetic parameters were determined during 24 hours in 10 health voluntaries and serial gamma grams were taken during two hours to another voluntaries. The obtained data were used to estimate, with the MIRDOSE3 computer program, the absorbed radiation dose in an osseous dragging with 99m Tc-Abp. is low: 0.00472 m Gy/MBq to osseous marrow, mainly to the vertebral column and femur, and 0.00169 m Gy/ MBq to whole body. These data are lower than those informed in the medical literature for other bis phosphonates. (Author)

  12. Development and experimental qualification of a calculation scheme for the evaluation of gamma heating in experimental reactors. Application to MARIA and Jules Horowitz (JHR) MTR Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarchalski, M.; Pytel, K.; Wroblewska, M.; Marcinkowska, Z.; Boettcher, A.; Prokopowicz, R. [NCBJ Institute, MARIA Reactor, ul.Andrzeja Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk (Poland); Sireta, P.; Gonnier, C.; Bignan, G. [CEA, DEN, Reactor Studies Department, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lyoussi, A.; Fourmentel, D.; Barbot, L.; Villard, J.F.; Destouches, C. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Reynard-Carette, C.; Brun, J. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Universite de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397, Marseille (France); Jagielski, J. [NCBJ Institute, MARIA Reactor, ul.Andrzeja Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technolgy, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland); Luks, A. [Institute of Heat Engineering, Nowowiejska 21/25, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    Precise computational determination of nuclear heating which consists predominantly of gamma heating (more than 80 %) is one of the challenges in material testing reactor exploitation. Due to sophisticated construction and conditions of experimental programs planned in JHR it became essential to use most accurate and precise gamma heating model. Before the JHR starts to operate, gamma heating evaluation methods need to be developed and qualified in other experimental reactor facilities. This is done inter alia using OSIRIS, MINERVE or EOLE research reactors in France. Furthermore, MARIA - Polish material testing reactor - has been chosen to contribute to the qualification of gamma heating calculation schemes/tools. This reactor has some characteristics close to those of JHR (beryllium usage, fuel element geometry). To evaluate gamma heating in JHR and MARIA reactors, both simulation tools and experimental program have been developed and performed. For gamma heating simulation, new calculation scheme and gamma heating model of MARIA have been carried out using TRIPOLI4 and APOLLO2 codes. Calculation outcome has been verified by comparison to experimental measurements in MARIA reactor. To have more precise calculation results, model of MARIA in TRIPOLI4 has been made using the whole geometry of the core. This has been done for the first time in the history of MARIA reactor and was complex due to cut cone shape of all its elements. Material composition of burnt fuel elements has been implemented from APOLLO2 calculations. An experiment for nuclear heating measurements and calculation verification has been done in September 2014. This involved neutron, photon and nuclear heating measurements at selected locations in MARIA reactor using in particular Rh SPND, Ag SPND, Ionization Chamber (all three from CEA), KAROLINA calorimeter (NCBJ) and Gamma Thermometer (CEA/SCK CEN). Measurements were done in forty points using four channels. Maximal nuclear heating evaluated from

  13. Failure of the Hume-Rothery stabilization mechanism in the Ag5Li8 gamma-brass studied by first-principles FLAPW electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, U; Asahi, R; Noritake, T; Sato, H; Takeuchi, T

    2008-01-01

    The first-principles FLAPW (full potential linearized augmented plane wave) electronic structure calculations were performed for the Ag 5 Li 8 gamma-brass, which contains 52 atoms in a unit cell and has been known for many years as one of the most structurally complex alloy phases. The calculations were also made for its neighboring phase AgLi B2 compound. The main objective in the present work is to examine if the Ag 5 Li 8 gamma-brass is stabilized at the particular electrons per atom ratio e/a = 21/13 in the same way as some other gamma-brasses like Cu 5 Zn 8 and Cu 9 Al 4 , obeying the Hume-Rothery electron concentration rule. For this purpose, the e/a value for the Ag 5 Li 8 gamma-brass as well as the AgLi B2 compound was first determined by means of the FLAPW-Fourier method we have developed. It proved that both the gamma-brass and the B2 compound possess an e/a value equal to unity instead of 21/13. Moreover, we could demonstrate why the Hume-Rothery stabilization mechanism fails for the Ag 5 Li 8 gamma-brass and proposed a new stability mechanism, in which the unique gamma-brass structure can effectively lower the band-structure energy by forming heavily populated bonding states near the bottom of the Ag-4d band

  14. Experimental verification of methods for gamma dose rate calculations in the vicinity of containers with the RA reactor spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Cupac, S.; Pesic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The methodology for equivalent gamma dose rate determination on the outer surface of existing containers with the spent fuel elements of the RA reactor is briefly summarised, and experimental verification of this methodology in the field of gamma rays near the aluminium channel with spent fuel elements lifted from the stainless steel containers no. 275 in the RA reactor hall is presented. The proposed methodology is founded on: the existing fuel burnup data base; methods and models for the photon source determination in the RA reactor spent fuel elements developed in the Vinca Institute, and validated Monte Carlo codes for the equivalent gamma dose rate calculations. (author) [sr

  15. Calculation of critical level value for radioactivity detection in gamma spectrometric analysis on the base of semiconductor detectors under the Chernobyl' conditions in 1986-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazunov, V.O.; Rusyaev, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of determination of radioactivity critical level in a sample by means of gamma spectrometer with semiconductor detector is studied theoretically. The formula for critical level, which shows that it is necessary to know the background pulse counting rate in order to determine the minimum gamma photon pulse counting rates, is derived. Calculations of critical level for the Chernobyl' conditions in time period from October 1986 till July 1987 are made. 8 refs.; 7 figs.; 17 tabs

  16. An analytical calculation of the peak efficiency for cylindrical sources perpendicular to the detector axis in gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Julio C. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Laboratorio de Espectrometria Gamma-CTBTO, Av. Del Libertador 8250, C1429BNP Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: jaguiar@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2008-08-15

    An analytical expression for the so-called full-energy peak efficiency {epsilon}(E) for cylindrical source with perpendicular axis to an HPGe detector is derived, using point-source measurements. The formula covers different measuring distances, matrix compositions, densities and gamma-ray energies; the only assumption is that the radioactivity is homogeneously distributed within the source. The term for the photon self-attenuation is included in the calculation. Measurements were made using three different sized cylindrical sources of {sup 241}Am, {sup 57}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 60}Co with corresponding peaks of 59.5, 122, 662, 835, 1173, and 1332 keV, respectively, and one measurement of radioactive waste drum for 662, 1173, and 1332 keV.

  17. The calculation of some gamma shielding parameters for semiconductor CsPbBr3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oto, Berna; Gulebaglan, Sinem Erden; Kanberoglu, Gulsah Saydan

    2017-02-01

    Recently, researchers produced perovskites structures used in optoelectronic devices as substrates, sensors. CsPbBr3 crystal is found in the cubic perovskite structure and its space group is Pm-3m. CsPbBr3 is a developing material for detection of X- and γ-ray radiations and the knowledge of the attenuation parameters of CsPbBr3 crystal is important. In this study, some photon shielding parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient (μρ), effective atomic number (Zeff) and electron density (Nel) have been investigated for CsPbBr3 compound. The theoretical values of μρ have been calculated in the energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV using WinXCom computer code and these values have been used in order to calculate the values of Zeff and Nel in the same energy range.

  18. Impact of the total absorption gamma-ray spectroscopy on FP decay heat calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Tachibana, Takahiro; Katakura, Jun-ichi

    2004-01-01

    We calculated the average β- and γ-ray energies, E β and E γ , for 44 short-lived isotopes of Rb, Sr, Y, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm and Eu from the data by Greenwood et al, who measured the β-feed in the decay of these nuclides using the total absorption γ-ray spectrometer. These E β and E γ were incorporated into the decay files from JENDL, JEF2.2 and ENDF-B/VI, and the decay heats were calculated. The results were compared with the integral measurements by the University of Tokyo, ORNL and Lowell. In the case of JENDL, where the correction for the so-called Pandemonium effect is applied on the basis of the gross theory, the very good agreement is no longer maintained. The γ-ray component is overestimated in the cooling time range from 3 to 300 seconds, suggesting a kind of an over-correction as for the Pandemonium effect. We have to evaluate both the applicability of the TAGS results and the correction method itself in order to generate a more consistent data basis for decay heat summation calculations. (author)

  19. Fluorescence of the gamma, epsilon, and delta systems of nitric oxide - Polarization and use of calculated intensities for spectrometer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, H. M.; Broida, H. P.

    1971-01-01

    Results of a study in which fluorescence of the gamma system of nitric oxide was obtained by excitation from both the 2144 A line of ionized cadmium and a continuum source. Individual rotational lines of the 2144 A excited fluorescence spectrum were found to be partially polarized and to have polarizations of differ ing sign. Measured relative vibrational band intensities from line and continuum excitation were compared to calculated Franck-Condon factors. Those Franck-Condon factors based on a single potential for the two spin states of the X super pi state agreed better with measured values than those based on separate potentials for the two spin states. Calculated intensities of the v prime = 3 progression were used to calibrate the instrument response in the wavelength region from 2000 to 2500 A and were checked with measured intensities of the v prime = 0.1, and 2 progressions. Fluorescence of the epsilon and delta bands obtained with continuum lamp excitation also were compared to calculated intensities.

  20. Exposition index calculation from different points in a gamma sterilization plant radiation room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation fields produced by a JS-6500 rectangular irradiator source were evaluated. Knowledge of the values of these fields is necessary in irradiation and health physics processes. Techniques for evaluating the dose rates from puntual, linear and plane sources were applied and computer programs for the three sources designed. Fricke, cupric-ferrous and red acrilic dosimetric systems were used, to verify the eight points located along the interior walls of the irradiation room, around the source with 936, 987 Ci of Co-60 (1st-March 1980). When considering the distance between the source and each point of interest the calculated exposition indexes obtained were practically the same for the three source types and were up to 35% greater than the experimental values; in contrast when absorption and buildup of the source were taken in to account, the experimental values were higher than the calculated ones by up to 16%, this in estimating the produced exposition index for a rectangular source at least there two parameters should be included. (author)

  1. KaKs_Calculator 2.0: A Toolkit Incorporating Gamma-Series Methods and Sliding Window Strategies

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Dapeng

    2010-05-05

    We present an integrated stand-alone software package named KaKs_Calculator 2.0 as an updated version. It incorporates 17 methods for the calculation of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates; among them, we added our modified versions of several widely used methods as the gamma series including γ-NG, γ-LWL, γ-MLWL, γ-LPB, γ-MLPB, γ-YN and γ-MYN, which have been demonstrated to perform better under certain conditions than their original forms and are not implemented in the previous version. The package is readily used for the identification of positively selected sites based on a sliding window across the sequences of interests in 5\\' to 3\\' direction of protein-coding sequences, and have improved the overall performance on sequence analysis for evolution studies. A toolbox, including C++ and Java source code and executable files on both Windows and Linux platforms together with a user instruction, is downloadable from the website for academic purpose at https://sourceforge.net/projects/kakscalculator2/.

  2. Explicit calculation of multi-fold contour integrals of certain ratios of Euler gamma functions. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ivan; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Kondrashuk, Igor; Notte-Cuello, Eduardo A.; Parra-Ferrada, Ivan; Rojas-Medar, Marko A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we proceed to study properties of Mellin-Barnes (MB) transforms of Usyukina-Davydychev (UD) functions. In our previous papers (Allendes et al., 2013 [13], Kniehl et al., 2013 [14]), we showed that multi-fold Mellin-Barnes (MB) transforms of Usyukina-Davydychev (UD) functions may be reduced to two-fold MB transforms and that the higher-order UD functions may be obtained in terms of a differential operator by applying it to a slightly modified first UD function. The result is valid in d = 4 dimensions, and its analog in d = 4 - 2 ε dimensions exits, too (Gonzalez and Kondrashuk, 2013 [6]). In Allendes et al. (2013) [13], the chain of recurrence relations for analytically regularized UD functions was obtained implicitly by comparing the left-hand side and the right-hand side of the diagrammatic relations between the diagrams with different loop orders. In turn, these diagrammatic relations were obtained using the method of loop reduction for the triangle ladder diagrams proposed in 1983 by Belokurov and Usyukina. Here, we reproduce these recurrence relations by calculating explicitly, via Barnes lemmas, the contour integrals produced by the left-hand sides of the diagrammatic relations. In this a way, we explicitly calculate a family of multi-fold contour integrals of certain ratios of Euler gamma functions. We make a conjecture that similar results for the contour integrals are valid for a wider family of smooth functions, which includes the MB transforms of UD functions.

  3. Analytical calculations and properties of gamma-rays polymerization of novel acrylates copolymer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, S.M., E-mail: smelsayed@hotmail.co [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Madani, M.; El-Bayoumi, A.S. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    A detailed study of some physical properties of pure PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) film and MMA/Ani (methyl methacrylate/aniline) films is presented. Films of thicknesses ranged from 0.04 to 0.72 mm for MMA/Ani were prepared while it is 0.68 mm for PMMA. The structure of the sample is analyzed by X-ray diffraction technique and is found to be amorphous (PMMA) and partially crystalline (MMA/Ani). Ultra violet-visible electronic absorption spectra measurements were analyzed to obtain some important parameters such as molar extrication coefficient, oscillator strength, dipole strength and having good thermal stability (T{sub d} >300 deg. C) was also reported. TGA studies revealed that the thermal stability of polymethyl methacrylate, prepared by radiation polymerization of methyl methacrylate, improved after copolymerization with aniline. Also, optical behavior of film samples was analyzed by obtaining transmission spectra, in the wavelength range of 200-1100 nm. It was found that all studied samples lead to the appearance of a second edge at lower photon energy due to the formation of the induced energy states. From the intensity of absorption interband transitions (B and Q) which are assigned as type pi-pi* for both PMMA and MMA/Ani films, the energy gaps E{sub g1} and E{sub g2} were calculated respectively. The optical conductivity (sigma) was determined and it was found that with the increase of thicknesses optical energy gap decreases monotonically and the refractive index increases.

  4. Modeling the irradiation facility in the Deir Al-Hajar area to calculate the spatial gamma dose distribution using the MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Bush, M; Kassery, H.

    2009-03-01

    A 3-D model for the irradiation plant which belongs to the Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiation Technology in the Deir Al-Hajar area near Damascus, is presented in this work using the MCNP-4C code. This model is used to calculate the spatial gamma ray dose in the (x, y, z) coordinate. Good agreements are noticed between the measured and the calculated results. (author)

  5. WOLGA 2.1 - a FORTRAN-77-code for calculation of the short-term gamma submersion dose rate caused by gamma radiation of a radioactive off-gas plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebschmann, W.; Papadopoulos, D.; Baer, M.; Honcu, S.

    1992-08-01

    The WOLGA 2.1 computer code calculates the short-term gamma submersion dose rate caused by the radioactive off-gas plume of a single source located at a point near the ground. It is assumed that the off-gas plume maintains its direction and form and that a double Gaussian function describes the distribution of radioactivity within the plume. The activity is assumed to be released from a stack or a building. The buildup factor and the mass attenuation coefficient in air are interpolated - dependent on the gamma energy - from recent results of calculations. The dose rate is calculated for up to 600 defined locations or for a polar grid so that isodose charts can be drawn. The subdivision of the plume into a finite number of volume elements can be chosen freely. It can be so finely divided that the error of the result obtained is less than about 3%. The gamma dispersion factor normalized to a wind velocity of 1 m/s is shown in diagrams for 6 dispersion categories, for emission levels from 0 up to 200 m and for a gamma energy of 1 MeV. These diagrams are consistent with the Allgemeine Verwaltungsvorschrift referring to Para. 45 of the German Radiation Protection Order. (orig.) [de

  6. Radiation-induced reactions of Cl-, CO32-, and Br- in seawater, - Model calculation of gamma radiolysis of seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Kuniki; Hanawa, Satoshi; Kasahara, Shigeki; Muroya, Yusa; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2012-09-01

    Gamma-radiolysis of seawater has been simulated to estimate the concentrations of radiolysis products. Although gas products such as H 2 , O 2 and H 2 O 2 in irradiated pure water quickly attain the steady state with very low concentrations, the products in seawater monotonically increase with dose. It was found that H 2 is produced almost linearly with dose, and corresponding G-value was 4.4 x 10 -8 mol J -1 . As similar result was obtained from the calculation of 8 x 10 -4 mol dm -3 NaBr solution, the origin of the linear increase in seawater was attributable to be the reactions of Br - . According to the sensitivity analysis, three reactions, 1: Br - + ·OH → BrOH· - , 2: BrOH· - → Br - + ·OH, and 3: BrOH· - → Br· + OH - , determined the concentrations of the products. The presence of Cl - and HCO 3 - in seawater hardly affected the concentrations of the radiolysis products. Oxyanions derived from Cl - and Br - were not obtained at observable concentration. (authors)

  7. Dosimetric calculations by Monte Carlo for treatments of radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife, homogeneous and non homogeneous cases; Calculos dosimetricos por Monte Carlo para tratamientos de radiocirugia con el Leksell Gamma Knife, casos homogeneo y no homogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lallena R, A.M. [Universidad de Granada (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    In this work dose profiles are calculated that are obtained modeling treatments of radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife. This was made with the simulation code Monte Carlo Penelope for an homogeneous mannequin and one not homogeneous. Its were carried out calculations with the irradiation focus coinciding with the center of the mannequin as in near areas to the bone interface. Each one of the calculations one carries out for the 4 skull treatment that it includes the Gamma Knife and using a model simplified of their 201 sources of {sup 60} Co. It was found that the dose profiles differ of the order of 2% when the isocenter coincides with the center of the mannequin and they ascend to near 5% when the isocenter moves toward the skull. (Author)

  8. Explicit calculation of multi-fold contour integrals of certain ratios of Euler gamma functions. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Ivan [Valparaiso Univ. (Chile). Inst. de Fisica y Astronomia; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kondrashuk, Igor [Univ. del Bio-Bio, Chillan (Chile). Dept. de Ciencias Basicas; Notte-Cuello, Eduardo A. [La Serena Univ. (Chile). Dept. de Matematicas; Parra-Ferrada, Ivan [Talca Univ. (Chile). Inst. de Matematica y Fisica; Rojas-Medar, Marko A. [Univ. de Tarapaca, Arica (Chile). Inst. de Alta Investigacion

    2016-12-15

    In this paper we proceed to study properties of Mellin-Barnes (MB) transforms of Usyukina-Davydychev (UD) functions. In our previous papers [Nuclear Physics B 870 (2013) 243], [Nuclear Physics B 876 (2013) 322] we showed that multi-fold Mellin-Barnes (MB) transforms of Usyukina-Davydychev (UD) functions may be reduced to two-fold MB transforms and that the higher-order UD functions were obtained in terms of a differential operator by applying it to a slightly modified first UD function. The result is valid in d=4 dimensions and its analog in d=4-2ε dimensions exits too [Theoretical and Mathematical Physics 177 (2013) 1515]. In [Nuclear Physics B 870 (2013) 243] the chain of recurrent relations for analytically regularized UD functions was obtained implicitly by comparing the left hand side and the right hand side of the diagrammatic relations between the diagrams with different loop orders. In turn, these diagrammatic relations were obtained due to the method of loop reductions for the triangle ladder diagrams proposed in 1983 by Belokurov and Usyukina. Here we reproduce these recurrent relations by calculating explicitly via Barnes lemmas the contour integrals produced by the left hand sides of the diagrammatic relations. In such a way we explicitly calculate a family of multi-fold contour integrals of certain ratios of Euler gamma functions. We make a conjecture that similar results for the contour integrals are valid for a wider family of smooth functions which includes the MB transforms of UD functions.

  9. Nondestructive analysis of the RA fuel burnup, Calculation of the gamma activity ratio of fission products in the fuel - program QU0C1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulovic, V.F.

    1973-01-01

    The γ radiation of RA reactor fuel element was measured under precisely defined measuring conditions. The spectrum was analysed by spectrometer with semiconductor Ge(Li) detector. The gamma counting rate in the fuel spectrum is defined as a function of fission product activity, gamma energy and yield, fuel thickness and additional absorbers, dimensions of the gamma collimator. Activity ratio of two fission products is defined as a function of counting rate peaks and part of the mentioned quantities. Four options for calculating the activities for fission products are discussed. Three of them are covered by the QU0C1 code written in FORTRAN for the CDC 3600 computer. The code is included in this report [sr

  10. Neutron and gamma spectra measurements and calculations in benchmark spherical iron assemblies with sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron source in the centre

    CERN Document Server

    Jansky, B; Turzik, Z; Kyncl, J; Cvachovec, F; Trykov, L A; Volkov, V S

    2002-01-01

    The neutron and gamma spectra measurements have been made for benchmark iron spherical assemblies with the diameter of 30, 50 and 100 cm. The sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron sources with different emissions were placed into the centre of iron spheres. In the first stage of the project, independent laboratories took part in the leakage spectra measurements. The proton recoil method was used with stilbene crystals and hydrogen proportional counters. The working range of spectrometers for neutrons is in energy range from 0.01 to 16 MeV, and for gamma from 0.40 to 12 MeV. Some adequate calculations have been carried out. The propose to carefully analyse the leakage mixed neutron and gamma spectrum from iron sphere of diameter 50 cm and then adopt that field as standard.

  11. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234,236,238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bredeweg, Todd Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baramsai, Bayarbadrakh [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haight, Robert Cameron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jandel, Marian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Donnell, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vieira, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilhelmy, Jerry B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Becker, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wu, Ching-Yen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Krticka, Milan [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-28

    Neutron capture cross sections in the “continuum” region (>≈1 keV) and gamma-emission spectra are of importance to basic science and many applied fields. Careful measurements have been made on most common stable nuclides, but physicists must rely on calculations (or “surrogate” reactions) for rare or unstable nuclides. Calculations must be benchmarked against measurements (cross sections, gamma-ray spectra, and <Γγ>). Gamma-ray spectrum measurements from resolved resonances were made with 1 - 2 mg/cm2 thick targets; cross sections at >1 keV were measured using thicker targets. The results show that the shape of capture cross section vs neutron energy is not sensitive to the form of the strength function (although the magnitude is); the generalized Lorentzian E1 strength function is not sufficient to describe the shape of observed gamma-ray spectra; MGLO + “Oslo M1” parameters produces quantitative agreement with the measured 238U(n,γ) cross section; additional strength at low energies (~ 3 MeV) -- likely M1-- is required; and careful study of complementary results on low-lying giant resonance strength is needed to consistently describe observations.

  12. Dose calculation in biological samples in a mixed neutron-gamma field at the TRIGA reactor of the University of Mainz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, T.; Blaickner, M.; Schütz, C.

    2010-01-01

    biological effectiveness (RBE) of liver and cancer cells in our mixed neutron and gamma field. We work with alanine detectors in combination with Monte Carlo simulations, where we can measure and characterize the dose. To verify our calculations we perform neutron flux measurements using gold foil activation...... and pin-diodes. Material and methods. When L-α-alanine is irradiated with ionizing radiation, it forms a stable radical which can be detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The value of the ESR signal correlates to the amount of absorbed dose. The dose for each pellet is calculated using...... of the mixed neutron and gamma field of the TRIGA Mainz is possible in order to characterize the neutron behavior in the thermal column. Currently we also speculate on sensitizing alanine to thermal neutrons by adding boron compounds....

  13. A semianalytical method for calculating the parameters of the electromagnetic halos around extragalactic gamma-ray sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kel'ner, [No Value; Khangulyan, DV; Aharonian, FA

    2004-01-01

    The ultrahigh-energy (>20 TeV) gamma rays emitted by active galactic nuclei can be absorbed in intergalactic space through the production of electron-positron pairs during their interaction with extragalactic background photon fields. The electrons and positrons produced by this interaction form an

  14. Total absorption gamma-ray spectroscopy (TAGS): Current status of measurement programmes for decay heat calculations and other applications. Summary report of consultants' meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.; Nordborg, C.

    2009-02-01

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectroscopy (TAGS)' was held on 27-28 January 2009 at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria. All presentations, discussions and recommendations of this meeting are contained within this report. The purpose of the meeting was to report and discuss progress and plans to measure total gamma-ray spectra in order to derive mean beta and gamma decay data for decay heat calculations and other applications. This form of review had been recommended by contributors to Subgroup 25 of the OECD-NEA Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation of the Nuclear Science Committee, for implementation in 2008/09. Hence, relevant specialists were invited to discuss their recently performed and planned TAGS studies, along with experimentalists proposing to assemble and operate such dedicated facilities. Knowledge and quantification of antineutrino spectra is believed to be a significant asset in the non-invasive monitoring of reactor operations and possible application in safeguards, as well as fundamental in the study of neutrino oscillations - these data needs were also debated in terms of appropriate TAGS measurements. A re-assessment of the current request list for TAGS studies is merited and was undertaken in the context of decay heat calculations, and agreement was reached to extend these requirements to the derivation of antineutrino spectra. (author)

  15. Calculation spreadsheet for uncertainty estimation of measurement results in gamma-ray spectrometry and its validation for quality assurance purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccatelli, Alessia; Dybdal, Ashild; Fajgelj, Ales; Pitois, Aurelien

    2017-01-01

    An Excel calculation spreadsheet has been developed to estimate the uncertainty of measurement results in γ-ray spectrometry. It considers all relevant uncertainty components and calculates the combined standard uncertainty of the measurement result. The calculation spreadsheet has been validated using two independent open access software and is available for download free of charge. It provides a simple and easy-to-use template for estimating the uncertainty of γ-ray spectrometry measurement results and supports the radioanalytical laboratories seeking accreditation for their measurements using γ-ray spectrometry. - Highlights: • A calculation spreadsheet for estimation of measurement result uncertainty in γ-ray spectrometry was developed. • Two independent software were used to validate the calculation spreadsheet. • The calculation spreadsheet is available for download free of charge. • The work presented supports quality assurance of radioanalytical laboratories.

  16. A DOSE CALCULATION MODEL APPLICATION FOR INDOOR EXPOSURE TO TWO-LAYER WALLS GAMMA IRRADIATION: THE CASE STUDY OF CERAMIC TILES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Serena; Verità, Simona; Rossi, Pier Luca; Maduar, Marcelo Francis

    2016-12-01

    A calculation model for determining the indoor dose due to building materials with significant concentration of radioactivity has been applied to the case study of ceramic tiles; the model allows the contribution of bearing walls and wall covering materials to be calculated. The model is implemented in FORTRAN 77 and provides a quantification of the gamma radiation field (in terms of external dose rate in air, nGyh -1 ) inside a room with known dimensions. Application model results have been validated both by comparison with the results obtained by other authors and by experimental measurements. Model sensitivity and performances have been analysed and lastly the case studies focused on ceramic tiles have been proposed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Gamma-ray absorption coefficient of non-homogeneous materials. Part 2. Monte-Carlo calculations and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umiastowski, K.; Buniak, M.; Gyurcsak, J.; Maloszewski, P.

    1976-01-01

    Monte-Carlo calculations and experiments performed in order to verify the analytical formulae developed in the first part of the present paper are discussed. The grain size effect parameter R is determined from the measurements and Monte-Carlo calculations of the absorption coefficient of the granular samples. The dependence of parameter R on the dimensionless grain size Y, obtained in this way is compared with the one calculated from the formulae of Part 1. Good agreement is obtained for all results in a broad range of radiation energies (from 17 keV to 1.33 MeV) and grain sizes (from 40 μm to 4.0 cm). (author)

  18. New possibilities for improving the accuracy of parameter calculations for cascade gamma-ray decay of heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhovoj, A.M.; Khitrov, V.A.; Grigor'ev, E.P.

    2002-01-01

    The level density and radiative strength functions which accurately reproduce the experimental intensity of two- step cascades after thermal neutron capture and the total radiative widths of the compound states were applied to calculate the total γ-ray spectra from the (n,γ) reaction. In some cases, analysis showed far better agreement with experiment and gave insight into possible ways in which these parameters need to be corrected for further improvement of calculation accuracy for the cascade γ-decay of heavy nuclei. (author)

  19. Absorbed dose calculation from beta and gamma rays of 131I in ellipsoidal thyroid and other organs of neck with MCNPX code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirzaie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 131I radioisotope is used for diagnosis and treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. In optimized Iodine therapy, a specific dose must be reached to the thyroid gland with minimum radiation to the cervical spine, cervical vertebrae, neck tissue, subcutaneous fat and skin. Dose measurement inside the alive organ is difficult therefore the aim of this research was dose calculation in the organs by MCNPX code. Materials and Methods: First of all, the input file for MCNPX code has been prepared to calculate F6 and F8 tallies for ellipsoidal thyroid lobes with long axes is tow times of short axes which the 131I is distributed uniformly inside the lobes. Then the code has been run for F6 and F8 tallies for variation of lobe volume from 1 to 25 milliliters. From the output file of tally F6, the gamma absorbed dose in ellipsoidal thyroid, spinal neck, neck bone, neck tissue, subcutaneous fat layer and skin for the volume lobe variation from 1 ml to 25 ml have been derived and the graphs are drew. As well as, form the output of F8 tally the absorbed energy of beta in thyroid and soft tissue of neck is obtained and listed in the table and then absorbed dose of bate has been calculated. Results: The results of this research show that for constant activity in thyroid, the absorbed dose of gamma decreases about 88.3% in thyroid, 6.9% at soft tissue, 19.3% in adipose layer and 17.4% in skin, but it increases 32.1% in spinal of neck and 32.3% in neck bone when the lobe volume varied from 1 to 25 milliliters. For the same situation, the beta absorbed dose decreases 95.9% in thyroid and 64.2% in soft tissue. Conclusion: For the constant activity in thyroid by increasing the thyroid volume, absorbed dose of gamma in thyroid and soft tissue of neck, adipose layer under the skin and skin of neck decreased, but it increased at spinal of neck and neck bone. Also, by increasing of the lobe volume in constant activity, the beta absorbed dose

  20. Calculation of thermal neutron self-shielding correction factors for aqueous bulk sample prompt gamma neutron activation analysis using the MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrabadi, M.N.; Jalali, M.; Mohammadi, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this work thermal neutron self-shielding in aqueous bulk samples containing neutron absorbing materials is studied using bulk sample prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (BSPGNAA) with the MCNP code. The code was used to perform three dimensional simulations of a neutron source, neutron detector and sample of various material compositions. The MCNP model was validated against experimental measurements of the neutron flux performed using a BF 3 detector. Simulations were performed to predict thermal neutron self-shielding in aqueous bulk samples containing neutron absorbing solutes. In practice, the MCNP calculations are combined with experimental measurements of the relative thermal neutron flux over the sample's surface, with respect to a reference water sample, to derive the thermal neutron self-shielding within the sample. The proposed methodology can be used for the determination of the elemental concentration of unknown aqueous samples by BSPGNAA where knowledge of the average thermal neutron flux within the sample volume is required

  1. GRAB - WRS system module number 60221 for calculating gamma-ray penetration in slab shields by the method of kernel integration with build-up factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstone, M.J.

    1978-06-01

    The WRS Modular Programming System has been developed as a means by which programmes may be more efficiently constructed, maintained and modified. In this system a module is a self-contained unit typically composed of one or more Fortran routines, and a programme is constructed from a number of such modules. This report describes one WRS module, the function of which is to calculate the gamma-ray flux, dose, or heating rate in a slab shield using the build-up factor method. The information given in this manual is of use both to the programmer wishing to incorporate the module in a programme, and to the user of such a programme. (author)

  2. The application of an eddy diffusivity model to the dispersion of radionuclides in the atmosphere and the calculation of cloud gamma exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.

    1981-05-01

    A model which has been applied successfully to the study of the mesoscale transport of sulphur compounds can be adapted for radionuclides released from nuclear power stations. Although more complicated than the conventional Gaussian plume models it has several important advantages including the better representation of dry deposition and the variation of dispersion parameters with height above the surface. Building entrainment can be included in a straightforward manner and an approximate method can be used to incorporate isotope-dependent deposition velocities. A new method of calculating cloud gamma exposure is described which is particularly suited to eddy diffusivity models. This model will be used as an alternative to Gaussian plume methods in the BNL safety code NECTAR. (author)

  3. MCNPX calculations of dose rate distribution inside samples treated in the research gamma irradiating facility at CTEx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, Tiago; Rebello, Wilson F.; Vellozo, Sergio O.; Gomes, Renato G., E-mail: tiagorusin@ime.eb.b, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.b, E-mail: vellozo@cbpf.b, E-mail: renatoguedes@ime.eb.b [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.b [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    A cavity-type cesium-137 research irradiating facility at CTEx has been modeled by using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. The irradiator has been daily used in experiments to optimize the use of ionizing radiation for conservation of many kinds of food and to improve materials properties. In order to correlate the effects of the treatment, average doses have been calculated for each irradiated sample, accounting for the measured dose rate distribution in the irradiating chambers. However that approach is only approximate, being subject to significant systematic errors due to the heterogeneous internal structure of most samples that can lead to large anisotropy in attenuation and Compton scattering properties across the media. Thus this work is aimed at further investigating such uncertainties by calculating the dose rate distribution inside the items treated such that a more accurate and representative estimate of the total absorbed dose can be determined for later use in the effects-versus-dose correlation curves. Samples of different simplified geometries and densities (spheres, cylinders, and parallelepipeds), have been modeled to evaluate internal dose rate distributions within the volume of the samples and the overall effect on the average dose. (author)

  4. MCNPX calculations of dose rate distribution inside samples treated in the research gamma irradiating facility at CTEx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, Tiago; Rebello, Wilson F.; Vellozo, Sergio O.; Gomes, Renato G.; Silva, Ademir X.

    2011-01-01

    A cavity-type cesium-137 research irradiating facility at CTEx has been modeled by using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. The irradiator has been daily used in experiments to optimize the use of ionizing radiation for conservation of many kinds of food and to improve materials properties. In order to correlate the effects of the treatment, average doses have been calculated for each irradiated sample, accounting for the measured dose rate distribution in the irradiating chambers. However that approach is only approximate, being subject to significant systematic errors due to the heterogeneous internal structure of most samples that can lead to large anisotropy in attenuation and Compton scattering properties across the media. Thus this work is aimed at further investigating such uncertainties by calculating the dose rate distribution inside the items treated such that a more accurate and representative estimate of the total absorbed dose can be determined for later use in the effects-versus-dose correlation curves. Samples of different simplified geometries and densities (spheres, cylinders, and parallelepipeds), have been modeled to evaluate internal dose rate distributions within the volume of the samples and the overall effect on the average dose. (author)

  5. Possible origin of the gamma-ray discrepancy in the summation calculations of fission product decay heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Tachibana, Takahiro; Storrer, F.; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro; Katakura, Jun-ichi

    1999-01-01

    In order to identify the origin of the ubiquitous and long-standing discrepancy seen in the γ-ray component of the FP decay heat in the cooling time range 300-3,000 s, a comprehensive analysis of the differences between the summation calculations and the experiments has been carried out. There may be some missing of the β-strength in the high energy region of the FPs in the mass region A=100-110. Especially, 102 Tc, 104 Tc, 105 Tc and 108 Rh are potentially responsible for the γ-ray discrepancy seen in the three major fissioning nuclides, 235 U, 238 U and 239 Pu, systematically. The β-strength functions are theoretically calculated in order to validate this possibility. It is proved that the chance for finding the additional β-strength required to solve the discrepancy is not so large but still exists, and the exact β-feed from Tc to the highly excited levels in Rb should be identified experimentally. Finally, the impact of the γ-ray discrepancy on the reactor-core decay heat is evaluated quantitatively for the first time. It may introduce 0.5-1% underestimation of the total FP decay heat from 1 to 2,000 s after reactor shutdown, and the underestimation may reach 3% at the maximum when the γ-ray component of the decay heat is separately taken into consideration. (author)

  6. Gamma dose rate calculations for conceptual design of a shield system for spent fuel interim dry storage in CNA 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, A; Gomez S

    2012-01-01

    After completing the rearrangement of the Spent Fuel Elements (SFE) into a compact arrangement in the two storage water pools, Atucha Nuclear Reactor 1 (ANR 1) will leave free position for the wet storage of the SFE discharged until December 2014. Even, in two possible scenarios, such as extending operation from 2015 or the cessation of operation after that date, it will be necessary to empty the interim storage water pools transferring the SFE to a temporary dry storage system. Because the law 25.018 'Management of Radioactive Wastes' implies for the first scenario - operation beyond 2015 - that Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. will still be in charge of the dry storage system and for the second - the cessation of operation after 2015 - the National Commission of Atomic Energy (CNEA) will be in charge by the National Management Program of Radioactive Wastes, the interim dry storage system of SNF is an issue of common interest which justifies go forward together. For that purpose and in accordance with the criticality and shielding calculations relevant to the project, in this paper we present the dose rate calculations for shielding conceptual design of a system for dry interim storage of the SFE of ANR 1. The specifications includes that the designed system must be suitable without modification for the SFE of the ANR 2. The results for the calculation of the photon dose rate, in touch and at one meter far, for the Transport Module and the Container of the SFE, are presented, which are required and controlled by the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It was used the SAS4 module of SCALE5.1 system and MCNP5. As a design tool for the photon shielding in order to meet current standards for allowable dose rates, a radial and axial parametric analysis were developed based on the thickness of lead of the Transport Module. The results were compared and verified between the two computing systems. Before this

  7. States with several particles in e{sup +}e{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} colliders: technique of calculation and launch of a new physics; Etats a plusieurs particules dans les collisionneurs e{sup +}e{sup -} et {gamma}{gamma}: techniques de calcul et effets d'une nouvelle physique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafage, V. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules Elementaires]|[Universite de Paris Sud, 91 - Orsay (France)

    1996-10-22

    The mass generation in the Standard Model of Particles Physics relies on a spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism. Its implementation is recalled, along with its constraints, both theoretical (Naturalness, Stability, Triviality, Unitarity) and experimental (limits of direct and indirect searches, prospects). Calculation techniques for observables evaluation in Perturbative Field Theory are described, particularly Helicity Amplitude method, which is given in details: fermions and vector bosons, massless and massive. Monte-Carlo integration, and structure functions approximations (which allows non-perturbative calculations) are also detailed. With these tools, a process giving to Physics beyond the Standard Model is studied: it leads to an experimental prediction for the LEP collision ring, taking the classical background into account. Technical aspects of a future photon linear collider are reviewed. The production of heavy vector bosons, either the classical Z for the hypothetical Z' (whether it couples preferentially to quarks or not) is analysed in this environment. Finally, top quark pair production from W bosons fusion is used to look for the symmetry breaking mechanism. The study is done in an experimentally realistic environment: background isolation (by splitting the process in gauge invariants subsets), role of polarisation, tagging of non-standard symmetry breaking mechanism. (author)

  8. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramebaeck, H.; Straelberg, E.; Klemola, S.; Nielsen, Sven P.; Palsson, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  9. GRUNCLE, 1. Collision Source Calculation for Program DOT. DOT-3.5, 2-D Neutron Transport, Gamma Transport Program DOT with New Space-Scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A - Nature of problem or function: DOT solves the Boltzmann transport equation in two-dimensional geometries. Principal applications are to neutron and/or photon transport, although the code can be applied to transport problems for any particles not subject to external force fields. Both homogeneous and external-source problems can be solved. Searches on multiplication factor, time absorption, nuclide concentration, and zone thickness are available for reactor problems. Numerous edits and output data sets for subsequent use are available. DOT-3.5 improves the space-scaling algorithm. DOT-3.5/CAB contains group by group UPSCATTER scaling method. DUCT calculates perturbations to the scalar flux caused by the presence of ducts filled with coolant. VIP is a program for cross section sensitivity analysis using two- dimensional discrete ordinates transport calculations. DGRAD calculates the directional flux gradients from DOT-3 diffusion theory flux tapes. In conjunction with VIP and TPERT, it allows the use of diffusion theory fluxes to obtain exact and first-order perturbation reactivity changes. In order to calculate the reactivity associated with changes in reactor compositions using diffusion theory, it is necessary to fold not only the scalar fluxes with the appropriate cross sections, but also the average flux gradients with the diffusion coefficients. Since DOT diffusion theory does not directly calculate these gradients, it was necessary to calculate the needed quantities external to the DOT code. TPERT is a perturbation code to obtain exact and first-order reactivity changes. TPERT is coupled to VIP which generates adjoint forward flux tables using DOT-3 scalar flux tape information. GRTUNCL calculates an analytical first-collision source for subsequent use in DOT. B - Method of solution: The method of discrete ordinates is used. Balance equations are solved for the density of particles moving along discrete directions in each cell of a two-dimensional spatial

  10. Site dose calculations for the INEEL/TMI-2 storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.B.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is licensing an independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI) for the Three Mile Island unit 2 (TMI-2) core debris to be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) site at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) using the NUHOMS spent-fuel storage system. This paper describes the site dose calculations, performed in support of the license application, that estimate exposures both on the site and for members of the public. These calculations are unusual for dry-storage facilities in that they must account for effluents from the system in addition to skyshine from the ISFSI. The purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate compliance with the 10 CFR 20 and 10 CFR 72.104 exposure limits

  11. Renormalization Group Scaling of Higgs Operators and \\Gamma(h -> \\gamma \\gamma)

    CERN Document Server

    Grojean, Christophe; Manohar, Aneesh V; Trott, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We compute the renormalization of dimension six Higgs-gauge boson operators that can modify \\Gamma(h -> \\gamma \\gamma) at tree-level. Operator mixing is shown to lead to an important modification of new physics effects which has been neglected in past calculations. We also find that the usual formula for the S oblique parameter contribution of these Higgs-gauge boson operators needs additional terms to be consistent with renormalization group evolution. We study the implications of our results for Higgs phenomenology and for new physics models which attempt to explain a deviation in \\Gamma(h -> \\gamma \\gamma). We derive a new relation between the S parameter and the \\Gamma(h -> \\gamma \\gamma) and \\Gamma(h ->Z \\gamma) decay rates.

  12. Gamma gamma technology group

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The gamma gamma community are concerned that in the rush to prepare for the e+e− machine, allowance is not being made for a future upgrade of the photon linear collider. References. [1] ECFA/DESY Photon Collider Working Group: B Badelek et al, TESLA Technical. Design Report, Part VI, Chapter 1: Photon collider at ...

  13. Monte-Carlo method applied to the energy loss calculation of the gamma rays isotropic flux in the NaI(tau l) cylindrical scintillator between 0.5-20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, I.M.; Dutra, S.L.G.; Palmeira, R.A.R.

    1975-01-01

    Using the 'Monte Carlo' method, a determination was made of the response function of a NaI cylindrical crystal when exposed to an omnidirectional γ ray flux in the range 0.5 - 20 MeV. Improvements over previous similar calculations include considerations of the bremsstrahlung and multiple scattering processes in the slowing down of the secondary electrons. These calculations will be applied to the problem of determining the energy spectrum of an incident gamma ray flux from the measured response of the crystal in the space [pt

  14. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strålberg, Elisabeth; Klemola, Seppo; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical...

  15. EVIDENCE FOR ENHANCED {sup 3}HE IN FLARE-ACCELERATED PARTICLES BASED ON NEW CALCULATIONS OF THE GAMMA-RAY LINE SPECTRUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R. J. [Code 7650, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kozlovsky, B. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Share, G. H., E-mail: murphy@ssd5.nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: benz@wise.tau.ac.il, E-mail: share@astro.umd.edu [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The {sup 3}He abundance in impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) events is enhanced up to several orders of magnitude compared to its photospheric value of [{sup 3}He]/[{sup 4}He] = 1–3 × 10{sup −4}. Interplanetary magnetic field and timing observations suggest that these events are related to solar flares. Observations of {sup 3}He in flare-accelerated ions would clarify the relationship between these two phenomena. Energetic {sup 3}He interactions in the solar atmosphere produce gamma-ray nuclear-deexcitation lines, both lines that are also produced by protons and α particles and lines that are essentially unique to {sup 3}He. Gamma-ray spectroscopy can, therefore, reveal enhanced levels of accelerated {sup 3}He. In this paper, we identify all significant deexcitation lines produced by {sup 3}He interactions in the solar atmosphere. We evaluate their production cross sections and incorporate them into our nuclear deexcitation-line code. We find that enhanced {sup 3}He can affect the entire gamma-ray spectrum. We identify gamma-ray line features for which the yield ratios depend dramatically on the {sup 3}He abundance. We determine the accelerated {sup 3}He/ α ratio by comparing these ratios with flux ratios measured previously from the gamma-ray spectrum obtained by summing the 19 strongest flares observed with the Solar Maximum Mission Gamma-Ray Spectrometer. All six flux ratios investigated show enhanced {sup 3}He, confirming earlier suggestions. The {sup 3}He/ α weighted mean of these new measurements ranges from 0.05 to 0.3 (depending on the assumed accelerated α /proton ratio) and has a <1 × 10{sup −3} probability of being consistent with the photospheric value. With the improved code, we can now exploit the full potential of gamma-ray spectroscopy to establish the relationship between flare-accelerated ions and {sup 3}He-rich SEPs.

  16. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramebaeck, H. (ed.) (Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden)); Straalberg, E. (Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)); Klemola, S. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Nielsen, Sven P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland))

    2012-01-15

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  17. Personal dosimetry calculations by means of radio pharmacokinetic and gamma graphic studies; Calculos de dosimetria personalizada por medio de estudios radiofarmacocineticos y gammagraficos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga de Murphy, C.; Ferro F, G.; Pedraza L, M.; Montoya M, C.E. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion, Vasco de Quiroga 15, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The determination of the absorbed radiation dose is an essential factor to assess the risk to patient with a diagnostic study of nuclear medicine but over all it is indispensable for predicting the efficiency of individualized radio pharmacotherapy and weighting up the risk/benefit of the treatment. In studies for diagnostic or/and treatment of nuclear medicine generally the absorbed radiation dose is not determined for each patient since the methods for estimating it are laborious and include complex models such biological as mathematical, therefore is very important to have a relatively easy method. The obtained data with {sup 99m} Tc-Abp., a new radiopharmaceutical for osseous gammagraphy, were used with the purpose of exemplifying a practical method. The radio pharmacokinetic parameters were determined during 24 hours in 10 health voluntaries and serial gamma grams were taken during two hours to another voluntaries. The obtained data were used to estimate, with the MIRDOSE3 computer program, the absorbed radiation dose in an osseous dragging with {sup 99m} Tc-Abp. is low: 0.00472 m Gy/MBq to osseous marrow, mainly to the vertebral column and femur, and 0.00169 m Gy/ MBq to whole body. These data are lower than those informed in the medical literature for other bis phosphonates. (Author)

  18. A new measurement of the rare decay eta -> pi^0 gamma gamma with the Crystal Ball/TAPS detectors at the Mainz Microtron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B M; Prakhov, S; Aguar-Bartolom��, P; Annand, J R; Arends, H J; Bantawa, K; Beck, R; Bekrenev, V; Bergh��user, H; Braghieri, A; Briscoe, W J; Brudvik, J; Cherepnya, S; Codling, R F; Collicott, C; Costanza, S; Danilkin, I V; Denig, A; Demissie, B; Dieterle, M; Downie, E J; Drexler, P; Fil' kov, L V; Fix, A; Garni, S; Glazier, D I; Gregor, R; Hamilton, D; Heid, E; Hornidge, D; Howdle, D; Jahn, O; Jude, T C; Kashevarov, V L; K��ser, A; Keshelashvili, I; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Kotulla, M; Koulbardis, A; Kruglov, S; Krusche, B; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; MacGregor, I J; Maghrbi, Y; Mancel, J; Manley, D M; McNicoll, E F; Mekterovic, D; Metag, V; Mushkarenkov, A; Nikolaev, A; Novotny, R; Oberle, M; Ortega, H; Ostrick, M; Ott, P; Otte, P B; Oussena, B; Pedroni, P; Polonski, A; Robinson, J; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, T; Schumann, S; Sikora, M H; Starostin, A; Strakovsky, I I; Strub, T; Suarez, I M; Supek, I; Tarbert, C M; Thiel, M; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Watts, D P; Werthmueller, D; Witthauer, L

    2014-08-01

    A new measurement of the rare, doubly radiative decay eta->pi^0 gamma gamma was conducted with the Crystal Ball and TAPS multiphoton spectrometers together with the photon tagging facility at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. New data on the dependence of the partial decay width, Gamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma), on the two-photon invariant mass squared, m^2(gamma gamma), as well as a new, more precise value for the decay width, Gamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma) = (0.33+/-0.03_tot) eV, are based on analysis of 1.2 x 10^3 eta->pi^0 gamma gamma decays from a total of 6 x 10^7 eta mesons produced in the gamma p -> eta p reaction. The present results for dGamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma)/dm^2(gamma gamma) are in good agreement with previous measurements and recent theoretical calculations for this dependence.

  19. Study to improve the precision of calculation of split renal clearance by gamma camera method using 99mTc-MAG3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, Hiroaki; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Yanagimoto, Shinichi

    1999-01-01

    Both fundamental and clinical studies were performed to improve the precision with which split renal clearance is calculated from the relation between renal clearance and the total renal uptake rate by using 99m Tc-MAG 3 , which is mainly excreted into the proximal renal tubules. In the fundamental study, the most suitable kidney phantom threshold values for the extracted renal outline were investigated with regard to size, radioactivity, depth of the kidney phantom, and radioactivity in the background. In the clinical study, suitable timing to obtain additional images for making the ROI and the standard point for calculation of renal uptake rate were investigated. The results indicated that, although suitable threshold values were distributed from 25% to 45%, differences in size, solution activity, and the position of the phantom or BG activity did not have significant effects. Comparing 1-3 min with 2-5 min as the time for additional images for ROI, we found that renal areas using the former time showed higher values, and the correlation coefficient of the regression formula improved significantly. Comparison of the timing for the start of data acquisition with the end of the arterial phase as a standard point of calculating renal uptake rate showed improvement in the latter. (author)

  20. S-wave \\gamma\\gamma\\to \\pi\\pi and f_0(980)\\to \\pi\\pi

    OpenAIRE

    Oller, J. A.; Roca, L.; Schat, C.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a dispersion relation for the \\gamma\\gamma\\to (\\pi\\pi)_I S-wave in isospin I emphasizing the low energy region. The f_0(980) signal that emerges in \\gamma\\gamma\\to \\pi\\pi is also discussed. Our results could be used to distinguish between different \\pi\\pi isoscalar S-wave parameterizations. We also calculate the width of the \\sigma resonance to \\gamma\\gamma and obtain the value \\Gamma(\\sigma\\to\\gamma\\gamma)=(1.68\\pm 0.15) KeV. Finally, we elaborate on the size of the f_0(980) cou...

  1. A New Approach on Output Current Calculation for Thimble-type Ionization Chamber with Variation of Gamma-ray Irradiation Angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Cheon; Kim, Soon Young; Kim, Yong Kyun; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2006-01-01

    The output current of an ionization chamber is directly connected with the size of the active volume and ion-pair distribution in air volume. Their accurate assessments are significantly important in order to analyze the design characteristics of an ionization chamber and interpret the measurements with it. It has been generally assumed that ion-pairs are generated uniformly in air volume for simplicity although they are not uniformly distributed due to various source and geometry conditions. Ion-pair distribution is mainly dependent on the irradiation source conditions, while active volume is deeply related to the ionization chamber design. Therefore, such assumption should be examined if the ion-pair distribution affects real output current of the active volume defined by electric field. A new analytical approach considering both electric field and ion-pair nonuniformity has been proposed to analyze accurately the design characteristics of an ionization chamber and interpretation of measurements with it. The angular dependence analysis was carried out to validate the new concept for calculation of output current

  2. Neutron monitoring systems including gamma thermometers and methods of calibrating nuclear instruments using gamma thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Stephan Craig; Meyers, Craig Glenn; Petzen, John Alexander; Foard, Adam Muhling

    2012-08-07

    A method of calibrating a nuclear instrument using a gamma thermometer may include: measuring, in the instrument, local neutron flux; generating, from the instrument, a first signal proportional to the neutron flux; measuring, in the gamma thermometer, local gamma flux; generating, from the gamma thermometer, a second signal proportional to the gamma flux; compensating the second signal; and calibrating a gain of the instrument based on the compensated second signal. Compensating the second signal may include: calculating selected yield fractions for specific groups of delayed gamma sources; calculating time constants for the specific groups; calculating a third signal that corresponds to delayed local gamma flux based on the selected yield fractions and time constants; and calculating the compensated second signal by subtracting the third signal from the second signal. The specific groups may have decay time constants greater than 5.times.10.sup.-1 seconds and less than 5.times.10.sup.5 seconds.

  3. PSYCRODATA: a software which calculates the air humidity characteristics and relate its with the variations of the gamma environmental bottom; PSYCRODATA: software que calcula las caracteristicas de la humedad del aire y las relaciona con las variaciones del fondo gamma ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso A, D.; Dominguez L, O.; Ramos V, O.; Caveda R, C.A.; Capote F, E. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba); Dominguez G, A.; Valdes S, E. [Instituto Superior de Ciencias y Tecnicas Aplicadas (INSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Rodriguez V, E. [Instituto de Meteorologia (INSMET), La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: lola@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The computer tool 'Psycrodata', able to calculate the values of those characteristics of the humidity of the air starting from the measurements carried out of humidity and temperature in the post of occident of the National Net of Environmental Radiological Surveillance was obtained. Among the facilities that 'Psycrodata' toasts it is the keeping the obtained information in a database facilitating the making of reports. For another part the possibility of selection of different approaches for the calculation and the introduction of the psicrometric coefficient to use, its make that each station can have the suitable psicrometric chart keeping in mind the instrumentation and the characteristics of the area of location of the same one. Also, can have facilities to import text files for later on to be plotted, it allowed to correlate the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation, besides of the temperature and the humidity, with the tension of the water steam, the temperature of the dew point and the saturation deficit. (Author)

  4. Gamma Knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tested on a regular basis to ensure the safety of patients and medical staff. top of page This page ... Brain Tumor Treatment Introduction to Cancer Therapy (Radiation Oncology) Cerebral ... to Gamma Knife Sponsored by Please ...

  5. Study of double-tagged $\\gamma\\gamma$ events at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alderweireld, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, P.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Shlyapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.J.; Crawley, B.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; DeMaria, N.; De Min, A.; De Paula, L.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Houlden, M.A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Johansson, P.D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kerzel, U.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.T.; Kjaer, N.J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kuznetsov, O.; Krumshtein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McNulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjornmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Monig, Klaus; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Muller, U.; Munich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevsky, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J.P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Ramler, L.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tkachev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Vertogradova, Yu.L.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimine, N.I.; Zinchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Double-tagged interactions of photons with virtualities Q^2 between 10GeV^2 and 200GeV^2 are studied with the data collected by DELPHI at LEP2 from 1998 to 2000, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 550pb^-1. The gamma*gamma* -> mu+mu- data agree with QED predictions. The cross-section of the reaction gamma*gamma* -> hadrons is measured and compared to the LO and NLO BFKL calculations.

  6. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berninger, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The light pulse output of a scintillator, on which incident collimated gamma rays impinge, is detected by an array of photoelectric tubes each having a convexly curved photocathode disposed in close proximity to the scintillator. Electronic circuitry connected to outputs of the phototubes develops the scintillation event position coordinate electrical signals with good linearity and with substantial independence of the spacing between the scintillator and photocathodes so that the phototubes can be positioned as close to the scintillator as is possible to obtain less distortion in the field of view and improved spatial resolution as compared to conventional planar photocathode gamma cameras

  7. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, Ul; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is replaceably mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. Supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other

  8. Gamma watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Wood, Lowell L.; Lougheed, Ronald W.; Moody, Kenton J.; Wang, Tzu-Fang

    2004-05-25

    A covert, gamma-ray "signature" is used as a "watermark" for property identification. This new watermarking technology is based on a unique steganographic or "hidden writing" digital signature, implemented in tiny quantities of gamma-ray-emitting radioisotopic material combinations, generally covertly emplaced on or within an object. This digital signature may be readily recovered at distant future times, by placing a sensitive, high energy-resolution gamma-ray detecting instrument reasonably precisely over the location of the watermark, which location may be known only to the object's owner; however, the signature is concealed from all ordinary detection means because its exceedingly low level of activity is obscured by the natural radiation background (including the gamma radiation naturally emanating from the object itself, from cosmic radiation and material surroundings, from human bodies, etc.). The "watermark" is used in object-tagging for establishing object identity, history or ownership. It thus may serve as an aid to law enforcement officials in identifying stolen property and prosecuting theft thereof. Highly effective, potentially very low cost identification-on demand of items of most all types is thus made possible.

  9. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a collimation system for a gamma camera for use in nuclear medicine is described. When used with a 2-dimensional position sensitive radiation detector, the novel system can produce superior images than conventional cameras. The optimal thickness and positions of the collimators are derived mathematically. (U.K.)

  10. Planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    The chemical composition of a planet can be inferred from the gamma rays escaping from its surface and can be used to study its origin and evolution. The measured intensities of certain gamma rays of specific energies can be used to determine the abundances of a number of elements. The major sources of these gamma-ray lines are the decay of natural radionuclides, reactions induced by energetic galactic-cosmic-ray particles, capture of low energy neutrons, and solar-proton-induced radioactivities. The fluxes of the more intense gamma-ray lines emitted from 30 elements were calculated using current nuclear data and existing models. The source strengths for neutron-capture reactions were modified from those previously used. The fluxes emitted from a surface of average lunar composition are reported for 288 gamma-ray lines. These theoretical fluxes have been used elsewhere to convert the data from the Apollo gamma-ray spectrometers to elemental abundances and can be used with results from future missions to map the concentrations of a number of elements over a planet's surface. Detection sensitivities for these elements are examined and applications of gamma-ray spectroscopy for future orbiters to Mars and other solar-system objects are discussed

  11. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, K.H.; Kotschak, O.; Conrad, B.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera with a simplified setup as compared with the state of engineering is described permitting, apart from good localization, also energy discrimination. Behind the usual vacuum image amplifier a multiwire proportional chamber filled with trifluorine bromium methane is connected in series. Localizing of the signals is achieved by a delay line, energy determination by means of a pulse height discriminator. With the aid of drawings and circuit diagrams, the setup and mode of operation are explained. (ORU) [de

  12. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  13. Gamma teletopography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1987-06-01

    The mapping of gamma sources radiation emission in a nuclear plant is an important safety point. A remote gamma ray mapping process was developed in SPS/CEA/SACLAY. It uses the ''pinhole camera'' principle, precursor of photography. It mainly consists of a radiation proof box, with a small orifice, containing sensitive emulsions at the opposite. A first conventional photographic type emulsion photographs the area. A second photographic emulsion shows up the gamma radiations. The superim position of the two shots gives immediate informations of the precise location of each source of radiation in the observed area. To make easier the presentation and to improve the accuracy of the results for radiation levels mapping, the obtained films are digitally processed. The processing assigns a colours scale to the various levels of observed radiations. Taking account physical data and standard parameters, it gets possible to estimate the dose rate. The device is portable. Its compactness and fully independent nature make it suitable for use anywhere. It can be adapted to a remote automatic handling system, robot... so as to avoid all operator exposure when the local dose rate is too high [fr

  14. Internal conversion of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoun, O.

    1982-01-01

    The process of the gamma-ray internal conversion is reviewed. The principle of the calculations of the internal conversion coefficients is outlined and methods of conversion electron measurements are described. The extensive utilization of internal conversion in nuclear physics, as well as several applications in chemistry and solid state physics are also discussed. (author)

  15. Gamma rays for pedestrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear gamma radiation does not have many of the properties taken for granted in atomic or molecular radiation and necessary for lasers. The basic science and technology underlying these differences and the proposed methods of overcoming difficulties resulting from them are not properly understood. Considerable illumination in this interdisciplinary problem could be provided by some back-of-the-envelope calculations and simple experimental surveys by small groups of students and postdocs with an elementary knowledge of the nuclear and solid state physics which is evidently not familiar these days to laser physicists. 3 refs

  16. Gamma irradiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, Gabor; Stenger, Vilmos.

    1983-01-01

    The main parameters and the preparation procedures of the gamma radiation sources frequently applied for irradiation purposes are discussed. In addition to 60 Co and 137 Cs sources also the nuclear power plants offer further opportunities: spent fuel elements and products of certain (n,γ) reactions can serve as irradiation sources. Laboratory scale equipments, pilot plant facilities for batch or continuous operation, continuous industrial irradiators and special multipurpose, mobile and panorama type facilities are reviewed including those in Canada, USA, India, the Soviet Union, Hungary, UK, Japan and Australia. For irradiator design the source geometry dependence of the spatial distribution of dose rates can be calculated. (V.N.)

  17. Apparatus for gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The aim of the present standard is to fix the rules for the construction of gamma radiography instrumentation without prejudice to the present regulations. These apparatus have to be fitted with only sealed sources conformable to the experimental standard M 61-002. The present standard agrees with the international standard ISO 3999 of 1977 dealing with the same subject. Nevertheless, it is different on the three main following points: it does not accept the same limits of absorbed dose rates in the air calculated on the external surface of projectors; it precribes tightness, bending, crushing and tensile tests for some components of the gamma radiography it prescribes tests of endurance and resistance to breaking for the locking systems of the gamma radiography apparatus. The present standard also specifies the following points: symbols and indications to put on projectors and on the source-holder; identification of the source contained in the projector; and, accompanying documents. The regulation references are given in annexe [fr

  18. Gamma teletopography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    To set the gamma activity cartography is an important element of safety in numerous cases: intervention in hot cell, search of a radioactive source, examination of radioactive waste circuit followed by a reprocessing definition of decontamination and decommissioning processes and for all other accidents. The device presented here is like a ''black box'' with an aperture and an emulsion photosensitive to the opposite; a classical film takes photography of the place; a X-ray type emulsion gives a spot more or less contrasted and extensive corresponding to each source. Images can be processed with a microprocessor [fr

  19. Higgs Self-Coupling in gamma-gamma Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Belusevic, R.; Jikia, G.

    2004-01-01

    To establish the Higgs mechanism experimentally, one has to determine the Higgs self-interaction potential responsible for the electroweak symmetry breaking. This requires a measurement of the trilinear and quadrilinear self-couplings of the Higgs particle, as predicted by the Standard Model (SM). We propose to measure the trilinear Higgs self-coupling in gamma-gamma collisions just above the kinematic threshold E_thr = 2M_H, where M_H is the Higgs mass. Our calculation reveals that the sensi...

  20. Monte Carlo calculation of the total probability for gamma-Ray interaction in toluene; Aplicacion del metodo de Monte Carlo al calcu lo de la probabilidad de interaccion fotonica en tolueno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1983-07-01

    Interaction and absorption probabilities for gamma-rays with energies between 1 and 1000 KeV have been computed and tabulated. Toluene based scintillator solution has been assumed in the computation. Both, point sources and homogeneously dispersed radioactive material have been assumed. These tables may be applied to cylinders with radii between 1.25 cm and 0.25 cm and heights between 4.07 cm and 0.20 cm. (Author) 26 refs.

  1. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, U.; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. The supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other through about 90 0 to a collimator exchange position. Each of the separate supports is swingable to a vertically aligned position, with limiting of the swinging movement and positioning of the support at the desired exchange position. The collimators are carried on the supports by means of a series of vertically disposed coil springs. Projections on the camera are movable from above into grooves of the collimator at the exchange position, whereupon the collimator is turned so that it is securely prevented from falling out of the camera head

  2. Observation of the decay K sub L yields. pi. sup 0. gamma. gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, G.D.; Carosi, R.; Coward, D.; Cundy, D.; Doble, N.; Gatignon, L.; Gibson, V.; Grafstroem, P.; Hagelberg, R.; Kesseler, G.; Van der Lans, J.; Nelson, H.N.; Wahl, H. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Black, R.; Candlin, D.J.; Muir, J.; Peach, K.J. (Edinburgh Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics); Bluemer, H.; Heinz, R.; Kleinknecht, K.; Mayer, P.; Panzer, B.; Renk, B.; Rohrer, H. (Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physik); Auge, E.; Fournier, D.; Heusse, P.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Harrus, I.; Lutz, A.M.; Perdereau, O.; Schaffer, A.C.; Serin, L. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de l' Accelerateur Lineaire); Bertanza, L.; Bigi, A.; Calafiura, P.; Calvetti, M.; Casali, R.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Mannelli, I.; Nappi, A.; Pierazzini, G.M. (Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy)); Burkhardt, H.; Holder, M.; Kreutz, A.; Quast, G.; Rost, M.; Sander, H.G.; Weihs, W.; Werthenbach, R.; Zech, G. (S

    1990-06-14

    The decay mode K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} has been observed with a signal of 21 events and an expected background of 1.5{plus minus}0.9 events. A branching ratio for decays with invariant {gamma}{gamma} masses above 280 MeV of (2.1{plus minus}0.6)x10{sup -6} is calculated. This result is compared with the values estimated from theoretical models and has implications for the CP conserving contribution to K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sub 0}e{sup +}e{sup -} decay. (orig.).

  3. Density gamma gamma logging of oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, Yu.A.

    1974-01-01

    The application of gamma-gamma density logging for the evaluation of the volume weight and porosity of terrigenous and carbonate rocks in oil and gas boreholes is discussed. A two-probe (155 and 360 mm) apparatus has been developed for this purpose and has been in serial production since 1970. It is designed for use in boreholes between 190 and 300 mm in diameter and down to 4.000 metres deep at a maximum temperature of up to 120 deg C. The radiation source is 137 Cs with an activity of up to 100 kg-eq Ra. To interpret the results, measuring grids have been compiled in accordance with the experimental measurements taken on models of the strata. For carbonate sections combination of gamma-gamma density logging and epithermal-neutron-neutron logging is recommended. A combination of gamma-gamma density logging and neutron-gamma logging is used to evaluate the clayness of terrigenous deposits

  4. Hyperfine interactions in MnAs studied by perturbed angular correlations of $\\gamma$-rays using the probe $^{77}$Br $\\rightarrow ^{77}$Se and first principles calculations for MnAs and other Mn pnictides

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, J N; Correia, J G; Lopes, A M L

    2011-01-01

    The MnAs compound shows a first-order transition at T$_{c}$≈ 42$^{\\circ}$C, and a second-order transition at T$_{t}$ ≈120$^{\\circ}$C. The first-order transition, with structural (hexagonal-orthorhombic), magnetic (FM-PM) and electrical conductivity changes, is associated to magnetocaloric, magnetoelastic, and magnetoresistance effects. We report a study in a large temperature range from −196$^{\\circ}$C up to 140$^{\\circ}$C, using the $\\gamma\\!-\\!\\gamma$ perturbed angular correlations method with the radioactive probe $^{77}$Br→$^{77}$Se, produced at the ISOLDE-CERN facility. The electric field gradients and magnetic hyperfine fields are determined across the first- and second-order phase transitions encompassing the pure and mixed phase regimes in cooling and heating cycles. The temperature irreversibility of the 1st order phase transition is seen locally, at the nanoscopic scale sensitivity of the hyperfine field, by its hysteresis, detailing and complementing information obtained with macroscopic me...

  5. Gamma ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  6. Methodology of shielding calculation for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiorino, J.R.; Mendonca, A.G.; Otto, A.C.; Yamaguchi, Mitsuo

    1982-01-01

    A methodology of calculation that coupling a serie of computer codes in a net that make the possibility to calculate the radiation, neutron and gamma transport, is described, for deep penetration problems, typical of nuclear reactor shielding. This net of calculation begining with the generation of constant multigroups, for neutrons and gamma, by the AMPX system, coupled to ENDF/B-IV data library, the transport calculation of these radiations by ANISN, DOT 3.5 and Morse computer codes, up to the calculation of absorbed doses and/or equivalents buy SPACETRAN code. As examples of the calculation method, results from benchmark n 0 6 of Shielding Benchmark Problems - ORNL - RSIC - 25, namely Neutron and Secondary Gamma Ray fluence transmitted through a Slab of Borated Polyethylene, are presented. (Author) [pt

  7. BFKL resummation effects in gamma* gamma* to rho rho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enberg, R.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2005-08-11

    We calculate the leading order BFKL amplitude for the exclusive diffractive process {gamma}*{sub L}(Q{sub 1}{sup 2}) {gamma}*{sub L}(Q{sub 2}{sup 2}) {yields} {rho}{sub L}{sup 0}{rho}{sub L}{sup 0} in the forward direction, which can be studied in future high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders. The resummation effects are very large compared to the fixed-order calculation. We also estimate the next-to-leading logarithmic corrections to the amplitude by using a specific resummation of higher order effects and find a substantial growth with energy, but smaller than in the leading logarithmic approximation.

  8. Declination Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...

  9. Gamma ray beam transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaki, K.; Li, D.; Miyamoto, S.; Amano, S.; Motizuki, T.

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed a new approach to nuclear transmutation by a gamma ray beam of Compton scattered laser photon. We obtained 20 MeV gamma ray in this way to obtain transmutation rates with the giant resonance of 1 97Au and 1 29Iodine. The rate of the transmutation agreed with the theoretical calculation. Experiments on energy spectrum of positron, electron and neutron from targets were performed for the energy balance and design of the system scheme. The reaction rate was about 1.5∼4% for appropriate photon energies and neutron production rate was up to 4% in the measurements. We had stored laser photon more than 5000 times in a small cavity which implied for a significant improvement of system efficiency. Using these technologies, we have designed an actual transmutation system for 1 29Iodine which has a 16 million year's activity. In my presentation, I will address the properties of this scheme, experiments results and transmutation system for iodine transmutation

  10. Tests of neutral gauge boson self-couplings with e^{+}e^{-} to gamma Z

    CERN Document Server

    Renard, F M

    1982-01-01

    Shows how the reaction e^{+}e^{-} to gamma Z provides a test of the ZZ gamma and gamma /sub V/Z gamma couplings. The authors calculate the third-order QED contribution (triangular diagrams). They show how anomalous terms (for example if the Z is a bound state) would reflect in this reaction and more explicitly in the photon spectrum of e/sup + /e^{-} to gamma +lepton pairs.

  11. Photon Structure and $\\gamma -\\gamma$ Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The LEP experiments are making real progress in understanding the structure of the photon, though the results do not yet give such clear demonstrations of QCD in action as the proton structure has done. Other new results are reported, including QED related effects and $\\gamma \\gamma \\to Resonances$, from LEP and from CLEO II.

  12. Bolus calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2014-09-01

    Matching meal insulin to carbohydrate intake, blood glucose, and activity level is recommended in type 1 diabetes management. Calculating an appropriate insulin bolus size several times per day is, however, challenging and resource demanding. Accordingly, there is a need for bolus calculators to support patients in insulin treatment decisions. Currently, bolus calculators are available integrated in insulin pumps, as stand-alone devices and in the form of software applications that can be downloaded to, for example, smartphones. Functionality and complexity of bolus calculators vary greatly, and the few handfuls of published bolus calculator studies are heterogeneous with regard to study design, intervention, duration, and outcome measures. Furthermore, many factors unrelated to the specific device affect outcomes from bolus calculator use and therefore bolus calculator study comparisons should be conducted cautiously. Despite these reservations, there seems to be increasing evidence that bolus calculators may improve glycemic control and treatment satisfaction in patients who use the devices actively and as intended. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. MEMS Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access)   This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.

  14. A program converting MCNP simulation into gamma vision spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Jianzhong; Liu Jie; Yu Gongshuo; Zhang Jiamei

    2010-01-01

    A program is developed which can convert the energy distribution of photons calculated by MCNP into Gamma Vision spectra, thus, the simulated energy spectra can be displayed and processed with Gamma Vision. The program provides a convenient tool for the theoretical simulation of HPGe γ spectra. (authors)

  15. Muon spectrum in air showers initiated by gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, S. A.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    An analytic representation for the invariant cross-section for the production of charged pions in gamma P interactions was derived by using the available cross-sections. Using this the abundance of muons in a gamma ray initiated air shower is calculated.

  16. Gamma-gamma method for exploration of oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, Yu.A.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical and practical aspects of investigating oil wells by GGL techniques are considered in connection with such problems as geological interpretation of sections, controlling the state of wells, and controlling the processes of developing oil deposits. On the basis of analysis and interpretation of the results of calculations carried out by the Monte-Carlo method in combination with physical simulation data, the main physical regularities of the GGL techniques are investigated, both of a general character (spatial, energy and angular distribution of gamma-quanta for real geometry) and specific ones (characteristics and parameters of measuring facilities). Requirements are estimated as to the accuracy of determining volume density of rocks, equipment is described for gamma-gamma logging of well sections, for checking the quality of cementing and for controlling the state of casing strings, for investigating the composition of fluid in the casing string, and procedures are described for carrying out measurements, particularly for calibration of instruments. Procedures of interpreting the data of density GGL and solft radiation component GGL in combination with the results of other kinds of investigations, procedures of determining the quality of cementing the casing string, of measuring its inner diameter and wall thickness, of measuring the density and composition of fluid in the casing string are considered

  17. Gamma ray interaction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Gamma ray detection in the energy region above 1 keV involves measurements of the energy exchange or energy loss between the gamma ray and the mass of the detector. In most cases of interest, it is the kinetic energy imparted to charged particles by the gamma ray which is lost in the detector and measured in order to obtain spectral knowledge between the incident gamma ray photon and the direction of the secondary particles contains important energy information. The interaction gamma ray removal processes in matter are considered. This interaction removal process is characterized by the fact that each gamma ray is removed individually from the incident beam. The number of photons removed in this manner is proportional to the thickness of matter traversed

  18. Burnout calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.

    1980-01-01

    Reviewed is the effect of heat flux of different system parameters on critical density in order to give an initial view on the value of several parameters. A thorough analysis of different equations is carried out to calculate burnout is steam-water flows in uniformly heated tubes, annular, and rectangular channels and rod bundles. Effect of heat flux density distribution and flux twisting on burnout and storage determination according to burnout are commended [ru

  19. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  20. Determination of gamma-ray-induced displacement rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Doran, D.G.; Roberts, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    To define the gamma-ray component of the radiation field in light water reactor (LWR) pressure vessel (PV) environments, gamma-ray spectrometry experiments were conducted in the low power PV mockup at the poolside critical assembly (PCA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Gamma-ray displacement rates can be calculated directly from absolute electron spectra observed with the Janus probe gamma-ray spectrometry. Gamma-ray displacement results are presented for the 1/4-T, 1/2-T, and 3/4-T locations of the 12/13 and 4/12 simulated surveillance capsule (SSC) configurations. In addition, the gamma-ray displacement rate at the SSC location was inferred using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) gamma-ray dosimetry results obtained in the 4/12 SSC configuration at the PCA. Compared with neutron-induced displacement rates, the calculated gamma-ray-induced displacement rates are small at all these LWR-PV locations. The ratio of gamma-ray-induced to neutron-induced displacement rates never exceeds roughly 5 X 10 -3

  1. Multiple Gamma-Ray Detection Capability of a CeBr3 Detector for Gamma Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Naqvi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The newly developed cerium tribromide (CeBr3 detector has reduced intrinsic gamma-ray activity with gamma energy restricted to 1400–2200 keV energy range. This narrower region of background gamma rays allows the CeBr3 detector to detect more than one gamma ray to analyze the gamma-ray spectrum. Use of multiple gamma-ray intensities in elemental analysis instead of a single one improves the accuracy of the estimated results. Multigamma-ray detection capability of a cylindrical 75 mm × 75 mm (diameter × height CeBr3 detector has been tested by analyzing the chlorine concentration in water samples using eight chlorine prompt gamma rays over 517 to 8578 keV energies utilizing a D-D portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup and measuring the corresponding minimum detection limit (MDC of chlorine. The measured MDC of chlorine for gamma rays with 517–8578 keV energies varies from 0.07 ± 0.02 wt% to 0.80 ± 0.24. The best value of MDC was measured to be 0.07 ± 0.02 wt% for 788 keV gamma rays. The experimental results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo calculations. The study has shown excellent detection capabilities of the CeBr3 detector for eight prompt gamma rays over 517–8578 keV energy range without significant background interference.

  2. The Development of Gamma Irradiator Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaid Hassan; Anwar Abdul Rahman; Azraf Azman; Mohd Rizal Mamat

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary software development for the Gamma irradiator control system using commercial supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software. The radiation dose analysis is the study of the relationship between the initial loading source activity (Curie) and concurrent activity in order to perform the irradiation process. The concurrent source activity calculation model is presented. The Human machine interface (HMI) has been developed by using Indusoft Web Studio to solve the mathematical calculation, task and process overview. (author)

  3. Tank Z-361 dose rate calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron and gamma ray dose rates were calculated above and around the 6-inch riser of tank Z-361 located at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Dose rates were also determined off of one side of the tank. The largest dose rate 0.029 mrem/h was a gamma ray dose and occurred 76.2 cm (30 in.) directly above the open riser. All other dose rates were negligible. The ANSI/ANS 1991 flux to dose conversion factor for neutrons and photons were used in this analysis. Dose rates are reported in units of mrem/h with the calculated uncertainty shown within the parentheses

  4. Stellar Photon Archaeology with Gamma-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing deep surveys of galaxy luminosity distribution functions, spectral energy distributions and backwards evolution models of star formation rates can be used to calculate the past history of intergalactic photon densities and, from them, the present and past optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays from pair production interactions with these photons. The energy-redshift dependence of the optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays has become known as the Fazio-Stecker relation (Fazio & Stecker 1970). Stecker, Malkan & Scully have calculated the densities of intergalactic background light (IBL) photons of energies from 0.03 eV to the Lyman limit at 13.6 eV and for 0$ < z < $6, using deep survey galaxy observations from Spitzer, Hubble and GALEX and have consequently predicted spectral absorption features for extragalactic gamma-ray sources. This procedure can also be reversed. Determining the cutoff energies of gamma-ray sources with known redshifts using the recently launched Fermi gamma-ray space telescope may enable a more precise determination of the IBL photon densities in the past, i.e., the "archaeo-IBL.", and therefore allow a better measure of the past history of the total star formation rate, including that from galaxies too faint to be observed.

  5. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  6. Gamma-ray triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Lopez-Gehler, Sergio; Molinaro, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new type of gamma-ray spectral feature, which we denominate gamma-ray triangle. This spectral feature arises in scenarios where dark matter self-annihilates via a chiral interaction into two Dirac fermions, which subsequently decay in flight into another fermion and a photon...

  7. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, R.

    1984-01-01

    The book reviews the development of gamma ray astronomy over the past twenty five years. A large section of the book is devoted to the problems of background radiation and the design of detectors. Gamma rays from the sun, the galactic disc, the galaxy, and extra galactic sources; are also discussed. (U.K.)

  8. Attenuation of the gamma rays in tissues; Atenuacion de los rayos gamma en tejidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos P, A.; Rodriguez N, S.; Pinedo S, A.; Amador V, P.; Chacon R, A.; Vega C, H.R. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The mass and lineal attenuation coefficient and of hepatic tissue, muscular, osseous and of brain before gamma rays of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup 5} MeV were calculated. For the case of the osseous tissue the calculation was made for the cartilage, the cortical tissue and the bone marrow. During the calculations the elementary composition of the tissues of human origin was used. The calculations include by separate the Photoelectric effect, the Compton scattering and the Pair production, as well as the total. For to establish a comparison with the attenuation capacities, the coefficients of the water, the aluminum and the lead also were calculated. The study was complemented measuring the attenuation coefficient of hepatic tissue of bovine before gamma rays of 0.662 MeV of a source of {sup 137} Cs. The measurement was made through of an experiment of photons transmission through samples frozen of hepatic tissue and with a Geiger-Mueller detector. (Author)

  9. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  10. GAMSOR: Gamma Source Preparation and DIF3D Flux Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M. A. [TerraPower, Bellevue, WA (United States); Lee, C. H. [TerraPower, Bellevue, WA (United States); Hill, R. N. [TerraPower, Bellevue, WA (United States)

    2017-06-28

    Nuclear reactors that rely upon the fission reaction have two modes of thermal energy deposition in the reactor system: neutron absorption and gamma absorption. The gamma rays are typically generated by neutron capture reactions or during the fission process which means the primary driver of energy production is of course the neutron interaction. In conventional reactor physics methods, the gamma heating component is ignored such that the gamma absorption is forced to occur at the gamma emission site. For experimental reactor systems like EBR-II and FFTF, the placement of structural pins and assemblies internal to the core leads to problems with power heating predictions because there is no fission power source internal to the assembly to dictate a spatial distribution of the power. As part of the EBR-II support work in the 1980s, the GAMSOR code was developed to assist analysts in calculating the gamma heating. The GAMSOR code is a modified version of DIF3D and actually functions within a sequence of DIF3D calculations. The gamma flux in a conventional fission reactor system does not perturb the neutron flux and thus the gamma flux calculation can be cast as a fixed source problem given a solution to the steady state neutron flux equation. This leads to a sequence of DIF3D calculations, called the GAMSOR sequence, which involves solving the neutron flux, then the gamma flux, and then combining the results to do a summary edit. In this manuscript, we go over the GAMSOR code and detail how it is put together and functions. We also discuss how to setup the GAMSOR sequence and input for each DIF3D calculation in the GAMSOR sequence.

  11. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1985-12-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Three events, HARRY (May 19, 1953), BEE (March 22, 1955), and SMOKY (August 31, 1957), accounted for over half of the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of ''infinite exposure,'' ''estimated exposure,'' and ''one year effective biological exposure'' are explained. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, UT; Ely, NV; and Las Vegas, NV. Three events, HARRY (19 May 1953), BEE (22 March 1955), and SMOKY (31 August 1957), accounted for more than half the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of infinite exposure, estimated exposure, and 1-yr effective biological exposure are explained

  13. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1985-12-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Three events, HARRY (May 19, 1953), BEE (March 22, 1955), and SMOKY (August 31, 1957), accounted for over half of the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of ''infinite exposure,'' ''estimated exposure,'' and ''one year effective biological exposure'' are explained. 4 figs., 7 tabs

  14. Gamma sensitivity of the Eberline PCM-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that normally, alarm setpoints for the Eberline PCM-1 series personnel contamination monitors are calculated based upon efficiencies measured using 100-cm 2 or larger beta or mixed beta-gamma sources. This simulates the type of contamination most frequently encountered on personnel and clothing--low-level, distributed beta-gamma emitters. In most circumstances, the PCM-1's sensitivity to the other type of contamination encountered in nuclear plant work--hot particles--would be expected to be the same as, or better than, its sensitivity to distributed contamination. However, particles that are deposited on skin or clothing can be partially shielded from the view of the PCM-1's detectors. In these situations, the PCm-1's sensitivity to gamma radiation may be more relevant than its sensitivity to betas

  15. Parameters calculation of shielding experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavazza, S.

    1986-02-01

    The radiation transport methodology comparing the calculated reactions and dose rates for neutrons and gama-rays, with experimental measurements obtained on iron shield, irradiated in the YAYOI reactor is evaluated. The ENDF/B-IV and VITAMIN-C libraries and the AMPX-II modular system, for cross sections generation collapsed by the ANISN code were used. The transport calculations were made using the DOT 3.5 code, adjusting the boundary iron shield source spectrum to the reactions and dose rates, measured at the beginning of shield. The neutron and gamma ray distributions calculated on the iron shield presented reasonable agreement with experimental measurements. An experimental arrangement using the IEA-R1 reactor to determine a shielding benchmark is proposed. (Author) [pt

  16. The gamma function

    CERN Document Server

    Artin, Emil

    2015-01-01

    This brief monograph on the gamma function was designed by the author to fill what he perceived as a gap in the literature of mathematics, which often treated the gamma function in a manner he described as both sketchy and overly complicated. Author Emil Artin, one of the twentieth century's leading mathematicians, wrote in his Preface to this book, ""I feel that this monograph will help to show that the gamma function can be thought of as one of the elementary functions, and that all of its basic properties can be established using elementary methods of the calculus."" Generations of teachers

  17. GAMSOR: Gamma Source Preparation and DIF3D Flux Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lee, C. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Nuclear reactors that rely upon the fission reaction have two modes of thermal energy deposition in the reactor system: neutron absorption and gamma absorption. The gamma rays are typically generated by neutron absorption reactions or during the fission process which means the primary driver of energy production is of course the neutron interaction. In conventional reactor physics methods, the gamma heating component is ignored such that the gamma absorption is forced to occur at the gamma emission site. For experimental reactor systems like EBR-II and FFTF, the placement of structural pins and assemblies internal to the core leads to problems with power heating predictions because there is no fission power source internal to the assembly to dictate a spatial distribution of the power. As part of the EBR-II support work in the 1980s, the GAMSOR code was developed to assist analysts in calculating the gamma heating. The GAMSOR code is a modified version of DIF3D and actually functions within a sequence of DIF3D calculations. The gamma flux in a conventional fission reactor system does not perturb the neutron flux and thus the gamma flux calculation can be cast as a fixed source problem given a solution to the steady state neutron flux equation. This leads to a sequence of DIF3D calculations, called the GAMSOR sequence, which involves solving the neutron flux, then the gamma flux, then combining the results to do a summary edit. In this manuscript, we go over the GAMSOR code and detail how it is put together and functions. We also discuss how to setup the GAMSOR sequence and input for each DIF3D calculation in the GAMSOR sequence. With the GAMSOR capability, users can take any valid steady state DIF3D calculation and compute the power distribution due to neutron and gamma heating. The MC2-3 code is the preferable companion code to use for generating neutron and gamma cross section data, but the GAMSOR code can accept cross section data from other sources. To further

  18. Comptonization of gamma rays by cold electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yueming; Ross, R.R.; Mccray, R.

    1991-01-01

    An analytic method is developed for calculating the emergent spectrum of gamma-rays and X-rays scattered in a homogeneous medium with low-temperature electrons. The Klein-Nishina corrections of the scattering cross section and absorption processes are taken in account. The wavelength relaxation and the spatial diffusion problems are solved separately, and the emergent spectrum is calculated by convolving the evolution function of the spectrum in an infinite medium with the photon luminosity resulting from the spatial diffusion in a finite sphere. The analytic results are compared with that of Monte Carlo calculations and it is concluded that the analytic result is quite accurate. 9 refs

  19. Basics of Gamma Ray Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinnett, Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Venkataraman, Ram [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-13

    The objective of this training is to explain the origin of x-rays and gamma rays, gamma ray interactions with matter, detectors and electronics used in gamma ray-spectrometry, and features of a gamma-ray spectrum for nuclear material that is safeguarded.

  20. (U) Neutron-Induced Gamma-Ray Calculations Using DMTK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favorite, Jeffrey A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    This memo describes the user interface, limitations of the implementation, and needs for the future. It should be noted up front that because of limited cross section data, the PARTISN capability cannot be used in the field.

  1. Polarized gamma-rays with laser-Compton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohgaki, H.; Noguchi, T.; Sugiyama, S. [Electrotechnical Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Polarized gamma-rays were generated through laser-Compton backscattering (LCS) of a conventional Nd:YAG laser with electrons circulating in the electron storage ring TERAS at Electrotechnical Laboratory. We measured the energy, the energy spread, and the yield of the gamma-rays to characterize our gamma-ray source. The gamma-ray energy can be varied by changing the energy of the electrons circulating the storage ring. In our case, the energy of electrons in the storage ring were varied its energy from 200 to 750 MeV. Consequently, we observed gamma-ray energies of 1 to 10 MeV with 1064 run laser photons. Furthermore, the gamma-ray energy was extended to 20 MeV by using the 2nd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser. This shows a good agreement with theoretical calculation. The gamma-ray energy spread was also measured to be 1% FWHM for -1 MeV gamma-rays and to be 4% FWHM for 10 MeV gamma-rays with a narrow collimator that defined the scattering cone. The gamma-ray yield was 47.2 photons/mA/W/s. This value is consistent with a rough estimation of 59.5 photons/mA/W/s derived from theory. Furthermore, we tried to use these gamma-rays for a nuclear fluorescence experiment. If we use a polarized laser beam, we can easily obtain polarized gamma-rays. Elastically scattered photons from {sup 208} Pb were clearly measured with the linearly polarized gamma-rays, and we could assign the parity of J=1 states in the nucleus. We should emphasize that the polarized gamma-ray from LCS is quit useful in this field, because we can use highly, almost completely, polarized gamma-rays. We also use the LCS gamma-rays to measure the photon absorption coefficients. In near future, we will try to generate a circular polarized gamma-ray. We also have a plan to use an FEL, because it can produce intense laser photons in the same geometric configuration as the LCS facility.

  2. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen Zhe [Department of Computer Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Ma Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)], E-mail: sluan@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: nate@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: zchen@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: lijunma@radonc.ucsf.edu

    2009-03-21

    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C(TM) and Perfexion(TM) units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can

  3. IMEF gamma scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun; Jeon, Yong Bum

    1997-06-01

    The gamma scanning system which is installed in IMEF is the equipment obtaining the gamma ray spectrum from irradiated fuels. This equipment could afford the useful data relating spent fuels like as burn-up measurements. We describe the specifications of the equipment and its accessories, and also described its operation procedure so that an operator can use this report as the operation procedure. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 11 refs.

  4. Shaping the gamma curtain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early 1996 saw the start up in Ukraine and Belarus of the Gamma-1 pilot radiation early warning system - the first phase of the Gamma Curtain, a network of monitors stretching from the Black Sea to the Baltic to enable rapid detection of any future nuclear accidents. In setting up the system, the experience of monitoring around Chernobyl was invaluable, and has implications for the west as well. (UK)

  5. Polarization measurements of gamma ray bursts and axion like particles

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, André

    2008-01-01

    A polarized gamma ray emission spread over a sufficiently wide energy band from a strongly magnetized astrophysical object like gamma ray bursts (GRBs) offers an opportunity to test the hypothesis of axion like particles (ALPs). Based on evidences of polarized gamma ray emission detected in several gamma ray bursts we estimated the level of ALPs induced dichroism, which could take place in the magnetized fireball environment of a GRB. This allows to estimate the sensitivity of polarization measurements of GRBs to the ALP-photon coupling. This sensitivity $\\gag\\le 2.2\\cdot 10^{-11} {\\rm GeV^{-1}}$ calculated for the ALP mass $m_a=10^{-3}~{\\rm eV}$ and MeV energy spread of gamma ray emission is competitive with the sensitivity of CAST and becomes even stronger for lower ALPs masses.

  6. Gamma factors of an ambulatory source; Factores gamma de una fuente ambulatoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos P, A.; Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E.; Salas L, M.A.; Hernandez D, V.M. [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares e Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, C. Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Barquero, R. [Hospital Universitario del Rio Hortega, E-47010 Valladolid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Some of the procedures for diagnostic or treatment used in the medicine use radioactive materials as the I{sup 131}. By means of Monte Carlo methods were calculated the doses in the internal organs of a woman, with three months of pregnancy, due to the radioiodine captured by her thyroid, as well as to 1 meter of the gland. A three-dimensional mathematical model of the body of a woman was used and by means of Monte Carlo, the radioiodine photons were transported isotropically from the thyroid toward the whole body and was calculated the absorbed dose by their internal organs, also the Kerma in air (K) was determined and the environmental equivalent dose (H{sup *}(10)) at 1 m of the gland. Two activity factors at dose were determined, Gamma Factors that it allows to estimate the dose that the patient produces to people to its around. Of the gamma radiation that emits the I{sup 131} in the thyroid was found that the thymus receives the biggest dose while the uterus is the organ that smaller dose receives. The determined gamma factors were: {gamma}{sub KAire} = 56 {mu}Gy-m{sup 2}-h{sup -1}-GBq{sup -1}, and {gamma}{sub H}{sup *}{sub (10)} = 73 {mu}Sv-m{sup 2}-h{sup -1}-GBq{sup -1}. The distribution of the absorbed dose by the internal organs is attributed to the relative distance among the thyroid and the other organs, to the inter-organs shielding, its size and to its elementary composition. The {gamma}{sub KAire} and {gamma}{sub H}{sup *}{sub (10)} factors allow to estimate the exposure that the patient produces on the personnel to its around. With this, the nuclear medicus, the medical physicist or the one responsible of the radiological safety in the hospital can give more precise indications on the behavior of people around the patient. (Author)

  7. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  8. AIRGAMMA, External Gamma-Ray Exposure from Radioactive Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Akihide; Iijima, Tshinori

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: AIRGAMMA calculates quickly the external exposure to gamma rays from a radioactive cloud. 2 - Method of solution: The external exposure is calculated by interpolating the normalized doses providing on the basis of the Gaussian plume model. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Memory requirement is 30 Kbytes

  9. Use of the gamma function in equations which describe ruminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Goodness of fit of all the functions used to describe fermentation was tested by comparing predicted values calculated from estimates of the parameters of the function studied, with actual values observed in the nylon bags. For example, the cumulative distribution of the gamma function was calculated from estimates of the ...

  10. On the source-detector efficienices for gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, M.I.; Salem, M.; Selim, Y.S.

    2005-01-01

    Gamma rays have a wide spread range of applications in different fields of science. The identification of gamma spectrum with high accuracy is one of them. This can be done using semiconductor and cylindrical scintillation detectors. This has been achieved by the way of trace the interaction of gamma rays in the detector and the resulting deposition energy within.In this work, following our previous works, straightforward mathematical expressions are used to calculate the total and full energy peak efficiencies for gamma detectors with different dimensions using sources with different shapes (point and disk sources) emitting photon with energies from few keV up to some MeV. Where the predominant reaction is the Compton scattering and other absorptions through the detector are consider. Also the detector's efficiency is calculated with high accuracy. The computed data found good agreement with previous treatments

  11. Neutron and gamma transport effects by heterogeneous core designs. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    The use of diffusion theory for the prediction of power production near a reactor core-blanket interface and the assumption that gammas are absorbed in situ can lead to substantial errors. This is primarily due to the breakdown of Fick's law for neutron diffusion near the core-blanket boundary, and the gamma leakage from the core into the blanket. These considerations are more pronounced in a situation where a large number of internal blanket assemblies are present, such as in the large heterogeneous core designs. The power distribution is studied for both fission and gamma heating in a large heterogeneous LMFBR with 3 core zones separated by 2 internal blanket zones. Comparisons are made between diffusion and transport theory for neutronics calculations, and between in-situ absorption and rigorous transport theory calculation for gamma heating.

  12. Determination of gamma ray shielding parameters of rocks and concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Shamsan S.; Gaikwad, Dhammajyot K.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2018-03-01

    Gamma shielding parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Zeff) and electron density (Neff) have been measured and calculated for rocks and concrete in the energy range 122-1330 keV. The measurements have been carried out at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275, 1330 keV gamma ray energies using a gamma spectrometer includes a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and MCA card. The atomic and electronic cross sections have also been investigated. Experimental and calculated (WinXCom) values were compared, and good agreement has been observed within the experimental error. The obtained results showed that feldspathic basalt, compact basalt, volcanic rock, dolerite and pink granite are more efficient than the sandstone and concrete for gamma ray shielding applications.

  13. Application of Inverse Gamma Transport to Material Thickness Identification with SGRD Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humbert Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SGRD (Spectroscopy, Gamma rays, Rapid, Deterministic code is used to infer the dimensions of a one dimensional model of a shielded gamma ray source. The method is based on the simulation of the uncollided leakage current of discrete gamma lines that are produced by nuclear decay. Experimentally, the unscattered gamma lines leakage current is obtained by processing high precision gamma spectroscopy measurements. The material thicknesses are computed with SGRD using a fast ray-tracing algorithm embedded in a non-linear multidimensional iterative optimization procedure that minimizes the error metric between calculated and measured signatures. For verification, numerical results on a test problem are presented.

  14. Relativistic effects in gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, Erik; Groen, Oeyvind

    1999-01-01

    According to recent models of the sources of gamma-ray bursts the extremely energetic emission is caused by shells expanding with ultrarelativistic velocity. With the recent identification of optical sources at the positions of some gamma-ray bursts these ''fireball'' models have acquired an actuality that invites to use them as a motivating application when teaching special relativity. We demonstrate several relativistic effects associated with these models which are very pronounced due to the great velocity of the shell. For example a burst lasting for a month in the rest frame of an element of the shell lasts for a few seconds only, in the rest frame of our detector. It is shown how the observed properties of a burst are modified by aberration and the Doppler effect. The apparent luminosity as a function of time is calculated. Modifications due to the motion of the star away from the observer are calculated. (Author)

  15. Two-dimensional sensitivity calculation code: SENSETWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Minami, Kazuyoshi; Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa.

    1979-05-01

    A SENSETWO code for the calculation of cross section sensitivities with a two-dimensional model has been developed, on the basis of first order perturbation theory. It uses forward neutron and/or gamma-ray fluxes and adjoint fluxes obtained by two-dimensional discrete ordinates code TWOTRAN-II. The data and informations of cross sections, geometry, nuclide density, response functions, etc. are transmitted to SENSETWO by the dump magnetic tape made in TWOTRAN calculations. The required input for SENSETWO calculations is thus very simple. The SENSETWO yields as printed output the cross section sensitivities for each coarse mesh zone and for each energy group, as well as the plotted output of sensitivity profiles specified by the input. A special feature of the code is that it also calculates the reaction rate with the response function used as the adjoint source in TWOTRAN adjoint calculation and the calculated forward flux from the TWOTRAN forward calculation. (author)

  16. $\\gamma^{*}\\gamma^{*}$ total cross-section in the dipole picture of BFKL dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Boonekamp, M; Royon, C; Wallon, S

    1999-01-01

    The total $\\gamma^*\\gamma^*$ cross-section is derived in the Leading Order QCD dipole picture of BFKL dynamics, and compared with the one from 2-gluon exchange. The Double Leading Logarithm approximation of the DGLAP cross-section is found to be small in the phase space studied. Cross sections are calculated for realistic data samples at the $e^+e^-$ collider LEP and a future high energy linear collider. Next to Leading order corrections to the BFKL evolution have been determined phenomenologically, and are found to give very large corrections to the BFKL cross-section, leading to a reduced sensitivity for observing BFKL.

  17. Statistical properties of the time histories of cosmic gamma-ray bursts detected by the BATSE experiment of the Compton gamma-ray observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdeev, Roald

    1995-01-01

    The main scientific objectives of the project were: (1) Calculation of average time history for different subsets of BATSE gamma-ray bursts; (2) Comparison of averaged parameters and averaged time history for different Burst And Transient Source Experiments (BASTE) Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB's) sets; (3) Comparison of results obtained with BATSE data with those obtained with APEX experiment at PHOBOS mission; and (4) Use the results of (1)-(3) to compare current models of gamma-ray bursts sources.

  18. Evaluation of effective dose equivalent from environmental gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, K.; Tsutsumi, M.; Moriuchi, S.; Petoussi, N.; Zankl, M.; Veit, R.; Jacob, P.; Drexler, G.

    1991-01-01

    Organ doses and effective dose equivalents for environmental gamma rays were calculated using human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods accounting rigorously the environmental gamma ray fields. It was suggested that body weight is the dominant factor to determine organ doses. The weight function expressing organ doses was introduced. Using this function, the variation in organ doses due to several physical factors were investigated. A detector having gamma-ray response similar to that of human bodies has been developed using a NaI(Tl) scintillator. (author)

  19. The muon content of gamma-ray showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a calculation of the expected number of muons in gamma ray initiated and cosmic ray initiated air showers using a realistic model of hadronic collisions in an effort to understand the available experimental results and to assess the feasibility of using the muon content of showers as a veto to reject cosmic ray initiated showers in ultra-high energy gamma ray astronomy are reported. The possibility of observing very-high energy gamma-ray sources by detecting narrow angle anisotropies in the high energy muon background radiation are considered.

  20. Computers in activation analysis and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, B. S.; D' Agostino, M. D.; Yule, H. P. [eds.

    1979-01-01

    Seventy-three papers are included under the following session headings: analytical and mathematical methods for data analysis; software systems for ..gamma..-ray and x-ray spectrometry; ..gamma..-ray spectra treatment, peak evaluation; least squares; IAEA intercomparison of methods for processing spectra; computer and calculator utilization in spectrometer systems; and applications in safeguards, fuel scanning, and environmental monitoring. Separate abstracts were prepared for 72 of those papers. (DLC)

  1. Spreadsheet analysis of gamma spectra for nuclear material measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosby, W.R.; Pace, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    A widely available commercial spreadsheet package for personal computers is used to calculate gamma spectra peak areas using both region of interest and peak fitting methods. The gamma peak areas obtained are used for uranium enrichment assays and for isotopic analyses of mixtures of transuranics. The use of spreadsheet software with an internal processing language allows automation of routine analysis procedures increasing ease of use and reducing processing errors while providing great flexibility in addressing unusual measurement problems. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Production of high-energy muons in gamma showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanev, T.; Vankov, C.P.

    1985-01-01

    We have calculated the number of high-energy muons in gamma showers generated by photoproduction and by muon pair creation. The prompt muons have flatter energy spectrum than the muons, which come from photoproduction and contribute significant fraction of the total rates for Esub(μ)>=1 TeV. The total rate of high-energy muons in gamma showers is, however, very low. (orig.)

  3. Gamma radiation and gamma ray protection factors of ships in various situations of radioactive fall-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, E.H.; Holst, T.

    1975-01-01

    In this report the development of methods of evaluating gamma ray protection factors (GSF) of ships for various situations of radioactive fall-out is described. The joining calculations of gamma ray protection factors are performed by the newly developed computer procedure GASUFA. These protection factors determine - in connection with a measured gamma radiation dose at a given detector point - the gamma radiation in different compartments of the ships. The computer program GASUFA is able to perform calculations considering the dependence of energy, place and time for the following situations: - the ship is under a radioactive cloud without fall-out; - the ship is under a radioactive cloud with fall-out; - the ship is contaminated by radioactive fall-out; - the clean or decontaminated ship is going through a zone, which is contaminated by radioactive fall-out; - the ship and the surrounding water surface are contaminated by radioactive fall-out. (orig.) [de

  4. Analytical insights on theta-gamma coupled neural oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontolan, Lorenzo; Krupa, Maciej; Hyafil, Alexandre; Gutkin, Boris

    2013-08-14

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of a quadratic integrate-and-fire neuron, spiking in the gamma (30-100 Hz) range, coupled to a delta/theta frequency (1-8 Hz) neural oscillator. Using analytical and semianalytical methods, we were able to derive characteristic spiking times for the system in two distinct regimes (depending on parameter values): one regime where the gamma neuron is intrinsically oscillating in the absence of theta input, and a second one in which gamma spiking is directly gated by theta input, i.e., windows of gamma activity alternate with silence periods depending on the underlying theta phase. In the former case, we transform the equations such that the system becomes analogous to the Mathieu differential equation. By solving this equation, we can compute numerically the time to the first gamma spike, and then use singular perturbation theory to find successive spike times. On the other hand, in the excitable condition, we make direct use of singular perturbation theory to obtain an approximation of the time to first gamma spike, and then extend the result to calculate ensuing gamma spikes in a recursive fashion. We thereby give explicit formulas for the onset and offset of gamma spike burst during a theta cycle, and provide an estimation of the total number of spikes per theta cycle both for excitable and oscillator regimes.

  5. Spectra of {gamma} rays feeding superdeformed bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Henry, R.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The spectrum of {gamma}rays coincident with SD transitions contains the transitions which populate the SD band. This spectrum can provide information on the feeding mechanism and on the properties (moment of inertia, collectivity) of excited SD states. We used a model we developed to explain the feeding of SD bands, to calculate the spectrum of feeding {gamma}rays. The Monte Carlo simulations take into account the trigger conditions present in our Eurogam experiment. Both experimental and theoretical spectra contain a statistical component and a broad E2 peak (from transitions occurring between excited states in the SD well). There is good resemblance between the measured and calculated spectra although the calculated multiplicity of an E2 bump is low by {approximately}30%. Work is continuing to improve the quality of the fits, which will result in a better understanding of excited SD states. In addition, a model for the last steps, which cool the {gamma} cascade into the SD yrast line, needs to be developed. A strong M1/E2 low-energy component, which we believe is responsible for this cooling, was observed.

  6. System for gamma-gamma formation density logging while drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paske, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    The patent relates to a system for logging subterranean formations for the determination of formation density by using gamma radiation. Gamma ray source and detection means are disposed within a housing adapted for positioning within a borehole for the emission and detection of gamma rays propagating through earth formations and borehole drilling fluid. The gamma ray detection means comprises first and second gamma radiation sensors geometrically disposed within the housing, the same longitudinal distance from the gamma ray source and diametrically opposed in a common plane. A formation matrix density output signal is produced in proportion to the output signal from each of the gamma ray sensors and in conjunction with certain constants established by the geometrical configuration of the sensors relative to the gamma ray source and the borehole diameter. Formation density is determined without regard to the radial position of the logging probe within the borehole in a measuring while drilling mode. 6 figs

  7. Planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy: the effects of hydrogen absorption cross-section of the gamma-ray spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapides, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectroscopy of planet surfaces is one of several possible methods that are useful in determining the elemental composition of planet surfaces from orbiting spacecraft. This has been demonstrated on the Apollos 15 and 16 missions as well as the Soviet Mars-5 mission. Planetary gamma-ray emission is primarily the result of natural radioactive decay and cosmic-ray and solar-flare-induced nuclear reactions. Secondary neutron reactions play a large role in the more intense gamma-ray emission. The technique provides information on the elemental composition of the top few tens of centimeters of the planet surface. Varying concentrations of hydrogen and compositional variations that alter the macroscopic thermal-neutron absorption cross section have a significant effect on the neutron flux in the planet surface and therefore also on the gamma-ray emission from the surface. These effects have been systematically studied for a wide range of possible planetary compositions that include Mercury, the moon, Mars, the comets, and the asteroids. The problem of the Martian atmosphere was also investigated. The results of these calculations, in which both surface neutron fluxes and gamma-ray emission fluxes were determined, were used to develop general procedures for obtaining planet compositions from the gamma-ray spectrum. Several changes have been suggested for reanalyzing the Apollos 15 and 16 gamma-ray results. In addition, procedures have been suggested that can be applied to neutron-gamma techniques in mineral and oil exploration

  8. Hypernuclear gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, M.

    1985-01-01

    The observation of hypernuclear ..gamma.. rays pprovides a method of determining the spin dependence of the ..lambda..-nucleon interaction with a sensitivity not approachable by other means in the forseeable future. The transitions of primary interest are those between states that differ only in the orientation of the spin of the ..lambda.. particle with respect to the angular momentum of the nuclear core. The effective ..lambda..-nucleon interaction can be specified by a small number of ..gamma..-ray measurements. A program of experiments directed at this goal is in progress at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This paper reviews the status of the subject with emphasis on the recent experiment to measure ground state doublet splittings using germanium ..gamma..-ray detectors.

  9. Gamma-ray spectrum data library of fission product nuclides and its assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katakura, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Tadashi.

    1988-03-01

    A gamma-ray spectrum data library of fission product nuclides was prepared on the same basis as the JNDC library which is used for the decay heat prediction. The gamma-ray spectrum data were compiled with both measured and theoretically estimated spectra. For nuclides with no or insufficient gamma-ray transition data, the estimated spectra were applied to compensate the defect of the measured data. By introducing the estimated spectra, it becomes possible to calculate the gamma-ray spectra which are consistent with integral decay heat predictions by the JNDC library. By using the spectrum data library, calculations of gamma-ray spectra from aggregate fission product nuclides were carried out. The calculated spectra were compared with the measured ones performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the University of Tokyo. The spectrum calculations showed reasonable agreement with the measured data for a wide range of cooling time. (author) 18 refs., 11 tabs., 245 figs

  10. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...... contralateral to stimulus side and additionally an unexpected 20 Hz activity was observed slightly lateralized in the frontal central region. The gamma phase locking may be a manifestation of early somatosensory feature integration. The analyses suggest that the high frequency activity consists of two distinct...

  11. Gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Mészáros, Péter

    2012-08-24

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day, typically last for tens of seconds, and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this Review, we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglow.

  12. Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  13. Investigation of physical regularities in gamma gamma logging of oil wells by Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, Yu.A.

    1973-01-01

    Some results are given of calculations by the Monte Carlo method of specific problems of gamma-gamma density logging. The paper considers the influence of probe length and volume density of the rocks; the angular distribution of the scattered radiation incident on the instrument; the spectra of the radiation being recorded and of the source radiation; depths of surveys, the effect of the mud cake, the possibility of collimating the source radiation; the choice of source, initial collimation angles, the optimum angle of recording scattered gamma-radiation and the radiation discrimination threshold; and the possibility of determining the mineralogical composition of rocks in sections of oil wells and of identifying once-scattered radiation. (author)

  14. CKM angle $\\gamma$ from LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    Results of the latest $\\gamma$ combination from LHCb are presented, along with the six LHCb measurements used as inputs. In addition, the anticipated precision attainable for measuring $\\gamma$ after the LHCb Upgrade is outlined

  15. Gamma knife surgery for craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, D.; Steiner, M.; Steiner, L.

    1995-01-01

    We present our results of Gamma Knife surgery for craniopharyngioma in nine patients. The current status of surgery, radiation therapy, intracavitary instillation of radionuclides and Gamma Knife surgery in the management of craniopharyngiomas is discussed. (author)

  16. Chemist's gamma-ray table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, I.; Kraus, R.; Klein, R.; Lee, D.; Fowler, M.M.

    1977-06-01

    An edited listing of gamma-ray information has been prepared. Prominent gamma rays originating from nuclides with half lives long enough to be seen in radiochemical experiments are included. Information is ordered by nuclide in one section and by energy in a second section. This shorter listing facilitates identification of nuclides responsible for gamma rays observed in experiments

  17. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, Josef

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...

  18. Gamma knife radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Mori, Yohsimasa; Kida, Yoshihisa

    2003-01-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery has become a new treatment modality in the field of neurosurgery since the first gamma knife was brought into Japan in 1990. Advances in applications of new indications and long-term results have been continued to evolve during the past 12 years. Based on the experience of more than 4,500 cases treated by gamma knife at Komaki City Hospital, long-term results of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), metastatic brain tumors, acoustic neurinomas, meningiomas and trigeminal neuralgias are presented. Radiosurgery has become a novel treatment modality, especially for AVM, acoustic neurinoma and meningioma, which were once only treatable by conventional surgery, and shows a high cure rate in AVM cases and high control rate in benign tumors without major complications. The effects of radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors have been thought to be superior to fractionated radiotherapy due to high response and control rates, and patients showed improved quality of life although no prolongation of the life span was obtained. Gamma knife treatment for trigeminal neuralgia has been shown to be effective and less invasive than microvascular decompression, and is useful for cases resistant to conventional therapies and as an initial treatment as well. (author)

  19. Industrial radiography. Gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menetrier, J.

    1975-01-01

    Informations are given on gamma radiodefectology regulations, entire references and main dispositions applicable to each state of the European Economic Community. The content includes previous arrangements for source acquisition, holding and use of the sources, transport, accidents, civil liability of the source holder, person insurance against radiation hazards and contamination, property insurance, penal liability of the source holder

  20. Introscopy using gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, Yu.V.; Leonov, B.I.; Najorov, A.N.; Smirnov, N.N.; Firstov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described of working with standard 170 Tm, 75 Se, 192 Ir, 137 Cs and 60 Co sources at the activity of 1-4000 Ci, during television gamma introscopy of steel products. Experiments involving the RI-10T introscope are carried out to determine prospects of using various radiation sources. The results of using X-ray instruments for control of steel products are also shown for comparison. In introscopy of X-rayed steel products over 25 mm thick, spreading of the edge of the detected groove image is shown to be comparable when using X radiation and gamma radiation of standard sources. Sensitivity of control by fluorographic introscope in X-raying and gamma irradiation of products over 25 mm thick will presumably be the same owing to the detector storage capacity. The use of commercial gamma flaw detecting instruments together with a television introscope permits to reliably reveal defects of 0.5-2.0 mm in size, eliminating possible instability of operation of X-ray instruments, particularly in field conditions

  1. Gamma apparatuses for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sul'kin, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Scientific and technical achievements in development and application of gamma therapeutic apparatuses for external and intracavity irradiations are generalized. Radiation-physical parameters of apparatuses providing usability of progressive methods in radiotherapy of onclogical patients are given. Optimization of main apparatus elements, ensurance of its operation reliability, reduction of errors of irradiation plan reproduction are considered. Attention is paid to radiation safety

  2. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  3. Gamma ray calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosauer, P.J.; Flaherty, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is in the field of gamma ray inspection devices for tubular products and the like employing an improved calibrating block which prevents the sensing system from being overloaded when no tubular product is present, and also provides the operator with a means for visually detecting the presence of wall thicknesses which are less than a required minimum. (author)

  4. Evolution of chirality from {gamma} soft {sup 108}Ru to triaxial {sup 110,112}Ru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y.X. [Physics Department, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zhu, S.J. [Physics Department, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Hamilton, J.H. [Physics Department, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)], E-mail: j.h.hamilton@vanderbilt.edu; Rasmussen, J.O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ramayya, A.V.; Goodin, C.; Li, K.; Hwang, J.K. [Physics Department, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Almehed, D. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Frauendorf, S. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, FZD-Rossendorf, Postfach 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Dimitrov, V. [Idaho Accelerator Center, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209-8263 (United States); Zhang, Jing-ye [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Che, X.L.; Jang, Z. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Stefanescu, I. [PKU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Gelberg, A. [University of Cologne, Institute of Kernphysics, Cologne D-50937 (Germany); Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Daniel, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Stoyer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Donangelo, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68528, RG (Brazil)] (and others)

    2009-01-05

    Rotational bands in {sup 108,110,112}Ru have been investigated by means of {gamma}-{gamma}-{gamma} and {gamma}-{gamma}({theta}) coincidences of prompt {gamma} rays emitted in the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf. The positive parity bands are described by different versions of IBA, where {sup 108}Ru is best described as a {gamma}-soft nucleus whereas {sup 110,112}Ru are more like rigid triaxial rotors. New {delta}I=1 negative parity doublet bands are found. In case of {sup 110,112}Ru, these are interpreted as soft chiral vibrations. Many of the experimental findings can be explained by microscopic calculations that combine the TAC mean-field with random phase approximation but a simple geometrical explanation is not apparent.

  5. Indirect probes of the trilinear Higgs coupling: $gg \\to h$ and $h \\to \\gamma \\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbahn, Martin

    2016-10-18

    In the framework of the Standard Model effective field theory, we examine the indirect constraints on the trilinear Higgs coupling $\\lambda$ that arise from Higgs production in gluon-gluon-fusion and diphoton Higgs decays. We calculate 2-loop contributions to the $gg \\to h$ and $h \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ amplitudes that are affected by modifications of the trilinear Higgs-boson vertex. This calculation involves both the computation of anomalous dimensions and finite matching corrections. Based on our new results, we analyse the sensitivity of present and future measurements of the $hgg$ and $h \\gamma \\gamma$ couplings to shifts in $\\lambda$. Under the assumption that $O_6 = - \\lambda \\left (H^\\dagger H \\right )^3$ is the only dimension-6 operator that alters the trilinear Higgs interactions, we find that at present the considered loop-level probes provide stronger constraints than $pp \\to 2h$. At future high-energy colliders indirect ${\\cal O} (5)$ determinations of the trilinear Higgs coupling may be possible, ma...

  6. LHCb Observation of photon polarization in the $b\\rightarrow s\\gamma$ transition

    CERN Multimedia

    Veneziano, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The Standard Model (SM) predicts that the photon emitted in $b\\rightarrow s\\gamma$ transitions is predominantly left-handed. While the measured inclusive $b\\rightarrow s\\gamma$ rate agrees with the SM calculations, no direct evidence exists for a nonzero photon polarization $\\lambda_\\gamma$ in this type of decays. Several extensions of the SM, compatible with all current measurements, predict that the photon acquires a significant right-handed component.

  7. Gamma-ray Albedo of Small Solar System Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalenko, I.V.

    2008-03-25

    We calculate the {gamma}-ray albedo flux from cosmic-ray (CR) interactions with the solid rock and ice in Main Belt asteroids and Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) using the Moon as a template. We show that the {gamma}-ray albedo for the Main Belt and KBOs strongly depends on the small-body mass spectrum of each system and may be detectable by the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). If detected, it can be used to derive the mass spectrum of small bodies in the Main Belt and Kuiper Belt and to probe the spectrum of CR nuclei at close-to-interstellar conditions. The orbits of the Main Belt asteroids and KBOs are distributed near the ecliptic, which passes through the Galactic center and high Galactic latitudes. Therefore, the {gamma}-ray emission by the Main Belt and Kuiper Belt has to be taken into account when analyzing weak {gamma}-ray sources close to the ecliptic. The asteroid albedo spectrum also exhibits a 511 keV line due to secondary positrons annihilating in the rock. This may be an important and previously unrecognized celestial foreground for the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of the Galactic 511 keV line emission including the direction of the Galactic center. For details of our calculations and references see [1].

  8. Precise measurement of {gamma}(K{yields}e {nu}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{yields}{mu} {nu}({gamma})) and study of K{yields}e {nu} {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosino, F.; Massarotti, P.; Meola, S.; Napolitano, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita ' ' Federico II' ' , Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Gatti, C.; Giovannella, S.; Jacewicz, M.; Lanfranchi, G.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Murtas, F.; Palutan, M.; Santangelo, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Venanzoni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Archilli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Beltrame, P.; Denig, A.; Mueller, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Bini, C.; De Santis, A.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Bocchetta, S.; Ceradini, F.; Di Micco, B.; Nguyen, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Branchini, P.; Graziani, E.; Passeri, A.; Tortora, L. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Capriotti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Rome (Italy); Di Donato, C. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Kulikov, V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lee-Franzini, J. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); State University of New York, Physics Department, Stony Brook (United States); Martini, M.; Patera, V.; Versaci, R. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica dell' Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); Valente, P. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present a precise measurement of the ratio R{sub K}={gamma}(K{yields}e{nu}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{yields}{mu}{nu}({gamma})) and a study of the radiative process K{yields}e{nu}{gamma}, performed with the KLOE detector. The results are based on data collected at the Frascati e{sup +}e{sup -} collider DA {phi}NE for an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb{sup -1}. We find R{sub K}=(2.493{+-}0.025{sub stat}{+-}0.019{sub syst}) x 10{sup -5}, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation. This result is used to improve constraints on parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with lepton flavor violation. We also measured the differential decay rate d {gamma}(K{yields}e{nu}{gamma})/dE{sub {gamma}} for photon energies 10gamma}}<250 MeV. Results are compared with predictions from theory. (orig.)

  9. Designing and developing of data evaluation and analysis software applied to gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgharizadeh, F.; Bahrami Samani, A.; Rahighi, J.; Shahidi, F.

    2007-01-01

    This study is intended to design and develop software for gamma spectral data evaluation and analysis suitable for a variety of gamma-ray spectrometry systems. The software is written in Visual C++. It is designed to run under Microsoft Windows Operating System. The software is capable of covering all the necessary steps for spectral data evaluation and analysis of the collected data. These include peak search, energy calibration, gross and net peak area calculation, peak centroid determination and peak width calculation of the derived gamma-ray peaks. The software offers the ability to report qualitative and quantitative results. The analysis includes: Peak position identification (qualitative analysis) and calculating of its characteristics; Net peak area calculation by subtracting background; Radioactivity estimation (quantitative analysis) using comparison method for gamma peaks from any radioisotopes present during counting; Radioactivity estimation (quantitative analysis) after efficiency calibration; Counting uncertainties calculation; Limit of detection (LOD) estimation. (author)

  10. A methodology for radiological accidents analysis in industrial gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C.A. da.

    1990-01-01

    A critical review of 34 published severe radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography, that happened in 15 countries, from 1960 to 1988, was performed. The most frequent causes, consequences and dose estimation methods were analysed, aiming to stablish better procedures of radiation safety and accidents analysis. The objective of this work is to elaborate a radiological accidents analysis methodology in industrial gamma radiography. The suggested methodology will enable professionals to determine the true causes of the event and to estimate the dose with a good certainty. The technical analytical tree, recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency to perform radiation protection and nuclear safety programs, was adopted in the elaboration of the suggested methodology. The viability of the use of the Electron Gamma Shower 4 Computer Code System to calculate the absorbed dose in radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography, mainly at sup(192)Ir radioactive source handling situations was also studied. (author)

  11. Examination of irradiated fuel elements using gamma scanning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichim, O.; Mincu, M.; Man, I.; Stanica, M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to validate the gamma scanning technique used to calculate the activity of gamma fission products from CANDU/TRIGA irradiated fuel elements. After a short presentation of the equipments used and their characteristics, the paper describes the calibration technique for the devices and how computed tomography reconstruction is done. Following the previously mentioned steps is possible to obtain the axial and radial profiles and the computed tomography reconstruction for calibration sources and for the irradiated fuel elements. The results are used to validate the gamma scanning techniques as a non-destructive examination method. The gamma scanning techniques will be used to: identify the fission products in the irradiated CANDU/TRIGA fuel elements, construct the axial and radial distributions of fission products, get the distribution in cross section through computed tomography reconstruction, and determine the nuclei number and the fission products activity of the irradiated CANDU/TRIGA fuel elements. (authors)

  12. Factorization in B to V gamma Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, T

    2005-03-28

    The factorization properties of the radiative decays B {yields} V{gamma} are analyzed at leading order in 1/mb using the soft-collinear effective theory. It is shown that the decay amplitudes can be expressed in terms of a B {yields} V form factor evaluated at q{sup 2} = 0, light-cone distribution amplitudes of the B and V mesons, and calculable hard-scattering kernels. The renormalization-group equations in the effective theory are solved to resume perturbative logarithms of the different scales in the decay process. Phenomenological implications for the B {yields} K*{gamma} branching ratio, isospin asymmetry, and CP asymmetries are discussed, with particular emphasis on possible effects from physics beyond the Standard Model.

  13. Burnup calculation code system COMRAD96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyama, Kenya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Masukawa, Fumihiro; Ido, Masaru; Enomoto, Masaki; Takyu, Shuiti; Hara, Toshiharu

    1997-06-01

    COMRAD was one of the burnup code system developed by JAERI. COMRAD96 is a transfered version of COMRAD to Engineering Work Station. It is divided to several functional modules, `Cross Section Treatment`, `Generation and Depletion Calculation`, and `Post Process`. It enables us to analyze a burnup problem considering a change of neutron spectrum using UNITBURN. Also it can display the {gamma} Spectrum on a terminal. This report is the general description and user`s manual of COMRAD96. (author)

  14. BFKL resummation effects in {gamma}{sup *}{gamma}{sup *}{yields}{rho}{rho}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enberg, R. [Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT, Palaiseau (France); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley (United States); Pire, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT, Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium); Wallon, S. [LPT, Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)

    2006-03-15

    We calculate the leading order BFKL amplitude for the exclusive diffractive process {gamma}{sup *}{sub L}(Q{sub 1}{sup 2}){gamma}{sup *}{sub L}(Q{sub 2}{sup 2}){yields}{rho}{sub L}{sup 0}{rho}{sub L}{sup 0} in the forward direction, which can be studied in future high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders. The resummation effects are very large compared to the fixed-order calculation. We also estimate the next-to-leading logarithmic corrections to the amplitude by using a specific resummation of higher order effects and find a substantial growth with energy, but smaller than in the leading logarithmic approximation. (orig.)

  15. Simulated and measured neutron/gamma light output distribution for poly-energetic neutron/gamma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. A.; Zangian, M.; Aghabozorgi, S.

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper, the light output distribution due to poly-energetic neutron/gamma (neutron or gamma) source was calculated using the developed MCNPX-ESUT-PE (MCNPX-Energy engineering of Sharif University of Technology-Poly Energetic version) computational code. The simulation of light output distribution includes the modeling of the particle transport, the calculation of scintillation photons induced by charged particles, simulation of the scintillation photon transport and considering the light resolution obtained from the experiment. The developed computational code is able to simulate the light output distribution due to any neutron/gamma source. In the experimental step of the present study, the neutron-gamma discrimination based on the light output distribution was performed using the zero crossing method. As a case study, 241Am-9Be source was considered and the simulated and measured neutron/gamma light output distributions were compared. There is an acceptable agreement between the discriminated neutron/gamma light output distributions obtained from the simulation and experiment.

  16. HENRY'S LAW CALCULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  17. Gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Wijers, Ralph A M J; Woosley, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic gamma ray bursts (GRBs) have fascinated scientists and the public alike since their discovery in the late 1960s. Their story is told here by some of the scientists who participated in their discovery and, after many decades of false starts, solved the problem of their origin. Fourteen chapters by active researchers in the field present a detailed history of the discovery, a comprehensive theoretical description of GRB central engine and emission models, a discussion of GRB host galaxies and a guide to how GRBs can be used as cosmological tools. Observations are grouped into three sets from the satellites CGRO, BeppoSAX and Swift, and followed by a discussion of multi-wavelength observations. This is the first edited volume on GRB astrophysics that presents a fully comprehensive review of the subject. Utilizing the latest research, Gamma-ray Bursts is an essential desktop companion for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics.

  18. Gamma camera display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera having an array of photomultipliers coupled via pulse shaping circuitry and a resistor weighting circuit to a display for forming an image of a radioactive subject is described. A linearizing circuit is coupled to the weighting circuit, the linearizing circuit including a nonlinear feedback circuit with diode coupling to the weighting circuit for linearizing the correspondence between points of the display and points of the subject. 4 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

  19. Scanning gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Batter, J.F. Jr.; Stout, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning system for a gamma camera providing for the overlapping of adjacent scan paths is described. A collimator mask having tapered edges provides for a graduated reduction in intensity of radiation received by a detector thereof, the reduction in intensity being graduated in a direction normal to the scanning path to provide a blending of images of adjacent scan paths. 31 claims, 15 figures

  20. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.; Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed description is given of a novel gamma camera which is designed to produce superior images than conventional cameras used in nuclear medicine. The detector consists of a solid state detector (e.g. germanium) which is formed to have a plurality of discrete components to enable 2-dimensional position identification. Details of the electronic processing circuits are given and the problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.)

  1. Gamma surgery for hemangiopericytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.R.; Prasad, D.; Steiner, M.; Steiner, L.

    2000-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of 12 patients with 15 intracranial hemangiopericytomas treated at the University of Virginia using gamma surgery is presented. Clinical and radiographic follow up of 3 to 56 months is available for 10 patients with 12 tumors. There was one tumor present at the time of initial gamma surgery in each patient. Two new tumors occurred in patients previously treated. Nine of the tumors decreased in volume and three remained stable. Four of the nine tumors that shrank later progressed at an average of 22 months after treatment. Of the tumors that decreased in volume and have not progressed, the response has been for an average of 11 months. The follow-up for two tumors that remained unchanged was 10 and 34 months (average 22 months). A third tumor was unchanged at 42 months but the patient died of new disease adjacent to the treated area in the anterior skull base. There were no complications and the quality of life following the procedure was maintained or improved in every case. Gamma surgery is effective in palliating the patients by decreasing tumor volume and delaying recurrence. (author)

  2. In-situ gamma spectrometry method for determination of environmental gamma dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Claudio de Carvalho

    1995-07-01

    This work tries to establish a methodology for germanium detectors calibration, normally used for in situ gamma ray spectrometry, for determining the environmental exposure rate in function of the energy of the incident photons. For this purpose a computer code has been developed, based on the stripping method, for the computational spectra analysis to calculate the contribution of the partial absorption of the gamma rays (Compton effect) in the active and nonactive parts of the detector. The resulting total absorption spectrum is then converted to fluence distribution in function of the energy for the photons reaching the detector, which is then used to calculate the exposure rate or kerma in air. The unfolding and fluency convention parameters are determined by detector calibration using point gamma sources. The method is validated by comparison of the results against the calculated exposure rate at a point of interest for the standards. This method is used for the direct measurement of the exposure rate distribution in function of the energy at the site, in situ measurement technic, leading to rapid results during an emergency situation and also used for indoor measurements. (author)

  3. Gamma-ray Cherenkov-transition radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aginian, M. A.; Ispirian, K. A.; Ispiryan, M.

    2013-10-01

    The spectral and angular distributions as well as the total number of photons of gamma-ray Cherenkov-transition radiation (GCTR) produced by charged particles in the photon energy region {}\\sim(0.8\\text{-}2)\\ \\text{MeV} are calculated. For this purpose we used the experimental results of the recent discovery according to which in the above-mentioned region the measured refractive index of silicon as well as the theoretically calculated refractive index of gold are greater than 1. Using the results of the carried out numerical calculations an experimental arrangement is discussed for the observation and experimental study of the GCTR. As our results show the GCTR photon yield is about one order of magnitude higher than the background bremsstrahlung yield. Some applications of GCTR, in particular, for comparatively easy search of new materials with refractive index n(\\omega )>1 , are proposed.

  4. Study The Validity of The Direct Mathematical Method For Calculation The Total Efficiency Using Point And Disk Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagag, O.M.; Nafee, S.S.; Naeem, M.A.; El Khatib, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The direct mathematical method has been developed for calculating the total efficiency of many cylindrical gamma detectors, especially HPGe and NaI detector. Different source geometries are considered (point and disk). Further into account is taken of gamma attenuation from detector window or any interfacing absorbing layer. Results are compared with published experimental data to study the validity of the direct mathematical method to calculate total efficiency for any gamma detector size.

  5. Lunar based gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haymes, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy represents the study of the universe on the basis of the electromagnetic radiation with the highest energy. Gamma ray astronomy provides a crucial tool for the understanding of astronomical phenomena, taking into account nucleosynthesis in supernovae, black holes, active galaxies, quasars, the sources of cosmic rays, neutron stars, and matter-antimatter annihilation. Difficulties concerning the conduction of studies by gamma ray astronomy are related to the necessity to perform such studies far from earth because the atmosphere is a source of gamma rays. Studies involving the use of gamma ray instruments in earth orbit have been conducted, and more gamma ray astronomy observations are planned for the future. Imperfections of studies conducted in low earth orbit could be overcome by estalishing an observatory on the moon which represents a satellite orbiting at 60 earth radii. Details concerning such an observatory are discussed. 5 references

  6. Measurement of the $e^+ e^- \\to \\gamma\\gamma (\\gamma)$ cross section at the LEP energies

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerruti, C; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Collins, P; Colomer, M; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; D'Almagne, B; Damgaard, G; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Knoblauch, D; Kokkinias, P; Konoplyannikov, A K; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolenko, M; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rakoczy, D; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Silvestre, R; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1998-01-01

    The total and the differential cross-sections for the reaction $e^+e^-\\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma(\\gamma)$ have been measured with the DELPHI detector at LEP % with at centre-of-mass energies from 1 30 %, 136, 161, 172 and to 183 GeV for an integrated luminosity of 78.19.~pb$^{-1}$. %CR An agreement with the QED predictions was found and consequently The results agree with the QED prediction s. The lower limits (obtained including previously published results at the $\\Zzero$ energies) on the QED cutoff parameters are $\\Lambda_{+} > 253$~GeV and $\\Lambda_{-} > 225$~GeV and the lower bo und on the mass of an excited electron with an effective coupling constant $\\lambda_{\\gamma} = 1$ is 231~GeV/$c^2$. %Upper limits on the branching ratios for the decays ${\\rm Z}^0\\rightarrow %\\gam ma\\gamma$, ${\\rm Z}^0\\rightarrow \\pi^0\\gamma$, % ${\\rm Z}^0\\rightarrow \\eta\\gamma$ %and ${\\rm Z}^0\\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma\\gamma$ have been determined to be 2.5 % $\\times$ $10^{-5}$, 2.5 $\\times$ $ 10^{-5}$, % 4.0 $\\times$ $10^{-5}$, %and...

  7. Sequential Analysis of Gamma Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayez-Hassan, M.; Hella, Kh.M.

    2009-01-01

    This work shows how easy one can deal with a huge number of gamma spectra. The method can be used for radiation monitoring. It is based on the macro feature of the windows XP connected to QBASIC software. The routine was used usefully in generating accurate results free from human errors. One hundred measured gamma spectra were fully analyzed in 10 minutes using our fast and automated method controlling the Genie 2000 gamma acquisition analysis software.

  8. Gamma rays control coding moths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarris, L.

    Gamma rays are being tested as a means of controlling codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), under fruit storage conditions where fumigation will not work. Preliminary tests have shown that gamma radiation kills all exposed codling moth larvae, including larvae in the dormant stage. There is no carryover of radiation in the fruit and minimal effect on the fruit. Gamma irradiation of food is considered safe for human consumption at doses of 1 kilogray (10 kilorads) or less.

  9. $\\gamma N \\to \\Delta$ transition form factors in Quenched and $N_F=2$ QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Lippert, T; Neff, H; Negele, J W; Schilling, K; Schroers, W; Tsapalis, A; Forcrand, Ph. de; Lippert, Th.

    2003-01-01

    Calculations of the magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole and Coulomb quadrupole amplitudes for the transition $\\gamma N\\to \\Delta$ are presented both in quenched QCD and with two flavours of degenerate dynamical quarks.

  10. Gamma ray line production from cosmic ray spallation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The gamma ray line intensities due to cosmic ray spallation reactions in clouds, the galactic disk and accreting binary pulsars are calculated. With the most favorable plausible assumptions, only a few lines may be detectable to the level of 0.0000001 per sq. cm per sec. The intensities are compared with those generated in nuclear excitation reactions.

  11. Determination of gaussian peaks in gamma spectra by iterative regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The parameters of the peaks in gamma-ray spectra are determined by a simple iterative regression method. For each peak, the parameters are associated with a gaussian curve (3 parameters) located above a linear continuum (2 parameters). This method may produces the complete result of the calculation of statistical uncertainties and an accuracy higher than others methods. (author) [pt

  12. Determination of gamma ray attenuation coefficients of Al–4% Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    in the present work, the γ-ray attenuation coefficients of. MMCs for different gamma energies (ranging from 662 to 1332 keV) by using different point radioactive sources. (137Cs and 60Co) have been investigated. The measured results have been compared with the calculation. 2. Experimental details. 2.1 Production of ...

  13. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  14. Methods of bone marrow dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboaco, R.C.

    1982-02-01

    Several methods of bone marrow dose calculation for photon irradiation were analised. After a critical analysis, the author proposes the adoption, by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/CNEN, of Rosenstein's method for dose calculations in Radiodiagnostic examinations and Kramer's method in case of occupational irradiation. It was verified by Eckerman and Simpson that for monoenergetic gamma emitters uniformly distributed within the bone mineral of the skeleton the dose in the bone surface can be several times higher than dose in skeleton. In this way, is also proposed the Calculation of tissue-air ratios for bone surfaces in some irradiation geometries and photon energies to be included in the Rosenstein's method for organ dose calculation in Radiodiagnostic examinations. (Author) [pt

  15. Alternative methodology for irradiation reactor experimental shielding calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellozo, Sergio de Oliveira; Vital, Helio de Carvalho

    1996-01-01

    Due to a change in the project of the Experimental Irradiation Reactor, its shielding design had to be recalculated according to an alternative simplified analytical approach, since the standard transport calculations were temporarily unavailable. In the calculation of the new width for the shielding made up of steel and high-density concrete layers, the following radiation components were considered: fast neutrons and primary gammas (produced by fission and beta decay), from the core; and secondary gammas, produced by thermal neutron capture in the shielding. (author)

  16. Determination of the $e^+ e^- \\to \\gamma \\gamma (\\gamma)$ cross-section at LEP 2

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Rames, J; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2004-01-01

    A test of the benchmark QED process e+e- -> gamma gamma (gamma) is reported, using the data collected with the DELPHI detector at LEP 2. The data analysed were recorded at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 161 GeV to 208 GeV and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 656.4 pb^{-1}. The Born cross-section for the process e+e- -> gamma gamma (gamma) was determined, confirming the validity of QED at the highest energies ever attained in electron-positron collisions. Lower limits on the parameters of a number of possible deviations from QED, predicted within theoretical frameworks expressing physics beyond the Standard Model, were derived.

  17. Constraining axion by polarized prompt emission from gamma ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, André

    2008-01-01

    A polarized gamma ray emission spread over a sufficiently wide energy band from a strongly magnetized astrophysical object like gamma ray bursts (GRBs) offers an opportunity to test the hypothesis of invisible axion. The axionic induced dichroism of gamma rays at different energies should cause a misalignment of the polarization plane for higher energy events relative to that one for lower energies events resulting in the loss of statistics needed to form a pattern of the polarization signal to be recognized in a detector. According to this, any evidence of polarized gamma rays coming from an object with extended magnetic field could be interpreted as a constraint on the existence of the invisible axion for a certain parameter range. Based on reports of polarized MeV emission detected in several GRBs we derive a constraint on the axion-photon coupling. This constraint $\\g_{a\\gamma\\gamma}\\le 2.2\\cdot 10^{-11} {\\rm GeV^{-1}}$ calculated for the axion mass $m_a=10^{-3} {\\rm eV}$ is competitive with the sensitivi...

  18. Predictions for $B \\to K \\gamma \\gamma$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Hiller, G; Hiller, Gudrun

    2005-01-01

    We present a phenomenological study of the rare double radiative decay $B\\to K \\gamma\\gamma$ in the Standard Model (SM) and beyond. Using the operator product expansion (OPE) technique, we estimate the short-distance (SD) contribution to the decay amplitude in a region of the phase space which is around the point where all decay products have energy $\\sim m_b/3$ in the rest frame of the $B$-meson. At lowest order in 1/Q, where $Q$ is of order $m_b$, the $B\\to K \\gamma\\gamma$ matrix element is then expressed in terms of the usual $B\\to K$ form factors known from semileptonic rare decays. The integrated SD branching ratio in the SM in the OPE region turns out to be $\\Delta {\\cal{B}}(B \\to K \\gamma \\gamma)_{SM}^{OPE} \\simeq 1 \\times 10^{-9}$. We work out the di-photon invariant mass distribution with and without the resonant background through $B\\to K \\{\\eta_c,\\chi_{c0}\\}\\to K\\gamma \\gamma$. In the SM, the resonance contribution is dominant in the region of phase space where the OPE is valid. The present experim...

  19. Gamma-ray multiplicity distribution in ternary fission of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandel, M [Department of Nuclear Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kliman, J [Department of Nuclear Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Krupa, L [Department of Nuclear Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Morhac, M [Department of Nuclear Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Hamilton, J H [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Kormicki, J [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Ramayya, A V [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Hwang, J K [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Luo, Y X [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Fong, D [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Gore, P [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Akopian, G M Ter; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Rodin, A M; Fomichev, A S; Popeko, G S; Daniel, A V [Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Rasmussen, J O; Macchiavelli, A O [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Stoyer, M A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Donangelo, R [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cole, J D [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2002-12-01

    From multiparameter data obtained at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the integral characteristics of the prompt {gamma}-ray emission were extracted for tripartition of {sup 252}Cf with He, Be and C being the third light charged particle. We used multifold {gamma}-ray coincidence spectra for the determination of {gamma}-ray multiplicities assuming a Gaussian distribution for {gamma}-ray multiplicity. The multiplicity distribution characteristics, i.e. mean multiplicity and its dispersion were obtained by minimizing with respect to the calculated values of probabilities of multifold {gamma}-ray coincidences using a combinatoric method. Comparison with the known experimental data from binary fission was made. Further, we investigated dependencies of the mean {gamma}-ray multiplicity on the kinetic energy of the light charged particle. The mean {gamma}-ray multiplicity for He ternary fission is found to increase rapidly with increasing kinetic energy of He in the region less than 11 MeV and then decrease slowly with increasing kinetic energy of He. The anomalous behaviour of {gamma}-ray emission is discussed. The mean {gamma}-ray multiplicity was determined for the first time for Be and C ternary fission. For Be, the {gamma}-ray multiplicity as a function of kinetic energy was obtained as well.

  20. Applying the 'general principles of dose calculation' (ABG) in practice. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubelt, R.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation doses are to be calculated for the main exposure pathways such as gamma submersion, beta submersion, gamma radiation at ground level, inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides. After the amendment of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance to include the latest ICRP Recommendations, the dose to be determined now is the effective dose equivalent, replacing the former whole-body dose equivalent. (DG) [de

  1. Magnetic Field Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...

  2. Research building gamma Compton scattering measurement system and related exercises for training nuclear human resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Xuan Phong; Nguyen Van Hung; Pham Xuan Hai; Le Van Ngoc; Nguyen Xuan Hai; Dang Lanh; Tran Quoc Duong

    2013-01-01

    In this subject we have designed and manufactured Compton scattering gamma measurement system based on the calculated optimal configuration as well as the conditions of protect radiation by using Monte-Carlo simulation program and fabrication with the optimal conditions were selected. Monte-Carlo simulation calculation of Compton scattering gamma follow different angles on copper, surveying gamma radiation attenuation characteristics of materials: lead, iron, aluminum, and compared with the experimental results performed on the same measurement system has been built and given for evaluation, comments. (author)

  3. Novel Radiobiological Gamma Index for Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Predicted Dose Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, Iori, E-mail: sumida@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Aboshi, Keiko; Tsujii, Mari; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Yamada, Yuji [Department of Radiation Oncology, NTT West Osaka Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Isohashi, Fumiaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, NTT West Osaka Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, NTT West Osaka Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To propose a gamma index-based dose evaluation index that integrates the radiobiological parameters of tumor control (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancer patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy. Before treatment, patient-specific quality assurance was conducted via beam-by-beam analysis, and beam-specific dose error distributions were generated. The predicted 3-dimensional (3D) dose distribution was calculated by back-projection of relative dose error distribution per beam. A 3D gamma analysis of different organs (prostate: clinical [CTV] and planned target volumes [PTV], rectum, bladder, femoral heads; H&N: gross tumor volume [GTV], CTV, spinal cord, brain stem, both parotids) was performed using predicted and planned dose distributions under 2%/2 mm tolerance and physical gamma passing rate was calculated. TCP and NTCP values were calculated for voxels with physical gamma indices (PGI) >1. We propose a new radiobiological gamma index (RGI) to quantify the radiobiological effects of TCP and NTCP and calculate radiobiological gamma passing rates. Results: The mean RGI gamma passing rates for prostate cases were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.03–.001). The mean RGI gamma passing rates for H&N cases (except for GTV) were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.001). Differences in gamma passing rates between PGI and RGI were due to dose differences between the planned and predicted dose distributions. Radiobiological gamma distribution was visualized to identify areas where the dose was radiobiologically important. Conclusions: RGI was proposed to integrate radiobiological effects into PGI. This index would assist physicians and medical physicists not only in physical evaluations of treatment delivery accuracy, but also in clinical evaluations of predicted dose distribution.

  4. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    A new method - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD - for processing gamma-ray spectra has been developed as part of a Ph.D. project. By using this technique one is able to decompose a large set of data - for example from airborne gamma-ray surveys - into a few spectral components. ...

  5. Handbook for the calculation of reactor protections; Formulaire sur le calcul de la protection des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-07-01

    This note constitutes the first edition of a Handbook for the calculation of reactor protections. This handbook makes it possible to calculate simply the different neutron and gamma fluxes and consequently, to fix the minimum quantities of materials necessary under general safety conditions both for the personnel and for the installations. It contains a certain amount of nuclear data, calculation methods, and constants corresponding to the present state of our knowledge. (authors) [French] Cette note constitue la premiere edition du 'Formulaire sur le calcul de la protection des reacteurs'. Ce formulaire permet de calculer de facon simple les difterents flux de neutrons et de gamma et, par suite, de fixer les quantites minima de materiaux a utiliser pour que les conditions generales de securite soient respectees, tant pour le personnel que pour les installations. Il contient un certain nombre de donnees nucleaires, de methodes de calcul et de constantes correspondant a l'etat actuel de nos connaissances. (auteurs)

  6. Hard Gamma Ray Emission from the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James M.; Marscher, Alan M.

    1996-01-01

    We have completed the study to search for hard gamma ray emission from the starburst galaxy NGC 253. Since supernovae are thought to provide the hard gamma ray emission from the Milky Way, starburst galaxies, with their extraordinarily high supernova rates, are prime targets to search for hard gamma ray emission. We conducted a careful search for hard gamma ray emission from NGC 253 using the archival data from the EGRET experiment aboard the CGRO. Because this starburst galaxy happens to lie near the South Galactic Pole, the Galactic gamma ray background is minimal. We found no significant hard gamma ray signal toward NGC 253, although a marginal signal of about 1.5 sigma was found. Because of the low Galactic background, we obtained a very sensitive upper limit to the emission of greater than 100 MeV gamma-rays of 8 x 10(exp -8) photons/sq cm s. Since we expected to detect hard gamma ray emission, we investigated the theory of gamma ray production in a dense molecular medium. We used a leaky-box model to simulate diffusive transport in a starburst region. Since starburst galaxies have high infrared radiation fields, we included the effects of self-Compton scattering, which are usually ignored. By modelling the expected gamma-ray and synchrotron spectra from NGC 253, we find that roughly 5 - 15% of the energy from supernovae is transferred to cosmic rays in the starburst. This result is consistent with supernova acceleration models, and is somewhat larger than the value derived for the Galaxy (3 - 10%). Our calculations match the EGRET and radio data very well with a supernova rate of 0.08/ yr, a magnetic field B approx. greater than 5 x 10(exp -5) G, a density n approx. less than 100/sq cm, a photon density U(sub ph) approx. 200 eV/sq cm, and an escape time scale tau(sub 0) approx. less than 10 Myr. The models also suggest that NGC 253 should be detectable with only a factor of 2 - 3 improvement in sensitivity. Our results are consistent with the standard picture

  7. SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer System software design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femec, D.A.; Killian, E.W.

    1994-08-01

    To assist in the characterization of the radiological contents of contract-handled waste containers at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP), the SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (SGRS) System has been developed by the Radiation Measurements and Development Unit of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The SGRS system software controls turntable and detector system activities. In addition to determining the concentrations of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides, this software also calculates attenuation-corrected isotopic mass ratios of-specific interest. This document describes the software design for the data acquisition and analysis software associated with the SGRS system

  8. SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer System software design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Femec, D.A.; Killian, E.W.

    1994-08-01

    To assist in the characterization of the radiological contents of contract-handled waste containers at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP), the SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (SGRS) System has been developed by the Radiation Measurements and Development Unit of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The SGRS system software controls turntable and detector system activities. In addition to determining the concentrations of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides, this software also calculates attenuation-corrected isotopic mass ratios of-specific interest. This document describes the software design for the data acquisition and analysis software associated with the SGRS system.

  9. Neutron and gamma characterization within the FFTF reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, W.L.; Carter, L.L.; Moore, F.S.; Werner, E.J.; Wilcox, A.D.; Wood, M.R.

    1980-08-01

    Neutron and gamma ray measurements were made within the reactor cavity of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to establish the operating characteristics of the Ex-Vessel Flux Monitoring (EVFM) system as a function of reactor power level. A significant effort was made to obtain absolute flux values in order that the measurements could be compared directly with shield design calculations. Good agreement was achieved for neutrons and for both the prompt and delayed components of the gamma ray field. 8 figures, 3 tables

  10. $\\gamma$-Ray Pulsars: Emission Zones and Viewing Geometries

    OpenAIRE

    Romani, Roger W.; Yadigaroglu, I. -A.

    1994-01-01

    There are now a half dozen young pulsars detected in high energy photons by the Compton GRO, showing a variety of emission efficiencies and pulse profiles. We present here a calculation of the pattern of high energy emission on the sky in a model which posits $\\gamma$-ray production by charge depleted gaps in the outer magnetosphere. This model accounts for the radio to $\\gamma$-ray pulse offsets of the known pulsars, as well as the shape of the high energy pulse profiles. We also show that $...

  11. Gamma factors of an ambulatory source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos P, A.; Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E.; Salas L, M.A.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Barquero, R.

    2007-01-01

    Some of the procedures for diagnostic or treatment used in the medicine use radioactive materials as the I 131 . By means of Monte Carlo methods were calculated the doses in the internal organs of a woman, with three months of pregnancy, due to the radioiodine captured by her thyroid, as well as to 1 meter of the gland. A three-dimensional mathematical model of the body of a woman was used and by means of Monte Carlo, the radioiodine photons were transported isotropically from the thyroid toward the whole body and was calculated the absorbed dose by their internal organs, also the Kerma in air (K) was determined and the environmental equivalent dose (H * (10)) at 1 m of the gland. Two activity factors at dose were determined, Gamma Factors that it allows to estimate the dose that the patient produces to people to its around. Of the gamma radiation that emits the I 131 in the thyroid was found that the thymus receives the biggest dose while the uterus is the organ that smaller dose receives. The determined gamma factors were: Γ KAire = 56 μGy-m 2 -h -1 -GBq -1 , and Γ H * (10) = 73 μSv-m 2 -h -1 -GBq -1 . The distribution of the absorbed dose by the internal organs is attributed to the relative distance among the thyroid and the other organs, to the inter-organs shielding, its size and to its elementary composition. The Γ KAire and Γ H * (10) factors allow to estimate the exposure that the patient produces on the personnel to its around. With this, the nuclear medicus, the medical physicist or the one responsible of the radiological safety in the hospital can give more precise indications on the behavior of people around the patient. (Author)

  12. Gamma radiation effects on liofilized human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron Soler, E.; Romay Penabad, Z.; Chavez Ardanza, A.; Hernandez Gonzalez, C.; Martin Gonzalez, O.; Garcia Gonzalez, I.; Prieto Miranda, E.

    1995-01-01

    Human freeze dried serum was artificially contaminated with Flavobacterium sp. for studying the effects of gamma radiation of it. The radiobiological parameters of the contaminator were determined and the sterilization dose was set. The quality of the product irradiated at both, calculated sterilization dose (8.5 kGy) an another one about 25 kGy was determined. It was made according to: sterility testing, total proteins, pH enzymes (alanina-aminotransferase, aspartato-aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase), protein electrophoresis, fast performance liquid chromatographic and effect on the cellular growth. From the latter was concluded that the calculated sterilization dose was adequate form keeping the biological properties and viability of the irradiated serum. Nevertheless, the dose of 25 k Gy was not adequate because of its dangerous effects on the cell culture

  13. Sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Frias, L.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)

  14. Spectrometric gamma radiation of shale cores applied to sweet spot discrimination in Eastern Pomerania, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupio, Rafal; de Alemar Barberes, Gabriel

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the application and calculation of hydrocarbon anomalies in two different boreholes located in Eastern Pomerania (northern Poland). Spectrometric data from borehole geophysical probe (borehole 1) and portable gamma logger (borehole 2) were used to analyze shale formations. The results from borehole 1 presented a statistically significant, moderate correlation between calculated hydrocarbon anomalies and hydrocarbon saturation data obtained from well log interpretation. Borehole 2 has been analyzed focusing on the gamma radiation of the core samples, and the positive results of borehole 1. Hydrocarbon anomalies calculated from spectral gamma radiation are reliable indicators of sweet spots, based solely on a cursory evaluation of core measurements. These preliminary information acquired from gamma-ray measurements could help increase sampling precision of further geochemical analysis.

  15. Gamma spectrometry on MANITU 271-01 gamma scan wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Minkema, J.

    1994-08-01

    A series of irradiation experiments (271-series) is being performed of the sustain programme for material development and characterization of the NET (Next European Torus). In the framework of the first irradiation experiment 271-01, with irradiation up to 0.2 dpa, four gamma scan wires have been examined by gamma scanning. The purpose of the gamma scan wires (GSW) is to get information about the neutron fluence distribution in the capsules during irradiation. In the stainless steel wires the nuclides Co-58, Mu-54, Fe-59 and Co-60 are produced, are characteristic for fast and thermal neutron reactions. (orig./HP)

  16. Gamma, x-ray reduction system. Volume I: gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    The starting premises for this data reduction system were (a) the individual researcher needs all the accuracy that can be achieved but he has neither the time nor the inclination to learn how to achieve it, and (b) if the data reduction system is to be centralized the people operating it will want to minimize conversation with the computer. This is a working system. All spectral data are stored on Data General 4234 discs after background normalization and strip. Storage is initiated from magnetic tapes loaded by detached pulse height analyzers or directly from Scorpio pulse height analyzers. The only restrictions placed on the individual researchers are that the pulse height analyzer energy scale be set up consistently, that a recovery standard be run at least once every day of use, and the total acquisition system be calibrated to its range of use. In many instances, and if desirable, the latter is provided as a service. At the time of writing this gamma data reduction system is actively being used to calculate net peak areas, activities with or without time correction, activations analysis results, counting precisions, and dynamic limits of detection for the spectral data output of 17 detached pulse height analyzers. To all modes of data reduction are applied background subtraction, random summing correction, detector recovery factor correction, peak interfernce correction (second-order product interference for activation analysis), geometry function correction, acquisition time decay corrections, external and internal sorber correction. All of this is accomplished and a customer report typed in a readable format after a halfline of noninteractive instruction

  17. Neutron and gamma sensitivities of self-powered detectors: Monte Carlo modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeeren, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of a detailed Monte Carlo approach for the calculation of the absolute neutron sensitivity of SPNDs, which makes use of the MCNP code. We will explain the calculation approach, including the activation and beta emission steps, the gamma-electron interactions, the charge deposition in the various detector parts and the effect of the space charge field in the insulator. The model can also be applied for the calculation of the gamma sensitivity of self-powered detectors and for the radiation-induced currents in signal cables. The model yields detailed information on the various contributions to the sensor currents, with distinct response times. Results for the neutron sensitivity of various types of SPNDs are in excellent agreement with experimental data obtained at the BR2 research reactor. For typical neutron to gamma flux ratios, the calculated gamma induced SPND currents are significantly lower than the neutron induced currents. The gamma sensitivity depends very strongly upon the immediate detector surroundings and on the gamma spectrum. Our calculation method opens the way to a reliable on-line determination of the absolute in-pile thermal neutron flux. (authors)

  18. Neutron and gamma sensitivities of self-powered detectors: Monte Carlo modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeeren, Ludo [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    This paper deals with the development of a detailed Monte Carlo approach for the calculation of the absolute neutron sensitivity of SPNDs, which makes use of the MCNP code. We will explain the calculation approach, including the activation and beta emission steps, the gamma-electron interactions, the charge deposition in the various detector parts and the effect of the space charge field in the insulator. The model can also be applied for the calculation of the gamma sensitivity of self-powered detectors and for the radiation-induced currents in signal cables. The model yields detailed information on the various contributions to the sensor currents, with distinct response times. Results for the neutron sensitivity of various types of SPNDs are in excellent agreement with experimental data obtained at the BR2 research reactor. For typical neutron to gamma flux ratios, the calculated gamma induced SPND currents are significantly lower than the neutron induced currents. The gamma sensitivity depends very strongly upon the immediate detector surroundings and on the gamma spectrum. Our calculation method opens the way to a reliable on-line determination of the absolute in-pile thermal neutron flux. (authors)

  19. DACRI-A program for dose and activity calculation using personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Ah Auu

    1986-01-01

    The DACRI (Dose and Activity Calculation for Repeated Irradiation) Computer Code is written to assist evaluation of reactor irradiation requests and planning of sample irradiation. DACRI calculates the activity of radioisotope for various repeated irradiation and decay periods. The bare as well as shielded gamma doses from the radioactive products could also be calculated. DACRI is written in BASIC for IBM PC. (author)

  20. Nuclear data treatment for SAM-CE Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenstein, H.; Troubetzkoy, E.S.; Beer, M.

    1980-01-01

    The treatment of nuclear data by the SAM-CE Monte Carlo code system is presented. The retrieval of neutron, gamma production, and photon data from the ENDF/B fils is described. Integral cross sections as well as differential data are utilized in the Monte Carlo calculations, and the processing procedures for the requisite data are summarized

  1. Gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements and simulations for uranium mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchais T.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AREVA Mines and the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA Cadarache are collaborating to improve the sensitivity and precision of uranium concentration evaluation by means of gamma measurements. This paper reports gamma-ray spectra, recorded with a high-purity coaxial germanium detector, on standard cement blocks with increasing uranium content, and the corresponding MCNP simulations. The detailed MCNP model of the detector and experimental setup has been validated by calculation vs. experiment comparisons. An optimization of the detector MCNP model is presented in this paper, as well as a comparison of different nuclear data libraries to explain missing or exceeding peaks in the simulation. Energy shifts observed between the fluorescence X-rays produced by MCNP and atomic data are also investigated. The qualified numerical model will be used in further studies to develop new gamma spectroscopy approaches aiming at reducing acquisition times, especially for ore samples with low uranium content.

  2. Gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements and simulations for uranium mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchais, T.; Pérot, B.; Carasco, C.; Allinei, P.-G.; Chaussonnet, P.; Ma, J.-L.; Toubon, H.

    2018-01-01

    AREVA Mines and the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA Cadarache are collaborating to improve the sensitivity and precision of uranium concentration evaluation by means of gamma measurements. This paper reports gamma-ray spectra, recorded with a high-purity coaxial germanium detector, on standard cement blocks with increasing uranium content, and the corresponding MCNP simulations. The detailed MCNP model of the detector and experimental setup has been validated by calculation vs. experiment comparisons. An optimization of the detector MCNP model is presented in this paper, as well as a comparison of different nuclear data libraries to explain missing or exceeding peaks in the simulation. Energy shifts observed between the fluorescence X-rays produced by MCNP and atomic data are also investigated. The qualified numerical model will be used in further studies to develop new gamma spectroscopy approaches aiming at reducing acquisition times, especially for ore samples with low uranium content.

  3. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Polyvinylidene Fluoride Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madivalappa, Shivaraj; Jali, V. M.

    2018-02-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride thin films were synthesized by Sol-Gel method with spin rate of 3000 rpm for 30 sec on ITO glass substrates and were annealed at 170 C. The films were irradiated by Gamma radiation with different doses (10, 30, 40 and 50 kGy). XRD and FTIR spectra have been obtained to identify the presence of α / β phases. Mean crystallite size was calculated by Scherer’s equation. Different vibrational bands were identified and percentage of β phase was determined by FTIR analysis. Optical properties like band gap, refractive index, optical activation energy have been determined. Surface morphology and compositions of pristine and gamma irradiated PVDF thin films were confirmed respectively, by SEM and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The comparison of the structural and optical optical properties of pristine PVDF polymer film has been made with those of the Gamma irradiated films.

  4. Terrestrial gamma dose rate in Pahang state Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabdo, H.T.; Federal College of Education, Yola; Ramli, A.T.; Sanusi, M.S.; Saleh, M.A.; Garba, N.N.; Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

    2014-01-01

    Environmental terrestrial gamma radiations (TGR) were measured in Pahang state Malaysia between January and April 2013. The TGR dose rates ranged from 26 to 750 nGy h -1 . The measurements were done based on geology and soil types of the area. The mean TGR dose rate was found to be 176 ± 5 nGy h -1 . Few areas of relatively enhanced activity were located in Raub, Temerloh, Bentong and Rompin districts. These areas have external gamma dose rates of between 500 and 750 nGy h -1 . An Isodose map of the state was produced using ArcGIS9 software version 9.3. To evaluate the radiological hazard due to terrestrial gamma dose, the annual effective dose equivalent and the mean population weighted dose rate were calculated and found to be 0.22 mSv year -1 and 168 nGy h -1 respectively. (author)

  5. EPR structure of the gamma irradiated alanine spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral P, A.; Jimenez D, H.; Urena N, F.; Galindo, S.; Bosch, P

    1992-03-15

    In this study is shown that the broadened five-line EPR pattern of the gamma irradiated alanine possibly decomposes into a more complex pattern when the recorded spectrum is subject to an operation of deconvolution. The EPR powder spectra of gamma irradiated DL- and L-alanine with and without binders are analysed. In all recorded spectra, each observed line is resolved into an asymmetrical triplet when a Gaussian distribution of 8.2 gauss width is removed, by deconvolution, from the observed spectrum. On the other hand, from a simple fitting analysis carried out on the original data, one encounters that some calculated relations between characteristic parameters, such as intensity ratios, deviate consistently from assumed height ratios. Both, from deconvolution and fitting results, a different structure is suggested for the observed broadened five-line EPR pattern of {gamma}-irradiated powder DL- and L-alanine. (Author)

  6. Estimation grade of uranium from drill hole gamma logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliao, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric grade of uranium deposits can be determined from drill hole gamma logs. The calculation of uranium oxide content can be obtained with good precision when the uranium ore is in radioactive equilibrium, containing only a small amount of thorium and no interference of potassium. This is the case of uranium ore from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province presented in this paper. The radioactive disequilibrium study in this province were made working over nine hundred samples analised with this special purpose in the CDTN-NUCLEBRAS laboratories. The data obtained indicated that the uranium in the ore is in perfect equilibrium with their daughter gamma emitters. Futhermore, the amount of Th and K is of no significance, so that the gamma counting represents exactly the uranium content of the ore. (author) [pt

  7. Neutron and gamma-ray transport experiments in liquid air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    Accurate estimates of neutron and gamma radiations from a nuclear explosion and their subsequent transport through the atmosphere are vital to nuclear-weapon employment studies: i.e., for determining safety radii for aircraft crews, casualty and collateral-damage risk radii for tactical weapons, and the kill range from a high-yield defensive burst for a maneuvering reentry vehicle. Radiation transport codes, such as the Laboratory's TARTNP, are used to calculate neutron and gamma fluences. Experiments have been performed to check and update these codes. Recently, a 1.3-m-radius liquid-air (21 percent oxygen) sphere, with a pulsed source of 14-MeV neutrons at its center, was used to measure the fluence and spectra of emerging neutrons and secondary gamma rays. Comparison of measured radiation dose with TARTNP showed agreement within 10 percent

  8. $\\gamma\\gamma$ physics with the KLOE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Archilli, F.; Badoni, D.; Balwierz, I.; Bencivenni, G.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Bulychjev, S.A.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Ceradini, F.; Ciambrone, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Dané, E.; De Lucia, E.; De Robertis, G.; De Santis, A.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Domenici, D.; Erriquez, O.; Fanizzi, G.; Felici, G.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Gonnella, F.; Graziani, E.; Happacher, F.; Höistad, B.; Iarocci, E.; Jacewicz, M.; Johansson, T.; Kulikov, V.; Kupsc, A.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Loddo, F.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Morello, G.; Moricciani, D.; Moskal, P.; Nguyen, F.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Prado Longhi, I.; Ranieri, A.; Santangelo, P.; Sarra, I.; Schioppa, M.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Silarski, M.; Taccini, C.; Tortora, L.; Venanzoni, G.; Versaci, R.; Wiślicki, W.; Wolke, M.; Zdebik, J.

    2011-01-01

    The processes $e^+e^-\\to e^+e^-X$, with $X$ being either the $\\eta$ meson or $\\pi^0\\pi^0$, are studied at DA$\\Phi$NE, with $e^+e^-$ beams colliding at $\\sqrt{s}\\simeq1$ GeV, below the $\\phi$ resonance peak. The data sample is from an integrated luminosity of 240 pb$^{-1}$, collected by the KLOE experiment without tagging of the outgoing $e^+e^-$. Preliminary results are presented on the observation of the $\\gamma\\gamma\\to\\eta$ process, with both $\\eta\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0$ and $\\eta\\to\\pi^0\\pi^0\\pi^0$ channels, and the evidence for $\\gamma\\gamma\\to\\pi^0\\pi^0$ production at low $\\pi^0\\pi^0$ invariant mass.

  9. The gamma contamination food factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukoc, A.H.; Anicin, I.V.; Adzic, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    We suggest that radioactive food contamination, as determined solely by a quantitative gamma-ray spectroscopic measurement, may, apart from the total activity per unit mass, be for quick reference conveniently characterized by another single figure which we call the ''Gamma Contamination Food Factor'' (GCFF). This factor may be defined as the ratio of the total specific activity of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides in the food sample (except that of 40 K) to the specific activity of 40 K either in the sample itself or in an ''average man''. We discuss briefly the meaning and advantages of these definitions. (author)

  10. Spatial computation with gamma oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, Ben; Vaadia, Eilon

    2014-01-01

    Gamma oscillations in cortex have been extensively studied with relation to behavior in both humans and animal models; however, their computational role in the processing of behaviorally relevant signals is still not clear. One oft-overlooked characteristic of gamma oscillations is their spatial distribution over the cortical space and the computational consequences of such an organization. Here, we advance the proposal that the spatial organization of gamma oscillations is of major importance for their function. The interaction of specific spatial distributions of oscillations with the functional topography of cortex enables select amplification of neuronal signals, which supports perceptual and cognitive processing. PMID:25249950

  11. Advanced HEDL gamma scan system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.C.; Olson, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    The design of an advanced state-of-the-art gamma scan system built for the purpose of measuring the point-by-point gamma activity of irradiated fuel rods is described. The emphasis of the system design was to achieve the highest rate of throughput with the minimum per rod cost while maintaining system accuracy and reliability. Preliminary tests demonstrate that all system requirements were met or exceeded. The system provides improved throughput, precision, automation, flexibility, and data processing capability over previous gamma scan systems

  12. Calculation of the counting efficiency for extended sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korun, M.; Vidmar, T.

    2002-01-01

    A computer program for calculation of efficiency calibration curves for extended samples counted on gamma- and X ray spectrometers is described. The program calculates efficiency calibration curves for homogeneous cylindrical samples placed coaxially with the symmetry axis of the detector. The method of calculation is based on integration over the sample volume of the efficiencies for point sources measured in free space on an equidistant grid of points. The attenuation of photons within the sample is taken into account using the self-attenuation function calculated with a two-dimensional detector model. (author)

  13. Gamma spectrometry of 285-04 ILAS gamma scan wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Plakman, J.C.

    1996-12-01

    In the frame work of their on-going sustain programme for the material development and characterization of fusion reactors, ECN is investigating the irradiation behaviour of ferritic/martensitic steels. In the fourth irradiation experiment 285-04, 55 steel tensile samples have been irradiated up to 2.5 dpa. Four gamma scan wires from this experiment have been examined by gamma scanning. The results of the measurements have been described in this report. (orig.)

  14. Digital gamma-gamma coincidence HPGe system for environmental analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    The performance of a new gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometer system for environmental samples analysis at the Center for Nuclear Technologies of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is reported. Nutech Coincidence Low Energy Germanium Sandwich (NUCLeGeS) system consists of two HPGe detector...... in a surface laboratory with a digital acquisition system used to collect the data in time-stamped list mode with 10. ns time resolution. The spectrometer is used in both anticoincidence and coincidence modes....

  15. Gamma-gamma angular correlation measurement in the 100 Ru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenchian, G.

    1990-01-01

    An angular correlation automatic spectrometer with two Ge(Li) detectors has been developed. The spectrometer moves automatically, controlled by a microcomputer. The gamma-gamma directional angular correlations of coincidence transitions have been measured in 100 Ru nuclide, following the β + and electron capture of 100 Rh. The 100 Rh source has been produced with 100 Ru(p,n) 100 Rh reaction, using the proton beam of the Cyclotron Accelerator insiding in 100 Ru isotope. (author)

  16. The induced radioactivity danger parameter for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, D.R.

    1985-07-01

    Dosimetric and practical aspects of the induced radioactivity danger parameter, as used for calculating the gamma radiation dose rate near to objects that have been exposed to high energy radiation, are examined. A simplified and more generally applicable method of calculation is proposed, based on energy balance in homogeneous media. The problems of applying this in practice are discussed, and it is shown that corrections are generally small enough to be neglected in many practical applications. Examples of calculations by previous and proposed methods are given. (author)

  17. Gamma radiation inside closed volumes with thin irradiating walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    The dose rate of gamma radiation inside a parallelepiped with thin radiating walls was calculated. The calculation was based on determining the dose rate from a rectangular plate and subsequently summing the dose rates from all the parallelepiped walls. The dose rate from the rectangular plate was calculated by reducing it to an equivalent plate of infinite length and certain fixed width. When the radiators had constant surface density, the dose rate in the geometric centre of volumes having the form of a parallelepiped was shown to have the least value in the case when the parallelepiped degenerates to a cube

  18. Recalibration of the HBWR gamma aspectrometer GEM-10175-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.; Blair, P.; Turnbull, T.; Fure, K.

    2005-09-01

    The gas flow system and gamma spectrometer continue to provide valuable fission gas release data. Measurements are made on a wide range of Xe and Kr isotopes and using a more complicated procedure it is possible to measure iodine isotopes directly. Routine measurements are currently made on two gas flow rigs loaded in the Halden reactor; the UO 2 and MOX comparison test IFA-633, and the high burnup disk irradiation test IFA-655. Prior to these rigs fission gas release data was obtained principally from IFA-504 and IFA-558. A gamma spectrometer was installed at the reactor to allow the first FIA-430 gamma spectra to be obtained in January 1980. This spectrometer continued in operation until a new spectrometer was installed towards the end of 1997 and began operation in January 1998. This second spectrometer is still in regular use. Both gamma spectrometers required calibration before the gamma spectra obtained could be analysed. This calibration involves calculating the detector efficiency, i.e. the fraction of emitted gamma rays which are detected, over the range of gamma rays to be measured. The calibration of the original and replacement spectrometer is documented in [1] and [2] respectively. This report documents a more recent recalibration of the current spectrometer. This recalibration was deemed necessary for two reasons; firstly since no recalibrations had been performed since the spectrometer was installed in 1997 another calibration, across the entire energy range, was now overdue and secondly a more accurate value of the spectrometer efficiency in the low energy region was needed to obtain reliable 133 Xe measurements. As explained in more detail in the report reliable 133 Xe data is needed to obtain 133 I data using a fractal scaling method. (Author)

  19. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F., E-mail: sfkry@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Bosca, Ryan [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); O’Daniel, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must

  20. Gamma-ray emission from internal shocks in novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P.; Dubus, G.; Jean, P.; Tatischeff, V.; Dosne, C.

    2018-04-01

    Context. Gamma-ray emission at energies ≥100 MeV has been detected from nine novae using the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), and can be explained by particle acceleration at shocks in these systems. Eight out of these nine objects are classical novae in which interaction of the ejecta with a tenuous circumbinary material is not expected to generate detectable gamma-ray emission. Aim. We examine whether particle acceleration at internal shocks can account for the gamma-ray emission from these novae. The shocks result from the interaction of a fast wind radiatively-driven by nuclear burning on the white dwarf with material ejected in the initial runaway stage of the nova outburst. Methods: We present a one-dimensional model for the dynamics of a forward and reverse shock system in a nova ejecta, and for the associated time-dependent particle acceleration and high-energy gamma-ray emission. Non-thermal proton and electron spectra are calculated by solving a time-dependent transport equation for particle injection, acceleration, losses, and escape from the shock region. The predicted emission is compared to LAT observations of V407 Cyg, V1324 Sco, V959 Mon, V339 Del, V1369 Cen, and V5668 Sgr. Results: The ≥100 MeV gamma-ray emission arises predominantly from particles accelerated up to 100 GeV at the reverse shock and undergoing hadronic interactions in the dense cooling layer downstream of the shock. The emission rises within days after the onset of the wind, quickly reaches a maximum, and its subsequent decrease reflects mostly the time evolution of the wind properties. Comparison to gamma-ray data points to a typical scenario where an ejecta of mass 10-5-10-4 M⊙ expands in a homologous way with a maximum velocity of 1000-2000 km s-1, followed within a day by a wind with a velocity problem are degenerate and/or poorly constrained except for the wind velocity, the relatively low values of which result in the majority of best-fit models having gamma-ray spectra

  1. Catalogue of gamma rays from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, L.P.; Andersson, P.

    1983-10-01

    A catalogue of almost 11000 gamma rays is presented. The gamma rays are sorted by energy. In addition to the gamma-ray intensity per 100 decays of the parent, the decay half-life and associated gamma rays are given. All data are from a computer processing of a recent ENSDF file. (author)

  2. EELOSS: the program for calculation of electron energy loss data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1980-10-01

    A computer code EELOSS has been developed to obtain the electron energy loss data required for shielding and dosimetry of beta- and gamma-rays in nuclear plants. With this code, the following data are obtainable for any energy from 0.01 to 15 MeV in any medium (metal, insulator, gas, compound, or mixture) composed of any choice of 69 elements with atomic number 1 -- 94: a) Collision stopping power, b) Restricted collision stopping power, c) Radiative stopping power, and d) Bremsstrahlung production cross section. The availability of bremsstrahlung production cross section data obtained by the EELOSS code is demonstrated by the comparison of calculated gamma-ray spectrum with measured one in Pb layer, where electron-photon cascade is included implicitly. As a result, it is concluded that the uncertainty in the bremsstrahlung production cross sections is negligible in the practical shielding calculations of gamma rays of energy less than 15 MeV, since the bremsstrahlung production cross sections increase with the gamma-ray energy and the uncertainty for them decreases with increasing the gamma-ray energy. Furthermore, the accuracy of output data of the EELOSS code is evaluated in comparison with experimental data, and satisfactory agreements are observed concerning the stopping power. (J.P.N.)

  3. QCD factorizations in {gamma}*{gamma}*->{rho}{sub L}{sup 0}{rho}{sub L}{sup 0}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pire, B. [CPHT, Unite mixte 7644 du CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)]. E-mail: pire@cpht.polytechnique.fr; Segond, M. [LPT, Unite mixte 8627 du CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Szymanowski, L. [LPT, Unite mixte 8627 du CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [LPT, Unite mixte 8627 du CNRS. , Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2006-08-24

    We calculate the lowest order QCD amplitude, i.e. the quark exchange contribution, to the forward production amplitude of a pair of longitudinally polarized {rho} mesons in the scattering of two virtual photons {gamma}*(Q{sub 1}){gamma}*(Q{sub 2})->{rho}{sub L}{sup 0}{rho}{sub L}{sup 0}. We show that the scattering amplitude simultaneously factorizes in two quite different ways: the part with transverse photons is described by the QCD factorization formula involving the generalized distribution amplitude of two final {rho} mesons, whereas the part with longitudinally polarized photons takes the QCD factorized form with the {gamma}{sub L}*->{rho}{sub L}{sup 0} transition distribution amplitude. Perturbative expressions for these, in general, non-perturbative functions are obtained in terms of the {rho}-meson distribution amplitude.

  4. $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$ and $\\gamma$-p events at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Schuler, Gerhard A.; Gerhard A Schuler; Torbjorn Sjostrand

    1994-01-01

    A real photon has a complicated nature, whereby it may remain unresolved or fluctuate into a vector meson or a perturbative q-qbar pair. Based on this picture, we previously presented a model for gamma-p events that is based on the presence of three main event classes: direct, VMD and anomalous. In gamma-gamma events, a natural generalization gives three-by-three combinations of the nature of the two incoming photons, and thus six distinct event classes. The properties of these classes are constrained by the choices already made, in the gamma-p model, of cut-off procedures and other aspects. It is therefore possible to predict the energy-dependence of the cross section for each of the six components separately. The total cross section thus obtained is in good agreement with data, and also gives support to the idea that a simple factorized ansatz with a pomeron and a reggeon term can be a good approximation. Event properties undergo a logical evolution from p-p to gamma-p to gamma-gamma events, with larger cha...

  5. Determination of Glomerular Filtration Rate by Using Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, M.; Salim, D.

    2007-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a commonly accepted standard measure of renal function. It is routinely measured using tracers that are cleared exclusively by glomerular filtration. The aim of this study was to apply new nuclear medicine technique based on direct determination of clearance of a radioactive tracer provided that all the uptake compartments of the radioactive tracer should be included in the field of the view of the gamma camera. A total of 10 men and 7 women range from 27 to 64 years old were studied using dual head gamma camera. The data for clearance calculation comprises : (1) a transmission scan of part of the body using water phantom with a uniform distribution of the radioisotope , (2) the background corrected activity curves in the anterior and posterior views over all uptake compartments following the injection of radioactive tracer, and (3) the activity of radioactive tracer in two blood samples drawn during the examination. The results for GFR above 30 ml min -1 , the regression line of GFR by using simplified multiple sample method versus GFR in gamma camera method were not significantly different from the line of identity. The reliability of the gamma camera method was about 16%, 12 % and 8% for GFR values of 30, 60 and 100 ml min-1. Therefore, the reliability of the gamma camera and the simplified multiple sample method for prediction of GFR were almost the same.

  6. Spectroscopic gamma camera for use in high dose environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Isao; Ishitsu, Takafumi; Tadokoro, Takahiro; Okada, Koichi; Nagumo, Yasushi; Fujishima, Yasutake; Kometani, Yutaka; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Umegaki, Kikuo

    2016-06-01

    We developed a pinhole gamma camera to measure distributions of radioactive material contaminants and to identify radionuclides in extraordinarily high dose regions (1000 mSv/h). The developed gamma camera is characterized by: (1) tolerance for high dose rate environments; (2) high spatial and spectral resolution for identifying unknown contaminating sources; and (3) good usability for being carried on a robot and remotely controlled. These are achieved by using a compact pixelated detector module with CdTe semiconductors, efficient shielding, and a fine resolution pinhole collimator. The gamma camera weighs less than 100 kg, and its field of view is an 8 m square in the case of a distance of 10 m and its image is divided into 256 (16×16) pixels. From the laboratory test, we found the energy resolution at the 662 keV photopeak was 2.3% FWHM, which is enough to identify the radionuclides. We found that the count rate per background dose rate was 220 cps h/mSv and the maximum count rate was 300 kcps, so the maximum dose rate of the environment where the gamma camera can be operated was calculated as 1400 mSv/h. We investigated the reactor building of Unit 1 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using the gamma camera and could identify the unknown contaminating source in the dose rate environment that was as high as 659 mSv/h.

  7. A COMPARISON OF GADRAS SIMULATED AND MEASURED GAMMA RAY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffcoat, R.; Salaymeh, S.

    2010-06-28

    Gamma-ray radiation detection systems are continuously being developed and improved for detecting the presence of radioactive material and for identifying isotopes present. Gamma-ray spectra, from many different isotopes and in different types and thicknesses of attenuation material and matrixes, are needed to evaluate the performance of these devices. Recently, a test and evaluation exercise was performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory that required a large number of gamma-ray spectra. Simulated spectra were used for a major portion of the testing in order to provide a pool of data large enough for the results to be statistically significant. The test data set was comprised of two types of data, measured and simulated. The measured data were acquired with a hand-held Radioisotope Identification Device (RIID) and simulated spectra were created using Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS, Mitchell and Mattingly, Sandia National Laboratory). GADRAS uses a one-dimensional discrete ordinate calculation to simulate gamma-ray spectra. The measured and simulated spectra have been analyzed and compared. This paper will discuss the results of the comparison and offer explanations for spectral differences.

  8. Spectroscopic gamma camera for use in high dose environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Yuichiro, E-mail: yuichiro.ueno.bv@hitachi.com [Research and Development Group, Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-1221 (Japan); Takahashi, Isao; Ishitsu, Takafumi; Tadokoro, Takahiro; Okada, Koichi; Nagumo, Yasushi [Research and Development Group, Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-1221 (Japan); Fujishima, Yasutake; Kometani, Yutaka [Hitachi Works, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Suzuki, Yasuhiko [Measuring Systems Engineering Dept., Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd., Ome-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Umegaki, Kikuo [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-06-21

    We developed a pinhole gamma camera to measure distributions of radioactive material contaminants and to identify radionuclides in extraordinarily high dose regions (1000 mSv/h). The developed gamma camera is characterized by: (1) tolerance for high dose rate environments; (2) high spatial and spectral resolution for identifying unknown contaminating sources; and (3) good usability for being carried on a robot and remotely controlled. These are achieved by using a compact pixelated detector module with CdTe semiconductors, efficient shielding, and a fine resolution pinhole collimator. The gamma camera weighs less than 100 kg, and its field of view is an 8 m square in the case of a distance of 10 m and its image is divided into 256 (16×16) pixels. From the laboratory test, we found the energy resolution at the 662 keV photopeak was 2.3% FWHM, which is enough to identify the radionuclides. We found that the count rate per background dose rate was 220 cps h/mSv and the maximum count rate was 300 kcps, so the maximum dose rate of the environment where the gamma camera can be operated was calculated as 1400 mSv/h. We investigated the reactor building of Unit 1 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using the gamma camera and could identify the unknown contaminating source in the dose rate environment that was as high as 659 mSv/h.

  9. Continued Development of a Soft Gamma-Ray Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloser, Peter

    We propose to continue our development of a concept for a soft gamma-ray (E > 100 keV) concentrator using thin-film multilayer structures. Alternating layers of low- and high-density materials will channel soft gamma-ray photons via total external reflection. A suitable arrangement of bent structures will then concentrate the incident radiation to a point. Gamma-ray optics made in this way offer the potential for soft gamma-ray telescopes with focal lengths of less than 10 m, removing the need for formation flying spacecraft and opening the field up to balloon-borne instruments. Under previous APRA funding we have been investigating methods for efficiently producing such multilayer structures and modeling their performance. We now propose to pursue magnetron sputtering (MS) techniques to quickly produce structures with the required smoothness and thickness, to measure their channeling efficiency and compare with calculations, and to design a "lens" with optimized bandpass and throughput and predict its scientific performance. If successful, this work will confirm that this innovative optics concept is suitable for a balloon-born soft gamma-ray telescope with unprecedented sensitivity.

  10. Gamma-ray pulsars: Emission zones and viewing geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.; Yadigaroglu, I.-A.

    1995-01-01

    There are now a half-dozen young pulsars detected in high-energy photons by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO), showing a variety of emission efficiencies and pulse profiles. We present here a calculation of the pattern of high-energy emission on the sky in a model which posits gamma-ray production by charge-depleted gaps in the outer magnetosphere. This model accounts for the radio to gamma-ray pulse offsets of the known pulsars, as well as the shape of the high-energy pulse profiles. We also show that about one-third of emitting young radio pulsars will not be detected due to beaming effects, while approximately 2.5 times the number of radio-selected gamma-ray pulsars will be viewed only high energies. Finally we compute the polarization angle variation and find that the previously misunderstood optical polarization sweep of the Crab pulsar arises naturally in this picture. These results strongly support an outer magnetosphere location for the gamma-ray emission.

  11. Observation of the doubly radiative decay eta ' -> gamma gamma pi(0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddadi, Z.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Löhner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Tiemens, M.

    2017-01-01

    Based on a sample of 1.31 billion J/psi events collected with the BESIII detector, we report the study of the doubly radiative decay eta' -> gamma gamma pi(0) for the first time, where the eta' meson is produced via the J/psi -> gamma eta' decay. The branching fraction of eta' -> gamma gamma pi(0)

  12. The Winfrith district gamma survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavell, I.W.; Peabody, C.O.

    1961-09-01

    This report describes the District Gamma Survey carried out around the A.E.E., Winfrith since June, 1959. Its organisation, equipment and techniques are described, and the results obtained up to the 31st December, 1960 are given. (author)

  13. Line positions and intensities for the gamma 1 + gamma 2 and gamma 2 + gamma 3 bands of (16)O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Flaud, J.-M.; Canypeyret, C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.

    1988-01-01

    Using 0.005 cm-resolution Fourier transform spectra of (16)O3, generated by electric discharge from a greater than 99.98 percent pure sample of (16)O3, an extensive analysis of the gamma 1 + gamma 2 and the gamma 2 + gamma 3 bands in the 5.7 micron region was performed. The rotational energy levels of the upper (110) and (011) vibrational states of (16)O3 were reproduced within their experimental uncertainties using a Hamiltonian which takes explicitly into account the Coriolis-type interaction occurring between the rotational energy levels of both states. Improved vibrational energies and rotational and coupling constants were also derived for the (110) and (011) states. Precise transition moment constants for these two bands were deduced from analysis of 220 measured line intensities. Finally, a complete list of line positions, intensities, and lower state energies for both bands has been generated.

  14. In-situ gamma spectrometry method for determination of environmental gamma dose; Metodo de espectrometria gamma in situ para determinacao de dose gama ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, Claudio de Carvalho

    1995-07-15

    This work tries to establish a methodology for germanium detectors calibration, normally used for in situ gamma ray spectrometry, for determining the environmental exposure rate in function of the energy of the incident photons. For this purpose a computer code has been developed, based on the stripping method, for the computational spectra analysis to calculate the contribution of the partial absorption of the gamma rays (Compton effect) in the active and nonactive parts of the detector. The resulting total absorption spectrum is then converted to fluence distribution in function of the energy for the photons reaching the detector, which is then used to calculate the exposure rate or kerma in air. The unfolding and fluency convention parameters are determined by detector calibration using point gamma sources. The method is validated by comparison of the results against the calculated exposure rate at a point of interest for the standards. This method is used for the direct measurement of the exposure rate distribution in function of the energy at the site, in situ measurement technic, leading to rapid results during an emergency situation and also used for indoor measurements. (author)

  15. BENCHMARKING ORTEC ISOTOPIC MEASUREMENTS AND CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewberry, R; Raymond Sigg, R; Vito Casella, V; Nitin Bhatt, N

    2008-09-29

    This report represents a description of compiled benchmark tests conducted to probe and to demonstrate the extensive utility of the Ortec ISOTOPIC {gamma}-ray analysis computer program. The ISOTOPIC program performs analyses of {gamma}-ray spectra applied to specific acquisition configurations in order to apply finite-geometry correction factors and sample-matrix-container photon absorption correction factors. The analysis program provides an extensive set of preset acquisition configurations to which the user can add relevant parameters in order to build the geometry and absorption correction factors that the program determines from calculus and from nuclear g-ray absorption and scatter data. The Analytical Development Section field nuclear measurement group of the Savannah River National Laboratory uses the Ortec ISOTOPIC analysis program extensively for analyses of solid waste and process holdup applied to passive {gamma}-ray acquisitions. Frequently the results of these {gamma}-ray acquisitions and analyses are to determine compliance with facility criticality safety guidelines. Another use of results is to designate 55-gallon drum solid waste as qualified TRU waste3 or as low-level waste. Other examples of the application of the ISOTOPIC analysis technique to passive {gamma}-ray acquisitions include analyses of standard waste box items and unique solid waste configurations. In many passive {gamma}-ray acquisition circumstances the container and sample have sufficient density that the calculated energy-dependent transmission correction factors have intrinsic uncertainties in the range 15%-100%. This is frequently the case when assaying 55-gallon drums of solid waste with masses of up to 400 kg and when assaying solid waste in extensive unique containers. Often an accurate assay of the transuranic content of these containers is not required, but rather a good defensible designation as >100 nCi/g (TRU waste) or <100 nCi/g (low level solid waste) is required. In

  16. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The invention provides a composite solid state detector for use in deriving a display, by spatial coordinate information, of the distribution or radiation emanating from a source within a region of interest, comprising several solid state detector components, each having a given surface arranged for exposure to impinging radiation and exhibiting discrete interactions therewith at given spatially definable locations. The surface of each component and the surface disposed opposite and substantially parallel thereto are associated with impedence means configured to provide for each opposed surface outputs for signals relating the given location of the interactions with one spatial coordinate parameter of one select directional sense. The detector components are arranged to provide groupings of adjacently disposed surfaces mutually linearly oriented to exhibit a common directional sense of the spatial coordinate parameter. Means interconnect at least two of the outputs associated with each of the surfaces within a given grouping for collecting the signals deriving therefrom. The invention also provides a camera system for imaging the distribution of a source of gamma radiation situated within a region of interest

  17. Gamma-ray production cross sections for MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Hideo; Harima, Yoshiko; Yamakoshi, Hisao; Sano, Yuji; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki.

    1979-01-01

    Gamma-ray production cross section and spectra for 1- to 20-MeV neutrons were theoretically obtained, which were requested for heating calculations, for shielding design calculations, and for material damage estimates. Calculations were carried out for Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Nb, Ta, Au, and Pb, using a spin-dependent evaporation model without the parity conservation and including the dipole and quardupole gamma-ray transitions. The results were compared with the experimental data measured in ORNL to confirm the availability of this model in applications. In addition, the effects on the gamma-ray production cross section of the optical potential, level density, yrast level, and radiation width were investigated in detail. The conclusions are: 1) the use of the optical potential which gives the correct total reaction cross section is essential to gamma-ray production calculations, 2) the gamma-ray production cross section is not so sensitive to the choice of level density parameters, 3) the inclusion of yrast levels is necessary in dealing with the competition of the neutron and gamma-ray emissions from highly excited states, and 4) the Brink-Axel type's radiation width is unsuitable to be applied to radiative capture processes. (author)

  18. Stereoscopic radiographic images with gamma source encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strocovsky, S.G.; Otero, D

    2012-01-01

    Conventional radiography with X-ray tube has several drawbacks, as the compromise between the size of the focal spot and the fluence. The finite dimensions of the focal spot impose a limit to the spatial resolution. Gamma radiography uses gamma-ray sources which surpass in size, portability and simplicity to X-ray tubes. However, its low intrinsic fluence forces to use extended sources that also degrade the spatial resolution. In this work, we show the principles of a new radiographic technique that overcomes the limitations associated with the finite dimensions of X-ray sources, and that offers additional benefits to conventional techniques. The new technique called coding source imaging (CSI), is based on the use of extended sources, edge-encoding of radiation and differential detection. The mathematical principles and the method of images reconstruction with the new proposed technique are explained in the present work. Analytical calculations were made to determine the maximum spatial resolution and the variables on which it depends. The CSI technique was tested by means of Monte Carlo simulations with sets of spherical objects. We show that CSI has stereoscopic capabilities and it can resolve objects smaller than the source size. The CSI decoding algorithm reconstructs simultaneously four different projections from the same object, while conventional radiography produces only one projection per acquisition. Projections are located in separate image fields on the detector plane. Our results show it is possible to apply an extremely simple radiographic technique with extended sources, and get 3D information of the attenuation coefficient distribution for simple geometry objects in a single acquisition. The results are promising enough to evaluate the possibility of future research with more complex objects typical of medical diagnostic radiography and industrial gamma radiography (author)

  19. An automated Monte-Carlo based method for the calculation of cascade summing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. J.; Britton, R.; Davies, A. V.; McLarty, J. L.; Goodwin, M.

    2016-10-01

    A versatile method has been developed to calculate cascade summing factors for use in quantitative gamma-spectrometry analysis procedures. The proposed method is based solely on Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) nuclear data, an X-ray energy library, and accurate efficiency characterisations for single detector counting geometries. The algorithm, which accounts for γ-γ, γ-X, γ-511 and γ-e- coincidences, can be applied to any design of gamma spectrometer and can be expanded to incorporate any number of nuclides. Efficiency characterisations can be derived from measured or mathematically modelled functions, and can accommodate both point and volumetric source types. The calculated results are shown to be consistent with an industry standard gamma-spectrometry software package. Additional benefits including calculation of cascade summing factors for all gamma and X-ray emissions, not just the major emission lines, are also highlighted.

  20. High and low energy gamma beam dump designs for the gamma beam delivery system at ELI-NP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, Zafar; Matei, Catalin; Ur, Calin A.; Mitu, Iani-Octavian; Udup, Emil; Petcu, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) is under construction in Magurele, Bucharest, Romania. The facility will use two 10 PW lasers and a high intensity, narrow bandwidth gamma beam for stand-alone and combined laser-gamma experiments. The accurate estimation of particle doses and their restriction within the limits for both personel and general public is very important in the design phase of any nuclear facility. In the present work, Monte Carlo simulations are performed using FLUKA and MCNPX to design 19.4 and 4 MeV gamma beam dumps along with shielding of experimental areas. Dose rate contour plots from both FLUKA and MCNPX along with numerical values of doses in experimental area E8 of the facility are performed. The calculated doses are within the permissible limits. Furthermore, a reasonable agreement between both codes enhances our confidence in using one or both of them for future calculations in beam dump designs, radiation shielding, radioactive inventory, and other calculations releated to radiation protection. Residual dose rates and residual activity calculations are also performed for high-energy beam dump and their effect is negligible in comparison to contributions from prompt radiation.

  1. High and low energy gamma beam dump designs for the gamma beam delivery system at ELI-NP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasin, Zafar, E-mail: zafar.yasin@eli-np.ro; Matei, Catalin; Ur, Calin A.; Mitu, Iani-Octavian; Udup, Emil; Petcu, Cristian [Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics / Horia Hulubei National Institute for R& D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2016-03-25

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) is under construction in Magurele, Bucharest, Romania. The facility will use two 10 PW lasers and a high intensity, narrow bandwidth gamma beam for stand-alone and combined laser-gamma experiments. The accurate estimation of particle doses and their restriction within the limits for both personel and general public is very important in the design phase of any nuclear facility. In the present work, Monte Carlo simulations are performed using FLUKA and MCNPX to design 19.4 and 4 MeV gamma beam dumps along with shielding of experimental areas. Dose rate contour plots from both FLUKA and MCNPX along with numerical values of doses in experimental area E8 of the facility are performed. The calculated doses are within the permissible limits. Furthermore, a reasonable agreement between both codes enhances our confidence in using one or both of them for future calculations in beam dump designs, radiation shielding, radioactive inventory, and other calculations releated to radiation protection. Residual dose rates and residual activity calculations are also performed for high-energy beam dump and their effect is negligible in comparison to contributions from prompt radiation.

  2. Calculations of radiation levels during reactor operations for safeguard inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobhy, M.

    1996-01-01

    When an internal core spent fuel storage is used in the shield tank to accommodate a large number of spent fuel baskets, physical calculations are performed to determine the number of these spent fuel elements which can be accommodated and still maintain the gamma activity outside under the permissible limit. The corresponding reactor power level is determined. The radioactivity calculations are performed for this internal storage at different axial levels to avoid the criticality of the reactor core. Transport theory is used in calculations based on collision probability for multi group cell calculations. Diffusion theory is used in three dimensions in the core calculations. The nuclear fuel history is traced and radioactive decay is calculated, since reactor fission products are very sensitive to power level. The radioactivity is calculated with a developed formula based on fuel basket loading integrity. (author)

  3. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  4. Mathematical model of gamma-ray spectrometry borehole logging for quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimschal, Ulrich

    1981-01-01

    A technique for analyzing gamma-ray spectral-logging data has been developed, in which a digital computer is used to calculate the effects of gamma-ray attentuation in a borehole environment. The computer model allows for the calculation of the effects of lithology, porosity, density, and the thickness of a horizontal layer of uniformly distributed radioactive material surrounding a centralized probe in a cylindrical borehole. The computer program also contains parameters for the calculation of the effects of well casing, drilling fluid, probe housing, and losses through the sodium-iodide crystal. Errors associated with the commonly used mathematical assumption of a point detector are eliminated in this model. (USGS)

  5. Initial characterization of the ATR [Advanced Test Reactor] Large Gamma Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitzler, B.G.; Rogers, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    Radiation fields in the ATR Large Gamma Facility test volume are characterized. The preliminary characterization efforts described in this report include total dose rate measurements in the facility, development of a simple methodology for calculating radiation fields from the ATR fuel element power histories, and a comparison of the measured and calculated values

  6. Particle-gamma and particle-particle correlations in nuclear reactions using Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshback model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Talou, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Watanabe, Takehito [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chadwick, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations for particle and {gamma}-ray emissions from an excited nucleus based on the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory are performed to obtain correlated information between emitted particles and {gamma}-rays. We calculate neutron induced reactions on {sup 51}V to demonstrate unique advantages of the Monte Carlo method. which are the correlated {gamma}-rays in the neutron radiative capture reaction, the neutron and {gamma}-ray correlation, and the particle-particle correlations at higher energies. It is shown that properties in nuclear reactions that are difficult to study with a deterministic method can be obtained with the Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. Numerical simulations on efficiency and measurement of capabilities of BGO detectors for high energy gamma ray

    CERN Document Server

    Wen Wan Xin

    2002-01-01

    The energy resolution and time resolution of two phi 75 x 100 BGO detectors for high energy gamma ray newly made were measured with sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co resources. The two characteristic gamma rays of high energy emitted from the thermal neutron capture of germanium in BGO crystal were used for the energy calibration of gamma spectra. The intrinsic photopeak efficiency, single escape probability and double escape probabilities of BGO detectors in photon energy range of 4-30 MeV are numerically calculated with GEANT code. The real count response and count ratio of the uniformly distributed incident photons in energy range of 0-30 MeV are also calculated. The distortion of gamma spectra caused by the photon energy loss extension to lower energy in detection medium is discussed

  8. Investigation of recycling in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Y.; Yatsu, K.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ichimura, M.; Yamaguchi, N.; Inutake, M.; Shoji, M.; Ohtoshi, K.; Tamano, T.; Miyoshi, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the detailed behavior of particle recycling on the stainless-steel wall of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror device. A comparison is made with a model calculation. The ion temperature dependence of the recycling coefficients has been deduced from experimental data in a wall conditioning period. It was found that the recycling coefficient increased with the ion temperature and that the recycling due to particles desorbed from the wall prevailed over that due to wall-reflection. A simple recycling model including both atomic and molecular processes was applied for the ICRF-heated plasma. The result of the model calculation is consistent with the above ion-temperature dependence. The DEGAS neutral transport code has been applied to the GAMMA 10 configuration and the results of the DEGAS code show a good agreement with results obtained from H α -emission, which predicted a significant influence due to neutral molecules near the plasma boundary. (orig.)

  9. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  10. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  11. Evapotranspiration Calculator Desktop Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Evapotranspiration Calculator estimates evapotranspiration time series data for hydrological and water quality models for the Hydrologic Simulation Program - Fortran (HSPF) and the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM).

  12. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  13. Radar Signature Calculation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...

  14. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  15. Sodium fast reactor power monitoring using gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, R.; Normand, S.; Barbot, L.; Domenech, T.; Kondrasovs, V.; Corre, G.; Frelin, A.M. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, CEA - Saclay DRT/LIST/DETECS/SSTM, Batiment 516 - P.C. no 72, Gif sur Yvette, F-91191 (France); Montagu, T.; Dautremer, T.; Barat, E. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Processus Stochastiques et Spectres (France); Ban, G. [ENSICAEN (France)

    2009-06-15

    This work deals with the use of high flux gamma spectrometry to monitor the fourth generation of sodium fast reactor (SFR) power. The simulation study part of this work has shown that power monitoring in a short time response and with a good accuracy is possible. An experimental test is under preparation at the French SFR Phenix experimental reactor to validate simulation studies. First, physical calculations have been done to correlate gamma activity to the released thermal power. Gamma emitter production rate in the reactor core was calculated with technical and nuclear data as the sodium velocity, the atomic densities, Phenix neutron spectrum and incident neutron cross-sections of reactions producing gamma emitters. A thermal hydraulic transfer function was used for modeling primary sodium flow in our calculations. For the power monitoring problematic, use of a short decay period gamma emitter will allow to have a very fast response system without cumulative effect. We have determined that the best tagging agent is 20F which emits 1634 keV energy photons with a decay period of 11 s. The gamma spectrum was determined by flux point and a pulse high tally MCNP5.1.40 simulation and shown the possibility to measure the signal of this radionuclide. The experiment will be set during the reactor 'end life testing'. The Delayed Neutron Detection (DND) room has been chosen as the best available location on Phenix reactor to measure this kind of radionuclide due to a short transit time from reactor core to measurement sample. This location is optimum for global power measurement because homogenized sampling in the reactor hot pool. The main spectrometer is composed of a coaxial high purity germanium diode (HPGe) coupled with a transistor reset preamplifier. The HPGe diode signal will be processed by the Adonis digital signal processing due to high flux and fast activity measurement. Post-processing softwares will be used to limit statistical problems of the

  16. Calculated shielding factors for selected European houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.

    1984-12-01

    Shielding factors for gamma radiation from activity deposited on structures and ground surfaces have been calculated with the computer model DEPSHIELD for single-family and multi-storey buildings in France, United Kingdom and Denmark. For all three countries it was found that the shielding factors for single-family houses are approximately a factor of 2 - 10 higher that those for buildings with five or more storeys. Away from doors and windows the shielding factors for French, British, and Danish single-family houses are in the range 0.03 - 0.1, 0.06 - 0.4, and 0.07 - 0.3, respectively. The uncertainties of the calculations are discussed and DEPSHIELD-results are compared with other methods as well as with experimental results. (author)

  17. Low-energy calculations for nuclear photodisintegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deflorian S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Standard Solar Model a central role in the nucleosynthesis is played by reactions of the kind XZ1A11+XZ2A22→YZ1+Z2A1+A2+γ${}_{{Z_1}}^{{A_1}}{X_1} + {}_{{Z_2}}^{{A_2}}{X_2} \\to {}_{{Z_1} + {Z_2}}^{{A_1} + {A_2}}Y + \\gamma $, which enter the proton-proton chains. These reactions can also be studied through the inverse photodisintegration reaction. One option is to use the Lorentz Integral Transform approach, which transforms the continuum problem into a bound state-like one. A way to check the reliability of such methods is a direct calculation, for example using the Kohn Variational Principle to obtain the scattering wave function and then directly calculate the response function of the reaction.

  18. Study on dose assessment in surrounding environment of the Tono Mine associated with closure activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, Eiji

    2012-07-01

    Dose assessment associated with closure activity of the Tono Mine has been performed. In this assessment, exposure dose has been calculated on groundwater and surface water migration of radionuclide from 1) waste rock in the waste rock dump facility, 2) mining waste in the mining waste facility, and 3) uranium ore and waste rock backfilled in the shafts and galleries. Direct and skyshine gamma rays and exposure of exhalated radon from the waste rock dump has also been evaluated. An evaluation tool developed for safety assessment for sub-surface disposal of radioactive waste is utilized for this assessment. Localities for dose evaluation are selected at the Higashihoragawa and Hiyoshigawa based on the topography around the Tono Mine and groundwater flow simulation. Evaluation scenarios are classified into 'Scenario for intake of agricultural product' as the base scenario, and 'Scenario for intake of groundwater' as the alternative scenario. Parameters for dose assessment are set-up based on the existing data. But the range and uncertainty of parameters are taken into account in the 'alternative cases'. As the result of dose assessment, maximum exposure dose of the base scenario is 0.08mSv/year, and 0.09mSv/year including direct and skyshine gamma rays and exposure of exhalatedradon at the Higashihoragawa. Maximum exposure dose of the alternative scenario is 0.08mSv/year (0.09mSv/year including direct and skyshine gamma rays and exposure of exhalated radon). On the alternative cases, exposure doses are calculated as 0.05-0.14mSv/year in both of the base and alternative scenarios. At the Hiyoshigawa, maximum exposure dose is less than 0.001mSv/year (1x10 -6 mSv/year) for the base scenario, and 0.001mSv/year for the alternative scenario. On the alternative cases, maximum exposure doses are less than 0.001mSv/year for all cases of the base scenario and 0.0006-0.002mSv/year for the alternative scenario. (author)

  19. Analysis of gamma irradiator dose rate using spent fuel elements with parallel configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiyanto; Pudjijanto MS; Ardani

    2006-01-01

    To enhance the utilization of the RSG-GAS reactor spent fuel, the gamma irradiator using spent fuel elements as a gamma source is a suitable choice. This irradiator can be used for food sterilization and preservation. The first step before realization, it is necessary to determine the gamma dose rate theoretically. The assessment was realized for parallel configuration fuel elements with the irradiation space can be placed between fuel element series. This analysis of parallel model was choice to compare with the circle model and as long as possible to get more space for irradiation and to do manipulation of irradiation target. Dose rate calculation were done with MCNP, while the estimation of gamma activities of fuel element was realized by OREGEN code with 1 year of average delay time. The calculation result show that the gamma dose rate of parallel model decreased up to 50% relatively compared with the circle model, but the value still enough for sterilization and preservation. Especially for food preservation, this parallel model give more flexible, while the gamma dose rate can be adjusted to the irradiation needed. The conclusion of this assessment showed that the utilization of reactor spent fuels for gamma irradiator with parallel model give more advantage the circle model. (author)

  20. Nuclear structure considerations for gamma-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strottman, D.; Arthur, E.D.; Madland, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Presented are initial results in our investigation of the nuclear physics issues of gamma-ray lasers. These include the questions of what is known from existing experimental data, where does one optimally search for nuclei displaying simultaneously both closely lying levels and nuclear isomerism, and which theoretical models does one employ for systematic searches for candidate nuclei and for calculation of detailed candidate level properties

  1. Determination of burnup grade of fuel plates by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Perrotta, Jose A.

    1999-01-01

    This work describes absolute burnup measurements on spent MTR fuel elements by means of non-destructive gamma-ray spectroscopy which correlates activities of radioactive fission products with the fissioned mass of 235 U. Experiments based on such method were performed at the storage pool area of the IEA-R1 research reactor. The obtained results were compared with calculational ones based on neutronics. (author)

  2. Program for measuring plutonium quantities by gamma spectrometry: code 'PUMA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.; Vallee, M.; Etcheverry, M.

    1989-01-01

    The interest of the gamma spectrometry method for measuring plutonium quantities has been recently demonstrated. A practical outcome of this study is the code 'PUMA' (PlUtonium MAss). This code, characterized by an easy utilisation, is operational on a micro-computer. It can be used for the hold-up measurements, monitoring of wastes and surveillance of facility dismantling. The general structure, subroutine algorithms, the principles used for calculating parameters and corrections are explained [fr

  3. High energy gamma-rays and hadrons at Mount Fuji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenomori, M.; Nanjo, H.; Konishi, E.; Hotta, N.; Mizutani, K.; Kasahara, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Mikumo, E.; Sato, K.; Yuda, T.

    1985-01-01

    The energy spectra of high energy gamma-rays and hadrons were obtained by the emulsion chamber with 40 c.u. thickness at Mt. Fuji (3750 m). These results are compared with the Monte Carlo calculation based on the same model which is used in a family analysis. Our data are compatible with the model of heavy-enriched primary and scaling in the fragmentation region.

  4. Interpretation of the galactic radio-continuum and gamma-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuermann, K.P.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is performed of the nonthermal radio-continuum and gamma-ray emission of the galactic disc, using a spiral-arm model of the Galaxy. The results for the 408 MHz brightness temperature and the >100 MeV gamma-ray line intensity as a function of galactic longitude at bsup(II)=0 deg are presented. The observational implications, as well as the uncertainties in the calculations, are briefly discussed. An estimate of the possible range of the inverse Compton contribution to the observed gamma-ray flux is made

  5. Observable in the reversible reaction gamma + d yields n + p. [photodisintegration of deuteron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustgi, M. L.; Vyas, R.; Nunemaker, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Calculations are presented on the effect of the two-body charge and current density effects on the observables in the photodisintegration of a deuteron. The computations are performed in a cartesian coordinate system, initially for gamma rays plane-polarized in the x-direction. Unpolarized photons are treated with an incoherent superposition of transition amplitudes for gamma rays polarized in the x- and y- directions. Account is taken of recoil and interaction energies after an initial state is defined. Consideration is focused on the cross section, polarization, and asymmetry of the reaction at low and medium energy incident gamma rays.

  6. Physics-based generation of gamma-ray response functions for CDZNTE detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Mercer, D.J.; Cooper, C.; Russo, P.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.; Close, D.A.; Luke, P.N.; Amman, M.; Soldner, S.

    1997-01-01

    A physics-based approach to gamma-ray response-function generation is presented in which the response of CdZnTe detectors is modeled from first principles. Computer modeling is used to generate response functions needed for spectrum analysis for general detector configurations (e.g., electrode design, detector materials and geometry, and operating conditions). With computer modeling, requirements for calibration and characterization are significantly reduced. Elements of the physics-based model, including gamma-ray transport, charge drift-diffusion, and circuit response, are presented. Calculated and experimental gamma-ray spectra are compared for a coplanar-grid CdZnTe detector

  7. Revealing dark matter substructure with anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background

    OpenAIRE

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of gamma-ray emission from Galactic dark matter annihilation is likely to be detected as a contribution to the diffuse gamma-ray background. I show that dark matter substructure in the halo of the Galaxy induces characteristic anisotropies in the diffuse background that could be used to determine the small-scale dark matter distribution. I calculate the angular power spectrum of the emission from dark matter substructure for several models of the subhalo population, and show that...

  8. Reaction theories for N* excitations in {pi}N and {gamma}N reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.S.H.

    1996-12-31

    The importance of developing reaction theories for investigating N* physics is illustrated in an analysis of pion photoproduction on the nucleon. It is shown that the {gamma}N {leftrightarrow} {Delta} transition amplitudes predicted by the constituent quark model are in agreement with the values extracted from the {gamma}N {r_arrow} {pi}N data only when the contributions from the reaction mechanisms calculated using a dynamical approach are taken into account in the analysis.

  9. A tool to include gamma analysis software into a quality assurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Christina E; McGarry, Conor K

    2016-03-01

    To provide a tool to enable gamma analysis software algorithms to be included in a quality assurance (QA) program. Four image sets were created comprising two geometric images to independently test the distance to agreement (DTA) and dose difference (DD) elements of the gamma algorithm, a clinical step and shoot IMRT field and a clinical VMAT arc. The images were analysed using global and local gamma analysis with 2 in-house and 8 commercially available software encompassing 15 software versions. The effect of image resolution on gamma pass rates was also investigated. All but one software accurately calculated the gamma passing rate for the geometric images. Variation in global gamma passing rates of 1% at 3%/3mm and over 2% at 1%/1mm was measured between software and software versions with analysis of appropriately sampled images. This study provides a suite of test images and the gamma pass rates achieved for a selection of commercially available software. This image suite will enable validation of gamma analysis software within a QA program and provide a frame of reference by which to compare results reported in the literature from various manufacturers and software versions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Born order study of {gamma}{sup *}{gamma}{sup *} {yields} {rho}{rho} at very high energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pire, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique; Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Liege Univ. (Belgium); Wallon, S. [Paris-11 Univ., Lab. de Physique Theorique, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    We calculate the cross-section for the diffractive exclusive process {gamma}{sub L}{sup *}(Q{sub 1}{sup 2}){gamma}{sub L}{sup *}(Q{sub 2}{sup 2}) {yields} {rho}{sub L}{sup 0}{rho}{sub L}{sup 0}, in view of its study in the future high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider. The Born order approximation of the amplitude is completely calculable in the hard region Q{sub 1}{sup 2},Q{sub 2}{sup 2} >> {lambda}{sup 2}(QCD). The resulting cross-section is large enough for this process to be measurable with foreseen luminosity and energy, for Q{sub 1}{sup 2} and Q{sub 2}{sup 2} in the range of a few GeV{sup 2}. (authors)

  11. Reliability for some bivariate gamma distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadarajah Saralees

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the area of stress-strength models, there has been a large amount of work as regards estimation of the reliability R=Pr( Xgamma. The calculations involve the use of special functions.

  12. The neutron-gamma Feynman variance to mean approach: Gamma detection and total neutron-gamma detection (theory and practice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernikova, Dina; Axell, Kåre; Avdic, Senada; Pázsit, Imre; Nordlund, Anders; Allard, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Two versions of the neutron-gamma variance to mean (Feynman-alpha method or Feynman-Y function) formula for either gamma detection only or total neutron-gamma detection, respectively, are derived and compared in this paper. The new formulas have particular importance for detectors of either gamma photons or detectors sensitive to both neutron and gamma radiation. If applied to a plastic or liquid scintillation detector, the total neutron-gamma detection Feynman-Y expression corresponds to a situation where no discrimination is made between neutrons and gamma particles. The gamma variance to mean formulas are useful when a detector of only gamma radiation is used or when working with a combined neutron-gamma detector at high count rates. The theoretical derivation is based on the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation with the inclusion of general reactions and corresponding intensities for neutrons and gammas, but with the inclusion of prompt reactions only. A one energy group approximation is considered. The comparison of the two different theories is made by using reaction intensities obtained in MCNPX simulations with a simplified geometry for two scintillation detectors and a 252Cf-source. In addition, the variance to mean ratios, neutron, gamma and total neutron-gamma are evaluated experimentally for a weak 252Cf neutron-gamma source, a 137Cs random gamma source and a 22Na correlated gamma source. Due to the focus being on the possibility of using neutron-gamma variance to mean theories for both reactor and safeguards applications, we limited the present study to the general analytical expressions for Feynman-alpha formulas.

  13. AGATA - Advanced GAmma Tracking Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkoyun, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Algora, A. [IFIC, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna (Spain); Alikhani, B. [IKP, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Ameil, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Angelis, G. de [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, IT-35020 Padova (Italy); Arnold, L. [Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR 7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Astier, A. [CSNSM, CNRS, IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Atac, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Aubert, Y. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91406 Orsay (France); Aufranc, C. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS-IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Austin, A. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Aydin, S. [INFN Sezione di Padova, IT-35131 Padova (Italy); Azaiez, F. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91406 Orsay (France); Badoer, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, IT-35020 Padova (Italy); Balabanski, D.L. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Barrientos, D. [IFIC, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna (Spain); and others

    2012-03-11

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project to develop and operate the next generation {gamma}-ray spectrometer. AGATA is based on the technique of {gamma}-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. This technique requires the accurate determination of the energy, time and position of every interaction as a {gamma} ray deposits its energy within the detector volume. Reconstruction of the full interaction path results in a detector with very high efficiency and excellent spectral response. The realisation of {gamma}-ray tracking and AGATA is a result of many technical advances. These include the development of encapsulated highly segmented germanium detectors assembled in a triple cluster detector cryostat, an electronics system with fast digital sampling and a data acquisition system to process the data at a high rate. The full characterisation of the crystals was measured and compared with detector-response simulations. This enabled pulse-shape analysis algorithms, to extract energy, time and position, to be employed. In addition, tracking algorithms for event reconstruction were developed. The first phase of AGATA is now complete and operational in its first physics campaign. In the future AGATA will be moved between laboratories in Europe and operated in a series of campaigns to take advantage of the different beams and facilities available to maximise its science output. The paper reviews all the achievements made in the AGATA project including all the necessary infrastructure to operate and support the spectrometer.

  14. Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Astrophysics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, various classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei have been established as sources of high-energy radiation extending over a very broad range from soft gamma-rays (photon energies E~MeV) up to very-high-energy gamma-rays (E>100 GeV). These include blazars of different types, as well as young and evolved radio galaxies. The observed gamma-ray emission from such implies efficient particle acceleration processes taking place in highly magnetized and relativistic jets produced by supermassive black holes, processes that have yet to be identified and properly understood. In addition, nearby starforming and starburst galaxies, some of which host radio-quiet Seyfert-type nuclei, have been detected in the gamma-ray range as well. In their cases, the observed gamma-ray emission is due to non-thermal activity in the interstellar medium, possibly including also a contribution from accretion disks and nuclear outflows. Finally, the high-energy emission from clusters of galaxies remains elusive...

  15. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys, interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations.

  16. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys, interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations

  17. Double diffractive {rho} -production in {gamma}{sup *}{gamma}{sup *} collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pire, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT, Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium); Wallon, S. [Universite Paris-Sud, LPT, Orsay (France)

    2005-12-01

    We present a first estimate of the cross-section for the exclusive process {gamma}{sup *}{sub L}(Q{sub 1}{sup 2}){gamma}{sup *}{sub L}(Q{sub 2}{sup 2}){yields}{rho}{sub L}{sup 0}{rho}{sub L}{sup 0}, which will be studied in the future high energy e{sup +} e{sup -}-linear collider. As a first step, we calculate the Born order approximation of the amplitude for longitudinally polarized virtual photons and mesons, in the kinematical region s >>-t, Q{sub 1}{sup 2}, Q{sub 2}{sup 2}. This process is completely calculable in the hard region Q{sub 1}{sup 2}, Q{sub 2}{sup 2}>>{lambda}{sup 2}{sub QCD}. We perform most of the steps in an analytical way. The resulting cross-section turns out to be large enough for this process to be measurable with foreseen luminosity and energy, for Q{sub 1}{sup 2} and Q{sub 2}{sup 2} in the range of a few GeV{sup 2}. (orig.)

  18. High-resolution gamma imaging; Imagerie gamma haute resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmentier, M.; Pousse, A.; Tamba, N.; Chavanelle, J.; Bakkali, A.; Kastler, B. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Lab. Imagerie et Ingenierie pour la Sante, Faculte de Medecine, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2004-01-01

    Gamma imaging involves two-dimensional images of the volume distribution of a radioactive tracer previously injected into the organ under functional exploration. Our Besancon laboratory developed a gamma imager with a spatial resolution three or four times higher than a classic device, which is very useful for functional explorations on small animal, as recently demonstrated by work on myocyte apoptosis and necrosis scintigraphy in the rat. We expect progress in this promising medical imaging technology to be driven by developments in scintillating crystals and position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes, and by medical demand in applications such as early detection of breast cancer. (authors)

  19. Digital gamma-gamma coincidence HPGe system for environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-08-01

    The performance of a new gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometer system for environmental samples analysis at the Center for Nuclear Technologies of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is reported. Nutech Coincidence Low Energy Germanium Sandwich (NUCLeGeS) system consists of two HPGe detectors in a surface laboratory with a digital acquisition system used to collect the data in time-stamped list mode with 10ns time resolution. The spectrometer is used in both anticoincidence and coincidence modes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aage, H.K.; Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H.

    2009-06-01

    This report contains the present status and results for the NKS UGS-project per 1 June 2006 for NKS partners DTU, Denmark, and STUK, Finland. The Danish and Finnish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) systems are not of similar types. The Danish CGS system(s) only make use of one NaI(Tl) detector whereas the Finnish CGS system consists of several detectors, NaI(Tl) and HPGe both and as an additional feature the Finnish detectors have position dependent different fields of view. Furthermore, the Finnish system is equipped with an air sampling system. In terms of operation, the Danish detector is located on the rooftop where as the Finnish detectors are located inside the vehicle. The Finnish and the Danish team use different methods for data processing. STUK uses a hypothesis test method to get robust real time alarms (within 10 seconds) when significant peaks from a previously defined set of nuclides are detected. An alarm for a significantly elevated total pulse rate is sent if none of the predefined nuclides is identified. All data are stored to the LINSSI database, which facilitates easy data retrieval for post processing. DEMA/DTU bases their calculations on full spectrum fitting using NASVD and the Danish software NucSpec. Source signals are found from spectrum fitting residuals or from stripping of energy windows - either by the standard 4-windows method or by a measurement based method where stripping factors for any window of interest can be derived from the measurements themselves. A thorough description of the two systems and data processing methods (including mathematics) are described in this report. For the Danish methods of data processing some comparisons have been made, but no final conclusion has been reached yet. Raw urban data has been investigated along with urban data sets to which source signals have been added and searched for. For the Finnish method calibration plots of the minimum detection limits for two different detector types have been

  1. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-06-15

    This report contains the present status and results for the NKS UGS-project per 1 June 2006 for NKS partners DTU, Denmark, and STUK, Finland. The Danish and Finnish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) systems are not of similar types. The Danish CGS system(s) only make use of one NaI(Tl) detector whereas the Finnish CGS system consists of several detectors, NaI(Tl) and HPGe both and as an additional feature the Finnish detectors have position dependent different fields of view. Furthermore, the Finnish system is equipped with an air sampling system. In terms of operation, the Danish detector is located on the rooftop where as the Finnish detectors are located inside the vehicle. The Finnish and the Danish team use different methods for data processing. STUK uses a hypothesis test method to get robust real time alarms (within 10 seconds) when significant peaks from a previously defined set of nuclides are detected. An alarm for a significantly elevated total pulse rate is sent if none of the predefined nuclides is identified. All data are stored to the LINSSI database, which facilitates easy data retrieval for post processing. DEMA/DTU bases their calculations on full spectrum fitting using NASVD and the Danish software NucSpec. Source signals are found from spectrum fitting residuals or from stripping of energy windows - either by the standard 4-windows method or by a measurement based method where stripping factors for any window of interest can be derived from the measurements themselves. A thorough description of the two systems and data processing methods (including mathematics) are described in this report. For the Danish methods of data processing some comparisons have been made, but no final conclusion has been reached yet. Raw urban data has been investigated along with urban data sets to which source signals have been added and searched for. For the Finnish method calibration plots of the minimum detection limits for two different detector types have been

  2. [Understanding dosage calculations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlahouès, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The calculation of dosages in paediatrics is the concern of the whole medical and paramedical team. This activity must generate a minimum of risks in order to prevent care-related adverse events. In this context, the calculation of dosages is a practice which must be understood by everyone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. PWR core design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Ravnik, M.; Zeleznik, N.

    1992-01-01

    Functional description of the programme package Cord-2 for PWR core design calculations is presented. Programme package is briefly described. Use of the package and calculational procedures for typical core design problems are treated. Comparison of main results with experimental values is presented as part of the verification process. (author) [sl

  4. Equipment for x- and gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following topics related to the equipment for x - and gamma ray radiography are discussed in this chapter. The topics are x-ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of x-ray, generation of x-ray, mechanism of x-ray production, x-ray equipment, power supply, distribution of x-ray intensity along the tube: gamma ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of gamma rays, gamma ray sources, gamma ray projectors on cameras, source changing. Care of Radiographic Equipments: Merits and Demerits of x and Gamma Rays

  5. Population Synthesis of Radio & Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Sara; Gonthier, P. L.; Harding, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of known gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in the Galactic disk has risen substantially thanks to confirmed detections by Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). We have developed a new population synthesis of gamma-ray and radio MSPs in the galaxy which uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques to explore the large and small worlds of the model parameter space and allows for comparisons of the simulated and detected MSP distributions. The simulation employs empirical radio and gamma-ray luminosity models that are dependent upon the pulsar period and period derivative with freely varying exponents. Parameters associated with the birth distributions are also free to vary. The computer code adjusts the magnitudes of the model luminosities to reproduce the number of MSPs detected by a group of ten radio surveys, thus normalizing the simulation and predicting the MSP birth rates in the Galaxy. Computing many Markov chains leads to preferred sets of model parameters that are further explored through two statistical methods. Marginalized plots define confidence regions in the model parameter space using maximum likelihood methods. A secondary set of confidence regions is determined in parallel using Kuiper statistics calculated from comparisons of cumulative distributions. These two techniques provide feedback to affirm the results and to check for consistency. Radio flux and dispersion measure constraints have been imposed on the simulated gamma-ray distributions in order to reproduce realistic detection conditions. The simulated and detected distributions agree well for both sets of radio and gamma-ray pulsar characteristics, as evidenced by our various comparisons.

  6. An investigation on the effect of gamma-irradiation on the optical absorption spectra in Cu(II) doped ammonium Tetrachlorozincate (ATZC) single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu El-Fadl, A.; Mohamad, G.A.; Abd El-Sttar, M.

    2003-01-01

    Optical transmittance measurements were carried out on Ammonium tetrachlorozincate (ATZC) crystals doped with small concentrations of Cu 2+ ions and irradiated with different doses of gamma-radiation. The absorption coefficient (alpha) and the extinction coefficient (K) of unirradiated and irradiated ATZC crystals were calculated. Valued of the allowed indirect optical energy gap (E g ) of ATZC were calculated as a function of gamma-dose. The effect of gamma irradiation is to increase in the absorption coefficient value and to decrease in E g value. The results could be explained in the fact that gamma irradiation produces defects of ionizing type because of internal irradiation with photon or Compton electrons

  7. Method for dose calculation in intracavitary irradiation of endometrical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zevrieva, I.F.; Ivashchenko, N.T.; Musapirova, N.A.; Fel'dman, S.Z.; Sajbekov, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    A method for dose calculation for the conditions of intracavitary gamma therapy of endometrial carcinoma using spherical and linear 60 Co sources was elaborated. Calculations of dose rates for different amount and orientation of spherical radiation sources and for different planes were made with the aid of BEhSM-4M computer. Dosimet were made with the aid of BEhSM-4M computer. Dosimetric study of dose fields was made using a phantom imitating the real conditions of irradiation. Discrepancies between experimental and calculated values are within the limits of the experiment accuracy

  8. Calculativeness and trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Williamson’s characterisation of calculativeness as inimical to trust contradicts most sociological trust research. However, a similar argument is found within trust phenomenology. This paper re-investigates Williamson’s argument from the perspective of Løgstrup’s phenomenological theory of trust....... Contrary to Williamson, however, Løgstrup’s contention is that trust, not calculativeness, is the default attitude and only when suspicion is awoken does trust falter. The paper argues that while Williamson’s distinction between calculativeness and trust is supported by phenomenology, the analysis needs...... into consideration that people often engage in interaction on the basis of familiarity rather than calculation. Finally, the institutionally multi-layered character of social interaction means that trust and calculativeness cannot a priori be separated into non-market and market relations. Rather, it is reasonable...

  9. Design and Performance of the GAMMA-400 Gamma-Ray Telescope for Dark Matter Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galper, A. M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gusakov, Yu V.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is designed to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons (+) positrons, which can be produced by annihilation or decay of the dark matter particles, as well as to survey the celestial sphere in order to study point and extended sources of gamma-rays, measure energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, gamma-ray bursts, and gamma-ray emission from the Sun. GAMMA-400 covers the energy range from 100 MeV to 3000 GeV. Its angular resolution is approximately 0.01deg (E(sub gamma) greater than 100 GeV), the energy resolution approximately 1% (E(sub gamma) greater than 10 GeV), and the proton rejection factor approximately 10(exp 6). GAMMA-400 will be installed on the Russian space platform Navigator. The beginning of observations is planned for 2018.

  10. Gamma ray heating rates due to chromium isotopes in stellar core during late stages of high mass stars (>10M⊙

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Jameel-Un

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma ray heating rates are thought to play a crucial role during the pre-supernova stage of high mass stars. Gamma ray heating rates, due to β±-decay and electron (positron capture on chromium isotopes, are calculated using proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation theory. The electron capture significantly affects the lepton fraction (Ye and accelerates the core contraction. The gamma rays emitted as a result of weak processes heat the core and tend to hinder the cooling and contraction due to electron capture and neutrino emission. The emitted gamma rays tend to produce enormous entropy and set the convection to play its role at this stage. The gamma heating rates, on 50-60Cr, are calculated for the density range 10 < ρ (g.cm-3 < 1011 and temperature range 107 < T (K < 3.0×1010.

  11. Comparison of the Z$/\\gamma^{*}$+jets to $\\gamma$+jets cross sections in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dobur, Didar; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Ali, Ahmed; Aly, Reham; Aly, Shereen; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Lotfy, Ahmad; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Masod, Rehab; Radi, Amr; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Lomidze, David; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Hartmann, Frank; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; 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De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Bisello, Dario; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fantinel, Sergio; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Gabusi, Michele; Magnani, Alice; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Ryu, Min Sang; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Ramirez Sanchez, Gabriel; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Myagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Taroni, Silvia; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Ferro, Cristina; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Günaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Sagir, Sinan; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova PANEVA, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Hu, Zhen; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Yin, Hang; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rank, Douglas; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Wang, Sean-jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Mareskas-palcek, Darren; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Sen, Sercan; Snyder, Christina; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Gray, Julia; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Mcginn, Christopher; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Primavera, Federica; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Zablocki, Jakub; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Verzetti, Mauro; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Demortier, Luc; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Christian, Allison; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-10-20

    A comparison of the differential cross sections for the processes Z$/\\gamma^{*}$+jets and photon ($\\gamma$)+jets is presented. The measurements are based on data collected with the CMS detector at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$. The differential cross sections and their ratios are presented as functions of $ p_{ \\mathrm{T} } $. The measurements are also shown as functions of the jet multiplicity. Differential cross sections are obtained as functions of the ratio of the Z$/\\gamma^{*}$ $ p_{ \\mathrm{T} } $ to the sum of all jet transverse momenta and of the ratio of the Z$/\\gamma^{*}$ $ p_{ \\mathrm{T} } $ to the leading jet transverse momentum. The data are corrected for detector effects and are compared to simulations based on several QCD calculations.

  12. Automatic gamma spectrometry analytical apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamargot, J.-P.; Wanin, Maurice.

    1980-01-01

    This invention falls within the area of quantitative or semi-quantitative analysis by gamma spectrometry and particularly refers to a device for bringing the samples into the counting position. The purpose of this invention is precisely to provide an automatic apparatus specifically adapted to the analysis of hard gamma radiations. To this effect, the invention relates to a gamma spectrometry analytical device comprising a lead containment, a detector of which the sensitive part is located inside the containment and additionally comprising a transfer system for bringing the analyzed samples in succession to a counting position inside the containment above the detector. A feed compartment enables the samples to be brought in turn one by one on to the transfer system through a duct connecting the compartment to the transfer system. Sequential systems for the coordinated forward feed of the samples in the compartment and the transfer system complete this device [fr

  13. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  14. Gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalor, G.C.; Robotham, H.; Miller, J.M.; Simpson, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a total gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica, carried out with car-borne instrumentation, are presented and the data compared with the contents of potassium, thorium and uranium in rocks and in surface (soil, stream-sediment, pan concentrate and water) samples obtained at six sites selected to be representative of the principal rock types and surface environments of Jamaica. The work formed part of an orientation study for a regional geochemical survey of the CARICOM countries of the Caribbean. The initial results indicate that enhanced gamma activity is correlated with enrichment in uranium and thorium, but not potassium, in terra rossa soils and/or bauxite deposits in limestone. Elsewhere, gamma levels are increased on the Above Rocks Cretaceous basement Inlier, where they correlate generally with the presence of volcanogenic sediments and a granodiorite intrusion. The lowest radioactivity was recorded in the vicinity of ultrabasic rocks in the Blue Mountains Inlier. (author)

  15. Gamma irradiators for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Radiation technology is one of the most important fields which the IAEA supports and promotes, and has several programmes that facilitate its use in the developing Member States. In view of this mandate, this Booklet on 'Gamma Irradiators for Radiation Processing' is prepared which describes variety of gamma irradiators that can be used for radiation processing applications. It is intended to present description of general principles of design and operation of the gamma irradiators available currently for industrial use. It aims at providing information to industrial end users to familiarise them with the technology, with the hope that the information contained here would assist them in selecting the most optimum irradiator for their needs. Correct selection affects not only the ease of operation but also yields higher efficiency, and thus improved economy. The Booklet is also intended for promoting radiation processing in general to governments and general public

  16. Approximate calculational techniques for radiation protection applications (collection of papers presented at the November 1985 American Nuclear Society meeting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, A.F.; Roussin, R.W. (comps.)

    1986-09-01

    Although radiation protection principles are, on the whole, well understood and a whole series of computer codes exist for their solution, it is felt that there is a need for practical, approximate techniques to be used by the practicing nuclear engineer for a variety of applications. Within the context of approximate techniques, the papers presented cover a broad overview of specific problems, for example, skyshine and penetration analysis, with applications extending from general nuclear reactor design to spent fuel storage and fusion. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers.

  17. Approximate calculational techniques for radiation protection applications (collection of papers presented at the November 1985 American Nuclear Society meeting)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, A.F.; Roussin, R.W.

    1986-09-01

    Although radiation protection principles are, on the whole, well understood and a whole series of computer codes exist for their solution, it is felt that there is a need for practical, approximate techniques to be used by the practicing nuclear engineer for a variety of applications. Within the context of approximate techniques, the papers presented cover a broad overview of specific problems, for example, skyshine and penetration analysis, with applications extending from general nuclear reactor design to spent fuel storage and fusion. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers

  18. In situ evaluation of radwaste gamma activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulama, Cristian; Toma, Al.; Dobrin, R.; Pavelescu, Margarit

    2003-01-01

    There are certain limitations concerning the usage of standard source method for efficiency calibration of gamma-ray spectrometers measuring in extended geometry conditions. These limitations arise from the great diversity of forms and sizes of the objects which are to be measured during decommissioning and radioactive waste management activities. The INR - Pitesti operates a radioactive waste management facilities for both its own necessities and for providing external services. This facility is able to perform conditioning of liquid and solid wastes for interim storage disposal. During the conditioning operations there are certain stages when the radioactive measurement of the storage drums is demanded. We developed a gamma ray spectrometry equipment using a portable MCA Canberra INSPECTOR, a HPGe detector and an INR manufactured collimator. We are using a semiempirical method to calibrate the gamma ray spectrometer for such measurements. A program was written in Visual Basic language and includes a graphical interface for parameters input and data output. The input parameters are stored in text files, which can be loaded, modified or saved on disk as desired. The program was tested to establish the stability of MC simulation and the sensitivity to the input parameters. During the programming process it was possible to verify some code sequences and the results obtained showed that the model used was appropriate. To find out the optimal number of MC histories, which have to be modelled to obtain results of sufficient accuracy, the program was repeatedly run by changing only the number of histories. The relative deviation to the mean of the effective solid angle was calculated. The density of the source material as well as its composition can be changed by input. For comparison the efficiency calibration curves for sources materials having the same elemental composition but different densities ranging from 10 to 1000 kg/m 3 are drawn. The activities of the

  19. DESAIN TERAS REAKTOR RISET INOVATIF (RRI. ESTIMASI DAN ANALISIS DISTRIBUSI PANAS GAMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiyanto Setiyanto

    2015-03-01

    that should be completed with any safety data, including the gamma heating value. For this reasons, calculation and analysis of gamma heating in the hole of reactor core and irradiation facilities in reflector had been done by using of modified and validated Gamset computer code. The result shown that gamma heating value of 11.75 W/g is the highest value at the center of reactor core, higher than gamma heating value of RSG-GAS. However, placement of all irradiation facilities in reflector show that safety characteristics for  irradiation facilities of innovative research reactor more better than RSG-GAS reactor. Regarding the results obtained, and based on placement of irradiation facilities in reflector, can be concluded that innovative research reactor more safe for any irradiation used.

  20. Dose calculation for electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    The joint working group of ICRP/ICRU is advancing the works of reviewing the ICRP publication 51 by investigating the data related to radiation protection. In order to introduce the 1990 recommendation, it has been demanded to carry out calculation for neutrons, photons and electrons. As for electrons, EURADOS WG4 (Numerical Dosimetry) rearranged the data to be calculated at the meeting held in PTB Braunschweig in June, 1992, and the question and request were presented by Dr. J.L. Chartier, the responsible person, to the researchers who are likely to undertake electron transport Monte Carlo calculation. The author also has carried out the requested calculation as it was the good chance to do the mutual comparison among various computation codes regarding electron transport calculation. The content that the WG requested to calculate was the absorbed dose at depth d mm when parallel electron beam enters at angle α into flat plate phantoms of PMMA, water and ICRU4-element tissue, which were placed in vacuum. The calculation was carried out by the versatile electron-photon shower computation Monte Carlo code, EGS4. As the results, depth dose curves and the dependence of absorbed dose on electron energy, incident angle and material are reported. The subjects to be investigated are pointed out. (K.I.)

  1. Gamma activation analysis with microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiderkiewicz, A.; Kierzek, J.; Parus, J.; Swiderska-Kowalczyk, M.; Wolski, W.; Zoltowski, T.

    1989-01-01

    The physical principles of gamma activation analysis, its capabilities as well as its application to analyse polymetallic ores with use of mean power microtron are presented. Limits of detection and determination for above twenty elements occurring in those ores with use of short- and longlived radioisotopes are specified. The work contains conception of construction of race-track microtron with electrons energy adjusted in 10-30 MeV range and with current not less than 20 μA. Besides the development of microtrons, the reason for choosing the race-track construction for gamma activation analysis is given. 69 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  2. Radiosurgery by Leksell gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, Josef

    2008-01-01

    The learning objectives of the lecture were as follows: to learn basic principles of Leksell gamma knife (LGK) radiosurgery; to discuss imaging, treatment planning and optimization procedures; to discuss quality assurance for LGK treatments; and to present examples of diagnoses treated by LGK. The following topics were discussed: Radiosurgery - definition, components of selectivity, fundamentals; Leksell gamma knife - principles; Stereotactic target localization; Radiosurgery - imaging; Treatment planning; LGK treatment; Quality control - process tree, LGK, distortion of scanners, 3D phantom measurements; Physical and technical parameters; and Clinical applications. (P.A.)

  3. Nuclear fuel microsphere gamma analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, K.H.; Long, E.L. Jr.; Willey, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    A gamma analyzer system is provided for the analysis of nuclear fuel microspheres and other radioactive particles. The system consists of an analysis turntable with means for loading, in sequence, a plurality of stations within the turntable; a gamma ray detector for determining the spectrum of a sample in one section; means for analyzing the spectrum; and a receiver turntable to collect the analyzed material in stations according to the spectrum analysis. Accordingly, particles may be sorted according to their quality; e.g., fuel particles with fractured coatings may be separated from those that are not fractured, or according to other properties. 4 claims, 3 figures

  4. Coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors is often the technique of choice in an environmental radioactivity laboratory. When measuring environmental samples associated activities are usually low so an important parameter that describes the performance of the spectrometer...... for a nuclide of interest is the minimum detectable activity (MDA). There are many ways for lowering the MDAs in gamma spectrometry. Recently, developments of fast and compact digital acquisition systems have led to growing number of multiple HPGe detector spectrometers. In these applications all detected...

  5. Gamma-ray Imaging Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Valentine, J; Wright, D

    2006-10-05

    In this document we discuss specific implementations for gamma-ray imaging instruments including the principle of operation and describe systems which have been built and demonstrated as well as systems currently under development. There are several fundamentally different technologies each with specific operational requirements and performance trade offs. We provide an overview of the different gamma-ray imaging techniques and briefly discuss challenges and limitations associated with each modality (in the appendix we give detailed descriptions of specific implementations for many of these technologies). In Section 3 we summarize the performance and operational aspects in tabular form as an aid for comparing technologies and mapping technologies to potential applications.

  6. Dose rate modelled for the outdoors of a gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangussi, J

    2012-01-01

    A model for the absorbed dose rate calculation on the surroundings of a gamma irradiation plant is developed. In such plants, a part of the radiation emitted upwards reach's the outdoors. The Compton scatterings on the wall of the exhausting pipes through de plant roof and on the outdoors air are modelled. The absorbed dose rate generated by the scattered radiation as far as 200 m is calculated. The results of the models, to be used for the irradiation plant design and for the environmental studies, are showed on graphics (author)

  7. Radioactive cloud dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Radiological dosage principles, as well as methods for calculating external and internal dose rates, following dispersion and deposition of radioactive materials in the atmosphere are described. Emphasis has been placed on analytical solutions that are appropriate for hand calculations. In addition, the methods for calculating dose rates from ingestion are discussed. A brief description of several computer programs are included for information on radionuclides. There has been no attempt to be comprehensive, and only a sampling of programs has been selected to illustrate the variety available

  8. QCD and $\\gamma\\,\\gamma$ studies at FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Skands, Peter

    2016-10-20

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) is a post-LHC project aiming at searches for physics beyond the SM in a new 80--100~km tunnel at CERN. Running in its first phase as a very-high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), it will provide unique possibilities for indirect searches of new phenomena through high-precision tests of the SM. In addition, by collecting tens of ab$^{-1}$ integrated luminosity in the range of center-of-mass energies $\\sqrt{s}$~=90--350~GeV, the FCC-ee also offers unique physics opportunities for precise measurements of QCD phenomena and of photon-photon collisions through, literally, billions of hadronic final states as well as unprecedented large fluxes of quasireal $\\gamma$'s radiated from the $\\rm e^+e^-$ beams. We succinctly summarize the FCC-ee perspectives for high-precision extractions of the QCD coupling, for detailed analyses of parton radiation and fragmentation, and for SM and BSM studies through $\\gamma\\gamma$ collisions.

  9. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F.

    1960-07-01

    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  10. Measurement for skyshine of neutron generated by the K-600 neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen Huazhi; Li Guisheng; Wu Jingmin; Li Jianping

    1988-01-01

    The attenuation low of neutron scattering in atmosphere that generated by K-600 neutron generator at IMP was measured in order to evaluate the effect of the neutron generator to surroundings. The attenuation lenth λ = 396m was obtained and this result is in aggreement with the measured data at some laboratories abroad

  11. A Double Inequality for Gamma Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the Alzer integral inequality and the elementary properties of the gamma function, a double inequality for gamma function is established, which is an improvement of Merkle's inequality.

  12. The Gamma-ray Universe through Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, reveal extreme conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and its smaller cousin AGILE have been exploring the gamma-ray sky for several years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge ga.nuna-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  13. Stieltjes-moment-theory technique for calculating resonance width's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A.U.

    1978-12-01

    A recently developed method for calculating the widths of atomic and molecular resonances is reviewed. The method is based on the golden-rule definition of the resonance width, GAMMA(E). The method uses only square-integrable, L 2 , basis functions to describe both the resonant and the non-resonant parts of the scattering wave function. It employs Stieltjes-moment-theory techniques to extract a continuous approximation for the width discrete representation of the background continuum. Its implementation requires only existing atomic and molecular structure codes. Many-electron effects, such as correlation and polarization, are easily incorporated into the calculation of the width via configuration interaction techniques. Once the width, GAMMA(E), has been determined, the energy shift can be computed by a straightforward evaluation of the required principal-value integral. The main disadvantage of the method is that it provides only the total width of a resonance which decays into more than one channel in a multichannel problem. A review of the various aspects of the theory is given first, and then representative results that have been obtained with this method for several atomic and molecular resonances are discussed. 28 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  14. Ab initio study of effects of substitutional additives on the phase stability of {gamma}-alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kaiyun; Music, Denis; Sarakinos, Kostas; Schneider, Jochen M, E-mail: jiang@mch.rwth-aachen.d [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Mies van der Rohe Strasse 10, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-12-22

    Using ab initio calculations, we have evaluated two structural descriptions of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, spinel and tetragonal hausmannite, and explored the relative stability of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with respect to {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with 2.5 at.% of Si, Cr, Ti, Sc, and Y additives to identify alloying element induced electronic structure changes that impede the {gamma} to {alpha} transition. The total energy calculations indicate that Si stabilizes {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, while Cr stabilizes {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. As Si is added, a bond length increase in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is observed, while strong and short Si-O bonds are formed in {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, consequently stabilizing this phase. On the other hand, Cr additions induce a smaller bond length increase in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} than in {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, therefore stabilizing the {alpha}-phase. The bulk moduli of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with these additives show no significant changes. The phase stability and elastic property data discussed here underline the application potential of Si alloyed {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for applications at elevated temperatures. Furthermore it is evident that the tetragonal hausmannite structure is a suitable description for {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  15. A simple neutral density profile calculation for Tokamaks with lambdasub(mfp) << a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    A simple and expeditious technique is developed for calculating the neutral density profile in the dense region of large Tokamak plasmas, where lambdasub(mfp) << a. The method rests on determining the local logarithmic derivative of nsub(o) from a self-consistent calculation of the radial flux of neutrals GAMMA, combined with the condition that Del.GAMMA +nsub(o)nsub(e)(σν)sub(ei) = 0. The results from this simple technique are compared with a more time-consuming Monte-Carlo calculation, and good agreement is found. (author)

  16. Small portable speed calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Billions, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Calculator is adapted stopwatch calibrated for fast accurate measurement of speeds. Single assembled unit is rugged, self-contained, and relatively inexpensive to manufacture. Potential market includes automobile-speed enforcement, railroads, and field-test facilities.

  17. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  18. Magnetic Field Grid Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Properties Calculator will computes the estimated values of Earth's magnetic field(declination, inclination, vertical component, northerly...

  19. National Stormwater Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) is a desktop application that estimates the annual amount of rainwater and frequency of runoff from a specific site anywhere in the United States (including Puerto Rico).

  20. Stormwater Calculator (SWC) webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason Berner presents EPA’s National Stormwater Calculator developed to help support local, state and national stormwater management objectives and regulatory efforts to reduce runoff using green infrastructure practices as low impact development controls.

  1. ATLAS searches for VH, HH, VV, V+$\\gamma$/$\\gamma\\gamma$ resonances

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00441490; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of a Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider motivates searches for physics beyond the Standard Model in channels involving coupling to the Higgs boson. A search for massive resonances decaying into couples of bosons is described. The considered final states are: $HH$, $VH$, $VV$, $V\\gamma$ and $\\gamma\\gamma$ with $V$ indicating either the $W$ or the $Z$ boson. Final states with different number of leptons or photons and where, in many cases, at least one Higgs decays into a b-quark pair are studied using different jet reconstruction techniques which allow to optimize the signal acceptance for low or high Higgs boson transverse momentum. The most recent diboson resonance searches using LHC Run 2 data are described.

  2. Consequences of the factorization hypothesis in nucleon-nucleon, $\\gamma p and \\gamma \\gamma$ scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Martin M

    2002-01-01

    Using an eikonal structure for the scattering amplitude, factorization theorems for nucleon-nucleon, gamma p and gamma gamma scattering at high energies have been derived, using only some very general assumptions. Using a QCD-inspired eikonal analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering, we present here experimental confirmation for factorization of cross sections, nuclear slope parameters B and rho -values (ratio of real to imaginary portion of forward scattering amplitudes), showing that: 1) the three factorization theorems of Block and Kaidalov [2000] hold, 2) the additive quark model holds to approximately=1%, and 3) vector dominance holds to better than approximately=4%. Predictions for the total cross section, elastic cross section and other forward scattering parameters at the LHC (14 TeV) are given. (12 refs).

  3. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  4. Fast focus field calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Leutenegger, M.; Rao, R.; Leitgeb, R. A.; Lasser, T.

    2006-01-01

    We present a fast calculation of the electromagnetic field near the focus of an objective with a high numerical aperture (NA). Instead of direct integration, the vectorial Debye diffraction integral is evaluated with the fast Fourier transform for calculating the electromagnetic field in the entire focal region. We generalize this concept with the chirp z transform for obtaining a flexible sampling grid and an additional gain in computation speed. Under ...

  5. Quantum Chemical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The current methods of quantum chemical calculations will be reviewed. The accent will be on the accuracy that can be achieved with these methods. The basis set requirements and computer resources for the various methods will be discussed. The utility of the methods will be illustrated with some examples, which include the calculation of accurate bond energies for SiF$_n$ and SiF$_n^+$ and the modeling of chemical data storage.

  6. Plutonium isotopic measurements by gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, F.X.; Lemming, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    A nondestructive technique is described for calculating plutonium-238, plutonium-240, plutonium-241 and americium-241 relative to plutonium-239 from measured peak areas in the high resolution gamma-ray spectra of solid plutonium samples. Gamma-ray attenuation effects were minimized by selecting sets of neighboring peaks in the spectrum whose components are due to the different isotopes. Since the detector efficiencies are approximately the same for adjacent peaks, the accuracy of the isotopic ratios is dependent on the half-lives, branching intensities, and measured peak areas. The data presented describe the results obtained by analyzing gamma-ray spectra in the energy region from 120 to 700 keV. Most of the data analyzed were obtained from plutonium material containing 6 percent plutonium-240. Sample weights varied from 0.25 g to approximately 1.2 kg. The methods were also applied to plutonium samples containing up to 23 percent plutonium-240 with weights of 0.25 to 200 g. Results obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy are compared to chemical analyses of aliquots taken from the bulk samples

  7. Delta-gamma-theta Hedging of Crude Oil Asian Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Hruška

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Black-Scholes formula was derived, many methods have been suggested for vanilla as well as exotic options pricing. More of investing and hedging strategies have been developed based on these pricing models. Goal of this paper is to derive delta-gamma-theta hedging strategy for Asian options and compere its efficiency with gamma-delta-theta hedging combined with predictive model. Fixed strike Asian options are type of exotic options, whose special feature is that payoff is calculated from the difference of average market price and strike price for call options and vice versa for the put options. Methods of stochastic analysis are used to determine deltas, gammas and thetas of Asian options. Asian options are cheaper than vanilla options and therefore they are more suitable for precise portfolio creation. On the other hand their deltas are also smaller as well as profits. That means that they are also less risky and more suitable for hedging. Results, conducted on chosen commodity, confirm better feasibility of Asian options compering with vanilla options in sense of gamma hedging.

  8. Requirements to a Norwegian National Automatic Gamma Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Nielsen, F.

    2005-04-01

    An assessment of the overall requirements to a Norwegian gamma-monitoring network is undertaken with special emphasis on the geographical distribution of automatic gamma monitoring stations, type of detectors in such stations and the sensitivity of the system in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate increments above the natural background levels. The study is based upon simplified deterministic calculations of the radiological consequences of generic nuclear accident scenarios. The density of gamma monitoring stations has been estimated from an analysis of the dispersion of radioactive materials over large distances using historical weather data; the minimum density is estimated from the requirement that a radioactive plume may not slip unnoticed in between stations of the monitoring network. The sensitivity of the gamma monitoring system is obtained from the condition that events that may require protective intervention measures should be detected by the system. Action levels for possible introduction of sheltering and precautionary foodstuff restrictions are derived in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate. For emergency situations where particulates contribute with only a small fraction of the total ambient dose equivalent rate from the plume, it is concluded that measurements of dose rate are sufficient to determine the need for sheltering; simple dose rate measurements however, are inadequate to determine the need for foodstuff restrictions and spectral measurements are required. (au)

  9. Gamma-ray spectra from the age of the dinosaurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy has been tested as a technique for assisting in the excavation of paleontological sites in the Morrison Formation of western New Mexico. Excavation of these sites is difficult, owing to remoteness and to environmental concerns that militate against wholesale removal of overburden. Various researchers have used remote-sensing techniques to attempt to locate sub-surface bone near known, exposed fossils, thereby to confine excavation to areas where success in finding bone is most likely. Bones accumulate uranium from surrounding rock during fossilization; accordingly, in-situ gamma-ray spectroscopy might serve to locate bone, by detecting the 609- and 1764-keV gamma rays from uranium daughters. Because of the high uranium content of fossils in the Morrison Formation, calculations suggest the feasibility of locating bone despite the presence of several cm of rock and soil overburden. Investigations at several sites with fossils of large sauropods have revealed increased count rates for the key gamma rays near exposed bone, possibly implying the presence of additional fossils beneath the surface of the ground. However, attempts to use spectroscopy inside shafts drilled into possible fossil-bearing rock have been less successful. Results are presented and prospects for additional work discussed

  10. Tandem collimators for the JET tangential gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soare, Sorin; Balshaw, Nick; Blanchard, Patrick; Craciunescu, Teddy; Croft, David; Curuia, Marian; Edlington, Trevor; Kiptily, Vasily; Murari, Andrea; Prior, Phil; Sanders, Steven; Syme, Brian; Zoita, Vasile

    2011-01-01

    The tangential gamma-ray spectrometer (TGRS) of the JET tokamak fusion facility is an important diagnostics for investigating the fast particle evolution. A well defined field of view for the TGRS diagnostics is essential for its proper operation and this is to be determined by a rather complex system of collimators and shields both for the neutron and gamma radiations. A conceptual design for this system has been carried out with the main design target set to maximize the signal-to-background ratio at the spectrometer detector, the ratio being defined in terms of the plasma emitted gamma radiation and the gamma-ray background. As a first phase of the TGRS diagnostics upgrade a set of two tandem collimators has been designed with the aim of determining a quasi-tangential field of view through JET tokamak plasmas. A modular design of the tandem system has been developed in order to allow for the construction of different configurations for deuterium and deuterium-tritium discharges. The internal structure of the collimators consists of nuclear grade lead and high density polyethylene slabs arranged in an optimized pattern. The performance of a simplified geometry of the tandem collimator configuration has been evaluated by neutron and photon transport calculations and the numerical results show that the design parameters can be attained.

  11. Code ACTIVE for calculation of the transmutation, induced activity and decay heat in neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, Kimihiro; Harada, Yuhei; Asami, Naoto.

    1976-03-01

    The computer code ACTIVE has been prepared for calculation of the transmutation rate, induced activity and decay heat. Calculations are carried out with activation chain and spatial distribution of neutron energy spectrum. The spatial distribution of secondary gamma-ray source due to the unstable nuclides is also obtainable. Special attension is paid to the short life decays. (auth.)

  12. A solution algorithm for calculating photon radiation fields with the aid of the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappe, D.

    1978-04-01

    The MCTEST program and its subroutines for the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation is presented. The program renders possible to calculate photon radiation fields of point or plane gamma sources. After changing two subroutines the calculation can also be carried out for the case of directed incidence of radiation on plane shields of iron or concrete. (author)

  13. A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhongming; Xing Shilin; Wang Zhongmin

    1986-01-01

    A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system is described. A detector and a pulse shape discriminator are suitable for the neutron-gamma discriminating system. The influence of the constant fraction discriminator threshold energy on the neutron-gamma resolution properties is shown. The neutron-gamma timing distributions from an 241 Am-Be source, 2.5 MeV neutron beam and 14 MeV neutron beam are presented

  14. Gravitational microlensing of gamma-ray blazars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Torres, Diego; E. Romero, Gustavo; F. Eiroa, Ernesto

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the effects of gravitational microlensing on compact and distant $\\gamma$-ray blazars. These objects have $\\gamma$-ray emitting regions which are small enough as to be affected by microlensing effects produced by stars lying in intermediate galaxies. We analyze...... galactic latitude whose gamma-ray statistical properties are very similar to detected $\\gamma$-ray blazars) are indeed the result of gravitational lensing magnification of background undetected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs)....

  15. Analysis of coupled neutron-gamma radiations, applied to shieldings in multigroup albedo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunley, Leonardo Souza

    2002-01-01

    The principal mathematical tools frequently available for calculations in Nuclear Engineering, including coupled neutron-gamma radiations shielding problems, involve the full Transport Theory or the Monte Carlo techniques. The Multigroup Albedo Method applied to shieldings is characterized by following the radiations through distinct layers of materials, allowing the determination of the neutron and gamma fractions reflected from, transmitted through and absorbed in the irradiated media when a neutronic stream hits the first layer of material, independently of flux calculations. Then, the method is a complementary tool of great didactic value due to its clarity and simplicity in solving neutron and/or gamma shielding problems. The outstanding results achieved in previous works motivated the elaboration and the development of this study that is presented in this dissertation. The radiation balance resulting from the incidence of a neutronic stream into a shielding composed by 'm' non-multiplying slab layers for neutrons was determined by the Albedo method, considering 'n' energy groups for neutrons and 'g' energy groups for gammas. It was taken into account there is no upscattering of neutrons and gammas. However, it was considered that neutrons from any energy groups are able to produce gammas of all energy groups. The ANISN code, for an angular quadrature order S 2 , was used as a standard for comparison of the results obtained by the Albedo method. So, it was necessary to choose an identical system configuration, both for ANISN and Albedo methods. This configuration was six neutron energy groups and eight gamma energy groups, using three slab layers (iron aluminum - manganese). The excellent results expressed in comparative tables show great agreement between the values determined by the deterministic code adopted as standard and, the values determined by the computational program created using the Albedo method and the algorithm developed for coupled neutron-gamma

  16. The development of gamma energy identify algorithm for compact radiation sensors using stepwise refinement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyun Jun [Div. of Radiation Regulation, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ye Won; Kim, Hyun Duk; Cho, Gyu Seong [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Yun [Dept. of of Electronics and Information Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    A gamma energy identifying algorithm using spectral decomposition combined with smoothing method was suggested to confirm the existence of the artificial radio isotopes. The algorithm is composed by original pattern recognition method and smoothing method to enhance the performance to identify gamma energy of radiation sensors that have low energy resolution. The gamma energy identifying algorithm for the compact radiation sensor is a three-step of refinement process. Firstly, the magnitude set is calculated by the original spectral decomposition. Secondly, the magnitude of modeling error in the magnitude set is reduced by the smoothing method. Thirdly, the expected gamma energy is finally decided based on the enhanced magnitude set as a result of the spectral decomposition with the smoothing method. The algorithm was optimized for the designed radiation sensor composed of a CsI (Tl) scintillator and a silicon pin diode. The two performance parameters used to estimate the algorithm are the accuracy of expected gamma energy and the number of repeated calculations. The original gamma energy was accurately identified with the single energy of gamma radiation by adapting this modeling error reduction method. Also the average error decreased by half with the multi energies of gamma radiation in comparison to the original spectral decomposition. In addition, the number of repeated calculations also decreased by half even in low fluence conditions under 104 (/0.09 cm{sup 2} of the scintillator surface). Through the development of this algorithm, we have confirmed the possibility of developing a product that can identify artificial radionuclides nearby using inexpensive radiation sensors that are easy to use by the public. Therefore, it can contribute to reduce the anxiety of the public exposure by determining the presence of artificial radionuclides in the vicinity.

  17. Attrition resistant gamma-alumina catalyst support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.

    2006-03-14

    A .gamma.-alumina catalyst support having improved attrition resistance produced by a method comprising the steps of treating a particulate .gamma.-alumina material with an acidic aqueous solution comprising water and nitric acid and then, prior to adding any catalytic material thereto, calcining the treated .gamma.-alumina.

  18. Gamma-Ray Interactions for Reachback Analysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-02

    This presentation is a part of the DHS LSS spectroscopy training course and presents an overview of the following concepts: identification and measurement of gamma rays; use of gamma counts and energies in research. Understanding the basic physics of how gamma rays interact with matter can clarify how certain features in a spectrum were produced.

  19. Gamma spectrometry of infinite 4Π geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1987-07-01

    Owing to the weak absorption og gamma radiation by matter, gamma-ray spectrometry may be applied to samples of great volume. A very interesting case is that of the gamma-ray spectrometry applied with 4Π geometry around the detector on a sample assumed to be of infinite extension. The determination of suitable efficiencies allows this method to be quantitative. (author) [pt

  20. Gamma scanner conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1979-11-01

    The Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) will include several stations for the nondestructive examination of irradiated fuels. One of these stations will be the gamma scanner which will be employed to detect gamma radiation from the irradiated fuel pins. The conceptual design of the gamma scan station is described. The gamma scanner will use a Standard Exam Stage (SES) as a positioner and transport mechanism for the fuel pins which it will obtain from a magazine. A pin guide mechanism mounted on the face of the collimator will assure that the fuel pins remain in front of the collimator during scanning. The collimator has remotely adjustable tungsten slits and can be manually rotated to align the slit at various angles. A shielded detector cart located in the operating corridor holds an intrinsic germanium detector and associated sodium-iodide anticoincidence detector. The electronics associated with the counting system consist of standard NIM modules to process the detector signals and a stand-alone multichannel analyzer (MCA) for counting data accumulation. Data from the MCA are bussed to the station computer for analysis and storage on magnetic tape. The station computer controls the collimator, the MCA, a source positioner and the SES through CAMAC-based interface hardware. Most of the electronic hardware is commercially available but some interfaces will require development. Conceptual drawings are included for mechanical hardware that must be designed and fabricated

  1. Gamma irradiation of cholestenone oximes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenseren, Envare.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of cholest-4-en-3-one and cholest-5-en-3-one oximes with cobalt-60 gamma-rays in different solvents at different doses gave a mixture of products from which ketones corresponding to the starting oximes, Beckmann type rearrangement products, and some other radiolysis products have been isolated and identified

  2. Short duration gamma ray bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. After a short review of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), we discuss the physical implications of strong statistical correlations seen among some of the parameters of short duration bursts (90 < 2 s). Finally, we conclude with a brief sketch of a new unified model for long and short GRBs.

  3. Gamma and X 93 spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Meetings of Gamma and X 93 Spectrometry were held on 12-14 October 1993. The symposium was organized into six sessions: Instrumentation development, Nuclear matter measurement, Method and calibration, Medical applications, Environment survey (radioactive traces measurement), other applications (spent fuels analysis, various techniques). Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers in this volume. (TEC)

  4. Gamma irradiators for radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.

    2008-01-01

    The radiation processing industry gained significant impetus with the advent of nuclear reactors, which have the capability to produce radioisotopes such as 60 Co. These gamma ray emitters became popular radiation sources for medical and industrial applications. Many gamma ray irradiators have been built, 200 of which are estimated to be currently in operation in Member States of the IAEA. In recent times, the use of electron accelerators as radiation source (and sometimes equipped with an X ray converter) is increasing. However, gamma irradiators are difficult to replace, especially for non-uniform and high density products. Currently, 60 Co is used almost solely as a gamma radiation source for industrial use now, mainly because of its easy production method and its non-solubility in water. Based on the total cumulative sale of 60 Co by all suppliers, it can be estimated that the installed capacity of cobalt is increasing at the rate of about 6% per year. It is interesting to note that the worldwide use of disposable medical devices is growing at approximately the same rate (5-6%), which seems to be driving the growth in cobalt sale

  5. ON-LINE CALCULATOR: FORWARD CALCULATION JOHNSON ETTINGER MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  6. Uncertainty calculations made easier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogenbirk, A.

    1994-07-01

    The results are presented of a neutron cross section sensitivity/uncertainty analysis performed in a complicated 2D model of the NET shielding blanket design inside the ITER torus design, surrounded by the cryostat/biological shield as planned for ITER. The calculations were performed with a code system developed at ECN Petten, with which sensitivity/uncertainty calculations become relatively simple. In order to check the deterministic neutron transport calculations (performed with DORT), calculations were also performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Care was taken to model the 2.0 cm wide gaps between two blanket segments, as the neutron flux behind the vacuum vessel is largely determined by neutrons streaming through these gaps. The resulting neutron flux spectra are in excellent agreement up to the end of the cryostat. It is noted, that at this position the attenuation of the neutron flux is about 1 l orders of magnitude. The uncertainty in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the vacuum vessel and at the beginning of the cryostat was determined in the calculations. The uncertainty appears to be strongly dependent on the exact geometry: if the gaps are filled with stainless steel, the neutron spectrum changes strongly, which results in an uncertainty of 70% in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the cryostat in the no-gap-geometry, compared to an uncertainty of only 5% in the gap-geometry. Therefore, it is essential to take into account the exact geometry in sensitivity/uncertainty calculations. Furthermore, this study shows that an improvement of the covariance data is urgently needed in order to obtain reliable estimates of the uncertainties in response parameters in neutron transport calculations. (orig./GL)

  7. Feasibility of identification of gamma knife planning strategies by identification of pareto optimal gamma knife plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, C A

    2011-12-01

    The use of conformity indices to optimize Gamma Knife planning is common, but does not address important tradeoffs between dose to tumor and normal tissue. Pareto analysis has been used for this purpose in other applications, but not for Gamma Knife (GK) planning. The goal of this work is to use computer models to show that Pareto analysis may be feasible for GK planning to identify dosimetric tradeoffs. We define a GK plan A to be Pareto dominant to B if the prescription isodose volume of A covers more tumor but not more normal tissue than B, or if A covers less normal tissue but not less tumor than B. A plan is Pareto optimal if it is not dominated by any other plan. Two different Pareto optimal plans represent different tradeoffs between dose to tumor and normal tissue, because neither plan dominates the other. 'GK simulator' software calculated dose distributions for GK plans, and was called repetitively by a genetic algorithm to calculate Pareto dominant plans. Three irregular tumor shapes were tested in 17 trials using various combinations of shots. The mean number of Pareto dominant plans/trial was 59 ± 17 (sd). Different planning strategies were identified by large differences in shot positions, and 70 of the 153 coordinate plots (46%) showed differences of 5mm or more. The Pareto dominant plans dominated other nearby plans. Pareto dominant plans represent different dosimetric tradeoffs and can be systematically calculated using genetic algorithms. Automatic identification of non-intuitive planning strategies may be feasible with these methods.

  8. Gamma and Neutron Radiolysis in the 21-PWR Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S. Tang

    2001-05-03

    The objective of this calculation is to compute gamma and neutron dose rates in order to determine the maximum radiolytic production of nitric acid and other chemical species inside the 21-PWR (pressurized-water reactor) waste package (WP). The scope of this calculation is limited to the time period between 5,000 and 100,000 years after emplacement. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation is that of the potential design for the type of WP considered in this calculation. The results of this calculation will be used to evaluate nitric acid corrosion of fuel cladding from radiolysis in the 21-PWR WP. This calculation was performed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) 2000a). AP-3.124, Calculations, is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. This calculation is associated with the total system performance assessment (TSPA) of which the spent fuel cladding integrity is to be evaluated.

  9. Gamma and Neutron Radiolysis in the 21-PWR Waste Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.S. Tang

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to compute gamma and neutron dose rates in order to determine the maximum radiolytic production of nitric acid and other chemical species inside the 21-PWR (pressurized-water reactor) waste package (WP). The scope of this calculation is limited to the time period between 5,000 and 100,000 years after emplacement. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation is that of the potential design for the type of WP considered in this calculation. The results of this calculation will be used to evaluate nitric acid corrosion of fuel cladding from radiolysis in the 21-PWR WP. This calculation was performed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) 2000a). AP-3.124, Calculations, is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. This calculation is associated with the total system performance assessment (TSPA) of which the spent fuel cladding integrity is to be evaluated

  10. Online plasma calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, H.; Gourdain, P.-A.

    2017-10-01

    APOLLO is an online, Linux based plasma calculator. Users can input variables that correspond to their specific plasma, such as ion and electron densities, temperatures, and external magnetic fields. The system is based on a webserver where a FastCGI protocol computes key plasma parameters including frequencies, lengths, velocities, and dimensionless numbers. FastCGI was chosen to overcome security problems caused by JAVA-based plugins. The FastCGI also speeds up calculations over PHP based systems. APOLLO is built upon the WT library, which turns any web browser into a versatile, fast graphic user interface. All values with units are expressed in SI units except temperature, which is in electron-volts. SI units were chosen over cgs units because of the gradual shift to using SI units within the plasma community. APOLLO is intended to be a fast calculator that also provides the user with the proper equations used to calculate the plasma parameters. This system is intended to be used by undergraduates taking plasma courses as well as graduate students and researchers who need a quick reference calculation.

  11. Measurements of B to V(Gamma) Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarritu, Aaron K.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-09-02

    The standard model has been highly successful at describing current experimental data. However, extensions of the standard model predict particles that have masses at energy scales that are above the electroweak scale. The flavor-changing neutral current processes of the B meson are sensitive to the influences of these new physics contributions. These processes proceed through loop diagrams, thus allowing new physics to enter at the same order as the standard model. New physics may contribute to the enhancement or suppression of rate asymmetries or the decay rates of these processes. The transition B {yields} V{gamma} (V = K*(892), {rho}(770), {omega}(782), {phi}(1020)) represents radiative decays of the B meson that proceed through penguin processes. Hadronic uncertainties limit the theoretical accuracy of the prediction of the branching fractions. However, uncertainties, both theoretical and experimental, are much reduced when considering quantities involving ratios of branching fractions, such as CP or isospin asymmetries. The most dominant exclusive radiative b {yields} s transition is B {yields} K*{gamma}. We present the best measurements of the branching fractions, direct CP, and isospin asymmetries of B {yields} K*{gamma}. The analogous b {yields} d transitions are B {yields} {rho}{gamma} and B {yields} {omega}{gamma}, which are suppressed by a factor of |V{sub td}/V{sub ts}|{sup 2} {approx} 0.04 relative to B {yields} K*{gamma}. A measurement of the branching fractions and isospin asymmetry of B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{gamma} and B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{gamma}, as well as a search for B {yields} {omega}{gamma}, are also given. These measurements are combined to calculate the ratio of CKM matrix elements |V{sub td}/V{sub ts}|, which corresponds to the length of one side of the unitary triangle. Finally, we present a search for the penguin annihilation process B {yields}{phi}{gamma}. We use a sample of 383 million B{bar B} events collected with

  12. Diffusion wear studies of HSS tools by gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, V.C.

    1979-01-01

    During the machinino. of plain carbon steels with HSS tools diffusion of some elements particularly carbon and chromium has been observed with the help of an electron probe micro-analyser. The disadvantage of the probe is that it gives only spot analysis and measurement of wear of individual elements over several metres of chips becomes a cumbersome affair. Gamma spectrometry presents a rapid method for wear studies of individual elements. A 100 channel scintillation spectrometer was used simultaneously with the radio-active tool wear tests for this ourpose. The study was undertaken of only those radioelements whose gamma energy could be easily distinguished, which in the case of HSS tools are W, Cr and Co. In this method the gamma energy of W, Cr and Co was measured and the energy curves were plotted. Then the specific activity was calculated. Knowing the specific activities it is possible to calculate the transfer of individual elements i.e. the mass of element in gm/gm of tool wear. W and Co unlike Cr did not show the same trend in all the samples. This could be because wear occurs by abrasion and adhesion and by diffusion as well. In the abrasion and adhesion, wear process elements will be in proportion to that obtaining in the HSS matrix or in the carbides in HSS. The regular trend of wear of chromium indicates its wear by diffusion and this has also been established by electron probe micro-analysis. (auth.)

  13. Testing and improvements of dipole radiative strength functions for gamma segment of the RIPL II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plujko, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    The main results are summarized on development of a theory-supported practical method for calculations of the dipole radiative strength functions (RSF). The approach covers relatively wide interval of gamma-ray energy, ranging from zero to the values above the GDR energy and gives a rather accurate tool for description of the gamma-ray strength functions in the medium and heavy nuclei. The dependence of the deformation parameters in rotating spheroidal nuclei on angular momentum are also given in order to make possible the RSF calculations in rotating nuclei produced in heavy-ion reactions. (author)

  14. Reaction mechanisms in {sup 12}C({gamma},{ital pp}) near 200 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, E.D.; McDonald, W.J.; Opper, A.K.; Quraan, M.A.; Rodning, N.L.; Rozon, F.M. [Centre for Subatomic Research, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N5 (CANADA); Feldman, G.; Kolb, N.R.; Pywell, R.E.; Skopik, D.M.; Tiller, D.E.; Vogt, J.M. [Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5C6 (CANADA); Korkmaz, E.; ORielly, G.V. [Physics Department, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, V2N 4Z9 (CANADA)

    1996-03-01

    Inclusive {sup 12}C({gamma},{ital pp}) cross sections have been measured with tagged photons in the range {ital E}{sub {gamma}}=187{endash}227 MeV using the Saskatchewan-Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD). The large angular acceptance allowed the measurement of noncoplanar {ital pp} emission. The cross sections were compared to a Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade calculation. Agreement was reasonable for the shapes of the cross sections but the calculated total cross section was 3.9 times larger than the data. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. NNLL QCD Contribution of the Electromagentic Dipole Operator to \\bar B --> X_s gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asatrian, H.M.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Poghosyan, V.; /Yerevan Phys. Inst.; Ewerth, T.; Greub, C.; /Bern U.; Hurth, T.; /CERN /SLAC

    2006-05-16

    We present an independent calculation of that part of the O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) contribution to dipole operator {Omicron}{sub 7}. Using a different method, we find complete agreement mass ambiguity appearing at NLL accuracy. the complete NNLL prediction of {Lambda}({bar B} {yields} X{sub s}{gamma}) which will resolve the charm quark the decay width {Lambda}({bar B} {yields} X{sub s}{gamma}) which arises from the self-interference term of the electromagnetic with a previous calculation. This NNLL contribution is an important ingredient for

  16. LHC Bellows Impedance Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Dyachkov, M

    1997-01-01

    To compensate for thermal expansion the LHC ring has to accommodate about 2500 bellows which, together with beam position monitors, are the main contributors to the LHC broad-band impedance budget. In order to reduce this impedance to an acceptable value the bellows have to be shielded. In this paper we compare different designs proposed for the bellows and calculate their transverse and longitudinal wakefields and impedances. Owing to the 3D geometry of the bellows, the code MAFIA was used for the wakefield calculations; when possible the MAFIA results were compared to those obtained with ABCI. The results presented in this paper indicate that the latest bellows design, in which shielding is provided by sprung fingers which can slide along the beam screen, has impedances smaller tha those previously estimated according to a rather conservative scaling of SSC calculations and LEP measurements. Several failure modes, such as missing fingers and imperfect RF contact, have also been studied.

  17. Calculating Quenching Weights

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C A; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the probability (``quenching weight'') that a hard parton radiates an additional energy fraction due to scattering in spatially extended QCD matter. This study is based on an exact treatment of finite in-medium path length, it includes the case of a dynamically expanding medium, and it extends to the angular dependence of the medium-induced gluon radiation pattern. All calculations are done in the multiple soft scattering approximation (Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peign\\'e-Schiff--Zakharov ``BDMPS-Z''-formalism) and in the single hard scattering approximation (N=1 opacity approximation). By comparison, we establish a simple relation between transport coefficient, Debye screening mass and opacity, for which both approximations lead to comparable results. Together with this paper, a CPU-inexpensive numerical subroutine for calculating quenching weights is provided electronically. To illustrate its applications, we discuss the suppression of hadronic transverse momentum spectra in nucleus-nucleus colli...

  18. MicroShield/ISOCS gamma modeling comparison.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansone, Kenneth R

    2013-08-01

    Quantitative radiological analysis attempts to determine the quantity of activity or concentration of specific radionuclide(s) in a sample. Based upon the certified standards that are used to calibrate gamma spectral detectors, geometric similarities between sample shape and the calibration standards determine if the analysis results developed are qualitative or quantitative. A sample analyzed that does not mimic a calibrated sample geometry must be reported as a non-standard geometry and thus the results are considered qualitative and not quantitative. MicroShieldR or ISOCSR calibration software can be used to model non-standard geometric sample shapes in an effort to obtain a quantitative analytical result. MicroShieldR and Canberras ISOCSR software contain several geometry templates that can provide accurate quantitative modeling for a variety of sample configurations. Included in the software are computational algorithms that are used to develop and calculate energy efficiency values for the modeled sample geometry which can then be used with conventional analysis methodology to calculate the result. The response of the analytical method and the sensitivity of the mechanical and electronic equipment to the radionuclide of interest must be calibrated, or standardized, using a calibrated radiological source that contains a known and certified amount of activity.

  19. Validating the Melusine Gamma Spectroscopy Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erikson, Luke E.; Keillor, Martin E.; Stavenger, Timothy J.

    2013-11-26

    This technical report describes testing to evaluate the gamma spectroscopy tool, Melusine, under development by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The goal was to verify that the software can successfully be used to provide accurate results and statistical uncertainties for the detection of isotopes of interest and their activities. Of special interest were spectra similar to those produced by radionuclide stations that contribute to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization’s International Monitoring System. Two data sets were used to test Melusine’s capabilities. The first was the result of a multi-lab calibration effort based on neutron activations produced at the University of California at Davis. The second was taken from the Proficiency Test Exercises conducted by the CTBTO directly in 2005. In 37 of 42 cases, Melusine produced results in agreement with the best answer presently available, in most cases with calculated uncertainties comparable to or better than competing analyses. In fact, Melusine technically provided one more result than CTBTO’s PTE analyses that agreed with the “book answer” (Monte Carlo simulation). Despite these promising results, the Melusine software is still under development. Effort is especially needed to simplify its analysis process, improve stability, and provide user documentation. Some significant analysis tasks require further vetting, such as those to address summing effects. However, our test results indicate that Melusine’s calculations as presently implemented are sound and can be used to reliably analyze spectra from the CTBTO’s radionuclide stations.

  20. Simultaneous neutron and gamma spectrum adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remec, I.

    1996-01-01

    The spectrum adjustment procedure was extended to simultaneous neutron and gamma spectrum adjustment, and the feasibility of this technique is demonstrated in the analysis of HFIR dosimetry experiments. Conditions in which gamma rays may contribute considerably to radiation damage in steels are discussed. Beryllium helium accumulation fluence monitors (HAFMs) were found to be good monitors in gamma fields of intensities high enough to contribute to steel embrittlement. Use of 237 Np, 238 U, and 9 Be HAFM as gamma dosimeters is proposed for high-dose irradiations in high-energy, high-intensity gamma fields

  1. Water quality - Determination of the activity concentration of radionuclides - Method by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This International Standard allows (after proper sampling, sample handling and, when necessary or desirable, sample preparation) the simultaneous determination of the activity concentration of several gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in water samples by gamma-ray spectrometry using high purity germanium [HPGe] detectors. Gamma-ray emitting radionuclides are widespread both as naturally occurring and as man-made radionuclides. Therefore, environmental samples usually contain a multitude of different gamma-ray emitters and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry provides a useful analytical tool for environmental measurements. Gamma rays cause electron-hole pairs when interacting with matter. When a voltage is applied across a semiconductor detector, these electron hole-pairs are, after proper amplification, detected as current pulses. The pulse height is related to the energy absorbed from the gamma-photon or photons in the resolving time of the detector and electronics. By discriminating between the height of the pulses, a gamma-ray pulse height spectrum is obtained. After analysis of the spectrum, the various peaks are assigned to the radionuclides which emitted the corresponding gamma rays using the previously obtained energy detector calibration. The concentration of the radionuclides present in the sample is calculated using the previously obtained energy dependent detector efficiency. The paper provides information on scope, normative references, terms and conditions, symbols and units, principle, reference sources, reagents, gamma spectrometry equipment, sampling, procedure, expression of results and test report followed by Annex A (Example of a carrier solution which can be added to the water sample when waste water from a nuclear power plant is investigated), Annex B (Calculation of the activity concentration from a gamma spectrum using a linear background subtraction (undisturbed peak) and a bibliography

  2. Frequency spectrum analysis for spectrum stabilization in airborne gamma-ray spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guoqiang; Tan, Chengjun; Ge, Liangquan; Zhang, Qingxian; Gu, Yi

    2014-02-01

    Abnormal multi-crystal spectral drifts often can be observed when power on the airborne gamma-ray spectrometer. Currently, these spectral drifts of each crystal are generally eliminated through manual adjustment, which is time-consuming and labor-ineffective. To realize this quick automatic spectrum stabilization of multi-crystal, a frequency spectrum analysis method for natural gamma-ray background spectrum is put forward in this paper to replace traditional spectrum stabilization method used characteristic peak. Based on the polynomial fitting of high harmonics in frequency spectrum and gamma-ray spectral drift, it calculates overall spectral drift of natural gamma-ray spectrum and adjusts the gain of spectrometer by this spectral drift value, thus completing quick spectrum stabilization in the power on stage of spectrometer. This method requires no manual intervention and can obtain the overall spectral drift value automatically under no time-domain pre-processing to the natural gamma-ray spectra. The spectral drift value calculated by this method has an absolute error less than five channels (1024 resolution) and a relative error smaller than 0.80%, which can satisfy the quick automatic spectrum stabilization requirement when power on the airborne gamma-ray spectrometer instead of manual operation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-Powered Neutron and Gamma Detectors for In-Core Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strindehag, O.

    1971-11-01

    The performance of various types of self-powered neutron and gamma detectors intended for control and power distribution measurements in water cooled reactors is discussed. The self-powered detectors are compared with other types of in-core detectors and attention is paid to such properties as neutron and gamma sensitivity, high-temperature performance, burn-up rate and time of response. Also treated are the advantages and disadvantages of using gamma detector data for power distribution calculations instead of data from neutron detectors. With regard to neutron-sensitive detectors, results from several long-term experiments with vanadium and cobalt detectors are presented. The results include reliability and stability data for these two detector types and the Co build-up in cobalt detectors. Experimental results which reveal the fast response of cobalt detectors are presented, and the use of cobalt detectors in reactor safety systems is discussed. Experience of the design and installation of complete flux probes, electronic units and data processing systems for power reactors is reported. The investigation of gamma-sensitive detectors includes detectors with emitters of lead, zirconium, magnesium and Inconel. Measured gamma sensitivities from calibrations both in a reactor and in a gamma cell are given, and the signal levels of self-powered neutron and gamma detectors when applied to power reactors are compared

  4. Gamma spectrometry inspection of TRIGA MARK II fuel using caesium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimzadeh, S., E-mail: sam.karimzadeh@ati.ac.a [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics (ATI), Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Khan, R.; Boeck, H. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics (ATI), Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: Cs isotopes are the best choices for the burn up determination of spent fuel. Gamma spectrometer calibration using MCNP5. Cs-ratio can be applied by relative calibration method. - Abstract: Gamma spectrometry is one of the common methods to inspect the spent fuel from research reactors. This method has been applied to in-pool measurements of the Spent Fuel Elements (SPEs) of the TRIGA Mark II research reactor. Due to mixed nature of the reactor core and complicated irradiation history of the fuel elements (FEs), the gamma spectrometry of the FE establishes improvements in the calculation and measurement of the SPE. In order to inspect the TRIGA SPE from dry storage and cooled fuel from the reactor pool, the selected spend fuels are scanned and measured using the fuel-scanning machine. Gamma spectrometry is performed by HPGe detector for spend fuel inspection and determination of the {sup 137}Cs activity and {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio. In this work, the steps of the detector calibration and the use of the Monte Carlo radiation transport code (MCNP5) have been described. In addition, the fuel-scanning machine and the gamma spectrometer are modelled by MCNP5 to simulate the gamma transport from fuel to detector. It also simulate the gamma spectrometer calibration for the burn up determination of the spend fuel. The results from MCNP5 simulation are applied to spectroscopic measurements and compared with the theoretical predictions of the neutronics code ORIGEN2 in this research work.

  5. Daylight calculations in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne; Roy, Nicolas; Hvass, Mette

    programs can give different results. This can be due to restrictions in the program itself and/or be due to the skills of the persons setting up the models. This is crucial as daylight calculations are used to document that the demands and recommendations to daylight levels outlined by building authorities....... The aim of the project was to obtain a better understanding of what daylight calculations show and also to gain knowledge of how the different daylight simulation programs perform compared with each other. Furthermore the aim was to provide knowledge of how to build up the 3D models that were...

  6. Lattice cell burnup calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.

    1977-01-01

    Accurate burnup prediction is a key item for design and operation of a power reactor. It should supply information on isotopic changes at each point in the reactor core and the consequences of these changes on the reactivity, power distribution, kinetic characters, control rod patterns, fuel cycles and operating strategy. A basic stage in the burnup prediction is the lattice cell burnup calculation. This series of lectures attempts to give a review of the general principles and calculational methods developed and applied in this area of burnup physics

  7. Measurement of the gamma gamma* -> pi0 transition form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2009-06-02

    We study the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} in the single tag mode and measure the differential cross section d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2} and the {gamma}{gamma}* {yields} {pi}{sup 0} transition form factor in the mometum transfer range from 4 to 40 GeV{sup 2}. At Q{sup 2} > 10 GeV{sup 2} the measured form factor exceeds the asymptotic limit predicted by perturbative QCD. The analysis is based on 442 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected at PEP-II with the BABAR detector at e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV.

  8. INTEGRAL entdeckt den Gamma-Himmel: Gamma-Astronomie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfelder, Volker

    2004-11-01

    Das Gamma-Weltraumteleskop INTEGRAL der Europäischen Weltraumbehörde, ESA, hat in den ersten 15 Monaten seiner Mission eine Fülle interessanter, neuer Ergebnisse geliefert. Hauptinstrumente an Bord sind das hoch auflösende Spektrometer SPI und das Spektrometer IBIS. Hinzu kommt je ein Monitor für den Röntgen- und optischen Bereich. Die wichtigsten neuen Erkenntnisse stammen vor allem aus dem Bereich harter kompakter Röntgenquellen und aus dem Bereich der Gammalinien-Spektroskopie. Mit INTEGRAL wurde es erstmals möglich, den diffusen galaktischen Hintergrund zum Teil mit Einzelquellen identifizieren zu können. Ferner ließ sich in der Umgebung des galaktischen Zentrums die 511-keV-Linie von annihilierenden Positronen und Elektronen nachweisen. Schließlich trägt INTEGRAL auch entscheidend zum Studium der geheimnisvollen Gamma Ray Bursts bei.

  9. Neutron and gamma-ray emission double differential cross sections for the nuclear reaction by 1.5 GeV {pi}{sup +} incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iga, Kiminori; Ishibashi, Kenji; Shigyo, Nobuhiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray production double differential cross sections were measured for iron by the use of 1.5 GeV {pi}{sup +} mesons. The measured cross sections were compared with the calculated values by HETC-KFA2. For the neutrons, the calculated results deviate from the experimental data in the neutron energy region below 30 MeV. The calculated values of gamma-ray production agree with the experimental data at gamma-ray energies from 1 to 7 MeV within a factor of three. (author)

  10. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aage, H.K.; Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H.

    2009-06-01

    Urban gamma spectrometry has been given only minor attention with the focus being on rural gamma spectrometry. However, in recent years the Nordic emergency management authorities have turned focus towards border control and lost or stolen sources. Gamma spectra measured in urban areas are characterized by a wide variety of spectrum shapes and very fast changes in environmental background. In 2004 a Danish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) survey took place in Copenhagen. It was found that gamma spectrometry in urban areas is far more complicated to interpret than had previously been thought and a new method 'Fitting with Spectral Components', FSC, based on NASVD, was tested with some success. In Finland, a database 'LINSSI' has been developed for spectral data management. In CGS search mode a 'peak hypothesis test' is applied to the measured spectra. This system was tested during the Helsinki 2005 Athletics World Championship and it provides fast and reliable automated alarms for intermediate and high level signals. In Sweden mobile detector systems are used for border controls and problems are encountered when making measurement in harbour, container areas. The methods for handling data and for interpretation of urban gamma spectrometry measurements were compared and tested on the same data sets from Copenhagen and Helsinki. Software tools were developed for converting data between the Finnish LINSSI database and the binary file formats used in Denmark and Sweden. The Processing methods used at DTU and STUK have different goals. The ASSS and FSC methods are designed to optimize the overall detection capability of the system, while sacrificing speed, usability and to a certain level robustness. These methods cannot always be used for real time analysis. The Peak Significance method is designed to give robust alarms in real time, while sacrificing some of the detection capability. Thus these methods are not interchangeable, but rather complementary. An ideal system

  11. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-06-15

    Urban gamma spectrometry has been given only minor attention with the focus being on rural gamma spectrometry. However, in recent years the Nordic emergency management authorities have turned focus towards border control and lost or stolen sources. Gamma spectra measured in urban areas are characterized by a wide variety of spectrum shapes and very fast changes in environmental background. In 2004 a Danish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) survey took place in Copenhagen. It was found that gamma spectrometry in urban areas is far more complicated to interpret than had previously been thought and a new method 'Fitting with Spectral Components', FSC, based on NASVD, was tested with some success. In Finland, a database 'LINSSI' has been developed for spectral data management. In CGS search mode a 'peak hypothesis test' is applied to the measured spectra. This system was tested during the Helsinki 2005 Athletics World Championship and it provides fast and reliable automated alarms for intermediate and high level signals. In Sweden mobile detector systems are used for border controls and problems are encountered when making measurement in harbour, container areas. The methods for handling data and for interpretation of urban gamma spectrometry measurements were compared and tested on the same data sets from Copenhagen and Helsinki. Software tools were developed for converting data between the Finnish LINSSI database and the binary file formats used in Denmark and Sweden. The Processing methods used at DTU and STUK have different goals. The ASSS and FSC methods are designed to optimize the overall detection capability of the system, while sacrificing speed, usability and to a certain level robustness. These methods cannot always be used for real time analysis. The Peak Significance method is designed to give robust alarms in real time, while sacrificing some of the detection capability. Thus these methods are not interchangeable, but rather

  12. Characteristics of liver tissue for attenuate the gamma radiation; Caracteristicas del tejido hepatico para atenuar la radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos P, A.; Rodriguez N, S.; Pinedo S, A.; Amador V, P.; Chacon R, A.; Vega C, H.R. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    It was determined the lineal attenuation coefficient of hepatic tissue before gamma radiation of a source of {sup 137} Cs. When exposing organic material before X or gamma radiation fields, part of the energy of the photons is absorbed by the material, while another part crosses it without producing any effect. The quantity of energy that is absorbed is a measure of the dose that receives the material. The three main mechanisms by means of which the gamma rays interacting with the matter are: The Photoelectric Effect, the Compton dispersion and the Even production; the sum of these three processes is translated in the attenuation coefficient of the radiation. In this work we have used hepatic tissue of bovine, as substitute of the human hepatic tissue, and we have measured the lineal attenuation coefficient for photons of 0.662 MeV. Through a series of calculations we have determined the lineal attenuation coefficient for photons from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -5} MeV and the measured coefficient was compared with the one calculated. (Author)

  13. A new method for studying the transport of gamma photons in various geological materials by combining the SSNTD technique with Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Merzouki, A.; Bourzik, W.; Sfairi, T.

    2000-01-01

    The gamma dose rate due to the uranium and thorium series as well as the potassium 40 nuclei represents a large fraction of the total dose rate from the natural background. Natural gamma-activities of rock and soil samples collected from volcanic areas have been determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The corresponding gamma dose rates in air have been measured by means of thermoluminescence (TL) dosimeters. Annual absorbed gamma dose rates have been evaluated in different soil samples belonging to an archaeological site by using experimental and calculational methods. Uranium and thorium contents in different geological samples have been determined by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and calculating the probabilities for alpha particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series to reach and be registered on the SSNTD films. A new method has been developed based on calculating the self-absorption and transmission coefficients of the gamma photons emitted by the uranium and thorium families as well as the potassium 40 isotope for evaluating the gamma dose rate in the considered geological samples. Transport of gamma-photons across parallelepipedic blocks of the geological materials studied has been investigated. Gamma dose rates have been evaluated in the atmosphere of different geological deposits. (author)

  14. Gamma-spectrometry of extended sources for analysing environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarosievitz, B.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of the environmental activity concentration by gamma spectrometers require the determination of the full-energy-peak efficiency as a function of photon energy over the detector range. This can be done by experiments or by calculation. For simple cases, experiments are straightforward, but if the decay scheme is complex, cascade effects modify detection efficiency. Also, actual detection efficiency depends on the detection geometry. All these effects are treated as corrections or modifications of the simple value cases which are especially relevant when applied to large volume of environmental samples. In this thesis calculations are made, using the GEANT MC program, for realistic experimental situations that have been performed, and these calculations are validated. The calculational and experimental results have been compared, and if it proves to be satisfactory, the results can be relied on even for cases when no direct experimental observation is possible. The general problems of gamma spectroscopy and correction problems are discussed. The two main tools, the experimental setup and the simulation program are described. A careful checking of the simulation results and the consequences are presented. (R.P.)

  15. Virtuality Distributions in application to gamma gamma* to pi^0 Transition Form Factor at Handbag Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V. [ODU, JLAB

    2014-07-01

    We outline basics of a new approach to transverse momentum dependence in hard processes. As an illustration, we consider hard exclusive transition process gamma*gamma -> to pi^0 at the handbag level. Our starting point is coordinate representation for matrix elements of operators (in the simplest case, bilocal O(0,z)) describing a hadron with momentum p. Treated as functions of (pz) and z^2, they are parametrized through a virtuality distribution amplitude (VDA) Phi (x, sigma), with x being Fourier-conjugate to (pz) and sigma Laplace-conjugate to z^2. For intervals with z^+=0, we introduce transverse momentum distribution amplitude (TMDA) Psi (x, k_\\perp), and write it in terms of VDA Phi (x, \\sigma). The results of covariant calculations, written in terms of Phi (x sigma) are converted into expressions involving Psi (x, k_\\perp. Starting with scalar toy models, we extend the analysis onto the case of spin-1/2 quarks and QCD. We propose simple models for soft VDAs/TMDAs, and use them for comparison of handbag results with experimental (BaBar and BELLE) data on the pion transition form factor. We also discuss how one can generate high-k_\\perp tails from primordial soft distributions.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on insecticides of grains and storage raw-materia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manco, E.A.C.

    1987-12-01

    To study the effect of gamma irradiation on deltametrina, malathion and fenitrothion, the saturated filter paper technique was used. The filter paper, saturated with the products, was submitted to increasing doses of gamma radiation - 10, 20 and 40 kGu at a 12.76 kGy rate p/h. Adults of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. reared at 25 0 +- 1 0 C and relative humidity of 70 +- 5% were used. The dead rate used and life expectancy was calculated using the best regression as indicator of the degradation factor of the insecticide. It was noted that gamma radiation degraded deltametrina and fenitrothion, the latter more markedly at a 40 kGy dose. Gamma radiation had no effect on malathion and the insects submitted to it showed a life expectancy smaller than the controls. (author) [pt

  17. J/psi-> gamma B anti B decays and the quark-pair creation model

    CERN Document Server

    Ping Rong Gang; Shen Peng Nian; Zou Bing Song

    2002-01-01

    The authors generalize the quark-pair creation model to a study of the radiative decays J/psi-> gamma B anti B by assuming that the u, d or s quark pairs are created with the same interaction strength. From the calculation of the ratio of the decay widths GAMMA(J/psi-> gamma p anti B)/GAMMA(J/psi->p anti p), the authors extract the quark-pair creation strength gI=15.40 GeV. Based on the SU(6) spin-flavour basis and the 'uds' basis, the radiative decay branching ratios containing strange baryons are evaluated. Measurements for these decay widths from the BESII data are suggested

  18. Influence Of The Gas Multipurpose Reactor Core Conversion From Oxide To Silicide On The GAMMA Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiyanto

    1996-01-01

    In order to prepare the reactor core conversion from oxide to silicide, analysis of the gamma heat generation in the fuel plate and its influence on the gamma density in the reactor core using the GAMSET computer code have been done. The heat generation was evaluated for oxide (U 3 O 8 -Al) and silicide (U 3 Si 2 -Al) plate for different uranium loading. The calculation result shows that the heat generation in the silicide fuel plate contains 400 gram of U-235 per fuel element increase of 10.64% related to the normal oxide plate. This means that the gamma density in the reactor core will consequently decrease. Regarding this result, it can be concluded that the core conversion from oxide to silicide fuel with higher uranium loading will be followed by the heat generation increases in the fuel plate and the gamma density decreases in the reactor core

  19. Radiation effect on silicon transistors in mixed neutrons-gamma environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, J.; Shweikani, R.; Ghazi, N.

    2014-10-01

    The effects of gamma and neutron irradiations on two different types of transistors, Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) and Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT), were investigated. Irradiation was performed using a Syrian research reactor (RR) (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR)) and a gamma source (Co-60 cell). For RR irradiation, MCNP code was used to calculate the absorbed dose received by the transistors. The experimental results showed an overall decrease in the gain factors of the transistors after irradiation, and the JFETs were more resistant to the effects of radiation than BJTs. The effect of RR irradiation was also greater than that of gamma source for the same dose, which could be because neutrons could cause more damage than gamma irradiation.

  20. Development status of monochromatic gamma-rays for nondestructive isotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajima, Ryoichi; Hayakawa, Takehito; Seya, Michio

    2011-01-01

    We have proposed an application of energy-tunable mono-energetic gamma-rays to nondestructive isotope measurements. We have launched a 3-year research program to develop technologies for generation of a high-brilliance gamma-ray via laser Compton scattering and its application to the nondestructive isotope measurements. The program is supported by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in Japan. We are conducting R and D's on an energy-recovery electron linac for high-brilliance gamma-ray generation, improvement of laser-electron collision apparatus, and establishment of Monte Carlo simulation code to calculate interaction of mono-energetic gamma-rays with material, and so on. We report the status of the R and D program. (author)

  1. Computation of the mass attenuation coefficient of polymeric materials at specific gamma photon energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirji, Rajeshwari; Lobo, Blaise

    2017-06-01

    The gamma ray mass attenuation coefficients of ten synthetic polymeric materials, namely, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) have been calculated using second order polynomial equation and logarithmic interpolation formula at selected gamma photon energies, in the energy range starting from 14.4 keV up to 1332 keV. It is important to note that second order polynomial equation fits very well with NIST data for all the polymeric materials considered here, for gamma photon energies ranging from 300 keV up to 2000 keV. Third order polynomial fitting is best suited for lower gamma photon energies (from 10 keV up to 200 keV).

  2. New Neighbours: Modelling the Growing Population of gamma-ray Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.; Johnson, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope, in collaboration with several groups from the radio community. have had marvelous success at uncovering new gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs). In fact, MSPs now make up a sizable fraction of the total number of known gamma-ray pulsars. The MSP population is characterized by a variety of pulse profile shapes, peak separations, and radio-to-gamma phase lags, with some members exhibiting nearly phase-aligned radio and gamma-ray light curves (LCs). The MSPs' short spin periods underline the importance of including special relativistic effects in LC calculations, even for emission originating from near the stellar surface. We present results on modelling and classification of MSP LCs using standard pulsar model geometries.

  3. Calculating magnetohydrodynamic flow spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, R. J.; van der Holst, B.; Poedts, S.; Goedbloed, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    We describe a numerical method for calculating the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) spectrum of one-dimensional equilibria with Bow. Due to a general formulation, the spectrum for two different equilibrium geometries, viz. a plane slab and a cylinder, can be investigated. The linearised equations are

  4. Languages for structural calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.; Chambon, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The differences between human and computing languages are recalled. It is argued that they are to some extent structured in antagonistic ways. Languages in structural calculation, in the past, present, and future, are considered. The contribution of artificial intelligence is stressed [fr

  5. Monte Carlo alpha calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, D.; Soran, P.; Whalen, P.

    1985-01-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm to efficiently calculate static alpha eigenvalues, N = ne/sup ..cap alpha..t/, for supercritical systems has been developed and tested. A direct Monte Carlo approach to calculating a static alpha is to simply follow the buildup in time of neutrons in a supercritical system and evaluate the logarithmic derivative of the neutron population with respect to time. This procedure is expensive, and the solution is very noisy and almost useless for a system near critical. The modified approach is to convert the time-dependent problem to a static ..cap alpha../sup -/eigenvalue problem and regress ..cap alpha.. on solutions of a/sup -/ k/sup -/eigenvalue problem. In practice, this procedure is much more efficient than the direct calculation, and produces much more accurate results. Because the Monte Carlo codes are intrinsically three-dimensional and use elaborate continuous-energy cross sections, this technique is now used as a standard for evaluating other calculational techniques in odd geometries or with group cross sections.

  6. Cooling tower calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonkova, J.

    1988-01-01

    The problems are summed up of the dynamic calculation of cooling towers with forced and natural air draft. The quantities and relations are given characterizing the simultaneous exchange of momentum, heat and mass in evaporative water cooling by atmospheric air in the packings of cooling towers. The method of solution is clarified in the calculation of evaporation criteria and thermal characteristics of countercurrent and cross current cooling systems. The procedure is demonstrated of the calculation of cooling towers, and correction curves and the effect assessed of the operating mode at constant air number or constant outlet air volume flow on their course in ventilator cooling towers. In cooling towers with the natural air draft the flow unevenness is assessed of water and air relative to its effect on the resulting cooling efficiency of the towers. The calculation is demonstrated of thermal and resistance response curves and cooling curves of hydraulically unevenly loaded towers owing to the water flow rate parameter graded radially by 20% along the cross-section of the packing. Flow rate unevenness of air due to wind impact on the outlet air flow from the tower significantly affects the temperatures of cooled water in natural air draft cooling towers of a design with lower demands on aerodynamics, as early as at wind velocity of 2 m.s -1 as was demonstrated on a concrete example. (author). 11 figs., 10 refs

  7. Borehole Logging for Uranium by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Nyegaard, P.; Christiansen, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    The resources in a large syngenetic deposit of low-grade uranium (U) ore with thorium at Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, were evaluated by spectrometric gamma-ray logging of 23 boreholes, 46 mm in diameter and 200 m deep. The borehole probe's detector contained 22 cm3 of sodium-iodide, and the photo......The resources in a large syngenetic deposit of low-grade uranium (U) ore with thorium at Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, were evaluated by spectrometric gamma-ray logging of 23 boreholes, 46 mm in diameter and 200 m deep. The borehole probe's detector contained 22 cm3 of sodium...... of the spectrometer system were determined by calculating the average number of U and thorium (Th) counts per meter of borehole and comparing these with the U-Th concentrations in 1-m sections of analyzed drill core. The sensitivity and the background count rate in the uranium window varied appreciably from one hole...

  8. EPR structure of the gamma irradiated alanine spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral P, A.; Jimenez D, H.; Urena N, F.; Galindo, S.; Bosch, P.

    1992-03-01

    In this study is shown that the broadened five-line EPR pattern of the gamma irradiated alanine possibly decomposes into a more complex pattern when the recorded spectrum is subject to an operation of deconvolution. The EPR powder spectra of gamma irradiated DL- and L-alanine with and without binders are analysed. In all recorded spectra, each observed line is resolved into an asymmetrical triplet when a Gaussian distribution of 8.2 gauss width is removed, by deconvolution, from the observed spectrum. On the other hand, from a simple fitting analysis carried out on the original data, one encounters that some calculated relations between characteristic parameters, such as intensity ratios, deviate consistently from assumed height ratios. Both, from deconvolution and fitting results, a different structure is suggested for the observed broadened five-line EPR pattern of γ-irradiated powder DL- and L-alanine. (Author)

  9. Application of the Oslo method to high resolution gamma spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Beausang, C. W.; Humby, P.

    2015-10-01

    Hauser-Feshbach statistical model is a widely used tool for calculation of the reaction cross section, in particular for astrophysical processes. The HF model requires as an input an optical potential, gamma-strength function (GSF) and level density (LD) to properly model the statistical properties of the nucleus. The Oslo method is a well established technique to extract GSFs and LDs from experimental data, typically used for gamma-spectra obtained with scintillation detectors. Here, the first application of the Oslo method to high-resolution data obtained using the Ge detectors of the STARLITER setup at TAMU is discussed. The GSFs and LDs extracted from (p,d) and (p,t) reactions on 152154 ,Sm targets will be presented.

  10. OGRE, Monte-Carlo System for Gamma Transport Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The OGRE programme system was designed to calculate, by Monte Carlo methods, any quantity related to gamma-ray transport. The system is represented by two examples - OGRE-P1 and OGRE-G. The OGRE-P1 programme is a simple prototype which calculates dose rate on one side of a slab due to a plane source on the other side. The OGRE-G programme, a prototype of a programme utilizing a general-geometry routine, calculates dose rate at arbitrary points. A very general source description in OGRE-G may be employed by reading a tape prepared by the user. 2 - Method of solution: Case histories of gamma rays in the prescribed geometry are generated and analyzed to produce averages of any desired quantity which, in the case of the prototypes, are gamma-ray dose rates. The system is designed to achieve generality by ease of modification. No importance sampling is built into the prototypes, a very general geometry subroutine permits the treatment of complicated geometries. This is essentially the same routine used in the O5R neutron transport system. Boundaries may be either planes or quadratic surfaces, arbitrarily oriented and intersecting in arbitrary fashion. Cross section data is prepared by the auxiliary master cross section programme XSECT which may be used to originate, update, or edit the master cross section tape. The master cross section tape is utilized in the OGRE programmes to produce detailed tables of macroscopic cross sections which are used during the Monte Carlo calculations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum cross-section array information may be estimated by a given formula for a specific problem. The number of regions must be less than or equal to 50

  11. The effect of 60Co gamma radiation on human serum gamma-globulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portakal, S.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co gamma radiation on human serum gamma-globulin was studied in vitro experiments. Solutions of 0.5 percent gamma-globulin were exposed to 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.9 Mrad doses 60 Co gamma irradiation. Experiments showed that electrophoretic mobility of serum gamma-globulin decreased after gamma irradiation. No significant change in gamma-globulin UV absorption spectrum was observed at 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.9 Mrad doses. Gamma-globulin becomes progressively less soluble in water as the radiation doses is increased. Radiation induced transformation into insoluble gamma-globulin agregates and scission products. (author)

  12. Analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Osorio Deliz, J. F.; Diaz Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work was carried out to develop an analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic. It is composed of an electronic system that includes hardware and software capabilities, and operates from the acquisition of the 4 head position signals of a gamma camera detector. The result is the spectrum of the energy delivered by nuclear radiation coming from the camera detector head. This system includes analog processing of position signals from the camera, digitization and the subsequent processing of the energy signal in a multichannel analyzer, sending data to a computer via a standard USB port and processing of data in a personal computer to obtain the final histogram. The circuits are composed of an analog processing board and a universal kit with micro controller and programmable gate array. (Author)

  13. Gamma-radiometer TIM-140

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Is intended for in-vita determination of specific activity of cesium 137 in muscular tissues of cattle. Is used for realization of contact measurements: using the convenient in operation bar compensating the weight of detecting unit the radiometer is kept in the area of the coxofemoral part or scapula of an animal. The mode of sample-free measurements of specific activity of cesium 137 in parts of an animal carcass is provided. It can be used on cattle-breeding farms, in meat factories and personal facilities. Minimal detected specific activity (MDA) of cesium 137 in muscular tissues of cattle is 100 Bq/kg. Time of MDA measurement is 200 sec (allowable relative error is 35%). The level of gamma-background is 0,05 mR/h. The gamma-radiometer is intended for express testing and high accuracy of measurements, including the measurements in conditions of the raised radiation background

  14. Airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its role as collector and disseminator of information on nuclear techniques has long had an interest in gamma ray spectrometer methods and has published a number of Technical Reports on various aspects of the subject. At an Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna in November 1986 to review appropriate activities the IAEA could take following the Chernobyl accident, it was recommended that preparation begin on a new Technical Report on airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying, taking into account the use of the technique for environmental monitoring as well as for nuclear emergency response requirements. Shortly thereafter the IAEA became the lead organization in the Radioelement Geochemical Mapping section of the International Geological Correlation Programme/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Project on International Geochemical Mapping. These two factors led to the preparation of the present Technical Report. 18 figs, 4 tabs

  15. Thermodynamic condition for ''Gamma'' flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaoma, J.; Yarar, B.

    1989-01-01

    Using the definition of the critical surface tension of wetting solids (Γc) and Gibb's adsorption isotherm, coupled with Young-Dupre's equation, the equilibrium thermodynamic condition for 'GAMMA' flotation has been derived. It is defined by the relation, Cos Oe=Γc/Γlg. At equilibrium for 'Gamma' flotation to occur, the liquid/gas interfacial tension (9γlg) should be larger than the critical surface tension of wetting of the solid surface, meaning that the equilibrium contact angle (Oe) should be greater than Zero, or cos Oe < 1, a Pre- requisite for the solid/gas bubble attachment. This definition holds for solid surfaces in the absence of any specific adsorption at the solid/liquid and solid/gas inter faces. Contact angle and flotation data are presented to sustain this definition. (author)., 15 refs., 9 figs

  16. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  17. Gamma Radiation Doses In Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almgren, Sara; Isaksson, Mats; Barregaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Gamma dose rate measurements were performed in one urban and one rural area using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) worn by 46 participants and placed in their dwellings. The personal effective dose rates were 0.096±0.019(1 SD) and 0.092±0.016(1 SD)μSv/h in the urban and rural area, respectively. The corresponding dose rates in the dwellings were 0.11±0.042(1 SD) and 0.091±0.026(1 SD)μSv/h. However, the differences between the areas were not significant. The values were higher in buildings made of concrete than of wood and higher in apartments than in detached houses. Also, 222 Rn measurements were performed in each dwelling, which showed no correlation with the gamma dose rates in the dwellings

  18. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luevano-Gurrola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  19. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-09-30

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population's health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h(-1). At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h(-1). Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg(-1), for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  20. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-01-01

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize. PMID:26437425