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Sample records for gamma strength functions

  1. Strength function from the $^{113}Cd(n,\\gamma)$ reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Belgya, T; Massarczyk, R; Schwengner, R; Schramm, G; Birgersson, E; Junghans, A

    2014-01-01

    GENAT4 Monte Carlo simulations of the Budapest PGAA detector system are presented. The obtained response functions were used to unfold the spectrum from $^{113}Cd(n,\\gamma)$ reaction – measured at the Budapest PGAA – in order to determine the $\\gamma$-ray strength function. Preliminary results for the total radiative neutron capture cross sections for the $^{14}N(n,\\gamma)$ and the $^{113}Cd(n,\\gamma)$ reactions based on the unfolding approach are presented.

  2. Nuclear level density and gamma strength function in 64Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. K.; Spyrou, A.; Ahn, T.; Dombos, A. C.; Liddick, S. N.; Montes, F.; Naqvi, F.; Richman, D.; Schatz, H.; Brown, J.; Childers, K.; Crider, B. P.; Prokop, C. J.; Deleeuw, E.; Deyoung, P. A.; Langer, C.; Lewis, R.; Meisel, Z.; Pereira, J.; Quinn, S. J.; Schmidt, K.; Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.

    2017-09-01

    The Fe-Cd mass region exhibits enhanced collectivity and an unexpected increased in gamma-decay probability at low energies. These effects could be significant for r-process nucleosynthesis, where masses, beta-decay probabilities, and neutron capture cross sections are among the most important inputs. Neutron capture is notoriously difficult to measure; so the recent development of an indirect technique to constrain neutron-captures far from stability is especially valuable. This is the beta-Oslo method, which allows the extraction of the nuclear level density and gamma-ray strength function to compute neutron-capture cross sections. This work reports on 64Fe, populated via beta-decay of 64Mn at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and measured with the 4pi Summing NaI (SuN) total gamma-ray spectrometer.

  3. Testing and improvements of dipole radiative strength functions for gamma segment of the RIPL II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plujko, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    The main results are summarized on development of a theory-supported practical method for calculations of the dipole radiative strength functions (RSF). The approach covers relatively wide interval of gamma-ray energy, ranging from zero to the values above the GDR energy and gives a rather accurate tool for description of the gamma-ray strength functions in the medium and heavy nuclei. The dependence of the deformation parameters in rotating spheroidal nuclei on angular momentum are also given in order to make possible the RSF calculations in rotating nuclei produced in heavy-ion reactions. (author)

  4. Fast neutron capture in 197Au and the gamma-ray strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, E.D.; Bergqvist, I.; Nilsson, L.

    1977-08-01

    Gamma-ray spectra from the reaction 197 Au(n,γ) 198 Au have been measured at several incident energies between 30 keV and 2.5 MeV. The γ-ray detector was a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and time-of-flight techniques were utilized to suppress background. A γ-ray strength function was deduced from the spectra by a spectrum fitting method. The strength function indicates a resonance-like structure at E(γ) approximately 5.5 MeV. Comparison is made with the γ-ray strength derived from photonuclear work.(author)

  5. Study on gamma-ray strength function of neutron radiative capture for middle and heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    LiuJianFeng; Su Zong Di

    2002-01-01

    Using the hypothesis as well as the gamma-ray strength function proposed, the neutron radiative capture reaction cross sections and the gamma energy spectra have been calculated for sup 9 sup 3 Nb, natural Ag and sup 1 sup 8 sup 1 Ta in the neutron incident energy region from 0.01 to 5 MeV as well as for sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Au in the neutron incident energy region from 0.01 to 10 MeV. The results which are coincident better with the experimental values were obtained. The comparisons with the experimental values have shown that, not only the abnormal protuberances near and after 5.5 MeV of the gamma spectra in the nuclear mass regions about 110 < A < 140 and 180 < A < 210 are explained better, but also the gamma production data can be theoretically calculated for the middle and heavy nuclei by means of this hypothesis and the gamma-ray strength function deduced from this hypothesis

  6. Gamma strength functions and level densities from high-resolution inelastic proton scattering at very forward angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassauer Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inelastic proton scattering at energies of a few 100 MeV and forward angles including 0∘ provides a novel method to measure gamma strength functions (GSF in nuclei in an energy range of about 5–23 MeV. The experiments provide not only the E1 but also the M1 part of the GSF. The latter is poorly known in heavy nuclei. A case study of 208Pb indicates that the systematics proposed for the M1-GSF in RIPL-3 needs to be substantially revised. Comparison with gamma decay data (e.g. from the Oslo method allows to test the generalised Brink-Axel (BA hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR crucial for the modelling of (n,γ and (γ,n reactions in astrophysical reaction networks. A fluctuation analysis of the high-resolution data also provides a direct measure of level densities in the energy region well above the neutron threshold, where hardly any experimental information is available.

  7. Gamma strength functions and level densities from high-resolution inelastic proton scattering at very forward angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassauer, Sergej; Neumann-Cosel, Peter von; Tamii, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Inelastic proton scattering at energies of a few 100 MeV and forward angles including 0∘ provides a novel method to measure gamma strength functions (GSF) in nuclei in an energy range of about 5-23 MeV. The experiments provide not only the E1 but also the M1 part of the GSF. The latter is poorly known in heavy nuclei. A case study of 208Pb indicates that the systematics proposed for the M1-GSF in RIPL-3 needs to be substantially revised. Comparison with gamma decay data (e.g. from the Oslo method) allows to test the generalised Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) crucial for the modelling of (n,γ) and (γ,n) reactions in astrophysical reaction networks. A fluctuation analysis of the high-resolution data also provides a direct measure of level densities in the energy region well above the neutron threshold, where hardly any experimental information is available.

  8. Representation of the radiative strength functions in the practical model of cascade gamma decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, D.C.; Sukhovoj, A.M.; Mitsyna, L.V.; Zeinalov, Sh.; Jovancevic, N.; Knezevic, D.; Krmar, M.; Dragic, A.

    2016-01-01

    The developed in Dubna practical model of the cascade gamma decay of neutron resonance allows one, from the fitted intensities of the two-step cascades, to obtain parameters both of level density and of partial widths of emission of nuclear reaction products. In the presented variant of the model a part of phenomenological representations is minimized. Analysis of new results confirms the previous finding that dynamics of interaction between Fermi- and Bose-nuclear states depends on the form of the nucleus. It also follows from the ratios of densities of vibrational and quasi-particle levels that this interaction exists at least up to the binding neutron energy and probably differs for nuclei with varied parities of nucleons. [ru

  9. Representation of radiative strength functions within a practical model of cascade gamma decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, D. C., E-mail: vuconghnue@gmail.com; Sukhovoj, A. M., E-mail: suchovoj@nf.jinr.ru; Mitsyna, L. V., E-mail: mitsyna@nf.jinr.ru; Zeinalov, Sh., E-mail: zeinal@nf.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Jovancevic, N., E-mail: nikola.jovancevic@df.uns.ac.rs; Knezevic, D., E-mail: david.knezevic@df.uns.ac.rs; Krmar, M., E-mail: krmar@df.uns.ac.rs [University of Novi Sad, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences (Serbia); Dragic, A., E-mail: dragic@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics Belgrade (Serbia)

    2017-03-15

    A practical model developed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna) in order to describe the cascade gamma decay of neutron resonances makes it possible to determine simultaneously, from an approximation of the intensities of two-step cascades, parameters of nuclear level densities and partial widths with respect to the emission of nuclear-reaction products. The number of the phenomenological ideas used isminimized in themodel version considered in the present study. An analysis of new results confirms what was obtained earlier for the dependence of dynamics of the interaction of fermion and boson nuclear states on the nuclear shape. From the ratio of the level densities for excitations of the vibrational and quasiparticle types, it also follows that this interaction manifests itself in the region around the neutron binding energy and is probably different in nuclei that have different parities of nucleons.

  10. Representation of radiative strength functions within a practical model of cascade gamma decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, D. C.; Sukhovoj, A. M.; Mitsyna, L. V.; Zeinalov, Sh.; Jovancevic, N.; Knezevic, D.; Krmar, M.; Dragic, A.

    2017-03-01

    A practical model developed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna) in order to describe the cascade gamma decay of neutron resonances makes it possible to determine simultaneously, from an approximation of the intensities of two-step cascades, parameters of nuclear level densities and partial widths with respect to the emission of nuclear-reaction products. The number of the phenomenological ideas used isminimized in themodel version considered in the present study. An analysis of new results confirms what was obtained earlier for the dependence of dynamics of the interaction of fermion and boson nuclear states on the nuclear shape. From the ratio of the level densities for excitations of the vibrational and quasiparticle types, it also follows that this interaction manifests itself in the region around the neutron binding energy and is probably different in nuclei that have different parities of nucleons.

  11. Investigaton of the beta strength function at high energy: gamma-ray spectroscopy of the decay of 5.3-s 84As to 84Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, E.A; Lien, O.G. III; Meyer, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    The beta strength function up to approximately 8.6 MeV for the system 84 As(β - ) 84 Se was investigated. It was found that it is not possible to satisfactorily describe S/sub β/ by a statistical model. From the 84 As decay scheme an experimental beta strength function was deduced. Additional information on the beta transition intensity is obtained from the gross coincidence spectra of individual gamma rays. In total these data suggest that the experimental beta strength function above 6.8 MeV is significantly lower than that calculated using a statistical model. Features in the gross coincidence spectra also suggest that a significant bump appears in the experimental beta strength function at approximately 6.5 MeV

  12. Statistical properties of warm nuclei: Investigating the low-energy enhancement in the $\\gamma$- strength function of neutron-rich nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to start a program to study the $\\gamma$-ray strength function of neutron rich nuclei in inverse kinematics with radioactive beams at HIE-ISOLDE. An unexpected increase in the $\\gamma$-strength function at low energy has been observed in several stable nuclei using the Oslo method. This year these results were confirmed with a different experimental technique and model independent analysis developed by iThemba/Livermore. If this enhancement of the $\\gamma$-strength function is also present in neutron-rich nuclei, it will strongly affect the neutron capture cross sections, which are important input in stellar models of synthesis of heavier elements in stars. We propose to start with an experiment using a $^{66}$Ni beam of 5.5 MeV /u, where the data will be analyzed using both methods independently, and we are sure to get enough statistics, before moving to more neutron-rich nuclei. When/if neutron-rich Ti, Fe or Mo beams will be available at ISOLDE, we will submit additional proposals.

  13. The gamma function

    CERN Document Server

    Artin, Emil

    2015-01-01

    This brief monograph on the gamma function was designed by the author to fill what he perceived as a gap in the literature of mathematics, which often treated the gamma function in a manner he described as both sketchy and overly complicated. Author Emil Artin, one of the twentieth century's leading mathematicians, wrote in his Preface to this book, ""I feel that this monograph will help to show that the gamma function can be thought of as one of the elementary functions, and that all of its basic properties can be established using elementary methods of the calculus."" Generations of teachers

  14. Average Nuclear Level Densities and Radiative Strength Functions in 56,57FE from Primary (Gamma)-Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavukcu, E.; Becker, J.A.; Bernstein, L.A.; Garrett, P.E.; Guttormsen, M.; Mitchell, G.E.; Rekstad, J.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Voinov, A.; Younes, W.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental primary γ-ray spectrum vs. excitation-energy bin (P(E x , E γ ) matrix) in a light-ion reaction is obtained for 56,57 Fe isotopes using a subtraction method. By factorizing the P(E x , E γ ) matrix according to the Axel-Brink hypothesis the nuclear level density and the radiative strength function (RSF) in 56,57 Fe are extracted simultaneously. A step structure is observed in the level density for both isotopes, and is interpreted as the breaking of Cooper pairs. The RSFs for 56,57 Fe reveal an anomalous enhancement at low γ-ray energies

  15. Photon strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, I.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)

  16. Gamma delta T-cell differentiation and effector function programming, TCR signal strength, when and how much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarin, Payam; Chen, Edward L Y; In, Tracy S H; Anderson, Michele K; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan Carlos

    2015-07-01

    γδ T-cells boast an impressive functional repertoire that can paint them as either champions or villains depending on the environmental and immunological cues. Understanding the function of the various effector γδ subsets necessitates tracing the developmental program of these subsets, including the point of lineage bifurcation from αβ T-cells. Here, we review the importance of signals from the T-cell receptor (TCR) in determining αβ versus γδ lineage fate, and further discuss how the molecular components of this pathway may influence the developmental programming of γδ T-cells functional subsets. Additionally, we discuss the role of temporal windows in restricting the development of IL-17 producing γδ T-cell subtypes, and explore whether fetal and adult hematopoietic progenitors maintain the same potential for giving rise to this important subset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Updated Photonuclear Data Library and Database for Photon Strength Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriou Paraskevi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photonuclear cross sections and gamma-ray data used to extract Photon Strength Functions are important for a large range of applications including basic sciences. The recommendations of an IAEA Consultant’s Meeting to update the IAEA Photonuclear Data Library and create a Reference Database for Photon Strength Functions are presented.

  18. A Double Inequality for Gamma Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the Alzer integral inequality and the elementary properties of the gamma function, a double inequality for gamma function is established, which is an improvement of Merkle's inequality.

  19. Strength function for the giant isovector monopole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, W.M.; Birse, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of the strength function for giant resonances is extended to exhibit the explicit energy dependence of the width and shift functions for the giant isovector monopole. An integral sum rule on the width GAMMA/sub M/(E) relates its normalization to the second moment M 2 of the strength function and leads to a relation GAMMA/sub M/(E/sub M/)GAMMA/sub s//4 = M 2 between M 2 and the width at the maximum, which involves the width GAMMA/sub s/ of the distribution in energy of the spreading matrix elements. An estimate of GAMMA/sub M/(E/sub M/)approx. =8 MeV based on the absorptive part of the optical potential together with random-phase approximation calculations of M 2 leads to the result GAMMA/sub s//2approx. =2hω, supporting the intermediate coupling model of Lane, Thomas, and Wigner. Using the sum rule expressions of Lane and Mekjian to evaluate the Coulomb matrix element M/sub A/M between an isobaric analog state and its corresponding isovector monopole, we test this strength function for the isovector monopole by calculating the spreading widths for the ground state analogs of nuclei from 38 Cl to 208 Pb. The good agreement with the systematic dependence upon mass number and isospin resolves the long-standing discrepancy between the estimate GAMMA/sub M/(E/sub M/)approx.8--10 MeV and the value GAMMA/sub M/(E/sub A/)< or =2 MeV needed to account for the spreading widths of the isobaric analog state

  20. Measurements of neutron-induced capture and fission reactions on $^{235}$ U: cross sections and ${\\alpha}$ ratios, photon strength functions and prompt ${\\gamma}$-ray from fission

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron-induced capture cross section of the fissile isotope $^{235}$U using a fission tagging set-up. This new set-up has been tested successfully in 2010 and combines the n_TOF 4${\\pi}$ Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) with MicroMegas (MGAS) fission detectors. It has been proven that such a combination of detectors allows distinguishing with very good reliability the electromagnetic cascades from the capture reactions from dominant ${\\gamma}$-ray background coming from the fission reactions. The accurate discrimination of the fission background is the main challenge in the neutron capture cross section measurements of fissile isotopes. The main results from the measurement will be the associated capture cross section and ${\\alpha}$ ratio in the resolved (0.3-2250 eV) and unresolved (2.25-30 keV) resonance regions. According to the international benchmarks and as it is mentioned in the NEA High Priority Request List (HPRL), the 235U(n,${\\gamma}$) cross section is of utmost impo...

  1. Photon strength function in the Hf-181 nucleus by method of two-step cascade

    CERN Document Server

    Le Hong Khiem

    2003-01-01

    The applicability of sum-coincidence measurements of two-step cascade gamma ray spectra determining Photon Strength Function (PSF) of Hf-181 induced from Hf-180 (n,2 gamma) Hf-181 reaction is presented. Up to 80% intensity of the primary gamma ray transitions in a wide energy range have been deduced and compared to model calculation.

  2. Nuclear threshold effects and neutron strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia

    2003-01-01

    One proves that a Nuclear Threshold Effect is dependent, via Neutron Strength Function, on Spectroscopy of Ancestral Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the Nuclear Threshold Effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function. Evidence for relation of Nuclear Threshold Effects to Neutron Strength Functions is obtained from Isotopic Threshold Effect and Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly. The empirical and computational analysis of the Isotopic Threshold Effect and of the Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly demonstrate their close relationship to Neutron Strength Functions. It was established that the Nuclear Threshold Effects depend, in addition to genuine Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms, on Spectroscopy of (Ancestral) Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function, in their dependence on mass number. This result constitutes also a proof that the origins of these threshold effects are Neutron Single Particle States at zero energy. (author)

  3. Testosterone Replacement, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Seon Nam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength and physical function decrease in older men, as do testosterone levels. Nonetheless, the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on muscle strength and physical function remain inconclusive and equivocal. We conducted a rapid systematic review, the results of which showed that testosterone replacement does not affect muscle strength (measured by hand grip strength and leg muscle strength, although it may increase physical function (measured by the 6-minute walk test, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score, and other physical performance tests. However, most of the studies were conducted in the United States or Europe and did not include participants from Asian or other ethnic backgrounds; therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of testosterone replacement in a broader population.

  4. Stieltjes' continued fraction for the gamma function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    The first forty-one coefficients of a continued fraction for 1n GAMMA(z)+z-(z-1/2) 1n z-1n√2π, are given. The computation, based on Wall's algorithm for converting a function's power series representation to a continued fraction representation, was run on the algebraic manipulation system MACSYMA

  5. Effect of gamma-irradiation on strength of concrete for nuclear-safety structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vodák, F.; Trtík, K.; Sopko, V.; Kapičková, O.; Demo, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 35, - (2005), s. 1447-1451 ISSN 0008-8846 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : concrete * gamma - irradiation * strength * porosity Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics Impact factor: 0.727, year: 2005

  6. Influence of gamma-radiation on tensile strength properties of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)

    CERN Document Server

    Gafurov, U G; Nemkova, N

    2002-01-01

    The tensile strength properties of polytetrafluoroethylene are studied at modification doses of gamma-irradiation. The main molecular process of polymer destruction is found to be the thermostimulated slippage of molecular chains. (author)

  7. Monopole Strength Function of Deformed Superfluid Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoitsov, M. V. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kortelainen, E. M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Nakatsukasa, T. [RIKEN, Japan; Losa, C. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste, Italy; Nazarewicz, Witold [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We present an efficient method for calculating strength functions using the finite amplitude method (FAM) for deformed superfluid heavy nuclei within the framework of the nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrate that FAM reproduces strength functions obtained with the fully self-consistent quasi-particle random-phase approximation (QRPA) at a fraction of computational cost. As a demonstration, we compute the isoscalar and isovector monopole strength for strongly deformed configurations in ^{240}Pu by considering huge quasi-particle QRPA spaces. Our approach to FAM, based on Broyden's iterative procedure, opens the possibility for large-scale calculations of strength distributions in well-bound and weakly bound nuclei across the nuclear landscape.

  8. Production of plastified wood with stronger static bending strength means of polymerization induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, Elias

    1999-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation to obtain wood-polymer composites is one of the applications of radiation that presents the most commercial interest. The process, denominated radiopolymerization, comprises the impregnation of monomers into the completely dried wood followed by exposure to gamma radiation to induce polymerization of the impregnated monomers. I this context, the present work aimed the application of this process to seven kinds of wood existing in the brazilian forests. The considered monomer is styrene and the gamma source is Cobalt-60. The obtained wood-polystyrene composites were found to have stronger static bending strength. (author)

  9. Improvement of colour strength and colourfastness properties of gamma irradiated cotton using reactive black-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Adeel, Shahid; Nadeem, Raziya; Asghar, Toheed

    2012-01-01

    The dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Reactive Black-5 dye powder has been investigated. The mercerized, bleached and plain weaved cotton fabric was irradiated to different absorbed doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy using Co-60 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature of dyeing, time of dyeing and pH of dyeing solutions were optimised. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organisation (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It is found that gamma irradiated cotton dyed with Reactive Black-5 has not only improved the colour strength but also enhanced the rating of fastness properties. - Highlights: ► Optimum absorbed dose for cotton is 500 Gy using un-irradiated Reactive Black-5. ► Optimum dyeing conditions: 60 °C, 30 min and dyeing pH is10. ► At optimum conditions colour strength and fastness properties are enhanced. ► Gamma irradiation can improve dyeing characters of other dyed fabrics.

  10. Strengths of gamma-ray transitions in A = 45–90 nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endt, P.M.

    The present tables list the strengths (in Weisskopf units) of over 1200 gamma-ray transitions in A = 45–90 nuclei, classified according to character (electric or magnetic, multipolarity). It appears that E1, M1, and M2 transitions are weaker here than in the A = 6–44 region, whereas E2 transitions

  11. Photon strength function of 97Zr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Shea; Couture, Aaron; Lee, Hye Young

    2015-10-01

    Some of the major questions in stockpile stewardship require nuclear reaction rates on fission fragments where there are few or no experimental constraints. Theoretical calculations are an alternative, but their reliability is ultimately limited by our incomplete understanding of such physics inputs as the photon strength function. 96Zr lies near the light mass peak for 239Pu fission, and neutron capture on and near this nucleus is of great importance for applications. The DANCE array at LANSCE and the Apollo array coupled to HELIOS at Argonne National Laboratory offer complementary probes into the neutron capture reaction, and an experimental campaign is underway to study 96Zr(n, γ) and 96Zr(d , p) with these instruments. The status of these reaction studies will be presented.

  12. Study of the radiative strength function in /sup 148,150/Sm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becvar, F.; Montero-Cabrera, M.E.; Rigol, J.; Telezhnikov, S.A.; Hiep, H.T.

    1987-07-01

    The spectra of ..gamma.. rays accompanying neutron capture by the nuclei /sup 147//sup ,//sup 149/Sm is isolated resonances have been measured by the time-of-flight method in the IBR-30 reactor. Absolute intensities have been obtained for a number of transitions. From a combination of the results of the present work and published data we have determined the radiative strength function of the nuclei /sup 148/Sm and /sup 150/Sm for E1 transitions in the ..gamma..-ray energy region 5--7.5 MeV. The values obtained are 2.8 and 1.7 times smaller than the respective values expected from extrapolation of the Lorentz curves of the giant electric dipole resonance. An analysis of the behavior of the radiative strength function of nuclei with A = 148--157 is carried out.

  13. Use of the gamma function in equations which describe ruminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Goodness of fit of all the functions used to describe fermentation was tested by comparing predicted values calculated from estimates of the parameters of the function studied, with actual values observed in the nylon bags. For example, the cumulative distribution of the gamma function was calculated from estimates of the ...

  14. Predicting hand function in older adults: evaluations of grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Marie, Deana; Fredrick, Aaron; Bertram, Jessica; Utley, Kristen; Fess, Elaine Ewing

    2017-08-01

    Hand function is critical for independence in activities of daily living for older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine how grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterous coordination contributed to time-based versus self-report assessment of hand function in community-dwelling older adults. Adults aged ≥60 years without low vision or neurological disorders were recruited. Purdue Pegboard Test, Jamar hand dynamometer, 30-second arm curl test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, and the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument were administered to assess manual dexterous coordination, grip strength, arm curl strength, time-based hand function, and self-report of hand function, respectively. Eighty-four adults (mean age = 72 years) completed the study. Hierarchical multiple regressions show that older adults with better arm curl strength (β = -.25, p arm curl strength (β = .23, p Arm curl strength independently contributed to hand function in both time-based and self-report assessments, indicating that strength of extrinsic muscles of the hand are essential for hand function.

  15. Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghar Eslami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo. Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg and placebo (the same amount of lactose were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM, for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects′ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done

  16. On Hardy-type integral inequalities with the gamma function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jianquan; Yang, Bicheng

    2017-01-01

    By means of real analysis and weight functions, we obtain a few equivalent conditions of two kinds of Hardy-type integral inequalities with the non-homogeneous kernel and parameters. The constant factors related to the gamma function are proved to be the best possible. We also consider the operator expressions and some cases of homogeneous kernel.

  17. Microscopic nature of the photon strength function: stable and unstable Ni and Sn isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achakovskiy Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pygmy-dipole resonances and photon strength functions in stable and unstable Ni and Sn isotopes are calculated within the microscopic self-consistent version of the Extended Theory of Finite Fermi Systems that includes the QRPA and phonon coupling effects and uses the known Skyrme forces SLy4. The pygmy dipole resonance in 72Ni is predicted with the mean energy of 12.4 MeV and with the energy-weighted sum rule exhausting 25.6% of the total strength. The microscopically obtained photon E1 strength functions are used to calculate radiative neutron capture cross sections, gamma-ray spectra, and average radiative widths. Our main conclusion is that in all these quantities it is necessary to take the phonon coupling effects into account.

  18. Influence of recombinant bovine gamma interferon on neutrophil function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the role of cytokines in enhancing neutrophil function, peripheral blood neutrophils from healthy cattle were preincubated with recombinant bovine gamma interferon (rboIFN-gamma). Pretreatment of neutrophils with rboIFN-gamma activated neutrophils to have enhanced antibody-dependent (ADCC) and -independent (AINC) cytotoxicity and impaired random migration. Neutrophil ingestion, superoxide anion production, and iodination activity were not consistently affected by rboIFN-gamma pretreatment. In order to better understand the activation process, the molecular events involved in the enhancement of neutrophil cytotoxicity and the inhibition random migration were investigated. Both RNA and protein syntheses by neutrophils were required for the enhancement of AINC activity and the inhibition of random migration, but were not required for the enhancement of ADCC by rboIFN-gamma. Specifically, rbo-IFN-gamma treatment of neutrophils enhanced the expression of two major proteins of molecular mass 60,000 and 94,000 as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide, linear-gradient gel electrophoresis and /sup 35/S-fluorography.

  19. Peripheral Muscle Strength Indicates Respiratory Function Testing in Renal Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulubay, Gaye; Uyanik, Saliha; Er Dedekarginoglu, Balam; Serifoglu, Irem; Kupeli, Elif; Savas Bozbas, Serife; Sezer, Siren; Haberal, Mehmet

    2017-02-01

    Muscle wasting occurs in renal recipients due to decreased physical performance, and decreased respiratory muscle strength may occur due to changes in structure and function. Data are scarce regarding the roles of sarcopenia and nutritional status on respiratory muscle function in these patients. Here, we evaluated interactions among peripheral muscle strength, sarcopenia, nutritional parameters, and respiratory muscle function in renal transplant recipients. Ninety-nine patients were prospectively enrolled between September and April 2016 at Baskent University. Forced vital capacity values (via pulmonary function tests), respiratory muscle strength (via maximal static inspiratory and expiratory pressures), and peripheral muscle strength (via hand grip strength test) were recorded. Nutritional parameters, fat weight, arm circumference, waist circumference, and C-reactive protein levels were also recorded. Of 99 patients, 68 were renal transplant recipients (43 men, mean age: 39.09 ± 10.70 y) and 31 were healthy participants (14 men, mean age: 34.94 ± 10.95 y). Forced vital capacity (P .05). No statistically significant relation was observed between biochemical parameters and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (P ? .05). Respiratory function and peripheral muscle strength were significantly related in renal transplant recipients, with significantly lower peripheral muscle strength suggesting the presence of inadequate respiratory function. Peripheral and respiratory muscle training and nutritional replacement strategies could help to improve postoperative respiratory function.

  20. Circuit strength training improves muscle strength, functional performance and anthropometric indicators in sedentary elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazini Filho, Mauro L; Aidar, Felipe J; Gama de Matos, Dihogo; Costa Moreira, Osvaldo; Patrocínio de Oliveira, Cláudia E; de Oliveira Venturini, Gabriela R; Magalhães Curty, Victor; Menezes Touguinha, Henrique; Caputo Ferreira, Maria E

    2017-04-26

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of circuit strength training on the muscle strength, functional autonomy and anthropometric indicators of the elderly. Were included 65 women divided in two groups: strength training (TG, n= 34) and control group (CG, n = 31). The strength-training group was subjected to a circuit shaped training program, three days per week, for a period of 12 weeks. In each training session, the circuit was repeated three times. In each circuit, all exercises wereperformed once, with 8 to 12 repetitions per exercise, with 30-seconds intervals between each exercise. TG showed significantly changes in body composition post 12 weeks, as decreases in body weight (Δ -1.5±1.8 kg) and BMI (Δ-0.57 ±0.74 kg/m²), and decreases in abdominal (Δ -3±1.61 cm), waist (Δ -1 ± 1.61 cm), hip (Δ -2.75±1.44 cm) and waist hip ratio circumference (Δ -0.02 ± 0.15 cm). For functional autonomy, TG showed increases post 12 weeks by 30-second chair stand (Δ 3.5±0.4 reps), six minute walk (Δ60.95±7.91 m), back scratch (Δ 3.2 ± 1.36 cm), and time up and go tests (Δ -1,62 ±0,15s). TG also showed increases in muscle strength post 12 weeks in both leg press (Δ 11±1,29 kg) and lat pulldown (Δ11 ±0,75 Kg). For CG, Body composition, functional autonomy and muscle strength did not improved in any moment. Hence, circuit strength training provides significant improvements inmuscle strength, functional performance and anthropometric indicators in sedentary elderly women.

  1. Traditional versus functional strength training: effects on muscle strength and power in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohne-Seiler, Hilde; Torstveit, Monica K; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to determine whether strength training with machines vs. functional strength training at 80% of one-repetition maximum improves muscle strength and power among the elderly. Sixty-three subjects (69.9 ± 4.1 yr) were randomized to a high-power strength group (HPSG), a functional strength group (FSG), or a nonrandomized control group (CG). Data were collected using a force platform and linear encoder. The training dose was 2 times/wk, 3 sets × 8 reps, for 11 wk. There were no differences in effect between HPSG and FSG concerning sit-to-stand power, box-lift power, and bench-press maximum force. Leg-press maximum force improved in HPSG (19.8%) and FSG (19.7%) compared with CG (4.3%; p = .026). Bench-press power improved in HPSG (25.1%) compared with FSG (0.5%, p = .02) and CG (2%, p = .04). Except for bench-press power there were no differences in the effect of the training interventions on functional power and maximal body strength.

  2. CERTAIN INEQUALITIES INVOLVING THE Q-DEFORMED GAMMA FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nantomah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper in inspired by the work of J.Sándor in 2006. In paper, the authors establish some double inequalities involving the ratio (Γq(x+1/(Γq(x+1/2, where Γq(x is the q-deformation of the classical Gamma function denoted by Γ(x. The method employed in presenting the results makes use of Jackson׳s q-integral representation of the q-deformed Gamma function. In addition, Hőlder׳s inequality for the q-integral, as well as some basic analytical techniques involving the q-analogue of the psi function are used. As a consequence, q-analogues of the classical Wendel׳s asymptotic relation are obtained. At the end, sharpness of the inequalities established in this paper is investigated.

  3. The Effect of Gamma Radiation on the Bond Strength and Micro leakage of Two Aesthetic Restorative Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seif, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on bond strength and micro leakage of nano-composite and nano-glassionomer, and to detect any alterations in their molecular structure due to gamma radiation. Materials and Methods: 80 specimens were used as follow; 40 specimens for shear bond strength evaluation, 20 specimens for micro leakage assessment, while the remaining 20 specimens for deducing the chemical structure. For shear bond strength (SBS) test 2 mm thick wafers of dentine were sectioned and 3 mm diameter holes were drilled through the wafers. 20 specimens were restored with nano-composite and nano-glassionomer without irradiation (Group A1, B1). The remaining 20 specimens were restored with nano-composite and nano-glassionomer (Group A2, B2), then they were irradiated with therapeutic dose of 60 gray for 1 week (3 days/week). For micro leakage, 10 natural teeth with two prepared class V cavities were used. One of the cavities was restored with nano-composite while the other one with nano-glassionomer to be examined before and after gamma radiation. Spectrophotometric analysis was performed for all tested materials before and after radiation to trace any structural changes. Results: Significant increase in SBS of nano-composite after irradiation while nano-glassionomer was insignificantly increased. For micro leakage no significant difference existed between the irradiated and non-irradiated groups of both materials. Conclusion: Therapeutic dose of head and neck gamma radiation had improved dentin shear bond strength of nano-composite. On the other hand, it had not an effect on shear bond strength of nano-glassionomer and the micro leakage of both tested materials. Gamma radiation did not alter the chemical structure of the tested material.

  4. [Biomechanic study of the tensile strength of lyophilized and deep frozen human Achilles tendons following gamma and ethylene oxide sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, G; Gerbersdorf, M; Dörner, P; Lengsfeld, M; Griss, P

    1991-01-01

    By a failed first operation allogenic tissues, as human Achilles tendons are offered for anterior cruciate ligament replacement. The effects of freeze-drying and primary Gamma- or EO-sterilization on the mechanical properties of 62 complete and 74 bisected tendons again fresh frozen controls were investigated under axial tension. A significant decrease of tensile strength for the freeze-dried preparations of 33% for the whole and 43% for the bisected tendons were observed, while Gamma- or EO-sterilizations showed a smaller deleterious effect on the tendons. Considering only the primary mechanical strength complete freeze-dried or complete and bisected irradiated Achilles tendons show sufficient tensile strength for anterior cruciate ligament replacement.

  5. On a class of incomplete gamma functions with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Aslam

    2001-01-01

    The subject of special functions is rich and expanding continuously with the emergence of new problems encountered in engineering and applied science applications. The development of computational techniques and the rapid growth in computing power have increased the importance of the special functions and their formulae for analytic representations. However, problems remain, particularly in heat conduction, astrophysics, and probability theory, whose solutions seem to defy even the most general classes of special functions.On a Class of Incomplete Gamma Functions with Applications introduces a class of special functions, developed by the authors, useful in the analytic study of several heat conduction problems. It presents some basic properties of these functions, including their recurrence relations, special cases, asymptotic representations, and integral transform relationships. The authors explore applications of these generalized functions to problems in transient heat conduction, special cases of laser s...

  6. Physical function and muscle strength in sporadic inclusion body myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders N; Aagaard, Per; Nielsen, Jakob L

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In this study, self-reported physical function, functional capacity, and isolated muscle function were investigated in sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) patients. METHODS: The 36-item Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey and 2-min walk test (2MWT), timed up & go test (TUG), and 30-s...... chair stand performance were evaluated. In addition, patients were tested for knee extensor muscle strength (isokinetic dynamometer) and leg extension power (Nottingham power rig). RESULTS: TUG performance was the strongest predictor of self-reported physical function (r(2) = 0.56, P ... to sensitively predict self-perceived physical function in sIBM patients. Notably, between-limb asymmetry in lower limb muscle strength had a substantial negative impact on motor tasks involving gait function. Muscle Nerve, 2017....

  7. LUNG FUNCTION AND RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH IN OBESE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Furman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is known that obesity may influence the state of respiratory function and it is associated with a number of diseases of the respiratory system. Obesity in itself, even in the absence of other known causes, can cause a feeling of shortness of breath at rest. At the same time, the cardinal symptom of respiratory muscle weakness is shortness of breath, which promotes the reduction of exercise tolerance. At the moment the problem state of respiratory function and respiratory muscles in children with different degrees of obesity is relevant and understudied. Aim. Investigation of lung function and respiratory muscle strength in obese in children. Methods. 46 children with obesity were examined, with a prevalence of obesity of mixed origin with progressive, aged 7 to 16 years. We evaluated the lung function and strength of respiratory muscles in the form of maximum inspiratory pressure at the mouth (MIP, maximal expiratory pressure at the mouth (MEP and nasal inspiratory pressure in the sniff-test (SNIP. Results. The children with obesity complained of dyspnea. The respiratory muscle dysfunction observed in the form of reduction of its forces. Reduced respiratory muscle strength ( 80% of the norm was in 44% of patients on the MIP and 38% on the MEP and was increased with increasing body mass index. Conclusion. Children with obesity need to monitor the lung function and evaluate the strength of the respiratory muscles for early detection of functional disorders of the respiratory system. 

  8. Level density, radiative strength functions from the (nth, 2 γ) reaction and main properties of the 96Mo nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhovoj, A.M.; Khitrov, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    The data published on two-step cascade intensities to 12 final levels of 96 Mo were approximated for different energies of excitations and dipole primary E1- and M1-transitions by a set of different random dependencies of the level density and strength functions. The averaged values of these parameters of gamma-decay well correspond to main dependencies revealed by now from analogous experiments for 42 nuclei from the mass region 40 ≤ A ≤ 200. They do not correspond to the existing ideas of the cascade gamma-decay parameters of compound nuclei with high level density

  9. EFFECT OF GAMMA RAY IRRADIATION ON INTERLAMINAR SHEAR STRENGTH OF GLASS FIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS AT 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, A.; Nishijima, S.; Izumi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    It is known that an organic material is damaged by gamma ray irradiation, and the strength after irradiation has dependence on the gamma ray dose. These issues are important not only to make global understanding of electric insulating performance of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) under irradiation condition but also to develop new insulation materials. This paper presents the dependence of fracture mode and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) on the material and the gamma ray irradiation effect on the fracture mode and the ILSS. 6 mm radius loading nose and supports were used to prompt ILS fracture for a short beam test. A 2.5 mm thick small specimen machined out of a 13 mm thick G-10CR GFRP plate (sliced specimen) showed lower ILSS and translaminar shear (TLS) fracture, although the same size specimen prepared from a 2.5 mm G-10CR GFRP plate (non-sliced specimen) showed ILS fracture and the higher ILSS. Both type of specimens showed the degradation of ILSS after gamma ray irradiation. The fracture mode of the non-sliced specimen changed from ILS to TLS fracture and no bending fracture was observed. The resistance to shear deformation of glass cloth/epoxy laminate structure would be damaged by the irradiation

  10. Level density and gamma-ray strength in sup 2 sup 7 sup , sup 2 sup 8 Si

    CERN Document Server

    Guttormsen, M; Rekstad, J; Siem, S; Schiller, A; Lönnroth, T; Voinov, A

    2003-01-01

    A method to extract simultaneously level densities and gamma-ray transmission coefficients has for the first time been tested on light nuclei utilizing the sup 2 sup 8 Si( sup 3 He,alpha gamma) sup 2 sup 7 Si and sup 2 sup 8 Si( sup 3 He, sup 3 He'gamma) sup 2 sup 8 Si reactions. The extracted level densities for sup 2 sup 7 Si and sup 2 sup 8 Si are consistent with the level densities obtained by counting known levels in the respective nuclei. The extracted gamma-ray strength in sup 2 sup 8 Si agrees well with the known gamma-decay properties of this nucleus. Typical nuclear temperatures are found to be T approx 2.4 MeV at around 7 MeV excitation energy. The entropy gap between nuclei with mass number A and A +- 1 is measured to be delta S approx 1.0 k sub B , which indicates an energy spacing between single-particle orbitals comparable with typical nuclear temperatures.

  11. A NEW CLINICAL MUSCLE FUNCTION TEST FOR ASSESSMENT OF HIP EXTERNAL ROTATION STRENGTH: AUGUSTSSON STRENGTH TEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Jesper

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic clinical tests of hip strength applicable on patients, non-athletes and athletes alike, are lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to develop and evaluate the reliability of a dynamic muscle function test of hip external rotation strength, using a novel device. A second aim was to determine if gender differences exist in absolute and relative hip strength using the new test. Fifty-three healthy sport science students (34 women and 19 men) were tested for hip external rotation strength using a device that consisted of a strap connected in series with an elastic resistance band loop, and a measuring tape connected in parallel with the elastic resistance band. The test was carried out with the subject side lying, positioned in 45 ° of hip flexion and the knees flexed to 90 ° with the device firmly fastened proximally across the knees. The subject then exerted maximal concentric hip external rotation force against the device thereby extending the elastic resistance band. The displacement achieved by the subject was documented by the tape measure and the corresponding force production was calculated. Both right and left hip strength was measured. Fifteen of the subjects were tested on repeated occasions to evaluate test-retest reliability. No significant test-retest differences were observed. Intra-class correlation coefficients ranged 0.93-0.94 and coefficients of variation 2.76-4.60%. In absolute values, men were significantly stronger in hip external rotation than women (right side 13.2 vs 11.0 kg, p = 0.001, left side 13.2 vs 11.5 kg, p = 0.002). There were no significant differences in hip external rotation strength normalized for body weight (BW) between men and women (right side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.17 kg/BW, p = 0.675, left side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.18 kg/BW, p = 0.156). The new muscle function test showed high reliability and thus could be useful for measuring dynamic hip external rotation strength in patients, non-athletes and athletes

  12. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwengner, Ronald; Massarczyk, Ralph; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R.; Kögler, Toni; Rusev, Gencho; Tonchev, Anton P.; Tornow, Werner; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  13. Pelvic floor muscle strength and sexual function in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara Sacomori

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction : Pelvic floor (PF muscles react to sexual stimuli with increased local blood circulation and involuntary contractions during orgasm. The training of the PF musculature helps in the improvement of the female sexual function. Objective : To verify the association between PF muscle strength and sexual function in women, controlling age and parity. Method : Cross-sectional study based on associations. The study included women who attended a reference center in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, for a uterine cancer smear test. The Functional Evaluation of the Pelvic Floor and the Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire were used. Statistical procedures included Mann-Whitney U tests, Spearman correlation and Poisson Regression Analysis, with p < .05. Results : The mean age of the women (n = 177 was 39.05 years (SD = 13.3. Regarding PF function, 53.7% of participants presented weak or not palpable PF muscle function. Women with "good" muscle function (able to maintain contraction under examiner's resistance had significantly better indexes of sexual desire, excitement, lubrication and orgasm than women with weak/poor function. We identified that 52.5% of the women presented sexual dysfunction. Women with "poor" PF function and aged over 50 years had, respectively, 1.36 (CI95% 1.01 - 1.82 and 1.77 (CI95% 1.41 - 2.23 higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction than women with "good" PF function. Conclusions : Adult women with better PF muscle function also presented better sexual function.

  14. Effects of strength training, detraining and retraining in muscle strength, hypertrophy and functional tasks in older female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Cleiton S; Cunha, Giovani; Marques, Nise; Oliveira-Reischak, Ãlvaro; Pinto, Ronei

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies presented different results regarding the maintenance time of muscular adaptations after strength training and the ability to resume the gains on muscular performance after resumption of the training programme. This study aimed to verify the effect of strength training on knee extensors and elbow flexor muscle strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional performance in older female adults after 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and followed by 12 weeks of retraining. Twelve sedentary older women performed 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and 12 weeks of retraining. The strength training was performed twice a week, and the assessment was made four times: at the baseline, after the strength training, after the detraining and after the retraining. The knee extensor and elbow flexor strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional task were assessed. Strength of knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles, rectus femoris muscle volume and 30-s sit-to-stand increased from baseline to post-training (respectively, 40%, 70%, 38% and 46%), decreased after detraining (respectively, -36%, -64%, -35% and -43%) and increased again these parameters after retraining (35%, 68%, 36% and 42%). Strength training induces gains on strength and hypertrophy, also increased the performance on functional tasks after the strength training. The stoppage of the strength caused strength loss and reduction of functional performance. The resumption of the strength training promoted the same gains of muscular performance in older female adults. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Assessment of grip strength with the modified sphygmomanometer test: association between upper limb global strength and motor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Júlia C.; Aguiar, Larissa T.; Lara, Eliza M.; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F.; Faria, Christina D. C. M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Grip strength, commonly evaluated with the handgrip dynamometer, is a good indicator of upper limb (UL) function in stroke subjects and may reflect the global strength deficits of the whole paretic UL. The Modified Sphygmomanometer Test (MST) also provides objective and adequate measures at low-cost. Objective: To assess whether grip strength values obtained by using the MST and those obtained by using a handgrip dynamometer would present similar correlations with the global strength and motor function of the paretic UL in subjects with stroke, both in the subacute and chronic phases. Method: Measures of grip strength (MST and handgrip dynamometer), UL global strength (MST and hand-held dynamometer), and UL motor function (Fugl-Meyer motor assessment scale) were obtained with 33 subacute and 44 chronic stroke subjects. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated and Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate predictor variables of grip strength (α=0.05). Results: Significant correlations of similar magnitude were found between measures of global strength of the paretic UL and grip strength assessed with both the MST (0.66≤r≤0.78) and handgrip dynamometer (0.66≤r≤0.78) and between UL motor function and grip strength assessed with both the MST (0.50≤rs≤0.51) and hand-held dynamometer (0.50≤rs≤0.63) in subacute and chronic stroke subjects. Only global strength remained as a significant predictor variable of grip strength for the MST (0.43≤R2≤0.61) and for the handgrip dynamometer (0.44≤R2≤0.61) for both stroke subgroups. Conclusion: Grip strength assessed with the MST could be used to report paretic UL global strength. PMID:26647752

  16. Assessment of grip strength with the modified sphygmomanometer test: association between upper limb global strength and motor function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia C. Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Grip strength, commonly evaluated with the handgrip dynamometer, is a good indicator of upper limb (UL function in stroke subjects and may reflect the global strength deficits of the whole paretic UL. The Modified Sphygmomanometer Test (MST also provides objective and adequate measures at low-cost. Objective: To assess whether grip strength values obtained by using the MST and those obtained by using a handgrip dynamometer would present similar correlations with the global strength and motor function of the paretic UL in subjects with stroke, both in the subacute and chronic phases. Method: Measures of grip strength (MST and handgrip dynamometer, UL global strength (MST and hand-held dynamometer, and UL motor function (Fugl-Meyer motor assessment scale were obtained with 33 subacute and 44 chronic stroke subjects. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated and Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate predictor variables of grip strength (α=0.05. Results: Significant correlations of similar magnitude were found between measures of global strength of the paretic UL and grip strength assessed with both the MST (0.66≤r≤0.78 and handgrip dynamometer (0.66≤r≤0.78 and between UL motor function and grip strength assessed with both the MST (0.50≤rs≤0.51 and hand-held dynamometer (0.50≤rs≤0.63 in subacute and chronic stroke subjects. Only global strength remained as a significant predictor variable of grip strength for the MST (0.43≤R2≤0.61 and for the handgrip dynamometer (0.44≤R2≤0.61 for both stroke subgroups. Conclusion: Grip strength assessed with the MST could be used to report paretic UL global strength.

  17. Physicochemical, thermal and functional properties of gamma irradiated chickpea starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Khalid; Aggarwal, Manjeet

    2017-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10kGy) on physicochemical, functional and thermal properties of chickpea starch. Results revealed that the pasting properties showed a significant (p≤0.05) decrease in peak viscosity, final viscosity, setback viscosity, trough viscosity and pasting temperature in dose dependent manner. Swelling, solubility index, oil absorption capacity and water absorption capacity increased significantly with dose, while as syneresis decreased with dose. Gelatinization temperatures T o , T p and T c decreased significantly with dose. X-ray diffraction showed a characteristic C type pattern of the starches and the crystallinity decreased with dose. Scanning electron microscopy revealed small oval shaped starch granules and slight surface fissures were seen in the irradiated starch treated with 5 and 10kGy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolated gastrocnemius recession for achilles tendinopathy: strength and functional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawoczenski, Deborah A; Barske, Heather; Tome, Joshua; Dawson, Laura K; Zlotnicki, Jason P; DiGiovanni, Benedict F

    2015-01-21

    Gastrocnemius recession has emerged as a viable intervention for patients with recalcitrant foot and ankle disorders associated with isolated gastrocnemius contracture. The purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the effects of an isolated gastrocnemius recession on pain, patient-reported function, and strength in patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and an isolated gastrocnemius contracture. Thirteen patients with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy (mean age [and standard deviation], fifty-two ± 7.7 years) who received a gastrocnemius recession and ten matched-control subjects participated. A visual analog scale was used to assess pain, and the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure was used to evaluate patient-reported function in activities of daily living and sports. Patients were asked about their satisfaction with the results of the gastrocnemius recession. Ankle plantar flexion peak torque was assessed at 60°/sec and 120°/sec. Appropriate t tests were used to assess limb symmetry and strength differences between the groups. The mean duration of follow-up was eighteen months (range, twelve to twenty-eight months). Gastrocnemius recession provided significant pain relief (mean preoperative visual analog scale score [and standard deviation], 6.8 ± 1.8; mean follow-up visual analog scale score, 1.4 ± 2.7; p recession provides significant and sustained pain relief for chronic Achilles tendinopathy. Good function can be expected for activities of daily living, but power and endurance activities were more problematic for the Achilles tendinopathy group. Isokinetic strength assessment may not effectively capture patient-reported functional deficits. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  19. New technique for a simultaneous estimation of the level density and radiative strength functions of dipole transitions at E sub e sub x<=B sub n -0.5 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khitrov, V A

    2001-01-01

    The new, model-independent method to estimate simultaneously the level densities excited in the (n,gamma) reaction and the radiative strength functions of dipole transitions is developed. The method can be applied for any nucleus and reaction followed by cascade gamma-emission. It is just necessary to measure the intensities of two-step gamma-cascades depopulating one or several high-excited states and determine the quanta ordering in the main portion of the observed cascades. The method provides a sufficiently narrow interval of most probable densities of levels with given J suppi and radiative strength functions of dipole transitions populating them.

  20. Infuence of gamma radiation on the rheological and functional properties of bread wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes-Lopez, O.; Covarrubias-Alvarez, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on some biochemical, rheological and functional properties of bread wheats were studied. Two wheat cultivars were selected to represent medium-strong and weak dough mixing strengths. Falling number values were severely depressed at doses of 500 and 1000 krad. Rheological dough properties, as assessed with the mixograph and farinograph, were also investigated. Radiation at medium doses produced an increase in the farinograph water absorption for both wheats. Radiation decreased the amount of bound water as compared to the control sample. For the medium-strong wheat low levels of radiation produced bread with volumes and overall bread quality equal to or slightly better than those of the control flour, whereas for the weak wheat an improvement of the baking performance was obtained at all the low doses of radiation. However, the overall bread quality of both wheats was highly reduced at medium doses of radiation. (author)

  1. Strengths of gamma-ray transitions in A = 6–44 nuclei (III)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endt, P.M.

    The present tables list the strengths (in Weisskopf units) of over 2400 γ-ray transitions in A = 6–44 nuclei, classified according to character (electric or magnetic, multipolarity, isospin forbiddenness). Selected transitions from unbound states are included. The strengths for isovector E1 and M1

  2. Photon Strength Functions for ^156, 157, 159Gd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baramsai, Bayarbadrakh; Mitchell, G. E.; Chyzh, A.; Dashdorj, D.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Keksis, A. L.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Wouters, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.

    2010-11-01

    In recent years the low energy behavior of the Photon Strength Function (PSF) has attracted much attention. A completely consistent description of this behavior is not available. The neutron capture γ-ray spectra measured by the DANCE detector array located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center has been used for the study of the PSF below the neutron separation energy. The radiative decay of the compound nuclei ^156, 157, 159Gd has been measured. The spectra were simulated with the DICEBOX code. A variety of phenomenological models of the PSF were considered in the simulations. Comparison of the experimental and simulated spectra will be presented.

  3. Computer program calculates gamma ray source strengths of materials exposed to neutron fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, P. C.; Ricks, L. O.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program contains an input library of nuclear data for 44 elements and their isotopes to determine the induced radioactivity for gamma emitters. Minimum input requires the irradiation history of the element, a four-energy-group neutron flux, specification of an alloy composition by elements, and selection of the output.

  4. Is knee extension strength a better predictor of functional performance than handgrip strength among older adults in three different settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, Sofie; Delecluse, Christophe; Boen, Filip; Seghers, Jan; Pelssers, Johan; Van Hoecke, Ann-Sophie; Van Roie, Evelien

    2015-01-01

    The first purpose was to examine whether knee extension strength is a better predictor of functional performance than handgrip strength among older adults (≥60 years). The second purpose was to identify functionally relevant cut-off values for muscle strength. 770 community-dwelling older adults, 104 older adults living in assisted living facilities and 73 nursing home residents were included. Static strength, expressed in kg/kg body weight (BW), was measured using two field tests: handgrip (GRIP/BW) and knee extension (KNEE/BW) test. Functional performance was assessed with 6-Minute Walk Distance (6MWD, N=947) and modified Physical Performance Test (mPPT, N=152). Both GRIP/BW and KNEE/BW were positively correlated with functional performance in all settings (pmPPT=0.35) was clearly a better predictor of functional performance than GRIP/BW (R(2)6MWD=0.15 and R2mPPT=0.12). GRIP/BW had no added value to KNEE/BW in order to explain the variance in functional performance. Functionally relevant cut-off values for static strength, for men and women respectively, were set at 0.40 and 0.31 for KNEE/BW and at 0.43 and 0.31 for GRIP/BW. Handgrip and knee extension strength are both important predictors of functional performance in older adults. In assisted living facilities only, knee extension strength was clearly more predictive than handgrip strength. Both cut-off values appear to be highly sensitive to screen for functionally relevant muscle weakness in older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ROTATIONAL TRANSITION STRENGTH IN WARM NUCLEI STUDIED THROUGH GAMMA-RAY CORRELATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEONI, S; HERSKIND, B; DOSSING, T; RASMUSSEN, P; BOSETTI, P; BRACCO, A; FRATTINI, S; MATSUO, M; NICA, N; VIGEZZI, E; ATAC, A; BERGSTROM, M; BROCKSTEDT, A; CARLSSON, H; EKSTROM, P; INGEBRETSEN, F; JENSEN, HJ; JONGMAN, J; HAGEMANN, GB; LIEDER, RM; LONNROTH, T; MAJ, A; MILLION, B; NORDLUND, A; NYBERG, J; PIIPARINEN, M; RYDE, H; RADFORD, DC; SUGAWARA, M; TJOM, PO; VIRTANEN, A

    1995-01-01

    The study of damping of rotational motion applying the rotational plane mapping (RPM) method is presented and discussed. The aim of this technique is to extract the distribution of the rotational transition strength from an analysis of the shape of the ''central valley'' of two- and

  6. First results on photon strength functions of 78Se from the two-step γ Cascades measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Stanislav; Bečvář, František; Krtička, Milan; Tomandl, Ivo

    2017-09-01

    Two-step gamma cascades (TSCs) following the radiative capture of thermal neutrons in 77Se were measured at the research reactor at Řež near Prague. Results on photon strength functions (PSFs) of 78Se, obtained from comparison of experimental TSC spectra with outcomes of simulations under different assumptions about level density and PSFs using the DICEBOX algorithm, are presented. The main attention is paid to possible manifestation of the pygmy resonance observed recently in this nucleus in the nuclear resonance fluorescence measurement and low-energy PSF enhancement observed in Oslo-type experiments for all A ≲ 100 nuclei.

  7. Effects of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on the strength-related internal structure of the borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cafe, Arven I.; Liamzon, Angelie J.

    2011-03-01

    Borosilicate glass in the form of glass slides (1.Omm in thickness and cut into 12.5mm x 55.Omm surface area) was examined to determine the reusability or recyclability and strength of glass apparatuses or compartments after exposing to gamma irradiation from Co-60 source. After knowing the initial parameters using EDXRF under six secondary targets, glass specimens prepared was subjected to gamma radiation for doses 3kGy, 6kGy, 15kGy, 25kGy, and 100kGy. Results of characterization under FTIR provides information about the occurred extension of B-O-Si and B-O-B linkages for lower doses (3-25kGy), while destruction of Si-O bonds for higher dose (100kGy). It shows direct relationship on the observed color change from clear ransparent to deep brown corresponding to the change in optical densities as irradiation dose increases. Ability to fade the induced deep brown color was also observed for a certain time interval which satisfies that this type of glass exhibits self healing property. Although, average energy of about 1.25MeV causes rearrangement of atoms within the glass, according to the XRD result, it remained to be an amorphous solid even in higher dose applied which satisfies that remanufacturing and recycling is possible. (author)

  8. Physics-based generation of gamma-ray response functions for CDZNTE detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Mercer, D.J.; Cooper, C.; Russo, P.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.; Close, D.A.; Luke, P.N.; Amman, M.; Soldner, S.

    1997-01-01

    A physics-based approach to gamma-ray response-function generation is presented in which the response of CdZnTe detectors is modeled from first principles. Computer modeling is used to generate response functions needed for spectrum analysis for general detector configurations (e.g., electrode design, detector materials and geometry, and operating conditions). With computer modeling, requirements for calibration and characterization are significantly reduced. Elements of the physics-based model, including gamma-ray transport, charge drift-diffusion, and circuit response, are presented. Calculated and experimental gamma-ray spectra are compared for a coplanar-grid CdZnTe detector

  9. Relationship between muscle strength and motor function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene F. Nunes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Measuring muscle strength and motor function is part of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD assessment. However, the relationship between these variables is controversial. Objective To investigate the relationship between muscle strength and motor function and between these variables and age. Method Muscle strength was measured by Medical Research Council (MRC scale and motor function, by Motor Function Measure (MFM, in 40 non-ambulatory patients. Spearman tests investigated the relationships between muscle strength, motor function and age. Results Total MRC and MFM scores were strongly related to each other (r = 0.94; p 0.05. Strong and moderate relationships between partial muscle strength and motor function scores were found. Higher correlation coefficients were found between total scores and Dimensions 2 (axial/ proximal control and 3 (distal control of MFM. Conclusion Muscle strength and motor function are strongly correlated and seem to decrease proportionally in DMD.

  10. Effects of different strength training frequencies on maximum strength, body composition and functional capacity in healthy older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpela, Mari; Häkkinen, Keijo; Haff, Guy Gregory; Walker, Simon

    2017-11-01

    There is controversy in the literature regarding the dose-response relationship of strength training in healthy older participants. The present study determined training frequency effects on maximum strength, muscle mass and functional capacity over 6months following an initial 3-month preparatory strength training period. One-hundred and six 64-75year old volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups; performing strength training one (EX1), two (EX2), or three (EX3) times per week and a non-training control (CON) group. Whole-body strength training was performed using 2-5 sets and 4-12 repetitions per exercise and 7-9 exercises per session. Before and after the intervention, maximum dynamic leg press (1-RM) and isometric knee extensor and plantarflexor strength, body composition and quadriceps cross-sectional area, as well as functional capacity (maximum 7.5m forward and backward walking speed, timed-up-and-go test, loaded 10-stair climb test) were measured. All experimental groups increased leg press 1-RM more than CON (EX1: 3±8%, EX2: 6±6%, EX3: 10±8%, CON: -3±6%, Ptraining frequency would induce greater benefit to maximum walking speed (i.e. functional capacity) despite a clear dose-response in dynamic 1-RM strength, at least when predominantly using machine weight-training. It appears that beneficial functional capacity improvements can be achieved through low frequency training (i.e. 1-2 times per week) in previously untrained healthy older participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 2004 Progress Report for Grant No. DE-FG03-03NA00076 Nuclear Level Densities and γ-ray Strength Functions: Stewardship Sciences Academic Alliances Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. E. Mitchell

    2004-01-01

    To verify the apparent large enhancement of the radiative strength function in light and medium nuclei, the 56Fe(n,2gamma)57Fe reaction was measured. The two-step cascade intensities with soft primary intensities confirm the enhancement. The combined results have been published in Physical Review Letters and featured in the Physics News Update. Data for the Yb isotopes have been combined to examine the systematics of level densities and strength function in three Yb isotopes. A paper on these results have been accepted for publication in Physical Review C. Analysis of the gamma rays from neutron induced reactions on 48Ti have been measured and analyzed for neutron energies from 1 to 250 MeV

  12. Function analysis of cystathionine gamma-lyase mutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, 1a (2009), b5 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology /7./. 12.03.2009-14.03.2009, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : cystathionine gamma-lyase * medical treatment * vitamin B6 Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  13. Vascular Function and Handgrip Strength in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Alomari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the relationship of handgrip strength with forearm blood flow (BF and vascular resistance (VR in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients. Methods. Forearm BF at rest (RBF and after upper arm occlusion (RHBF, and handgrip strength were examined in 78 individuals (RA=42 and controls (CT=36. Subsequently, VR at rest (RVR and after occlusion (RHVR were calculated. Results. The patients’ RBF (P=0.02 and RHBF (P=0.0001 were less, whereas RVR (P=0.002 and RHVR (P=0.0001 were greater as compared to the CTs. Similarly, handgrip strength was lower in the RAs (P=0.0001. Finally, handgrip strength was directly associated with RBF (r=0.43; P=0.0001, and RHBF (r=0.5; P=0.0001, and inversely related to RVR (r=-0.3; P=0.009 and RHVR (r=-0.3; P=0.007. Conclusion. The present study uniquely identifies an association between regional measures of forearm blood flow and handgrip strength in patients and healthy control. In addition, this study confirms the presence of vascular and muscle dysfunction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, as evidenced by lower forearm blood flow indices, at rest and following occlusion, and lower handgrip strength as compared to healthy individuals.

  14. Methods and Algorithms for Approximating the Gamma Function and Related Functions. A survey. Part I: Asymptotic Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Mortici

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this survey we present our recent results on analysis of gamma function and related functions. The results obtained are in the theory of asymptotic analysis, approximation of gamma and polygamma functions, or in the theory of completely monotonic functions. The motivation of this first part is the work of C. Mortici [Product Approximations via Asymptotic Integration Amer. Math. Monthly 117 (2010 434-441] where a simple strategy for constructing asymptotic series is presented. The classical asymptotic series associated to Stirling, Wallis, Glaisher-Kinkelin are rediscovered. In the second section we discuss some new inequalities related to Landau constants and we establish some asymptotic formulas.

  15. Gamma power in rural Pakistani children: Links to executive function and verbal ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R. Tarullo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Children in low- and middle-income countries are at high risk of cognitive deficits due to environmental deprivation that compromises brain development. Despite the high prevalence of unrealized cognitive potential, very little is known about neural correlates of cognition in this population. We assessed resting EEG power and cognitive ability in 105 highly disadvantaged 48-month-old children in rural Pakistan. An increase in EEG power in gamma frequency bands (21–30 Hz and 31–45 Hz was associated with better executive function. For girls, EEG gamma power also related to higher verbal IQ. This study identifies EEG gamma power as a neural marker of cognitive function in disadvantaged children in low- and middle-income countries. Elevated gamma power may be a particularly important protective factor for girls, who may experience greater deprivation due to gender inequality.

  16. The effect of high speed strength training with heavy and low workloads on neuromuscular function and maximal concentric quadriceps strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazani, Ali A; Hamedinia, Mohamed R; Haghighi, Amir H; Hedayatpour, Nosratollah

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic strength training has been widely used to increase the ability of skeletal muscle to produce muscle force. Manipulating resistance training program variables has been commonly used as a tool to optimize maximum strength. This study examined the effects of 12 weeks of high-speed strength training with low and heavy workloads on muscle strength and neuromuscular function of quadriceps muscle. Thirty male subjects (age, mean±SD, 20.6±2.6 yr, body mass 70.4±12.9 kg, height 1.76±0.09 m) with no history of knee injury or trauma participated to the study. Subjects were randomly divided into two training groups, low workload training (40% 1RM) and heavy workload training (80% 1RM). One repetition of maximum leg-press measured before and after 12 weeks training. Moreover, surface electromyograpic signals were recorded from vastus medialis and lateralis muscle during one repetition of maximum leg-press before and after 12 weeks training. High speed training with heavy workload-low repetition resulted in a greater increase (41.8%±4.3) in maximal concentric quadriceps strength compared with high speed training with low workloads-high repetition (23.3%±2.7; F=3.8, Ptraining with heavy workload- low repetition was significantly larger than those observed after high speed training with low workload- high repetition (F=5.5, Ptraining, which in turn result in greater improvement in muscle strength.

  17. Acidity function p(a(H) gamma(Cl)) as a step to pH assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camões, Maria Filomena; Guiomar Lito, Maria

    2002-11-01

    The conventional assignment of pH reference buffer standards, pH(S), is achieved by means of a series of procedures that follow from measurement of Harned cell potentials for an electrolyte solution which is the buffer solution of interest. An intermediate step is assessment of the acidity function p( a(H) gamma(Cl))(0), the extrapolated value of a linear representation of the dependence of p( a(H) gamma(Cl)) on m(Cl) for at least three different molalities, m(Cl), of added alkali chloride (0.005; 0.010; 0.015 mol kg(-1) KCl). This experimental value can be compared with a theoretically expected value calculated from the dissociation constants of the buffer species. Whereas these calculations always give negative slopes for diprotic and triprotic acids and zero slope for monoprotic acids, experimental values with negative or positive slopes can be obtained for well fitting straight lines obtained for buffer solutions with ionic strengths from 0.0025 to 0.144 mol kg(-1). Such disagreement between theoretically and experimentally obtained values introduce an extra source of uncertainty in the establishment of pH(S) and on its traceability chain. In this work examples are presented and discussed for which the discrepancy between expected and experimental values leads to different intercept p( a(H) gamma(Cl))(0).

  18. Is the relationship between increased knee muscle strength and improved physical function following exercise dependent on baseline physical function status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; van der Esch, Martin; van der Leeden, Marike; Kasza, Jessica; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Dobson, Fiona; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-12-08

    Clinical guidelines recommend knee muscle strengthening exercises to improve physical function. However, the amount of knee muscle strength increase needed for clinically relevant improvements in physical function is unclear. Understanding how much increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved physical function could assist clinicians in providing appropriate strength gain targets for their patients in order to optimise outcomes from exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved self-reported physical function following exercise; and whether the relationship differs according to physical function status at baseline. Data from 100 participants with medial knee osteoarthritis enrolled in a 12-week randomised controlled trial comparing neuromuscular exercise to quadriceps strengthening exercise were pooled. Participants were categorised as having mild, moderate or severe physical dysfunction at baseline using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Associations between 12-week changes in physical function (dependent variable) and peak isometric knee extensor and flexor strength (independent variables) were evaluated with and without accounting for baseline physical function status and covariates using linear regression models. In covariate-adjusted models without accounting for baseline physical function, every 1-unit (Nm/kg) increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 17 WOMAC units (95% confidence interval (CI) -29 to -5). When accounting for baseline severity of physical function, every 1-unit increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 24 WOMAC units (95% CI -42 to -7) in participants with severe physical dysfunction. There were no associations between change in strength and change in physical function in participants with mild or moderate physical

  19. Determination of functional strength imbalance of the lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert U; Gerber, Aimee; Nimphius, Sophia; Shim, Jae K; Doan, Brandon K; Robertson, Mike; Pearson, David R; Craig, Bruce W; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kraemer, William J

    2006-11-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to determine whether a significant strength imbalance existed between the left and right or dominant (D) and nondominant (ND) legs and (b) to investigate possible correlations among various unilateral and bilateral closed kinetic chain tests, including a field test, and traditional isokinetic dynamometry used to determine strength imbalance. Fourteen Division I collegiate women softball players (20.2 +/- 1.4 years) volunteered to undergo measures of average peak torque for isokinetic flexion and extension at 60 degrees .s(-1) and 240 degrees .s(-1); in addition, measures of peak and average force of each leg during parallel back squat, 2-legged vertical jump, and single-leg vertical jump and performance in a 5-hop test were examined. Significant differences of between 4.2% and 16.0% were evident for all measures except for average force during single-leg vertical jump between the D and ND limbs, thus revealing a significant strength imbalance. The 5-hop test revealed a significant difference between D and ND limbs and showed a moderate correlation with more sophisticated laboratory tests, suggesting a potential use as a field test for the identification of strength imbalance. The results of this study indicate that a significant strength imbalance can exist even in collegiate level athletes, and future research should be conducted to determine how detrimental these imbalances could be in terms of peak performance for athletes, as well as the implications for injury risk.

  20. Functional Anaerobic and Strength Training in Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2018-03-20

    To investigate the efficacy of a 12-week combined functional anaerobic and strength training program on neuromuscular properties and functional capacity in young adults with spastic-type CP. 17 young adults (21±4 years, 9 males, GMFCS I=11, II=6) were randomized to 12 weeks, 3 sessions per week, of high intensity functional anaerobic and progressive resistance training of the lower limbs (n=8), or a waitlist control group (n=9). Pre- and post-training plantar flexor and tibialis anterior muscle volumes and composition, passive and active plantar flexor muscle properties, and functional capacity outcomes were assessed. The training group had higher values compared to the control group (adjusted mean difference) at 12-weeks for: more- and less-impaired total plantar flexor and tibialis anterior muscle volumes; maximum isometric plantar flexion strength; muscle power sprint test peak power; agility shuttle time; composite functional strength score; and six-minute walk test distance. The change in total plantar flexor muscle volume was associated with the change in plantar flexor muscle strength. There were relationships between the change in plantar flexor muscle strength and change in functional capacity outcomes (functional strength; six-minute walk test). Combined functional anaerobic and strength training increased muscle size, strength and functional capacity in young adults with CP. The addition of anaerobic training to progressive resistance training programs assists in the transfer to improved functional capacity.

  1. Solved problems in analysis as applied to gamma, beta, Legendre and Bessel functions

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, Orin J

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 200 problems, each with a detailed, worked-out solution, deal with the properties and applications of the gamma and beta functions, Legendre polynomials, and Bessel functions. The first two chapters examine gamma and beta functions, including applications to certain geometrical and physical problems such as heat-flow in a straight wire. The following two chapters treat Legendre polynomials, addressing applications to specific series expansions, steady-state heat-flow temperature distribution, gravitational potential of a circular lamina, and application of Gauss's mechanical quadrature

  2. Soft structures of γ-ray strength functions studied with the Oslo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinov A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present experimental γ-ray strength functions up to Eγ ∼ Sn measured at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory for several Sc, V, Mo, and Sn isotopes. For the lighter nuclei, an unexpected enhancement of the strength function at low γ-ray energies has been revealed. This enhancement could potentially have an impact on neutron-capture cross sections for unstable, neutron-rich nuclei. For the Sn isotopes, we observe increased strength around the neutron separation energy Sn.

  3. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on tunable functionalized copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2015-01-01

    system, with respect to functionalization, is achieved. It is investigated how the different functionalization variables affect essential DE properties, including dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, elastic modulus and dielectric breakdown strength, and the optimal degree of chemical......%) was obtained without compromising other vital DE properties such as elastic modulus, gel fraction, dielectric and viscous loss and electrical breakdown strength....

  4. Influence of gamma radiation on the colour strength and fastness properties of fabric using turmeric (Curcuma longa L .) as natural dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Ijaz A.; Adeel, Shahid; Jamal, M. Asghar; Safdar, Muhammad; Abbas, Muhammad

    2010-05-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the dyeing of cotton with extract of turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) powder has been investigated. Cotton fabric and turmeric powder were irradiated to absorbed doses of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kGy using Co-60 gamma irradiator. Dyeing parameters such as temperature, pH and mordant concentration were optimized. Dyeing was performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with the extracts of un-irradiated and irradiated turmeric powder in order to investigate the effect of radiation treatment on the colour strength of dyed fabric. The reported data of un-irradiated and irradiated fabrics dyed with un-irradiated and irradiated dyes were obtained using the spectraflash SF-650. The colourfastness to light, rubbing- and washing-fastness properties showed that gamma irradiation has improved the dyeing characteristics from fair to good.

  5. Influence of gamma radiation on the colour strength and fastness properties of fabric using turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) as natural dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, Ijaz A., E-mail: ijazchem@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Adeel, Shahid [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Jamal, M. Asghar [Department of Chemistry, G.C. University, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Safdar, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, University of A J and K, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan); Abbas, Muhammad [Haris Dyes and Chemicals, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan)

    2010-05-15

    The effect of gamma radiation on the dyeing of cotton with extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) powder has been investigated. Cotton fabric and turmeric powder were irradiated to absorbed doses of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kGy using Co-60 gamma irradiator. Dyeing parameters such as temperature, pH and mordant concentration were optimized. Dyeing was performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with the extracts of un-irradiated and irradiated turmeric powder in order to investigate the effect of radiation treatment on the colour strength of dyed fabric. The reported data of un-irradiated and irradiated fabrics dyed with un-irradiated and irradiated dyes were obtained using the spectraflash SF-650. The colourfastness to light, rubbing- and washing-fastness properties showed that gamma irradiation has improved the dyeing characteristics from fair to good.

  6. Influence of gamma radiation on the colour strength and fastness properties of fabric using turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) as natural dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Ijaz A.; Adeel, Shahid; Jamal, M. Asghar; Safdar, Muhammad; Abbas, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the dyeing of cotton with extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) powder has been investigated. Cotton fabric and turmeric powder were irradiated to absorbed doses of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kGy using Co-60 gamma irradiator. Dyeing parameters such as temperature, pH and mordant concentration were optimized. Dyeing was performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with the extracts of un-irradiated and irradiated turmeric powder in order to investigate the effect of radiation treatment on the colour strength of dyed fabric. The reported data of un-irradiated and irradiated fabrics dyed with un-irradiated and irradiated dyes were obtained using the spectraflash SF-650. The colourfastness to light, rubbing- and washing-fastness properties showed that gamma irradiation has improved the dyeing characteristics from fair to good.

  7. Measurement of the $Q^2$ evolution of the photon structure function $F^{\\gamma}_{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Beeston, C.; Behnke, T.; Bell, A.N.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bloomer, J.E.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Bouwens, B.T.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davies, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Doucet, M.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Edwards, J.E.G.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Evans, H.G.; Evans, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fong, D.G.; Foucher, M.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geddes, N.I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hart, P.A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ingram, M.R.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P.W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jones, G.; Jones, M.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kirk, J.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W.P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markus, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mincer, A.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Muller, U.; Mihara, S.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Oldershaw, N.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Pearce, M.J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Rees, D.L.; Rigby, D.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rooke, A.; Ros, E.; Rossi, A.M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Ruppel, U.; Rust, D.R.; Rylko, R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schenk, P.; Schieck, J.; Schleper, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, Robert Wayne; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Utzat, P.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Vokurka, E.H.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilkens, B.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1997-01-01

    New measurements are presented of the photon structure function F_2^gamma(Q) at four values of Q^2 between 9 and 59 GeV/c^2 based on data collected with the OPAL detector at centre-of-mass energies of 161-172 GeV, with a total integrated luminosity of 18.1 pb^-1. The evolution of F_2^gamma with Q^2 in bins of x is determined in the Q^2 range from 1.86 to 135 GeV/c^2 using data taken at centre-of-mass energies of 91 GeV and 161-172 GeV. F_2^gamma is observed to increase with Q^2 with a slope of 1/alpha_em dF_2^gamma/dln(Q^2) = 0.10 +0.05 -0.03 measured in the range 0.1 < x < 0.6.

  8. A novel time dependent gamma evaluation function for dynamic 2D and 3D dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podesta, Mark; Persoon, Lucas CGG; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Modern external beam radiotherapy requires detailed verification and quality assurance so that confidence can be placed on both the delivery of a single treatment fraction and on the consistency of delivery throughout the treatment course. To verify dose distributions, a comparison between prediction and measurement must be made. Comparisons between two dose distributions are commonly performed using a Gamma evaluation which is a calculation of two quantities on a pixel by pixel basis; the dose difference, and the distance to agreement. By providing acceptance criteria (e.g. 3%, 3 mm), the function will find the most appropriate match within its two degrees of freedom. For complex dynamic treatments such as IMRT or VMAT it is important to verify the dose delivery in a time dependent manner and so a gamma evaluation that includes a degree of freedom in the time domain via a third parameter, time to agreement, is presented here. A C++ (mex) based gamma function was created that could be run on either CPU and GPU computing platforms that would allow a degree of freedom in the time domain. Simple test cases were created in both 2D and 3D comprising of simple geometrical shapes with well-defined boundaries varying over time. Changes of varying magnitude in either space or time were introduced and repeated gamma analyses were performed varying the criteria. A clinical VMAT case was also included, artificial air bubbles of varying size were introduced to a patient geometry, along with shifts of varying magnitude in treatment time. For all test cases where errors in distance, dose or time were introduced, the time dependent gamma evaluation could accurately highlight the errors. The time dependent gamma function presented here allows time to be included as a degree of freedom in gamma evaluations. The function allows for 2D and 3D data sets which are varying over time to be compared using appropriate criteria without penalising minor offsets of subsequent radiation

  9. Analysis of the functions of derivatives from gamma spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I.N.; Filippov, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The application of numerical differention formulae derived on the basis of the Stirling interpolation polynom is proposed for reducing the errors in determining photopeak boundary and its total width by means of procedures involving an analysis of derivatives from a gamma spectrum. The accuracy of representation of derivatives calculated by numerical differentiation formulae on the basis of Stirling polynom is compared with that obtained on the basis of third-and fourth degree polynoms. The least error of the total photopeak width at half height would be obtained in analyzing second-order derivatives based on the Stirling interpolation polynom. However, in specifying the photopeak positions in the γ-spectra, the absolute calculation error with the Stirling interpolation polynom would be one order higher than when analyzing derivatives obtained by the differentiation formulae on the basis of the third degree polynom

  10. Functional strength training: Seated machine vs standing cable training to improve physical function in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Anoop; Martins, Maria M; De Faveri, Frederico G; Alan, Ozgur; Cetinkaya, Funda; Signorile, Joseph F

    2016-09-01

    The majority of the strength training studies in older adults have incorporated fixed-form exercises using seated resistance training machines. In light of the modest improvements in physical function shown in these studies, functional or task-specific exercises, involving movement patterns that mimic daily activities, have been studied. Free-form exercises, using free-weights or cable, is another form of functional strength training. Currently, no intervention studies exist comparing free-form exercises, using cable machines, and fixed-form exercises, using seated machines in older adults. A total of 29 independently-living older adults, 65years or older, were randomized into two groups, seated machine (SM, n=10) and standing cable (SC, n=12). After 12weeks of training twice per week, groups were compared. The primary outcome was the Physical Performance Battery (PPB), a measure of physical function. Secondary outcomes were lower and upper body strength and power, activities of daily living evaluated by multiple tests including: Physical Performance Test (PPT), pan carry and gallon jug transfers, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and self-reported function using Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Outcome assessors were blinded to participants' intervention assignments. The PPB (SC=0.23 points; SM=0.15 points) showed clinical and significant improvements, but there was no significant difference between the groups (g=0.2, 95% CI (-0.6, 1.0). For secondary outcomes, chair stand (g=0.7, 95% CI (0.2, 1.6), p=0.03) and pan carry (g=0.8, 95% CI (0.07, 1.07), p=0.04) favored SC, while chest press 1RM (g=0.2, 95% CI (0.06, 1.1), p=0.02) favored SM. There were no statistically significant group differences between PPB, gallon jug transfer, leg press 1RM, power, RPE or self-reported function. Standing cable training was not superior to seated machine training in improving physical performance in older adults. However, both training

  11. Enhanced radiative strength in the quasicontinuum of 117Sn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agvaanluvsan, U; Larsen, A C; Chankova, R; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Schiller, A; Siem, S; Voinov, A

    2009-04-24

    The radiative strength function of 117Sn has been measured up to the neutron separation energy using the (3He, 3He' gamma) reaction. An increase in the slope of the strength function around E gamma=4.5 MeV indicates the onset of a resonancelike structure, giving a significant enhancement of the radiative strength function compared to standard models in the energy region 4.5gammafunctional form of this resonancelike structure has been measured in an odd tin nucleus below neutron threshold in the quasicontinuum region.

  12. A discrete stress-strength interference model based on universal generating function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zongwen; Huang Hongzhong; Liu Yu

    2008-01-01

    Continuous stress-strength interference (SSI) model regards stress and strength as continuous random variables with known probability density function. This, to some extent, results in a limitation of its application. In this paper, stress and strength are treated as discrete random variables, and a discrete SSI model is presented by using the universal generating function (UGF) method. Finally, case studies demonstrate the validity of the discrete model in a variety of circumstances, in which stress and strength can be represented by continuous random variables, discrete random variables, or two groups of experimental data

  13. The relationship between lower limb muscle strength and lower extremity function in HIV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Mhariwa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV negatively impacts muscle strength and function. This study aimed to establish the relationship between lower limb muscle strength and lower extremity function in HIV disease.Method: A cross-sectional study was undertaken with a sample of 113 HIV-positive participants. Lower limb muscle strength and self-reported function were established using dynamometry and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS, respectively. Muscle strength and functional status were established in a subset of 30 HIV-negative participants to determine normative values.Results: Muscle strength for participants with HIV ranged from an ankle dorsiflexion mean of 9.33 kg/m2 to 15.79 kg/m2 in hip extensors. In the HIV-negative group, ankle dorsiflexors recorded 11.17 kg/m2, whereas hip extensors were the strongest, generating 17.68 kg/m2. In the HIV-positive group, linear regression showed a positive relationship between lower limb muscle strength and lower extremity function (r = 0.71, p = 0.00. Fifty per cent of the changes in lower extremity function were attributable to lower limb muscle strength. A simple linear regression model showed that lower limb ankle plantar flexors contributed the most to lower extremity function in this cohort, contrary to the literature which states that hip and trunk muscles are the most active in lower limb functional activities.Conclusion: Lower extremity strength impacts perceived function in individuals stabilised on antiretroviral therapy for HIV disease. These findings demonstrate that ankle plantar flexors produce more force over hip flexors. Careful attention should be paid to the implications for strength training in this population.

  14. Effect of Enamel and Dentin Irradiation by Gamma Rays on the Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Restorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zein, N.S.A.

    2014-01-01

    and neck cancer patients subjected to radiotherapy represents a challenge for restorative dentistry. This is due to the high rates of caries found and the reduction in restoration longevity by restorative material deterioration and failure events that tend to occur rapidly(7). The use of adhesive restorative materials is recommended for the treatment of radiation caries. It has been reported that these tooth-colored restorations survive longer when they are provided with a good seal and protection against secondary caries (8). Unfortunately, the influence of radiotherapy, alone or followed by application of a desensitizing agent, on the bond strengths of these restorations has not been extensively evaluated. Therefore, the current study has been conducted to investigate the effect of enamel and dentin irradiation by gamma rays on the bond strength of two adhesive restorations and to investigate the effect of application of an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) desensitizing agent after irradiation and before restoration on the bond strength of the adhesive restorations

  15. Handgrip strength predicts functional decline at discharge in hospitalized male elderly: a hospital cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen García-Peña

    Full Text Available Functional decline after hospitalization is a common adverse outcome in elderly. An easy to use, reproducible and accurate tool to identify those at risk would aid focusing interventions in those at higher risk. Handgrip strength has been shown to predict adverse outcomes in other settings. The aim of this study was to determine if handgrip strength measured upon admission to an acute care facility would predict functional decline (either incident or worsening of preexisting at discharge among older Mexican, stratified by gender. In addition, cutoff points as a function of specificity would be determined. A cohort study was conducted in two hospitals in Mexico City. The primary endpoint was functional decline on discharge, defined as a 30-point reduction in the Barthel Index score from that of the baseline score. Handgrip strength along with other variables was measured at initial assessment, including: instrumental activities of daily living, cognition, depressive symptoms, delirium, hospitalization length and quality of life. All analyses were stratified by gender. Logistic regression to test independent association between handgrip strength and functional decline was performed, along with estimation of handgrip strength test values (specificity, sensitivity, area under the curve, etc.. A total of 223 patients admitted to an acute care facility between 2007 and 2009 were recruited. A total of 55 patients (24.7% had functional decline, 23.46% in male and 25.6% in women. Multivariate analysis showed that only males with low handgrip strength had an increased risk of functional decline at discharge (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.98, p = 0.01, with a specificity of 91.3% and a cutoff point of 20.65 kg for handgrip strength. Females had not a significant association between handgrip strength and functional decline. Measurement of handgrip strength on admission to acute care facilities may identify male elderly patients at risk of having functional decline

  16. Level Densities and Radiative Strength Functions in 170,171Yb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agvaanluvsan, U.; Schiller, A.; Becker, J.A.; Berstein, L.A.; Guttormsen, M.; Mitchell, G.E.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Voinov, A.

    2003-01-01

    Level densities and radiative strength functions in 171 Yb and 170 Yb nuclei have been measured with the 171 Yb( 3 He, 3 He(prime) γ) 171 Yb and 171 Yb( 3 He, αγ) 170 Yb reactions. A simultaneous determination of the nuclear level density and the radiative strength function was made. The present data adds to and is consistent with previous results for several other rare earth nuclei. The method will be briefly reviewed and the result from the analysis will be presented. The radiative strength function for 171 Yb is compared to previously published work.

  17. Adiposity, muscle mass and muscle strength in relation to functional decline in older persons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, L.A.; Koster, A.; Visser, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with changes in body composition and muscle strength. This review aimed to determine the relation between different body composition measures and muscle strength measures and functional decline in older men and women. By use of relevant databases (PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL) and

  18. The relationship between lower limb muscle strength and lower extremity function in HIV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Mhariwa

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Lower extremity strength impacts perceived function in individuals stabilised on antiretroviral therapy for HIV disease. These findings demonstrate that ankle plantar flexors produce more force over hip flexors. Careful attention should be paid to the implications for strength training in this population.

  19. A Set of Mathematical Constants Arising Naturally in the Theory of the Multiple Gamma Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Junesang

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a set of mathematical constants which is involved naturally in the theory of multiple Gamma functions. Then we present general asymptotic inequalities for these constants whose special cases are seen to contain all results very recently given in Chen 2011.

  20. On k-Gamma and k-Beta Distributions and Moment Generating Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauhar Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present paper is to define k-gamma and k-beta distributions and moments generating function for the said distributions in terms of a new parameter k>0. Also, the authors prove some properties of these newly defined distributions.

  1. Changes in the Muscle strength and functional performance of healthy women with aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Mousavikhatir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower limbs antigravity muscles weakness and decreased functional ability have significant role in falling. The aim of this study was to find the effects of aging on muscle strength and functional ability, determining the range of decreasing strength and functional ability and relationship between them in healthy women. Methods: Across-section study was performed on 101 healthy women aged 21-80 years. The participants were divided into six age groups. The maximum isometric strength of four muscle groups was measured using a hand-held dynamometer bilaterally. The functional ability was measured with functional reach (FR, timed get up and go (TGUG, single leg stance (SLS, and stairs walking (SW tests. Results: Muscle strength changes were not significant between 21-40 years of age, but decreased significantly thereafter. Also, there was a significant relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in age groups. Conclusion: Both muscle strength and functional ability is reduced as a result of aging, but the decrease in functional ability can be detected earlier.

  2. LUNG FUNCTION AND RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH IN OBESE IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    E. G. Furman; A. M. Yarulina; L. V. Sofronova

    2015-01-01

    Background. It is known that obesity may influence the state of respiratory function and it is associated with a number of diseases of the respiratory system. Obesity in itself, even in the absence of other known causes, can cause a feeling of shortness of breath at rest. At the same time, the cardinal symptom of respiratory muscle weakness is shortness of breath, which promotes the reduction of exercise tolerance. At the moment the problem state of respiratory function and respiratory muscle...

  3. A dependent stress-strength interference model based on mixed copula function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jian Xiong; An, Zong Wen; Liu, Bo [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou (China)

    2016-10-15

    In the traditional Stress-strength interference (SSI) model, stress and strength must satisfy the basic assumption of mutual independence. However, a complex dependence between stress and strength exists in practical engineering. To evaluate structural reliability under the case that stress and strength are dependent, a mixed copula function is introduced to a new dependent SSI model. This model can fully characterize the dependence between stress and strength. The residual square sum method and genetic algorithm are also used to estimate the unknown parameters of the model. Finally, the validity of the proposed model is demonstrated via a practical case. Results show that traditional SSI model ignoring the dependence between stress and strength more easily overestimates product reliability than the new dependent SSI model.

  4. [Correlations Between Joint Proprioception, Muscle Strength, and Functional Ability in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yoa; Yu, Yong; He, Cheng-qi

    2015-11-01

    To establish correlations between joint proprioception, muscle flexion and extension peak torque, and functional ability in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Fifty-six patients with symptomatic knee OA were recruited in this study. Both proprioceptive acuity and muscle strength were measured using the isomed-2000 isokinetic dynamometer. Proprioceptive acuity was evaluated by establishing the joint motion detection threshold (JMDT). Muscle strength was evaluated by Max torque (Nm) and Max torque/weight (Nm/ kg). Functional ability was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical function (WOMAC-PF) questionnaire. Correlational analyses were performed between proprioception, muscle strength, and functional ability. A multiple stepwise regression model was established, with WOMAC-PF as dependent variable and patient age, body mass index (BMI), visual analogue scale (VAS)-score, mean grade for Kellgren-Lawrance of both knees, mean strength for quadriceps and hamstring muscles of both knees, and mean JMDT of both knees as independent variables. Poor proprioception (high JMDT) was negatively correlated with muscle strength (Pproprioception (high JMDT) and joint pain (WOMAC pain score), and between knee proprioception (high JMDT) and joint stiffness (WOMAC stiffness score). Poor proprioception (high JMDT) was correlated with limitation in functional ability (WOMAC physical function score r=0.659, Pproprioception is associated with poor muscle strength and limitation in functional ability. Patients with symptomatic OA of knees commonly endure with moderate to considerable dysfunction, which is associated with poor proprioception (high JMDT) and high VAS-scale score.

  5. Shoulder Strength Requirements for Upper Limb Functional Tasks: Do Age and Rotator Cuff Tear Status Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santago, Anthony C; Vidt, Meghan E; Li, Xiaotong; Tuohy, Christopher J; Poehling, Gary G; Freehill, Michael T; Saul, Katherine R

    2017-12-01

    Understanding upper limb strength requirements for daily tasks is imperative for early detection of strength loss that may progress to disability due to age or rotator cuff tear. We quantified shoulder strength requirements for 5 upper limb tasks performed by 3 groups: uninjured young adults and older adults, and older adults with a degenerative supraspinatus tear prior to repair. Musculoskeletal models were developed for each group representing age, sex, and tear-related strength losses. Percentage of available strength used was quantified for the subset of tasks requiring the largest amount of shoulder strength. Significant differences in strength requirements existed across tasks: upward reach 105° required the largest average strength; axilla wash required the largest peak strength. However, there were limited differences across participant groups. Older adults with and without a tear used a larger percentage of their shoulder elevation (p tasks indicate the need for evaluating a diversity of functional tasks to effectively detect early strength loss, which may lead to disability.

  6. Impairment of liver and kidney functions in gamma irradiation rats suffering pesticide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; Abdel-Hamid, F.M.; Abu-Ghadir, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exposure to single whole body gamma irradiation dose at 6.5 Gy and/or either oral administration of 50 or 100 mg kelthane/kg kelthane/kg body weight/day for successively 3 days, or daily feeding with 200 mg kelthane/kg body weight for 3, 6, and 12 weeks has been studied on relative liver and kidney weights, certain serum and liver enzymes creatinine and inorganic phosphorous clearance, as well as percentage of tubular phosphorous reabsorption in male animals. The data obtained revealed that exposure to gamma-irradiation alone or combined with kelthane treatment caused significant increase in the relative spleen weight besides significant decrease in serum and liver alkaline phosphatase and serum cholinesterase. Exposure to gamma irradiation after orally administration of 100 mg or feeding dietary kelthane caused significant decrease in liver glucose-6-phosphatase. Non significant changes in aspartic and alanine transaminases could be recorded due to gamma-irradiation and/or kelthane treatment. Endogenous clearance of creatinine and phosphorous as well as tubular phosphorous reabsorption were determined to assess the glomerular filtration and tubular function. The data obtained revealed that exposure to gamma-irradiation either alone or after treatment with kelthane caused significant decrease in creatinine and phosphorous clearance while phosphorous reabsorption was not appreciably affected. 4 tabs

  7. Determination of the nuclear level densities and radiative strength function for 43 nuclei in the mass interval 28≤A≤200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, David; Jovancevic, Nikola; Sukhovoj, Anatoly M.; Mitsyna, Ludmila V.; Krmar, Miodrag; Cong, Vu D.; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Stephan; Revay, Zsolt; Stieghorst, Christian; Dragic, Aleksandar

    2018-03-01

    The determination of nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions is one of the most important tasks in low-energy nuclear physics. Accurate experimental values of these parameters are critical for the study of the fundamental properties of nuclear structure. The step-like structure in the dependence of the level densities p on the excitation energy of nuclei Eex is observed in the two-step gamma cascade measurements for nuclei in the 28 ≤ A ≤ 200 mass region. This characteristic structure can be explained only if a co-existence of quasi-particles and phonons, as well as their interaction in a nucleus, are taken into account in the process of gamma-decay. Here we present a new improvement to the Dubna practical model for the determination of nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions. The new practical model guarantees a good description of the available intensities of the two step gamma cascades, comparable to the experimental data accuracy.

  8. Determination of the nuclear level densities and radiative strength function for 43 nuclei in the mass interval 28≤A≤200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knezevic David

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions is one of the most important tasks in low-energy nuclear physics. Accurate experimental values of these parameters are critical for the study of the fundamental properties of nuclear structure. The step-like structure in the dependence of the level densities p on the excitation energy of nuclei Eex is observed in the two-step gamma cascade measurements for nuclei in the 28 ≤ A ≤ 200 mass region. This characteristic structure can be explained only if a co-existence of quasi-particles and phonons, as well as their interaction in a nucleus, are taken into account in the process of gamma-decay. Here we present a new improvement to the Dubna practical model for the determination of nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions. The new practical model guarantees a good description of the available intensities of the two step gamma cascades, comparable to the experimental data accuracy.

  9. Effects of functional exercise training on performance and muscle strength after meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, Y B; Dahlberg, L E; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    Muscular deficits and functional limitations have been found years after meniscectomy of the knee. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effect of functional exercise training on functional performance and isokinetic thigh muscle strength in middle-aged patients...... subsequent to meniscectomy for a degenerative tear. Four years after meniscectomy, 45 patients (29 men, 16 women) were randomized to functional exercise training, supervised by a physical therapist, three times weekly for 4 months or to no intervention. The exercise program comprised of postural stability...... training and functional strength and endurance exercises for leg and trunk muscles. Outcomes were three functional performance tests and isokinetic muscle strength. Thirty patients (16 exercisers/14 controls) completed the study. Compared with control patients, the exercise group showed significant...

  10. Simulation of the functioning of a gamma camera using Monte Carlo method; Simulacion del funcionamiento de una camara gamma mediante metodo Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oramas Polo, I.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the simulation of the gamma camera Park Isocam II by Monte Carlo code SIMIND. This simulation allows detailed assessment of the functioning of the gamma camera. The parameters evaluated by means of the simulation are: the intrinsic uniformity with different window amplitudes, the system uniformity, the extrinsic spatial resolution, the maximum rate of counts, the intrinsic sensitivity, the system sensitivity, the energy resolution and the pixel size. The results of the simulation are compared and evaluated against the specifications of the manufacturer of the gamma camera and taking into account the National Protocol for Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments of the Cuban Medical Equipment Control Center. The simulation reported here demonstrates the validity of the SIMIND Monte Carlo code to evaluate the performance of the gamma camera Park Isocam II and as result a computational model of the camera has been obtained. (Author)

  11. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2016-01-01

    to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. METHODS: Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength......-ascent time and increased chair-rising performance. Long-term football exercise and strength training both appear to be effective interventional strategies to improve factors of importance for ADL by counteracting the age-related decline in lower limb strength and functional capacity among old male adults......PURPOSE: A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations...

  12. Effects of bacteria-produced human alpha, beta, and gamma interferons on in vitro immune functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, M R; Weck, P K; Rinderknecht, E; Harkins, R N; Frane, J W; Ross, M J

    1984-04-01

    The effects of bacteria-produced human interferons (HuIFN) alpha, beta, and gamma on in vitro immune functions of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were studied. Proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin was significantly inhibited by the addition of HuIFN-alpha 2 or HuIFN-beta at 10, 100, or 1000 U/ml. In contrast, HuIFN-gamma showed suppressive activities only when added at 1000 U/ml. HuIFN-alpha 2 or HuIFN-beta caused significant inhibition of human mixed-lymphocyte reaction (MLR) as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Similar inhibition was caused by HuIFN-gamma when it was added only at very low concentrations (1 U/ml); 10, 100, or 1000 U/ml resulted in no or only a modest increase in MLR. All three interferons exhibited dose-related effects on PWM-induced immunoglobulin synthesis in cultures of PBMC. These data demonstrate that purified interferons produced by recombinant DNA technology can significantly alter in vitro immune functions and that HuIFN-gamma has properties which are different from those of HuIFN-alpha 2 or HuIFN-beta.

  13. Differential Pair Distribution Function Study of the Structure of Arsenate Adsorbed on Nanocrystalline [gamma]-Alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei; Harrington, Richard; Tang, Yuanzhi; Kubicki, James D.; Aryanpour, Masoud; Reeder, Richard J.; Parise, John B.; Phillips, Brian L. (SBU); (Penn)

    2012-03-15

    Structural information is important for understanding surface adsorption mechanisms of contaminants on metal (hydr)oxides. In this work, a novel technique was employed to study the interfacial structure of arsenate oxyanions adsorbed on {gamma}-alumina nanoparticles, namely, differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) analysis of synchrotron X-ray total scattering. The d-PDF is the difference of properly normalized PDFs obtained for samples with and without arsenate adsorbed, otherwise identically prepared. The real space pattern contains information on atomic pair correlations between adsorbed arsenate and the atoms on {gamma}-alumina surface (Al, O, etc.). PDF results on the arsenate adsorption sample on {gamma}-alumina prepared at 1 mM As concentration and pH 5 revealed two peaks at 1.66 {angstrom} and 3.09 {angstrom}, corresponding to As-O and As-Al atomic pair correlations. This observation is consistent with those measured by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, which suggests a first shell of As-O at 1.69 {+-} 0.01 {angstrom} with a coordination number of 4 and a second shell of As-Al at 3.13 {+-} 0.04 {angstrom} with a coordination number of 2. These results are in agreement with a bidentate binuclear coordination environment to the octahedral Al of {gamma}-alumina as predicted by density functional theory (DFT) calculation.

  14. Efficient approximation of the incomplete gamma function for use in cloud model applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Blahak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approximation to the lower incomplete gamma function γl(a,x which has been obtained by nonlinear curve fitting. It comprises a fixed number of terms and yields moderate accuracy (the absolute approximation error of the corresponding normalized incomplete gamma function P is smaller than 0.02 in the range 0.9 ≤ a ≤ 45 and x≥0. Monotonicity and asymptotic behaviour of the original incomplete gamma function is preserved.

    While providing a slight to moderate performance gain on scalar machines (depending on whether a stays the same for subsequent function evaluations or not compared to established and more accurate methods based on series- or continued fraction expansions with a variable number of terms, a big advantage over these more accurate methods is the applicability on vector CPUs. Here the fixed number of terms enables proper and efficient vectorization. The fixed number of terms might be also beneficial on massively parallel machines to avoid load imbalances, caused by a possibly vastly different number of terms in series expansions to reach convergence at different grid points. For many cloud microphysical applications, the provided moderate accuracy should be enough. However, on scalar machines and if a is the same for subsequent function evaluations, the most efficient method to evaluate incomplete gamma functions is perhaps interpolation of pre-computed regular lookup tables (most simple example: equidistant tables.

  15. Falls, muscle strength, and functional abilities in community-dwelling elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Santos Borges

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Falls are among the most common and serious problems facing elderly women. Falling is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, reduced functioning, loss of independence and hospitalization. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association among fear of falling, muscle strength, and functional abilities in community-dwelling elderly women. Methods: Forty-nine elderly women (70.57 ± 5.59 years participated in this study. Records of falls, self-efficacy associated with falls (FES-I Brazil, functional abilities (the Timed Up and Down Stairs test [TUDS] and the Timed Up and Go test [TUG], lower limb muscle strength (knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors, and hand grip strength were investigated as variables of interest. Descriptive statistics, the one-way ANOVA, and linear regression tests were used to analyze the association between fear of falling and falls with other variables (α = 0.05. Results: Elderly women who presented records of falls within the last year had lesser strength of knee extensors and plantar flexors (p ≤. 05. Those who had low self-efficacy associated with falls presented lower strength of knee extensors (p ≤. 01. Variables associated with functional abilities (r = 0.70 and lower limb strength (r = 0.53 showed a positive correlation (p ≤. 01. Conclusion: The concern with the fear of falling and falls may be negative effects caused by lower limb muscle weakness.

  16. The effects of strength exercise on hippocampus volume and functional fitness of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Sik; Shin, Sang Keun; Hong, Seung Baek; Kim, Hak Jin

    2017-10-15

    Various positive effects of exercise on older women have been identified in many studies. Despite the importance of preserving the health of brain as well as body, few studies have investigated the effects of strength exercise on the brain health of older women to date. This study aimed to identify the effects of 24weeks of the Growing Stronger program on hippocampus volume and functional fitness of older women. Twenty one older women aged 67 to 81 participated in this study. Growing Stronger, which is a strength exercise program that is safe and effective for women and men of all ages, was conducted. The 11 strength exercise group (n=11) participated for 50-80min a day three times per week for a total of 24weeks. The control group maintained their lifestyles without any special intervention. Participants were given a pre-test (before applying for the program) and post-test (after 24weeks) to identify effects of the program. The data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA. Hippocampus volume was significantly increased in the strength exercise group, but decreased in the control group. Moreover, there was an interaction effect (pStrength exercise has improved upper and lower body strength, lower body flexibility, agility, and dynamic balance. Upper body flexibility significantly decreased in the strength exercise group, but there was no interaction between the strength exercise group and the control group. The results of this study suggest that strength exercise has beneficial effects on hippocampus volume and functional fitness. Therefore, strength exercise can be an effective exercise for older women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Functional and chemical stability of a medicinal herb, Artemisia capillaris, following gamma sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Uhee; Jeong, Ill Yun; Bae, Mun Hyoung; Byun, Myung Woo; Jo, Sung Kee [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    The stability of functional and chemical properties of gamma-irradiated (10 kGy) Artemisia capillaris, a widely used herb in the traditional Oriental medicine, was investigated. Functional properties of the extracts of gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris were compared in antioxidant activities, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and protection of lymphocyte and plasmid DNA. Their chemical properties were assessed by HPLC analysis, comparing with chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid, which were isolated from ethylacetate fraction as major compounds with strong antioxidant activities. No significant difference in functional properties between irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris was found in all antioxidant assays. Also HPLC analysis of ethyl acetate fractions of irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris revealed the preservation of chlorogenic acid ({sub t}R=3.124 min) and caffeic acid ({sub t}R=3.672 min), and showed almost the same pattern in the general peaks. These results suggest that the chemical components and antioxidant properties of A. capillaris are not affected largely by gamma-ray irradiation. Therefore, this study may provide evidence that the irradiated herbs retain their potential functional properties.

  18. Characterization of Strength and Function in Ambulatory Adults With GNE Myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argov, Zohar; Bronstein, Faye; Esposito, Alicia; Feinsod-Meiri, Yael; Florence, Julaine M.; Fowler, Eileen; Greenberg, Marcia B.; Malkus, Elizabeth C.; Rebibo, Odelia; Siener, Catherine S.; Caraco, Yoseph; Kolodny, Edwin H.; Lau, Heather A.; Pestronk, Alan; Shieh, Perry; Mayhew, Jill E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To characterize the pattern and extent of muscle weakness and impact on physical functioning in adults with GNEM. Methods: Strength and function were assessed in GNEM subjects (n = 47) using hand-held dynamometry, manual muscle testing, upper and lower extremity functional capacity tests, and the GNEM-Functional Activity Scale (GNEM-FAS). Results: Profound upper and lower muscle weakness was measured using hand-held dynamometry in a characteristic pattern, previously described. Functional tests and clinician-reported outcomes demonstrated the consequence of muscle weakness on physical functioning. Conclusions: The characteristic pattern of upper and lower muscle weakness associated with GNEM and the resulting functional limitations can be reliably measured using these clinical outcome assessments of muscle strength and function. PMID:28827485

  19. Measurement of the photon structure function $F_{2}^{\\gamma}$ at low x

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Beeston, C.; Behnke, T.; Bell, A.N.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bloomer, J.E.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Bouwens, B.T.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davies, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Doucet, M.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Edwards, J.E.G.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Evans, H.G.; Evans, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fong, D.G.; Foucher, M.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geddes, N.I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hart, P.A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ingram, M.R.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P.W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jones, G.; Jones, M.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kirk, J.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W.P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markus, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mincer, A.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Muller, U.; Mihara, S.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Oldershaw, N.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Pearce, M.J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Rees, D.L.; Rigby, D.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rooke, A.; Ros, E.; Rossi, A.M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Ruppel, U.; Rust, D.R.; Rylko, R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schenk, P.; Schieck, J.; Schleper, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, Robert Wayne; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Utzat, P.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Vokurka, E.H.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilkens, B.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1997-01-01

    Deep inelastic electron-photon scattering is studied using e+e- data collected by the OPAL detector at centre-of-mass energies sqrt{s_ee} ~ M_{Z^0}. The photon structure function F_2^gamma(x,Q^2) is explored in a Q^2 range of 1.1 to 6.6 GeV/c^2 at lower x values than ever before. To probe this kinematic region events are selected with a beam electron scattered into one of the OPAL luminosity calorimeters at scattering angles between 27 and 55 mrad. A measurement is presented of the photon structure function F_2^gamma(x,Q^2) at = 1.86 GeV^2 and 3.76 GeV^2 in five logarithmic x bins from 0.0025 to 0.2.

  20. Effect of strength training on muscle function in elderly hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C; Magnusson, S P; Beyer, N

    2007-01-01

    Immobilization due to hospitalization and major surgery leads to an increased risk of morbidity, disability and a decline in muscle function especially in frail elderly individuals. In fact, many elderly patients fail to regain their level of function and self-care before admission to hospital...... to induce muscle hypertrophy and increase muscle strength and functional performance in frail elderly individuals. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that strength training is an effective method to restore muscle function in post-operative patients and in patients with chronic diseases. Despite this......, strength training is rarely used in the rehabilitation of hospitalized elderly patients. The current knowledge on this topic will be the focus of this review....

  1. Knee extensor strength and risk of structural, symptomatic and functional decline in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Culvenor, Adam G; Ruhdorfer, Anja; Juhl, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    -analysis revealed that lower knee extensor strength was associated with an increased risk of symptomatic (WOMAC-Pain: odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10, 1.67) and functional decline (WOMAC-Function: OR 1.38, 95%CI 1.00, 1.89; chair-stand task: OR 1.03, 95%CI 1.03, 1.04), but not increased risk......OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between knee extensor strength and the risk of structural, symptomatic, or functional deterioration in individuals with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). METHODS: We systematically identified and methodologically...... appraised all longitudinal studies (≥1-year follow-up) reporting an association between knee extensor strength and structural (tibiofemoral, patellofemoral), symptomatic (self-reported, knee replacement), or functional (subjective, objective) decline in individuals with or at risk of radiographic...

  2. Grip strength in mice with joint inflammation: A rheumatology function test sensitive to pain and analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla-García, Ángeles; Tejada, Miguel Á; Perazzoli, Gloria; Entrena, José M; Portillo-Salido, Enrique; Fernández-Segura, Eduardo; Cañizares, Francisco J; Cobos, Enrique J

    2017-10-01

    Grip strength deficit is a measure of pain-induced functional disability in rheumatic disease. We tested whether this parameter and tactile allodynia, the standard pain measure in preclinical studies, show parallels in their response to analgesics and basic mechanisms. Mice with periarticular injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the ankles showed periarticular immune infiltration and synovial membrane alterations, together with pronounced grip strength deficits and tactile allodynia measured with von Frey hairs. However, inflammation-induced tactile allodynia lasted longer than grip strength alterations, and therefore did not drive the functional deficits. Oral administration of the opioid drugs oxycodone (1-8 mg/kg) and tramadol (10-80 mg/kg) induced a better recovery of grip strength than acetaminophen (40-320 mg/kg) or the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs ibuprofen (10-80 mg/kg) or celecoxib (40-160 mg/kg); these results are consistent with their analgesic efficacy in humans. Functional impairment was generally a more sensitive indicator of drug-induced analgesia than tactile allodynia, as drug doses that attenuated grip strength deficits showed little or no effect on von Frey thresholds. Finally, ruthenium red (a nonselective TRP antagonist) or the in vivo ablation of TRPV1-expressing neurons with resiniferatoxin abolished tactile allodynia without altering grip strength deficits, indicating that the neurobiology of tactile allodynia and grip strength deficits differ. In conclusion, grip strength deficits are due to a distinct type of pain that reflects an important aspect of the human pain experience, and therefore merits further exploration in preclinical studies to improve the translation of new analgesics from bench to bedside. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Resistance training improves muscle strength and functional capacity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Jakobsen, J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training (PRT) can improve muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to evaluate whether the improvements are maintained after the trial. METHODS: The present study was a 2-arm...... and was afterward encouraged to continue training. After the trial, the control group completed the PRT intervention. Both groups were tested before and after 12 weeks of the trial and at 24 weeks (follow-up), where isometric muscle strength of the knee extensors (KE MVC) and functional capacity (FS; combined score...... strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis, the effects persisting after 12 weeks of self-guided physical activity. Level of evidence: The present study provides level III evidence supporting the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training can improve muscle...

  4. The beta strength function structure in β+ decay of lutetium, thulium and cesium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhazov, G.D.; Bykov, A.A.; Vitman, V.D.; Naumov, Yu.V.; Orlov, S.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    The spectra of total γ-absorption in the decays of some Lutecium, Thulium and Cesium isotopes have been measured. The probabilities for level population in the decay of the isotopes have been determined. The deduced beta strength functions reveal pronounced structure. Calculations of the strength functions using the Saxon-Woods potential and the residual Gamow-Teller interaction are presented. It is shown that in β + decay of light Thulium and Cesium isotopes the strength function comprises more than 70% of the Gamow-Teller excitations with μsub(tau) = +1. This result is the first direct observation of the Gamow-Teller resonance in β + decay of nuclei with Tsub(z) > O. (orig.)

  5. Impact of backpack type on respiratory muscle strength and lung function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Christina; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We examine the influence of backpack type on lung function and respiratory muscle strength in children. Thirty-seven children were assessed for lung function and inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength under four randomly determined conditions: unloaded erect standing and three conditions carrying 15% of the child's body weight. In these three conditions, children carried the weight on a backpack with bilateral shoulder straps carried over both shoulders, on a backpack with bilateral shoulder straps carried over one shoulder and on a backpack with a mono shoulder strap. Significantly lower forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second and maximal expiratory pressure were observed when children carried a backpack with a mono shoulder strap compared to the unloaded standing position. In conclusion, the restrictive effect and the decrease in expiratory muscle strength were more pronounced for the backpack with a mono shoulder strap, suggesting that a double strap backpack is preferable to a mono shoulder strap backpack. Practitioner summary: There is little known about the effect of schoolbags on respiratory muscle function. We investigated the influence of backpack type on lung function and respiratory muscle strength. A backpack with a mono shoulder strap created a restrictive effect and a decrease in strength, suggesting that a double strap backpack is preferable to a mono shoulder strap backpack.

  6. Neck/shoulder function in tension-type headache patients and the effect of strength training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjarne K; Søgaard, Karen; Andersen, Lars L.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Muscle pain has been associated with reduced maximal muscle strength, and reduced rate of force development (RFD). Strength training (ST) has shown an effect in not only normalizing muscle function but also reducing neck muscle pain. Aim: The aims of this study were to compare muscle...... and shoulder functions in TTH patients. Participants and methods: In all, 60 TTH patients and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were included for a case–control comparison. The 60 patients with TTH were randomized into an ST and an ergonomic and posture correction (EP) control group. The ST group...

  7. Effect of football or strength training on functional ability and physical performance in untrained old men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T R; Schmidt, J F; Nielsen, J J

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 16 weeks of football or strength training on performance and functional ability were investigated in 26 (68.2 ± 3.2 years) untrained men randomized into a football (FG; n = 9), a strength training (ST; n = 9), or a control group (CO; n = 8). FG and ST trained 1.6 ± 0.1 and 1.5 ± 0......% lower (P training for old men improves functional ability and physiological response to submaximal exercise, while football...

  8. Causal relation between spasticity, strength, gross motor function, and functional outcome in children with cerebral palsy: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Ho; Park, Eun Young

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the causal relation between spasticity, weakness, gross motor function, and functional outcome (expressed as activity limitation) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and tested models of functional outcome mediated by gross motor function. Eighty-one children (50 males, 31 females) with CP were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Their mean age was 10 years 4 months (SD 1y 9mo). Strength was assessed using the Manual Muscle Test. Spasticity was assessed by the Modified Ashworth Scale. The Gross Motor Function Measure assessed gross motor function. The Functional Skills domain of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory assessed functional outcome. Twenty-eight children (34.6%) had quadriplegia, 44 children (54.3%) had diplegia, and nine children (11.1%) had hemiplegia. Children were classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System with 14 (17.3%) in level I, 9 (11.1%) in level II, 13 (16.0%) in level III, 5 (6.2%) in level IV, and 40 (49.4%) in level V. The proposed path model showed good fit indices. The direct effects were significant between spasticity and gross motor function (β=-0.339), between strength and gross motor function (β=0.447), and between gross motor function and functional outcome (β=0.708). Spasticity had a significant negative indirect effect (β=-0.240) and strength had a significant positive indirect effect (β=0.317) on functional outcome through effects on gross motor function. Activity-based rather than impairment-based intervention is more important for reducing activity limitation in children with CP. The study established a base from which researchers can further develop a causal model between motor impairments and functional outcome. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2010.

  9. A numerical study of a asymptotic expansion for the incomplete gamma function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalenko, V.; Taucher, T.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we develop further an asymptotic expansion recently derived by Kowalenko and Frankel for a particular Kummer function that is related to the incomplete gamma function. This asymptotic expansion is written in terms of new polynomials, whose coefficients can be evaluated by employing a novel graphical approach in conjunction with the theory of partitions. An extensive numerical analysis is performed to demonstrate the high level of accuracy of the asymptotic expansion. We also provide estimates for some of the terms in the remainder which are obtained via Dingle's theory of terminants. (authors)

  10. Measurement of the photon structure function F2 gamma with the L3 detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Jin, B.N.; Jindal, P.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2005-01-01

    The e+e- -> e+e- hadrons reaction, where one of the two electrons is detected in a low polar-angle calorimeter, is analysed in order to measure the hadronic photon structure function F2gamma . The full high-energy and high-luminosity data set, collected with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies 189-209GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 608/pb is used. The Q^2 range 11-34GeV^2 and the x range 0.006-0.556 are considered. The data are compared with recent parton density functions.

  11. The Truncated Lognormal Distribution as a Luminosity Function for SWIFT-BAT Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Zaninetti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the luminosity function (LF in Gamma ray bursts (GRBs depends on the adopted cosmology, each one characterized by its corresponding luminosity distance. Here, we analyze three cosmologies: the standard cosmology, the plasma cosmology and the pseudo-Euclidean universe. The LF of the GRBs is firstly modeled by the lognormal distribution and the four broken power law and, secondly, by a truncated lognormal distribution. The truncated lognormal distribution fits acceptably the range in luminosity of GRBs as a function of the redshift.

  12. Synthesis of silanol-functionalized latex nanoparticles through miniemulsion copolymerization of styrene and gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng-Wen; Zhou, Shu-Xue; Weng, Yu-Ming; Wu, Li-Min

    2006-05-09

    The polystyrene latex nanoparticles bearing silanol groups on their surfaces were successfully synthesized via miniemulsion polymerization using gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) as the functional comonomer and oil-soluble AIBN as the initiator at neutral conditions. FTIR and 29Si NMR spectra showed that the condensation of silanol groups was suppressed effectively. zeta potential and XPS analyses demonstrated that the silanol groups were enriched at the surfaces of the latex particles and could be tailored by MPS concentration. These silanol-functionalized latex particles could be easily coated with silica or other inorganic or organic compounds to prepare novel hybrid particles and hollow microspheres.

  13. Physicochemical, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocloo, Fidelis C.K.; Okyere, Abenaa A.; Asare, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) has been recognised as one of the best nutritional crops that can be used to augment the Ghanaian diet. The application of gamma irradiation as means of preserving tiger nut could modify the characteristics of resultant flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour from gamma irradiated tiger nut. The yellow and black types of tiger nut were sorted, washed and dried in an air-oven at 60 o C for 24 h. The dried tiger nut samples were irradiated at 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy and then flours produced from them. Moisture, ash, pH, titratable acidity, water and oil absorption capacities, swelling power, solubility, bulk density and pasting properties of the flours were determined using appropriate analytical methods. Results showed that irradiation did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the moisture and ash contents of the resultant flours. Gamma irradiation significantly (P≤0.05) increased titratable acidity with concomitant decrease in pH of the flours. No significant differences were observed for water and oil absorption capacities, swelling power as well as bulk density. Solubility significantly (P≤0.05) increased generally with irradiation dose. Peak viscosity, viscosities at 92 °C and 55 °C, breakdown and setback viscosities decreased significantly with irradiation dose. Flour produced from irradiated tiger nut has a potential in complementary food formulations due to its low viscosity and increased solubility values. - Highlights: • Physicochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour from gamma irradiated tiger nut were studied. • Irradiation did not affect the moisture and ash contents of the resultant flours. • Titratable acidity increased with decrease in pH of the flours from the irradiated tiger nut. • Solubility increased whereas peak viscosity decreased with irradiation dose. • Flour produced from irradiated tiger nut has a

  14. Experimental nuclear level densities and γ-ray strength functions in Sc and V isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Ingebretsen, F.; Messelt, S.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Chankova, R.; Loennroth, T.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear physics group at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory has developed a method to extract nuclear level density and γ-ray strength function from first-generation γ-ray spectra. This method is applied on the nuclei 44,45 Sc and 50,51 V in this work. The experimental level densities of 44,45 Sc are compared to calculated level densities using a microscopic model based on BCS quasiparticles within the Nilsson level scheme. The γ-ray strength functions are also compared to theoretical expectations, showing an unexpected enhancement of the γ-ray strength for low γ energies (E γ ≤3 MeV) in all the isotopes studied here. The physical origin of this enhancement is not yet understood

  15. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Suetta, Charlotte; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2016-06-01

    A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD) were assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, while postural balance and vertical jumping performance were evaluated using force plate analysis. Furthermore, functional ability was evaluated by stair-ascent and chair-rising testing. A total of nine, nine and seven participants from FT, ST and CON, respectively, were included in the analysis. Both exercise regimens led to substantial gains in functional ability, evidenced by 24 and 18 % reduced stair-ascent time, and 32 and 21 % increased chair-rising performance in FT and ST, respectively (all P football training mainly resulted in enhanced hamstring strength (18 %, P football training mainly included enhanced strength and rapid force capacity of the hamstring muscles. Gains in functional ability were observed in response to both training regimens, evidenced by reduced stair-ascent time and increased chair-rising performance. Long-term football exercise and strength training both appear to be effective interventional strategies to improve factors of importance for ADL by counteracting the age-related decline in lower

  16. The relationship between vickers microhardness and compressive strength of functional surface geopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subaer, Ekaputri, Januari Jaya; Fansuri, Hamzah; Abdullah, Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    An experimental study to investigate the relationship between Vickers microhardness and compressive strength of geopolymers made from metakaolin has been conducted. Samples were prepared by using metakaolin activated with a sodium silicate solution at a different ratio of Si to Al and Na to Al and cured at 70oC for one hour. The resulting geopolymers were stored in an open air for 28 days before conducting any measurement. Bulk density and apparent porosity of the samples were measured by using Archimedes's method. Vickers microhardness measurements were performed on a polished surface of geopolymers with a load ranging from 0.3 - 1.0 kg. The topographic of indented samples were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compressive strength of the resulting geopolymers was measured on the cylindrical samples with a ratio of height to the diameter was 2:1. The results showed that the molar ratios of geopolymers compositions play important roles in the magnitude of bulk density, porosity, Vickers's microhardness as well as the compressive strength. The porosity reduced exponentially the magnitude of the strength of geopolymers. It was found that the relationship between Vickers microhardness and compressive strength was linear. At the request of all authors and with the approval of the proceedings editor, article 020188 titled, "The relationship between vickers microhardness and compressive strength of functional surface geopolymers," is being retracted from the public record due to the fact that it is a duplication of article 020170 published in the same volume.

  17. The effect of gamma irradiation on cytological and physiological function of two cultivar of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbalaii, S.G.; Majd, F.; Fahimii, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: An investigation was performed in cytogenetic lab. of Nuclear Agriculture- Atomic Energy Organization of Iran in 2004-5.In this research the effect of gamma irradiation on cytological and physiological function of two cultivars of barley were examined. For this aim cytological and physiological sensitivity of two cultivars (30109, 30130) were assessed by different gamma radiation doses (50,150,250,350,450 Gy).By cytological studies in addition to defining the karyotype, the rate of chromosomal aberrations due to the effect of irradiation was studied and it was observed that the chromosomal aberrations increased by increasing the rate of irradiation. In 350 and 450 Gy were observed more different forms of chromosomal damage such as ring and dicentric chromosome, deletion and translocation than the other dose. The results showed that by increasing gamma ray dose, the growth rate, root and shoot length of two cultivars were decreased, and germination percentage had no significant difference.This work suggested that the increasing of chromosomal aberrations, so decrease mean value of growth rate. (author)

  18. Relationships between Respiratory Muscle Strength and Daily Living Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Yi; Chen, Chien-Chih; Hsiao, Shih-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common childhood disorder characterized by motor disability. Children with CP are at risk of developing significant respiratory problems associated with insufficient respiratory muscle strength. It is crucial to identify important factors which are associated with the limitations in daily living function in such children.…

  19. Strength and voluntary activation in relation to functioning in patients with osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. D.M. van Leeuwen

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by pain, and problems with activities of daily life, especially if the hip or knee joint is affected. The aim of this project was to study associations between strength, voluntary activation and physical functioning in elderly patients with OA. People with OA of

  20. Extraction of level density and γ strength function from primary γ spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Bergholt, L.; Guttormsen, M.; Melby, E.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.

    2000-01-01

    We present a new iterative procedure to extract the level density and the γ strength function from primary γ spectra for energies close up to the neutron binding energy. The procedure is tested on simulated spectra and on data from the 173 Yb( 3 He,α) 172 Yb reaction

  1. [Effects of education and strength training on functional tests among older people with osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez S, Christian Edgardo; Fernández G, Rubén; Zurita O, Félix; Linares G, Daniel; Farías M, Ariel

    2014-04-01

    Hip and knee osteoarthritis are important causes of pain and disability among older people. Education and strength training can alleviate symptoms and avoid functional deterioration. To assess muscle strength, fall risk and quality of life of older people with osteoarthritis and the effects of physiotherapy education and strength training on these variables. Thirty participants aged 78 ± 5 years (63% women) were randomly assigned to receive physiotherapy (Controls), physiotherapy plus education (Group 1) and physiotherapy plus strength training (group 2). At baseline and after 16 weeks of intervention, patients were evaluated with the Senior Fitness Test, Timed Up and Go and Quality of Life score short form (SF-36). During the intervention period, Senior Fitness Test and Timed Up and Go scores improved in all groups and SF-36 did not change. The improvement in Senior Fitness Test and Timed Up and Go was more marked in Groups 1 and 2 than in the control group. Education and strength training improve functional tests among older people with osteoarthritis.

  2. Functional Capacity in Adults With Cerebral Palsy: Lower Limb Muscle Strength Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2018-02-10

    To investigate the relation between lower limb muscle strength, passive muscle properties, and functional capacity outcomes in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Cross-sectional study. Tertiary institution biomechanics laboratory. Adults with spastic-type CP (N=33; mean age, 25y; range, 15-51y; mean body mass, 70.15±21.35kg) who were either Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level I (n=20) or level II (n=13). Not applicable. Six-minute walk test (6MWT) distance (m), lateral step-up (LSU) test performance (total repetitions), timed up-stairs (TUS) performance (s), maximum voluntary isometric strength of plantar flexors (PF) and dorsiflexors (DF) (Nm.kg -1 ), and passive ankle joint and muscle stiffness. Maximum isometric PF strength independently explained 61% of variance in 6MWT performance, 57% of variance in LSU test performance, and 50% of variance in TUS test performance. GMFCS level was significantly and independently related to all 3 functional capacity outcomes, and age was retained as a significant independent predictor of LSU and TUS test performance. Passive medial gastrocnemius muscle fascicle stiffness and ankle joint stiffness were not significantly related to functional capacity measures in any of the multiple regression models. Low isometric PF strength was the most important independent variable related to distance walked on the 6MWT, fewer repetitions on the LSU test, and slower TUS test performance. These findings suggest lower isometric muscle strength contributes to the decline in functional capacity in adults with CP. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Microscopic nature of the photon strength function: stable and unstable Ni and Sn isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Achakovskiy, Oleg; Avdeenkov, Alexander; Goriely, Stephane; Kamerdzhiev, Sergei; Krewald, Siegfried; Voitenkov, Dmitriy

    2014-01-01

    The pygmy-dipole resonances and photon strength functions in stable and unstable Ni and Sn isotopes are calculated within the microscopic self-consistent version of the extended theory of finite fermi systems which includes the QRPA and phonon coupling effects and uses the known Skyrme forces SLy4. The pygmy dipole resonance in $^{72}Ni$ is predicted with the mean energy of 12.4 MeV and the energy-weighted sum rule exhausting 25.6\\% of the total strength. The microscopically obtained photon E...

  4. Present situation and prospect of gamma knife radiosurgery for functional brain disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongquan; Zhao Xianjun; Liu Wenli

    2002-01-01

    With the evolution of imaging technology in the past two decades, currently anatomic targets including the trigeminal nerve (for trigeminal neuralgia), the thalamus (for tremor or pain), the cingulate gyrus, anterior internal capsule or amygdala (for pain or psychiatric illness), the globus pallidum (for symptoms of Parkinson's disease), and the hippocampus (for epilepsy) can be precisely located with computerized tomography, magnetic resonance image, single photon emission computerized tomography and positron emission tomography; stereotactic radiosurgery gradually tends to perfection. Gamma knife therapy for nervous functional disorders has become the focus of interest in clinical study

  5. Measurement of the Low-x Behaviour of the Photon Structure Function $F2-\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Ainsley, C.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boeriu, O.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauke, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; Lillich, J.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schmitt, S.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tarem, S.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trefzger, T.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Ward, J.J.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    2000-01-01

    The photon structure function F2-gamma(x,Q**2) has been measured using data taken by the OPAL detector at centre-of-mass energies of 91Gev, 183Gev and 189Gev, in Q**2 ranges of 1.5 to 30.0 GeV**2 (LEP1), and 7.0 to 30.0 GeV**2 (LEP2), probing lower values of x than ever before. Since previous OPAL analyses, new Monte Carlo models and new methods, such as multi-variable unfolding, have been introduced, reducing significantly the model dependent systematic errors in the measurement.

  6. Effects of Nintendo Wii Fit Plus training on ankle strength with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Jun, Hyun-Ju; Heo, Myoung

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a training program using the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus on the ankle muscle strengths of subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted using subjects in their 20s who had functional ankle instability. They were randomized to a strengthening training group and a balance training group with 10 subjects in each, and they performed an exercise using Nintendo Wii Fit Plus for 20 minutes. In addition, every participant completed preparation and finishing exercises for 5 minutes, respectively. [Results] The muscle strengths after conducting plantar flexion and dorsiflexion significantly increased at the angular velocities of 60° and 120° in the strengthening training group. Furthermore, the muscle strengths after conducting plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, eversion, and inversion significantly increased at the angular velocities of 60° and 120° in the balance training group. [Conclusion] The balance training group using Nintendo Wii Fit Plus showed better results than the strengthening training group. Consequently, it is recommended to add the balance training program of the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus to conventional exercise programs to improve ankle muscle strength in functional ankle instability at a low cost.

  7. Lung Function, Respiratory Muscle Strength, and Thoracoabdominal Mobility in Women With Fibromyalgia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Meire; Zamunér, Antonio R; Andrade, Carolina P; Silva, Ester

    2016-10-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is associated with a variety of symptoms, such as fatigue and dyspnea, which may be related to changes in the respiratory system. The objective of this work was to evaluate pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, and thoracoabdominal mobility in women with FMS and its association with clinical manifestations. The study included 23 women with FMS and 23 healthy women (control group). Pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, and thoracoabdominal mobility were assessed in all participants. Clinical manifestations such as number of active tender points, pain, fatigue, well-being, and general pressure pain threshold and pressure pain threshold in regions involved in respiratory function were also assessed. For data analysis, the Mann-Whitney test and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. The FMS group showed lower values of maximum voluntary ventilation (P = .030), maximal inspiratory pressure (P = .003), and cirtometry at the axillary and xiphoid levels (P respiratory muscle endurance, inspiratory muscle strength, and thoracic mobility than healthy subjects. In addition, inspiratory muscle strength was associated with the number of active tender points, fatigue, and axillary mobility. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  8. Effect of amino acid supplementation on muscle mass, strength and physical function in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børsheim, Elisabet; Bui, Quynh-Uyen T; Tissier, Sandrine; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Ferrando, Arny A; Wolfe, Robert R

    2008-04-01

    With advancing age there is a gradual decline in muscle mass, strength and function. The aim of this study was to determine if regular intake of a nutritional supplement containing essential amino acids (EAA)+arginine could reverse these responses in elderly subjects. Twelve glucose intolerant subjects (67.0+/-5.6 (SD) years, 7 females, 5 males) ingested 11 g of EAA+arginine two times a day, between meals for 16 weeks. Diet and activity were not otherwise modified. Lean body mass (DEXA) was measured every fourth week. Maximal leg strength was tested and functional tests were performed at week 0, 8, 12, and 16. Lean body mass (LBM) increased during the study (p=0.038). At week 12, the average increase in LBM was 1.14+/-0.36 (SE) kg (pvs baseline), whereas at week 16, the increase was 0.60+/-0.38 kg (NS vs baseline). The lower extremity strength measure score (sum of individual knee flexors and extensors' one repetition maximum, n=10) was 127.5+/-21.8 kg at baseline, and average increase during the study was 22.2+/-6.1% (pspeed (p=0.002), timed 5-step test (p=0.007), and timed floor-transfer test (p=0.022). Supplementation of the diet with EAA+arginine improves lean body mass, strength and physical function compared to baseline values in glucose intolerant elderly individuals.

  9. Relationships Among Lower Body Strength, Power, and Performance of Functional Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Ryder, J.; Hackney, K.; Scott-Pandorf, M.; Redd, E.; Buxton, R.; Bloomberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    There is a large degree of variability among crewmembers with respect to decrements in muscle strength and power following long duration spaceflight, ranging from 0 to approx.30% reductions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of varying decrements in lower body muscle strength and power (relative to body weight) on the performance of 2 occupationally relevant tasks (ladder climb and supine egress & walk). Seventeen participants with leg strength similar to US crewmembers performed a leg press power test, an isokinetic knee extension strength test and they were asked to complete the 2 functional tasks as quickly as possible. On additional test days the participants were asked to repeat the functional tasks under 3 conditions where a different external load was applied each time using a weighted suit in order to experimentally manipulate participants strength/body weight and power/body weight ratios. The weight in the suit ranged from 20-120% of body weight and was distributed in proportion to limb segment weights to minimize changes in center of gravity. The ladder task consisted of climbing 40 rungs on a ladder treadmill as fast as possible. The supine egress & walk task consisted of rising from a supine position and walking through an obstacle course. Results show a relatively linear relationship between strength/body weight and task time and power/body weight with task time such that the fastest performance times are associated with higher strength and power with about half the variance in task time is accounted for by a single variable (either strength or power). For the average person, a 20% reduction in power/body weight (from 18 to 14.4 W/kg) induces an increase (slowing) of about 10 seconds in the ladder climb task from 14 to 24 seconds (approx.70%) and a slowing of the supine egress & walk task from 14 to 21 seconds (approx.50%). Similar relationships were observed with strength/body weight and task performance. For the average

  10. Biodegradability of PP/HMSPP and natural and synthetic polymers blends in function of gamma irradiation degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Elisabeth C. L.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Lima, Luis F. C. P.; Bueno, Nelson R.; Brant, Antonio J. C.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2014-01-01

    Polymers are used for numerous applications in different industrial segments, generating enormous quantities of discarding in the environment. Polymeric materials composites account for an estimated from 20 to 30% total volume of solid waste. Polypropylene (PP) undergoes crosslinking and extensive main chain scissions when submitted to ionizing irradiation; as one of the most widely used linear hydrocarbon polymers, PP, made from cheap petrochemical feed stocks, shows easy processing leading it to a comprehensive list of finished products. Consequently, there is accumulation in the environment, at 25 million tons per year rate, since polymeric products are not easily consumed by microorganisms. PP polymers are very bio-resistant due to involvement of only carbon atoms in main chain with no hydrolysable functional group. Several possibilities have been considered to minimize the environmental impact caused by non-degradable plastics, subjecting them to: physical, chemical and biological degradation or combination of all these due to the presence of moisture, air, temperature, light, high energy radiation or microorganisms. There are three main classes of biodegradable polymers: synthetic polymers, natural polymers and blends of polymers in which one or more components are readily consumed by microorganisms. This work aims to biodegradability investigation of a PP/HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene) blended with sugarcane bagasse, PHB (poly-hydroxy-butyrate) and PLA (poly-lactic acid), both synthetic polymers, at a 10% level, subjected to gamma radiation at 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy doses. Characterization will comprise IR, DSC, TGA, OIT and Laboratory Soil Burial Test (LSBT).

  11. High-intensity strength training improves function of chronically painful muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This study investigates consequences of chronic neck pain on muscle function and the rehabilitating effects of contrasting interventions. METHODS: Women with trapezius myalgia (MYA, n = 42) and healthy controls (CON, n = 20) participated in a case-control study. Subsequently MYA were...... randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training (SST, n = 18), general fitness training (GFT, n = 16), or a reference group without physical training (REF, n = 8). Participants performed tests of 100 consecutive cycles of 2 s isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of shoulder elevation followed...... capacity during repetitive MVC of the trapezius muscle than healthy controls. High-intensity strength training effectively improves strength capacity during repetitive MVC of the painful trapezius muscle....

  12. Functional trade-off between strength and thermal capacity of dermal armor: Insights from girdled lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckhoven, Chris; du Plessis, Anton; Hui, Cang

    2017-10-01

    The presence of dermal armor is often unambiguously considered the result of an evolutionary predator-prey arms-race. Recent studies focusing predominantly on osteoderms - mineralized elements embedded in the dermis layer of various extant and extinct vertebrates - have instead proposed that dermal armor might exhibit additional functionalities besides protection. Multiple divergent functionalities could impose conflicting demands on a phenotype, yet, functional trade-offs in dermal armor have rarely been investigated. Here, we use high-resolution micro-computed tomography and voxel-based simulations to test for a trade-off between the strength and thermal capacity of osteoderms using two armored cordylid lizards as model organisms. We demonstrate that high vascularization, associated with improved thermal capacity might limit the strength of osteoderms. These results call for a holistic, cautionary future approach to studies investigating dermal armor, especially those aiming to inspire artificial protective materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of smartphone overuse on hand function, pinch strength, and the median nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnal, Esra Erkol; Demİrcİ, kadİr; Çetİntürk, Azİze; Akgönül, Mehmet; Savaş, Serpİl

    2015-08-01

    In this study we investigated the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon and median nerve in smartphone users by ultrasonography to assess the effects of smartphone addiction on the clinical and functional status of the hands. One hundred two students were divided into 3 groups: non-users, and high or low smartphone users. Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) scores and grip and pinch strengths were recorded. Pain in thumb movement and rest and hand function were evaluated on the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Duruöz Hand Index (DHI), respectively. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the median nerve and the FPL tendon were calculated bilaterally using ultrasonography. Significantly higher median nerve CSAs were observed in the dominant hands of the high smartphone users than in the non-dominant hands (PSmartphone overuse enlarges the median nerve, causes pain in the thumb, and decreases pinch strength and hand functions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Muscle activity during functional coordination training: implications for strength gain and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Andersen, Lars Louis; Kirk, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized...... for the attained muscle activity. Body position during the exercises was important for the activity of the erector spinae, and level of progression was important for the activity of the trapezius. The findings indicate that depending on type, body position, and level of progression, functional coordination...... training can be performed with a muscle activity sufficient for strength gain. Functional coordination training may therefore be a good choice for prevention or rehabilitation of musculoskeletal pain or injury in the neck, shoulder, or trunk muscles....

  15. Ventilatory muscle strength, diaphragm thickness and pulmonary function in world-class powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter I; Venables, Heather K; Liu, Hymsuen; de-Witt, Julie T; Brown, Michelle R; Faghy, Mark A

    2013-11-01

    Resistance training activates the ventilatory muscles providing a stimulus similar to ventilatory muscle training. We examined the effects of elite powerlifting training upon ventilatory muscle strength, pulmonary function and diaphragm thickness in world-class powerlifters (POWER) and a control group (CON) with no history of endurance or resistance training, matched for age, height and body mass. Body composition was assessed using single-frequency bioelectrical impedance. Maximal static volitional inspiratory (P(I,max)) and expiratory (P(E,max)) mouth pressures, diaphragm thickness (T(di)) derived from ultrasound measurements and pulmonary function from maximal flow volume loops were measured. There were no differences in physical characteristics or pulmonary function between groups. P(I,max) (22 %, P powerlifters improve ventilatory muscle strength and increases diaphragm size. Whole-body resistance training may be an appropriate training mode to attenuate the effects of ventilatory muscle weakness experienced with ageing and some disease states.

  16. Level densities and γ-strength functions in 148,149Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siem, S.; Guttormsen, M.; Ingeberg, K.; Melby, E.; Rekstad, J.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2002-01-01

    The level densities and γ-strength functions of the weakly deformed 148 Sm and 149 Sm nuclei have been extracted. The temperature versus excitation energy curve, derived within the framework of the microcanonical ensemble, shows structures, which we associate with the breakup of Cooper pairs. The nuclear heat capacity is deduced within the framework of both the microcanonical and canonical ensembles. We observe negative heat capacity in the microcanonical ensemble whereas the canonical heat capacity exhibits an S shape as a function of temperature, both signals of a phase transition. The structures in the γ-strength functions are discussed in terms of the pygmy resonance and the scissors mode built on excited states. The samarium results are compared with data for the well-deformed 161,162 Dy, 166,167 Er, and 171,172 Yb isotopes and with data from (n,γ) experiments and giant dipole resonance studies

  17. Role of Common-Gamma Chain Cytokines in NK Cell Development and Function: Perspectives for Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Meazza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available NK cells are components of the innate immunity system and play an important role as a first-line defense mechanism against viral infections and in tumor immune surveillance. Their development and their functional activities are controlled by several factors among which cytokines sharing the usage of the common cytokine-receptor gamma chain play a pivotal role. In particular, IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 are the members of this family predominantly involved in NK cell biology. In this paper, we will address their role in NK cell ontogeny, regulation of functional activities, development of specialized cell subsets, and acquisition of memory-like functions. Finally, the potential application of these cytokines as recombinant molecules to NK cell-based immunotherapy approaches will be discussed.

  18. LED Lighting System Reliability Modeling and Inference via Random Effects Gamma Process and Copula Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibing Hao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light emitting diode (LED lamp has attracted increasing interest in the field of lighting systems due to its low energy and long lifetime. For different functions (i.e., illumination and color, it may have two or more performance characteristics. When the multiple performance characteristics are dependent, it creates a challenging problem to accurately analyze the system reliability. In this paper, we assume that the system has two performance characteristics, and each performance characteristic is governed by a random effects Gamma process where the random effects can capture the unit to unit differences. The dependency of performance characteristics is described by a Frank copula function. Via the copula function, the reliability assessment model is proposed. Considering the model is so complicated and analytically intractable, the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method is used to estimate the unknown parameters. A numerical example about actual LED lamps data is given to demonstrate the usefulness and validity of the proposed model and method.

  19. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the physicochemical, functional and sensory properties of cocoyam. (Xanthosoma sagittifolium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asante, R.

    2012-01-01

    Cultivated for human nutrition, animal feed and cash income for both farmers and traders, the underground cormels of Xanthosoma sagittifolium provide easily digested starch; the leaves are nutritious spinach-like vegetable, which contain a lot of minerals, vitamins and thiamine. The high water content and the difficulty of storing, processing and transportation of roots and tubers have resulted in potentially very high postharvest losses in bulb and tuber crops. Radiation has the potential to control postharvest losses of a wide range of fresh produce including tuber crops such as yam and potato. This study, therefore, sought to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on the physical, chemical and sensory properties of stored cocoyam. Freshly harvested cocoyam cormels were obtained from Atia in the Ashanti region of Ghana and immediately transported to the Radiation Technology Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The cocoyam was stored in baskets and subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation; 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600Gy. Gamma irradiation significantly (p < 0.05) reduced sprouting in stored cocoyam cormels. Although stored significantly (p < 0.05) increased sprouting in tannia, application of a dose of 150Gy reduced sprouting by up to 80% whereas 300Gy achieved 89% reduction in sprouting. Storage significantly (p < 0.05) increased rotting of cocoyam cormels. Above 150Gy, gamma irradiation significantly (p < 0.05) increased rotting of cocoyam. Storage but not irradiation significantly (p < 0.05) reduced both moisture and ash contents of cocoyam. Functional properties of tannia are affected by both irradiation and storage. Water absorption capacity increased significantly (p < 0.05) with both irradiation and storage. Bulk density increased significantly (p < 0.05) with both irradiation and storage. Whereas swelling power of cocoyam flour was significantly (p < 0.05) increased by irradiation, storage generally decreased it. Irradiation as well as

  20. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Aloe vera on Antioxidant Status and Thyroid Functions in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, E. M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the antioxidant status and thyroid functions of female albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) when exposed to 3.0 Gy of gamma ray (dose rats = 0.696 Gy/min.) as s single dose and the role of 0.25 ml Aloe vera whole leaf juice filtrate/kg body weight against the damage caused by gamma irradiation. Total number of 50 female albino rats were equally divided into 5 groups; normal control group, irradiated group, Aloe vera administered group, irradiated rats followed by Aloe vera administration for 1 week and the 5th group is the irradiated rats followed by Aloe vera administration for 2 weeks starting from 24 h post-irradiation. Total antioxidant capacity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were measured in serum of all groups. The results of this study revealed that 3.0 Gy of gamma irradiation resulted in a highly significant reduction in serum total antioxidant capacity (39.89%), highly significant increase in TBARs (29.19%) and a significant increase in serum T3 and T4 levels (8.21 and 25.51%, respectively) compared to control group. There was a non-significant change in serum total anti-oxidant capacity and TBARs, and a highly significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels (31.00 and 36.57%) in rats administered Aloe vera alone. Concerning rats administered Aloe vera whole leaf juice filtrate post-irradiation, serum total anti-oxidant capacity and TBARs were restored to the normal levels after 2 weeks. Serum levels of T3 and T4 (represent thyroid functions) were restored to the normal levels after 1 week and found to be inhibited (20.41 and 22.62%, respectively) after 2 weeks of administration. (author)

  1. [Effect of Tai Ji Quan Training on Strength and Function of Lower Limbs in the Aged].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ya-qiong; Peng, Nan; Zhou, Ming

    2016-01-01

    To observe the effect of Tai Ji Quan (TJQ) training on strength and function of lower limbs in the aged. Sixty senile subjects were recruited and assigned to the TJQ group and the control group (imparting health knowledge)by random digit table. Patients in the TJQ group received 24-style TJQ training for 18 months (60 min each time, 5 times per week), while those in the control group were imparted with sarcopenia related causes, pathogeneses, prevention and control measures. The maximum isometric strength of bilateral iliopsoas, quadriceps femoris, tibialis anterior muscle, hamstrings; the time for 5 sitting-up tests and Time Up and Go Test (TUGT), one-leg standing time with closed eyes test; and the score of Berg balance scale were compared between the two groups. Compared with before treatment, muscle strength increased in the TJQ group with an average increased capacity (rate) as follows, bilateral iliopsoas 5.5 kg (16.9%), quadriceps femoris 5.5 kg (26.2%), and tibialis anterior muscle 8.5 kg (36.2%) (all P strength increased significantly (P training could improve strength of iliopsoas, quadriceps femoris, tibialis anterior muscle in the aged, elevate their balance and locomotor activities, and possibly prevent and treat sarcopenia.

  2. Frequency and function in the basal ganglia: the origins of beta and gamma band activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenkinsop, Alexander; Anderson, Sean; Gurney, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Neuronal oscillations in the basal ganglia have been observed to correlate with behaviours, although the causal mechanisms and functional significance of these oscillations remain unknown. We present a novel computational model of the healthy basal ganglia, constrained by single unit recordings from non-human primates. When the model is run using inputs that might be expected during performance of a motor task, the network shows emergent phenomena: it functions as a selection mechanism and shows spectral properties that match those seen in vivo. Beta frequency oscillations are shown to require pallido-striatal feedback, and occur with behaviourally relevant cortical input. Gamma oscillations arise in the subthalamic-globus pallidus feedback loop, and occur during movement. The model provides a coherent framework for the study of spectral, temporal and functional analyses of the basal ganglia and lays the foundation for an integrated approach to study basal ganglia pathologies such as Parkinson's disease in silico. Neural oscillations in the basal ganglia (BG) are well studied yet remain poorly understood. Behavioural correlates of spectral activity are well described, yet a quantitative hypothesis linking time domain dynamics and spectral properties to BG function has been lacking. We show, for the first time, that a unified description is possible by interpreting previously ignored structure in data describing globus pallidus interna responses to cortical stimulation. These data were used to expose a pair of distinctive neuronal responses to the stimulation. This observation formed the basis for a new mathematical model of the BG, quantitatively fitted to the data, which describes the dynamics in the data, and is validated against other stimulus protocol experiments. A key new result is that when the model is run using inputs hypothesised to occur during the performance of a motor task, beta and gamma frequency oscillations emerge naturally during static-force and

  3. Photon strength functions in Gd isotopes studied from radiative capture of resonance neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroll J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental spectra of γ rays following radiative neutron capture on isolated resonances of stable 152,154–158Gd targets were measured by the DANCE calorimeter installed at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center in New Mexico, USA. These spectra were analyzed within the extreme statistical model to get new information on the photon strength functions. Special emphasis was put on study of the scissors vibrational mode present in these isotopes. Our data show that the scissors-mode resonances are built not only on the ground states but also on the excited levels of all studied Gd isotopes. The scissors mode strength observed in 157,159Gd products is significantly higher than in neighboring even-even nuclei 156,158Gd. Such a difference indicates the existence of an odd-even effect in the scissors mode strength. Moreover, there exists no universal parameter-free model of the electric dipole photon strength function describing the experimental data in all of the Gd isotopes studied. The results for the scissors mode are compared with the (γ, γ′ data for the ground-state transitions and with the results from 3He-induced reactions.

  4. Effects of functional resistance training on muscle strength and musculoskeletal discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Montechieze Cassemiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Functional resistance training (FRT is becoming increasingly popular to improve physical fitness of practitioners, however, yet there are gaps in knowledge about effectiveness of FRT in relation conventional resistance training (CRT in several ambits, as musculoskeletal complaints. Objective: Compare the effect of FRT and CRT in the musculoskeletal discomfort and magnitude of gain in muscle strength in healthy women. Methods: 52 women was divided into three groups, FRT (n = 15; 22 ± 2.35 years: functional resistance training; CRT (n = 14; 22.5 ± 1.78 years: conventional resistance training and CG (n = 13; 20.6 ± 1.10 years: no type of intervention. The training was periodized in 30 sessions over 12 weeks with 3 sessions per week. For the muscle strength variable used the 1RM test and for the musculoskeletal discomfort variable, the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ. Regarding the statistical analysis, all results took into consideration a 5% level of significance. Results: Considerable gain in muscle strength was observed for all exercises in both training groups. In addition, there was a tendency in CRT to relate a more musculoskeletal discomfort; presented 27.3% more complaints compared FRT in the MNQ. Conclusion: The FRT was as effective as the CRT for improving muscle strength, furthermore, there was a tendency for FRT to cause less musculoskeletal discomfort.

  5. Muscle activity during functional coordination training: implications for strength gain and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Andersen, Lars L; Kirk, Niels; Pedersen, Mogens T; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized with 7 functional coordination exercises 12 times during 4 weeks before testing. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was obtained from rectus abdominus, erector spinae, obliquus externus, and trapezius during the exercises with 2-4 levels of progression. Electromyography was normalized to the maximal EMG activity during maximal voluntary contractions, and a p value muscles reached sufficiently high levels of activity during the coordination exercises for strength gain (>60% of maximal EMG activity). Type of exercise played a significant role for the attained muscle activity. Body position during the exercises was important for the activity of the erector spinae, and level of progression was important for the activity of the trapezius. The findings indicate that depending on type, body position, and level of progression, functional coordination training can be performed with a muscle activity sufficient for strength gain. Functional coordination training may therefore be a good choice for prevention or rehabilitation of musculoskeletal pain or injury in the neck, shoulder, or trunk muscles.

  6. Analysis of pain, functional capacity, muscular strength and balance in young women with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camile Ludovico Zamboti

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS is associated with anterior knee pain, changes in functional capacity, balance and muscle strength disorders. Objective: To quantify pain, functional capacity, strength in quadriceps (Q, gluteus medium (GM, hip external rotator (ER muscles and balance in sedentary women with PFPS. Methods: Twenty sedentary women, aged 18 to 25 years, were divided into two groups: PFPS (N=10 and control group (N=10. All the volunteers answered the items of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Lysholm Knee Score Scale, the Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS, and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS. The participants performed the following tests: maximal voluntary isometric contraction measured by dynamometry; postural balance using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT and a force platform. Statistical analyses were performed using the Shapiro Wilk test, the Mann Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Data were submitted to SPSS 20 software. Results: The PFPS group presented greater pain, balance impairment and higher average velocity of oscillation; however, no differences were observed in Q, GM and RE muscle strength and in balance analyzed by SEBT. Conclusion: Women with PFPS exhibited greater pain, worse functional capacity and body balance. Moderate correlation between both balance tests suggests the use of SEBT when the force platform is not available, which could facilitate and highlight the importance of clinical diagnosis with regard to postural balance.

  7. Lower limb strength training in children with cerebral palsy – a randomized controlled trial protocol for functional strength training based on progressive resistance exercise principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschuren Olaf

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently, strength training in children with cerebral palsy (CP was considered to be inappropriate, because it could lead to increased spasticity or abnormal movement patterns. However, the results of recent studies suggest that progressive strength training can lead to increased strength and improved function, but low methodological quality and incomplete reporting on the training protocols hampers adequate interpretation of the results. This paper describes the design and training protocol of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a school-based progressive functional strength training program for children with CP. Methods/Results Fifty-one children with Gross Motor Function Classification Systems levels I to III, aged of 6 to 13 years, were recruited. Using stratified randomization, each child was assigned to an intervention group (strength training or a control group (usual care. The strength training was given in groups of 4–5 children, 3 times a week, for a period of 12 weeks. Each training session focussed on four exercises out of a 5-exercise circuit. The training load was gradually increased based on the child's maximum level of strength, as determined by the 8 Repetition Maximum (8 RM. To evaluate the effectiveness of the training, all children were evaluated before, during, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention period. Primary outcomes in this study were gross motor function (measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure and functional muscle strength tests and walking ability (measured with the 10-meter, the 1-minute and the timed stair test. Secondary outcomes were lower limb muscle strength (measured with a 6 RM test, isometric strength tests, and a sprint capacity test, mobility (measured with a mobility questionnaire, and sport activities (measured with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Spasticity and range of motion were assessed to evaluate any

  8. Quadriceps Strength in Patients With Isolated Cartilage Defects of the Knee: Results of Isokinetic Strength Measurements and Their Correlation With Clinical and Functional Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmüller, Anja; Andres, Tasja; Schoch, Wolfgang; Baur, Heiner; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have found a significant deficit of maximum quadriceps strength after autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) of the knee. However, it is unclear whether muscular strength deficits in patients with cartilage damage exist prior to operative treatment. To isokinetically test maximum quadriceps muscle strength and quantify the impact of possible strength deficits on functional and clinical test results. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. To identify clinically relevant muscular strength deficits, 24 patients (5 females, 19 males; mean age, 34.5 years; body mass index, 25.9 kg/m 2 ) with isolated cartilage defects (mean onset, 5.05 years; SD, 7.8 years) in the knee joint underwent isokinetic strength measurements. Maximal quadriceps strength was recorded in 3 different testing modes: pure concentric contraction (flexors and extensors alternating work; con1), concentric-eccentric (only the extensors work concentrically and eccentrically; con2), and eccentric contraction in the alternating mode (ecc). Results were compared for functional performance (single-leg hop test), pain scales (visual analog scale [VAS], numeric rating scale [NRS]), self-reported questionnaires (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC], Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scale [KOOS]), and defect size (cm 2 ). Compared with the uninjured leg, significantly lower quadriceps strength was detected in the injured leg in all isokinetic working modes (con1 difference, 27.76 N·m [SD 17.47; P = .003]; con2 difference, 21.45 N·m [SD, 18.45; P =.025]; ecc difference, 29.48 N·m [SD, 21.51; P = .001]), with the largest deficits found for eccentric muscle performance. Moderate negative correlations were observed for the subjective pain scales NRS and VAS. The results of the IKDC and KOOS questionnaires showed low, nonsignificant correlations with findings in the isokinetic measurement. Moreover, defect sizes (mean, 3.13 cm 2 ) were of no importance regarding the

  9. Measurement and analysis of environmental gamma radiation using the spectral weighting function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1991-01-01

    JAERI has developed a dose evaluation method using a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector and a spectral weighting function for low-level gamma rays in the environment. This method has the following advantages : (a) the detection efficiency is high ; (b) information on energy spectra can be used ; (c) the method is easily applied to the estimation of effective dose equivalent ; and (d) small and highly efficient instruments using this method can be produced because of recent development of IC technique. In this paper, the principle of the method, derivation of the weighting function, and the practical application of this method to the environmental measuring instruments are described. Further, the characteristics of dose rates in the urban environments examined with a portable dose rate meter using this method are briefly explained. (author)

  10. The adipogenic acetyltransferase Tip60 targets activation function 1 of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Beekum, Olivier; Brenkman, Arjan B; Grøntved, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) plays a key role in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism in adipocytes, by regulating their differentiation, maintenance, and function. The transcriptional activity of PPARgamma is dictated by the set...... in cells, and through use of chimeric proteins, we established that coactivation by Tip60 critically depends on the N-terminal activation function 1 of PPARgamma, a domain involved in isotype-specific gene expression and adipogenesis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that the endogenous Tip...... of proteins with which this nuclear receptor interacts under specific conditions. Here we identify the HIV-1 Tat-interacting protein 60 (Tip60) as a novel positive regulator of PPARgamma transcriptional activity. Using tandem mass spectrometry, we found that PPARgamma and the acetyltransferase Tip60 interact...

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the structure and function of bovine hemoglobin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wdzieczak, J.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish the nature of the radiation damage and to discuss the relationship between structural and functional changes of gamma irradiated hemoglobin. Bovine HbA has been irradiated in dilute aqueous solution with 60 Co-rays (1-4 Mrad). The microzonal electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing indicated changes in the electric charge of hemoglobin molecules. At the same time for the doses exceeding 2 Mrad disturbances in fingerprinting separation were found. These changes were confirmed by amino acid analysis. It was stated that His, Trp, Cys, Met, Tyr and Pro were the main residues affected. The decrease of amino acids content was accompanied by the lowering of heme-heme interaction and the increase of oxygen affinity. It is probably connected with the injuries of amino acids responsible for the functional properties of hemoglobin. (author)

  12. Influence of Relative Strength on Functional Independence of Patients With Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Neto, Frederico; Guanais, Patrícia; Lopes, Guilherme H; Dornelas, Elisa; de Campos Barbetta, Daniela; Coutinho, Alessandra C; Gonçalves, Carlos Wellington; Gomes Costa, Rodrigo Rodrigues

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the influence of strength values and fat mass on functional independence of men with different spinal cord injury (SCI) levels. Cross-sectional study. Hospital network. Men with SCI (N=45). Subjects were assessed in functional independence scales, a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test, and body composition to detect absolute and relative strength: 1RM divided by body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM), respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to verify the influence of predictors on functional independence (FIM and Spinal Cord Independence Measure [SCIM] scale and subscales). Receiver operating characteristic curves were created to identify cutoff points of strength for functional independence. The best models for FIM total, FIM mobility, and SCIM total used 1RM as the best predictor (adjusted R 2 =.75, .67, and .65, respectively; PSCIM mobility (adjusted R 2 =.62, Pscore of 69 has a 1RM cutoff point of 50.1kg, and a FIM score of 76 has cutoff points of .73 for 1RM/BM and .91 for 1RM/LBM. A SCIM score of 68 has cutoff points for 1RM, 1RM/BM, and 1RM/LBM of 50.1kg, .77, and .92, respectively. Cutoff points of relative strength should be used as determinant variables for independence, health, or sports performance. This study may contribute to more adequate guidance of physical activity during a rehabilitation program and after discharge. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Strength, Pain, Function in OIF/OEF Amputees: A Nurse-Managed Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-25

    Rehabilitation Program (n=23) or standard Amputee Protocol (n=22). Analysis: Linear mixed models compared the outcomes of both groups after 3, 6, 9 and 12... Amputee rehabilitation protocol. The aims were to compare the two groups on: knee muscle strength; functional performance (mobility), QOL; and...NMES Rehabilitation Program (n=23) or standard Amputee Protocol (n=22). Analysis: Linear mixed models compared the outcomes of both groups after

  14. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary functions and muscle strength in sedentary hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deen, Heba A Bahey; Alanazi, Fahad Salam; Ahmed, Khaled Takey

    2018-03-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Inspiratory Muscle Trainer (IMT) on respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary functions. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen sedentary unemployed patients were recruited from both genders who received regular hemodialysis sessions from at least three months. Those patients received Threshold IMT program for 12 weeks. Pulmonary functions and respiratory muscle strength in form of (PImax) and (PEmax) were measured by electronic spirometry and digital pressure vacuum meter respectively. Additionally oxygen saturation was measured by Finger pulse oximeter. All measurements were performed before and at the end of the treatment program after 12 weeks. [Results] The results of this study revealed significant improvement in FVC%, FEV1%, PEF%, PImax and PEmax after three months of treatment by using inspiratory muscle trainer while no significant difference was recorded regarding to FEV1/FVC% ratio and SpO 2 . [Conclusion] Inspiratory muscle trainer is an effective therapeutic technique to improve respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary functions in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  15. Relationship between muscle strength parameters and functional capacity in persons with mild to moderate degree multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Vissing, Kristian; Langeskov-Christensen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    . Multiple linear regressions were performed to determine which muscle strength parameter would serve as a stronger predictor of walking performance. RESULTS: Both RFD and maximal muscle strength correlated with functional capacity. Correlations were strongest for knee extensors and flexors of the weaker leg......, while no clear ranking of the influence of the knee extensors vs. flexors on walking was evident. Multiple linear regressions showed that maximal isokinetic strength of the weaker leg is a better predictor for T25FWT and 2MWT performance than RFD. CONCLUSIONS: Maximal muscle strength of the weaker leg......BACKGROUND: Maximal muscle strength has been shown to be an important predictor of functional capacity for persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Another muscle strength parameter known to be important for functional capacity in other patient groups is rate of force development (RFD) in knee...

  16. Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L. as a Marine Functional Source of Gamma-Tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Menoyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma tocopherol (gT exhibits beneficial cardiovascular effects partly due to its anti-inflammatory activity. Important sources of gT are vegetable oils. However, little is known to what extent gT can be transferred into marine animal species such as Atlantic salmon by feeding. Therefore, in this study we have investigated the transfer of dietary gT into salmon. To this end, fish were fed a diet supplemented with 170 ppm gT for 16 weeks whereby alpha tocopherol levels were adjusted to 190 ppm in this and the control diet. Feeding gT-rich diets resulted in a three-fold increase in gT concentrations in the liver and fillet compared to non-gT-supplemented controls. Tissue alpha tocopherol levels were not decreased indicating no antagonistic interaction between gamma- and alpha tocopherol in salmon. The concentration of total omega 3 fatty acids slightly increased in response to dietary gT. Furthermore, dietary gT significantly decreased malondialdehyde in the fillet, determined as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation. In the liver of gT fed salmon we observed an overall down-regulation of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. Additionally, gT improved the antioxidant capacity by up-regulating Gpx4a gene expression in the pyloric caeca. We suggest that Atlantic salmon may provide a marine functional source capable of enriching gT for human consumption.

  17. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Pulmonary Function and Muscle Strength: The Chinese Twin Study of Aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Xiaocao; Xu, Chunsheng; Wu, Yili

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and environmental influences on predictors of decline in daily functioning, including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), handgrip, and five-times-sit-to-stand test (FTSST), have not been addressed in the aging Chinese population. We performed classical twin...... was moderate for FEV1, handgrip, and FTSST (55-60%) but insignificant for FVC. Only FVC showed moderate control, with shared environmental factors accounting for about 50% of the total variance. In contrast, all measures of pulmonary function and muscle strength showed modest influences from the unique...

  18. Level densities of iron isotopes and lower-energy enhancement of y-strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinov, A V; Grimes, S M; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Belgya, T; Brune, C R; Guttormsen, M; Hornish, M J; Massey, T N; Mitchell, G; Rekstad, J; Schiller, A; Siem, S

    2005-01-01

    The neutron spectrum from the 55 Mn(d,n) 56 Fe reaction has been measured at E d = 7 MeV. The level density of 56 Fe obtained from neutron evaporation spectrum has been compared to the level density from Oslo-type 57 Fe( 3 He, aγ) 56 Fe experiment [1]. The good agreement supports the recent results [1, 8] including an availability of a low-energy enhancement in the γ-strength function for iron isotopes. The new level density function allowed us to investigate an excitation energy dependence of this enhancement, which is shown to increase with increasing excitation energy

  19. Quality assurance procedure for functional performance of industrial gamma radiography exposure devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Yadav, R.K.; Rajoo Kumar; Bhatt, B.C.; Sivaraman, G.; Nandkumar, A.N.

    2003-05-01

    An Industrial Gamma Radiography Exposure Device (IGRED) consists of various moving parts and accessories and wear and tear take place often. This may increase the possibility of radiation incidents and result in avoidable radiation exposure. Quality assurance tests of the equipment for functional performance plays a major role in ensuring that the exposure device and its accessories perform their intended functions and satisfy radiation safety requirements to avert potential exposures to operators. Therefore, in India it is practiced as mandatory requirement that each IGRED is tested for its functional performance and only after ascertaining that features of operational safety are satisfactory, loading of the source into the radiography exposure device can be permitted. This procedure which is being. practiced since the late 1970s, has contributed significantly towards the safe use of IGREDs and minimising the occurrence of radiation accidents. The purpose of this document is to highlight the importance of periodic functional performance check of each IGRED as per the checklist for the testing procedures. It is also proposed to entrust this activity to accredited laboratories, which have the necessary infrastructure to carry out this activity. The prerequisites for accreditation of such laboratories to carry out this activity and the testing procedures to be adopted for checking the functional performance of various models of IGREDs used in this country are given in this report. (author)

  20. Application of ANFIS for analytical modeling of tensile strength of functionally graded steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the tensile strength of ferritic and austenitic functionally graded steels produced by electroslag remelting has been modeled. To produce functionally graded steels, two slices of plain carbon steel and austenitic stainless steels were spot welded and used as electroslag remelting electrode. Functionally graded steel containing graded layers of ferrite and austenite may be fabricated via diffusion of alloying elements during remelting stage. Vickers microhardness profile of the specimen has been obtained experimentally and modeled with adaptive network-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS. To build the model for graded ferritic and austenitic steels, training, testing and validation using respectively 174 and 120 experimental data were conducted. According to the input parameters, in the ANFIS model, the Vickers microhardness of each layer was predicted. A good fit equation which correlates the Vickers microhardness of each layer to its corresponding chemical composition was achieved by the optimized network for both ferritic and austenitic graded steels. Afterwards; the Vickers microhardness of each layer in functionally graded steels was related to the yield stress of the corresponding layer and by assuming Holloman relation for stress-strain curve of each layer, they were acquired. Finally, by applying the rule of mixtures, tensile strength of functionally graded steels configuration was found through a numerical method. The obtained results from the proposed model are in good agreement with those acquired from the experiments.

  1. Muscle strength and executive function as complementary parameters for the assessment of impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannyel Barbirato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the relationship between the quantitative results of functional and cognitive performance of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD and disease severity; and to study the relationship between patients' functional and cognitive capacity and motor impairment (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale - UPDRS III. Method Twenty-nine subjects clinically diagnosed with PD were classified into three groups according to disease severity using the modified Hoehn and Yahr Scale (H&Y. They were submitted to functional (Senior Fitness Test and neuropsychological tests. Stepwise regression analysis showed a significant association between H&Y and upper limb strength (r 2 =0.30; p=0.005 and executive function (r 2 =0.37; p=0.004. In relation to UPDRS III, there was a significant association between lower limb strength (r 2 =0.27; p=0.010 and global cognitive status (r 2 =0.24; p=0.024. Conclusion The implementation of simple tests of functional capacity associated with neuropsychological testing can help to assess disease severity and motor impairment, and can be used to monitor the response to treatment in PD.

  2. Balance, gait, functionality and strength: comparison between elderly fallers and non-fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebolla, Elaine C; Rodacki, André L F; Bento, Paulo C B

    2015-01-01

    Accidental falls are a major health problem related to aging and affect one in every three elderly individuals over the age of sixty. To evaluate and compare the muscle strength, gait kinematics parameters, and performance in functional tests between elderly subjects with and without a prior history of falls. In addition, the association between the history of falls and the variables that demonstrated differences between groups were tested. 62 elderly subjects participated in the study and were allocated to the group with falls history (FG; n=20; 68.0 ± 6.9 years old) or the group without falls history (CG; n=42; 65.5 ± 4.1 years old). Maximal strength, gait kinematics parameters, and functional tests were tested. The FG showed lower muscle strength in the knee flexors (51.45 ± 8.6 vs. 62.09 ± 19 Kg), lower average toe clearance during the swing phase (0.04 ± 0.006 vs. 0.043 ± 0.005 m), and lower performance in the "8-foot up-and-go" test (5.3 ± 0.7 vs. 5.8 ± 0.7 s) (pgait alterations, the worst performance in the dynamic balance test, and an increased risk of falls.

  3. Effects of functional training on pain, leg strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Santos E Campos, María Aparecida; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of 18-week functional training (FT) program consisting in two sessions a week of in-water exercise and one of on-land exercise on pain, strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia. A sample consisting of 36 fibromyalgia patients was included in the study. The patients were allocated randomly into the experimental group (EG, n = 20), and control group (CG, n = 16). Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess muscle strength (30-s chair stand and handgrip strength) and agility/dynamic balance and static balance. Fibromyalgia impact and pain were analyzed by Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), tender points (TPs), visual analog scale (VAS). We observed a significant reduction in the FIQ (p = 0.042), the algometer scale of TP (p = 0.008), TP (p pain and improves functional capacity in FM patients. These results suggested that FT could play an important role in maintaining an independent lifestyle in patients with FM.

  4. Use of triangular membership function for prediction of compressive strength of concrete containing nanosilica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, application of fuzzy logic technique using triangular membership function for developing models for predicting compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of cement with nanosilica has been carried out. For this, the data have been taken from various literatures and help in optimizing the constituents available and reducing cost and efforts in studying design to develop mixes by predefining suitable range for experimenting. The use of nanostructured materials in concrete can add many benefits that are directly related to the durability of various cementitious materials, besides the fact that it is possible to reduce the quantities of cement in the composite. Successful prediction by the model indicates that fuzzy logic could be a useful modelling tool for engineers and research scientists in the area of cement and concrete. Compressive strength values of concrete can be predicted in fuzzy logic models without attempting any experiments in a quite short period of time with tiny error rates.

  5. Physicochemical and functional properties of gamma irradiated buckwheat and potato starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ruchi; Jan, Shumaila; Rani, Savita; Jan, Kulsum; Swer, Tanya L.; Prakash, Kumar S.; Dar, M. Z.; Bashir, Khalid

    2018-03-01

    Starches isolated from buckwheat and potato were subject to different doses of irradiation at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. Native and irradiated starch samples were evaluated for their physicochemical and functional properties to assess the effect of gamma irradiation. Apparent amylose content decreased significantly from 26.84% to 22.12% and 27.01 to 16.11% for buckwheat and potato starch respectively as the dose increased. A significant decrease was observed in pH, swelling power and syneresis as the dose increased for both buckwheat and potato starch. pH decreased from 5.20 to 3.81 and 5.81 to 3.95 for buckwheat and potato starch, respectively. Carboxyl content, freeze thaw stability, water and oil absorption capacity and transmittance showed increasing trend with increasing irradiation dose. Carboxyl content increased from 0% to 0.23% and 0-0.22% for buckwheat and potato starch, respectively.

  6. Functional capacity, pulmonary and respiratory muscle strength in individuals undergoing hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Regina Posser

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD undergoing hemodialysis (HD present low cardiorespiratory fitness and functional capacity. Metabolic changes, due to the disease, can result in a variety of pathophysiological conditions that favor the development of respiratory muscle weakness. However, very little is known about the performance of the respiratory muscles and the influence of HD on them. Aim: To evaluate and correlate pulmonary function, functional capacity and respiratory muscle strength in patients with CKD undergoing HD. Methods: Cross-sectional study comprising 23 patients with CKD, that met the following inclusion criteria: patients of both genders, who perform HD three times a week for a minimum period of three months. Respiratory muscle strength was evaluated using a respiratory pressure meter, lung function through spirometry and functional capacity through the 6-minute walk test (6MWT before the HD session. Results: All patients were male and mean age was 50.2 ± 15.8 years. The median duration of HD was 3 (1.5 to 6.0 years. The mean values obtained in comparison to those predicted were MIP% 36.0 ± 13.6, MEP% 49.5 ± 15.8, FVC% 93.8 ± 21.1, FEV1% 93.7 ± 21.1, FVC/VEF1% 104.1 ± 10.3, and 6MWT% 66.33 ± 20.53. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the 6MWT and MIP (r = .63, p =.001 and MEP (r = .67, p < .001, between the MIP and MEP (r =.79, p < .001 and between the FEV1 and FVC (r = .91, p < .001. Conclusion: Patients with CKD undergoing HD present changes in respiratory muscle strength, with the predicted values decreasing for age and gender, as well as the distance covered in the 6MWT, although, with normal spirometric values. Functional capacity was dependent on respiratory muscle strength, as well as the values of MIP and MEP, and the values of FVC and FEV1.

  7. Balance, gait, functionality and strength: comparison between elderly fallers and non-fallers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C. Cebolla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accidental falls are a major health problem related to aging and affect one in every three elderly individuals over the age of sixty. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the muscle strength, gait kinematics parameters, and performance in functional tests between elderly subjects with and without a prior history of falls. In addition, the association between the history of falls and the variables that demonstrated differences between groups were tested. METHOD: 62 elderly subjects participated in the study and were allocated to the group with falls history (FG; n=20; 68.0±6.9 years old or the group without falls history (CG; n=42; 65.5±4.1 years old. Maximal strength, gait kinematics parameters, and functional tests were tested. RESULTS: The FG showed lower muscle strength in the knee flexors (51.45±8.6 vs. 62.09±19 Kg, lower average toe clearance during the swing phase (0.04±0.006 vs. 0.043 ± 0.005 m, and lower performance in the "8-foot up-and-go" test (5.3±0.7 vs. 5.8±0.7 s (p<0.05. There were no associations between any variables and falls, but the increased time in the "8-foot up-and-go" test may double the likelihood of a fall occurring. CONCLUSION: Fallers have reduced lower limb strength, gait alterations, the worst performance in the dynamic balance test, and an increased risk of falls.

  8. Epitope and functional specificity of monoclonal antibodies to mouse gamma interferon: the synthetic peptide approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.K.; Hayes, M.P.; Carter, J.M.; Torres, B.A.; Dunn, B.M.; Johnson, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    Four anti-recombinant mouse gamma interferon (α-IFNγ) monoclonal antibodies were generated using hamster spleen cells. Binding of 125 I-IFNγ by these protein A-bound antibodies was specifically blocked by cold IFNγ. Binding by three of these antibodies was also blocked by a synthetic peptide corresponding to the N-terminal 1-39 amino acids of IFNγ, while a corresponding C-terminal (95-133) peptide had no effect on binding. One of the N-terminal specific monoclonal antibodies inhibited both the antiviral and macrophage priming (for tumor cell killing) activities of IFNγ, while the other two had no effect on either biological function. Blocking experiments with cold IFNγ and N-terminal peptide suggest that the epitope specificities of the monoclonal antibodies could be determined by the conformational or topographic structure of IFNγ. Polyclonal antibodies to either the N-terminal or C-terminal peptides also inhibited both the antiviral and macrophage priming activities of IFNγ. All of the antibodies that inhibited IFNγ function also blocked binding of IFNγ to membrane receptor on cells, while antibodies that did not inhibit function also did not block binding. The data suggest that both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of IFNγ play an important role in its antiviral and macrophage priming functions, possibly in a cooperative manner

  9. Functionalizing Graphene Oxide with Alkylamine by Gamma-ray Irradiation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraniza Ahmad Daud

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A gamma-ray irradiation technique was used to functionalize graphene oxide (GO with alkylamines of various alkyl chain lengths. Functionalization of the alkyl chains onto the GO was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. FTIR of the functionalized GO showed the appearance of significant peaks around 2960–2850 cm−1 (–CH2 which came from long alkyl chains, together with a peak around 1560–1450 cm−1, indicating the formation of C–NH–C. XRD showed an additional diffraction peak at a lower 2θ angle, indicating that the intercalation of the alkylamine was successful. The effects on the morphological and thermal properties of GO functionalized with alkyl chains of various lengths were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis showed an increase in surface roughness when the alkyl chain length was increased. The addition of alkyl chains on GO surfaces significantly improved the thermal stability of the GO, suggesting that these surfaces have great potential for use as a hydrophobic material in industry.

  10. Does Tourniquet Use in TKA Affect Recovery of Lower Extremity Strength and Function? A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Douglas A; Kittelson, Andrew J; Yang, Charlie C; Miner, Todd M; Kim, Raymond H; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E

    2016-01-01

    Tourniquet use during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) improves visibility and reduces intraoperative blood loss. However, tourniquet use may also have a negative impact on early recovery of muscle strength and lower extremity function after TKA. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine whether tourniquet use affects recovery of quadriceps strength (primary outcome) during the first 3 postoperative months; and (2) to examine the effects of tourniquet application on secondary outcomes: voluntary quadriceps activation, hamstring strength, unilateral limb balance as well as the effect on operative time and blood loss. Twenty-eight patients (mean age 62 ± 6 years; 16 men) undergoing same-day bilateral TKA (56 lower extremities) were enrolled in a prospective, randomized study. Subjects were randomized to receive a tourniquet-assisted knee arthroplasty on one lower extremity while the contralateral limb underwent knee arthroplasty without extended tourniquet use. In the former group, the tourniquet was inflated just before the incision was made and released after cementation; in the latter group, a tourniquet was not used (10 of 28 [36%]) or inflated only during component cementation (18 of 28 [64%]). The choice of no tourniquet or use just during cementation was based on surgeon choice, because some surgeons felt a tourniquet during cementation was necessary to achieve a dry surgical field to maximize cement fixation. A median parapatellar approach and the identical posterior-stabilized TKA design were used by all four fellowship-trained knee surgeons involved. Isometric quadriceps strength, hamstring strength, voluntary quadriceps activation, and unilateral balance were assessed preoperatively, 3 weeks, and 3 months after bilateral knee arthroplasty. Other factors, including pain, range of motion, and lower extremity girth, were assessed for descriptive purposes at each of these time points as well as on the second postoperative day. Quadriceps strength was

  11. Change in the enzymatic dual function of the peroxiredoxin protein by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Byung Chull; Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Jae Taek; Park, Chul-Hong; Lee, Sang Yeol; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-01-01

    PP1084 protein was exposed to gamma irradiation ranging from 5 to 500 kGy. Native PAGE showed minor structural changes in PP1084 at 5 kGy, and major structural changes at >15 kGy. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) showed the formation of a new shoulder peak when the protein was irradiated with 15 and 30 kGy, and a double peak appeared at 100 kGy. The results of PAGE and SEC imply that PP1084 protein is degraded by gamma irradiation, with simultaneous oligomerization. PP1084 chaperone activity reached the highest level at 30 kGy of gamma irradiation, and then, decreased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing gamma irradiation. However, the peroxidase activity significantly decreased following exposure to all intensities of gamma irradiation. The improvement of chaperone activity using gamma irradiation might be promoted by the oligomeric structures containing covalently cross-linked amino acids. Consequently, PP1084 modification using gamma irradiation could elevate chaperone activity by about 3–4 folds compared to the non-irradiated protein. - Highlights: ► The structure of PP1084 protein was drastically changed above 15 kGy gamma irradiation. ► PP1084 chaperone activity reached the highest level at 30 kGy of gamma irradiation. ► PP1084 modification using gamma irradiation could elevate chaperone activity by about 3–4 folds.

  12. Short-term strength training improves muscle quality and functional capacity of elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Correa, Cleiton Silva; Radaelli, Regis; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Brown, Lee E; Bottaro, Martim

    2014-02-01

    To assess effects of a short-term strength training (ST) program on muscle quality (MQ) and functional capacity, 36 sedentary elderly women (age = 66.0 ± 8 year, height = 159.1 ± 9.2 cm, body mass = 68.3 ± 12.1 kg, body fat = 37.0 ± 4.2 %) were randomly divided into an experimental group (EG; n = 19) or a control group (CG; n = 17). The EG performed two to three sets of 12-15 repeats of leg press, knee extension, and knee flexion exercises, 2 days/week for 6 weeks. Before and after training, lower body one repetition maximum (1RM), functional performance tests, quadriceps femoris muscle thickness (MT), and muscle quality (MQ) (1RM and quadriceps MT quotient) were assessed. After training, only the EG showed significant improvements in 1RM (p elderly women, which resulted in beneficial changes in functional capacity.

  13. Chronic Effects of Strength Training Vs. Hydro Aerobics on Functional and Cardiorespiratory Ability in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Giovanni S.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Vilaça-Alves, José; Silva, Gabriel Costa e; Garrido, Nuno D.; Furtado, Hélio; Reis, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to compare the effects of two exercise programs (Strength Training and Hydro Gymnastics) on the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 38 volunteers (age: 66.9 ± 6.1 years, body mass: 73.70 ± 10.38 kg, and body height: 1.55 ± 0.10 m). Subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group: one group performed 24 weeks of strength training (GST; n = 14), another performed 24 weeks of hydro gymnastics (GH; n = 17) and a control group (CG; n = 7), where the subjects continued with their regular daily activities without involvement in any physical exercise program. Three assessments were performed: before the beginning of the program, 12 weeks after the start of the training program and 24 weeks after the start of the program. To assess the functional ability of the participants, several tests proposed by Jones and Rikli (2002) were performed. To evaluate the cardiorespiratory ability of the participants, a modified treadmill Bruce test was applied. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found between the two training methods in the tests, which primarily demanded muscular strength. Body mass and the body mass index showed significant differences during the three stages of assessment in the GST group (p<0.05). With respect to the values that represent the variables of cardiorespiratory ability, positive and significant changes were observed in the two experimental groups. It was concluded that both exercise programs promoted improvements in some indicators of the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. PMID:25713645

  14. Chronic Effects of Strength Training Vs. Hydro Aerobics on Functional and Cardiorespiratory Ability in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaes Giovanni S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to compare the effects of two exercise programs (Strength Training and Hydro Gymnastics on the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 38 volunteers (age: 66.9 ± 6.1 years, body mass: 73.70 ± 10.38 kg, and body height: 1.55 ± 0.10 m. Subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group: one group performed 24 weeks of strength training (GST; n = 14, another performed 24 weeks of hydro gymnastics (GH; n = 17 and a control group (CG; n = 7, where the subjects continued with their regular daily activities without involvement in any physical exercise program. Three assessments were performed: before the beginning of the program, 12 weeks after the start of the training program and 24 weeks after the start of the program. To assess the functional ability of the participants, several tests proposed by Jones and Rikli (2002 were performed. To evaluate the cardiorespiratory ability of the participants, a modified treadmill Bruce test was applied. Significant differences (p<0.05 were found between the two training methods in the tests, which primarily demanded muscular strength. Body mass and the body mass index showed significant differences during the three stages of assessment in the GST group (p<0.05. With respect to the values that represent the variables of cardiorespiratory ability, positive and significant changes were observed in the two experimental groups. It was concluded that both exercise programs promoted improvements in some indicators of the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women.

  15. Glucocorticoids and androgenic function of rat suprarenal cortex in external gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, J.S.; Kirkov, N.

    1988-01-01

    The excretion of free and total 17-hydroxy-corticosteroids (17-OHCS) and 17-ketosteroids (17-KS) in the urine of Wistar rats (170-200 g), externally gamma-irradiated ( 137 Cs) with a dose of 4 Gy and at a dose rate of 1.20 Gy/min. As controls were used the results of two subsequent examinations of 24-hour urines of intact animals whose hormonal profiles were later examined on postirradiation days 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 30, resp. A considerably decreased excretion of 17-OHCS in the urine was established during the first 24 hours (down to 50%) and a highly increased level from the 2nd till the 15th day (up to 315%). The decreased excretion is possibly due to blocked secretion mechanisms and inhibition of the renal excretion function. The subsequent increase of the excretion is probably due to an activation of the hypophyseal-adrenal function caused by bone marrow, gastrointestinal and other syndromes of radiation disease. Accentuated three-phase wave-like dynamics in the excretion of 17-KS were observed: a decrease as low as 19% during the 1st and 2nd day, an increase on the 5th day (up to 185%) and repeated decrease on the 25th day (down to 70%). On the 30th day the 17-KS excretion in the urine was normalized. Besides the indicated mechanisms, probably the alterations in the metabolic function of the liver have also a definite importance. (author)

  16. Carbonate adsorption onto goethite as a function of pH and ionic strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundberg, R.S.; Albinsson, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The adsorption of carbonate onto geothite was studied as a function of both pH and ionic strength (NaClO 4 electrolyte) using 14 C tracer. The pH ranged from 2.5 to 11.6. The ionic strength was controlled by varying the NaClO 4 concentration and ranged from 0.01 to 0.1 molar. The results indicate that carbonate is adsorbed on goethite as primarily an inner-sphere complex at pH values above the point of zero charge. This is inferred from the lack of dependence on ionic strength in the adsorption of carbonate. Below the point of zero charge carbonate is adsorbed by an additional outer-sphere mechanism. An adsorption isotherm was measured at pH 7.0 with an electrolyte concentration of 0.01M. Deconvolution of the isotherm proved that at least two sorption mechanisms exist. These mechanisms lead to large distribution coefficients at low pH. Thereby making the complete removal and exclusion of carbonate from an aqueous goethite system difficult, for the purpose of characterizing a ''clean'' goethite surface

  17. Examination of the low-energy enhancement of the γ -ray strength function of 56Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. D.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Wiedeking, M.; Bernstein, L. A.; Crawford, H. L.; Campbell, C. M.; Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I. Y.; Salathe, M.; Wiens, A.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bottoni, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Davids, H. M.; Elson, J.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kinnison, J. E.; Kirsch, L.; Larsen, A. C.; Lauritsen, T.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Siem, S.; Voinov, A. V.; Zhu, S.

    2018-02-01

    A model-independent technique was used to determine the γ -ray strength function (γ SF ) of 56Fe down to γ -ray energies less than 1 MeV for the first time with GRETINA using the (p ,p') reaction at 16 MeV. No difference was observed in the energy dependence of the γ SF built on 2+ and 4+ final states, supporting the Brink hypothesis. In addition, angular distribution and polarization measurements were performed. The angular distributions are consistent with dipole radiation. The polarization results show a small bias towards magnetic character in the region of the enhancement.

  18. Joint laxity and the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Esch, M.; Steultjens, M.; Knol, D. L.; Dinant, H.; Dekker, J.

    2006-01-01

    To establish the impact of knee joint laxity on the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A cross-sectional study of 86 patients with OA of the knee was conducted. Tests were performed to determine varus-valgus laxity, muscle strength, and

  19. [Evaluation of the functional and clinical qualities of the new GSG-2 dual-sensor gamma-topograph].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El'kind, E Iu; Kalantarov, K D; Kuznetsov, V A; Turaev, R N; Frenkel', V Kh

    1979-01-01

    A double-sensor gamma-topograph model GSG-2 has been constructed to realize colour shade lining and black-and-white photographic registration of images reflecting spatial distribution of radioactive isotopes introduced to patients for diagnostic purposes. On the ground of trial tests the valuation of functional and clinical qualities of the device is given.

  20. Disruption of rolandic gamma-band functional connectivity by seizures is associated with motor impairments in children with epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Although children with epilepsy exhibit numerous neurological and cognitive deficits, the mechanisms underlying these impairments remain unclear. Synchronization of oscillatory neural activity in the gamma frequency range (>30 Hz is purported to be a mechanism mediating functional integration within neuronal networks supporting cognition, perception and action. Here, we tested the hypothesis that seizure-induced alterations in gamma synchronization are associated with functional deficits. By calculating synchrony among electrodes and performing graph theoretical analysis, we assessed functional connectivity and local network structure of the hand motor area of children with focal epilepsy from intracranial electroencephalographic recordings. A local decrease in inter-electrode phase synchrony in the gamma bands during ictal periods, relative to interictal periods, within the motor cortex was strongly associated with clinical motor weakness. Gamma-band ictal desychronization was a stronger predictor of deficits than the presence of the seizure-onset zone or lesion within the motor cortex. There was a positive correlation between the magnitude of ictal desychronization and impairment of motor dexterity in the contralateral, but not ipsilateral hand. There was no association between ictal desynchronization within the hand motor area and non-motor deficits. This study uniquely demonstrates that seizure-induced disturbances in cortical functional connectivity are associated with network-specific neurological deficits.

  1. The influence of lung function and muscular strength on the functional capacity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Leite Rodrigues

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine which variable (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2, nocturnal hypoxaemia and muscular strength of femoral quadriceps can predict the distance walked in the six-minute walk test (6MWT by COPD patients. Methods: A cross-sectional and observational study of thirty patients referred to a pulmonary rehabilita tion programme at a university hospital. Lung function was evaluated by spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis and nocturnal oximetry. Muscle function was evaluated by quadriceps strength and functional capacity by the 6MWT. Results: Bivariate regression analysis showed that quadriceps strength, was the only variable to correlate significantly with the distance walked in the 6MWT (p = 0.002, accounting for 38% of the 6MWT variance. The statistical relationship established for these variables was 1 kg of quadriceps strength equalled 5.9 metres walked in the 6MWT. Conclusions: Our results showed the importance of lower limb muscle strength in submaximal exercise testing. We conclude that femoral quadriceps muscle strength is the only one of the variables studied which can predict the distance COPD patients walk in the 6MWT. Resumo: Objectivo: Determinar que variável entre o volume expirado forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1, a pressão parcial do oxigénio no sangue arterial (PaO2, a hipoxemia nocturna e a força muscular do quadricípite femoral pode predizer a distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6 em doentes com DPOC. Doentes e métodos: Um estudo observacional do tipo transversal, envolvendo trinta doentes encaminhados a um programa de reabilitação pulmonar de um hospital universitário. A função pulmonar foi avaliada por espirometria, gasometria arterial e oximetria nocturna. A função muscular pela força muscular do quadricípite femoral e a avaliação da capacidade funcional pelo TC6

  2. Intrinsic muscle strength and voluntary activation of both lower limbs and functional performance after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, Astrid M; Beltman, Marijke J; Gerrits, Karin H; Koppe, Peter; Janssen, Thomas W; Elich, Peter; de Haan, Arnold

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the nature of muscle weakness in both legs after stroke compared with able-bodied control individuals and to examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of muscle weakness and coactivation of knee extensors and flexors as well as voluntary activation capacity of knee extensors of both paretic and non-paretic legs and indices of functional performance. Maximal voluntary isometric torques of knee extensors (MVCe) and flexors (MVCf) were determined in 14 patients (bilaterally) and 12 able-bodied controls. Simultaneous measurements were made of torque and surface EMG from agonist and antagonist muscles. Coactivation was calculated. Supramaximal triplets were evoked with electrical stimulation to estimate maximal torque capacity and degree of voluntary activation of knee extensors. MVCs, activation and coactivation parameters were correlated to scores of seven functional performance tests. MVCe, MVCf and voluntary activation were lower in paretic lower limb (PL) compared with both non-paretic lower limb (NL) and control. Besides, all these parameters of NL were also lower than control. Electrically evoked torque capacity of knee extensors of PL was about 60% of both NL and control, which were not significantly different from each other. Strong significant correlations between strength, as well as voluntary activation, and functional performance were found. Coactivation did not correlate well with functional performance. Thus, whereas for NL activation failure can explain weakness, for PL both activation failure and reduced intrinsic torque capacity are responsible for the severe weakness. Activation capacity and muscle strength correlated strongly to functional performance, while coactivation did not.

  3. Training-specific functional, neural, and hypertrophic adaptations to explosive- vs. sustained-contraction strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshaw, Thomas G; Massey, Garry J; Maden-Wilkinson, Thomas M; Tillin, Neale A; Folland, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Training specificity is considered important for strength training, although the functional and underpinning physiological adaptations to different types of training, including brief explosive contractions, are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of 12 wk of explosive-contraction (ECT, n = 13) vs. sustained-contraction (SCT, n = 16) strength training vs. control (n = 14) on the functional, neural, hypertrophic, and intrinsic contractile characteristics of healthy young men. Training involved 40 isometric knee extension repetitions (3 times/wk): contracting as fast and hard as possible for ∼1 s (ECT) or gradually increasing to 75% of maximum voluntary torque (MVT) before holding for 3 s (SCT). Torque and electromyography during maximum and explosive contractions, torque during evoked octet contractions, and total quadriceps muscle volume (QUADSVOL) were quantified pre and post training. MVT increased more after SCT than ECT [23 vs. 17%; effect size (ES) = 0.69], with similar increases in neural drive, but greater QUADSVOL changes after SCT (8.1 vs. 2.6%; ES = 0.74). ECT improved explosive torque at all time points (17-34%; 0.54 ≤ ES ≤ 0.76) because of increased neural drive (17-28%), whereas only late-phase explosive torque (150 ms, 12%; ES = 1.48) and corresponding neural drive (18%) increased after SCT. Changes in evoked torque indicated slowing of the contractile properties of the muscle-tendon unit after both training interventions. These results showed training-specific functional changes that appeared to be due to distinct neural and hypertrophic adaptations. ECT produced a wider range of functional adaptations than SCT, and given the lesser demands of ECT, this type of training provides a highly efficient means of increasing function. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Incoherent scattering functions of 145 keV gamma rays by K-shell electrons in Y, Ag and Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghava Rao, A.; Ramana Reddy, S.V.S.; Premchand, K.; Narasimham, K.L.; Parthasaradhi, K.; Lakshminarayana, V.

    1982-01-01

    The values of incoherent scattering functions are determined experimentally for 145 keV gamma rays in elements Au, Ag and Y at scattering angles 40 0 , 70 0 and 100 0 , using a x-ray gamma coincidence technique. The corresponding theoretical values are obtained from the tabulations of Hubbell et al, and computed from the models of Jauch and Rohrlich and Shimizu et al. A comparison between the theoretical and experimental results showed that the non-relativistic approach adopted in the theory of Shimizu et al is inapplicable to the present cases. A gross agreement is noticed between the present experimental results and the other theoretical values. (author)

  5. Defining the role of sensation, strength, and prehension for upper limb function in cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Beaton, Dorcas; Curt, Armin; Duff, Susan; Jiang, Depeng; Popovic, Milos R; Rudhe, Claudia; Fehlings, Michael G; Verrier, Mary C

    2014-01-01

    Upper limb function plays a significant role in enhancing independence for individuals with tetraplegia. However, there is limited knowledge about the specific input of sensorimotor deficits on upper limb function. Thus the theoretical framework designed to develop the Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength Sensibility and Prehension (GRASSP) was used as a hypothetical model to analyze the impact of impairment on function. To define the association of impairment (sensation, strength, and prehension measured by the GRASSP) to upper limb function as defined by functional measures (Capabilities of Upper Extremity Questionnaire, Spinal Cord Independence Measure). A hypothetical model representing relationships by applying structural equation modeling was used to estimate the effect of the impairment domains in GRASSP on upper limb function. Data collected on 72 chronic individuals with tetraplegia was used to test the hypothetical model. Structural equation modeling confirmed strong associations between sensation, strength, and prehension with upper limb function, and determined 72% of the variance in "sensorimotor upper limb function" was explained by the model. Statistics of fit showed the data did fit the hypothesized model. Sensation and strength influence upper limb function directly and indirectly with prehension as the mediator. The GRASSP is a sensitive diagnostic tool in distinguishing the relative contribution of strength, sensation and prehension to function. Thus, the impact of interventions on specific domains of impairment and related contribution on clinical recovery of the upper limb can be detailed to optimize rehabilitation programs.

  6. The effect of Gamma-irradiation on the functional properties of starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BenBettaieb, Nasreddine

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation is one of the effective methods able to change starch structure and its functional properties. In this research the effect of gamma-irradiation (3, 5, 10, 20 and 50kGy) on the rheological, structural, thermal and morphological properties of corn starch was studied. Viscoamylograph test showed that the maximal consistency of the starch paste and its corresponding temperature decrease with increasing irradiation dose. Textural analysis of paste starch using strain-relaxation test showed the dominance of behaviour elastic after irradiation. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) revealed a good discrimination of the irradiation doses among rheological parameters in the strain-relaxation test. FTIR spectra showed that the irradiated starch displayed a significant decrease in the intensity of the O.H stretch (3000.3600 cm 1 ), C.H stretch (2800.3000 cm 1 ), bending mode of water (1600.1800 cm 1 ) and bending mode of glycosidic linkage (900-950 cm-1). The X-ray diffraction spectra show that did not any modification in the sharp and intensity of peaks after irradiation dose. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of corn starch showed decreases in onset (To), final (Tf) and peak (Tp) gelatinisation temperature with increasing irradiation dose. icrophotographs of polarized light microscopy (LPM) showed that up to 50 kGy irradiation did not present any visible physical effect on the corn starch granule. (Author)

  7. The Optical Luminosity Function of Gamma-Ray Bursts Deduced from ROTSE-III Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, X. H.; Wu, X. F.; Wei, J. J.; Yuan, F.; Zheng, W. K.; Liang, E. W.; Akerlof, C. W.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Flewelling, H. A.; Göǧüş, E.; Güver, T.; Kızıloǧlu, Ü.; McKay, T. A.; Pandey, S. B.; Rykoff, E. S.; Rujopakarn, W.; Schaefer, B. E.; Wheeler, J. C.; Yost, S. A.

    2014-11-01

    We present the optical luminosity function (LF) of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) estimated from a uniform sample of 58 GRBs from observations with the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment III (ROTSE-III). Our GRB sample is divided into two sub-samples: detected afterglows (18 GRBs) and those with upper limits (40 GRBs). We derive R-band fluxes for these two sub-samples 100 s after the onset of the burst. The optical LFs at 100 s are fitted by assuming that the co-moving GRB rate traces the star formation rate. While fitting the optical LFs using Monte Carlo simulations, we take into account the detection function of ROTSE-III. We find that the cumulative distribution of optical emission at 100 s is well described by an exponential rise and power-law decay, a broken power law,and Schechter LFs. A single power-law (SPL) LF, on the other hand, is ruled out with high confidence.

  8. Improved Strength and Toughness of Carbon Woven Fabric Composites with Functionalized MWCNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslam Soliman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examines the role of carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs in the on- and off-axis flexure and the shear responses of thin carbon woven fabric composite plates. The chemically functionalized COOH-MWCNTs were used to fabricate epoxy nanocomposites and, subsequently, carbon woven fabric plates to be tested on flexure and shear. In addition to the neat epoxy, three loadings of COOH-MWCNTs were examined: 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% and 1.5 wt% of epoxy. While no significant statistical difference in the flexure response of the on-axis specimens was observed, significant increases in the flexure strength, modulus and toughness of the off-axis specimens were observed. The average increase in flexure strength and flexure modulus with the addition of 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs improved by 28% and 19%, respectively. Finite element modeling is used to demonstrate fiber domination in on-axis flexure behavior and matrix domination in off-axis flexure behavior. Furthermore, the 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs increased the toughness of carbon woven composites tested on shear by 33%. Microstructural investigation using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR proves the existence of chemical bonds between the COOH-MWCNTs and the epoxy matrix.

  9. Partition function as a Laplace transform of a positive measure in the strength parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessis, D.

    1980-01-01

    We shall consider the partition function Z(lambda), of an N-body system whose Hamiltonian reads: H = H/sub O/ + lambdaH/sub I/. H/sub O/ is an exactly solvable Hamiltonian, one for which, for example all thermodynamical quantities can be calculated. H/sub I/ is the perturbation. We are interested in the analytic properties in the strength parameter lambda of the partition function Z(lambda) = Tr e/sup -ν[H 0 + lambdaH/sub I/]/ where for convenience the volume V and inverse temperature ν dependence has been suppressed on the left hand side. The representation for Z(lambda) is given and discussed, and applications are described

  10. The effect of gamma radiation on the structure of graphene oxide and graphene oxide functionalized with amino-PEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Jaqueline J.S.; Jacovone, Raynara M.S.; Santos, Paulo S.; Zaim, Márcio H.; Faria, Dalva L.A. de; Sakata, Solange K., E-mail: jaque.soares@ipen.br, E-mail: sksakata@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Química

    2017-07-01

    The functionalization of graphene oxide (GO) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been widely used in drug delivery systems. This nanocomposite exhibits excellent stability in the presence of high concentrations of salts and proteins and shows to be less toxic than its raw form in vitro and in vivo. However, it must be sterilized before use in the medical field and the gamma irradiation shows a promising option for this purpose. Sterilization by ionizing energy through gamma rays, generated by Cobalt-60 self-disintegration, consists in exposing the materials to short electromagnetic waves. The irradiation process provides substantial advantages when compared to thermal and chemical processes such as more precise control of the process, production of products with superior qualities, lower energy consumption and less environmental pollution. In this work the effect of gamma radiation on the structure of GO and GO functionalized com Amino-PEG (GO-PEG-NH{sub 2}) irradiated with different doses (15, 25, 35 and 50 kGy) and rate dose 7.31 kGy.h{sup -1} was evaluated. The analyses were performed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the methods for the synthesis of GO and GO-PEG-NH{sub 2} was effective since there was confirmation of the surface oxidation of materials and functionalization with the PEG-NH{sub 2} and the sterilization by gamma radiation does not caused any defects on materials. (author)

  11. The effect of gamma radiation on the structure of graphene oxide and graphene oxide functionalized with amino-PEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Jaqueline J.S.; Jacovone, Raynara M.S.; Santos, Paulo S.; Zaim, Márcio H.; Faria, Dalva L.A. de; Sakata, Solange K.; Universidade de Sao Paulo

    2017-01-01

    The functionalization of graphene oxide (GO) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been widely used in drug delivery systems. This nanocomposite exhibits excellent stability in the presence of high concentrations of salts and proteins and shows to be less toxic than its raw form in vitro and in vivo. However, it must be sterilized before use in the medical field and the gamma irradiation shows a promising option for this purpose. Sterilization by ionizing energy through gamma rays, generated by Cobalt-60 self-disintegration, consists in exposing the materials to short electromagnetic waves. The irradiation process provides substantial advantages when compared to thermal and chemical processes such as more precise control of the process, production of products with superior qualities, lower energy consumption and less environmental pollution. In this work the effect of gamma radiation on the structure of GO and GO functionalized com Amino-PEG (GO-PEG-NH 2 ) irradiated with different doses (15, 25, 35 and 50 kGy) and rate dose 7.31 kGy.h -1 was evaluated. The analyses were performed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the methods for the synthesis of GO and GO-PEG-NH 2 was effective since there was confirmation of the surface oxidation of materials and functionalization with the PEG-NH 2 and the sterilization by gamma radiation does not caused any defects on materials. (author)

  12. Relationship between muscle strength parameters and functional capacity in persons with mild to moderate degree multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Vissing, Kristian; Langeskov-Christensen, Daniel; Stenager, Egon; Petersen, Thor; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2015-03-01

    Maximal muscle strength has been shown to be an important predictor of functional capacity for persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Another muscle strength parameter known to be important for functional capacity in other patient groups is rate of force development (RFD) in knee extensors and flexors. This has not been investigated for PwMS. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between RFD and maximal muscle strength of knee extensors and flexors and measures of functional capacity in PwMS. 35 PwMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale 2-4) underwent isokinetic dynamometry to determine RFD and maximal isometric and isokinetic muscle strength for both legs. Furthermore all participants performed timed 25 foot walk tests (T25FWT), two minute walk tests (2MWT), stairclimb tests and 5-time sit-to-stand (5STS) tests to determine functional capacity. Multiple linear regressions were performed to determine which muscle strength parameter would serve as a stronger predictor of walking performance. Both RFD and maximal muscle strength correlated with functional capacity. Correlations were strongest for knee extensors and flexors of the weaker leg, while no clear ranking of the influence of the knee extensors vs. flexors on walking was evident. Multiple linear regressions showed that maximal isokinetic strength of the weaker leg is a better predictor for T25FWT and 2MWT performance than RFD. Maximal muscle strength of the weaker leg is the better predictor of walking performance in persons with mild to moderate multiple sclerosis. RFD, although also important for functional capacity, is a less strong predictor. Maximal strength of the knee extensors, rather than the knee flexors, predicted performance in the stairclimb and 5STS tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Carboxyl functionalized carbon fibers with preserved tensile strength and electrochemical performance used as anodes of structural lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mengjie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Shubin, E-mail: shubinwang@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Yu, Yalin; Feng, Qihang; Yang, Jiping; Zhang, Boming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Carboxyl functionalized CF is acquired by simple chemical oxidation method. • These CF have preserved the tensile strength, better electrochemical properties. • The presence of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} prevented the turbostratic carbon from over-oxidization. • There CF can be used as anodes of multifunctional structural battery. • The preservation and improvement is result from the hindered over-oxidization. - Abstract: Carboxyl functionalized carbon fibers with preserved tensile strength and electrochemical properties were acquired through a simple chemical oxidation method, and the proposed underlying mechanism was verified. The surface of carboxyl functionalizing carbon fibers is necessary in acquiring functional groups on the surface of carbon fibers to further improve the thermal, electrical or mechanical properties of the fibers. Functionalization should preserve the tensile strength and electrochemical properties of carbon fibers, because the anodes of structural batteries need to have high strength and electrochemical properties. Functionalized with mixed H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/HNO{sub 3} considerably reduced the tensile strength of carbon fibers. By contrast, the appearance of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} preserved the tensile strength of functionalized carbon fibers, reduced the dispersion level of tensile strength values, and effectively increased the concentration of functional acid groups on the surface of carbon fibers. The presence of phosphoric acid hindered the over-oxidation of turbostratic carbon, and consequently preserved the tensile strength of carbon fibers. The increased proportion of turbostratic carbon on the surface of carbon fibers concurrently enhanced the electrochemical properties of carbon fibers.

  14. Regional impairment of intrinsic functional connectivity strength in patients with chronic primary insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Suhua Huang,1 Fuqing Zhou,2,3 Jian Jiang,2,3 Muhua Huang,2,3 Xianjun Zeng,2,3 Shan Ding,1 Honghan Gong2,3 1Department of Radiology, Jiangxi Province Children’s Hospital, 2Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, 3Jiangxi Province Medical Imaging Research Institute, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Several neuroimaging studies have suggested that brain impairment and plasticity occur in patients with chronic primary insomnia (CPI; however, the effects of insomnia on the intrinsic organization of the brain remain largely unknown. In this study, a voxel-based functional connectivity strength (FCS assessment, a data-driven method based on a theoretical approach, was applied to investigate the effects of insomnia on the intrinsic organization of the whole brain in 27 treatment-naïve CPI patients and 26 well-matched healthy controls (HCs. Compared with HCs, CPI patients exhibited decreased FCS primarily in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the right medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC, the left basal ganglia/insula, and the right cerebellum anterior lobe (CAL due to decreased functional connectivity patterns. These results suggest that poor sleep quality could impair FCS within the brain, including the MPFC and the CAL, which are important for cognitive control and modulating motor and limbic functions. Additionally, a receiver operator characteristic analysis revealed that altered FCS has moderate sensitivity (76.9%–88.5% and specificity (59.3%–70.4% as a reference indicator to discriminate CPI patients from HCs. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for abnormal intrinsic brain activity in CPI patients and might improve our understanding of the pathophysiological processes that occur in insomnia patients. Keywords: functional connectivity strength, disconnection, chronic primary insomnia, sleep disorders, resting-state fMRI

  15. Measuring bovine gamma delta T cell function at the site of Mycobacterium bovis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine gamma delta T cells are amongst the first cells to accumulate at the site of Mycobacterium bovis infection; however, their role in the developing lesion remains unclear. We utilized transcriptomics analysis, in situ hybridization, and a macrophage/gamma delta T cell co-culture system to eluc...

  16. Simultaneous determination of exponential background and Gaussian peak functions in gamma ray scintillation spectrometers by maximum likelihood technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisler, P.; Youl, S.; Lwin, T.; Nelson, G.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous fitting of peaks and background functions from gamma-ray spectrometry using multichannel pulse height analysis is considered. The specific case of Gaussian peak and exponential background is treated in detail with respect to simultaneous estimation of both functions by using a technique which incorporates maximum likelihood method as well as a graphical method. Theoretical expressions for the standard errors of the estimates are also obtained. The technique is demonstrated for two experimental data sets. (orig.)

  17. Effect of muscle strength and pain on hand function in patients with trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero-Téllez, Raquel; Martín-Valero, Rocío; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between muscle strength (Jama), and pain (VAS) levels with hand function (DASH) in patients with trapeziometarcapal osteoarthritis. Cross-sectional study. Sample of 72 patients with osteoarthritis stage 2-3 (Eaton) and trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis. Patients were recruited when they came to the Hand Surgery Unit. Grip strength, pinch, pain and hand function were measured, and correlation and regression coefficients between them were obtained. For function, the most significant model (R(2)=0.83) included pain and strength. But it is tip to tip pinch force which has a stronger relationship with DASH (Standardized B: -57) questionnaire. Pain also influenced strength measured with the dynamometer but it was tip to tip pinch force that was the most affected. Findings confirm that there is a significant correlation between function referred by the patient and variables that can be measured in the clinic such as grip strength and pinch. The correlation between pain intensity and function was also significant, but tip to tip pinch strength had the greatest impact on the function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  18. Strength of knee flexors of the paretic limb as an important determinant of functional status in post-stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Joanna; Czernicki, Jan; Pruszyńska, Magdalena; Miller, Elżbieta

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the multi-modal exercise program (MMEP) in patients after stroke, and to identify muscles that are the best predictors of functional performance and changes in functional status in a 3-week rehabilitation program. Thirty-one post-stroke patients (60.6±12.7 years) participating in a 3-week MMEP took part in the study. Measurements of extensor and flexor strength of the knee (F ext , F flex ) were done. Functional performance was measured using Timed Up & Go test (TUG), 6-Minute Walk Test (6-MWT) and Tinetti Test. The rehabilitation program improved all the results of functional tests, as well as the values of strength in the patients. Both baseline and post-rehabilitation functional status was associated with knee flexor and extensor muscle strength of paretic but not of non-paretic limbs. At baseline examination muscle strength difference between both F flex kg -1 and F ext kg -1 had an influence on functional status. After rehabilitation the effect of muscle strength difference on functional status was not evident for F ext kg -1 and, interestingly, even more prominent for F flex kg -1 . MMEP can effectively increase muscle strength and functional capacity in post-stroke patients. Knee flexor muscle strength of the paretic limb and the knee flexor difference between the limbs is the best predictor of functional performance in stroke survivors. Copyright © 2017 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. A measurement of the photon structure function F$_{2}^{\\gamma}$ at an average Q$^{2}$ of 12 GeV$^{2}$/c$^{4}$ : results from DELPHI

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Batyunya, B; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bocci, V; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Daum, A; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; De Boeck, H; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fürstenau, H; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gillespie, D; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Haedinger, U; Hahn, F; Hahn, M; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Ioannou, P; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kalmus, George Ernest; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köhne, J H; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Królikowski, J; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, G; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Fernandez, A; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stepaniak, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zacharatou-Jarlskog, C; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1996-01-01

    The hadronic photon structure function F_{2}^{\\gamma} has been measured in the Q^{2} range from 4 to 30~GeV^2/c^{4} and down to x values of order 0.001, using data taken with the DELPHI detector at LEP between 1991 and 1993. A comparison is made with several F_{2}^{\\gamma} parameterizations with special emphasis on their low x behaviour. A result on the Q^{2} evolution of F_{2}^{\\gamma} is presented.

  20. Modelling the luminosity function of long gamma-ray bursts using Swift and Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Debdutta

    2018-01-01

    I have used a sample of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) common to both Swift and Fermi to re-derive the parameters of the Yonetoku correlation. This allowed me to self-consistently estimate pseudo-redshifts of all the bursts with unknown redshifts. This is the first time such a large sample of GRBs from these two instruments is used, both individually and in conjunction, to model the long GRB luminosity function. The GRB formation rate is modelled as the product of the cosmic star formation rate and a GRB formation efficiency for a given stellar mass. An exponential cut-off power-law luminosity function fits the data reasonably well, with ν = 0.6 and Lb = 5.4 × 1052 ergs- 1, and does not require a cosmological evolution. In the case of a broken power law, it is required to incorporate a sharp evolution of the break given by Lb ∼ 0.3 × 1052(1 + z)2.90 erg s- 1, and the GRB formation efficiency (degenerate up to a beaming factor of GRBs) decreases with redshift as ∝ (1 + z)-0.80. However, it is not possible to distinguish between the two models. The derived models are then used as templates to predict the distribution of GRBs detectable by CZT Imager onboard AstroSat as a function of redshift and luminosity. This demonstrates that via a quick localization and redshift measurement of even a few CZT Imager GRBs, AstroSat will help in improving the statistics of GRBs both typical and peculiar.

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on the protein characteristics and functional properties of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Amro B.; Mahmoud, Nagat S.; Elmamoun, Khalid; Adiamo, Oladipupo Q.; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A.

    2018-03-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effect of gamma irradiation at various doses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy) on protein characteristics and functional properties of sesame seeds. Gamma radiation at high doses (>1.0 kGy) significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased globulin and albumin fractions of sesame protein. Concomitant (P ≤ 0.05) increase of in-vitro protein digestibility was noticed in irradiated sesame flour compared to non-radiated sample. Maximum protein solubility was observed in sesame flour irradiated at 1.0 kGy. SDS-PAGE electrophoretic patterns of total sesame protein were not affected by irradiation process. Significant enhancement (P ≤ 0.05) in emulsification capacity (EC) and emulsion stability (ES) was recorded after irradiation at a dose level of 1.0 and 1.5-2.0 kGy, respectively. Foaming capacity reached a significantly maximum value in sesame flour irradiated at 1.0 kGy while foaming stability was not significantly affected by gamma irradiation. It can be concluded that gamma radiation enhances the protein and functional properties of sesame flour and thus can be employed as an effective method of preserving sesame flour and its products.

  2. Effects of smoking on chest expansion, lung function, and respiratory muscle strength of youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantisuwat, Anong; Thaveeratitham, Premtip

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] Smoking has a direct effect on the respiratory system. The rate of cigarette smoking among young people has continued to increase steadily. The present study quantified and compared the respiratory function of smoking and non-smoking youths. [Subjects] Smoking and non-smoking male participants aged between 15 to 18 years were recruited (n=34 per group). [Methods] Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to smoking habits and the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence questionnaire, and their respiratory function was tested (measurement of chest expansion, lung function test with a spirometer, and assessment of respiratory muscle strength). [Results] All respiratory function tests demonstrated significant differences between the smoking and non-smoking groups. Smokers initiated cigarette smoking between the ages of 15 to 18 years. The most common duration of cigarette smoking was 1-3 years and the degree of nicotine dependence among the youths was at a low level. [Conclusion] This study's findings show that the early effects of cigarette smoking found in youths can lead to problems with the respiratory system. Such information can be used to illustrate the harm of smoking and should be used to encourage young people to quit or avoid cigarette smoking.

  3. Physical implication of the Kocevski-Ryde-Liang pulse function of gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.-B.; Qin, Y.-P.

    2005-11-01

    Kocevski, Ryde & Liang have proposed a semi-empirical function (the KRL function) of gamma-ray burst (GRB) pulses, which could well describe those pulses comprising a fast rise and an exponential decay (FRED) phase. Meanwhile, a theoretical model that could give rise to this kind of pulse, based on the Doppler effect of the expanding fireball surface, has been put forward in detail by Qin and co-workers. To provide a physical explanation to the parameters of the KRL function, we try to fit light curves of the Doppler model with the KRL function so that parameters in both models can be directly related. We pay attention only to single GRB pulses whose profiles are that of FRED and hence employ the sample presented by Kocevski, Ryde & Liang (the KRL sample) to study this issue. We find from our analysis that, for light curves, which arise from exponential rise and exponential decay local pulses, of the Doppler model, the ratio of the rise index r to the decay index d, derived when fitted by the KRL function, increases quickly first. It then remains nearly invariant with the relative width (relative to the time-scale of the initial fireball radius Rc/c) of local pulses when the width exceeds 2 (the relative width is dimensionless). The rise and decay times of pulses are found to be related to the Lorentz factor by a power law, where the power-law index associated with the rise time is less than that of the decay time, and both are close to -2. In addition, the mean asymmetry shows a slight trend of decreasing with Lorentz factors. In plots of decay indices versus asymmetry, there is a descending phase and after this phase there is a rising portion. We find that these long GRBs of the KRL sample are mainly associated with those light curves arising from comoving pulses with the relative width being larger than 0.1. We show in our analysis that the effect of the comoving pulse shape on the KRL function parameters of the resulting pulses is considerable and can be

  4. Functional mobility and balance in community-dwelling elderly submitted to multisensory versus strength exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Marcon Alfieri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fábio Marcon Alfieri1, Marcelo Riberto2, Lucila Silveira Gatz3, Carla Paschoal Corsi Ribeiro2, José Augusto Fernandes Lopes2, José Maria Santarém4, Linamara Rizzo Battistella21São Paulo Adventist University Center, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Hospital of Clinics of the University of São Paulo, 3Degree in physical education, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Coordinator of the Center of Study for Physical Activity Sciences (CECAFI in the Department of Geriatrics, University of São Paulo Abstract: It is well documented that aging impairs balance and functional mobility. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of multisensory versus strength exercises on these parameters. We performed a simple blinded randomized controlled trial with 46 community-dwelling elderly allocated to strength ([GST], N = 23, 70.2-years-old ± 4.8 years or multisensory ([GMS], N = 23, 68.8-years-old ± 5.9 years exercises twice a week for 12 weeks. Subjects were evaluated by blinded raters using the timed ‘up and go’ test (TUG, the Guralnik test battery, and a force platform. By the end of the treatment, the GMS group showed a significant improvement in TUG (9.1 ± 1.9 seconds (s to 8.0 ± 1.0 s, P = 0.002; Guralnik test battery (10.6 ± 1.2 to 11.3 ± 0.8 P = 0.009; lateromedial (6.1 ± 11.7 cm to 3.1 ± 1.6 cm, P = 0.02 and anteroposterior displacement (4.7 ± 4.2 cm to 3.4 ± 1.0 cm, P = 0.03, which were not observed in the GST group. These results reproduce previous findings in the literature and mean that the stimulus to sensibility results in better achievements for the control of balance and dynamic activities. Multisensory exercises were shown to be more efficacious than strength exercises to improve functional mobility.Keywords: older adults, balance, functional mobility, exercisesCorrigendum for this paper has been published

  5. Binary neutron star merger rate via the luminosity function of short gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Debdutta

    2018-04-01

    The luminosity function of short Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) is modelled by using the available catalogue data of all short GRBs (sGRBs) detected till October, 2017. The luminosities are estimated via the `pseudo-redshifts' obtained from the `Yonetoku correlation', assuming a standard delay distribution between the cosmic star formation rate and the production rate of their progenitors. While the simple powerlaw is ruled out to high confidence, the data is fit well both by exponential cutoff powerlaw and broken powerlaw models. Using the derived parameters of these models along with conservative values in the jet opening angles seen from afterglow observations, the true rate of short GRBs are derived. Assuming a short GRB is produced from each binary neutron star merger (BNSM), the rate of gravitational wave (GW) detections from these mergers are derived for the past, present and future configurations of the GW detector networks. Stringent lower limits of 1.87yr-1 for the aLIGO-VIRGO, and 3.11yr-1 for the upcoming aLIGO-VIRGO-KAGRA-LIGO/India configurations are thus derived for the BNSM rate at 68% confidence. The BNSM rates calculated from this work and that independently inferred from the observation of the only confirmed BNSM observed till date, are shown to have a mild tension; however the scenario that all BNSMs produce sGRBs cannot be ruled out.

  6. Overview of experimental progress on understanding photon strength functions with an emphasis of the Oslo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krticka, Milan

    2015-10-01

    The so-called Photon Strength Functions (PSFs) for different multipolarities are, together with the Nuclear Level Density (NLD) the key entities describing the statistical γ-decay of nucleus. It is well known that PSFs at energies above the threshold for particle emission are well described by the Lorentzian shape of the Giant Electric Dipole Resonance (GEDR). On the other hand, shapes of RSFs at the low-energy tail of GEDR are known rather poorly. Information on the PSFs at the GEDR tail can be obtained from several different experimental techniques. They will be summarized and the most important ones briefly introduced in this contribution. Special emphasis will be put on the so-called Oslo method which allows simultaneous extraction of the NLD and the PSFs from particle- γ coincidence measurements. This method has been used for determining the NLD and the PSFs in many nuclei in A ~ 45- 240 range during past years. Examples of the most interesting results obtained with this method will be shown. The results will be compared to information on the PSFs available from other experimental techniques. The strengths and the weaknesses of the method will be thoroughly discussed.

  7. Muscle strength can better differentiate between gradations of functional performance than muscle quality in healthy 50-70y women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter; McCormack, William; Toomey, Clodagh; Lyons, Mark; Jakeman, Philip

    It is not known which laboratory indices of muscle mass, strength or quality can distinguish functional performance in healthy middle aged women. The aim of this study was to (a) examine the association between upper leg lean tissue mass, knee extensor strength, muscle quality (strength per unit lean tissue mass) and functional performance and (b) to determine the utility of tertiles of muscle strength and muscle quality to distinguish gradations of functional capacity in healthy 50-70y women. Using a cross-sectional study design, one hundred and twenty-eight healthy 50-70y women (mean age: 60.4, SD=5.1y) underwent body composition assessment (dual X-ray absorptiometry) and performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the knee extensors (Con-Trex Dynamometer). Functional performance was assessed using a 5 repetition and 30s chair rise test and 900m gait speed test. Ordered by muscle strength or muscle quality, those in the highest tertile (T1) demonstrated greater functional performance than those in lowest tertile (T3). There was no association between upper leg lean tissue mass and functional performance (r=≤0.06). Muscle strength explained a greater proportion of the variance in all functional performance measures relative to muscle quality (R 2 =0.13-0.36 vs. R 2 =0.11-0.16). Upper leg lean tissue mass is not associated with physical performance in healthy 50-70y women. These results suggest strength relative to the body mass being accelerated distinguishes gradations in functional performance better than muscle quality healthy 50-70y women. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional food: role of gamma irradiation in the improvement of Triticum dicoccum (schrank)) schulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikas, V.K.; Sivasamy, M.; Kumar, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    Importance of Triticum dicoccum as functional/therapeutic food is on rise because of the low glycemic value, slow digestability, high satiety value coupled with resistant starch, high protein and fibre. These quality attributes are considered vital for the dietary management of diabetes and cardiovascular risks. Most of the dicoccum cultivars in India are either tall local land races/traditional varieties with high quality but low yield or modern semi dwarf cultivars with low quality but high yield. Most of the semi dwarf dicoccum cultivars derived their dwarfing genes from Triticum durum and it has strong linkage drag in altering the quality traits. Further the scope of exploiting genetic diversity/variability in dicoccum wheat, largely created using T. durum is limited. This necessitates the need to search for new sources to create variability among the dicoccum gene pool wherein mutation provides a helping hand. One thousand fresh, dry and healthy matured seeds of tall traditional variety, NP201 were irradiated with 200, 250 and 300 Gy doses of gamma rays using Cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) gamma source (Dose rate : ∼ 50 Gy/min; GC5000 irradiator) at BARC, Mumbai. Semi-dwarf line with high yield and stable in performance (HW 1098) were selected at M5 generation in the treatment dose of 200 Gy. The stable line was evaluated in multi location trials in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and Tamilnadu through All India Coordinated Wheat and Barley Improvement Project (AICW and BIP) for yield, quality and rust disease reaction for three years (2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12). Radiomutant genotype, HW1098 recorded an overall yield advantage of +14.9% and +8.3% over dicoccum checks, DDK1009 and MACS2971 respectively along with resistance to stem and leaf rusts. HW1098 produced bold grain (46.5 g) with par values for protein content (16.8%) and beta carotene (3.39 ppm) compared to parent variety NP201. HW1098 was released for cultivation for the farmers of dicoccum cultivating areas

  9. Decreased functional capacity and muscle strength in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira DCL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Denis Cesar Leite Vieira,1 Ramires Alsamir Tibana,1 Vitor Tajra,1 Dahan da Cunha Nascimento,1 Darlan Lopes de Farias,1 Alessandro de Oliveira Silva,1 Tatiane Gomes Teixeira,1 Romulo Maia Carlos Fonseca,2 Ricardo Jacó de Oliveira,2 Felipe Augusto dos Santos Mendes,2 Wagner Rodrigues Martins,2 Silvana Schwerz Funghetto,2 Margo Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski,2 James Wilfred Navalta,3 Jonato Prestes11Graduate Program on Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil; 2University of Brasilia, UnB, Brasilia, Brazil; 3Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition Sciences of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USAPurpose: To compare the metabolic parameters, flexibility, muscle strength, functional capacity, and lower limb muscle power of elderly women with and without the metabolic syndrome (MetS.Methods: This cross-sectional study included 28 older women divided into two groups: with the MetS (n = 14; 67.3 ± 5.5 years; 67.5 ± 16.7 kg; 1.45 ± 0.35 m; 28.0 ± 7.6 kg/m2, and without the MetS (n = 14; 68.7 ± 5.3 years; 58.2 ± 9.9 kg; 1.55 ± 0.10 m; 24.3 ± 3.8 kg/m2. Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and dynamic muscle strength was assessed by one-maximum repetition (1RM tests in leg press, bench press and biceps curl exercises. Six-minute walk test, Timed Up and Go (TUG; 30-second sitting-rising; arm curl using a 2-kg dumbbell, sit-and-reach (flexibility, and vertical jump tests were performed.Results: There was no difference between groups regarding age (P = 0.49, height (P = 0.46, body fat (% (P = 0.19, systolic (P = 0.64, diastolic (P = 0.41 and mean blood pressure (P = 0.86, 30-second sitting-rising (P = 0.57, 30-s arm curl (P = 0.73, leg press 1RM (P = 0.51, bench press 1RM (P = 0.77, and biceps curl 1RM (P = 0.85. However, women without the MetS presented lower body mass (P = 0.001, body mass index (BMI (P = 0.0001, waist circumference (P = 0.02, waist-to-height ratio (P = 0.02, fat body

  10. Impairment of liver and kidney functions in gamma irradiated rats suffering from pesticide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H. M.; Abdel-Hamid, F. M.; Abu-Ghadir, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of exposure to a single whole body gamma irradiation dose at 6.5 Gy and/or either oral administration of 50 or 100 mg kelthane/kg body weight/day for 3 consecutive days, or daily feeding with 200 mg kelthane/kg body weight for 3, 6, and 12 weeks has been studied on relative liver and kidney weights, serum and liver enzymes, creatinine and inorganic phosphorous clearance, as well as percentage tubular phosphorous reabsorption in male animals. The data obtained revealed that exposure to gamma irradiation alone or combined with kelthane treatment caused significant increase in the relative liver weight besides significant decrease in serum and liver alkaline phosphatase and serum cholinesterase. Exposure to gamma irradiation after oral administration of 100 mg or feeding dietary kelthane kelthane caused significant decrease in liver glucose-6- phosphatase. Non-significant changes in aspartic and alanine transaminases could be recorded due to gamma irradiation and/or kelthane treatment

  11. Strength, functionality and beauty of university buildings in earthquake-prone countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    WADA, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Strength, functionality and beauty are the three qualities identifying well-designed architecture. For buildings in earthquake-prone countries such as Japan, emphasis on seismic safety frequently leads to the sacrifice of functionality and beauty. Therefore, it is important to develop new structural technologies that can ensure the seismic performance of a building without hampering the pursuit of functionality and beauty. The moment-resisting frame structures widely used for buildings in Japan are likely to experience weak-story collapse. Pin-supported walls, which can effectively enhance the structural story-by-story integrity of a building, were introduced to prevent such an unfavorable failure pattern in the seismic retrofit of an eleven-story building on a university campus in Tokyo, while also greatly aesthetically enhancing the façade of the building. The slight damage observed and monitoring records of the retrofitted building during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan demonstrate that the pin-supported walls worked as intended, protecting the building and guaranteeing the safety of its occupants during the earthquake. PMID:29434079

  12. Strength, functionality and beauty of university buildings in earthquake-prone countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Strength, functionality and beauty are the three qualities identifying well-designed architecture. For buildings in earthquake-prone countries such as Japan, emphasis on seismic safety frequently leads to the sacrifice of functionality and beauty. Therefore, it is important to develop new structural technologies that can ensure the seismic performance of a building without hampering the pursuit of functionality and beauty. The moment-resisting frame structures widely used for buildings in Japan are likely to experience weak-story collapse. Pin-supported walls, which can effectively enhance the structural story-by-story integrity of a building, were introduced to prevent such an unfavorable failure pattern in the seismic retrofit of an eleven-story building on a university campus in Tokyo, while also greatly aesthetically enhancing the façade of the building. The slight damage observed and monitoring records of the retrofitted building during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan demonstrate that the pin-supported walls worked as intended, protecting the building and guaranteeing the safety of its occupants during the earthquake.

  13. First Measurement of the Photon Structure Function $F_{2},c^{\\gamma}$

    CERN Document Server

    Nisius, Richard

    2001-11-13

    The first measurement of F_2,c^gamma is presented. At low x the measurement indicates a non-zero hadron-like component to F_2,c^gamma. At large x the measurement constitutes a test of perturbative QCD at next-to-leading order, with only m_c and alpha_s as free parameters, with a precision of O(40%).

  14. Thoracic gunshot wounds: alterations to pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydur, Ahmet; Inaba, Kenji; Barmparas, Galinos; Teixeira, Pedro; Julianne, Awrey; Bukur, Marko; Talving, Peep; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2010-10-01

    The impact on respiratory function of gunshot injuries to the chest is unknown. The objective is to assess pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in patients who have recently sustained an isolated gunshot injury to the chest. After institutional review board approval, patients with isolated gunshot injuries to the chest were prospectively identified. Study patients underwent pulmonary function testing and an assessment of RMS and gas exchange. Ten male patients sustaining an isolated pulmonary gunshot wound were prospectively enrolled with a mean age of 29 years ± 10 years and mean Injury Severity Score of 15 ± 5. All patients had an associated pneumothorax (n = 1), hemothorax (n = 4), or a combination of both (n = 5). After removal of all thoracostomy tubes and before discharge [7.4 days ± 5.4 days (range, 2-21 days)], patients underwent respiratory function testing. Lung volume subdivisions were reduced by 25% to 60% of predicted and diffusion capacity by 37% with preservation of the normal ratio of diffusion capacity to alveolar volume. In the six subjects able to perform spirometry in seated and supine postures, forced vital capacity decreased by 20% when changing posture (p = 0.046). Arterial blood gas analysis showed significant reduction in the P(AO)₂/FIO₂ ratio (or increase in AaDO₂). Maximal respiratory pressures were severely reduced from predicted values, the maximal inspiratory pressure by 60% and the maximal expiratory pressure by 78%. Lung volumes and RMS are decreased moderately to severely in patients who have sustained an isolated pulmonary gunshot wound. Expiratory muscle force generation is more severely affected than inspiratory muscle force. Further investigation of the long-term impact of these injuries on respiratory function is warranted.

  15. Muscle strength can better differentiate between gradations of functional performance than muscle quality in healthy 50–70 y women

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Peter; McCormack, William; Toomey, Clodagh; Lyons, Mark; Jakeman, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Objective It is not known which laboratory indices of muscle mass, strength or quality can distinguish functional performance in healthy middle aged women. The aim of this study was to (a) examine the association between upper leg lean tissue mass, knee extensor strength, muscle quality (strength per unit lean tissue mass) and functional performance and (b) to determine the utility of tertiles of muscle strength and muscle quality to distinguish gradations of functional capacity in healthy 50...

  16. Is exercise used as medicine? Association of meeting strength training guidelines and functional limitations among older US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Rovniak, Liza S; Lehman, Erik B; Candotti, Carolina; Ballentine, Noel H

    2014-09-01

    To determine the association between meeting strength training guidelines (≥2 times per week) and the presence of functional limitations among older adults. This cross-sectional study used data from older adult participants (N=6763) of the National Health Interview Survey conducted in 2011 in the United States. Overall, 16.1% of older adults reported meeting strength training guidelines. For each of nine functional limitations, those with the limitation were less likely to meet strength training recommendations than those without the limitation. For example, 20.0% of those who reported no difficulty walking one-quarter mile met strength training guidelines, versus only 10.1% of those who reported difficulty (pstrength training guidelines, versus only 15.9% of those reporting 1-4 limitations (38.5% of sample) and 9.8% of those reporting 5-9 limitations (27.8% of sample) (pStrength training is uncommon among older adults and even less common among those who need it the most. The potential for strength training to improve the public's health is therefore substantial, as those who have the most to gain from strength training participate the least. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gamow-Teller strength functions from (→p,→p') scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausser, O.

    1987-01-01

    We present here recent (→p, →'p) results from TRIUMF that are relevant to the determination of spin-flip isovector strength functions in nuclei. Distortion factors needed for the extraction of nuclear-structure information have been deduced from cross sections and analyzing powers in elastic scattering for several energies and targets. Nonrelativistic optical potentials obtained by folding effective nucleon (N)-nucleus interactions with nuclear densities are found to overpredict both elastic and reaction cross sections, whereas Dirac calculations that include Pauli blocking are in good agreement with the data. Spin observables (S nn and A y ) for the quasi-elastic region in 54 Fe(→p, →p) at 290 MeV provide some evidence for the reduction of the effective proton mass predicted in relativistic mean-field theories as a consequence of the attractive scalar field in the nuclear medium. The energy dependence of the effective N-nucleus interaction at small momentum transfers has been investigated using isoscalar and isovector 1 + states in 28 Si as probe states. We find that the cross sections for the isovector transitions are in good agreement with predictions for the dominant Vστ part of the Franey-Love interaction. Gamow-Teller (GT) strength functions have been obtained in 24 Mg and 54 Fe from measurements of both cross sections and spin-flip probabilities S nn . The spin-flip cross sections σS nn are particularly useful in heavier nuclei to discriminate against a continuous background of ΔS = 0 excitations. In the (s, d) shell where full shell-model wave functions are available, the GT quenching factors (g A eff / g A free ) 2 ≅ 0.7 are in good agreement with those from recent (p, n) and (n, p) experiments. We show that a state-by-state comparison of (p, p') and (e, e') results has the potential of identifying pionic current contributions in (e, e'). The GT quenching factors in 54 Fe are smaller than in the (s, d) shell probably because of severely

  18. Moderate-Load Muscular Endurance Strength Training Did Not Improve Peak Power or Functional Capacity in Older Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Simon; Haff, Guy G.; Häkkinen, Keijo; Newton, Robert U.

    2017-01-01

    The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64–75 y). Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first) with short rest intervals (30–60 s between ...

  19. Intra-rater reliability and agreement of muscle strength, power and functional performance measures in patients with hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Magnusson, S Peter; Kjær, Michael

    2014-01-01

    extensor power, and functional performance (8-foot Up & Go, stair climbing, chair stand and 6-min walk) were measured in patients, and quadriceps strength, leg extensor power and functional performance were measured in healthy peers. Systematic error, reliability and agreement were calculated. RESULTS...

  20. Physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, L. Walp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darfour, B.; Wilson, D.D.; Ofosu, D.O.; Ocloo, F.C.K.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour obtained from gamma irradiated cowpea. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy with the unirradiated cultivars serving as controls. The samples were hammer milled, sieved and stored at 4 °C for analysis. Physical, proximate, functional, pasting properties were determined using appropriate methods. In general, the irradiation dose applied to cowpea for insect control did not significantly affect the physical and proximate properties of the flour. However, significant increase (p<0.05) was achieved in paste bulk density, water and oil absorption capacities, foam capacities and least gelation concentrations of flour in general, which may be attributed to the irradiation. The radiation reduced the swelling power and water solubility index significantly. The peak temperature, peak viscosity and setback viscosity of the pastes were significantly (p<0.05) reduced while breakdown viscosity was significantly (p<0.05) increased by the radiation. It was established that the doses used on cowpea affected both the functional and pasting properties of the flour. - Highlights: ► We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation of cowpea on quality characteristics of its resultant flour. ► Flour was prepared from four cowpea cultivars irradiated at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. ► Proximate and physical properties of flour from irradiated cowpea were generally not affected by the radiation doses used. ► Functional properties of flour samples were affected by gamma irradiation of cowpea. ► Pasting parameters studied were also affected by the radiation at various radiation doses.

  1. Balance training improves postural balance, gait, and functional strength in adolescents with intellectual disabilities: Single-blinded, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeongjin; Lee, Myungmo; Song, Changho

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents with intellectual disabilities often present with problems of balance and mobility. Balance training is an important component of physical activity interventions, with growing evidence that it can be beneficial for people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of balance training on postural balance, gait, and functional strength in adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Thirty-two adolescents with intellectual disabilities aged 14-19 years were randomly assigned either to a balance training group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 16). Subjects in the balance training group underwent balance training for 40 min per day, two times a week, for 8 weeks. All subjects were assessed with posture sway and the one-leg stance test for postural balance; the timed up-and-go test and 10-m walk test for gait; and sit to stand test for functional strength. Postural balance and functional strength showed significant improvements in the balance training group (p functional strength significantly improved in the balance training group compared with those in the control group. Balance training for adolescents with intellectual disabilities might be beneficial for improving postural balance and functional strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biodegradability of PP/HMSPP and natural and synthetic polymers blends in function of gamma irradiation degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Elisabeth C.L.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Lima, Luis F.C.P.; Bueno, Nelson R.; Brant, Antonio J.C.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2014-01-01

    Polymers are used for numerous applications in different industrial segments, generating enormous quantities of discarding in the environment. Polymeric materials composites account for an estimated from 20 to 30% total volume of solid waste. Polypropylene (PP) undergoes crosslinking and extensive main chain scissions when submitted to ionizing irradiation; as one of the most widely used linear hydrocarbon polymers, PP, made from cheap petrochemical feed stocks, shows easy processing leading it to a comprehensive list of finished products. Consequently, there is accumulation in the environment, at 25 million tons per year rate, since polymeric products are not easily consumed by microorganisms. PP polymers are very bio-resistant due to involvement of only carbon atoms in main chain with no hydrolysable functional group. Several possibilities have been considered to minimize the environmental impact caused by non-degradable plastics, subjecting them to: physical, chemical and biological degradation or combination of all these due to the presence of moisture, air, temperature, light, high energy radiation or microorganisms. There are three main classes of biodegradable polymers: synthetic polymers, natural polymers and blends of polymers in which one or more components are readily consumed by microorganisms. This work aims to biodegradability investigation of a PP/HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene) blended with sugarcane bagasse, PHB (poly-hydroxy-butyrate) and PLA (poly-lactic acid), both synthetic polymers, at a 10% level, subjected to gamma radiation at 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy doses. Characterization will comprise IR, DSC, TGA, OIT and Laboratory Soil Burial Test (LSBT). - Highlights: • Polymeric materials composites account for an estimated from 20 to 30% total volume of solid waste. • Landfills will not be enough for an estimated accumulation of 25 million tons per year of plastics. • Incorporation of natural/synthetic polymers in PP/HMSPP to reduce

  3. Relationship between lower limb muscle strength, self-reported pain and function, and frontal plane gait kinematics in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Kyoon; Kobsar, Dylan; Ferber, Reed

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between muscle strength, gait biomechanics, and self-reported physical function and pain for patients with knee osteoarthritis is not well known. The objective of this study was to investigate these relationships in this population. Twenty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis and 24 healthy controls were recruited. Self-reported pain and function, lower-limb maximum isometric force, and frontal plane gait kinematics during treadmill walking were collected on all patients. Between-group differences were assessed for 1) muscle strength and 2) gait biomechanics. Linear regressions were computed within the knee osteoarthritis group to examine the effect of muscle strength on 1) self-reported pain and function, and 2) gait kinematics. Patients with knee osteoarthritis exhibited reduced hip external rotator, knee extensor, and ankle inversion muscle force output compared with healthy controls, as well as increased peak knee adduction angles (effect size=0.770; p=0.013). Hip abductor strength was a significant predictor of function, but not after controlling for covariates. Ankle inversion, hip abduction, and knee flexion strength were significant predictors of peak pelvic drop angle after controlling for covariates (34.4% unique variance explained). Patients with knee osteoarthritis exhibit deficits in muscle strength and while they play an important role in the self-reported function of patients with knee osteoarthritis, the effect of covariates such as sex, age, mass, and height was more important in this relationship. Similar relationships were observed from gait variables, except for peak pelvic drop, where hip, knee, and ankle strength remained important predictors of this variable after controlling for covariates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved Walking Capacity and Muscle Strength After Functional Power-Training in Young Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vulpen, Liesbeth F; de Groot, Sonja; Rameckers, Eugene; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2017-09-01

    Strength training programs for children with cerebral palsy (CP) showed inconclusive evidence for improving walking, despite improvements in strength. Recent studies have suggested that strength training with high movement velocity is more effective for improving walking than traditional resistance training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of functional high-velocity resistance training (power-training) to improve muscle strength and walking capacity of children with CP. Twenty-two children with spastic CP participated (13 bilateral, Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] level I [n = 10] and II [n = 12], 7.5 years [SD 1.8, range 4-10 years]). Within-subjects changes in a 14-weeks usual care period were compared with changes in a 14-week functional power-training period (in groups, 3×/wk). Outcome measures were the muscle power sprint test (MPST), 1-minute walk test (1MWT), 10-m shuttle run test (SRT), gross motor function (GMFM-66), isometric strength of lower-limb muscles and dynamic ankle plantar flexor strength. Changes during the training period were significantly larger than changes in the usual care period for all outcome measures ( P training period for walking capacity (ΔMPST [mean]: 27.6 W [95%CI 15.84-39.46, 83% increase], Δ1MWT: 9.4 m [95% CI 4.17-14.68, 13%], ΔSRT: 4.2 [95%CI 2.57-5.83, 56%], ΔGMFM-66: 5.5 [95% CI 3.33-7.74, 7%]) and muscle strength (18%-128%), while outcomes remained stable in the usual care period. The results indicate that functional power-training is an effective training for improving walking capacity in young children with cerebral palsy.

  5. Finite-Temperature Relativistic Time-Blocking Approximation for Nuclear Strength Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Herlik; Litvinova, Elena

    2017-09-01

    This work presents an extension of the relativistic nuclear field theory (RNFT) developed throughout the last decade as an approach to the nuclear many-body problem, based on QHD meson-nucleon Lagrangian and relativistic field theory. The unique feature of RNFT is a consistent connection of the high-energy scale of heavy mesons, the medium-energy range of pion, and the low-energy domain of emergent collective vibrations (phonons). RNFT has demonstrated a very good performance in various nuclear structure calculations across the nuclear chart and, in particular, provides a consistent input for description of the two phases of r-process nucleosynthesis: neutron capture and beta decay. Further inclusion of finite temperature effects presented here allows for an extension of the method to highly excited compound nuclei. The covariant response theory in the relativistic time-blocking approximation (RTBA) is generalized for thermal effects, adopting the Matsubara Green's function formalism to the RNFT framework. The finite-temperature RTBA is implemented numerically to calculate multipole strength functions in medium-mass and heavy nuclei. The obtained results will be discussed in comparison to available experimental data and in the context of possible consequences for astrophysics.

  6. Interpersonal and intrapersonal variance of exponent of power function observed in grip strength task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, M; Okuzumi, H; Koike, T; Haishi, K; Suzuki, H

    2001-08-01

    For grip strength there is a power function with an exponent of 1.7 between the subjective magnitude and the actual force exerted by a subject, but large variabilities among and within individuals were found. We focused on these variabilities and investigated the relationship between them by conducting a ratio production procedure requiring trials of maximum effort and half of maximum effort. For 30 adults we conducted four measurement trials, two on the same day, and the remaining two trials on a day or two later. The mean value of the exponent, the standard deviation, and the coefficient of variation of the four trials for each subject were calculated. The mean value of the exponent of the power function for all subjects was 1.6. This value approximated the value of 1.7 reported by Stevens and Mack. The values ranged from .50 to 5.39. The correlation between subjects' mean exponent value and standard deviation was .90, and the correlation between the mean value of the exponent and the coefficient of variation was .50. There was a close relationship between interpersonal and intrapersonal variance.

  7. ESTIMA, Neutron Width Level Spacing, Neutron Strength Function of S- Wave, P-Wave Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, E.

    1982-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ESTIMA calculates level spacing and neutron strength function of a mixed sequence of s- and p-wave resonances given a set of neutron widths as input parameters. Three algorithms are used, two of which calculate s-wave average parameters and assume that the reduced widths obey a Porter-Thomas distribution truncated by a minimum detection threshold. The third performs a maximum likelihood fit to a truncated chi-squared distribution of any specified number of degrees of freedom, i.e. it can be used for calculating s-wave or p-wave average parameters. Resonances of undeclared angular orbital momentum are divided into groups of probable s-wave and probable p-wave by a simple application of Bayes' Theorem. 2 - Method of solution: Three algorithms are used: i) GAMN method, based on simple moments properties of a Porter-Thomas distribution. ii) Missing Level Estimator, a simplified version of the algorithm used by the program BAYESZ. iii) ESTIMA, a maximum likelihood fit. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A maximum of 400 resonances is allowed in the version available from NEADB, however this restriction can be relaxed by increasing array dimensions

  8. BAYESZ, S-Wave, P-Wave Resonance Level Spacing and Strength Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    A - Description of problem or function: BAYESZ calculates average s- and p-wave level spacings, strength functions, and average radiation widths of a mixed sequence of s- and p-wave resonances whose parameters are supplied as input. The code is based on two physical assumptions: 1) The neutron reduced width distribution for each open channel is a chi-squared distribution with one degree of freedom, i.e. Porter-Thomas. 2) The spacing distribution follows the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble. This property is used, however, only to fix the s- to p-wave level density ratio as proportional to (2J+1) with a spin cut-off correction. B - Method of solution: The method used is an extension of that described by Moore et al. in reference (1), and is based on the method of moments of a truncated Porter-Thomas distribution. C - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Parameters for a maximum of 500 individual resonances can be specified. This restriction can be relaxed by increasing array dimensions

  9. [Induction of glutathione and activation of immune functions by low-dose, whole-body irradiation with gamma-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Shuji

    2006-10-01

    We first examined the relation between the induction of glutathione and immune functions in mice after low-dose gamma-ray irradiation. Thereafter, inhibition of tumor growth by radiation was confirmed in Ehrlich solid tumor (EST)-bearing mice. The total glutathione level of the splenocytes transiently increased soon after irradiation and reached a maximum at around 4 h postirradiation. Thereafter, the level reverted to the 0 h value by 24 h postirradiation. A significantly high splenocyte proliferative response was also recognized 4 h postirradiation. Natural killer (NK) activity was also increased significantly in a similar manner. The time at which the response reached the maximum coincided well with that of maximum total glutathione levels of the splenocytes in the gamma-ray-irradiated mice. Reduced glutathione exogenously added to splenocytes obtained from normal mice enhanced the proliferative response and NK activity in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of radiation on tumor growth was then examined in EST-bearing mice. Repeated low-dose irradiation (0.5 Gy, four times, before and within an early time after inoculation) significantly delayed the tumor growth. Finally, the effect of single low-dose (0.5 Gy), whole-body gamma-ray irradiation on immune balance was examined to elucidate the mechanism underlying the antitumor immunity. The percentage of B cells in blood lymphocytes was selectively decreased after radiation, concomitant with an increase in that of the helper T cell population. The IFN-gamma level in splenocyte culture prepared from EST-bearing mice was significantly increased 48 h after radiation, although the level of IL-4 was unchanged. IL-12 secretion from macrophages was also enhanced by radiation. These results suggest that low-dose gamma-rays induce Th1 polarization and enhance the activities of tumoricidal effector cells, leading to an inhibition of tumor growth.

  10. Different types of upper extremity exercise training in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: effects on functional performance, strength, endurance, and ambulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemdaroğlu, Ipek; Karaduman, Ayşe; Yilmaz, Öznur Tunca; Topaloğlu, Haluk

    2015-05-01

    We investigated and compared the effects of 2 different types of upper extremity exercise training on upper extremity function, strength, endurance, and ambulation in patients with early-stage Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The study group (n = 12) exercised with an arm ergometer under the supervision of a physiotherapist, whereas the control group (n = 12) underwent a strengthening range-of-motion (ROM) exercise program under the supervision of their families at home for 8 weeks. Upper extremity functional performance, strength, endurance, and ambulatory status were assessed before and after the training. Ambulation scores, endurance, and arm functions, as well as proximal muscle strength, were improved after the training in the study group (P exercises alone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of Electromyographic Biofeedback Training on Pain, Quadriceps Muscle Strength, and Functional Ability in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed Ahmed Mahmoud; Aly, Sobhy M; El-Shamy, Shamekh M

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback training on pain, quadriceps strength, and functional ability in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). This is a randomized controlled study; 36 children (11 boys and 25 girls) with polyarticular JRA, with ages ranging from 8 to 13 years, were selected and assigned randomly, using computer-generated random numbers, into 2 groups. The control group (n = 18) received the conventional physical therapy program, whereas the study group (n = 18) received the same program as the control group in addition to EMG biofeedback-guided isometric exercises for 3 days a week for 12 weeks. Pain, peak torque of quadriceps strength, and functional ability were evaluated before, after 6 weeks, and at the end of 12 weeks of the treatment program. By 6 weeks, significant differences were observed in the study group (P biofeedback may be a useful intervention modality to reduce pain, improve quadriceps strength, and functional performance in JRA.

  12. Strength of the respiratory and lower limb muscles and functional capacity in chronic stroke survivors with different physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Janaine C; Pinheiro, Marina B; Faria, Christina D C M; Britto, Raquel R; Parreira, Verônica F; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of strength and its relationships with functional capacity could contribute to more specific and effective disability management of stroke survivors. To compare and investigate associations between measures of strength and functional capacity of 98 chronic stroke survivors, stratified into three groups, according to their physical activity levels. The physical activity levels were classified as impaired, moderately active, and active, based on their Human Activity Profile (HAP) scores. Strength was assessed by the maximal inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressures and by the residual deficits (RDs) of work of the lower limb and trunk muscles, whereas functional capacity was evaluated by the distance covered during the six-minute walking test (6MWT). One-way analyses of variance revealed significant differences between the groups, except between the active and moderately active groups regarding the RDS of the hip and knee flexors/extensors and ankle dorsiflexors (2.91muscles and the 6MWT (0.30Lower strength deficits and higher functional capacity were associated with higher physical activity levels. However, the moderately active and active groups demonstrated similar strength deficits.

  13. SNM gamma-ray fingerprint monitor functional requirements and design specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, A.M. Jr.; Kane, W.R.

    1994-07-01

    A number of DOE facilities need to perform confirmatory inventory measurements on items of special nuclear material (SNM). The DOE Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) has tasked the Safeguards, Safety and Nonproliferation Division (SSN) of the Department of Advanced Technology at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop a high-resolution gamma-ray-spectroscopy-based instrument for performing confirmatory inventory measurements on such materials, a ''gamma-ray fingerprint monitor'' (GRFM). This document is a conceptual design for the SSN GRFM system. This conceptual design is based on previous experience with measurements of plutonium-bearing materials and comparison of gamma-ray spectrum features, not on actual tests of the procedures or hardware described. As a result, modifications may be necessary when actual prototype hardware and software are tested in realistic circumstances on actual materials of interest

  14. The effects of strength exercise and walking on lumbar function, pain level, and body composition in chronic back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Kang, Suh-Jung

    2016-10-01

    The beneficial effects of a strength exercise program and a combined exercise program of strength training plus walking were examined in overweight with chronic back pain patients. The participants were randomly placed in the strength exercise group (SEG, n=15), combined exercise group (CEG, n=15), and control group (CG, n=6). All subjects performed exercise twice per week, 50 min per session with a professional instructors for 12 weeks. In order to evaluate exercise intervention effects, lumbar function was measured by back strength and flexibility. Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to evaluate pain level. Fat and muscle mass were measured to compare body composition changes. All measurements were performed before and after 12 weeks of exercise program. Lumbar function: Back strength was significantly different over time, and significant time×group differences were found between SEG and CG and, CEG and CG. Pain disorder degree: VAS showed a significant group difference, and significant time×group differences were shown between SEG and CG, and CEG and CG. Also, RMDG showed a significant difference between CEG and CG. Body composition: Fat mass was significantly different over time×group between SEG and CG. In conclusion, participating in strength and walking exercises were beneficial to improve lumbar function. Also, the combined exercise program was more effective for reducing pain levels than the strength exercise. Finally, fat mass was reduced in this study and this may play a possible role in the improvement of lumbar function and reduction in low back pain.

  15. Optimized gamma synchronization enhances functional binding of fronto-parietal cortices in mathematically gifted adolescents during deductive reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eZhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As enhanced fronto-parietal network has been suggested to support reasoning ability of math-gifted adolescents, the main goal of this EEG source analysis is to investigate the temporal binding of the gamma-band (30-60Hz synchronization between frontal and parietal cortices in adolescents with exceptional mathematical ability, including the functional connectivity of gamma neurocognitive network, the temporal dynamics of fronto-parietal network (phase-locking durations and network lability in time domain, and the self-organized criticality of synchronizing oscillation. Compared with the average-ability subjects, the math-gifted adolescents show a highly integrated fronto-parietal network due to distant gamma phase-locking oscillations, which is indicated by lower modularity of the global network topology, more connector bridges between the frontal and parietal cortices and less connector hubs in the sensorimotor cortex. The time-domain analysis finds that, while maintaining more stable phase dynamics of the fronto-parietal coupling, the math-gifted adolescents are characterized by more extensive fronto-parietal connection reconfiguration. The results from sample fitting in the power-law model further find that the phase-locking durations in the math-gifted brain abides by a wider interval of the power-law distribution. This phase-lock distribution mechanism could represent a relatively optimized pattern for the functional binding of frontal-parietal network, which underlies stable fronto-parietal connectivity and increases flexibility of timely network reconfiguration.

  16. Prediction of muscle strength and postoperative function after knee flexor muscle resection for soft tissue sarcoma of the lower limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A; Yoshimura, Y; Aoki, K; Okamoto, M; Kito, M; Suzuki, S; Takazawa, A; Ishida, T; Kato, H

    2017-11-01

    Oncological margins and prognosis are the most important factors for operative planning of soft tissue sarcomas, but prediction of postoperative function is also necessary. The purpose of this study was to predict the knee flexion strength and postoperative function after knee flexor muscle resection for soft tissue sarcoma of the lower limbs. Seventeen patients underwent knee flexor muscle resection for soft tissue sarcoma of the lower limbs between 1991 and 2015. The type of resected muscles was surveyed, knee flexion strength (ratio of affected to unaffected side) was evaluated using the Biodex System isokinetic dynamometer, and differences between the type of resected muscles were examined. The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score, Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS), European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), and Short Form 8 (SF-8) were used to assess postoperative function and examine correlations with flexion strength. The cutoff value for flexion strength to predict good postoperative results was calculated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Fisher's exact test. Median flexion strength decreased in the resection of sartorius (97.8%), gracilis (95.4%), gastrocnemius (85.2%; interquartile range (IQR): 85.0-86.2), medial hamstrings (semimembranosus and semitendinosus, 76.2%; IQR: 73.3-78.0), lateral hamstrings (long and short head of biceps femoris, 66.1%; IQR: 65.9-70.4), and bilateral hamstrings (27.3%; IQR: 26.6-31.5). A significant difference was observed between lateral and bilateral hamstrings resection (P=0.049). Flexion strength was associated with lower functional scales (MSTS score, P=0.021; TESS, P=0.008; EQ-5D, P=0.034). Satisfactory function was obtained at a flexion strength cutoff value of 65.7%, and strength remained above the cutoff value up to unilateral hamstrings resection. Greater knee flexor muscles resection can result in functional deficits that are associated with decreased flexion strength. If

  17. Noise promotes independent control of gamma oscillations and grid firing within recurrent attractor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanka, Lukas; van Rossum, Mark CW; Nolan, Matthew F

    2015-01-01

    Neural computations underlying cognitive functions require calibration of the strength of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections and are associated with modulation of gamma frequency oscillations in network activity. However, principles relating gamma oscillations, synaptic strength and circuit computations are unclear. We address this in attractor network models that account for grid firing and theta-nested gamma oscillations in the medial entorhinal cortex. We show that moderate intrinsic noise massively increases the range of synaptic strengths supporting gamma oscillations and grid computation. With moderate noise, variation in excitatory or inhibitory synaptic strength tunes the amplitude and frequency of gamma activity without disrupting grid firing. This beneficial role for noise results from disruption of epileptic-like network states. Thus, moderate noise promotes independent control of multiplexed firing rate- and gamma-based computational mechanisms. Our results have implications for tuning of normal circuit function and for disorders associated with changes in gamma oscillations and synaptic strength. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06444.001 PMID:26146940

  18. Functional response of white rats isolated heart to the stimulation of adrenergic receptors after gamma-irradiation in low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonenko, A.N.; Lobanok, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    It was investigated the effects of acute gamma-irradiation on bio mechanical activity of rats heart isolated by Langendorf's method in early and delayed terms after exposure to gamma-rays. Intra ventricle pressure and the rate of its growth, volumetric rate of coronal flow, frequency of heart contraction were registered. Stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors was conducted by means of specific agonist mesatone and stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors was made by means of isoprenaline. The study has shown that acute irradiation of rats caused the decrease of both contractile ability and relaxation of myocardium in a 10 days after exposure. In delayed period bio mechanical activity of isolated heart was restored. Functional response of heart to the stimulation of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors was decreased in all terms of investigation

  19. Calmodulin Methyltransferase Is Required for Growth, Muscle Strength, Somatosensory Development and Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haziza, Sitvanit; Magnani, Roberta; Lan, Dima; Keinan, Omer; Saada, Ann; Hershkovitz, Eli; Yanay, Nurit; Cohen, Yoram; Nevo, Yoram; Houtz, Robert L; Sheffield, Val C; Golan, Hava; Parvari, Ruti

    2015-08-01

    Calmodulin lysine methyl transferase (CaM KMT) is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved from plants to vertebrates. CaM is frequently trimethylated at Lys-115, however, the role of CaM methylation in vertebrates has not been studied. CaM KMT was found to be homozygously deleted in the 2P21 deletion syndrome that includes 4 genes. These patients present with cystinuria, severe intellectual disabilities, hypotonia, mitochondrial disease and facial dysmorphism. Two siblings with deletion of three of the genes included in the 2P21 deletion syndrome presented with cystinuria, hypotonia, a mild/moderate mental retardation and a respiratory chain complex IV deficiency. To be able to attribute the functional significance of the methylation of CaM in the mouse and the contribution of CaM KMT to the clinical presentation of the 2p21deletion patients, we produced a mouse model lacking only CaM KMT with deletion borders as in the human 2p21deletion syndrome. No compensatory activity for CaM methylation was found. Impairment of complexes I and IV, and less significantly III, of the mitochondrial respiratory chain was more pronounced in the brain than in muscle. CaM KMT is essential for normal body growth and somatosensory development, as well as for the proper functioning of the adult mouse brain. Developmental delay was demonstrated for somatosensory function and for complex behavior, which involved both basal motor function and motivation. The mutant mice also had deficits in motor learning, complex coordination and learning of aversive stimuli. The mouse model contributes to the evaluation of the role of methylated CaM. CaM methylation appears to have a role in growth, muscle strength, somatosensory development and brain function. The current study has clinical implications for human patients. Patients presenting slow growth and muscle weakness that could result from a mitochondrial impairment and mental retardation should be considered for sequence analysis of the Ca

  20. Muscular strength and physical function in elderly adults 6-18 months after a 12-week resistance exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsdottir, Olof Gudny; Arnarson, Atli; Ramel, A; Briem, Kristin; Jonsson, Palmi V; Thorsdottir, Igna

    2015-02-01

    Benefits of resistance exercise in elderly people are well documented; however, sustaining these benefits can be difficult and adherence is often poor. Muscular strength and physical function usually decline after a supervised resistance exercise program (REP). We investigated these changes in older adults during an observational follow-up and whether leisure time physical activity (LTPA) or unsupervised resistance exercise (RE) limit these changes. Subjects (N = 236, 73.7 ± 5.7 years, 58.2% female) had participated in a supervised 12-week REP. Quadriceps strength and timed-up-and-go performance (TUG) at follow-up were compared to values before and after REP. Multivariate statistics were used to predict changes in strength or function. Two hundred and eleven (90.3%) participants completed REP and 149 (63.1%) completed follow-up (11.4 ± 2.9 months). Quadriceps strength at follow-up decreased significantly compared to after REP (-27N), but was higher than before REP (+ 30N). TUG did not decrease during follow-up and was better than before REP (-0.9 seconds). LTPA (+ 38.0N, p strength at follow-up, although they did not completely prevent loss of strength during follow-up. quadriceps strength declines after a 12-week resistance exercise program in older adults. Neither LTPA nor RE completely prevents loss of quadriceps strength during follow-up, although they limited the loss. TUG did not change during follow-up and was better at follow-up than before the start of the resistance exercise program. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  1. Is better preservation of eccentric strength after stroke due to altered prefrontal function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Mattias; Lindström, Britta; Sojka, Peter; Lundström, Ronnie; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan

    2016-01-01

    Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) is part of a network that exerts inhibitory control over the motor cortex (MC). Recently, we demonstrated that VLPFC was more activated during imagined maximum eccentric than during imagined concentric contractions in healthy participants. This was accompanied with lower activation levels within motor regions during imagined eccentric contractions. The aim was to test a novel hypothesis of an involvement of VLPFC in contraction mode-specific modulation of force. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine differences in VLPFC and motor regions during the concentric and the eccentric phases of imagined maximum contractions in a selected sample of subjects with stroke (n = 4). The subjects were included as they exhibited disturbed modulation of force. The previously demonstrated pattern within VLPFC was evident only on the contralesional hemisphere. On the ipsilesional hemisphere, the recruitment in VLPFC was similar for both modes of contractions. The findings support a hypothesis of the involvement of VLPFC in contraction mode-specific modulation of maximum force production. A disturbance of this system might underlie the lack of contraction mode-specific modulation commonly found among stroke subjects, often expressed as an increased ratio between eccentric and concentric strength.

  2. Mortality displacement as a function of heat event strength in 7 US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Michael V; Davis, Robert E; Hondula, David M

    2014-02-15

    Mortality rates increase immediately after periods of high air temperature. In the days and weeks after heat events, time series may exhibit mortality displacement-periods of lower than expected mortality. We examined all-cause mortality and meteorological data from 1980 to 2009 in the cities of Atlanta, Georgia; Boston, Massachusetts; Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Phoenix, Arizona; Seattle, Washington; and St. Louis, Missouri. We modeled baseline mortality using a generalized additive model. Heat waves were defined as periods of 3 or more consecutive days in which the apparent temperature exceeded a variable percentile. For each heat wave, we calculated the sum of excess and deficit mortality. Mortality displacement, which is the ratio of grand sum deficit to grand sum excess mortality, decreased as a function of event strength in all cities. Displacement was close to 1.00 for the weakest events. At the highest temperatures, displacement varied from 0.35 (95% confidence interval: 0.21, 0.55) to 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.54, 0.97). We found strong evidence of acclimatization across cities. Without consideration of displacement effects, the net impacts of heat-wave mortality are likely to be significant overestimations. A statistically significant positive relationship between the onset temperature of nondisplaced heat mortality and mean warm-season temperature (R(2) = 0.78, P < 0.01) suggests that heat mortality thresholds may be predictable across cities.

  3. Do light nuclei display a universal γ-ray strength function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinov A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we focus on properties in the quasi-continuum of light nuclei. Generally, both level density and γ-ray strength function (γ-SF differ from nucleus to nucleus. In order to investigate this closer, we have performed particle-γ coincidences using the reactions (p, p', (p, d and (p, t on a 46Ti target. In particular, the very rich data set of the 46Ti(p, p'46Ti inelastic scattering reaction allows analysis of the coincidence data for many independent data sets. Using the Oslo method, we find one common level density for all data sets. If transitions to well-separated low-energy levels are included, the deduced γ-SF may change by a factor of 2 – 3, due strong to Porter-Thomas fluctuations. However, a universal γ-SF with small fluctuations is found provided that only excitation energies above 3 MeV are taken into account. The nuclear structure of the titaniums is discussed within a combinatorial quasi-particle model, showing that only few Nilsson orbitals participate in building up the level density for these light nuclei.

  4. Kinesio taping effect on quadriceps strength and lower limb function of healthy individuals: A blinded, controlled, randomized, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes de Jesus, Julio; de Almeida Novello, Aline; Bezerra Nakaoka, Gustavo; Curcio Dos Reis, Amir; Fukuda, Thiago Yukio; Fernandes Bryk, Flavio

    2016-03-01

    To analyze kinesio taping (KT) effect on quadriceps strength and lower limb function over a 7-day period. Blind randomized clinical trial. Hospital's Physical Therapy Department. Sixty healthy individuals (30 men and 30 women) were randomly distributed into three groups: Control--without KT application; Placebo--placebo KT application and Experimental--A KT application designed to stimulate quadriceps femoris activity. The quadriceps strength was measured using a manual dynamometer whereas lower limb function was assessed using the Single Hop Test for Distance. Evaluations occurred at five time-points: baseline; immediately, 3 and 5 days after KT application; and 72 h post KT withdrawal. There was no significant interaction between time-points and groups for muscle strength: dominant (P = 0.13) and non-dominant (P = 0.41) and lower limb function: dominant (P = 0.09) and non-dominant (P = 0.53); but lower limb function within-group comparisons showed improvements in all groups at the evolution of all time-points analyzed for both limbs (P = 0.001). This is possibly due to a learning effect as the participants became more familiar with executing the assessment tests. KT did not improve quadriceps strength and lower limb function of healthy individuals and its application with these objectives should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In-season monitoring of hip and groin strength, health and function in elite youth soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollin, Martin; Thorborg, Kristian; Welvaert, Marijke

    2018-01-01

    -seven elite male youth soccer players (age: 15.07±0.73years) volunteered to participate in the study. Monitoring tests included: adductor strength, adductor/abductor strength ratio and hip and groin outcome scores (HAGOS). Data were recorded at pre-season and at 22 monthly intervals in-season. Thresholds...

  6. Sex-related differences in joint-angle-specific functional hamstring-to-quadriceps strength ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashker, Said; Carson, Brian P; Ayala, Francisco; De Ste Croix, Mark

    2017-03-01

    To examine and compare sex-related differences in the functioning of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles and the isokinetic hamstrings eccentric-to-quadriceps concentric functional ratio (H/Q FUNC ). Fifty male and 46 female young adults completed this study. Each participant carried out an isokinetic assessment to determine isokinetic concentric and eccentric torques during knee extension and flexion actions at 3 different angular velocities (60, 180 and 300°/s) adopting a lying position. The H/Q FUNC was calculated using peak torque (PT) values and 3 different joint-angle-specific torque values (15°, 30° and 45° of knee extension). A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the results, and post hoc analyses using Friedman correction were employed. There were statistically significant effects of angular velocity, joint angle and sex on the H/Q FUNC (p ratio in both males and females decreases closer to full knee extension and with increasing movement velocity. The H/Q FUNC was also significantly lower in females compared to males, irrespective of moment velocity and joint angle. The findings of the current study reinforce the need to examine the H/Q FUNC ratio closer to full knee extension (where knee injury is most likely to occur) rather than using PT values which may not be as informative, as well as to focus preventive and rehabilitation training programmes on reducing quadriceps dominance by enhancing eccentric hamstring strength (especially in females who are at higher risk of injury). III.

  7. Safety, efficacy, and functionality of high-field strength interventional magnetic resonance imaging for neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W A; Liu, H; Martin, A J; Pozza, C H; Maxwell, R E; Truwit, C L

    2000-03-01

    Interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows neurosurgeons to interactively perform surgery using MRI guidance. High-field strength (1.5-T) imaging permits exceptional observation of intracranial and spinal pathological features. The development of this technology and its application to a variety of neurosurgical procedures are described. We report on the first 101 cases that were treated in the interventional MRI unit (between January 1997 and September 1998). These cases included 39 brain biopsies, 30 tumor resections, 9 functional neurosurgical cases, 8 cyst drainages, 5 laminectomies, and 10 miscellaneous cases. Patients ranged in age from 14 months to 84 years (median, 43 yr); 61 patients were male and 40 were female. Intraoperative functional techniques that were used to influence surgical decision-making included magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional MRI, magnetic resonance angiography and venography, chemical shift imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging. All surgery was performed using MRI-compatible instruments within the 5-gauss line and conventional instruments outside that line. All 39 brain biopsies yielded diagnostic tissue. Of the 30 tumor resections, 24 (80%) were considered radiographically complete. The incidence of serious complications was low and was comparable to that associated with conventional operating rooms. One patient developed a Propionibacterium acnes brain abscess 6 weeks after surgery and another patient experienced Staphylococcus aureus scalp cellulitis after a brain biopsy, yielding an infection rate of less than 2%. No clinically significant hemorrhage was observed in immediate postoperative imaging scans, although one patient developed a delayed hematoma after a thalamotomy. One patient experienced a stroke after resection of a hippocampal tumor. No untoward events were associated with MRI-compatible instrumentation or intraoperative patient monitoring. High-field (1.5-T) interventional MRI is a safe and

  8. The effect of gamma irradiation on the functional properties of various starches: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benbettaieb, Nasreddine

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation is one of the most effective methods able to change starch structure and its functional properties. Effects of irradiation are largely related to particular structure and molecular organisation of starch from various botanical sources. In this research, the effect of gamma irradiation (3, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50kGy) on the rheological, structural, and morphological properties of three starch varieties (potato, tapioca and wheat) was studied. Rheological analyses show that all the starches develop different behaviours during gelatinization. Potato starch yielded the high swelling power (SP) and exhibited a maximum value of consistency during pasting, followed by that of tapioca one. The lower values of SP and maximum consistency were observed in the case of wheat starch. For all starch varieties, the pic consistency during pasting decrease with increasing irradiation dose. An increase in the SP was observed for all the studied starches irradiated with lower dose (until 20kGy). This parameter decreases at higher doses. On the other hand, irradiation improves the water solubility index (WSI) of all the studied starch. In addition, spectra of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the irradiated starch displayed a significant decrease in the intensity of the OH stretch (3000; 3600 cm -1 ), C H stretch (between 2800 and 3000 cm -1 ), bending mode of water (between 1600 and 1800 cm -1 ) and in the bending mode of glycosidic linkage (between 900 and 950cm -1 ). Structural analysis using electron spins resonance (ESR) illustrates the presence of three signals in 3490, 3500 and 3510 G, respectively. These signals confirm the presence of free radicals in the tapioca and wheat starches through radiation treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed that potato starch has B type morphology while tapioca and wheat starches have a crystalline A type morphology. In the same analysis, it was shown that irradiation treatment has no major

  9. Assessment of a sixteen-week training program on strength, pain, and function in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint-Wagner, Hilary G; Lisse, Jeffrey; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B; Guido, Terri; Cussler, Ellen; Gates, Donald; Yocum, David E

    2009-06-01

    To assess the effects of a 16-week progressive, individualized, high-intensity strength training program on muscle strength, pain, and function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty-four RA patients (men, n = 5; women, n = 19) receiving infliximab participated in a randomized controlled trial. The strength training (ST) group (n = 16) participated in a supervised program 3 times per week, and the control (C) group (n = 8) continued with standard of care as overseen by their rheumatologist. Assessments were completed at baseline and at weeks 8 and 16. Strength was measured by 3 repetition maximum (3RM), isometric hand dynamometer, and isokinetic dynamometer. A 100-mm visual analogue scale was used to assess pain. Functional performance was derived from a timed 50-foot walk and the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index. The mean percent increase in strength (3RM) for the ST group from baseline to week 16 was 46.1% +/- 31.6% (P < 0.01) (mean of all three 3RM exercises: hammer curl, leg press, and incline dumbbell press), with mean gains in strength up to 4 times that of baseline values reported in all strength training exercises (upper and lower body) performed during exercise sessions. On average, right-hand grip strength increased by 2.9 +/- 4.0 kg in the ST group, in comparison with a loss of 1.2 +/- 3.0 kg in the C group over 16 weeks. The ST group had a 53% reduction in pain, in comparison with almost no change in the C group. The ST group had a significant improvement in 50-foot walk time, with a mean reduction of -1.2 +/- 1.6 seconds, in comparison with the C group (mean increase of 0.8 +/- 1.0 seconds; P = 0.01) over the 16 weeks. There was a clinically important difference (predefined as mean change +/-0.25) in the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index in the ST group (-0.4 +/- 0.4) but not in the C group (-0.1 +/- 0.4). High-intensity strength training in RA patients with varying levels of disease activity and joint damage

  10. Body composition of 80-years old men and women and its relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, L.; Schroll, M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure body composition and analyse the relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability in healthy, old subjects, and to relate the results to an optimal BMI level for the elderly. SETTING: Subjects aged 80 years living at home from the 1914-population...... proposed guidelines for the elderly of an optimal BMI interval of 24-29 kg/m2. We found relations between body composition, muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability....... in Glostrup, Denmark. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: 121 men and 113 women had their height and weight measured. Body fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was measured as handgrip, elbow flexion, knee extension, body flexion and body extension. Physical activity was self...

  11. Modified forelimb grip strength test detects aging-associated physiological decline in skeletal muscle function in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Hikari; Yamamoto, Koichi; Nozato, Satoko; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Imaizumi, Yuki; Hongyo, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Serina; Takeda, Masao; Oguro, Ryosuke; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Fukada, So-Ichiro; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2017-02-08

    The conventional forelimb grip strength test is a widely used method to assess skeletal muscle function in rodents; in this study, we modified this method to improve its variability and consistency. The modified test had lower variability among trials and days than the conventional test in young C57BL6 mice, especially by improving the variabilities in male. The modified test was more sensitive than the conventional test to detect a difference in motor function between female and male mice, or between young and old male mice. When the modified test was performed on male mice during the aging process, reduction of grip strength manifested between 18 and 24 months of age at the group level and at the individual level. The modified test was similar to the conventional test in detecting skeletal muscle dysfunction in young male dystrophic mice. Thus, the modified forelimb grip strength test, with its improved validity and reliability may be an ideal substitute for the conventional method.

  12. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Applied Early After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting on Pulmonary Function, Respiratory Muscle Strength, and Functional Capacity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Daniel L; Silva, Mayara Gabrielle; Silva, Luan Nascimento; Fortes, João Vyctor; Costa, Erika Thalita; Assunção, Rebeca Pessoa; Lima, Carlos Magno; da Silva Nina, Vinícius José; Bernardo-Filho, Mário; Caputo, Danúbia Sá

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity is beneficial in several clinical situations and recommended for patients with ischemic heart disease, as well as for those undergoing cardiac surgery. In a randomized controlled trial, 34 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. A randomized control group (n = 15) submitted to conventional physiotherapy. The intervention group (n = 19) received the same protocol plus additional aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer. Pulmonary function by spirometry, respiratory muscle strength by manovacuometry, and functional capacity through 6-minute walking test was assessed before surgery and at hospital discharge. There was significant reduction in pulmonary function in both groups. In both groups, inspiratory muscle strength was maintained while expiratory muscle strength significantly decreased. Functional capacity was maintained in the intervention group (364.5 [324.5 to 428] vs. 348 [300.7 to 413.7] meters, P = .06), but it decreased significantly in control group patients (320 [288.5 to 393.0] vs. 292 [237.0 to 336.0] meters, P = .01). A significant difference in functional capacity was also found in intergroup analyses at hospital discharge (P = .03). Aerobic exercise applied early on coronary artery bypass grafting patients may promote maintenance of functional capacity, with no impact on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength when compared with conventional physiotherapy.

  13. Level Densities and Radiative Strength Functions in 56FE and 57FE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavukcu, Emel [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2002-12-10

    Understanding nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions is important for pure and applied nuclear physics. Recently, the Oslo Cyclotron Group has developed an experimental method to extract level densities and radiative strength functions simultaneously from the primary γ rays after a light-ion reaction. A primary γ-ray spectrum represents the γ-decay probability distribution. The Oslo method is based on the Axel-Brink hypothesis, according to which the primary γ-ray spectrum is proportional to the product of the level density at the final energy and the radiative strength function. The level density and the radiative strength function are fit to the experimental primary γ-ray spectra, and then normalized to known data. The method works well for heavy nuclei. The present measurements extend the Oslo method to the lighter mass nuclei 56Fe and 57Fe. The experimental level densities in 56Fe and 57Fe reveal step structure. This step structure is a signature for nucleon pair breaking. The predicted pairing gap parameter is in good agreement with the step corresponding to the first pair breaking. Thermodynamic quantities for 56Fe and 57Fe are derived within the microcanonical and canonical ensembles using the experimental level densities. Energy-temperature relations are considered using caloric curves and probability density functions. The differences between the thermodynamics of small and large systems are emphasized. The experimental heat capacities are compared with the recent theoretical calculations obtained in the Shell Model Monte Carlo method. Radiative strength functions in 56Fe and 57Fe have surprisingly high values at low γ-ray energies. This behavior has not been observed for heavy nuclei, but has been observed in other light- and medium-mass nuclei. The origin of this low γ-ray energy effect remains unknown.

  14. Lower limb muscle strength is associated with functional performance and quality of life in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana R. L. Lima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complaints of peripheral muscle weakness are quite common in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc. It is likely that the muscle impairments may reduce the patients' exercise performance, which in turn may decrease their functional capacity and exert a direct impact on their quality of life. Objectives: To assess the peripheral and respiratory muscle strength in individuals with SSc and to investigate their correlation with the 6-min walk distance (6MWD and quality of life measurements. Moreover, we aimed to characterize their nutritional status, pulmonary function, functional capacity, and quality of life compared to the controls. Method: The present cross-sectional study included 20 patients with SSc and 20 control subjects. All of the participants were subjected to isometric dynamometry, surface electromyography, bioelectrical impedance analysis, pulmonary function testing, and the 6-min walk test. Patients with SSc also responded to the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI. Results: The individuals with SSc exhibited a reduction in quadriceps strength (p=0.0001, increased quadriceps fatigability (p=0.034, impaired pulmonary function, and a reduced 6MWD (p=0.0001 compared to the controls. Quadriceps strength was significantly correlated with the 6MWD (Rho=0.719; p=0.0004 and the HAQ-DI (Rho=-0.622; p=0.003. We also found significant correlations between quadriceps fatigability and maximal inspiratory (Rho=0.684; p=0.0009 and maximal expiratory (Rho=0.472; p=0.035 pressure. Conclusions: Patients with SSc exhibited reduced respiratory muscle and quadriceps strength and an increase in its fatigability. In these individuals, there was a relationship between quadriceps strength, functional capacity, and quality of life.

  15. Comparison of functional exercise capacity, pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in patients with multiple sclerosis with different disability levels and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnak-Guclu, Meral; Gunduz, Arzu Guclu; Nazliel, Bijen; Irkec, Ceyla

    2012-01-01

    To compare functional exercise capacity, pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in fully ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis with different disability levels and healthy controls, and to elucidate the determinant factors of functional exercise capacity. Forty-three fully ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Patients were grouped according to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS); Group I (EDSS 0-2), Group II (EDSS 2.5-4.5). Functional exercise capacity was evaluated using a six-minute walk test, and measurement of pulmonary function, and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP, MEP). The Pulmonary Index was used as a clinical predictor of respiratory dysfunction. Respiratory muscle strength was lower in multiple sclerosis groups compared with controls, but the difference in MIP and %MIP did not reach statistical significance in Group I. The six-minute walk test distance was significantly shorter and peak expiratory flow was lower in multiple sclerosis groups (p Respiratory muscles are weakened, functional exercise capacity is reduced and pulmonary function is affected even in the early phase of multiple sclerosis. Ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis who have a higher level of disability have lower pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity than less disabled ones and controls. Neurological disability level, age, gender and heart rate difference on exertion are the determinants of functional exercise capacity.

  16. The Importance of Trunk Muscle Strength for Balance, Functional Performance, and Fall Prevention in Seniors : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granacher, Urs; Gollhofer, Albert; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Kressig, Reto W.; Muehlbauer, Thomas

    Background The aging process results in a number of functional (e.g., deficits in balance and strength/power performance), neural (e.g., loss of sensory/motor neurons), muscular (e.g., atrophy of type-II muscle fibers in particular), and bone-related (e.g., osteoporosis) deteriorations.

  17. Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walls, Raymond J

    2010-01-01

    Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality.

  18. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  19. To What Extent Is Mean EMG Frequency during Gait a Reflection of Functional Muscle Strength in Children with Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gestel, L.; Wambacq, H.; Aertbelien, E.; Meyns, P.; Bruyninckx, H.; Bar-On, L.; Molenaers, G.; De Cock, P.; Desloovere, K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current paper was to analyze the potential of the mean EMG frequency, recorded during 3D gait analysis (3DGA), for the evaluation of functional muscle strength in children with cerebral palsy (CP). As walking velocity is known to also influence EMG frequency, it was investigated to which extent the mean EMG frequency is a reflection…

  20. Physical function, grip strength and frailty in people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Charlotte; Dabis, François; de Rekeneire, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    To present the current knowledge on physical function, grip strength and frailty in HIV-infected patients living in sub-Saharan Africa, where the phenomenon is largely underestimated. A systematic search was conducted on MEDLINE, Scopus and African Index Medicus. We reviewed articles on sub-Saharan African people living with HIV (PLHIV) >18 years old, published until November 2016. Of 537 articles, 12 were conducted in six African countries and included in this review. Five articles reported information on functional limitation and one on disability. Two of these five articles reported functional limitation (low gait speed) in PLHIV. Disability was observed in 27% and 3% of PLHIV living in rural and urban places, respectively. Two of three studies reporting grip strength reported lower grip strength (nearly 4 kg) in PLHIV in comparison with uninfected patients. One study reported that PLHIV were more likely to be frail than HIV-uninfected individuals (19.4% vs. 13.3%), whereas another reported no statistical difference. Decline in physical function, grip strength and frailty are now part of the burden of PLHIV living in SSA countries, but current data are insufficient to characterise the real public health dimension of these impairments. Further studies are needed to depict this major public health challenge. As this is likely to contribute to a significant burden on the African healthcare systems and human resources in the near future, a holistic care approach should be developed to inform guidelines. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.

  2. Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Goodpaster, Bret H; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Nevitt, Michael; Rubin, Susan M; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Harris, Tamara B

    BACKGROUND: Lower muscle mass has been correlated with poor physical function; however, no studies have examined this relationship prospectively. This study aims to investigate whether low muscle mass, low muscle strength, and greater fat infiltration into the muscle predict incident mobility

  3. The Influence of Age-related Changes in Tactile Sensibility and Muscular Strength on Hand Function in Older Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Murata

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: These results suggested that the manual dexterity in the hand function was attenuated with increasing age. We considered that this attenuating effect was associated with a decline in tactile sensibility rather than a change in the muscular strength of the hand.

  4. Effects of aquatic exercise on muscle strength and functional performance of individuals with osteoarthritis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Mattos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water-based exercises are recommended for people with osteoarthritis (OA, due to the beneficial effects on physical function, quality of life and symptom reduction. However, the effects on muscle strength are still controversial. The aim of this review was to assess and compare the effects of aquatic exercise programs on muscle strength and physical function in people with OA. A systematic search was performed at Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Clinical trials with interventions involving aquatic exercises for individuals with OA were included. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the PEDro scale. 296 studies were found and twelve were selected: six studies comparing water-based exercises with land-based exercise, and six comparing water-based exercise groups with the control group. Exercise programs included muscle strengthening, aerobic, balance, flexibility and stretching exercises. Duration of the program, weekly frequency, intensity and progression varied between studies. Beneficial effects of aquatic exercise were found on physical function. However, only two of five studies that assessed muscle strength observed positive effect of aquatic exercise. Although it is difficult to compare studies and establish guidelines for the standardized protocol formulation, it was observed that water-based exercises can be effective on improving physical function and increasing muscle strength, since they are well-structured, with exercise intensity and overload controlled.

  5. Effects of aquatic exercise on muscle strength and functional performance of individuals with osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Fernanda de; Leite, Neiva; Pitta, Arthur; Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce

    2016-09-28

    Water-based exercises are recommended for people with osteoarthritis (OA), due to the beneficial effects on physical function, quality of life and symptom reduction. However, the effects on muscle strength are still controversial. The aim of this review was to assess and compare the effects of Aquatic Exercise Programs on muscle strength and physical function in people with OA. A systematic search was performed at Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Clinical trials with interventions involving Aquatic Exercises for individuals with OA were included. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the PEDro scale. 296 studies were found and twelve were selected: six studies comparing water-based exercises with land-based exercise, and six comparing water-based exercise groups with the control group. Exercise programs included muscle strengthening, aerobic, balance, flexibility and stretching exercises. Duration of the program, weekly frequency, intensity and progression varied between studies. Beneficial effects of aquatic exercise were found on physical function. However, only two of five studies that assessed muscle strength observed positive effect of aquatic exercise. Although it is difficult to compare studies and establish guidelines for the standardized protocol formulation, it was observed that water-based exercises can be effective on improving physical function and increasing muscle strength, since they are well-structured, with exercise intensity and overload controlled. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  6. The course of functional status and muscle strength in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke M.; Beelen, Anita; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Nollet, Frans

    2005-01-01

    Stolwijk-SwUste JM, Beelen A, Lankhorst GJ, Nollet F, for the CARPA Study Group. The course of functional status and muscle strength in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:1693-701. Objectives: To review systematically studies of

  7. Functional relationship between dominant and non-dominant hand in motor task - hand grip strength endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajić Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the functional relationship between dominant and non-dominant hand in the strength endurance motor task - hand grip, in the referent population of healthy and young persons. For the purpose of the research we have implemented the method of isometric dynamometry and standardized hand grip test. The study included 48 participants, 23 of them being of female and 25 of male gender. The analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to determine the difference between the sets of variables in the function of gender and functional dimorphism, while the Bonferroni criterion was applied to determine the differences between pairs of individual variables. The difference between the maximum hand grip of dominant and non-dominant hand in female participants amounted to 9.28%, and in male ones 7.39% in favor of the dominant hand. There is no statistically significant difference between nondominant and dominant hand regarding the force endurance time aspect at 30%, 50% and 80% out of the maximum hand grip level, as well as at the absolute and relative force impulse indicators as an endurance measure. The value of gender dimorphism in relation to the absolute indicators of force momentum at 30%, 50% and 80% out of the maximum hand grip level in female participants is 0.9714, 0.9145, 0.9301, and in male participants 0.9515, 0.8264 and 0.8606. The force momentum indicators value at 30%, 50% and 80% out of the maximum hand grip level in female participants is ImpF30%=21167.58±6923.67 Ns, ImpF50%=10846.94±3800.56 Ns and ImpF80%=5438.46±1993.12 Ns, and in male participants ImpF30%=17734.03±6881.92 Ns, ImpF50%=13903.61±3437.76 Ns and ImpF80%=5117.53±1894.78 Ns. The obtained results can be used as the criteria for further research in special education and rehabilitation, medical and professional rehabilitation.

  8. The Relationship between Intramuscular Adipose Tissue, Functional Mobility, and Strength in Postmenopausal Women with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Pritchard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine (1 whether intramuscular adipose tissue (IntraMAT differs between women with and without type 2 diabetes and (2 the association between IntraMAT and mobility and strength. Methods. 59 women ≥ 65 years with and without type 2 diabetes were included. A 1-Tesla MRI was used to acquire images of the leg. Timed-up-and-go (TUG and grip strength were measured. Regression was used to determine associations between the following: (1 type 2 diabetes and IntraMAT (covariates: age, ethnicity, BMI, waist : hip ratio, and energy expenditure, (2 IntraMAT and TUG (covariates: diabetes, age, BMI, and energy expenditure, and (3 IntraMAT and grip strength (covariates: diabetes, age, height, and lean mass. Results. Women with diabetes had more IntraMAT. After adjustment, IntraMAT was similar between groups (diabetes mean [SD] = 13.2 [1.4]%, controls 11.8 [1.3]%, P=0.515. IntraMAT was related to TUG and grip strength, but the relationships became nonsignificant after adjustment for covariates (difference/percent IntraMAT [95% CI]: TUG = 0.041 seconds [−0.079–0.161], P=0.498, grip strength = −0.144 kg [−0.335–0.066], P=0.175. Conclusions. IntraMAT alone may not be a clinically important predictor of functional mobility and strength; however, whether losses in functional mobility and strength are promoted by IntraMAT accumulation should be explored.

  9. Strength and Functional Improvement Using Pneumatic Brace with Extension Assist for End-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis: A Prospective, Randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Jeffrey J; Bhave, Anil; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Starr, Roland; McElroy, Mark J; Mont, Michael A

    2015-05-01

    Pneumatic unloader bracing with extension assists have been proposed as a non-operative modality that may delay the need for knee surgery by reducing pain and improving function. This prospective, randomized trial evaluated 52 patients who had knee osteoarthritis for changes in: (1) muscle strength; (2) objective functional improvements; (3); subjective functional improvements; (4) pain; (5) quality of life; and (6) conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) compared to standard of care. Patient outcomes were evaluated at a minimum 3 months. Braced patient's demonstrated significant improvements in muscle strength, several functional tests, and patient reported outcomes when compared to the matched cohort. These results are encouraging and suggest that this device may represent a promising alternative to standard treatment methods for knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. How to simultaneously optimize muscle strength, power, functional capacity, and cardiovascular gains in the elderly: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadore, E L; Izquierdo, M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to review the scientific literature that investigated concurrent training adaptations in elderly populations, with the aim of identifying the optimal combination of both training program variables (i.e., strength and endurance) to avoid or minimize the interference effect in the elderly. Scielo, Science Citation Index, MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and ScienceDirect databases were searched. Concurrent training is the most effective strategy by which to improve neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory functions as well as functional capacity in the elderly. The volume and frequency of training appears to play a critical role in concurrent training-induced adaptations in elderly subjects. Furthermore, new evidence indicates that the intra-session exercise order may influence the magnitude of physiological adaptations. Despite the interference effect on strength gains that is caused by concurrent training, this type of training is advantageous in that the combination of strength and endurance training produces both neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptations in the elderly. The interference phenomenon may be observed in elderly subjects when a moderate weekly volume of concurrent training (i.e., three times per week) is performed. However, even with the occurrence of this phenomenon, the performance of three concurrent training sessions per week appears to optimize the strength gains in relative brief periods of training (12 weeks). Moreover, performing strength prior to endurance exercise may optimize both neuromuscular and cardiovascular gains.

  11. Moderate-Load Muscular Endurance Strength Training Did Not Improve Peak Power or Functional Capacity in Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon; Haff, Guy G; Häkkinen, Keijo; Newton, Robert U

    2017-01-01

    The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64-75 y). Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first) with short rest intervals (30-60 s between sets) at an intensity of 50-60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM) for 15-20 repetitions. Concentric leg press actions measured maximum strength (1-RM) and concentric peak power. Functional capacity was assessed by maximum speed walking tests (i.e., forward walk, backward walk, timed-up-and-go, and stair climb tests). Quadriceps muscle activation was assessed by surface electromyogram and twitch interpolation technique. Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area was measured by panoramic ultrasound. Compared to control, the intervention groups increased maximum strength (1-RM; men: 10 ± 7% vs. 2 ± 3%, women: 14 ± 9% vs. 1 ± 6% both P vs. -3 ± 6%, women: 10 ± 10% vs. 0 ± 4% both P vs. -4 ± 3%, women: -5 ± 6% vs. -2 ± 5% both P > 0.05). While benefits occurred during muscular endurance strength training, specific stimuli are probably needed to target all aspects of age-related health.

  12. A daily adjustable progressive resistance exercise protocol and functional training to increase quadriceps muscle strength and functional performance in an elderly homebound patient following a total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardali, Gunay

    2014-05-01

    There is no routinely prescribed protocol to address quadriceps weakness and functional impairments following a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this case report is to introduce and describe the early use of a daily adjustable progressive resistance exercise (DAPRE) protocol as an adjunct to standard rehabilitation to maximize quadriceps muscle strength and functional performance in an elderly homebound patient following a TKA. A 61-year-old female was referred to home care physical therapy for 6 weeks following left TKA due to functional deficits and inability to activate the weak left quadriceps muscle. In phase I, the patient received three visits with emphasis on edema management, improving left knee range of motion, and reducing pain. Phase II consisted of two main components: (1) a DAPRE protocol aimed at maximizing the quadriceps strength and (2) functional training aimed at improving normal gait patterns, transfers, and dynamic balance. The patient made substantial improvements in both quadriceps muscle strength and functional performance in the first seven weeks following the TKA. The patient had a pain free return to daily living activities. The results suggest that early initiation of a DAPRE protocol was free of adverse events and improved quadriceps strength and functional performance for this patient.

  13. Strength and Power Training Effects on Lower Limb Force, Functional Capacity, and Static and Dynamic Balance in Older Female Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paula Born; Pereira, Gleber; Lodovico, Angélica; Bento, Paulo C B; Rodacki, André L F

    2016-03-03

    It has been proposed that muscle power is more effective to prevent falls than muscle force production capacity, as rapid reactions are required to allow the postural control. This study aimed to compare the effects of strength and power training on lower limb force, functional capacity, and static and dynamic balance in older female adults. Thirty-seven volunteered healthy women had been allocated into the strength-training group (n = 14; 69 ± 7.3 years, 155 ± 5.6 cm, 72 ± 9.7 kg), the power-training group (n = 12; 67 ± 7.4 years, 153 ± 5.5 cm, 67.2 ± 7 kg), and control group (n = 11; 65 ± 3.1 years, 154 ± 5.6 cm, 70.9 ± 3 kg). After 12 weeks of training, the strength-training and power-training groups increased significantly maximum dynamic strength (29% and 27%), isometric strength (26% and 37%), and step total time (13% and 14%, dynamic balance), respectively. However, only the power-training group increased the rate of torque development (55%) and the functional capacity in 30-second chair stand (22%) and in time up and go tests (-10%). Empirically, power training may reduce the risk of injuries due to lower loads compared to strength training, and consequently, the physical effort demand during the training session is lower. Therefore, power training should be recommended as attractive training stimuli to improve lower limb force, functional capacity, and postural control of older female adults.

  14. Poor muscle strength and function in physically inactive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus despite very mild disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jéssica Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare muscle strength (i.e. lower- and upper-body strength and function between physically inactive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients (C-SLE and healthy controls (CTRL. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and the sample consisted of 19 C-SLE (age between 9 and 18 years and 15 CTRL matched by age, sex, body mass index (BMI, and physical activity levels (assessed by accelerometry. Lower- and upper-body strength was assessed by the one-repetition-maximum (1-RM test. Isometric strength was assessed through a handgrip dynamometer. Muscle function was evaluated by the timed-stands test (TST and the timed-up-and-go test (TUG. Results: When compared with CTRL, C-SLE showed lower leg-press and bench-press 1-RM (p = 0.026 and p = 0.008, respectively, and a tendency toward lower handgrip strength (p = 0.052. C-SLE showed lower TST scores (p = 0.036 and a tendency toward higher TUG scores (p = 0.070 when compared with CTRL. Conclusion: Physically inactive C-SLE patients with very mild disease showed reduced muscle strength and functionality when compared with healthy controls matched by physical activity levels. These findings suggest C-SLE patients may greatly suffer from a physically inactive lifestyle than healthy controls do. Moreover, some sub-clinical “residual” effect of the disease or its pharmacological treatment seems to affect C-SLE patients even with a well-controlled disease.

  15. Solar cell contact pull strength as a function of pull-test temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, R. K.; Berman, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Four types of solar cell contacts were given pull-strength tests at temperatures between -173 and +165 C. Contacts tested were: (1) solder-coated titanium-silver contacts on n-p cells, (2) palladium-containing titanium-silver contacts on n-p cells, (3) titanium-silver contacts on 0.2-mm-thick n-p cells, and (4) solder-coated electroless-nickel-plated contacts on p-n cells. Maximum pull strength was demonstrated at temperatures significantly below the air mass zero cell equilibrium temperature of +60 C. At the lowest temperatures, the chief failure mechanism was silicon fracture along crystallographic planes; at the highest temperatures, it was loss of solder strength. In the intermediate temperatures, many failure mechanisms operated. Pull-strength tests give a good indication of the suitability of solar cell contact systems for space use. Procedures used to maximize the validity of the results are described.

  16. Muscle strength and force development in high- and low-functioning elderly men: Influence of muscular and neural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Charlotte H; Barbat-Artigas, Sébastien; St-Jean-Pelletier, Félix; Chevalier, Stéphanie; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Gouspillou, Gilles; Morais, José A; Bélanger, Marc; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2017-10-01

    Aging leads to a loss of muscle strength and functional capacity likely resulting from a combination of neural and muscle alterations. The aim of this study was to identify possible disparities in muscle strength and force development profiles in high- and low-functioning elderly men and to investigate muscular and neurophysiological factors that could explain the differences. Sixty community-dwelling men in good general health were divided in two groups based on a functional capacity (FC) z-score derived from 6 tests of the Short Physical Performance Battery and Senior Fitness Test (Normal and fast 4m-walk tests, normal and fast Timed-up and go, chair and stair tests). Extensor strength of the lower limbs (LL) was obtained for concentric (CLES) contraction and combined with lean masses of LL (LLLM) to yield concentric (CLES/LLLM) index. Similarly, extensor strength of the right Quadriceps Femoris (IKES) was obtained during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) and combined with right thigh lean mass (rTLM) to produce an isometric strength (IKES/rTLM) index. A muscular profile was obtained from: ascending and descending force slopes during the MVC; Vastus Lateralis (VL) muscle twitches parameters (amplitude, contraction and ½ relaxation times); the knee joint velocity (KV) as well as integrated EMG (iEMG) were determined for a sit-to-stand functional evaluation; muscle phenotype. A neurophysiological profile was established from: the spinal excitability (Hmax/Mmax ratio); motoneuron conduction velocity (CV); the completeness of muscle activation (% of force reserve), median power frequency (MPF) and mean amplitude (MA) of the VL EMG signal during MVC. Coincidently, age did not differ between groups. Strength and force indices, descending force slopes for MVC, KV and iEMG during the sit-to-stand evaluation and FC parameters were all significantly (plower in the LoFC group than in the HiFC group. In contrast, no difference was observed between groups in

  17. Facility for gamma irradiations of cultured cells at low dose rates: design, physical characteristics and functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Anello, Pasquale; Pecchia, Ilaria; Tabocchini, Maria Antonella; Campa, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a low dose/dose rate gamma irradiation facility (called LIBIS) for in vitro biological systems, for the exposure, inside a CO 2 cell culture incubator, of cells at a dose rate ranging from few μGy/h to some tens of mGy/h. Three different 137 Cs sources are used, depending on the desired dose rate. The sample is irradiated with a gamma ray beam with a dose rate uniformity of at least 92% and a percentage of primary 662 keV photons greater than 80%. LIBIS complies with high safety standards. - Highlights: • A gamma irradiation facility for chronic exposures of cells was set up at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. • The dose rate uniformity and the percentage of primary 662 keV photons on the sample are greater than 92% and 80%, respectively. • The GEANT4 code was used to design the facility. • Good agreement between simulation and experimental dose rate measurements has been obtained. • The facility will allow to safely investigate different issues about low dose rate effects on cultured cells.

  18. Performance on Functional Strength Measurement and Muscle Power Sprint Test confirm poor anaerobic capacity in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertssen, Wendy F M; Ferguson, Gillian D; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2016-12-01

    There is little and conflicting information about anaerobic performance and functional strength in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). To investigate anaerobic capacity and functional strength in children with a clinical diagnosis of DCD (clin-DCD) and if differences were larger in older (age 7-10 years) compared to younger children (age 4-6 years). Furthermore to determine the percentage of children with clin-DCD that scored Strength Measurement. A clin-DCD group (36 boys, 11 girls, mean age: 7y 1mo, SD=2y 1mo) and a typically developing group (TD) (57 boys, 53 girls, mean age: 7y 5mo, SD=1y 10mo) were compared on Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST) and Functional Strength Measurement (FSM). Children with clin-DCD performed poorer on the MPST and FSM, especially on the muscle endurance items of the FSM. The differences were larger in the older children compared to the younger on the cluster muscle endurance and the FSM total score. Over 50% of clin-DCD group scored tested on items requiring fast repetitive movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tongue-to-palate resistance training improves tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallowing function in subacute stroke survivors with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H D; Choi, J B; Yoo, S J; Chang, M Y; Lee, S W; Park, J S

    2017-01-01

    Tongue function can affect both the oral and pharyngeal stages of the swallowing process, and proper tongue strength is vital for safe oropharyngeal swallowing. This trial investigated the effect of tongue-to-palate resistance training (TPRT) on tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallowing function in stroke with dysphagia patients. This trial was performed using a 4-week, two-group, pre-post-design. Participants were allocated to the experimental group (n = 18) or the control group (n = 17). The experimental group performed TPRT for 4 weeks (5 days per week) and traditional dysphagia therapy, whereas the control group performed traditional dysphagia therapy on the same schedule. Tongue strength was measured using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Swallowing function was measured using the videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) and penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) based on a videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Experimental group showed more improved in the tongue strength (both anterior and posterior regions, P = 0·009, 0·015). In addition, the experimental group showed more improved scores on the oral and pharyngeal phase of VDS (P = 0·029, 0·007), but not on the PAS (P = 0·471), compared with the control group. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of TPRT in increasing tongue muscle strength and improving swallowing function in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. Therefore, we recommend TPRT as an easy and simple rehabilitation strategy for improving swallowing in patients with dysphagia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Development and validation of a subject-specific finite element model of the functional spinal unit to predict vertebral strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chu-Hee; Landham, Priyan R; Eastell, Richard; Adams, Michael A; Dolan, Patricia; Yang, Lang

    2017-09-01

    Finite element models of an isolated vertebral body cannot accurately predict compressive strength of the spinal column because, in life, compressive load is variably distributed across the vertebral body and neural arch. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a patient-specific finite element model of a functional spinal unit, and then use the model to predict vertebral strength from medical images. A total of 16 cadaveric functional spinal units were scanned and then tested mechanically in bending and compression to generate a vertebral wedge fracture. Before testing, an image processing and finite element analysis framework (SpineVox-Pro), developed previously in MATLAB using ANSYS APDL, was used to generate a subject-specific finite element model with eight-node hexahedral elements. Transversely isotropic linear-elastic material properties were assigned to vertebrae, and simple homogeneous linear-elastic properties were assigned to the intervertebral disc. Forward bending loading conditions were applied to simulate manual handling. Results showed that vertebral strengths measured by experiment were positively correlated with strengths predicted by the functional spinal unit finite element model with von Mises or Drucker-Prager failure criteria ( R 2  = 0.80-0.87), with areal bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ( R 2  = 0.54) and with volumetric bone mineral density from quantitative computed tomography ( R 2  = 0.79). Large-displacement non-linear analyses on all specimens did not improve predictions. We conclude that subject-specific finite element models of a functional spinal unit have potential to estimate the vertebral strength better than bone mineral density alone.

  1. Screen-based sedentary behavior and associations with functional strength in 6?15 year-old children in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Edelson, Lisa R.; Mathias, Kevin C.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Karagounis, Leonidas G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical strength is associated with improved health outcomes in children. Heavier children tend to have lower functional strength and mobility. Physical activity can increase children?s strength, but it is unknown how different types of electronic media use impact physical strength. Methods Data from the NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) from children ages 6?15 were analyzed in this study. Regression models were conducted to determine if screen-based sedentary behaviors...

  2. Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Test Rate for Various Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength of five different continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/BSAS (2D 2 types), SiC/MAS-5 (2D), SiC/SiC (2D enhanced), and C/SiC(2D) was determined as a function of test rate at I 100 to 1200 'C in air. All five composite materials exhibited a significant dependency of ultimate strength on test rate such that the ultimate strength decreased with decreasing test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress rate) to another (constant stress loading) for SiC/BSAS suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics.

  3. Functional and muscular adaptations in an experimental model for isometric strength training in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Krüger

    Full Text Available Exercise training induces muscular adaptations that are highly specific to the type of exercise. For a systematic study of the differentiated exercise adaptations on a molecular level mouse models have been used successfully. The aim of the current study was to develop a suitable mouse model of isometric strength exercise training characterized by specific adaptations known from strength training. C57BL/6 mice performed an isometric strength training (ST for 10 weeks 5 days/week. Additionally, either a sedentary control group (CT or a regular endurance training group (ET groups were used as controls. Performance capacity was determined by maximum holding time (MHT and treadmill spirometry, respectively. Furthermore, muscle fiber types and diameter, muscular concentration of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK, succinate dehydrogenase (SDHa, and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 were determined. In a further approach, the effect of ST on glucose intolerance was tested in diabetic mice. In mice of the ST group we observed an increase of MHT in isometric strength tests, a type II fiber hypertrophy, and an increased GLUT4 protein content in the membrane fraction. In contrast, in mice of the ET group an increase of VO(2max, a shift to oxidative muscle fiber type and an increase of oxidative enzyme content was measured. Furthermore strength training was effective in reducing glucose intolerance in mice fed a high fat diet. An effective murine strength training model was developed and evaluated, which revealed marked differences in adaptations known from endurance training. This approach seems also suitable to test for therapeutical effects of strength training.

  4. Synthesis of Polyvinyl Pirrolidone (PVC /Κ-Carrageenan Hydrogel Prepared by Gamma Radiation Processing As a Function of Dose and PVP Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erizal Erizal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to prepare a biomaterial to be used in health care. A series of hydrogels based on polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP/κ-Carrageenan (KC has been prepared by radiation technique. PVP (5-15% were mixed with ΚC (2% and irradiated by gamma rays at the doses from 25 kGy to 35 kGy (dose rate 7 kGy/h at room temperature. The chemical change of hydrogels was characterized using Fourier Transform infra Red (FTIR. Gel fraction, water absorption and water evaporation were determined gravimetrically. Tensile strength and elongation at break was measured using Instron meter. It was found that with the increase irradiation dose and PVP concentration, the gel fraction and tensile strength of hydrogels increase. In contrast the elongation at break and water absorption of hydrogels decrease. The hydrogel of PVP/KC hydrogel produced by gamma radiation can be considered for wound dressings.

  5. Strength training induces muscle hypertrophy and functional gains in black prostate cancer patients despite androgen deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Erik D; Sheaff, Andrew K; Sood, Suchi; Ma, Lei; Francis, Jack D; Goldberg, Andrew P; Hurley, Ben F

    2013-04-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with weakness, fatigue, sarcopenia, and reduced quality of life (QoL). Black men have a higher incidence and mortality from PCa than Caucasians. We hypothesized that despite ADT, strength training (ST) would increase muscle power and size, thereby improving body composition, physical function, fatigue levels, and QoL in older black men with PCa. Muscle mass, power, strength, endurance, physical function, fatigue perception, and QoL were measured in 17 black men with PCa on ADT before and after 12 weeks of ST. Within-group differences were determined using t tests and regression models. ST significantly increased total body muscle mass (2.7%), thigh muscle volume (6.4%), power (17%), and strength (28%). There were significant increases in functional performance (20%), muscle endurance (110%), and QoL scores (7%) and decreases in fatigue perception (38%). Improved muscle function was associated with higher functional performance (R (2) = 0.54) and lower fatigue perception (R (2) = 0.37), and both were associated with improved QoL (R (2) = 0.45), whereas fatigue perception tended to be associated with muscle endurance (R (2) = 0.37). ST elicits muscle hypertrophy even in the absence of testosterone and is effective in counteracting the adverse functional consequences of ADT in older black men with PCa. These improvements are associated with reduced fatigue perception, enhanced physical performance, and improved QoL. Thus, ST may be a safe and well-tolerated therapy to prevent the loss of muscle mass, strength, and power commonly observed during ADT.

  6. Effects of isokinetic calf muscle exercise program on muscle strength and venous function in patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Sabriye; Çetin, Cem; Yavuz, Turhan; Demir, Hilmi M; Atalay, Yurdagül B

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to observe the change of the ankle joint range of motion, the muscle strength values measured with an isokinetic dynamometer, pain scores, quality of life scale, and venous return time in chronic venous insufficiency diagnosed patients by prospective follow-up after 12-week exercise program including isokinetic exercises. Methods The patient group of this study comprised 27 patients (23 female, 4 male) who were diagnosed with chronic venous insufficiency. An exercise program including isokinetic exercise for the calf muscle was given to patients three days per week for 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, five of the patients left the study due to inadequate compliance with the exercise program. As a result, control data of 22 patients were included. Ankle joint range of active motion, isokinetic muscle strength, pain, quality of life, and photoplethysmography measurements were assessed before starting and after the exercise program. Results Evaluating changes of the starting and control data depending on time showed that all isokinetic muscle strength measurement parameters, range of motion, and overall quality of life values of patients improved. Venous return time values have also increased significantly ( p strength has been provided with exercise therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. It has been determined that the increase in muscle strength affected the venous pump and this ensured improvement in venous function and range of motion of the ankle. In addition, it has been detected that pain reduced and quality of life improved after the exercise program.

  7. The effect of unicycle riding course on trunk strength and trunk stability functions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, Andrej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2017-07-24

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of unicycling on trunk strength and timing of automatic stability actions of the selected trunk muscles (multifidus, obliquus externus, erector spine). Twenty healthy 12-year-old children (12 boys, 8 girls; age 12.1 ± 0.2 yrs; body height 1.57 ± 0.05 m; body mass 52.8 ± 10.6 kg) were assigned to experimental and control group. Experimental group performed a supervised 12-session course of unicycling. Trunk strength was measured with a multi-purpose diagnostic machine in frontal and sagittal planes in standing position. Trunk reflex responses and anticipatory actions were assessed through unexpected loading over the hands and rapid shoulder flexion, respectively. After the intervention, strength increased significantly (p muscles (p < 0.001). Anticipatory postural adaptations improved significantly (p < 0.05) in multifidus and obliquus externus of the experimental group only. Unicycling proved to be an effective and funny tool to develop proximal stability and strength, which prevents low back pain and improves the efficiency of energy transfer between body segments. To improve the efficiency of physical education classes, unicycling should be considered a useful tool to increase trunk strength and stability among prepubertal children.

  8. Explicit calculation of multi-fold contour integrals of certain ratios of Euler gamma functions. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ivan; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Kondrashuk, Igor; Notte-Cuello, Eduardo A.; Parra-Ferrada, Ivan; Rojas-Medar, Marko A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we proceed to study properties of Mellin-Barnes (MB) transforms of Usyukina-Davydychev (UD) functions. In our previous papers (Allendes et al., 2013 [13], Kniehl et al., 2013 [14]), we showed that multi-fold Mellin-Barnes (MB) transforms of Usyukina-Davydychev (UD) functions may be reduced to two-fold MB transforms and that the higher-order UD functions may be obtained in terms of a differential operator by applying it to a slightly modified first UD function. The result is valid in d = 4 dimensions, and its analog in d = 4 - 2 ε dimensions exits, too (Gonzalez and Kondrashuk, 2013 [6]). In Allendes et al. (2013) [13], the chain of recurrence relations for analytically regularized UD functions was obtained implicitly by comparing the left-hand side and the right-hand side of the diagrammatic relations between the diagrams with different loop orders. In turn, these diagrammatic relations were obtained using the method of loop reduction for the triangle ladder diagrams proposed in 1983 by Belokurov and Usyukina. Here, we reproduce these recurrence relations by calculating explicitly, via Barnes lemmas, the contour integrals produced by the left-hand sides of the diagrammatic relations. In this a way, we explicitly calculate a family of multi-fold contour integrals of certain ratios of Euler gamma functions. We make a conjecture that similar results for the contour integrals are valid for a wider family of smooth functions, which includes the MB transforms of UD functions.

  9. Gamma gamma technology group

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The gamma gamma community are concerned that in the rush to prepare for the e+e− machine, allowance is not being made for a future upgrade of the photon linear collider. References. [1] ECFA/DESY Photon Collider Working Group: B Badelek et al, TESLA Technical. Design Report, Part VI, Chapter 1: Photon collider at ...

  10. Combined Effects of Gamma Radiation and High Dietary Iron on Peripheral Leukocyte Distribution and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Both radiation and increased iron stores can independently increase oxidative damage, resulting in protein, lipid and DNA oxidation. Oxidative stress increases the risk of many health problems including cancer, cataracts, and heart disease. This study, a subset of a larger interdisciplinary investigation of the combined effect of iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury, monitored immune parameters in the peripheral blood of rats subjected to gamma radiation, high dietary iron or both. Specific immune measures consisted of: (1) peripheral leukocyte distribution, (2) plasma cytokine levels and (3) cytokine production profiles following whole blood mitogenic stimulation

  11. Interaction of gamma radiation on the functionality of the molluscicidal extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos [Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR) . Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Edvane Borges da [Centro Academico de Vitoria. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Amorim, Elba Lucia C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu J.S., E-mail: elba@ufpe.br [Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Ana Maria Mendonca de Albuquerque; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata that is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, through molluscicides has been an alternative against schistosomiasis. Many studies have been developed to obtain molluscicide products, from plants. Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew), a plant rich in phenolic compounds shows molluscicidal activity in earlier assays. However there is an interest of enhancing the action of bioactive substances in order to use it in small concentrations, reducing costs in their utilization. This study were conducted using ethanolic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale, before and after exposure to gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co, checking their secondary metabolites, their biological activity against Biomphalaria glabrata and environmental toxicity. The extracts of A. occidentale were obtained by cold maceration in 70% ethanol, filtered, dried and divided into two experimental groups: control (0 kGy) and irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. The quantification of metabolites was performed in six replicates for the determination of total phenols by Folin-Ciocalteau method and tannins, the precipitation of casein. Tests for biological control of embryos and adults of B. glabrata snails and assessment of environmental toxicity (using Artemia salina larvae) were performed in triplicate, following a period of 24 hours of exposure to extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/L and its respective controls. Data were expressed as percentages of means and standard deviations. The results showed that the gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co resulted in leaf extracts, increased levels of total phenols and tannins, which enhanced the lethality for embryos and adults of B. glabrata. There was a reduction of the toxicity of leaf extracts after irradiation in the Artemia salina. Since in extracts of bark, gamma radiation did not alter the levels of total phenols and tannins, however, it was noted potentiation of lethality of adult snails of B. glabrata. The

  12. Interaction of gamma radiation on the functionality of the molluscicidal extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amorim, Elba Lucia C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu J.S.; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonca de Albuquerque; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata that is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, through molluscicides has been an alternative against schistosomiasis. Many studies have been developed to obtain molluscicide products, from plants. Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew), a plant rich in phenolic compounds shows molluscicidal activity in earlier assays. However there is an interest of enhancing the action of bioactive substances in order to use it in small concentrations, reducing costs in their utilization. This study were conducted using ethanolic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale, before and after exposure to gamma radiation from 60 Co, checking their secondary metabolites, their biological activity against Biomphalaria glabrata and environmental toxicity. The extracts of A. occidentale were obtained by cold maceration in 70% ethanol, filtered, dried and divided into two experimental groups: control (0 kGy) and irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. The quantification of metabolites was performed in six replicates for the determination of total phenols by Folin-Ciocalteau method and tannins, the precipitation of casein. Tests for biological control of embryos and adults of B. glabrata snails and assessment of environmental toxicity (using Artemia salina larvae) were performed in triplicate, following a period of 24 hours of exposure to extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/L and its respective controls. Data were expressed as percentages of means and standard deviations. The results showed that the gamma radiation from 60 Co resulted in leaf extracts, increased levels of total phenols and tannins, which enhanced the lethality for embryos and adults of B. glabrata. There was a reduction of the toxicity of leaf extracts after irradiation in the Artemia salina. Since in extracts of bark, gamma radiation did not alter the levels of total phenols and tannins, however, it was noted potentiation of lethality of adult snails of B. glabrata. The analysis

  13. Moderate-Load Muscular Endurance Strength Training Did Not Improve Peak Power or Functional Capacity in Older Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Walker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64–75 y. Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first with short rest intervals (30–60 s between sets at an intensity of 50–60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM for 15–20 repetitions. Concentric leg press actions measured maximum strength (1-RM and concentric peak power. Functional capacity was assessed by maximum speed walking tests (i.e., forward walk, backward walk, timed-up-and-go, and stair climb tests. Quadriceps muscle activation was assessed by surface electromyogram and twitch interpolation technique. Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area was measured by panoramic ultrasound. Compared to control, the intervention groups increased maximum strength (1-RM; men: 10 ± 7% vs. 2 ± 3%, women: 14 ± 9% vs. 1 ± 6% both P < 0.01 and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (men: 6 ± 7% vs. −3 ± 6%, women: 10 ± 10% vs. 0 ± 4% both P < 0.05. But there were no between-group differences in peak power, muscle activation or functional capacity (e.g., stair climb; men: −5 ± 7% vs. −4 ± 3%, women: −5 ± 6% vs. −2 ± 5% both P > 0.05. While benefits occurred during muscular endurance strength training, specific stimuli are probably needed to target all aspects of age-related health.

  14. Photopeak efficiency response function of an underwater gamma-ray NaI(Tl) detector using MCNP-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, William L., E-mail: william.otero@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE-DNC/UFRJ/EE/CT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salgado, Cesar M., E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a study to calculate the response function of a 1.5″ x 1″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector when it is used in the marine environment in the energy range from 20 keV to 662 keV. The method takes into account both the scattering of photons in the water and the detection mechanism of the detector. In addition, the calculation of the response function of the whole system is essential for suppressing the background of the measurement and for estimating the concentration of the involved radionuclides, especially given the greater probability of primary gamma photons undergoing multiple scattering events before they interact with the detector. The experimental photopeak efficiency measurements for point sources were compared with the simulated results under the same conditions of the experimental setup to validate the simulation of the detector. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the MCNP-X code for the investigation of gamma-ray absorption in water in different brines. The energy resolution curve was used to improve the response of the mathematical simulation of the detector. The detector’s simulation was based on information obtained from the gammagraphy technique. Both dimensions and materials were used for the calculation with the MCNP-X code. The photopeak efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector for different radionuclides in the aquatic environment with different salinities was calculated. (author)

  15. Effects of endurance and endurance-strength exercise on biochemical parameters of liver function in women with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypnik, Damian; Ratajczak, Marzena; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Mądry, Edyta; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Hansdorfer-Korzon, Rita; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Bogdański, Paweł

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although the standard therapy for obesity involves physical exercise, well-planned studies of the changes in liver function in response to different exercise intensities in obese subjects are scarce. The aim of the present study was to examine a question of how does exercise mode affect the liver function. 44 women with abdominal obesity were randomized into two exercise groups: endurance (group A) and endurance-strength (group B). Women in each group exercised for 60min 3 times/week for a 3-month period. Markers of liver function: serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and bilirubin levels were quantified. We found significant differences in ALT (pexercise. Blood ALT and AST tended to decrease in group B, increase in group A. Significant reduction in serum GGT level after exercise in both groups was observed (pstrength exercise led to changes in serum ALP activity and total or direct bilirubin level. However, endurance-strength training resulted in significant decreases in serum indirect bilirubin (pstrength exercise (group B). The mode of exercise does matter: endurance-strength exercise led to a greater improvement, compared to endurance exercise, in the liver function in women with abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensory and Motor Peripheral Nerve Function and Longitudinal Changes in Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, R. E.; Boudreau, R. M.; Caserotti, P.

    2015-01-01

    was assessed with 10-g and 1.4-g monofilaments and average vibration detection threshold at the toe. Lower-extremity neuropathy symptoms were self-reported. Results. Worse vibration detection threshold predicted 2.4% lower strength in men and worse motor amplitude and two symptoms predicted 2.5% and 8.1% lower...

  17. Functional Strength Training Effects on Knee Flexors and Extensors Power Output in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izet Radjo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Study aim was to compare and reevaluate effects of additional strength training program in football players after eight week application. Program was design to increase power and strength of knee extensors and flexors using neuromuscular adaptation. In overall, 18 senior level football players completed intervention in preparation period executing program as part of warm up 2-3 times per week. Using t-test for dependent samples statistical significance of the possible change was evaluated in peak torque, total and average work changes measured using Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. All measuring procedures were done for both limbs. Results are suggesting that statistically significant change observed in both limbs for the peak power output and average work load in flexion and extension, respectively. Other research papers are suggesting that increase of power and strength of knee muscles can help in preventing of injurie occurrence. LCA injurie can be prevention when femoral biceps strength is increase. This training modality based on neuromuscular adaptation is noninvasive with good effects in performance increase. Using training loads with body weight intensity is a good way to establish prevention to possible knee injurie with simultaneous power increase, with minimum of chance to reach unwanted overtraining.

  18. Prediction of Rowing Ergometer Performance from Functional Anaerobic Power, Strength and Anthropometric Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akça Firat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop different regression models to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance with the use of anthropometric, anaerobic and strength variables and to determine how precisely the prediction models constituted by different variables predict performance, when conducted together in the same equation or individually. 38 male collegiate rowers (20.17 ± 1.22 years participated in this study. Anthropometric, strength, 2000 m maximal rowing ergometer and rowing anaerobic power tests were applied. Multiple linear regression procedures were employed in SPSS 16 to constitute five different regression formulas using a different group of variables. The reliability of the regression models was expressed by R2 and the standard error of estimate (SEE. Relationships of all parameters with performance were investigated through Pearson correlation coefficients. The prediction model using a combination of anaerobic, strength and anthropometric variables was found to be the most reliable equation to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance (R2 = 0.92, SEE= 3.11 s. Besides, the equation that used rowing anaerobic and strength test results also provided a reliable prediction (R2 = 0.85, SEE= 4.27 s. As a conclusion, it seems clear that physiological determinants which are affected by anaerobic energy pathways should also get involved in the processes and models used for performance prediction and talent identification in rowing.

  19. Level densities and γ strength functions in light Sc and Ti isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, A.; Larsen, A.C.; Syed, N.U.H.; Guttormsen, M.; Nyhus, H.; Siem, S.; Harissopulos, S.; Konstantinopoulos, T.; Lagoyannis, A.; Perdidakis, G.; Spyrou, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Mazurek, K.; Krticka, M.; Loennroth, T.; Norby, M.; Voinov, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a measurement of nuclear level densities and the γ-ray strength of light Sc (Sc 43 , Sc 45 ) and Ti (Ti 44 , Ti 45 and Ti 46 ) isotopes using the Oslo Method. The article begins with a presentation of the experimental setup. (authors)

  20. Study of Photon Strength Functions of Actinides: the case of U-235, Np-238 and Pu-241

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, C; Cano-Ott, D; Martinez, T; Mendoza, E; Villamarin, D; Colonna, N; Meaze, M H; Marrone, S; Tagliente, G; Terlizzi, R; Belloni, F; Abbondanno, U; Fujii, K; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Aerts, G; Berthoumieux, E; Dridi, W; Gunsing, F; Pancin, J; Perrot, L; Plukis, A; Alvarez, H; Duran, I; Paradela, C; Andriamonje, S; Calviani, M; Chiaveri, E; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Kadi, Y; Vicente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Andrzejewski, J; Marganiec, J; Assimakopoulos, P; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Papachristodoulou, C; Patronis, N; Audouin, L; David, S; Ferrant, L; Isaev, S; Stephan, C; Tassan-Got, L; Badurek, G; Jericha, E; Leeb, H; Oberhummer, H; Pigni, M T; Baumann, P; Kerveno, M; Lukic, S; Rudolf, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M; Calvino, F; Capote, R; Carrillo De Albornoz, A; Marques, L; Salgado, J; Tavora, L; Vaz, P; Cennini, P; Dahlfors, M; Ferrari, A; Gramegna, F; Herrera-Martinez, A; Mastinu, P; Praena, J; Sarchiapone, L; Wendler, H; Chepel, V; Ferreira-Marques, R; Goncalves, I; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Neves, F; Cortes, G; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Couture, A; Cox, J; O'brien, S; Wiescher, M; Dillman, I; Kappeler, F; Mosconi, M; Plag, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wisshak, K; Dolfini, R; Rubbia, C; Domingo-Pardo, C; Tain, J L; Eleftheriadis, C; Savvidis, I; Frais-Koelbl, H; Griesmayer, E; Furman, W; Konovalov, V; Goverdovski, A; Ketlerov, V; Haas, B; Haight, R; Reifarth, R; Heil, M; Igashira, M; Koehler, P; Kossionides, E; Lampoudis, C; Lozano, M; Quesada, J; Massimi, C; Vannini, G; Mengoni, A; Oshima, M; Papadopoulos, C; Vlastou, R; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Plompen, A; Rullhusen, P; Rauscher, T; Rosetti, M; Ventura, A

    2011-01-01

    The decay from excited levels in medium and heavy nuclei can be described in a statistical approach by means of Photon Strength Functions and Level Density distributions combined with the theory of the compound. The study of electromagnetic cascades following neutron capture by means of high efficiency detectors has been shown to be well suited for probing the properties of the Photon Strength Function of heavy (high level density) and/or radioactive (high background) nuclei. In this work we have investigated for the first time the validity of the recommended PSF for actinides, in particular 235U, 238Np and 241Pu. Our study includes the search for resonance structures in the PSF below Sn and draws conclusions regarding their existence and their characteristics in terms of energy, width and electromagnetic nature.

  1. Test of E1-radiative strength function and level density models by 155 Gd (n,2γ) 156 Gd reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinov, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    The information about the level density of 156 Gd nucleus and strength functions of γ transitions extracted from two γ-cascade spectra of the 155 Gd (n,2γ) 156 Gd reaction is analyzed. The method of statistical simulation of γ-cascade intensity is applied for calculation of the main parameters of experimental spectra. The method is used to extract the information on the E1-radiative strength function of γ transitions and level density in the 156 Gd nucleus. It is shown that at an excitation energy above 3 MeV the level density of 156 Gd nucleus must decrease in comparison with that calculated within the Fermi gas model. Its is concluded that possible explanation of the observed effect is connected with the influence of pairing correlations on the level density in nuclei

  2. Relationship between functional movement screen scores, core strength, posture, and body mass index in school children in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ulrike H; Johnson, A Wayne; Adamson, Brynn

    2015-05-01

    The assessment of functionality should include parameters that consider postural control, limb asymmetries, range of motion limitations, proprioceptive deficits, and pain. An increasingly popular battery of tests, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), is purported to assess the above named parameters. The purpose of our study was twofold: (a) to report differences in total FMS scores in children, provide preliminary normative reference values of each of the 7 individual FMS scores for both genders and report on asymmetries and (b) to evaluate the relationship between total FMS scores, age, body mass index (BMI), core strength/stability, and postural angles to explore the possibility of using the FMS in the assessment of children's functional fitness. Descriptive data on 77 children aged 8-11 years were collected. The children performed core strength/stability exercises. Photographs were taken from a lateral view for later calculation of postural angles. The children performed the FMS while being videotaped for later review. The average total FMS score (of 21) was 14.9 (+1.9), and BMI was 16.4 (+2.2). Static posture is not related to results of the FMS. Core strength was positively correlated to the total FMS score (r = 0.31; p = 0.006). Over 60% demonstrated at least 1 asymmetry. The individual test scores indicate that none of the test items is too difficult for the children. Based on the screen's correlation to core strength, and the fact that it identifies areas of asymmetry, we suggest to further investigate its possible use in the assessment of children's functional fitness.

  3. In hip osteoarthritis, Nordic Walking is superior to strength training and home based exercise for improving function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, T.; Siersma, Volkert; Magnusson, S. P.

    2017-01-01

    This observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial compared the short- and long-term effects of 4 months of supervised strength training (ST) in a local fitness center, supervised Nordic Walking (NW) in a local park, and unsupervised home-based exercise (HBE, control) on functional performance...... activity and to both ST and HBE for improving (P mental health. These data suggest that NW is the recommended exercise modality compared with ST and HBE....

  4. Nuclear level densities and γ-ray strength functions of 180,181Ta and neutron capture cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatji, K. L.; Kheswa, B. V.; Wiedeking, M.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Brits, C. P.; Bleuel, D. L.; Giacoppo, F.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Hagen, T. W.; Ingeberg, V. W.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G. M.; Zeiser, F.

    2017-09-01

    The γ-ray strength functions and nuclear level densities in the quasi-continuum of 180,181Ta are extracted from particle-γ coincidence events with the Oslo Method, below the Sn. The data were used as input in the TALYS reaction code for calculations of the astrophysical Maxwellian-averaged (n,γ) cross-sections to investigate nucleosynthesis of nature's rarest stable isotope 180Ta.

  5. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, J?ssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12?weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60?75?years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n?=?15) or power training group (PT; n?=?15). Participants trained twice a week for 12?weeks using six exercises...

  6. Nuclear level densities and γ-ray strength functions of 180,181Ta and neutron capture cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malatji K.L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The γ-ray strength functions and nuclear level densities in the quasi-continuum of 180,181Ta are extracted from particle-γ coincidence events with the Oslo Method, below the Sn. The data were used as input in the TALYS reaction code for calculations of the astrophysical Maxwellian-averaged (n,γ cross-sections to investigate nucleosynthesis of nature's rarest stable isotope 180Ta.

  7. Effect on push-out bond strength of glass-fiber posts functionalized with polydopamine using different adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Cai, Qing; Li, Yan; Wei, Xu-Yi; Huang, Zhi; Wang, Xin-Zhi

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the push-out bond strengths of prefabricated glass-fiber posts (Beijing Oya Biomaterials) with polydopamine functionalized to root dentin using two different resin cements (Paracore and RelyX Unicem) in different root regions (cervical, middle, and apical). Forty extracted human, single-rooted teeth were endodontically treated and a 9-mm post space was prepared in each tooth with post drills provided by the manufacturer. Specimens were then randomly assigned into four groups (n = 10 per group), depending on the adhesive system and post surface treatment used: group IA (Paracore + polydopamine); group IB (Paracore + control); group IIA (RelyX Unicem + polydopamine); group IIB (RelyX Unicem + control). Following post cementation, the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days. The push-out test was performed using a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/ min), and the failure modes were examined with a stereomicroscope. Data were statistically analyzed using twoway ANOVA (p = 0.05). Bond strengths (mean ± SD) were: 7.909 ± 3.166 MPa (group IA), 4.675 ± 2.170 MPa (group IB), 8.186 ± 2.766 MPa (group IIA), 4.723 ± 2.084 MPa (group IIB). The bond strength of polydopamine groups was significantly higher than one of the control groups (p 0.05). Stereomicroscopic analysis showed a higher percentage of adhesive than cohesive failures in all groups. Surface polydopamine functionalization was confirmed to be a reliable method for improving the bond strength of resin luting agents to fiber posts. The bond strength of Paracore to fiber posts was not significantly different from that of RelyX Unicem, and considering its convenient application, Paracore can be recommended.

  8. Morning nutrition and executive function processes in preadolescents: modulation of frontal event-related theta, beta and gamma EEG oscillations during a go/ no-go task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive functions (i.e., goal-directed behavior such as inhibition and flexibility of action) have been linked to frontal brain regions and to covariations in oscillatory brain activity, e.g., theta and gamma activity. We studied the effects of morning nutritional status on executive function rel...

  9. A novel member of the interferon receptor family complements functionality of the murine interferon gamma receptor in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, S; Böhni, R; Stark, G; Di Marco, F; Aguet, M

    1994-03-11

    Expression of the human interferon gamma receptor (IFN-gamma R) in mouse cells is not sufficient to confer biological responsiveness to human IFN-gamma and vice versa. An additional species-specific component is required for signal transduction. We identified this cofactor by expression cloning in simian COS cells stably transfected with the nonfunctional murine IFN-gamma R and a IFN-gamma-inducible reporter construct encoding the human Tac antigen (interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain, CD25). A cDNA clone was obtained that, upon stable transfection, rendered human HEp-2 cells expressing the murine IFN-gamma R fully responsive to murine IFN-gamma. This cDNA encodes a novel 332 amino acid type I transmembrane protein that belongs to the IFN receptor family and that we designate IFN-gamma R beta chain.

  10. Thigh and knee circumference, knee-extension strength, and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Husted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To (1) quantify changes in knee-extension strength and functional-performance at discharge after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA) and (2) investigate whether these changes correlate to changes in thigh and knee circumference (ie, swelling) or pain. DESIGN: A prospective, descrip......OBJECTIVE: To (1) quantify changes in knee-extension strength and functional-performance at discharge after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA) and (2) investigate whether these changes correlate to changes in thigh and knee circumference (ie, swelling) or pain. DESIGN: A prospective......, descriptive, hypothesis-generating study. SETTING: A special unit for fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty operations at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four patients (20 women and 4 men; ages 69 ± 6.1 years) scheduled for primary unilateral THA. METHODS: All patients were evaluated before surgery...... and on the day of hospital discharge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Knee-extension strength, thigh and knee joint circumference, hip pain, and functional performance (Timed Up & Go, 30-Second Chair Stand, and 10-Meter Walk tests). RESULTS: All investigated variables changed significantly from before to after surgery...

  11. Effects of eccentric-focused and conventional resistance training on strength and functional capacity of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Caroline Pieta; Toscan, Rafael; de Camargo, Mainara; Pereira, Evelyn Possobom; Griebler, Nathália; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of eccentric training using a constant load with longer exposure time at the eccentric phase on knee extensor muscle strength and functional capacity of elderly subjects in comparison with a conventional resistance training program. Twenty-six healthy elderly women (age = 67 ± 6 years) were randomly assigned to an eccentric-focused training group (ETG; n = 13) or a conventional training group (CTG; n = 13). Subjects underwent 12 weeks of resistance training twice a week. For the ETG, concentric and eccentric phases were performed using 1.5 and 4.5 s, respectively, while for CTG, each phase lasted 1.5 s. Maximum dynamic strength was assessed by the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test in the leg press and knee extension exercises, and for functional capacity, subjects performed specific tests (6-m walk test, timed up-and-go test, stair-climbing test, and chair-rising test). Both groups improved knee extension 1RM (24-26 %; p = 0.021), timed up-and-go test (11-16 %; p training volume and intensity does not promote different adaptations in strength or functional capacity compared to conventional resistance training in elderly woman.

  12. Rotator cuff injury in patients over the age of 65 years: evaluation of function, integrity and strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio de Castro Veado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the results from patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment for rotator cuff injuries, among those aged over 65 years, observing integrity, function and strength.METHODS: Thirty-five shoulders were operated between July 2005 and July 2010, and 28 shoulders were re-evaluated regarding elevation strength and external rotation, using a digital dynamometer. Integrity was evaluated by means of ultrasound examinations. The patients, whose mean age was 70.54 years (ranging from 65 to 82 years, were followed up for a minimum of 26 months and mean of 51.18 months (ranging from 26 to 82 months. To evaluate function, the UCLA score, the Simple Shoulder Test (SST and a visual analog scale (VAS for pain were used.RESULTS: In analyzing the ultrasound scans, it was observed that the integrity of the rotator cuff was maintained in 75% of the cases at the end of the follow-up, along with the improvement in the UCLA score, which evolved from 17.46 to 32.39, i.e. excellent and good results in 89.28%. The mean SST and VAS indices were 9.86 and 1.5 respectively.CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic surgery to repair rotator cuff injuries in patients over the age of 65 years leads to improved function and pain relief, with maintenance of the integrity of the repair. The data on muscle strength were inconclusive.

  13. Postural control and functional strength in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with and without peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Maíta M; Costa, Gustavo C; Reis, Julia G; Junior, Wilson Marques; Albuquerque de Paula, Francisco José; Abreu, Daniela C

    2013-12-01

    To assess the influence of diabetic neuropathy (DN) on balance and functional strength in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Cross-sectional study. Diabetes outpatient unit. Adults (N=62; age range, 40-65y): 32 with DM2 (19 subjects without DN and 13 with DN) and 30 without DM2 (control group). Not applicable. Upright balance, evaluated in 4 situations (fixed platform, unstable platform, with eyes open, with eyes closed), and functional strength, assessed with a five-times-sit-to-stand test, were analyzed using an electromagnetic system, with a sensor placed over C7 to allow maximum trunk displacements in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. The Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Up & Go test were also used. Subjects with DM2 had greater anterior-posterior displacement (Pdisplacement was observed between these groups. A difference in time was observed in the five-times-sit-to-stand test (P<.05), with subjects in the control group performing the tasks faster than either group of subjects with DM2. Additionally, subjects in the control group showed a higher score in the Berg Balance Scale and performed the Timed Up & Go test in less time compared with subjects in other groups. Subjects with DM2, with or without DN, showed deficits in postural control and functional strength compared with healthy individuals of the same age group. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. (n,{gamma}) Experiments on tin isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Walker, C. L.; Rusev, G. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O' Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Kroll, J. [Charles University of Prague, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Agvaanluvsan, U.; Dashdorj, D.; Erdenehuluun, B.; Tsend-Ayush, T. [MonAme Scientific Research Center, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2013-04-19

    Neutron capture experiments on highly enriched {sup 117,119}Sn isotopes were performed with the DANCE detector array located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The DANCE detector provides detailed information about the multi-step {gamma}-ray cascade following neutron capture. Analysis of the experimental data provides important information to improve understanding of the neutron capture reaction, including a test of the statistical model, the assignment of spins and parities of neutron resonances, and information concerning the Photon Strength Function (PSF) and Level Density (LD) below the neutron separation energy. Preliminary results for the (n,{gamma}) reaction on {sup 117,119}Sn are presented. Resonance spins of the odd-A tin isotopes were almost completely unknown. Resonance spins and parities have been assigned via analysis of the multi-step {gamma}-ray spectra and directional correlations.

  15. T3 glycoprotein is functional although structurally distinct on human T-cell receptor gamma T lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Krangel, M S; Bierer, B E; Devlin, P; Clabby, M; Strominger, J L; McLean, J; Brenner, M B

    1987-01-01

    The T-cell receptor (TCR) gamma gene product occurs in association with T3 (CD3) polypeptides on the surface of human T lymphocytes. TCR gamma lymphocytes express arrays of T3 polypeptides distinct from those typically observed on TCR alpha beta lymphocytes. This report demonstrates that identical T3 gamma, delta, and epsilon polypeptides are synthesized by TCR gamma lymphocytes and TCR alpha beta lymphocytes. However, the processing of T3 delta oligosaccharides is distinct in the two cell ty...

  16. Functionalization of Polymers with Fluorescent and Neutron Sensitive Groups for Efficient Neutron and Gamma Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahl, Adam; Yemam, Henok; Remedes, Tyler; Stuntz, Jack; Koldemir, Unsal; Sellinger, Alan; Greife, Uwe

    2015-10-01

    This presentation will review the efforts made by an interdisciplinary development project aimed at cost-effective, thermal neutron sensitive, plastic scintillators as part of the communities efforts towards replacing 3He based detectors. Colorado School of Mines researchers with backgrounds in Physics and Chemistry have worked on the incorporation of 10B in plastics through admixture of various commercial and novel dopants developed at CSM. In addition, new fluorescent dopants have been developed for plastic scintillators in an effort towards better understanding quenching effects and scintillator response to thermal neutrons via pulse shape discrimination methods. Results on transparent samples using fluorescent spectroscopy and gamma/neutron excitation will be presented. Funded via Department of Homeland Security - Domestic Nuclear Detection Office.

  17. Estimation of the shielding ability of a tungsten functional paper for diagnostic x-rays and gamma rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzen, Hajime; Kanno, Ikuo; Fujimoto, Takahiro; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2017-09-01

    Tungsten functional paper (TFP) is a novel paper-based radiation-shielding material. We measured the shielding ability of TFP against x-rays and gamma rays. The TFP was supplied in 0.3-mm-thick sheets that contained 80% tungsten powder and 20% cellulose (C 6 H 10 O 5 ) by mass. In dose measurements for x-rays (60, 80, 100, and 120 kVp), we measured doses after through 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, and 12 TFP sheets, as well as 0.3 and 0.5 mm of lead. In lead equivalence measurements, we measured doses after through 2 and 10 TFP sheets for x-rays (100 and 150 kVp), and 0, 7, 10, 20, and 30 TFP sheets for gamma rays from cesium-137 source (662 keV). And then, the lead equivalent thicknesses of TFP were determined by comparison with doses after through standard lead plates (purity >99.9%). Additionally, we evaluated uniformity of the transmitted dose by TFP with a computed radiography image plate for 50 kVp x-rays. A single TFP sheet was found to have a shielding ability of 65%, 53%, 48%, and 46% for x-rays (60, 80, 100, and 120 kVp), respectively. The lead equivalent thicknesses of two TFP sheets were 0.10 ± 0.02, 0.09 ± 0.02 mmPb, and of ten TFP sheets were 0.48 ± 0.02 and 0.51 ± 0.02 mmPb for 100 and 150 kVp x-rays, respectively. The lead equivalent thicknesses of 7, 10, 20, and 30 sheets of TFP for gamma rays from cesium-137 source were estimated as 0.28, 0.43, 0.91, and 1.50 mmPb with an error of ± 0.01 mm. One TFP sheet had nonuniformity, however, seven TFP sheets provided complete shielding for 50 kVp x-rays. TFP has adequate radiation shielding ability for x-rays and gamma rays within the energy range used in diagnostic imaging field. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Highlights from the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength or FAMuSS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Pescatello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength study or FAMuSS was to identify genetic factors that dictated the response of health-related fitness phenotypes to resistance exercise training (RT. The phenotypes examined were baseline muscle strength and muscle, fat, and bone volume and their response to RT. FAMuSS participants were 1300 young (24 years, healthy men (42% and women (58% that were primarily of European-American descent. They were genotyped for ~500 polymorphisms and completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess energy expenditure and time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity habitual physical activity and sitting. Subjects then performed a 12-week progressive, unilateral RT program of the nondominant arm with the dominant arm used as a comparison. Before and after RT, muscle strength was measured with the maximum voluntary contraction and one repetition maximum, while MRI measured muscle, fat, and bone volume. We will discuss the history of how FAMuSS originated, provide a brief overview of the FAMuSS methods, and summarize our major findings regarding genotype associations with muscle strength and size, body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, and physical activity.

  19. High-Intensity Strength Training Improves Function of Chronically Painful Muscles: Case-Control and RCT Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars L. Andersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study investigates consequences of chronic neck pain on muscle function and the rehabilitating effects of contrasting interventions. Methods. Women with trapezius myalgia (MYA, n=42 and healthy controls (CON, n=20 participated in a case-control study. Subsequently MYA were randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training (SST, n=18, general fitness training (GFT, n=16, or a reference group without physical training (REF, n=8. Participants performed tests of 100 consecutive cycles of 2 s isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC of shoulder elevation followed by 2 s relaxation at baseline and 10-week follow-up. Results. In the case-control study, peak force, rate of force development, and rate of force relaxation as well as EMG amplitude were lower in MYA than CON throughout all 100 MVC. Muscle fiber capillarization was not significantly different between MYA and CON. In the intervention study, SST improved all force parameters significantly more than the two other groups, to levels comparable to that of CON. This was seen along with muscle fiber hypertrophy and increased capillarization. Conclusion. Women with trapezius myalgia have lower strength capacity during repetitive MVC of the trapezius muscle than healthy controls. High-intensity strength training effectively improves strength capacity during repetitive MVC of the painful trapezius muscle.

  20. Allelic and copy-number variations of Fc gamma Rs affect granulocyte function and susceptibility for autoimmune blistering diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Recke, Andreas; Vidarsson, Gestur; Ludwig, Ralf J.; Freitag, Miriam; Möller, Steffen; Vonthein, Reinhard; Schellenberger, Julia; Haase, Ozan; Görg, Siegfried; Nebel, Almut; Flachsbart, Friederike; Schreiber, Stefan; Lieb, Wolfgang; Gläser, Regine; Benoit, Sandrine; Sárdy, Miklós; Eming, Rüdiger; Hertl, Michael; Zillikens, Detlef; König, Inke R.; Schmidt, Enno; Ibrahim, Saleh; Däschlein, Georg; Goebeler, Mattias; Goetze, Steven; Günther, Claudia; Hadaschik, Eva; Homey, Bernhard; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Kreuter, Andreas; Kunz, Manfred; Lippert, Undine; Ludwig-Peitsch, Wiebke; Pföhler, Claudia; Sticherling, Michael; Worm, Margitta

    2015-01-01

    Low-affinity Fc gamma receptors (Fc gamma R) bridge innate and adaptive immune responses. In many autoimmune diseases, these receptors act as key mediators of the pathogenic effects of autoantibodies. Genes encoding Fc gamma R exhibit frequent variations in sequence and gene copy number that

  1. Effects of Kinesio Tape application to quadriceps muscles on isokinetic muscle strength, gait, and functional parameters in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiz, Timur; Aslan, Meryem Doğan; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Kinesio Tape (KT) application to quadriceps muscles on isokinetic muscle strength, gait, and functional parameters in patients with stroke. Twenty-four patients were allocated into KT and control groups. All patients participated in the same conventional rehabilitation program 5 times/wk for 4 wk. In addition, KT was applied to quadriceps muscles bilaterally to the patients in the KT group. Compared with baseline, peak torque levels increased significantly in both groups (all p 0.05). KT application to quadriceps muscles in addition to conventional exercises for 4 wk is effective on isokinetic but not functional parameters.

  2. Recovery of lower extremity muscle strength and functional performance in middle-aged patients undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganderup, Tina; Jensen, Carsten; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    -surgery, and that this deficiency would be normalized at 12 months following surgery. METHODS: Twenty-three patients (46 ± 6.5 years) meniscectomized in 2012 and 2013 were examined for knee extension, knee flexion, and hip abduction maximal isometric muscle strength (iMVC), rate of force development (RFD200), and knee function...... (single-leg hop for distance and single-leg knee bends in 30 s.) before surgery, 3 and 12 months after surgery. RESULTS: Functional performance, knee extension iMVC and RFD200 were impaired in the affected leg compared to the contralateral leg (p

  3. Effects of functional and analytical strength training on upper-extremity activity after stroke: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Graef

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effects of functional strengthening (using functional movements and analytical strengthening (using repetitive movements on level of activity and muscular strength gain in patients with chronic hemiparesis after stroke. Method A randomized, assessor-blinded trial was conducted in a therapist-supervised home rehabilitation program. Twenty-seven patients with chronic stroke were randomly allocated one of two groups: functional strengthening (FS (n=13 and analytical strengthening (AS (n=14. Each group received a five-week muscle strengthening protocol (30 minutes per day, three times per week including functional movements or analytical movements, respectively. Pre-, post-, and ten-month follow-up outcomes included the Upper-Extremity Performance Test (primary outcome, Shoulder and Grip Strength, Active Shoulder Range of Motion (ROM, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS (secondary outcomes. Results There was significant improvement in the Upper-Extremity Performance Test for the combined unilateral and bilateral task scores in the FS Group (mean difference 2.4; 95% CI=0.14 to 4.6 in the 10-month follow-up. No significant difference was observed between groups in the other outcomes (p>0.05. Conclusion A five-week home-based functional muscle strengthening induced positive results for the upper-extremity level of activity of patients with moderate impairment after chronic stroke.

  4. Lower limb strength training in children with cerebral palsy--a randomized controlled trial protocol for functional strength training based on progressive resistance exercise principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtes, V.A.B.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Rameckers, E.A.; Verschuren, O.; Tempelaars, E.; Hensen, M.; Becher, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Until recently, strength training in children with cerebral palsy (CP) was considered to be inappropriate, because it could lead to increased spasticity or abnormal movement patterns. However, the results of recent studies suggest that progressive strength training can lead to increased

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of response function for a NaI(Tl) detector for gamma rays from 241Am/Be source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorelli, J.C.; Silva, A.X.; Crispim, V.R.; Fonseca, E.S. da; Pereira, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    The general purpose computer code MCNP4B was used to simulate the response function of a bare NaI(Tl) detector crystal for gamma rays from an 241 Am/Be source capsule. The simulated spectral shape generated by the MCNP4B code was compared with the measured spectral shape obtained using a gamma-ray spectrometer with a cylindrical shape, 7.62 cmx7.62 cm, NaI(Tl). In general, the agreement between the simulation and the experimental response function was good

  6. Muscle strength but not functional capacity is associated with plasma interleukin-6 levels of community-dwelling elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M.G. Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The association of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels, muscle strength and functional capacity was investigated in a cross-sectional study of community-dwelling elderly women from Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Elderly people who present controlled chronic diseases with no negative impact on physical, psychosocial and mental functionality are considered to be community-dwelling. Psychological and social stress due to unsuccessfully aging can represent a risk for immune system disfunctions. IL-6 levels, isokinetic muscle strength of knee flexion/extension, and functional tests to determine time required to rise from a chair and gait velocity were measured in 57 participants (71.21 ± 7.38 years. Serum levels of IL-6 were measured in duplicate and were performed within one single assay (mouse monoclonal antibody against IL-6; High-Sensitivity, Quantikine®, R & D Systems, USA; intra-assay coefficient of variance = 6.9-7.4%; interassay coefficient of variance = 9.6-6.5%; sensitivity = 0.016-0.110 pg/mL; mean = 0.039 pg/mL. Muscle strength was assessed with the isokinetic dynamometer Biodex System 3 Pro®. After the Shapiro-Wilk normality test was applied, correlations were investigated using Spearman and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Post hoc analysis was performed using the Dunn test. A significant negative correlation was observed between plasma IL-6 levels (1.95 ± 1.77 pg/mL and muscle strength for knee flexion (70.70 ± 21.14%; r = -0.265; P = 0.047 and extension (271.84 ± 67.85%; r = -0.315; P = 0.017. No significant correlation was observed between IL-6 levels and the functional tests (time to rise from a chair = 14.65 ± 2.82 s and gait velocity = 0.95 ± 0.14 m/s. These results suggest that IL-6 is associated with reduced muscle strength.

  7. Explicit calculation of multi-fold contour integrals of certain ratios of Euler gamma functions. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Ivan [Valparaiso Univ. (Chile). Inst. de Fisica y Astronomia; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kondrashuk, Igor [Univ. del Bio-Bio, Chillan (Chile). Dept. de Ciencias Basicas; Notte-Cuello, Eduardo A. [La Serena Univ. (Chile). Dept. de Matematicas; Parra-Ferrada, Ivan [Talca Univ. (Chile). Inst. de Matematica y Fisica; Rojas-Medar, Marko A. [Univ. de Tarapaca, Arica (Chile). Inst. de Alta Investigacion

    2016-12-15

    In this paper we proceed to study properties of Mellin-Barnes (MB) transforms of Usyukina-Davydychev (UD) functions. In our previous papers [Nuclear Physics B 870 (2013) 243], [Nuclear Physics B 876 (2013) 322] we showed that multi-fold Mellin-Barnes (MB) transforms of Usyukina-Davydychev (UD) functions may be reduced to two-fold MB transforms and that the higher-order UD functions were obtained in terms of a differential operator by applying it to a slightly modified first UD function. The result is valid in d=4 dimensions and its analog in d=4-2ε dimensions exits too [Theoretical and Mathematical Physics 177 (2013) 1515]. In [Nuclear Physics B 870 (2013) 243] the chain of recurrent relations for analytically regularized UD functions was obtained implicitly by comparing the left hand side and the right hand side of the diagrammatic relations between the diagrams with different loop orders. In turn, these diagrammatic relations were obtained due to the method of loop reductions for the triangle ladder diagrams proposed in 1983 by Belokurov and Usyukina. Here we reproduce these recurrent relations by calculating explicitly via Barnes lemmas the contour integrals produced by the left hand sides of the diagrammatic relations. In such a way we explicitly calculate a family of multi-fold contour integrals of certain ratios of Euler gamma functions. We make a conjecture that similar results for the contour integrals are valid for a wider family of smooth functions which includes the MB transforms of UD functions.

  8. Does progressive resistance strength training as additional training have any measured effect on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Andersen, Christina W.; Pedersen, Sigrid F

    2014-01-01

    . PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 71 patients were successively included and randomized either to the treatment group (TG) (n = 36) or the control group (CG) (n = 35). Fifteen participants dropped out (TG n = 7; CG n = 8), leaving 56 participants with a mean age of 79 (SD 7). INTERVENTION: Participants...... = 0.05). Analysis by the mixed-effects model showed that the treatment group improved more than the control group in all outcome variables. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that for older hospitalized patients progressive resistance strength training as additional training may have an effect compared......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of progressive resistance strength training as additional training measured on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients. DESIGN: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Geriatric Rehabilitation in university hospital...

  9. Sensitivity of the LHC isolated-gamma+jet data to the parton distribution functions of the proton

    CERN Document Server

    Carminati, L.; D'Enterria, D.; Koletsou, I.; Marchiori, G.; Rojo, J.; Stockton, M.; Tartarelli, F.

    2013-01-01

    We study the impact of differential isolated-photon+jet cross sections measured in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt{s} = 7 TeV on the parton distribution functions (PDF) of the proton. Next-to-leading order perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations complemented with the NNPDF2.1 parton densities, and a Bayesian PDF reweighting method are employed. We find that although the current data provide only mild constraints to the parton densities, future gamma-jet measurements with reduced experimental uncertainties can improve our knowledge of the gluon density over a wide range of parton fractional momenta x as well as of the quarks at low-x.

  10. Sex Differences in the Level and Rate of Change of Physical Function and Grip Strength in the Danish 1905-Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Maier, Heiner; McGue, Matt

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to examine sex differences in the initial level and rate of change in physical function and grip strength. METHOD: The baseline survey included 2,262 Danes born in 1905 and alive in 1998 and followed-up in 2000, 2003, and 2005. Hence, the authors fully used...... the power of having a cohort with multiple assessments in late life and virtually complete follow-up of lifespan (through December 2008). Latent growth curve modeling was used. RESULTS: Men had higher initial levels and rates of decline in strength score and grip strength. Lifespan was positively correlated...... with intercepts and slopes. DISCUSSION: The Danish data suggested that the longest-living individuals have higher initial levels of strength score and grip strength and smaller rate of change. The data further suggested that the initial level of strength score and grip strength was more predictive of mortality...

  11. Mutational Pleiotropy and the Strength of Stabilizing Selection Within and Between Functional Modules of Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Julie M; McGuigan, Katrina; Allen, Scott L; Chenoweth, Stephen F; Blows, Mark W

    2018-02-01

    Variational modules, sets of pleiotropically covarying traits, affect phenotypic evolution, and therefore are predicted to reflect functional modules, such that traits within a variational module also share a common function. Such an alignment of function and pleiotropy is expected to facilitate adaptation by reducing the deleterious effects of mutations, and allowing coordinated evolution of functionally related sets of traits. Here, we adopt a high-dimensional quantitative genetic approach using a large number of gene expression traits in Drosophila serrata to test whether functional grouping, defined by GO terms, predicts variational modules. Mutational or standing genetic covariance was significantly greater than among randomly grouped sets of genes for 38% of our functional groups, indicating that GO terms can predict variational modularity to some extent. We estimated stabilizing selection acting on mutational covariance to test the prediction that functional pleiotropy would result in reduced deleterious effects of mutations within functional modules. Stabilizing selection within functional modules was weaker than that acting on randomly grouped sets of genes in only 23% of functional groups indicating that functional alignment can reduce deleterious effects of pleiotropic mutation, but typically does not. Our analyses also revealed the presence of variational modules that spanned multiple functions. Copyright © 2018, Genetics.

  12. Theoretical determination of gamma spectrometry systems efficiency based on probability functions. Application to self-attenuation correction factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.barrera@uca.es [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, University of Cadiz, Avda, Universidad de Cadiz 10, 11519 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Suarez-Llorens, Alfonso [Facultad de Ciencias, University of Cadiz, Avda, Rep. Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Casas-Ruiz, Melquiades; Alonso, José J.; Vidal, Juan [CEIMAR, University of Cadiz, Avda, Rep. Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain)

    2017-05-11

    A generic theoretical methodology for the calculation of the efficiency of gamma spectrometry systems is introduced in this work. The procedure is valid for any type of source and detector and can be applied to determine the full energy peak and the total efficiency of any source-detector system. The methodology is based on the idea of underlying probability of detection, which describes the physical model for the detection of the gamma radiation at the particular studied situation. This probability depends explicitly on the direction of the gamma radiation, allowing the use of this dependence the development of more realistic and complex models than the traditional models based on the point source integration. The probability function that has to be employed in practice must reproduce the relevant characteristics of the detection process occurring at the particular studied situation. Once the probability is defined, the efficiency calculations can be performed in general by using numerical methods. Monte Carlo integration procedure is especially useful to perform the calculations when complex probability functions are used. The methodology can be used for the direct determination of the efficiency and also for the calculation of corrections that require this determination of the efficiency, as it is the case of coincidence summing, geometric or self-attenuation corrections. In particular, we have applied the procedure to obtain some of the classical self-attenuation correction factors usually employed to correct for the sample attenuation of cylindrical geometry sources. The methodology clarifies the theoretical basis and approximations associated to each factor, by making explicit the probability which is generally hidden and implicit to each model. It has been shown that most of these self-attenuation correction factors can be derived by using a common underlying probability, having this probability a growing level of complexity as it reproduces more precisely

  13. Strength and functional symmetry is associated with post-operative rehabilitation in patients following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Jay R; Edwards, Peter; Yi, Luke; Joss, Brendan; Ackland, Timothy; Carey-Smith, Richard; Buelow, Jens-Ulrich; Hewitt, Ben

    2017-09-15

    To investigate strength and functional symmetry during common tests in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), and its association with post-operative rehabilitation. At a median 11.0 months post-surgery (range 10-14), 111 ACLR patients were assessed. A rehabilitation grading tool was employed to evaluate the duration and supervision of rehabilitation, as well as whether structured jumping, landing and agility exercises were undertaken. Patients completed the Noyes Activity Score (NSARS), maximal isokinetic knee extensor and flexor strength assessment, and a 4-hop test battery. Limb Symmetry Indices (LSIs) were calculated, presented for the entire group and also stratified by activity level. ANOVA evaluated differences between the operated and unaffected limbs across all tests. Correlations were undertaken to assess the relationship between post-operative rehabilitation and objective test LSIs. The unaffected limb was significantly better (p tests. Only 52-61 patients (47-55%) demonstrated LSIs ≥ 90% for each of the hop tests. Only 34 (30.6%) and 61 (55.0%) patients were ≥ 90% LSI for peak quadriceps and hamstring strength, respectively. Specifically in patients actively participating in jumping, pivoting, cutting, twisting and/or turning sports, 21 patients (36.8%) still demonstrated an LSI tests. Rehabilitation was significantly correlated with limb symmetry, and lower limb symmetry was below recommended criterion for many community-level ACLR patients, including those already engaging in riskier activities. It is clear that many patients are not undertaking the rehabilitation required to address post-operative strength and functional deficits, and are being cleared to return to sport (or are returning on their own accord) without appropriate evaluation and further guidance. IV.

  14. Rapid and low-invasive functional brain mapping by realtime visualization of high gamma activity for awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, K; Ogawa, H; Kapeller, C; Prueckl, R; Guger, C

    2014-01-01

    For neurosurgery with an awake craniotomy, the critical issue is to set aside enough time to identify eloquent cortices by electrocortical stimulation (ECS). High gamma activity (HGA) ranging between 80 and 120 Hz on electrocorticogram (ECoG) is assumed to reflect localized cortical processing. In this report, we used realtime HGA mapping and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for rapid and reliable identification of motor and language functions. Three patients with intra-axial tumors in their dominant hemisphere underwent preoperative fMRI and lesion resection with an awake craniotomy. All patients showed significant fMRI activation evoked by motor and language tasks. After the craniotomy, we recorded ECoG activity by placing subdural grids directly on the exposed brain surface. Each patient performed motor and language tasks and demonstrated realtime HGA dynamics in hand motor areas and parts of the inferior frontal gyrus. Sensitivity and specificity of HGA mapping were 100% compared to ECS mapping in the frontal lobe, which suggested HGA mapping precisely indicated eloquent cortices. The investigation times of HGA mapping was significantly shorter than that of ECS mapping. Specificities of the motor and language-fMRI, however, did not reach 85%. The results of HGA mapping was mostly consistent with those of ECS mapping, although fMRI tended to overestimate functional areas. This novel technique enables rapid and accurate functional mapping.

  15. Dosimetric factors associated with pituitary function after Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS) of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicignano, Gianluisa; Losa, Marco; Vecchio, Antonella del; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Picozzi, Piero; Bolognesi, Angelo; Mortini, Pietro; Calandrino, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS) can be an adjunctive option to surgery in the case of pituitary adenomas. The effect of dosimetric variables on the incidence of new anterior pituitary deficits after GKS requires better definition. Materials and methods: This retrospective study considered 130 patients with a follow up after GKS >6 months. The diagnosis was nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) in 68 patients and secreting pituitary adenoma (SPA) in 62 patients. Median margin dose was 15/25 Gy for NFPA and SPA, respectively. The endocrinological median follow-up was 60 months. Hypopituitarism was defined as a new pituitary deficit in (at least) one of the three hormonal axes (hypogonadism, hypothyroidism and hypoadrenalism). The predictive value of clinical/dosimetric parameters was tested by univariate/multivariate analyses. Results: Sixteen patients (12.3%) showed a new pituitary deficit in one or more axes. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the mean dose to the stalk/pituitary and the amount of healthy tissue within the high dose region were strong independent predictors of pituitary dysfunction; their best cut-off values were around 15.7 Gy, 7.3 Gy and 1.4 cm 3 , respectively. Conclusions: Our data showed a dose-dependent incidence of new hormonal deficits after GKS for pituitary adenoma. During planning definition, the risk of hypopituitarism could be reduced using the outlined safe dose–volume values.

  16. Dosimetric factors associated with pituitary function after Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS) of pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicignano, Gianluisa; Losa, Marco; del Vecchio, Antonella; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Picozzi, Piero; Bolognesi, Angelo; Mortini, Pietro; Calandrino, Riccardo

    2012-07-01

    Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS) can be an adjunctive option to surgery in the case of pituitary adenomas. The effect of dosimetric variables on the incidence of new anterior pituitary deficits after GKS requires better definition. This retrospective study considered 130 patients with a follow up after GKS >6 months. The diagnosis was nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) in 68 patients and secreting pituitary adenoma (SPA) in 62 patients. Median margin dose was 15/25 Gy for NFPA and SPA, respectively. The endocrinological median follow-up was 60 months. Hypopituitarism was defined as a new pituitary deficit in (at least) one of the three hormonal axes (hypogonadism, hypothyroidism and hypoadrenalism). The predictive value of clinical/dosimetric parameters was tested by univariate/multivariate analyses. Sixteen patients (12.3%) showed a new pituitary deficit in one or more axes. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the mean dose to the stalk/pituitary and the amount of healthy tissue within the high dose region were strong independent predictors of pituitary dysfunction; their best cut-off values were around 15.7 Gy, 7.3 Gy and 1.4 cm(3), respectively. Our data showed a dose-dependent incidence of new hormonal deficits after GKS for pituitary adenoma. During planning definition, the risk of hypopituitarism could be reduced using the outlined safe dose-volume values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nucleation of polystyrene latex particles in the presence of gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane: functionalized silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Insulaire, Mickaelle; Reculusa, Stéphane; Perro, Adeline; Ravaine, Serge; Duguet, Etienne

    2006-02-01

    Silica/polystyrene nanocomposite particles with different morphologies were synthesized through emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of silica particles previously modified by gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). Grafting of the silane molecule was performed by direct addition of MPS to the aqueous silica suspension in the presence of an anionic surfactant under basic conditions. The MPS grafting density on the silica surface was determined using the depletion method and plotted against the initial MPS concentration. The influence of the MPS grafting density, the silica particles size and concentration and the nature of the surfactant on the polymerization kinetics and the particles morphology was investigated. When the polymerization was performed in the presence of an anionic surfactant, transmission electron microscopy images showed the formation of polymer spheres around silica for MPS grafting densities lower than typically 1 micromole x m(-2) while the conversion versus time curves indicated a strong acceleration effect under such conditions. In contrast, polymerizations performed in the presence of a larger amount of MPS moieties or in the presence of a non ionic emulsifier resulted in the formation of "excentered" core-shell morphologies and lower polymerization rates. The paper identifies the parameters that allow to control particles morphology and polymerization kinetics and describes the mechanism of formation of the nanocomposite colloids.

  18. Strength functions of primary transitions following thermal neutron capture in strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, C.; Lieb, K.P.

    1989-01-01

    The primary E1, M1 and E2 γ-radiation in 87,88,89 Sr observed after thermal neutron capture was compared with the predictions of single particle and giant resonance models. The nuclei feature a wide range of neutron binding energies between 6.3 and 11.1 MeV, which makes a 5.5 MeV spectrum of primary transition energies available for investigation. The (n, γ) reaction was used to estimate the parameters of the spin-flip M1 giant resonance in strontium. The total energy weighted M1 strength of this resonance exceeds the results of shell model and random phase approximation calculations for 90 Zr by a factor of 3-4. The E1 strengths were found to agree with the established giant dipole resonance model. The few data on primary E2 transitions do not allow to differentiate between the giant quadrupole resonance and the single particle models. (orig.)

  19. Proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma alter tight junction structure and function in the rat parotid gland Par-C10 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Olga J; Camden, Jean M; Redman, Robert S; Jones, Jonathan E; Seye, Cheikh I; Erb, Laurie; Weisman, Gary A

    2008-11-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation and dysfunction of salivary glands, resulting in impaired secretory function. The production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is elevated in exocrine glands of patients with SS, although little is known about the effects of these cytokines on salivary epithelial cell functions necessary for saliva secretion, including tight junction (TJ) integrity and the establishment of transepithelial ion gradients. The present study demonstrates that chronic exposure of polarized rat parotid gland (Par-C10) epithelial cell monolayers to TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma decreases transepithelial resistance (TER) and anion secretion, as measured by changes in short-circuit current (I(sc)) induced by carbachol, a muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonist, or UTP, a P2Y(2) nucleotide receptor agonist. In contrast, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma had no effect on agonist-induced increases in the intracellular calcium concentration [Ca(2+)](i) in Par-C10 cells. Furthermore, treatment of Par-C10 cell monolayers with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma increased paracellular permeability to normally impermeant proteins, altered cell and TJ morphology, and downregulated the expression of the TJ protein, claudin-1, but not other TJ proteins expressed in Par-C10 cells. The decreases in TER, agonist-induced transepithelial anion secretion, and claudin-1 expression caused by TNF-alpha, but not IFN-gamma, were reversible by incubation of Par-C10 cell monolayers with cytokine-free medium for 24 h, indicating that IFN-gamma causes irreversible inhibition of cellular activities associated with fluid secretion in salivary glands. Our results suggest that cytokine production is an important contributor to secretory dysfunction in SS by disrupting TJ integrity of salivary epithelium.

  20. Screen-based sedentary behavior and associations with functional strength in 6-15 year-old children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Lisa R; Mathias, Kevin C; Fulgoni, Victor L; Karagounis, Leonidas G

    2016-02-04

    Physical strength is associated with improved health outcomes in children. Heavier children tend to have lower functional strength and mobility. Physical activity can increase children's strength, but it is unknown how different types of electronic media use impact physical strength. Data from the NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) from children ages 6-15 were analyzed in this study. Regression models were conducted to determine if screen-based sedentary behaviors (television viewing time, computer/video game time) were associated with strength measures (grip, leg extensions, modified pull-ups, plank) while controlling for potential confounders including child age, sex, BMI z-score, and days per week with 60+ minutes of physical activity. Grip strength and leg extensions divided by body weight were analyzed to provide measures of relative strength together with pull-ups and plank, which require lifting the body. The results from the regression models showed the hypothesized inverse association between TV time and all strength measures. Computer time was only significantly inversely associated with the ability to do one or more pull-ups. This study shows that television viewing, but not computer/videogames, is inversely associated with measures of child strength while controlling for child characteristics and physical activity. These findings suggest that "screen time" may not be a unified construct with respect to strength outcomes and that further exploration of the potential benefits of reducing television time on children's strength and related mobility is needed.

  1. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Melcher, Pia Grethe Sandfeld

    2017-01-01

    the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12...... functional capacity tests were better (P training period. No changes were observed in PG. In conclusion, 12 weeks of floorball training resulted in a number of favorable effects important for health and functional capacity, suggesting that floorball training can be used......Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined...

  2. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Santos, Josefina S.; Silva Junior, Eneo A. da; Balian, Simone C.

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a 60 Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  3. Gamma Knife radiosurgery of olfactory groove meningiomas provides a method to preserve subjective olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gande, Abhiram; Kano, Hideyuki; Bowden, Gregory; Mousavi, Seyed H; Niranjan, Ajay; Flickinger, John C; Lunsford, L Dade

    2014-02-01

    Anosmia is a common outcome after resection of olfactory groove meningioma(s) (OGM) and for some patients represents a significant disability. To evaluate long term tumor control rates and preservation of subjective olfaction after Gamma Knife (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of OGM. We performed a retrospective chart review and telephone assessments of 41 patients who underwent GK SRS between 1987 and 2008. Clinical outcomes were stratified by full, partial or no subjective olfaction, whereas tumor control was assessed by changes in volume greater or lesser than 25%. The median clinical and imaging follow-up were 76 and 65 months, respectively. Prior to SRS, 19 (46%) patients had surgical resections and two (5%) had received fractionated radiation therapy. Twenty four patients (59%) reported a normal sense of smell, 12 (29%) reported a reduced sense of smell and five (12%) had complete anosmia. The median tumor volume was 8.5 cm(3) (range 0.6-56.1), the mean radiation dose at the tumor margin was 13 Gy (range 10-20) and the median estimated dose to the olfactory nerve was 5.1 Gy (range 1.1-18.1). At follow-up, 27 patients (66%) reported intact olfaction (three (7%) described return to a normal sense of smell), nine (22%) described partial anosmia, and five (12%) had complete anosmia. No patient reported deterioration in olfaction after SRS. Thirteen patients (32%) showed significant tumor regression, 26 (63%) had no further growth and two (5%) had progressed. The progression free tumor control rates were 97% at 1 year and 95% at 2, 10 and 20 years. Symptomatic adverse radiation effects occurred in three (7%) patients. Stereotactic radiosurgery provided both long term tumor control and preservation of olfaction.

  4. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Santos, Josefina S.; Silva Junior, Eneo A. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Balian, Simone C., E-mail: balian@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2011-07-01

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  5. Korean consumers' perceptions of health/functional food claims according to the strength of scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Kang, Eun Jin; Kwon, Oran; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we investigated that consumers could differentiate between levels of claims and clarify how a visual aid influences consumer understanding of the different claim levels. We interviewed 2,000 consumers in 13 shopping malls on their perception of and confidence in different levels of health claims using seven point scales. The average confidence scores given by participants were 4.17 for the probable level and 4.07 for the possible level; the score for the probable level was significantly higher than that for the possible level (P consumers understand the strength of scientific evidence behind those claims. Moreover, when a visual aid was included, consumers perceived the scientific levels more clearly and had greater confidence in their meanings than when a visual aid was not included. Although this result suggests that consumers react differently to different claim levels, it is not yet clear whether consumers understand the variations in the degree of scientific support.

  6. Rapid and minimum invasive functional brain mapping by real-time visualization of high gamma activity during awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kamada, Kyousuke; Kapeller, Christoph; Hiroshima, Satoru; Prueckl, Robert; Guger, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    Electrocortical stimulation (ECS) is the gold standard for functional brain mapping during an awake craniotomy. The critical issue is to set aside enough time to identify eloquent cortices by ECS. High gamma activity (HGA) ranging between 80 and 120 Hz on electrocorticogram is assumed to reflect localized cortical processing. In this report, we used real-time HGA mapping and functional neuronavigation integrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for rapid and reliable identification of motor and language functions. Four patients with intra-axial tumors in their dominant hemisphere underwent preoperative fMRI and lesion resection with an awake craniotomy. All patients showed significant fMRI activation evoked by motor and language tasks. During the craniotomy, we recorded electrocorticogram activity by placing subdural grids directly on the exposed brain surface. Each patient performed motor and language tasks and demonstrated real-time HGA dynamics in hand motor areas and parts of the inferior frontal gyrus. Sensitivity and specificity of HGA mapping were 100% compared with ECS mapping in the frontal lobe, which suggested HGA mapping precisely indicated eloquent cortices. We found different HGA dynamics of language tasks in frontal and temporal regions. Specificities of the motor and language-fMRI did not reach 85%. The results of HGA mapping was mostly consistent with those of ECS mapping, although fMRI tended to overestimate functional areas. This novel technique enables rapid and accurate identification of motor and frontal language areas. Furthermore, real-time HGA mapping sheds light on underlying physiological mechanisms related to human brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of Porous Spherical-Shaped Hydroxyapatite on Mechanical Strength and Bioactive Function of Conventional Glass Ionomer Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Yu Chiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ionomer-cement (GIC is helpful in Minimal Intervention Dentistry because it releases fluoride ions and is highly biocompatible. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms by which hydroxyapatite (HAp improves the mechanical strength and bioactive functioning of GIC when these materials are combined to make apatite ionomer cement (AIC. A conventional GIC powder was mixed with porous, spherical-HAp particles (HApS, crystalline HAp (HAp200 or one of two types of cellulose. The micro-compressive strengths of the additive particles were measured, and various specimens were evaluated with regard to their compressive strengths (CS, fluoride release concentrations (fluoride electrode and multi-element release concentrations. The AIC was found to release higher concentrations of fluoride (1.2 times and strontium ions (1.5 times compared to the control GIC. It was detected the more release of calcium originated from HApS than HAp200 in AIC. The CS of the AIC incorporating an optimum level of HAp was also significantly higher than that of the GIC. These results suggest that adding HAp can increase the release concentration of ions required for remineralization while maintaining the CS of the GIC. This effect does not result from a physical phenomenon, but rather from chemical reactions between the HAp and polyacrylic acid of GIC.

  8. Improved Walking Capacity and Muscle Strength After Functional Power-Training in Young Children With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vulpen, Liesbeth F; de Groot, Sonja; Rameckers, Eugene; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    Background. Strength training programs for children with cerebral palsy (CP) showed inconclusive evidence for improving walking, despite improvements in strength. Recent studies have suggested that strength training with high movement velocity is more effective for improving walking than traditional

  9. Old women with a recent fall history show improved muscle strength and function sustained for six months after finishing training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Nina; Simonsen, Lene; Bülow, Jens; Lorenzen, Tove; Jensen, Dorte V; Larsen, Lone; Rasmussen, Ulla; Rennie, Michael; Kjaer, Michael

    2007-08-01

    Restricted physical activity as a consequence of chronic disease or injury is a predictor of functional decline. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a 6- month multidimensional training program would have sustained beneficial effects upon the physiological, functional and psychological condition of old women with a recent history of falls. Participants were 65 home-dwelling women (70-90 years) identified from hospital records as having had an accidental fall. After assessment of muscle strength, balance performance, walking speed, balance confidence, and physical activity level, the participants were randomly assigned to a control group (n=33) or a training group (n=32), who performed a multidimensional training program including moderate resistance exercise and balance exercise twice weekly for 6 months. Measurements were repeated after 6 and 12 months. Six months of multidimensional training resulted in significant improvements and between-group differences in isometric knee extension strength (pfalls or physical activity level during the one-year study period. A multi-dimensional training program produced significant improvements in physiological and functional risk factors for falls and disability in women aged 70-90 years with a recent history of falls.

  10. Effects of a whole body vibration training program on strength, power, and functional tests in the physically active elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gonçalves da Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a whole body vibration training program on knee extensor isokinetic peak torque, average power, and functional tests in the physically active elderly. Forty-seven subjects, who participated in a training program for the elderly, were recruited. The subjects were divided into two groups: whole body vibration group (WBV (n=24, 70.7±5.8 years, 62.7±12.3 kg and 155.9±8.0 cm and control group (n=23. 70.0±5.7 years, 65.3±10.7 kg and 157.9±6.6 cm. The WBS group underwent whole body vibration exercise and their regular training program for 13 weeks, 2 times per week, whereas the control group performed the regular training program only. Whole body vibration training was not effective in increasing isokinetic peak torque, average power, or performance in the functional tests. On the other hand, the regular training program was effective in increasing elbow flexor strength endurance, distance covered in the 6-min walk test, and speed in the timed up and go test. The results suggest that vibration training is not effective in modifying functionality or muscle strength and power in the physically active elderly.

  11. Upper extremity function in persons with tetraplegia: relationships between strength, capacity, and the spinal cord independence measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudhe, Claudia; van Hedel, Hubertus J A

    2009-06-01

    To quantify the relationship between the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III (SCIM III), arm and hand muscle strength, and hand function tests in persons with tetraplegia. A total of 29 individuals with tetraplegia (motor level between cervical 4 and thoracic 1; sensory-motor complete and incomplete) participated. The total score, category scores, and separate items of the SCIM III were compared to the upper extremity motor score (UEMS), an extended manual muscle test (MMT) for 11 upper extremity muscles, and 6 functional capacity tests of the hand. Spearman's correlation coefficients (r(s)) and regression analyses were performed. The SCIM III sum score correlated well with the sum scores of the 3 tests (r(s) > or = .76). The SCIM III self-care category correlated better with the tests ( r(s) > or = .80) compared to the other categories (r( s) SCIM III self-care item "grooming" highly correlated with muscle strength and hand capacity items (r(s) > or = .80). A combination of hand muscle tests and the key grasping task explained over 90% of the variability in the self-care category scores. The SCIM III self-care category reflects upper extremity performance as it contains especially useful and valid items that relate to upper extremity function and capacity tests.

  12. Effects of a whole body vibration training program on strength, power, and functional tests in the physically active elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gonçalves da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n2p166   The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a whole body vibration training program on knee extensor isokinetic peak torque, average power, and functional tests in the physically active elderly. Forty-seven subjects, who participated in a training program for the elderly, were recruited. The subjects were divided into two groups: whole body vibration group (WBV (n=24, 70.7±5.8 years, 62.7±12.3 kg and 155.9±8.0 cm and control group (n=23. 70.0±5.7 years, 65.3±10.7 kg and 157.9±6.6 cm. The WBS group underwent whole body vibration exercise and their regular training program for 13 weeks, 2 times per week, whereas the control group performed the regular training program only. Whole body vibration training was not effective in increasing isokinetic peak torque, average power, or performance in the functional tests. On the other hand, the regular training program was effective in increasing elbow flexor strength endurance, distance covered in the 6-min walk test, and speed in the timed up and go test. The results suggest that vibration training is not effective in modifying functionality or muscle strength and power in the physically active elderly.

  13. Self-directed Strength Training with Primary School Children and its Effect on Functional Body-related Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Nitzsche

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strength training intervention is primarily controlled by training parameters. A scientific desideratum exists concerning the question to what extent a self-controlled load perception might have an effect on motor performance and functional body-related knowledge. Method: A total of 81 primary school students were assigned to an intervention group (N=34, 9.7±2 years and control group (N=47, 7.3±0.4 years. The intervention group performed strength training twice a week (circuit training, scope of load: 45-60 minutes, duration 20-30 seconds, 7 stations, rest between sets 20-30 seconds, self-regulated intensity. After 9 weeks, both groups were tested for motor performance and functional body-related knowledge. Results: For push-ups (PRETEST: Z=103.2±7 vs. POSTTEST: Z=114.7±9; d=1.4; P<0.01 and sit-ups (PRETEST: Z=90.9±8 vs. POSTTEST: Z=98.6±9; d=0.89; P<0.01, a significant improvement was established in the intervention group. The control group showed substantial improvement for push-ups (PRETEST: Z=101.8±10 vs. POSTTEST: Z=107.5±9; d=0.58; P<0.01 and significant decline for sit-ups (PRETEST: Z=99.1±7 vs. POSTTEST: Z=96.6±6; d=-0.36; P<0.05. As to the knowledge test, the intervention group increased their performance considerably (PRETEST: 35±2 points vs. POSTTEST: 40±4 points; d=0.9; P<0.01 when compared to the control group (PRETEST: 34.2±4.6 points vs. POSTTEST: 31.2±4.5 points; d=-0.69; P<0.01. Discussion: A nine-week, self-regulated strength training for children has positive effects on sport motor performance (push-ups and sit-ups and functional body-related knowledge. Keywords: Strength training, children, motor performance, functional body-related knowledge, self-controlled load perception

  14. Updating Photonuclear Data Library and Generating a Reference Database for Photon Strength Functions. 1st Research Coordination Meeting. Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goriely, S.; Dimitriou, P.

    2016-07-01

    A summary is given of the 1 st Research Coordination Meeting of the new IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Updating the Photonuclear Data Library and Generating a Reference Database for Photon Strength Functions. Participants presented their work, reviewed the current status of the field with regards to measurements, theoretical models and evaluations, discussed the scope of the work to be undertaken and agreed on a list of priorities and task assignments necessary to achieve the goals of the CRP. A summary of the presentations and discussions is presented in this report. (author)

  15. Increased functional connectivity strength of right inferior temporal gyrus in first-episode, drug-naive somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qinji; Yao, Dapeng; Jiang, Muliang; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Jiajing; Xu, Chunxing; Dai, Yi; Yu, Miaoyu; Long, Liling; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Jianrong; Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Changqing; Guo, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of brain structural and functional alterations have been implicated in patients with somatization disorder (SD). However, little is known about brain functional connectivity in SD. In the present study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and graph theory were used to obtain a comprehensive view of whole-brain functional connectivity and to investigate the changes of voxel-wise functional networks in patients with SD. Twenty-five first-episode, medication-naive patients with SD and 28 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state fMRI. The graph theory approach was employed to analyze the data. Compared to the HCs, patients with SD showed significantly increased functional connectivity strength in the right inferior temporal gyrus (ITG). There is a significant positive correlation between the z-values of the cluster in the right ITG and Hamilton Anxiety Scale scores. Our findings indicate that there is a disruption of the functional connectivity pattern in the right ITG in first-episode, treatment-naive patients with SD, which bears clinical significance. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  16. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of active suppressor cells against IFN-gamma production in PHA-stimulated cord blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, H.; Taga, K.; Matsuda, A.; Uwadana, N.; Hasui, M.; Miyawaki, T.; Taniguchi, N.

    1986-11-15

    Cord blood mononuclear cells (MNC) were defective in their ability to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or recombinant interleukin 2, whereas cord MNC could induce comparable amounts of IFN-gamma with adult controls on stimulation with a streptococcal preparation, OK-432. Moreover, irradiation of cord MNC with 1500 rad before PHA stimulation could restore the IFN-gamma production. Kinetic studies indicated that such augmentation of IFN-gamma production by irradiation was evident when cord MNC were irradiated before or by 12 hr of PHA-stimulated culture. But irradiation after 18 hr or more of PHA stimulation did not exert any significant augmentation on IFN-gamma production by cord MNC. It seemed most likely that the ability of IFN-gamma production is already mature at birth, but radiosensitive suppressor effectors on IFN-gamma production are activated within cord MNC at an early stage of PHA stimulation, resulting in poor IFN-gamma production by cord MNC. PHA-induced IFN-gamma production by OKT3+, OKT4+, and OKT8- cord cells were markedly enhanced by irradiation with 1,500 rad before the culture. Coculture experiments disclosed that cord OKT4+ cells, but not OKT4- cells, when prestimulated with PHA for 24 hr, exerted active suppression on PHA-induced IFN-gamma production by adult MNC in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that radiosensitive suppressor effectors on IFN-gamma production were induced within the OKT4+ T cell subset of cord MNC on PHA stimulation.

  17. Regulatory function of a novel population of mouse autoantigen-specific Foxp3 regulatory T cells depends on IFN-gamma, NO, and contact with target cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyndi Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both naturally arising Foxp3(+ and antigen-induced Foxp3(- regulatory T cells (Treg play a critical role in regulating immune responses, as well as in preventing autoimmune diseases and graft rejection. It is known that antigen-specific Treg are more potent than polyclonal Treg in suppressing pathogenic immune responses that cause autoimmunity and inflammation. However, difficulty in identifying and isolating a sufficient number of antigen-specific Treg has limited their use in research to elucidate the mechanisms underlying their regulatory function and their potential role in therapy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a novel class II MHC tetramer, we have isolated a population of CD4(+ Foxp3(- T cells specific for the autoantigen glutamic acid decarboxylase p286-300 peptide (NR286 T cells from diabetes-resistant non-obese resistant (NOR mice. These Foxp3(- NR286 T cells functioned as Treg that were able to suppress target T cell proliferation in vitro and inhibit type 1 diabetes in animals. Unexpected results from mechanistic studies in vitro showed that their regulatory function was dependent on not only IFN-gamma and nitric oxide, but also on cell contact with target cells. In addition, separating NR286 Treg from target T cells in transwell assays abolished both production of NO and suppression of target T cells, regardless of whether IFN-gamma was produced in cell cultures. Therefore, production of NO, not IFN-gamma, was cell contact dependent, suggesting that NO may function downstream of IFN-gamma in mediating regulatory function of NR286 Treg. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies identified a unique population of autoantigen-specific Foxp3(- Treg that can exert their regulatory function dependent on not only IFN-gamma and NO but also cell contact with target cells.

  18. Functional co-localization of monocytic aminopeptidase N/CD13 with the Fc gamma receptors CD32 and CD64

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemann, Dagmar; Tcherkes, Anatolij; Hansen, Gert H

    2005-01-01

    , but not with the myeloid marker CD33 representing a member of the sialoadhesin family. Our results imply a novel functional role of CD13 and Fc gamma receptors as members of a multimeric receptor complex. Further studies have to be done to elucidate common signaling pathways of these molecules....

  19. Biodegradability and mechanical properties of PP/HMSPP and natural polymers bio-composites in function of gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Elisabeth C.L.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Lima, Luis F.C.P.; Bueno, Nelson R.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2013-01-01

    PP, expressed as C n H 2n , is one of the most widely used linear hydrocarbon polymers; its versatility arises from the fact that it is made from cheap petrochemical feed stocks through efficient catalytic polymerization process and easy processing to various products. Thus, enormous production and utilization of polymers, in general, lead to their accumulation in the environment, since they are not easily degraded by microorganisms, presenting a serious source of pollution affecting both flora and fauna. These polymers are very bio-resistant due to the involvement of only carbon atoms in main chain with no hydrolyzable functional group. Non-degradable plastics accumulate in the environment at a rate of 25 million tons per year. In recent years, as a result of growing environmental awareness, natural polymers have been increasingly used as reinforcing fillers in thermoplastic composite materials. Sugarcane bagasse was used as reinforcing filler, considering that Brazil is the largest world producer of this crop, with a 101 Mt main agro-industrial residue of sugarcane processing from 340 Mt of sugarcane. Bio-composites were compounded on a twin-screw extruder and samples collected directly from the die. This study aims to investigate mechanical properties of PP/HMSPP-sugarcane bagasse 10, 15, 30 and 50% blends gamma-irradiated at 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy doses. Degradation essays will comprise DSC and TGA tests and biodegradability behavior will be indicated by Laboratory Soil Burial Test. The main objective of this work is to support the application of these composites as environmentally friendly materials, without prejudicing mechanicals properties, in spite of applied gamma-irradiation. (author)

  20. Biodegradability and mechanical properties of PP/HMSPP and natural polymers bio-composites in function of gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Elisabeth C.L.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Lima, Luis F.C.P.; Bueno, Nelson R.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: eclcardo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    PP, expressed as C{sub n}H{sub 2n}, is one of the most widely used linear hydrocarbon polymers; its versatility arises from the fact that it is made from cheap petrochemical feed stocks through efficient catalytic polymerization process and easy processing to various products. Thus, enormous production and utilization of polymers, in general, lead to their accumulation in the environment, since they are not easily degraded by microorganisms, presenting a serious source of pollution affecting both flora and fauna. These polymers are very bio-resistant due to the involvement of only carbon atoms in main chain with no hydrolyzable functional group. Non-degradable plastics accumulate in the environment at a rate of 25 million tons per year. In recent years, as a result of growing environmental awareness, natural polymers have been increasingly used as reinforcing fillers in thermoplastic composite materials. Sugarcane bagasse was used as reinforcing filler, considering that Brazil is the largest world producer of this crop, with a 101 Mt main agro-industrial residue of sugarcane processing from 340 Mt of sugarcane. Bio-composites were compounded on a twin-screw extruder and samples collected directly from the die. This study aims to investigate mechanical properties of PP/HMSPP-sugarcane bagasse 10, 15, 30 and 50% blends gamma-irradiated at 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy doses. Degradation essays will comprise DSC and TGA tests and biodegradability behavior will be indicated by Laboratory Soil Burial Test. The main objective of this work is to support the application of these composites as environmentally friendly materials, without prejudicing mechanicals properties, in spite of applied gamma-irradiation. (author)

  1. A novel method for flow pattern identification in unstable operational conditions using gamma ray and radial basis function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshani, G.H.; Nazemi, E.; Roshani, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Changes of fluid properties (especially density) strongly affect the performance of radiation-based multiphase flow meter and could cause error in recognizing the flow pattern and determining void fraction. In this work, we proposed a methodology based on combination of multi-beam gamma ray attenuation and dual modality densitometry techniques using RBF neural network in order to recognize the flow regime and determine the void fraction in gas-liquid two phase flows independent of the liquid phase changes. The proposed system is consisted of one 137 Cs source, two transmission detectors and one scattering detector. The registered counts in two transmission detectors were used as the inputs of one primary Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network for recognizing the flow regime independent of liquid phase density. Then, after flow regime identification, three RBF neural networks were utilized for determining the void fraction independent of liquid phase density. Registered count in scattering detector and first transmission detector were used as the inputs of these three RBF neural networks. Using this simple methodology, all the flow patterns were correctly recognized and the void fraction was predicted independent of liquid phase density with mean relative error (MRE) of less than 3.28%. - Highlights: • Flow regime and void fraction were determined in two phase flows independent of the liquid phase density changes. • An experimental structure was set up and the required data was obtained. • 3 detectors and one gamma source were used in detection geometry. • RBF networks were utilized for flow regime and void fraction determination.

  2. Sex-related differences in joint-angle-specific functional hamstring-to-quadriceps strength ratios

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ashker, Said; Carson, Brian P.; Ayala, Francisco; De Ste Croix, Mark B

    2017-01-01

    Purpose\\ud To examine and compare sex-related differences in the functioning of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles and the isokinetic hamstrings eccentric-to-quadriceps concentric functional ratio (H/Q FUNC).\\ud Methods\\ud Fifty male and 46 female young adults completed this study. Each participant carried out an isokinetic assessment to determine isokinetic concentric and eccentric torques during knee extension and flexion actions at 3 different angular velocities (60, 180 and 300°/s) ado...

  3. Towards industry strength mapping of AUTOSAR automotive functionality on multicore architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avasalcai, Cosmin Florin; Budhrani, Dhanesh; Pop, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The automotive electronic architectures have moved from federated architectures, where one function is implemented in one ECU (Electronic Control Unit), to distributed architectures, consisting of several multicore ECUs. In addition, multicore ECUs are being adopted because of better performance......, cost, size, fault-tolerance and power consumption. Automotive manufacturers use AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR) as the standardized software architecture for ECUs. With AUTOSAR, the functionality is modeled as a set of software components composed of subtasks, called runnables...

  4. The Effects of a Short-Term Novel Aquatic Exercise Program on Functional Strength and Performance of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, H Scott; Lehman, Marie Attanasi; Veacock, Danielle; Korkuch, Larua

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a short-term novel multidimensional aquatic exercise program on functional abilities of healthy older adults. Twenty-six men and women (mean age 76.33 ± 5.55 years) were recruited and assigned to an aquatic- (n = 15) or land-based (n = 11) training group. The aquatic training group completed a multidimensional water exercise program that incorporated resistance training, functional exercise movements and rudimentary aquatic plyometric activities. The active control group participated in a supervised land-based fitness program. Each exercise intervention was conducted over an 8-week period (16 sessions of 30 - 40 minutes) with the training load progression adjusted equally between groups using the 6 - 20 Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale (RPE). Prior to and immediately following the intervention, both groups were evaluated with select components of the Senior Fitness Test. The 30-second chair stand, 30-second arm curl, and 8 foot up and go were selected as measures of strength and functional abilities. The results of an independent t-test indicated that the control and experimental groups were matched for functional abilities prior to the intervention. A 2 (group) × 2 (time) analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with repeated measures revealed significant differences in the pre- to post-testing measures for the aquatic training program for the arm curl (p aquatic exercise program with multidimensional intervention strategies will significantly enhance functional abilities in older adults when compared to a functionally matched active control group.

  5. The beetle elytron plate: a lightweight, high-strength and buffering functional-structural bionic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Xie, Juan; Chen, Jinxiang; Okabe, Yoji; Pan, Longcheng; Xu, Mengye

    2017-06-30

    To investigate the characteristics of compression, buffering and energy dissipation in beetle elytron plates (BEPs), compression experiments were performed on BEPs and honeycomb plates (HPs) with the same wall thickness in different core structures and using different molding methods. The results are as follows: 1) The compressive strength and energy dissipation capacity in the BEP are 2.44 and 5.0 times those in the HP, respectively, when the plates are prepared using the full integrated method (FIM). 2) The buckling stress is directly proportional to the square of the wall thickness (t). Thus, for core structures with equal wall thicknesses, although the core volume of the BEP is 42 percent greater than that of the HP, the mechanical properties of the BEP are several times higher than those of the HP. 3) It is also proven that even when the single integrated method (SIM) is used to prepare BEPs, the properties discussed above remain superior to those of HPs by a factor of several; this finding lays the foundation for accelerating the commercialization of BEPs based on modern manufacturing processes.

  6. Influence of NaOCl deproteinization on shear bond strength in function of dentin depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Manuel; Perdigão, Jorge; Osorio, Estrella; Osorio, Raquel

    2002-08-01

    To determine the influence of NaOCl application on shear bond strengths (SBS) to superficial and deep dentin, using Prime & Bond 2.1. Superficial and deep dentin was exposed in 40 extracted third molars by sectioning the occlusal surface immediately under the enamel-dentin junction or close to the pulp chamber. After polishing the dentin disks (600-grit SiC), they were assigned to two groups: (1) 36% orthophosphoric acid for 15 seconds, or (2): 36% orthophosphoric acid for 15 seconds followed by 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 2 minutes. The dentin adhesive was applied as per manufacturer's instructions, followed by TPH resin-based composite. The specimens were stored in water for 24 hours at 37 degrees C and thermocycled x500 and SBS were determined. Data were statistically analyzed with ANOVA and Student's t-test. For acid-etched specimens, superficial dentin resulted in statistically higher mean SBS than deep dentin. After NaOCl application, deep and superficial dentin resulted in statistically similar mean SBS. Collagen removal did not affect mean SBS on superficial dentin, while SBS values on deep dentin were increased.

  7. [Case-control study on the effect of core strength training on the function of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Zheng, Song; Cai, Zhen-Hai; Wang, Yue-Li; Zeng, Ming

    2017-08-25

    To observe the effect of core strength training on knee joint function and postural stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). A total of 80 ACLR patients were randomly allocated into conventional rehabilitation training group and core strength training group from May 2013 to May 2015 with 40 patients in each group. The patients in conventional rehabilitation training group underwent conventional ACLR rehabilitation training, in which 28 males and 12 females. The mean age was(30.5±5.2) years old(ranged, 22 to 42 years old). The mean BMI was(23.8±2.4) kg/m²(ranged, 18.2 to 25.9 kg/m²). Thirty patients had injuries on the dominant side and 10 patients had injuries on the non-dominant side. The core strength training group received conventional ACLR rehabilitation training and core strength training, in which 31 males and 9 females. The mean age was(31.1±4.8) years old(ranged, 21 to 45 years old). The mean BMI was(24.1±2.7) kg/m²(ranged, 18.5 to 26.1 kg/m²) . Twenty-seven patients had injuries on the dominant side and 13 patients had injuries on the non-dominant side. The Lysholm score, tibial anterior transition measured by KT-1000 before and after treatment, and the Star Excursion Balance Test results after treatment were compared between the two groups. Six months after rehabilitation training, the tibial anterior transition of the conventional rehabilitation training group and the core strength training group were(3.4±1.0) mm and(3.3±1.2) mm respectively, which were less than(12.1±1.8) mm and(12.5±2.0) mm before treatment. But there was no significant difference in anterior tibial translation between two groups( P >0.05). The Lysholm score of the conventional rehabilitation training group and the core strength training group were 91.8±4.3 and 92.1±3.9 individually, which were higher than 69.2±5.8 and 70.2±5.1 before treatment. But there was no significant difference in Lysholm score between two groups( P >0.05). Six months

  8. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Soichiro; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Ma, Lan; Tanaka, Yosuke; Tomoda, Erika; Aijima, Reona; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Kukita, Toshio; Shi, Songtao; Nishimura, Fusanori; Yamaza, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we examined the stem cell potency of IP-DPSCs. In comparison with healthy DPSCs, IP-DPSCs expressed lower colony-forming capacity, population-doubling rate, cell proliferation, multipotency, in vivo dentin regeneration, and immunosuppressive activity, suggesting that intact IP-DPSCs may be inadequate for dentin/pulp regeneration. Therefore, we attempted to improve the impaired in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro immunosuppressive functions of IP-DPSCs to enable dentin/pulp regeneration. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) treatment enhanced in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro T cell suppression of IP-DPSCs, whereas treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha did not. Therefore, these findings suggest that IFN-γ may be a feasible modulator to improve the functions of impaired IP-DPSCs, suggesting that autologous transplantation of IFN-γ-accelerated IP-DPSCs might be a promising new therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment. PMID:26775677

  9. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Soichiro; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Ma, Lan; Tanaka, Yosuke; Tomoda, Erika; Aijima, Reona; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Kukita, Toshio; Shi, Songtao; Nishimura, Fusanori; Yamaza, Takayoshi

    2016-01-18

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we examined the stem cell potency of IP-DPSCs. In comparison with healthy DPSCs, IP-DPSCs expressed lower colony-forming capacity, population-doubling rate, cell proliferation, multipotency, in vivo dentin regeneration, and immunosuppressive activity, suggesting that intact IP-DPSCs may be inadequate for dentin/pulp regeneration. Therefore, we attempted to improve the impaired in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro immunosuppressive functions of IP-DPSCs to enable dentin/pulp regeneration. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) treatment enhanced in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro T cell suppression of IP-DPSCs, whereas treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha did not. Therefore, these findings suggest that IFN-γ may be a feasible modulator to improve the functions of impaired IP-DPSCs, suggesting that autologous transplantation of IFN-γ-accelerated IP-DPSCs might be a promising new therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment.

  10. Functionalization of {gamma}-alumina cores by polyvinylpirrolidone: properties of the resulting biocompatible nanoparticles in aqueous suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, L. [Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Dpto de Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria (Argentina); Arranz, G.; Palacio, L. [Universidad de Valladolid, Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Soria, C.; Sanchez, M.; Perez, G. [Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Dpto de Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria (Argentina); Lozano, A. E. [UA-CSIC-UVA, Surface and Porous Materials (SMAP) (Spain); Hernandez, A.; Pradanos, P., E-mail: pradanos@termo.uva.e [Universidad de Valladolid, Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    A biocompatible polymer has been used to functionalize 45-50 nm diameter {gamma}-alumina nanoparticles. Because the target was to use these systems in real applications, polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP) was chosen due to the characteristics of non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and feasibility of this polymer to form complexes with many cations and chemical species. This approach allows the use of these materials in medicine and food, textile, or pharmaceutical industry. The functionalization process required a previous attachment of an active group on the surface of the nanoparticles. Subsequently, a polymer chain was generated in situ, using vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) and 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (VP) as reactives. The morphology and topology of the nanocompound has been characterized in aqueous suspensions, attending to possible applications in this medium. The results obtained from the different techniques show that the polymer chain was successfully grafted to the nanoparticle surface, and allow an estimation of the size of the modified particle. Their electrical and conformational behavior have also been studied in different aqueous chemical environments.

  11. Measurement of the hadronic photon structure function F(2)(gamma) with the L3 detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Baksay, Liza Gyongyi

    2005-01-01

    The photon is one of the basic components of our present understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The theory of Quantum Electrodynamics describes this object as being the mediator of the electromagnetic force between charged particles. Contrary to earlier assumptions the photon turns out to have a "structure" due to quantum fluctuations into fermion anti-fermion pairs that can further interact with other particles. In this case the photon reveals its structure. The structure of the photon can be described by the concept of photon structure functions, which are studied at high energy accelerators like the Large Electron Positron Collider at the European Center for Particle Physics. With the large amount of data (L = 608 pb-1) collected with the L3 detector at center-of-mass energies 189 GeV < s < 209 GeV and the analysis method used in this dissertation, a measurement of the hadronic structure function F2gamma (x,Q2)/alpha is obtained with better precision than previous measurements....

  12. Spectrum of atmospheric gamma rays to 10 MeV at lambda = 40 deg. [as function of altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, L. E.; Schwartz, D. A.; Ling, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Results of measurements of the differential counting rate spectra due to atmospheric gamma rays as a function of altitude to 3.6 g/sq cm over Texas. Two gain settings and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer were used to cover the range from 0.2 to 10 MeV. The detector was a 7.6 x 7.6 cm NaI crystal, which was surrounded on five sides by a 2-cm-thick plastic anticoincidence shield for charged particle rejection. The system had a nearly isotropic response to photons above 0.2 MeV. The spectrum at ceiling appeared as a steep continuum with a power-law index of about 1.4. The only obvious feature was the 0.51-MeV positron annihilation line. The spectral shape was independent for depths less than 20 g/sq cm, the absolute intensity varying in proportion to the intensity of the cosmic ray secondary charged particles. Also, at depths less than 30 g/sq cm the observed flux variation with altitude can be described in terms of an empirical depth-dependent source function.

  13. Effect of neurodevelopmental treatment-based physical therapy on the change of muscle strength, spasticity, and gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of neurodevelopmental treatment-based physical therapy on muscle tone, strength, and gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] One-hundred-seventy-five children with spastic cerebral palsy (88 diplegia; 78 quadriplegia) received neurodevelopmental treatment-based physical therapy for 35 minutes per day, 2?3 times per week for 1?year. Spasticity, muscle strength, and gross motor function were...

  14. Mechanical muscle function and lean body mass during supervised strength training and testosterone therapy in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Thue; Christensen, Louise L; Madsen, Klavs

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study.......To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study....

  15. The function of TLR4 in interferon gamma or interleukin-13 exposed and lipopolysaccharide stimulated gingival epithelial cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beklen, A; Sarp, A S; Uckan, D; Tsaous Memet, G

    2014-10-01

    Gingival epithelial cells are part of the first line of host defense against infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) serve important immune and nonimmune functions. We investigated how interferon gamma (INF-γ) and interleukin 13 (IL-13) are involved in the TLR4 ligand-induced regulation of interleukin-8 (IL-8) effects on gingival epithelial cells. We used immunohistochemistry to localize TLR4 in ten healthy and ten periodontitis tissue specimens. Gingival epithelial cells then were primed with Th1 cytokine (INF-γ) or Th2 cytokine (IL-13) before stimulation with Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to detect the level of IL-8 secretion in cell culture supernatants. Although both healthy and periodontitis gingival tissue samples expressed TLR4, the periodontitis samples showed more intense expression on gingival epithelial cells. Gingival epithelial cell cultures were primed with either INF-γ or IL-13 before stimulation with TLR4 ligand. Supernatants from co-stimulated epithelial cells exhibited IL-8 production in opposite directions, i.e., as one stimulates the release, the other reduces the release. INF-γ significantly increased TLR4 function, whereas IL-13 significantly decreased TLR4 function, i.e., production of IL-8. Pathogen associated molecular pattern-LPS, shared by many different periodonto-pathogenic bacteria, activates the gingival epithelial cells in a TLR-dependent manner. Diminished or increased TLR function in gingival epithelial cells under the influence of different Th cell types may protect or be harmful due to the altered TLR signaling.

  16. Increased Lower Limb Spasticity but Not Strength or Function Following a Single-Dose Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor in Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourab, Krishnaj; Schmit, Brian D; Hornby, T George

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of single doses of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on lower limb voluntary and reflex function in individuals with chronic stroke. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Outpatient research setting. Individuals (N=10; 7 men; mean age ± SD, 57±10y) with poststroke hemiplegia of >1 year duration who completed all assessments. Patients were assessed before and 5 hours after single-dose, overencapsulated 10-mg doses of escitalopram (SSRI) or placebo, with 1 week between conditions. Primary assessments included maximal ankle and knee isometric strength, and velocity-dependent (30°/s-120°/s) plantarflexor stretch reflexes under passive conditions, and separately during and after 3 superimposed maximal volitional drive to simulate conditions of increased serotonin release. Secondary measures included clinical measures of lower limb coordination and locomotion. SSRI administration significantly increased stretch reflex torques at higher stretch velocities (eg, 90°/s; P=.03), with reflexes at lower velocities enhanced by superimposed voluntary drive (P=.02). No significant improvements were seen in volitional peak torques or in clinical measures of lower limb function (lowest P=.10). Increases in spasticity but not strength or lower limb function were observed with single-dose SSRI administration in individuals with chronic stroke. Further studies should evaluate whether repeated dosing of SSRIs, or as combined with specific interventions, is required to elicit significant benefit of these agents on lower limb function poststroke. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of executive functions in prospective memory in multiple sclerosis: Impact of the strength of cue-action association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenais, Emmanuelle; Rouleau, Isabelle; Tremblay, Alexandra; Demers, Mélanie; Roger, Élaine; Jobin, Céline; Duquette, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) often report prospective memory (PM) deficits. Although PM is important for daily functioning, it is not formally assessed in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to examine the role of executive functions in MS patients' PM revealed by the effect of strength of cue-action association on PM performance. Thirty-nine MS patients were compared to 18 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and education on a PM task modulating the strength of association between the cue and the intended action. Deficits in MS patients affecting both prospective and retrospective components of PM were confirmed using 2 × 2 × 2 mixed analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Among patients, multiple regression analyses revealed that the impairment was modulated by the efficiency of executive functions, whereas retrospective memory seemed to have little impact on PM performance, contrary to expectation. More specifically, results of 2 × 2 × 2 mixed-model analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) showed that low-executive patients had more difficulty detecting and, especially, retrieving the appropriate action when the cue and the action were unrelated, whereas high-executive patients' performance seemed to be virtually unaffected by the cue-action association. Using an objective measure, these findings confirm the presence of PM deficits in MS. They also suggest that such deficits depend on executive functioning and can be reduced when automatic PM processes are engaged through semantic cue-action association. They underscore the importance of assessing PM in clinical settings through a cognitive evaluation and offer an interesting avenue for rehabilitation.

  18. Functional-task exercise versus resistance strength exercise to improve daily function in older women : A randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, MM; van Meeteren, NLU; Duursma, SA; Verhaar, HJJ; de Vreede, P.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a functional-task exercise program and a resistance exercise program have different effects on the ability of community-living older people to perform daily tasks. DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, single-blind trial. SETTING: Community leisure center in Utrecht, the

  19. Diaphragmatic mobility: relationship with lung function, respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and physical activity in daily life in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Flávia Roberta; Brüggemann, Ana Karla Vieira; Francisco, Davi de Souza; Medeiros, Caroline Semprebom de; Rosal, Danielle; Paulin, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate diaphragmatic mobility in relation to lung function, respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and physical activity in daily life (PADL) in patients with COPD. We included 25 patients with COPD, classified according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria, and 25 healthy individuals. For all of the participants, the following were evaluated: anthropometric variables, spirometric parameters, respiratory muscle strength, diaphragmatic mobility (by X-ray), PADL, and the perception of dyspnea. In the COPD group, diaphragmatic mobility was found to correlate with lung function variables, inspiratory muscle strength, and the perception of dyspnea, whereas it did not correlate with expiratory muscle strength or PADL. In patients with COPD, diaphragmatic mobility seems to be associated with airway obstruction and lung hyperinflation, as well as with ventilatory capacity and the perception of dyspnea, although not with PADL. Avaliar a relação da mobilidade diafragmática com a função pulmonar, força muscular respiratória, dispneia e atividade física de vida diária (AFVD) em pacientes com DPOC. Foram avaliados 25 pacientes com diagnóstico de DPOC, classificados de acordo com critérios da Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, e 25 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos foram submetidos às seguintes avaliações: mensuração antropométrica, espirometria, força muscular respiratória, mobilidade diafragmática (por radiografia), AFVD e percepção de dispneia. No grupo DPOC, houve correlações da mobilidade diafragmática com variáveis de função pulmonar, força muscular inspiratória e percepção de dispneia. Não houve correlações da mobilidade diafragmática com força muscular expiratória e AFVD. A mobilidade diafragmática parece estar associada tanto com a obstrução das vias aéreas quanto com a hiperinsuflação pulmonar em pacientes com DPOC, assim como com a capacidade ventilatória e percep

  20. A 9-Week Aerobic and Strength Training Program Improves Cognitive and Motor Function in Patients with Dementia : A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, Willem J. R.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare training and follow-up effects of combined aerobic and strength training versus aerobic-only training on cognitive and motor function in institutionalized patients with dementia and to explore whether improved motor function mediates improved cognitive function. Methods: Using

  1. Concurrent assessments of lower limb loading patterns, mechanical muscle strength and functional performance in ACL-patients - A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Jensen, C; Mortensen, N H M

    2014-01-01

    Full recovery in muscle strength and functional performance may not be achieved after ACL-injury. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate loading patterns during jumping, muscle function and functional performance in ACL-reconstructed patients and to investigate the origin of between-limb...

  2. Effects of 60Co gamma radiation on defense function of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Sumiko; Suzuki, Kazuo; Sakatani, Tatsuichiro; Brooks, G.T.; Fujikura, Toshio.

    1986-06-01

    The effects of radiation on defense function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were studied following irradiation with 60 Co γ radiation (30 - 3,000 rad) using PMN separated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The migration distances for all three measures of chemotaxis to fMet-Leu-Phe (10 -8 M), chemokinesis induced by fMet-Leu-Phe, and random migration tended to decrease with increasing dose, showing 0.0054 μm/rad (p -5 M) in conjunction with cytochalasin B (CB, 5 μg/ml) there was a significant dose trend, showing the dose effects of decreasing 0.0022 % release/rad for BGL and 0.0030 % release/rad for LYZ with increasing dose. In superoxide anion (O 2 - ) production, a slight and marginally significant linear dose trend was found. These results suggest that the defense function of PMN is not so resistant to radiation as predicted from the fact that PMN in the peripheral blood are differentiated and mature. It is thought that radiation inflicts substantially harmful effects on the defense function of peripheral PMN. (author)

  3. Effects of Smoking on Chest Expansion, Lung Function, and Respiratory Muscle Strength of Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Tantisuwat, Anong; Thaveeratitham, Premtip

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Smoking has a direct effect on the respiratory system. The rate of cigarette smoking among young people has continued to increase steadily. The present study quantified and compared the respiratory function of smoking and non-smoking youths. [Subjects] Smoking and non-smoking male participants aged between 15 to 18 years were recruited (n=34 per group). [Methods] Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to smoking habits and the Fagerström test for nicotine depen...

  4. Photon Strength and the Low-Energy Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedeking, M; Bernstein, L A; Krticka, M; Bleuel, D L; Allmond, J M; Basunia, M S; Burke, J T; Fallon, P; Firestone, R B; Goldblum, B L; Hatarik, R; Lake, P T; Lee, I Y; Lesher, S R; Paschalis, S; Petri, M; Phair, L; Scielzo, N D

    2012-02-22

    The ability of atomic nuclei to emit and absorb photons with energy E{sub {gamma}} is known as the photon strength function f(E{sub {gamma}}). It has direct relevance to astrophysical element formation via neutron capture processes due to its central role in nuclear reactions. Studies of f(E{sub {gamma}}) have benefited from a wealth of data collected in neutron capture and direct reactions but also from newly commissioned inelastic photon scattering facilities. The majority of these experimental methods, however, rely on the use of models because measured {gamma}-ray spectra are simultaneously sensitive to both the nuclear level density and f(E{sub {gamma}}). As excitation energy increases towards the particle separation energies, the level density increases rapidly, creating the quasi-continuum. Nuclear properties in this excitation energy region are best characterized using statistical quantities, such as f(E{sub {gamma}}). A point of contention in studies of the quasi-continuum has been an unexpected and unexplained increase in f(E{sub {gamma}}) at low {gamma}-ray energies (i.e. below E{sub {gamma}} {approx}3 MeV) in a subset of light-to-medium mass nuclei. Ideally, a new model-independent experimental technique is required to address questions regarding the existence and origin of this low-energy enhancement in f(E{sub {gamma}}). Here such a model-independent approach is presented for determining the shape of f(E{sub {gamma}}) over a wide range of energies. The method involves the use of coupled high-resolution particle and {gamma}-ray spectroscopy to determine the emission of {gamma} rays from the quasi-continuum in a nucleus with defined excitation energy to individual discrete levels of known spins and parities. This method shares characteristics of two neutron capture-based techniques: the Average Resonance Capture (ARC) and the Two-Step Cascade analysis (TSC). The power of the new technique lies in the additional ability to positively identify primary

  5. Effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 18 patients who received simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training and 15 patients who received expiratory muscle strength training only. Postural techniques were conducted in the order of chin tucking, head rotation, head tilting, bending head back, and lying down, while expiratory muscle strength training was conducted at a resistance level of about 70% of the maximal expiratory pressure. Swallowing recovery was assessed by using the Functional Dysphagia Scale based on videofluoroscopic studies. [Results] The mean value obtained in the videofluoroscopic studies for both groups decreased after the treatment. In the postural techniques plus expiratory muscle strength training group, the decrease was significantly greater than that in the expiratory muscle strength training-only group. [Conclusion] The results imply that simultaneous performance of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training is more effective than expiratory muscle strength training alone when applied in the swallowing rehabilitation for patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson's disease.

  6. Performance on the Functional Movement Screen Is Related to Hop Performance But Not to Hip and Knee Strength in Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willigenburg, Nienke; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-03-01

    To define the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) scores and hop performance, hip strength, and knee strength in collegiate football players. Cross-sectional cohort. Freshmen of a Division I collegiate American football team (n = 59). The athletes performed the FMS, and also a variety of hop tests, isokinetic knee strength, and isometric hip strength tasks. We recorded total FMS score, peak strength, and hop performance, and we calculated asymmetries between legs on the different tasks. Spearman correlation coefficients quantified the relationships between these measures, and χ analyses compared the number of athletes with asymmetries on the different tasks. We observed significant correlations (r = 0.38-0.56, P ≤ 0.02) between FMS scores and hop distance but not between FMS scores and hip or knee strength (all P ≥ 0.21). The amount of asymmetry on the FMS test was significantly correlated to the amount of asymmetry on the timed 6-m hop (r = 0.44, P hip or knee strength asymmetries between limbs (all P ≥ 0.34). Functional Movement Screen score was positively correlated to hop distance, and limb asymmetry in FMS tasks was correlated to limb asymmetry in 6-m hop time in football players. No significant correlations were observed between FMS score and hip and knee strength or between FMS asymmetry and asymmetries in hip and knee strength between limbs. These results indicate that a simple hop for distance test may be a time-efficient and cost-efficient alternative to FMS testing in athletes and that functional asymmetries between limbs do not coincide with strength asymmetries.

  7. Large enhancement of radiative strength for soft transitions in the quasicontinuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinov, A; Algin, E; Agvaanluvsan, U; Belgya, T; Chankova, R; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Rekstad, J; Schiller, A; Siem, S

    2004-10-01

    Radiative strength functions (RSFs) for the (56,57)Fe nuclei below the separation energy are obtained from the 57Fe(3He,alphagamma)56Fe and 57Fe(3He,3He'gamma)57Fe reactions, respectively. An enhancement of more than a factor of 10 over common theoretical models of the soft (E(gamma) less than or approximately equal 2 MeV) RSF for transitions in the quasicontinuum (several MeV above the yrast line) is observed. Two-step cascade intensities with soft primary transitions from the 56Fe(n,2gamma)57Fe reaction confirm the enhancement.

  8. In hip osteoarthritis, Nordic Walking is superior to strength training and home-based exercise for improving function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieler, T; Siersma, V; Magnusson, S P; Kjaer, M; Christensen, H E; Beyer, N

    2017-08-01

    This observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial compared the short- and long-term effects of 4 months of supervised strength training (ST) in a local fitness center, supervised Nordic Walking (NW) in a local park, and unsupervised home-based exercise (HBE, control) on functional performance in 60+-year-old persons (n = 152) with hip osteoarthritis (OA) not awaiting hip replacement. Functional performance [i.e., 30-s chair stand test (primary outcome), timed stair climbing, and 6-min walk test] and self-reported outcomes (i.e., physical function, pain, physical activity level, self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life) were measured at baseline and at 2, 4, and 12 months. Based on intention-to-treat-analyses improvements [mean (95% CI)] after intervention in number of chair stands were equal in all three groups at 4 months [ST: 0.9 (0.2-1.6), NW: 1.9 (0.8-3.0), HBE: 1.1 (0.1-2.0)] but greater in the NW group [1.4 (0.02-2.8)] than in the ST group at 12 months. Generally, improvements in functional performance were greater (P mental health. These data suggest that NW is the recommended exercise modality compared with ST and HBE. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of grape seed extract on hepatic function and antioxidant status of Mouse bearing Ehrlich Ascites carcinoma and exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, U.Z.; Hanafy, N.

    2006-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE), rich in bioactive phytochemicals commonly known as procyanidins, is one of the most commonly consumed dietary supplements in USA and Europe due to its several health benefits. The present study was performed to investigate the anti- tumor effect of GSE on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (EAC)-induced oxidative stress, hepatic dysfunction and histopathological changes in the liver of albino mouse. GSE was orally administered to mice for 5 consecutive days at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight before and after tumor inoculation. On the 5th day of tumor inoculation, animals were exposed to 1 Gy whole body gamma radiation. The anti-tumor effect of GSE was evident in terms of a significant reduction in tumor viable cells count and increased non-viable cells count of EAC-tumor bearing mice. Biochemical investigations showed that EAC cells led to hepatic disturbances in liver function profile. Oral administration of GSE, with or without subsequent gamma irradiation, improved liver functions through a significant recovery of the elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) in the EAC-bearing mice groups. The results of the present study revealed that, pretreatment of mice with GSE induced a significant reduction of lipid peroxidation and significant improvement in glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase as well as glutathione peroxidase activities in liver compared with those EAC damaged mice. Histopathological studies showed that EAC cells caused fatty degeneration, enlargement of liver cells nuclei and presence of necrosis. Pretreatment of animals with GSE exhibited protection justified by the results of the biochemical studies. It could be concluded that GSE administrated to mice, with or without subsequent gamma irradiation, exhibited anti-tumor effect reflected by improving liver function profile, modulating lipid peroxidation

  10. Microstructural strength of tidal soils – a rheometric approach to develop pedotransfer functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoppe Nina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Differences in soil stability, especially in visually comparable soils can occur due to microstructural processes and interactions. By investigating these microstructural processes with rheological investigations, it is possible to achieve a better understanding of soil behaviour from the mesoscale (soil aggregates to macroscale (bulk soil. In this paper, a rheological investigation of the factors influencing microstructural stability of riparian soils was conducted. Homogenized samples of Marshland soils from the riparian zone of the Elbe River (North Germany were analyzed with amplitude sweeps (AS under controlled shear deformation in a modular compact rheometer MCR 300 (Anton Paar, Germany at different matric potentials. A range physicochemical parameters were determined (texture, pH, organic matter, CaCO3 etc. and these factors were used to parameterize pedotransfer functions. The results indicate a clear dependence of microstructural elasticity on texture and water content. Although the influence of individual physicochemical factors varies depending on texture, the relevant features were identified taking combined effects into account. Thus, stabilizing factors are: organic matter, calcium ions, CaCO3 and pedogenic iron oxides; whereas sodium ions and water content represent structurally unfavorable factors. Based on the determined statistical relationships between rheological and physicochemical parameters, pedotransfer functions (PTF have been developed.

  11. Exploring the Associations Between Intrinsic Brain Connectivity and Creative Ability Using Functional Connectivity Strength and Connectome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenni; Zhang, Delong; Liang, Aiying; Liang, Bishan; Wang, Zengjian; Cai, Yuxuan; Li, Junchao; Gao, Mengxia; Liu, Xiaojin; Chang, Song; Jiao, Bingqing; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to explore the association between resting-state functional connectivity and creativity ability. Toward this end, the figural Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) scores were collected from 180 participants. Based on the figural TTCT measures, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data for participants with two different levels of creativity ability (a high-creativity group [HG, n = 22] and a low-creativity group [LG, n = 20]). For the aspect of group difference, this study combined voxel-wise functional connectivity strength (FCS) and seed-based functional connectivity to identify brain regions with group-change functional connectivity. Furthermore, the connectome properties of the identified regions and their associations with creativity were investigated using the permutation test, discriminative analysis, and brain-behavior correlation analysis. The results indicated that there were 4 regions with group differences in FCS, and these regions were linked to 30 other regions, demonstrating different functional connectivity between the groups. Together, these regions form a creativity-related network, and we observed higher network efficiency in the HG compared with the LG. The regions involved in the creativity network were widely distributed across the modality-specific/supramodality cerebral cortex, subcortex, and cerebellum. Notably, properties of regions in the supramodality networks (i.e., the default mode network and attention network) carried creativity-level discriminative information and were significantly correlated with the creativity performance. Together, these findings demonstrate a link between intrinsic brain connectivity and creative ability, which should provide new insights into the neural basis of creativity.

  12. Effects of gamma irradiation on the structure and function of human hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szweda-Lewandowska, Z.; Puchala, M.; Leyko, W.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper physicochemical and functional properties of irradiated aqueous hemoglobin solutions are presented. HbO 2 solutions (5 percent) were irradiated in air with doses ranging from 0.5 to 5 Mrad at the efficiency of 1 Mrad/hr. At doses exceeding 1 Mrad, coagulation of small amounts of protein was observed. Hemoglobin which remained in the solution consisted of a mixture of HbO 2 and MetHb. At doses of 4 and 5 Mrad the presence of hemochromogen was established. The appropriate hydrodynamic parameters--molecular weight, sedimentation constant, and limiting viscosity value--do not differ from the control values up to a dose of 1 Mrad. At greater doses sedimentation constants and the limiting viscosity number increase. The decrease in the values of the second virial coefficient and the electrophoretic behavior in polyacrylamide gel suggest some changes in the electric charge of the molecules. Simultaneously, a considerable part of the molecules exhibits an increased affinity for oxygen and a decreased heme--heme interaction

  13. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeren, Melih; Demir, Rengin; Yigit, Zerrin; Gurses, Hulya N

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. Prospective randomized controlled single-blind study. Cardiology department of a university hospital. A total of 38 patients with permanent atrial fibrillation were randomly allocated to either a treatment group (n = 19; age 66.2 years (8.8)) or a control group (n = 19; age 67.1 years (6.4)). The training group received inspiratory muscle training at 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure for 15 minutes twice a day, 7 days a week, for 12 weeks alongside the standard medical treatment. The control group received standard medical treatment only. Spirometry, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures and 6-minute walking distance was measured at the beginning and end of the study. There was a significant increase in maximal inspiratory pressure (27.94 cmH 2 O (8.90)), maximal expiratory pressure (24.53 cmH 2 O (10.34)), forced vital capacity (10.29% (8.18) predicted), forced expiratory volume in one second (13.88% (13.42) predicted), forced expiratory flow 25%-75% (14.82% (12.44) predicted), peak expiratory flow (19.82% (15.62) predicted) and 6-minute walking distance (55.53 m (14.13)) in the training group (p  0.05). Inspiratory muscle training can improve pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Long-term functional results and isokinetic strength evaluation after arthroscopic tenotomy of the long head of biceps tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The, Bertram; Brutty, Mike; Wang, Allan; Campbell, Peter T; Halliday, Michael J C; Ackland, Timothy R

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical function of the upper arm after arthroscopic long head of biceps (LHB) tenotomy at long-term follow-up. Twenty-five male subjects ranging from 30 to 63 years old were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 7.0 years after tenotomy. Bilateral isokinetic testing was performed to obtain peak torque values, as well as total work done throughout the full range of elbow flexion and supination. Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed nine unrecognized LHB ruptures in the contralateral arm, leaving 16 subjects to complete the testing protocol. The mean quickDASH score was 8.1 (standard error [SE] 2.5). The mean oxford elbow score was 97.9 (SE 1.6). The tenotomy arm recorded a decrease in peak flexion torque of 7.0% (confidence interval [CI] 1.2-12.8), and a decrease in the peak supination torque of 9.1% (CI 1.8-16.4) relative to the contralateral arm. The total work carried out through the full range of joint motion was reduced in elbow flexion by 5.1% (CI -1.3-11.4) and in forearm supination by 5.7% (CI-2.4-13.9). Maximum strength in elbow flexion and forearm supination is significantly reduced compared with the contralateral arm. However, this impairment is partially compensated for by relatively greater strength sustained through the latter stages of joint motion. This results in comparable total work measurements between the tenotomised and contralateral side, potentially accounting for ongoing high levels of patient satisfaction and clinical function in the long term after LHB tenotomy. Case series without comparison group.

  15. Radiosurgical lesion of the rat hippocampus using the Leksell gamma knife: relation between radiation dose and functional and structural damage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liščák, R.; Vladyka, V.; Novotný Jr., J.; Brožek, G.; Náměstková, Kateřina; Mareš, V.; Hájek, M.; Herynek, V.; Syková, Eva

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 5 (2002), s. 666-673 ISSN 0022-3085 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : radiosurgery * Leksell gamma knife Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.626, year: 2002

  16. The effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on muscle strength, functional capacity and body composition in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Vicent; Carneiro, José; Moreno, Fátima; Fulquet, Miquel; Garriga, Salud; Pou, Mónica; Duarte, Verónica; Saurina, Anna; Tapia, Irati; Ramírez de Arellano, Manel

    Haemodialysis (HD) patients are characterised by significant muscle loss. Recently, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has emerged as a new therapeutic alternative to improve these patients' physical condition. To date, no studies on the effects of NMES on body composition in HD patients have been published. To analyse the effect of NMES on muscle strength, functional capacity and body composition in our HD patients. A 12-week, single-centre, prospective study. The patients were assigned to an electrical stimulation (ES) or control (CO) group. The ES group was subjected to intradialytic electrical stimulation of the quadriceps (Compex® Theta 500i), while the CO group received standard HD care. We analysed the following: 1) nutritional parameters; 2) muscle composition of the quadriceps; 3) maximum quadriceps extension strength (mes) and hand-grip (HG); 4) «sit to stand to sit» (STS10) and «six-minute walking test» (6MWT); 5) body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis). Of 20 patients, 55% were men. Mean age 67.7 years, 30.3 months in HD. Main aetiology: DM (35%). In the ES group were 13 patients, and 7 in the CO group. At the end of the study, an improvement was only observed in the ES group ( * P<.05): MES * (11.7±7.1 vs. 13.4±7.4kg), STS10 (39.3±15.5 vs. 35.8±13.7s) and 6MWT * (9.9%, 293.2 vs. 325.2m). Furthermore, increased quadriceps muscle area (QMA * : 128.6±30.2 vs. 144.6±22.4cm 2 ) and lowered quadriceps fat area (QFA * : 76.5±26.9 vs. 62.1±20.1cm 2 ) were observed. No relevant changes in body composition, nutritional parameters and dialysis adequacy were found. 1) NMES improved muscle strength, functional capacity and quadriceps muscle composition in our patients. 2) Based on the results obtained, NMES could be a new therapeutic alternative to prevent muscle atrophy and progressive physical deterioration. 3) However, future studies are necessary to establish the potential beneficial effects of NMES in HD patients. Copyright

  17. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorup, J; Pedersen, M T; Melcher, P S; Dreier, R; Bangsbo, J

    2017-11-01

    Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12 weeks. In FG and PG, average heart rate (HR) during training was 80% and 57%, respectively, of maximal HR. In FG, plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were 11% and 8% lower (P functional capacity tests were better (P training period. No changes were observed in PG. In conclusion, 12 weeks of floorball training resulted in a number of favorable effects important for health and functional capacity, suggesting that floorball training can be used as a health-promoting activity in elderly men. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Muscle strength and functional performance in patients at high risk of knee osteoarthritis: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Aagaard, Per; Roos, Ewa M.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether changes from 2 to 4 years post arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) in mechanical muscle function and objectively measured function differ between the operated and contra-lateral leg of APM patients or compared with controls. METHODS: Twenty-two patients (age 46.......6 ± 5.0, BMI 24.7 ± 2.9) and 25 controls (age 46.4 ± 5.2, BMI 25.1 ± 4.6) previously examined at ~2 years post APM were examined again at ~4 years post surgery for maximal knee extensor/flexor voluntary contraction (MVC) and rapid force capacity. Functional performance was assessed by the distance achieved...... during a one-leg hop test and the maximum number of knee bends performed in 30 s. The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was used to evaluate self-reported outcomes. RESULTS: Overall changes from 2 to 4 years post APM did not differ in maximal muscle strength, rapid force capacity...

  19. Diffractive Photon Production in $\\gamma p$ and $\\gamma \\gamma$ Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Evanson, N G

    1999-01-01

    We study the diffractive production of photons in gamma-p and gamma-gamma collisions. We specifically compute the rates for gamma*-p -> gamma-X and for gamma*-gamma* -> gamma-gamma, where X denotes the proton dissociation. We focus on the rates at large momentum transfers, -t >> Lambda^2, where we are most confident in the use of QCD perturbation theory. However, our calculations do allow us to study the -t -> 0 behaviour of the gamma*-gamma*-> gamma-gamma process in the region where the incoming photons are sufficiently virtual.

  20. Deficits of entropy modulation in schizophrenia are predicted by functional connectivity strength in the theta band and structural clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Pilar, Javier; de Luis-García, Rodrigo; Lubeiro, Alba; de Uribe, Nieves; Poza, Jesús; Núñez, Pablo; Ayuso, Marta; Hornero, Roberto; Molina, Vicente

    2018-01-01

    Spectral entropy (SE) allows comparing task-related modulation of electroencephalogram (EEG) between patients and controls, i.e. spectral changes of the EEG associated to task performance. A SE modulation deficit has been replicated in different schizophrenia samples. To investigate the underpinnings of SE modulation deficits in schizophrenia, we applied graph-theory to EEG recordings during a P300 task and fractional anisotropy (FA) data from diffusion tensor imaging in 48 patients (23 first episodes) and 87 healthy controls. Functional connectivity was assessed from phase-locking values among sensors in the theta band, and structural connectivity was based on FA values for the tracts connecting pairs of regions. From those data, averaged clustering coefficient (CLC), characteristic path-length (PL) and connectivity strength (CS, also known as density) were calculated for both functional and structural networks. The corresponding functional modulation values were calculated as the difference in SE and CLC, PL and CS between the pre-stimulus and response windows during the task. The results revealed a higher functional CS in the pre-stimulus window in patients, predictive of smaller modulation of SE in this group. The amount of increase in theta CS from pre-stimulus to response related to SE modulation in patients and controls. Structural CLC was associated with SE modulation in the patients. SE modulation was predictive of negative symptoms, whereas CLC and PL modulation was associated with cognitive performance in the patients. These results support that a hyperactive functional connectivity and/or structural connective deficits in the patients hamper the dynamical modulation of connectivity underlying cognition.

  1. Involvement of the dehydroleucodine alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone function in GVBD inhibition in Bufo arenarum oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Toranzo, G; López, L A; Martínez, J Zapata; Bühler, M C Gramajo; Bühler, M I

    2010-02-01

    Dehydroleucodine (DhL), a sesquiterpenic lactone, was isolated and purified from aerial parts of Artemisia douglasiana Besser, a medicinal herb used in Argentina. DhL is an alpha-methylene butyro-gamma-lactone ring connected to a seven-membered ring fused to an exocyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated cyclopentenone ring. It has been previously shown that DhL selectively induces a dose-dependent transient arrest in G2 of both meristematic cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Treatment with DhL induces an inhibition of spontaneous and progesterone-induced maturation in a dose-dependent manner in Bufo arenarum fully grown oocytes arrested at G2, at the beginning of meiosis I. However, the nature of the mechanisms involved in the process is still unknown. The aim of this work was to analyse whether DhL's alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone function is responsible for the inhibition effect on meiosis reinitiation of Bufo arenarum oocytes as well as some of the transduction pathways that could be involved in this effect using a derivative of DhL inactivated for alpha-methylenelactone, the 11,13-dihydro-dehydroleucodine (2H-DhL). The use of 2H-DhL in the maturation promoting factor (MPF) amplification experiments by injection of both cytoplasm with active MPF and of germinal vesicle content showed results similar to the ones obtained with DhL, suggesting that the hydrogenated derivative would act in a similar way to DhL. Pretreatment with DhL or 2H-DhL did not affect the percentage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) induced by H89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, which suggests that these lactones would act on another step of the signalling pathway that induces MPF activation. The fact that both DhL and 2H-Dhl inhibit GVBD induced by okadaic acid microinjection suggests that they could act on the activity of the Myt1 kinase. This idea is supported by the experiments of injection of GV contents in which an inhibitory effect of these lactones on GVBD was also observed. Our

  2. Quantification of hand function by power grip and pinch strength force measurements in ulnar nerve lesion simulated by ulnar nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Nikolaus Johannes; Mentzel, Martin; Krischak, Gert D; Gülke, Joachim

    2017-06-24

    In the assessment of hand and upper limb function, grip strength is of the major importance. The measurement by dynamometers has been established. In this study, the effect of a simulated ulnar nerve lesion on different grip force measurements was evaluated. In 25 healthy volunteers, grip force measurement was done by the JAMAR dynamometer (Fabrication Enterprises Inc, Irvington, NY) for power grip and by a pinch strength dynamometer for tip pinch strength, tripod grip, and key pinch strength. A within-subject research design was used in this prospective study. Each subject served as the control by preinjection measurements of grip and pinch strength. Subsequent measurements after ulnar nerve block were used to examine within-subject change. In power grip, there was a significant reduction of maximum grip force of 26.9% with ulnar nerve block compared with grip force without block (P block: 57.5% in tip pinch strength (P block on grip and pinch force could be confirmed. However, the assessment of other dimensions of hand strength as tip pinch, tripod pinch and key pinch had more relevance in demonstrating hand strength changes resulting from an distal ulnar nerve lesion. The measurement of tip pinch, tripod grip and key pinch can improve the follow-up in hand rehabilitation. II. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect Of Gamma Radiation On The Shear Bond Strength And Micro-Hardness Of Zirconia Ceramic Using Three Types Of Luting Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Rahman, R.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    . Therefore, GICs are important restorative materials for these patients. Resin cements are widely used as luting materials used for cementation of restoration to tooth structure as they provide superior retention and improve resistance to fracture. There are several factors that influence the retention strength in cement retained restorations including the properties of luting agent, surface area of crown, surface roughness, height of abutment, cementation technique, variation in cement viscosity and convergence. The ability of resin cement to bond to restorative material is critical for maximal crown retention.

  4. Effectiveness of Kinesio Taping for Hand on Grip Strength and Upper Limb Function in Subjects with Cervical Radiculopathy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Prabhu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical radiculopathy is common condition seen today. It is found to associate with upper limb dysfunction which in turn hinders daily activity due to muscular weakness. Grip strength is found to be reduced in cervical radiculopathy and is taken to be a good measure of upper limb function. Treatment of cervical radiculopathy is mainly concentrated over neck region and very less has been done to improve upper limb function. Kinesio taping is found to improve muscle activity and can be used to improve grip strength and function in cervical radiculopathy. Method: 32 subjects with unilateral cervical radiculopathy were randomly divided into 2 groups, experimental and conventional group (n=16. The conventional group was given intermittent cervical traction, hot moist pack, TENS and exercises and experimental group was given conventional treatment along with kinesio taping to extensor aspect of forearm. Preand post-values for grip and pinch strength and NDI and DASH were assessed and analysed. Result: There was marked improvement seen both groups, but there was significant improvement in grip and pinch strength seen in experimental group while there was improvement seen functional outcomes namely NDI and DASH. This suggests that kinesio taping does not play a role in improving grip strength but can improve upper limb function.

  5. Knee extension range of motion and self-report physical function in total knee arthroplasty: mediating effects of knee extensor strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pua Yong-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee extensor strength and knee extension range of motion (ROM are important predictors of physical function in patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA. However, the relationship between the two knee measures remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in knee extensor strength mediate the association between changes in knee extension ROM and self-report physical function. Methods Data from 441 patients with a TKA were collected preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Self-report measure of physical function was assessed by the Short Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire. Knee extensor strength was measured by handheld dynamometry and knee extension ROM by goniometry. A bootstrapped cross product of coefficients approach was used to evaluate mediation effects. Results Mediation analyses, adjusted for clinicodemographic measures, revealed that the association between changes in knee extension ROM and SF-36 physical function was mediated by changes in knee extensor strength. Conclusions In patients with TKA, knee extensor strength mediated the influence of knee extension ROM on physical function. These results suggest that interventions to improve the range of knee extension may be useful in improving knee extensor performance.

  6. Split Renal Function in Patients with Suspected Renal Artery Stenosis: a Comparison between Gamma Camera Renography and Two Methods of Measurement with Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerkman, H.; Ekloef, H.; Wadstroem, J.; Andersson, L.G.; Nyman, R.; Magnusson, A. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Depts. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology

    2006-02-15

    Purpose: To validate a method for calculating split renal function from computed tomography (CT) compared with gamma camera renography, and to test a new method for the measurement based on a volume-rendering technique. Material and Methods: Thirty-eight patients, aged 65.7{+-}11.6 (range 37.8-82.1) years, who had undergone both CT angiography and gamma camera renography for a suspected renal artery stenosis were included in this study. Split renal function was calculated from the CT examinations by measuring area and mean attenuation in the image slices of the kidneys, and also by measuring volume and mean attenuation from a 3D reconstruction of the kidneys. Gamma camera renography with 99m Tc-MAG3 with or without captopril enhancement was used as a reference. Results: The 2D CT method had good correlation with renography (r = 0.93). Mean difference was 4.7{+-}3.6 (0-12) percentage points per kidney. There was also excellent correlation between the two CT methods (r = 1.00). Conclusion: CT is equivalent to renography in determining split renal function, and the measurement from the CT examination can be made more quickly and equally accurately with a 3D technique.

  7. Value of coincidence gamma camera PET for diagnosing head and neck tumors: functional imaging and image coregistration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, S.; Brinkbaeumer, K.; Schmid, R.; Hahn, K.

    2001-01-01

    54 patients suffering from head and neck tumors (30 m, 24 f, age: 32-67 years) were examined using dedicated PET and coincidence gamma camera PET after injection of 185-350 MBq [ 18 F]FDG. Examinations were carried out on the dedicated PET first (Siemens ECAT Exact HR+) followed by a scan on the coincidence gamma camera PET (Picker Prism 2000 XP-PCD, Marconi Axis g-PET 2 AZ). Dedicated PET was acquired in 3D mode, coincidence gamma camera PET was performed in list mode using an axial filter. Reconstruction of data was performed iteratively on both, dedicated PET and coincidence gamma camera PET. All patients received a CT scan in multislice technique (Siemens Somatom Plus 4, Marconi MX 8000). Image coregistration was performed on an Odyssey workstation (Marconi). All findings have been verified by the gold standard histology or in case of negative histology by follow-up. Results: Using dedicated PET the primary or recurrent lesion was correctly diagnosed in 47/48 patients, using coincidence gamma camera PET in 46/48 patients and using CT in 25/48 patients. Metastatic disease in cervical lymph nodes was diagnosed in 17/18 patients with dedicated PET, in 16/18 patients with coincidence gamma camera PET and in 15/18 with CT. False-positive results with regard to lymph node metastasis were seen with one patient for dedicated PET and hybrid PET, respectively, and with 18 patients for CT. In a total of 11 patients unknown metastatic lesions were seen with dedicated PET and with coincidence gamma camera PET elsewhere in the body (lung: n = 7, bone: n = 3, liver: n = 1). Additional malignant disease other than the head and neck tumor was found in 4 patients. (orig.) [de

  8. Development of analyzing system for gene functions of nerve growth factor using {gamma}-radiation induced mutants of Oryzias latipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Kazuo; Nagoya, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Hiroyuki [National Research Inst. of Aquaculture, Mie (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Oryzias latipes mutants that have abnormalities in the nervous system were screened with an aim to develop a model system to investigate the functions of nerve growing factor gene. When male O. latipes was exposed to {gamma}-ray at a dose of 4.5 to 5.0 Gy, its mutants were most effectively produced. Then, F{sub 2} pairs that might produce offspring with abnormalities in the brain, chorda and tail were selected and cultured successively. The embryos of thus obtained mutants, nt and ut were histologically observed at various stages of their developments and these mutants were found to have abnormalities in the chorda. Then, the expressions of Brachury and HNF3{beta} genes, which possibly control the expression of nerve growth factor gene and closely mediate the embryogenesis were investigated in the chorda and the mesoderm of these mutants by in situ hybridization method. Brachury gene in nt mutant as well as the wild strain was expressed in the region of the tail end, whereas HNF3{beta} gene of nt was not expressed in the chordal end and its adjacent mesoderm. This suggests that the gene of growth factor of which expression is induced by HNF3{beta}, might be inactive in the caudal region of the embryo. When these mutants with abnormalities in caudal formation were crossed each other, any abnormality was not observed in the chordal formation of the offspring. Therefore, it was concluded that the abnormalities in the chordal formation of these mutants might be caused by a mutation at different genes. (M.N.)

  9. Poor physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care is related to muscle strength rather than to measures of sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Woods

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Julie L Woods1, Sandra Iuliano-Burns2, Susannah J King1, Boyd J Strauss1, Karen Z Walker11Nutrition and Dietetics Department, Monash University, Victoria, Australia; 2Endocrine Centre of Excellence, Department of Medicine, Austin Health, University of Melbourne, West Heidelberg, AustraliaPurpose: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care.Subjects and methods: Sixty-three ambulatory women (mean age 86 years participated in this cross-sectional study where body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; ankle, knee, and hip strength by the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester; and physical function by ‘timed up and go’ (TUG and walking speed (WS over 6 meters. Body composition data from a female reference group (n = 62, mean age 29 years provided cut-off values for defining sarcopenia.Results: Elderly women had higher body mass index (P < 0.001, lower lean mass (P < 0.001, and higher fat mass (P < 0.01 than the young reference group. Only a small proportion (3.2% had absolute sarcopenia (defined by appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height squared whereas 37% had relative sarcopenia class II (defined by percentage skeletal muscle mass. Scores for TUG and WS indicated relatively poor physical function, yet these measures were not associated with muscle mass or indices of sarcopenia. In multivariate analysis, only hip abductor strength predicted both TUG and WS (both P = 0.01.Conclusion: Hip strength is a more important indicator of physical functioning than lean mass. Measurement of hip strength may therefore be a useful screening tool to detect those at risk of functional decline and requirement for additional care. Further longitudinal studies with a range of other strength measures are warranted.Keywords: aged care, body composition, muscle strength, sarcopenia 

  10. Degree of disability, pain levels, muscle strength, and electromyographic function in patients with Hansen's disease with common peroneal nerve damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véras, Larissa Sales Téles; Vale, Rodrigo Gomesde Souza; Mello, Danielli Braga de; Castro, José Adail Fonseca de; Lima, Vicente; Silva, Kelson Nonato Gomes da; Trott, Alexis; Dantas, Estélio Henrique Martin

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the degree of disability, pain levels, muscle strength, and electromyographic function (RMS) in individuals with leprosy. We assessed 29 individuals with leprosy showing common peroneal nerve damage and grade 1 or 2 disability who were referred for physiotherapeutic treatment, as well as a control group of 19 healthy participants without leprosy. All subjects underwent analyses of degree of disability, electromyographic tests, voluntary muscle force, and the Visual Analog Pain Scale. McNemar's test found higher levels of grade 2 of disability (Δ = 75.9%; p = 0.0001) among individuals with leprosy. The Mann-Whitney test showed greater pain levels (Δ = 5.0; p = 0.0001) in patients with leprosy who had less extension strength in the right and left extensor hallucis longus muscles (Δ = 1.28, p = 0.0001; Δ = 1.55, p = 0.0001, respectively) and dorsiflexion of the right and left feet (Δ = 1.24, p = 0.0001; Δ = 1.45, p = 0.0001, respectively) than control subjects. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the RMS score for dorsiflexion of the right (Δ = 181.66 m·s-2, p = 0.001) and left (Δ = 102.57m·s-2, p = 0.002) feet was lower in patients with leprosy than in control subjects, but intragroup comparisons showed no difference. Leprosy had a negative influence on all of the study variables, indicating the need for immediate physiotherapeutic intervention in individuals with leprosy. This investigation opens perspectives for future studies that analyze leprosy treatment with physical therapeutic intervention.

  11. Degree of disability, pain levels, muscle strength, and electromyographic function in patients with Hansen's disease with common peroneal nerve damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Sales Téles Véras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the degree of disability, pain levels, muscle strength, and electromyographic function (RMS in individuals with leprosy. METHODS: We assessed 29 individuals with leprosy showing common peroneal nerve damage and grade 1 or 2 disability who were referred for physiotherapeutic treatment, as well as a control group of 19 healthy participants without leprosy. All subjects underwent analyses of degree of disability, electromyographic tests, voluntary muscle force, and the Visual Analog Pain Scale. RESULTS: McNemar's test found higher levels of grade 2 of disability (Δ = 75.9%; p = 0.0001 among individuals with leprosy. The Mann-Whitney test showed greater pain levels (Δ = 5.0; p = 0.0001 in patients with leprosy who had less extension strength in the right and left extensor hallucis longus muscles (Δ = 1.28, p = 0.0001; Δ = 1.55, p = 0.0001, respectively and dorsiflexion of the right and left feet (Δ = 1.24, p = 0.0001; Δ = 1.45, p = 0.0001, respectively than control subjects. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the RMS score for dorsiflexion of the right (Δ = 181.66 m·s-2, p = 0.001 and left (Δ = 102.57m·s-2, p = 0.002 feet was lower in patients with leprosy than in control subjects, but intragroup comparisons showed no difference. CONCLUSIONS: Leprosy had a negative influence on all of the study variables, indicating the need for immediate physiotherapeutic intervention in individuals with leprosy. This investigation opens perspectives for future studies that analyze leprosy treatment with physical therapeutic intervention.

  12. Longitudinal course of lung function and respiratory muscle strength in spinal muscular atrophy type 2 and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirani, Sonia; Colella, Marina; Caldarelli, Valeria; Aubertin, Guillaume; Boulé, Michèle; Forin, Véronique; Ramirez, Adriana; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2013-11-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common genetic disorder that causes severe hypotonia and weakness, and often fatal restrictive lung disease. The aim of the study was to describe the natural history of the respiratory involvement in patients with SMA type 2 and 3 in order to assess the relevance of the clinical classification and identify the parameters associated with the earliest and most rapid decline over time. Thirty-one patients aged 3-21 years were followed over a 10-year period. Lung function, blood gases, respiratory mechanics and muscle strength with recording of oesogastric pressures were measured during routine follow-up. At least two measurements were available in 16 patients (seven type 2 and nine type 3). Among all the volitional and non-volitional, invasive and non-invasive tests, forced vital capacity (FVC) and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP) were shown to be the most informative parameters, showing lower values in SMA type 2, with however a similar rate of decline in patients with SMA type 2 and 3. Our results confirm an earlier decline in lung and respiratory muscle function in patients classified as SMA type 2 as compared with patients classified as type 3. This decline can be assessed by two simple non-invasive tests, FVC and SNIP, with the last maneuver being feasible and reliable in the youngest children, underlying its interest for the monitoring of children with SMA. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of sleep in regulating structural plasticity and synaptic strength: Implications for memory and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Frank; Van der Zee, Eddy A; Meerlo, Peter; Havekes, Robbert

    2017-05-18

    Dendritic spines are the major sites of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Alterations in the strength of synaptic connections directly affect the neuronal communication, which is crucial for brain function as well as the processing and storage of information. Sleep and sleep loss bidirectionally alter structural plasticity, by affecting spine numbers and morphology, which ultimately can affect the functional output of the brain in terms of alertness, cognition, and mood. Experimental data from studies in rodents suggest that sleep deprivation may impact structural plasticity in different ways. One of the current views, referred to as the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis, suggests that wake promotes synaptic potentiation whereas sleep facilitates synaptic downscaling. On the other hand, several studies have now shown that sleep deprivation can reduce spine density and attenuate synaptic efficacy in the hippocampus. These data are the basis for the view that sleep promotes hippocampal structural plasticity critical for memory formation. Altogether, the impact of sleep and sleep loss may vary between regions of the brain. A better understanding of the role that sleep plays in regulating structural plasticity may ultimately lead to novel therapeutic approaches for brain disorders that are accompanied by sleep disturbances and sleep loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The strength model of self-control revisited: Linking acute and chronic effects of exercise on executive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Audiffren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960's, hundreds of articles have been published on the effects of exercise on cognition and more recently on executive functions. A large variety of effects have been observed: acute or long-lasting, facilitating or debilitating. Several theoretical frameworks have been proposed to explain these effects with plausible mechanisms. However, as yet none of these models has succeeded in unifying all the observations in a single framework that subsumes all effects. The aim of the present review is to revisit the strength model of self-control initiated by Baumeister and his colleagues in the 1990's in order to extend its assumptions to exercise psychology. This model provides a heuristic framework that can explain and predict the effects of acute and chronic exercise on effortful tasks tapping self-regulation or executive functions. A reconsideration of exercise as a self-control task results from this perspective. A new avenue for future research is delineated besides more traditional approaches.

  15. Dipole strength distributions from HIGS Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner V.

    2015-01-01

    76Ge and 76Se, in order to investigate their dipole response up to the neutron separation threshold. Gamma-ray beams from bremsstrahlung at the S-DALINAC and from Compton-backscattering at HIGS have been used to measure absolute cross sections and parities of dipole excited states, respectively. The HIGS data allows for indirect measurement of averaged branching ratios, which leads to significant corrections in the observed excitation cross sections. Results are compared to statistical calculations, to test photon strength functions and the Axel-Brink hypothesis

  16. Performance on the Functional Movement Screen™ is related to hop performance, but not to hip and knee strength in collegiate football players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willigenburg, Nienke; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To define the relationship between FMS™ scores and hop performance, hip strength, and knee strength in collegiate football players. Design Cross-sectional cohort. Participants Freshmen of a division I collegiate American football team (n=59). Main Outcome Measures The athletes performed the FMS™, as well as a variety of hop tests, isokinetic knee strength and isometric hip strength tasks. We recorded total FMS™ score, peak strength and hop performance, and we calculated asymmetries between legs on the different tasks. Spearman’s correlation coefficients quantified the relationships these measures, and chi-square analyses compared the number of athletes with asymmetries on the different tasks. Results We observed significant correlations (r=0.38–0.56, p≤0.02) between FMS™ scores and hop distance, but not between FMS™ scores and hip or knee strength (all p≥0.21). The amount of asymmetry on the FMS™ test was significantly correlated to the amount of asymmetry on the timed 6m hop (r=0.44, phip or knee strength asymmetries between limbs (all p≥0.34). Conclusions FMS™ score was positively correlated to hop distance, and limb asymmetry in FMS™ tasks was correlated to limb asymmetry in 6m hop time in football players. No significant correlations were observed between FMS™ score and hip and knee strength, or between FMS™ asymmetry and asymmetries in hip and knee strength between limbs. These results indicate that a simple hop for distance test may be a time and cost efficient alternative to FMS™ testing in athletes and that functional asymmetries between limbs do not coincide with strength asymmetries. PMID:26886801

  17. High-gamma band fronto-temporal coherence as a measure of functional connectivity in speech motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingyon, J; Behroozmand, R; Kelley, R; Oya, H; Kawasaki, H; Narayanan, N S; Greenlee, J D W

    2015-10-01

    The neural basis of human speech is unclear. Intracranial electrophysiological recordings have revealed that high-gamma band oscillations (70-150Hz) are observed in the frontal lobe during speech production and in the temporal lobe during speech perception. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the frontal and temporal brain regions had high-gamma coherence during speech. We recorded electrocorticography (ECoG) from the frontal and temporal cortices of five humans who underwent surgery for medically intractable epilepsy, and studied coherence between the frontal and temporal cortex during vocalization and playback of vocalization. We report two novel results. First, we observed high-gamma band as well as theta (4-8Hz) coherence between frontal and temporal lobes. Second, both high-gamma and theta coherence were stronger when subjects were actively vocalizing as compared to playback of the same vocalizations. These findings provide evidence that coupling between sensory-motor networks measured by high-gamma coherence plays a key role in feedback-based monitoring and control of vocal output for human vocalization. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. IMPROVEMENTS IN KNEE EXTENSION STRENGTH ARE ASSOCIATED WITH IMPROVEMENTS IN SELF-REPORTED HIP FUNCTION FOLLOWING ARTHROSCOPY FOR FEMOROACETABULAR IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chelseana C; Ellis, Thomas J; Amesur, Ajit K; Hewett, Timothy E; Di Stasi, Stephanie

    2016-12-01

    Recovery of strength is critical for return to sport, and is a known predictor of functional outcomes in post-surgical orthopedic populations. Muscle weakness is a known impairment in patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) but whether improvements in muscle strength after arthroscopy are associated with improved hip function is unknown. To examine the relationships between changes in hip and thigh muscle strength and self-reported function in athletes undergoing arthroscopy for FAIS. Single cohort descriptive and correlational study. Twenty-eight athletes underwent strength testing and completed the Hip Outcome Score Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) and Sports (HOS-S) subscales prior to and six months after surgery. Isokinetic knee extension and flexion strength were measured using a Biodex dynamometer at 60 °/s and 300 °/s. Isometric hip abduction strength was measured using a custom dynamometer. Changes in strength, limb symmetry, and HOS scores were assessed using paired t-tests. Spearman's rank correlations were used to examine relationships between change in involved limb strength and change in HOS scores. Subjects were tested an average of 32 days before and 178 days after surgery. HOS-ADL and HOS-S subscales improved by a mean of 19.0 ± 21.1 and 23.8 ± 31.9, respectively, over time ( p  < 0.001). Hip abduction strength did not increase over time in either limb ( p  ≥ 0.27). Involved limb knee flexion and extension strength did not increase significantly over time ( p -values: 0.10-0.48) with the exception of knee extension at 300 °/s (p = 0.04). Uninvolved limb knee extension strength at both velocities and knee flexion strength at 60 °/s improved significantly over time ( p  < 0.012). Increases in knee extension strength (60 °/s) of the involved limb were significantly correlated with improvements on the HOS-ADL (r = 0.431; 0  = 0.025) and HOS-S (r = 0.439; p = 0.025). There

  19. Trajectory of self-reported pain and function and knee extensor muscle strength in young patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for meniscal tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Østengaard, Lasse; Cardy, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    . PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: People aged 30 years or younger undergoing surgery for a meniscal tear. OUTCOMES: and comparator: (1) Self-reported pain and function in patients undergoing meniscal surgery compared to a non-operative control group (2). Knee extensor strength in the leg undergoing surgery......OBJECTIVES: To investigate the trajectory of patient reported pain and function and knee extensor muscle strength over time in young individuals undergoing arthroscopic meniscal surgery. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis METHODS: Six databases were searched up to October 13th, 2016...... compared to a healthy control group or the contra-lateral leg. Methodological quality was assessed using the SIGN 50 guidelines. RESULTS: No studies were found on patient reported pain and function. Six studies, including 137 patients were included in the analysis on knee extensor muscle strength. Knee...

  20. Impact of sleep quality on functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Saglam, Melda; Savci, Sema; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Arikan, Hulya; Coplu, Lutfi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of quality of sleep on functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Forty patients with COPD (61.6 ± 8.28 years) were included in this study. Subjective sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index), quality of life (Nottingham health profile), quadriceps muscle strength (QMS) and functional capacity (6-min walk test) were assessed. Poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index total >5) was present in 57% of the patients. Patients with a poor sleep quality had significantly lower QMS and higher exercise heart rate (p sleep quality index total score was associated with QMS, Nottingham health profile physical mobility and sleep scores, exercise fatigue and dyspnea (p Sleep quality is affected in a majority of patients with COPD. It is related with symptoms, functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength and general quality of life.

  1. Experimental constraints on the γ-ray strength function in 90Zr using partial cross sections of the Y89(p,γZr90 reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Netterdon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Partial cross sections of the Y89(p,γZr90 reaction have been measured to investigate the γ-ray strength function in the neutron–magic nucleus 90Zr. For five proton energies between Ep=3.65 MeV and Ep=4.70 MeV, partial cross sections for the population of seven discrete states in 90Zr have been determined by means of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy. Since these γ-ray transitions are dominantly of E1 character, the present measurement allows an access to the low-lying dipole strength in 90Zr. A γ-ray strength function based on the experimental data could be extracted, which is used to describe the total and partial cross sections of this reaction by Hauser–Feshbach calculations successfully. Significant differences with respect to previously measured strength functions from photoabsorption data point towards deviations from the Brink–Axel hypothesis relating the photo-excitation and de-excitation strength functions.

  2. The implementation of quality controls of gamma camera functioning and simulation of tomography techniques by Gate and GEANT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ameur, Narjes

    2011-01-01

    The reliability of medical devices is directly linked to the services quality offered to the patient. For this reason, quality control tests should be regularly conducted in every nuclear medicine service according to international norms. Our approach consists on realizing different quality control tests recommended by the Nema norm on a gamma-camera in order to evaluate its performance. The obtained data allowed us to study the different physical phenomena happening during a SPECT exam. It also allowed us to identify those affecting the image quality based on the simulation programmes: GEANT 4 and Gate. The obtained results of the quality control showed that the Gamma-camera has a high performance in terms of spatial resolution, linearity, uniformity and rotational center. The establishment of a model for a gamma-camera Symbia E (Siemens) using a Gate platform confirms the reliability of this platform in the conception and the optimization of the detectors.

  3. Latent transforming growth factor beta1 activation in situ: quantitative and functional evidence after low-dose gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, E. J.; Segarini, P.; Tsang, M. L.; Carroll, A. G.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The biological activity of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta) is controlled by its secretion as a latent complex in which it is noncovalently associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP). Activation is the extracellular process in which TGF-beta is released from LAP, and is considered to be a primary regulatory control. We recently reported rapid and persistent changes in TGF-beta immunoreactivity in conjunction with extracellular matrix remodeling in gamma-irradiated mouse mammary gland. Our hypothesis is that these specific changes in immunoreactivity are indicative of latent TGF-beta activation. In the present study, we determined the radiation dose response and tested whether a functional relationship exists between radiation-induced TGF-beta and collagen type III remodeling. After radiation exposures as low as 0.1 Gy, we detected increased TGF-beta immunoreactivity in the mammary epithelium concomitant with decreased LAP immunostaining, which are events consistent with activation. Quantitative image analysis demonstrated a significant (P=0.0005) response at 0.1 Gy without an apparent threshold and a linear dose response to 5 Gy. However, in the adipose stroma, loss of LAP demonstrated a qualitative threshold at 0.5 Gy. Loss of LAP paralleled induction of collagen III immunoreactivity in this tissue compartment. We tested whether TGF-beta mediates collagen III expression by treating animals with TGF-beta panspecific monoclonal antibody, 1D11.16, administered i.p. shortly before irradiation. Radiation-induced collagen III staining in the adipose stroma was blocked in an antibody dose-dependent manner, which persisted through 7 days postirradiation. RNase protection assay revealed that radiation-induced elevation of total gland collagen III mRNA was also blocked by neutralizing antibody treatment. These data provide functional confirmation of the hypothesis that radiation exposure leads to latent TGF-beta activation, support our interpretation of the

  4. Functional electrical stimulation cycling does not improve mobility in people with acquired brain injury and its effects on strength are unclear: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide G de Sousa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Question: Does 4 weeks of active functional electrical stimulation (FES cycling in addition to usual care improve mobility and strength more than usual care alone in people with a sub-acute acquired brain injury caused by stroke or trauma? Design: Multi centre, randomised, controlled trial. Participants: Forty patients from three Sydney hospitals with recently acquired brain injury and a mean composite strength score in the affected lower limb of 7 (SD 5 out of 20 points. Intervention: Participants in the experimental group received an incremental, progressive, FES cycling program five times a week over a 4-week period. All participants received usual care. Outcome measures: Outcome measures were taken at baseline and at 4 weeks. Primary outcomes were mobility and strength of the knee extensors of the affected lower limb. Mobility was measured with three mobility items of the Functional Independence Measure and strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. Secondary outcomes were strength of the knee extensors of the unaffected lower limb, strength of key muscles of the affected lower limb and spasticity of the affected plantar flexors. Results: All but one participant completed the study. The mean between-group differences for mobility and strength of the knee extensors of the affected lower limb were –0.3/21 points (95% CI –3.2 to 2.7 and 7.5 Nm (95% CI –5.1 to 20.2, where positive values favoured the experimental group. The only secondary outcome that suggested a possible treatment effect was strength of key muscles of the affected lower limb with a mean between-group difference of 3.0/20 points (95% CI 1.3 to 4.8. Conclusion: Functional electrical stimulation cycling does not improve mobility in people with acquired brain injury and its effects on strength are unclear. Trial registration: ACTRN12612001163897. [de Sousa DG, Harvey LA, Dorsch S, Leung J, Harris W (2016 Functional electrical stimulation cycling does not improve

  5. The effects of exercise on muscle strength, body composition, physical functioning and the inflammatory profile of older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Keliane; Forti, Louis N; Beyer, Ingo; Bautmans, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review reports the most recent literature regarding the effects of physical exercise on muscle strength, body composition, physical functioning and inflammation in older adults. All articles were assessed for methodological quality and where possible effect size was calculated. Thirty-four articles were included - four involving frail, 24 healthy and five older adults with a specific disease. One reported on both frail and nonfrail patients. Several types of exercise were used: resistance training, aerobic training, combined resistance training and aerobic training and others. In frail older persons, moderate-to-large beneficial exercise effects were noted on inflammation, muscle strength and physical functioning. In healthy older persons, effects of resistance training (most frequently investigated) on inflammation or muscle strength can be influenced by the exercise modalities (intensity and rest interval between sets). Muscle strength seemed the most frequently used outcome measure, with moderate-to-large effects obtained regardless the exercise intervention studied. Similar effects were found in patients with specific diseases. Exercise has moderate-to-large effects on muscle strength, body composition, physical functioning and inflammation in older adults. Future studies should focus on the influence of specific exercise modalities and target the frail population more.

  6. Structure effects in the calculation of beta strength functions and half lives of Rb and Br isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rab, S.; Shihab-Eldin, A.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of beda delayed neutron emission of the precursors around mass 95 are investigated using spherical Shell Model plus pairing. The objective of this work is to find out the important parameters that effect these properties. The strength functions and half lives of both even and odd Rb and Br precursors are calculated in BCS quasi-particle theory as well as in Seniority Truncated Exact Diagonalization (STED) scheme. The calculated half lives from the two schemes are in close agreement with each other. STED gave much smoother overall trend which is in better agreement with experimental values. The calculations reveal that the so called 'odd decays' which depend in an essential way on the parent ground state configuration are of crucial importance in determining both half life, t/sub 1/2/ and delayed neutron emission probability, P/sub n/. Furthermore, it is shown that it is not possible to choose apriori global set for the single particle Shell model basis to predict the correct ground state configurations for both the odd and even nuclei. Instead, it is necessary to examine available experimental evidence in order to construct a more valid global set for single particle basis. The significant variations of the predicted half lives according to the different parent ground-state configuration choices, reveal the importance of nuclear structure effects in these isotopes. The calculated t/sub 1/2/ and P/sub n/ of Rb and Br precursors are presented, discussed and compared with experimental values

  7. Leksell gamma knife lesioning of the rat hippocampus: the relationship between radiation dose and functional and structural damage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liščák, R.; Vladyka, V.; Novotný ml., J.; Brožek, G.; Náměstková, K.; Mareš, Vladislav; Herynek, V.; Jirák, D.; Hájek, M.; Syková, E.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 97, Suppl. 5 (2002), s. 666-673 ISSN 0022-3085 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF5161 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : Leksell gamma knife * rats * memory Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.626, year: 2002

  8. A redundant role of the CD3 gamma-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif in mature T cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haks, MC; Cordaro, TA; van den Brakel, JHN; Haanen, JBAG; de Vries, EFR; Borst, J; Krimpenfort, P; Kruisbeek, AM

    2001-01-01

    At least four different CD3 polypeptide chains are contained within the mature TCR complex, each encompassing one (CD3 gamma, CD3 delta, and CD3 epsilon) or three (CD3 zeta) immunoreceptof tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) within their cytoplasmic domains. Why so many ITAMs are required is

  9. Respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function in children with rhinitis and asthma after a six-minute walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Alice de Almeida; Barros, Camila Moraes; Santos, Cássia Giulliane Costa; Dos Santos, Maria Renata Aragão; Silva, José Rodrigo Santos; Silva Junior, Walderi Monteiro da; Simões, Silvia de Magalhães

    2018-03-01

    Rhinitis and asthma decrease quality of life. Few studies have assessed the performance of children with asthma or rhinitis under submaximal exercise. We evaluated maximal respiratory pressures, spirometric parameters, and ability to sustain submaximal exercise in these children before and after the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), compared to healthy children. This cross-sectional, analytical study included 89 children aged 6-12 years in outpatient follow-up: 27 healthy (H), 31 with rhinitis (R), and 31 with mild asthma under control (A). Pulmonary function parameters and maximal respiratory pressures were measured before and 5, 10, and 30 minutes after the 6MWT. Wilcoxon test was used to compare numerical numerical variables between two groups and analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison among three groups. Total distance traveled in the 6MWT was similar among the three groups. Compared to pre-test values, VEF1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second), VEF0.75 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 0.75 second), and FEF25-75 (Forced Expiratory Flow 25-75% of the Forced Vital Capacity - CVF - curve) decreased significantly after the 6MWT in group A, and VEF0.75, FEF25-75, and VEF1/CVF decreased significantly in group R. Groups A and R had lower Maximum Inspiratory Pressure values than group H before and after the 6MWT at all time points assessed. The findings suggest that children with rhinitis and mild asthma present with alterations in respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function not associated with clinical complaints, reinforcing the concept of the united airways.

  10. Effects of gastrocnemius recession on ankle motion, strength, and functional outcomes: a systematic review and national healthcare database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianakos, Arianna; Yasui, Youichi; Murawski, Christopher D; Kennedy, John G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to report the effects of gastrocnemius recession on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, function, and push-off power. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were reviewed with terms "gastrocnemius recession". The inclusion criteria were: (1) clinical studies, (2) published in a peer-reviewed journal within the past 10 years, and (3) published in English. Excluded were: (1) review articles, (2) cadaveric studies, (3) studies including patients under the age of 18 years, (4) studies evaluating a neurologic condition, (5) level of evidence 5, and (6) Quality of Evidence Score trends. The PearlDiver Database was also used to review de-identified patient information retrospectively between 2007 and 2011. Full-text review yielded 23 articles that fit the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one of 23 (91%) and 2/23 (9%) studies were level of evidence 4 and 3, respectively. Twelve of 23 (52%) studies reported follow-up assessment between 12 and 36 months, and no studies reported longer-term follow-up. Twelve of 12 (100%) studies reported improved dorsiflexion range of motion 9/9 (100%) reported improved AOFAS, and 11/11 (100%) reported improved VAS. Five of 23 (22%) studies reported strength in a measured and controlled fashion with variable results, but of these, no study reported a return to normal power. The mean complication rate was 14%. The available evidence supports that GR improves functional outcomes and increases dorsiflexion range of motion. Furthermore, GR affects gait kinematics, which may cause compensatory effects at the knee, ankle, and subtalar joints. Evidence has shown that power does not return to normal levels. Clinicians may utilize these data clinically to determine whether patients may benefit from GR or not. IV.

  11. The influence of quadriceps strength asymmetry on patient-reported function at time of return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolski, Christin; Schmitt, Laura C; Quatman-Yates, Catherine; Thomas, Staci; Hewett, Timothy E; Paterno, Mark V

    2015-09-01

    An objective assessment of quadriceps strength after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is an important clinical measure to determine readiness to return to sport (RTS). Not all clinicians are equipped with the means to objectively quantify quadriceps strength limb symmetry indices (Q-LSIs) via lower extremity isokinetic dynamometers, as recommended by previous studies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the International Knee Documentation Committee 2000 Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) score at time of RTS was a predictor of quadriceps strength in a young, athletic population after ACLR. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) Individuals with higher self-reports of function would demonstrate better quadriceps strength of the involved limb than individuals with lower self-reports of function at the time of RTS, and (2) individuals with higher self-reports of function would have normal quadriceps strength limb symmetry. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. At time of RTS, 139 subjects who had undergone ACLR completed the IKDC. In addition, an isometric quadriceps strength test (Biodex dynamometer) was performed on both lower extremities. Peak torques were calculated, as was the Q-LSI, determined by the formula (involved limb peak torque/uninvolved limb peak torque) × 100%. Participants were dichotomized based on IKDC scores: high IKDC (IKDC ≥90) and low IKDC (IKDC limb (involved vs uninvolved) and group (high vs low IKDC) on isometric quadriceps strength. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were then performed to determine whether IKDC scores could predict Q-LSI. At time of RTS, a significant correlation between IKDC scores and (1) peak isometric torque (r = 0.282, P limb quadriceps strength and better Q-LSI. Based on the results of this study, a patient-reported outcome measure, such as the IKDC, may be able to serve as a valuable screening tool for the identification of quadriceps strength deficits in this population

  12. High-Intensity Progressive Resistance Training Increases Strength With No Change in Cardiovascular Function and Autonomic Neural Regulation in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Queiroz, Andréia C; Silva, Valdo J; de Mello, Marco T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic neural regulation in older adults are unclear. To investigate this issue, 25 older adults were randomly divided into two groups: control (CON, N = 13, 63 ± 4 years; no training) and HIPRT (N = 12, 64 ± 4 years; 2 sessions/week, 7 exercises, 2–4 sets, 10–4 RM). Before and after four months, maximal strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA), clinic and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), systemic hemodynamics, and cardiovascular autonomic modulation were measured. Maximal strength and QCSA increased in the HIPRT group and did not change in the CON group. Clinic and ambulatory BP, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac sympathovagal balance did not change in the HIPRT group or the CON group. In conclusion, HIPRT was effective at increasing muscle mass and strength without promoting changes in cardiovascular function or autonomic neural regulation.

  13. The effect of protein supplementation on quality of life, physical function, and muscle strength in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Peder; Hey, Henrik; Johansen, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    measures. However, shuttle walk time, St George total score and subscore for impact improved as effect of time. CONCLUSION: This trial was unable to provide evidence for the effect of protein supplementation on quality of life, physical function, and muscle strength in non--sarcopenic patients...... of protein supplementation for non--sarcopenic patients with COPD has yet not previously been examined. AIM: The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of protein supplementation on quality of life, physical function, muscle strength and biochemical blood markers in patients diagnosed with COPD......, mental state was measured by means of St George Respiratory Questionnaire, physical performance was evaluated by shuttle walking test and maximal muscle strength test, and fasting blood samples were analysed. RESULTS: Supplementing exercise with protein had no additional effect on any of the outcome...

  14. New possibilities for improving the accuracy of parameter calculations for cascade gamma-ray decay of heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Sukhovoj, A M; Khitrov, V A

    2001-01-01

    The level density and radiative strength functions which accurately reproduce the experimental intensity of two- step cascades after thermal neutron capture and the total radiative widths of the compound states were applied to calculate the total gamma-ray spectra from the (n,gamma) reaction. In some cases, analysis showed far better agreement with experiment and gave insight into possible ways in which these parameters need to be corrected for further improvement of calculation accuracy for the cascade gamma-decay of heavy nuclei.

  15. Validity of the four-parameter empirical formula in approximating the response functions for gamma-ray, neutron, and secondary gamma-ray skyshine analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Harima, Y; Sakamoto, Y

    2003-01-01

    A four-parameter approximating formula, R=A e sup a x sup b f(x), accurately represents the skyshine line beam response function (LBRF) as a function of the distance (x) of the source-to-detector separation. Here, A is a constant for a given source energy and f(x)=e sup c sup x x sup d sup x is a damping factor. The four parameters are obtained as follows. (1) The value of parameter a corresponds to that of the LBRF at x=1 meter, which is the result of integrating the basic dose spectrum due to a single scattering particle from an emitted beam for a specified angle and a specified source energy. (2) The value of parameter b corresponds to the slope of a straight line of the response function, log R vs. log x, in the range of small distance from a source, where a single scattering particle dominates. (3) The damping factor (f(x)) represents the attenuation trend of the LBRF at distances far from the source; the values of parameters c and d control the quantity of attenuation. The necessary reference LBRF data ...

  16. Abnormal pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength findings in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy--comparison with normal elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Shao, Wei-bo; Gao, Li; Lu, Jie; Gu, Hao; Sun, Li-hua; Tan, Yan; Zhang, Ying-dong

    2014-01-01

    There have been limited comparative data regarding the investigations on pulmonary and respiratory muscle function in the patients with different parkinsonism disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) versus normal elderly. The present study is aiming to characterize the performance of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in PD and MSA, and to investigate the association with severity of motor symptoms and disease duration. Pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength tests were performed in 30 patients with PD, 27 with MSA as well as in 20 age-, sex-, height-, weight-matched normal elderly controls. All the patients underwent United Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) or united multiple system atrophy rating scale (UMSARS) separately as diagnosed. Vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity decreased, residual volume and ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity increased in both PD and MSA groups compared to controls (pRespiratory muscle strength was lower in both PD and MSA groups than in controls (pfunction and respiratory muscle strength were found to have a negative linear correlation with mean score of UPDRS-III in PD and mean score of UMSARS-I in MSA. Respiratory muscle strength showed a negative linear correlation with the mean score of UMSARS-II and disease duration in MSA patients. These findings suggest that respiratory dysfunction is involved in PD and MSA. Respiratory muscle strength is remarkably reduced, and some of the parameters correlate with disease duration and illness severity. The compromised respiratory function in neurodegenerative disorders should be the focus of further researches.

  17. Effectiveness of One Period Selected Resistance Training on Shoulder Strength, Pain and Function in Wheelchair Users with Impingement Syndrome of Shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Babakhani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the disability may be associated with functional impairments and the fact that exercise can reduce disability and maintain the function of individuals, so, we decided to conduct a study on the effects of resistance training on shoulder strength, pain and function in wheelchair users with impingement syndrome of shoulder. Methods: In this randomised clinical trial study, In this randomized controlled intervention study, 20 wheelchair users with spinal cord injury suffered from shoulder pain (the mean age (39/3±6/4 were chosen and divided randomly into two groups: the control (age:37/5±5/81, height:82/25±4/20, weight:77/25±12/98 and experimental groups (age:42/1±8/11, height:84/95±4/7, weight:74/23±11/39. Before performing the training programs, the pretests of the level of muscle strength, pain and function were measured for both the control and experimental groups. The experimental group performed selected exercises for 8 weeks, 3 sessions a week, each session lasted 60 minutes. After performing the training course, post-tests were administered in similar circumstances in both groups.  Data were analyzed by using covariance and dependent t-test. Results: The results showed that the experimental group had a significantly improvement in the strength of external shoulder rotator muscles (from 7/66±1/38 to 10/71±1/73, pain (from 52/48±7/96 to 30/31±5/24 and the shoulder function (from 55/49±6/66 to 72/88±6/52 (P≤0/05. Conclusions: This study showed that strength training has improved the strength, pain and shoulder function in wheelchair users, so participation in exercise training programs can be suggested for these persons.

  18. Effect of neurodevelopmental treatment-based physical therapy on the change of muscle strength, spasticity, and gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2017-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of neurodevelopmental treatment-based physical therapy on muscle tone, strength, and gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] One-hundred-seventy-five children with spastic cerebral palsy (88 diplegia; 78 quadriplegia) received neurodevelopmental treatment-based physical therapy for 35 minutes per day, 2-3 times per week for 1 year. Spasticity, muscle strength, and gross motor function were measured before and after treatment with the Modified Ashworth Scale, Manual Muscle Testing, and Gross Motor Function Measure, respectively. [Results] Spasticity was significantly reduced after 1 year of treatment. The Gross Motor Functional Classification System levels I-II group showed a significant increase in muscle strength compared with the Gross Motor Functional Classification System levels III-V, and the latter showed a significant decrease in spasticity compared with the former. [Conclusion] Neurodevelopmental treatment-based physical therapy in children with cerebral palsy seems to be effective in reducing spasticity, but does not improve gross motor function. Therefore, other interventional approaches are needed to improve gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

  19. Inspiratory muscle training improves respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Irene Carlos de Medeiros

    2017-04-01

    Registration: PROSPERO (CRD 42015029986. [de Medeiros AIC, Fuzari HKB, Rattesa C, Brandão DC, de Melo Marinho PÉ (2017 Inspiratory muscle training improves respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 76–83

  20. TCR stimulation strength is inversely associated with establishment of functional brain-resident memory CD8 T cells during persistent viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Maru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Establishing functional tissue-resident memory (TRM cells at sites of infection is a newfound objective of T cell vaccine design. To directly assess the impact of antigen stimulation strength on memory CD8 T cell formation and function during a persistent viral infection, we created a library of mouse polyomavirus (MuPyV variants with substitutions in a subdominant CD8 T cell epitope that exhibit a broad range of efficiency in stimulating TCR transgenic CD8 T cells. By altering a subdominant epitope in a nonstructural viral protein and monitoring memory differentiation of donor monoclonal CD8 T cells in immunocompetent mice, we circumvented potentially confounding changes in viral infection levels, virus-associated inflammation, size of the immunodominant virus-specific CD8 T cell response, and shifts in TCR affinity that may accompany temporal recruitment of endogenous polyclonal cells. Using this strategy, we found that antigen stimulation strength was inversely associated with the function of memory CD8 T cells during a persistent viral infection. We further show that CD8 TRM cells recruited to the brain following systemic infection with viruses expressing epitopes with suboptimal stimulation strength respond more efficiently to challenge CNS infection with virus expressing cognate antigen. These data demonstrate that the strength of antigenic stimulation during recruitment of CD8 T cells influences the functional integrity of TRM cells in a persistent viral infection.

  1. TCR stimulation strength is inversely associated with establishment of functional brain-resident memory CD8 T cells during persistent viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Saumya; Jin, Ge; Schell, Todd D; Lukacher, Aron E

    2017-04-01

    Establishing functional tissue-resident memory (TRM) cells at sites of infection is a newfound objective of T cell vaccine design. To directly assess the impact of antigen stimulation strength on memory CD8 T cell formation and function during a persistent viral infection, we created a library of mouse polyomavirus (MuPyV) variants with substitutions in a subdominant CD8 T cell epitope that exhibit a broad range of efficiency in stimulating TCR transgenic CD8 T cells. By altering a subdominant epitope in a nonstructural viral protein and monitoring memory differentiation of donor monoclonal CD8 T cells in immunocompetent mice, we circumvented potentially confounding changes in viral infection levels, virus-associated inflammation, size of the immunodominant virus-specific CD8 T cell response, and shifts in TCR affinity that may accompany temporal recruitment of endogenous polyclonal cells. Using this strategy, we found that antigen stimulation strength was inversely associated with the function of memory CD8 T cells during a persistent viral infection. We further show that CD8 TRM cells recruited to the brain following systemic infection with viruses expressing epitopes with suboptimal stimulation strength respond more efficiently to challenge CNS infection with virus expressing cognate antigen. These data demonstrate that the strength of antigenic stimulation during recruitment of CD8 T cells influences the functional integrity of TRM cells in a persistent viral infection.

  2. The effects of bolus supplementation of branched-chain amino acids on skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function in patients with rheumatic disorders during glucocorticoid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Noritada; Shimizu, Noriaki; Uehara, Masaaki; Oda, Aya; Matsumiya, Ryo; Matsubara, Erika; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Hosono, Osamu; Kuribara-Souta, Akiko; Baba, Hiroyuki; Nagamura, Fumitaka; Kiryu, Shigeru; Tanaka, Hirotoshi

    2017-05-01

    To test the effects of bolus supplementation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function in patients with rheumatic disorders taking glucocorticoid (GC). Patients with rheumatic disorders treated with prednisolone (≥10 mg/day) were randomized to ingest additional daily 12 g of BCAA (n = 9) or not (n = 9) for 12 weeks. At baseline, and 4, 8, and 12 weeks, they underwent bioelectrical impedance analysis, muscle strength and functional tests, and computed tomography analysis for cross-sectional area of mid-thigh muscle. Disease activities of the patients were well controlled and daily GC dose was similarly reduced in both groups. Limb muscle mass was recovered in both groups. Whole-body muscle mass and muscle strength and functional mobility were increased only in BCAA (+) group. The effects of BCAA supplementation on recovering skeletal muscle mass were prominent in particular muscles including biceps femoris muscle. This trial is the first-in-man clinical trial to demonstrate that BCAA supplementation might be safe and, at least in part, improve skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function in patients with rheumatic disorders treated with GC.

  3. Efficacy of whey protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle strength, lean mass, and function in mobility-limited older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to functionally compromised older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concent...

  4. Feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program and its effects on cognitive and physical function in institutionalized dementia patients. A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, Willem J R; Scherder, Erik J A; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobágyi, Tibor; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized dementia patients and studied the effects on cognitive and physical function. Methods: Thirty-three patients with dementia, recruited from one nursing home, participated in this

  5. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Jonathan; Rynders, Corey A; Sutherlin, Mark; Patrie, James; Katch, Frank I; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p 0.10). These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone.

  6. FAST INdiCATE Trial protocol. Clinical efficacy of functional strength training for upper limb motor recovery early after stroke: neural correlates and prognostic indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Valerie M; Ward, Nick S; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; van Vliet, Paulette; Burridge, Jane; Hunter, Susan M; Lemon, Roger N; Rothwell, John; Weir, Christopher J; Wing, Alan; Walker, Andrew A; Kennedy, Niamh; Barton, Garry; Greenwood, Richard J; McConnachie, Alex

    2014-02-01

    Functional strength training in addition to conventional physical therapy could enhance upper limb recovery early after stroke more than movement performance therapy plus conventional physical therapy. To determine (a) the relative clinical efficacy of conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training and conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy for upper limb recovery; (b) the neural correlates of response to conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training and conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy; (c) whether any one or combination of baseline measures predict motor improvement in response to conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training or conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy. Randomized, controlled, observer-blind trial. The sample will consist of 288 participants with upper limb paresis resulting from a stroke that occurred within the previous 60 days. All will be allocated to conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training or conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy. Functional strength training and movement performance therapy will be undertaken for up to 1·5 h/day, five-days/week for six-weeks. Measurements will be undertaken before randomization, six-weeks thereafter, and six-months after stroke. Primary efficacy outcome will be the Action Research Arm Test. Explanatory measurements will include voxel-wise estimates of brain activity during hand movement, brain white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy), and brain-muscle connectivity (e.g. latency of motor evoked potentials). The primary clinical efficacy analysis will compare treatment groups using a multilevel normal linear model adjusting for stratification variables and for which therapist administered the treatment. Effect of conventional physical therapy combined

  7. Strengths-based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    Strength-based learning - Children͛s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential͛ is a Ph.D.-project aiming to create a strength-based mindset in school settings and at the same time introducing strength-based interventions as specific tools to improve both learning and well......-being. The Ph.D.-project in Strength-based learning took place in a Danish school with 750 pupils age 6-16 and a similar school was functioning as a control group. The presentation will focus on both the aware-explore-apply processes and the practical implications for the schools involved, and on measurable...

  8. Comparisons of low-intensity versus moderate-intensity combined aerobic and resistance training on body composition, muscle strength, and functional performance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotsu, Yoko; Yanagita, Masahiko

    2018-02-05

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training into the same session on body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength in healthy older women. Furthermore, this study compared the effects of different (low- vs moderate-) intensity combined training. A total of 60 healthy older women (age 61-81 y) were randomly assigned to five groups that performed aerobic exercise before low-intensity resistance training (AR-L, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-L, n = 12), performed aerobic exercise before moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-M, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-M, n = 12), or nonintervention control conditions (CON, n = 12). Body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength were evaluated before and after the 10-week training. No effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-L vs RA-L, AR-M vs RA-M) were observed in body composition, functional performance, or muscle strength, whereas the effects of training intensity of combined training (AR-L vs AR-M, RA-L vs RA-M) were observed on functional performance. All combined trainings significantly increased muscle strength and gait ability (P Functional reach test significantly increased in the AR-M and RA-M groups (P training increases muscle strength and improves gait ability, regardless of the exercise order. Also, greater improvement in dynamic balance capacity, a risk factor associated with falling, is observed in moderate-intensity combined training.

  9. Translational recognition of the 5'-terminal 7-methylguanosine of globin messenger RNA as a function of ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L Y; Rhoads, R E

    1978-06-13

    The translation of rabbit globin mRNA in cell-free systems derived from either wheat germ or rabbit reticulocyte was studied in the presence of various analogues of the methylated 5' terminus (cap) as a function of ionic strength. Inhibition by these analogues was strongly enhanced by increasing concentrations of KCl, K(OAc), Na(OAc), or NH4(OAc). At appropriate concentrations of K(OAc), both cell-free systems were equally sensitive to inhibition by m7GTP. At 50 mM K(OAc), the reticulocyte system was not sensitive to m7GMP or m7GTP, but at higher concentrations up to 200 mM K(OAc), both nucleotides caused strong inhibition. The compound in m7G5'ppp5'Am was inhibitory at all concentrations of K(OAc) ranging from 50 to 200 mM, although more strongly so at the higher concentrations. Over the same range of nucleotide concentrations, the compounds GMP, GTP, and G5'ppp5'Am were not inhibitors. The mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis of the translation product was that of globin at all K(OAc) concentrations in the presence of m7GTP. Globin mRNA from which the terminal m7GTP group had been removed by chemical treatment (periodate-cyclohexylamine-alkaline phosphatase) or enzymatic treatment (tobacco acid pyrophosphatase-alkaline phosphatase) was translated less efficiently than untreated globin mRNA at higher K(OAc) concentrations, but retained appreciable activity at low K(OAc) concentrations.

  10. Catalytic Functionalities of Nano Ruthenium/gamma-Al2O3 Catalysts for the Vapour Phase Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vanama Pavan; Priya, Samudrala Shanthi; Harikrishna, Yengaidas; Kumar, Ashish; Chary, Komandur V R

    2016-02-01

    A series of Ruthenium catalysts with different Ru contents supported on gamma-alumina were prepared by deposition-precipitation method. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), trans- mission electron microscopy (TEM), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), CO-chemisorption, surface area and pore-size distribution (PSD) measurements. The catalytic activities were evaluated for the vapour phase hydrogenolysis of glycerol to propanediols. The pore size distribution (PSD) results suggest that Ru loadings considerably affect the pore volume, pore diameter and surface area. The particle size measured from CO-chemisorption and TEM analysis are well correlated to the activity results during the hydrogenolysis reaction. The catalytic properties of Ru/gamma-Al2O3 catalysts were evaluated for the first time over vapour phase hydrogenolysis of glycerol to propanediols.

  11. Effect of Exercise Therapy Compared with Arthroscopic Surgery on Knee Muscle Strength and Functional Performance in Middle-Aged Patients with Degenerative Meniscus Tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensrud, Silje; Risberg, May Arna; Roos, Ewa M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a 12-wk exercise therapy program and arthroscopic partial meniscectomy on knee strength and functional performance in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscus tears. DESIGN: A total of 82 patients (mean age, 49 yrs; 35% women......) with a symptomatic, unilateral, magnetic resonance imaging-verified degenerative meniscus tear and no or mild radiographic osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to a supervised neuromuscular and strength exercise program or arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. Outcomes assessed 3 mos after intervention initiation were...

  12. The effects of water-based exercise in combination with blood flow restriction on strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Joamira P; Neto, Gabriel R; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Bemben, Michael G; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Batista, Gilmário; Silva, Júlio C G; Freitas, Eduardo D S; Sousa, Maria S C

    2015-12-01

    Water-based exercise and low-intensity exercise in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) are two methods that have independently been shown to improve muscle strength in those of advancing age. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of water-based exercise in combination with BFR on maximum dynamic strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women. Twenty-eight women underwent an 8-week water-based exercise program. The participants were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: (a) water exercise only, (b) water exercise + BFR, or (c) a non-exercise control group. Functional capacity (chair stand test, timed up and go test, gait speed, and dynamic balance) and strength testing were tested before and after the 8-week aquatic exercise program. The main findings were as follows: (1) water-based exercise in combination with BFR significantly increased the lower limb maximum strength which was not observed with water-based exercise alone and (2) water-based exercise, regardless of the application of BFR, increased functional performance measured by the timed up and go test over a control group. Although we used a healthy population in the current study, these findings may have important implications for those who may be contraindicated to using traditional resistance exercise. Future research should explore this promising modality in these clinical populations.

  13. The Effects of 6 Months of Progressive High Effort Resistance Training Methods upon Strength, Body Composition, Function, and Wellbeing of Elderly Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubold, Kristin; Gentil, Paulo; Giessing, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The present study examined the progressive implementation of a high effort resistance training (RT) approach in older adults over 6 months and through a 6-month follow-up on strength, body composition, function, and wellbeing of older adults. Methods Twenty-three older adults (aged 61 to 80 years) completed a 6-month supervised RT intervention applying progressive introduction of higher effort set end points. After completion of the intervention participants could choose to continue performing RT unsupervised until 6-month follow-up. Results Strength, body composition, function, and wellbeing all significantly improved over the intervention. Over the follow-up, body composition