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Sample records for game theoretical interactions

  1. Theoretical Framework for Interaction Game Design

    2016-05-19

    evaluation of a virtual basketball game, investigation of the effect of back imitation, a method for inducing intentional stance in HAI (Human-Agent...Interaction), using physiological indices for discriminating intrinsic and extrinsic stress, and SES (Synthetic Evidential Study). Project had to be...evaluation of a virtual basketball game, investigation of the effect of back imitation, a method for inducing intentional stance in HAI (Human-Agent

  2. Theoretical Framework for Interaction Game Design

    2016-05-19

    and stress is considered to be mandatory for building fellow agents that can build and sustain an almost equal relationship with the user by...game context. A key to building an empathetic pedagogical agent to endow it an ability of estimating students’ inner states to evaluate the adequacy

  3. Game Theoretic Interaction and Decision: A Quantum Analysis

    Ulrich Faigle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An interaction system has a finite set of agents that interact pairwise, depending on the current state of the system. Symmetric decomposition of the matrix of interaction coefficients yields the representation of states by self-adjoint matrices and hence a spectral representation. As a result, cooperation systems, decision systems and quantum systems all become visible as manifestations of special interaction systems. The treatment of the theory is purely mathematical and does not require any special knowledge of physics. It is shown how standard notions in cooperative game theory arise naturally in this context. In particular, states of general interaction systems are seen to arise as linear superpositions of pure quantum states and Fourier transformation to become meaningful. Moreover, quantum games fall into this framework. Finally, a theory of Markov evolution of interaction states is presented that generalizes classical homogeneous Markov chains to the present context.

  4. Participation and Interaction in Projects : A Game-Theoretic Analysis

    Polevoy, G.

    2016-01-01

    Much of what agents (people, robots, etc.) do is dividing effort between several activities. In order to facilitate efficient divisions, we study contributions to such activities and advise on stable divisions that result in high social
    welfare. To this end, for each model (game), we find the

  5. Analysing Buyers' and Sellers' Strategic Interactions in Marketplaces: An Evolutionary Game Theoretic Approach

    Vytelingum, Perukrishnen; Cliff, Dave; Jennings, Nicholas R.

    We develop a new model to analyse the strategic behaviour of buyers and sellers in market mechanisms. In particular, we wish to understand how the different strategies they adopt affect their economic efficiency in the market and to understand the impact of these choices on the overall efficiency of the marketplace. To this end, we adopt a two-population evolutionary game theoretic approach, where we consider how the behaviours of both buyers and sellers evolve in marketplaces. In so doing, we address the shortcomings of the previous state-of-the-art analytical model that assumes that buyers and sellers have to adopt the same mixed strategy in the market. Finally, we apply our model in one of the most common market mechanisms, the Continuous Double Auction, and demonstrate how it allows us to provide new insights into the strategic interactions of such trading agents.

  6. A game theoretic approach to assignment problems

    Klijn, F.

    2000-01-01

    Game theory deals with the mathematical modeling and analysis of conflict and cooperation in the interaction of multiple decision makers. This thesis adopts two game theoretic methods to analyze a range of assignment problems that arise in various economic situations. The first method has as

  7. Joint effects of asymmetric payoff and reciprocity mechanisms on collective cooperation in water sharing interactions: a game theoretic perspective.

    Cho Nam Ng

    Full Text Available Common-pool resource (CPR dilemmas distinguish themselves from general public good problems by encompassing both social and physical features. This paper examines how a physical mechanism, namely asymmetric payoff; and a social mechanism, reciprocity; simultaneously affect collective cooperation in theoretical water sharing interactions. We present an iterative N-person game theoretic model to investigate the joint effects of these two mechanisms in a linear fully connected river system under three information assumptions. From a simple evolutionary perspective, this paper quantitatively addresses the conditions for Nash Equilibrium in which collective cooperation might be established. The results suggest that direct reciprocity increases every actor's motivation to contribute to the collective good of the river system. Meanwhile, various upstream and downstream actors manifest individual disparities as a result of the direct reciprocity and asymmetric payoff mechanisms. More specifically, the downstream actors are less willing to cooperate unless there is a high probability that long-term interactions are ensured; however, a greater level of asymmetries is likely to increase upstream actors' incentives to cooperate even though the interactions could quickly end. The upstream actors also display weak sensitivity to an increase in the total number of actors, which generally results in a reduction in the other actors' motivation for cooperation. It is also shown that the indirect reciprocity mechanism relaxes the overall conditions for cooperative Nash Equilibrium.

  8. Game-Theoretic Learning in Distributed Control

    Marden, Jason R.

    2018-01-05

    In distributed architecture control problems, there is a collection of interconnected decision-making components that seek to realize desirable collective behaviors through local interactions and by processing local information. Applications range from autonomous vehicles to energy to transportation. One approach to control of such distributed architectures is to view the components as players in a game. In this approach, two design considerations are the components’ incentives and the rules that dictate how components react to the decisions of other components. In game-theoretic language, the incentives are defined through utility functions, and the reaction rules are online learning dynamics. This chapter presents an overview of this approach, covering basic concepts in game theory, special game classes, measures of distributed efficiency, utility design, and online learning rules, all with the interpretation of using game theory as a prescriptive paradigm for distributed control design.

  9. Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance ...

    Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance. ... theoretic considerations in their practice in order to achieve market-driven competition ... Key words: Game theory, social capital, good governance, health policy, health systems.

  10. Game theoretic approaches for spectrum redistribution

    Wu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This brief examines issues of spectrum allocation for the limited resources of radio spectrum. It uses a game-theoretic perspective, in which the nodes in the wireless network are rational and always pursue their own objectives. It provides a systematic study of the approaches that can guarantee the system's convergence at an equilibrium state, in which the system performance is optimal or sub-optimal. The author provides a short tutorial on game theory, explains game-theoretic channel allocation in clique and in multi-hop wireless networks and explores challenges in designing game-theoretic m

  11. Game theoretical framework in determining house prices

    Saiddin, Nor Syuhadah; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2017-11-01

    Housing is a vital component in world's economic development as it provides big contribution of the wealth. The issue of high house prices, worrying several parties, especially middle income buyers in Malaysia. Basically, in housing, there are three main parties involved; buyer, property developer and government. Interaction between those parties will give an impact to the housing market, specifically house prices. The complexity of the interaction has increased due to the differences in each party's preferences and interest. In this research, the main objective is to develop the framework of the interactions among those parties using game theoretical approach. To do so, the preferences and target of each party are investigated and their constraints are established. From the framework, it offers some ideas on how the interaction occurs and how it affect the house prices.

  12. A Game Theoretic Model of Thermonuclear Cyberwar

    Soper, Braden C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-23

    In this paper we propose a formal game theoretic model of thermonuclear cyberwar based on ideas found in [1] and [2]. Our intention is that such a game will act as a first step toward building more complete formal models of Cross-Domain Deterrence (CDD). We believe the proposed thermonuclear cyberwar game is an ideal place to start on such an endeavor because the game can be fashioned in a way that is closely related to the classical models of nuclear deterrence [4–6], but with obvious modifications that will help to elucidate the complexities introduced by a second domain. We start with the classical bimatrix nuclear deterrence game based on the game of chicken, but introduce uncertainty via a left-of-launch cyber capability that one or both players may possess.

  13. Potential games and interactive decisions with multiple criteria

    Voorneveld, M.

    1999-01-01

    Game theory is a mathematical theory for analyzing strategic interaction between decision makers. This thesis covers two game-theoretic topics. The first part of this thesis deals with potential games: noncooperative games in which the information about the goals of the separate players that is

  14. Game Theoretical Approach to Supply Chain Microfinance

    Sim , Jaehun; Prabhu , Vittaldas ,

    2013-01-01

    Part 1: Sustainable Production; International audience; This paper considers a supply chain microfinance model in which a manufacturer acts as a lender and a raw material supplier as a borrower. Using a game theoretical analysis, the study investigates how investment levels, raw material prices, and profit margins are influenced by loan interest rates under two types of decentralized channel policies: manufacturer Stackelberg and vertical Nash game. In addition, the study shows how the profit...

  15. Game-theoretic interference coordination approaches for dynamic spectrum access

    Xu, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Written by experts in the field, this book is based on recent research findings in dynamic spectrum access for cognitive radio networks. It establishes a game-theoretic framework and presents cutting-edge technologies for distributed interference coordination. With game-theoretic formulation and the designed distributed learning algorithms, it provides insights into the interactions between multiple decision-makers and the converging stable states. Researchers, scientists and engineers in the field of cognitive radio networks will benefit from the book, which provides valuable information, useful methods and practical algorithms for use in emerging 5G wireless communication.

  16. Game Theoretic Analysis of Road Traffic Problems in Nigeria ...

    Game Theoretic Analysis of Road Traffic Problems in Nigeria. ... problems in Nigeria are analysed in the context of a social dilemma. Game theoretic models based on the famous ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  17. Game theoretic approaches to operating room management.

    Marco, Alan P

    2002-05-01

    All interactions between people can be considered games with rules and outcomes. However, modern business practices demand that the players in the game go beyond traditional game theory and look at new ways to improve the outcome of the game. Choosing the right strategy is important to a player's success. A new business strategy, "co-opetition," can be used to increase the value of the game ("create a bigger pie") through cooperative behavior, whereas competition is used to divided the "pie." By looking at how the players adopt simultaneous roles such as complementor and competitor the stakeholders in the operating room (managers, surgeons, anesthesiologists, and nursing staff) can apply the principles of co-opetition to improve the overall success of their facility. Such stakeholders can utilize knowledge of how populations act in games to enhance cooperative play. Adopting such a perspective may lead to increases in the satisfaction and morale of those involved with the operating rooms. Increased morale should increase productivity and staff retention and reduce recruiting needs.

  18. Space Debris Removal: A Game Theoretic Analysis

    Richard Klima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse active space debris removal efforts from a strategic, game-theoretical perspective. Space debris is non-manoeuvrable, human-made objects orbiting Earth, which pose a significant threat to operational spacecraft. Active debris removal missions have been considered and investigated by different space agencies with the goal to protect valuable assets present in strategic orbital environments. An active debris removal mission is costly, but has a positive effect for all satellites in the same orbital band. This leads to a dilemma: each agency is faced with the choice between the individually costly action of debris removal, which has a positive impact on all players; or wait and hope that others jump in and do the ‘dirty’ work. The risk of the latter action is that, if everyone waits, the joint outcome will be catastrophic, leading to what in game theory is referred to as the ‘tragedy of the commons’. We introduce and thoroughly analyse this dilemma using empirical game theory and a space debris simulator. We consider two- and three-player settings, investigate the strategic properties and equilibria of the game and find that the cost/benefit ratio of debris removal strongly affects the game dynamics.

  19. A game theoretic investigation of deception in network security

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Grosu, Daniel

    2010-12-03

    We perform a game theoretic investigation of the effects of deception on the interactions between an attacker and a defender of a computer network. The defender can employ camouflage by either disguising a normal system as a honeypot or by disguising a honeypot as a normal system. We model the interactions between defender and attacker using a signaling game, a non-cooperative two player dynamic game of incomplete information. For this model, we determine which strategies admit perfect Bayesian equilibria. These equilibria are refined Nash equilibria in which neither the defender nor the attacker will unilaterally choose to deviate from their strategies. Finally, we discuss the benefits of employing deceptive equilibrium strategies in the defense of a computer network.

  20. The game as strategy for approach to sexuality with adolescents: theoretical-methodological reflections.

    Souza, Vânia de; Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia; Soares, Amanda Nathale; Fernandes, Marconi Moura; Oliveira, Rebeca Nunes Guedes de; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da

    2017-04-01

    To describe the Papo Reto [Straight Talk] game and reflect on its theoretical-methodological basis. Analytical study on the process of elaboration of the Papo Reto online game, destined to adolescents aged 15-18 years, with access to the Game between 2014 and 2015. the interactions of 60 adolescents from Belo Horizonte and São Paulo constituted examples of the potentialities of the Game to favor the approach to sexuality with adolescents through simulation of reality, invention and interaction. Based on those potentialities, four thinking categories were discussed: the game as pedagogic device; the game as simulation of realities; the game as device for inventive learning; and the game empowering the interaction. By permitting that the adolescents take risks on new ways, the Game allows them to become creative and active in the production of senses, in the creation of their discourses and in the ways of thinking, feeling and acting in the sexuality field.

  1. Social Interactions in Online Gaming

    Griffiths, Mark; Hussain, Zaheer; Grüsser, Sabine M.; Thalemann, Ralf; Cole, Helena; Davies, Mark N. O.; Chappell, Darren

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly overviews five studies examining massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). The first study surveyed 540 gamers and showed that the social aspects of the game were the most important factor for many gamers. The second study explored the social interactions of 912 MMORPG players and showed they created strong…

  2. The dynamics of alliances. A game theoretical approach

    Ridder, A. de

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation, Annelies de Ridder presents a game theoretical approach to strategic alliances. More specifically, the dynamics of and within alliances have been studied. To do so, four new models have been developed in the game theoretical tradition. Both coalition theory and strategic game

  3. Social Interactions and Games

    Uz, Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2015-01-01

    Digital games have become popular due to great technological improvements in recent years. They have been increasingly transformed from co-located experiences into multi-played, socially oriented platforms (Herodotou, 2009). Multi-User Online Games provide the opportunity to create a social environment for friendships and strengthen the…

  4. Game theory and experimental games the study of strategic interaction

    Colman, Andrew M

    1982-01-01

    Game Theory and Experimental Games: The Study of Strategic Interaction is a critical survey of the essential ideas of game theory and the findings of empirical research on strategic interaction. Some experiments using lifelike simulations of familiar kinds of strategic interactions are presented, and applications of game theory to the study of voting, the theory of evolution, and moral philosophy are discussed.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an informal definition of game theory and an outline of the types of social situations to which it applies. Games of skill, games of cha

  5. Game theoretic aspect of production process transfer functions ...

    Game theoretic aspect of production process transfer functions. ... On the final analysis, it was shown that relating transfer function to Bayesian games and mechanism design would lead to optimal bids, optimal ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. Interactive Health Games

    ... Q R S T U V W XYZ A Anatomy Body Parts (National Museum of American History) B ... for Disease Control and Prevention) Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobel Foundation) Sleep for Kids: Games ...

  7. Game Theoretic Resolution of Water Conflicts

    Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.

    2017-12-01

    Water disputes are of multi-disciplinary nature and involve an array of natural, hydrological,social, political and economic issues. Operations Research based decision making methodshave been found to facilitate mathematical analysis of such multifaceted problems thatconsist of multiple stakeholders and their conflicting objectives. Game Theoretic techniqueslike Metagame and Hypergame Analysis can provide a framework for conceptualizing waterconflicts and envisaging their potential solutions. In the present research, firstly a Metagamemodel has been developed to identify range of plausible equilibrium outcomes for resolvingconflicts pertaining to water apportionments in a transboundary watercourse. Further, it hasbeen observed that the contenders often hide their strategies from other players to getfavorable water allocations. Consequently, there are widespread misinterpretations about thetactics of the competitors and contenders have to formulate their strategies entirely based ontheir perception about others. Accordingly, a Hypergame study has also been conducted tomodel the probable misperceptions that may exist amongst the river riparians. Thus, thecurrent study assesses the efficacy of Game Theoretic techniques as possible redressalmechanism for water conflicts.

  8. Gaming the System: Video Games as a Theoretical Framework for Instructional Design

    Beatty, Ian D.

    2014-01-01

    In order to facilitate analyzing video games as learning systems and instructional designs as games, we present a theoretical framework that integrates ideas from a broad range of literature. The framework describes games in terms of four layers, all sharing similar structural elements and dynamics: a micro-level game focused on immediate problem-solving and skill development, a macro-level game focused on the experience of the game world and story and identity development, and two meta-level...

  9. Strategic Reasoning in Interdependence: Logical and Game-Theoretical Investigations

    Turrini, P.

    2011-01-01

    Game theory is the branch of economics that studies interactive decision making, i.e. how entities that can reasonably be described as players of a game should behave, given their preferences and their information. Game theory is usually divided into two main branches: non-cooperative game theory,

  10. The perception of video games : from visual power to immersive interaction

    Glashüttner, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights the different ways of perceiving video games and video game content, incorporating interactive and non-interactive methods. It examines varying cognitive and emotive reactions by persons who are used to play video games as well as persons who are unfamiliar with the aesthetics and the most basic game play rules incorporated within video games. Additionally, the principle of “Flow” serves as a theoretical and philosophical foundation. A small case-study featuring two game...

  11. Game Theoretic Problems in Network Economics and Mechanism Design Solutions

    Narahari, Y; Narayanam, Ramasuri; Prakash, Hastagiri

    2009-01-01

    Explores game theoretic modeling and mechanism design for problem solving in Internet and network economics. This monograph contains an exposition of representative game theoretic problems in three different network economics situations and a systematic exploration of mechanism design solutions to these problems.

  12. Children's Video Games as Interactive Racialization

    Martin, Cathlena

    2008-01-01

    Cathlena Martin explores in her paper "Children's Video Games as Interactive Racialization" selected children's video games. Martin argues that children's video games often act as reinforcement for the games' television and film counterparts and their racializing characteristics and features. In Martin's analysis the video games discussed represent media through which to analyze racial identities and ideologies. In making the case for positive female minority leads in children's video games, ...

  13. Minority game with SK interactions

    Menezes, Pedro Castro; Sherrington, David

    2013-01-01

    A batch minority game with fake random history and additional SK-like quenched interaction is introduced and analysed. A mixing parameter λ quantifies the admixture and dictates the relative dominance of the two contributions: if λ → 0, agent decisions are based on their strategies and point-scores alone, as in the pure minority game, whereas for λ > 0 the agents also communicate with each other directly and update their points accordingly. Keeping the minority game dynamics in which the agents’ points are updated in parallel at each time step, the aim is to understand what happens if instead of simply using the normal strategy-based decisions, the agents also take account of an ‘effective field’ generated by the other agents. It is shown that the SK interaction introduces a ‘noise’ term which is broader than that in the normal minority game and which furthermore kills the normal phase transition. It is also shown that the same effect would occur if, instead of an SK interaction, Gaussian-distributed quenched random fields are added. By calculating order parameters in the time-translational invariant phase we show that the system is persistent in a ergodic phase. Both simulational and analytical results are presented. (paper)

  14. A review of game-theoretic models of road user behaviour.

    Elvik, Rune

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews game-theoretic models that have been developed to explain road user behaviour in situations where road users interact with each other. The paper includes the following game-theoretic models: 1.A general model of the interaction between road users and their possible reaction to measures improving safety (behavioural adaptation).2.Choice of vehicle size as a Prisoners’ dilemma game.3.Speed choice as a co-ordination game.4.Speed compliance as a game between drivers and the police.5.Merging into traffic from an acceleration lane as a mixed-strategy game.6.Choice of level of attention in following situations as an evolutionary game.7.Choice of departure time to avoid congestion as variant of a Prisoners’ dilemma game.8.Interaction between cyclists crossing the road and car drivers.9.Dipping headlights at night well ahead of the point when glare becomes noticeable.10.Choice of evasive action in a situation when cars are on collision course. The models reviewed are different in many respects, but a common feature of the models is that they can explain how informal norms of behaviour can develop among road users and be sustained even if these informal norms violate the formal regulations of the traffic code. Game-theoretic models are not applicable to every conceivable interaction between road users or to situations in which road users choose behaviour without interacting with other road users. Nevertheless, it is likely that game-theoretic models can be applied more widely than they have been until now. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation of Parrondo's paradox game in space

    Xie Nenggang; Chen Yun; Ye Ye; Xu Gang; Wang Lingang; Wang Chao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A multi-agent spatial Parrondo game model is designed. → Double actions between individual and its neighbors are discussed. → The weak and strong paradox conditions are established by theoretical analysis. → Research results demonstrate some new biological points. → Competition is an adaptive behavior on the population level too. - Abstract: A multi-agent spatial Parrondo game model is designed according to the cooperative Parrondo's paradox proposed by Toral. The model is composed of game A and game B. Game A is a zero-sum game between individuals, reflecting competitive interaction between an individual and its neighbors. The winning or losing probability of one individual in game B depends on its neighbors' winning or losing states, reflecting the dependence that individuals has on microhabitat and the overall constraints that the microhabitat has on individuals. By using the analytical approach based on discrete-time Markov chain, we analyze game A, game B and the random combination of game A+B, and obtain corresponding stationary distribution probability and mathematical expectations. We have established conditions of the weak and strong forms of the Parrondo effect, and compared the computer simulation results with the analytical results so as to verify their validity. The analytical results reflect that competition results in the ratchet effect of game B, which generates Parrondo's Paradox that the combination of the losing games can produce a winning result.

  16. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation of Parrondo's paradox game in space

    Xie Nenggang, E-mail: xienenggang@yahoo.com.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, Anhui Province 243002 (China); Chen Yun; Ye Ye; Xu Gang; Wang Lingang; Wang Chao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, Anhui Province 243002 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > A multi-agent spatial Parrondo game model is designed. > Double actions between individual and its neighbors are discussed. > The weak and strong paradox conditions are established by theoretical analysis. > Research results demonstrate some new biological points. > Competition is an adaptive behavior on the population level too. - Abstract: A multi-agent spatial Parrondo game model is designed according to the cooperative Parrondo's paradox proposed by Toral. The model is composed of game A and game B. Game A is a zero-sum game between individuals, reflecting competitive interaction between an individual and its neighbors. The winning or losing probability of one individual in game B depends on its neighbors' winning or losing states, reflecting the dependence that individuals has on microhabitat and the overall constraints that the microhabitat has on individuals. By using the analytical approach based on discrete-time Markov chain, we analyze game A, game B and the random combination of game A+B, and obtain corresponding stationary distribution probability and mathematical expectations. We have established conditions of the weak and strong forms of the Parrondo effect, and compared the computer simulation results with the analytical results so as to verify their validity. The analytical results reflect that competition results in the ratchet effect of game B, which generates Parrondo's Paradox that the combination of the losing games can produce a winning result.

  17. Levy's zero-one law in game-theoretic probability

    Shafer, Glenn; Vovk, Vladimir; Takemura, Akimichi

    2009-01-01

    We prove a game-theoretic version of Levy's zero-one law, and deduce several corollaries from it, including non-stochastic versions of Kolmogorov's zero-one law, the ergodicity of Bernoulli shifts, and a zero-one law for dependent trials. Our secondary goal is to explore the basic definitions of game-theoretic probability theory, with Levy's zero-one law serving a useful role.

  18. Game-Theoretic Learning in Distributed Control

    Marden, Jason R.; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2018-01-01

    from autonomous vehicles to energy to transportation. One approach to control of such distributed architectures is to view the components as players in a game. In this approach, two design considerations are the components’ incentives and the rules

  19. Towards a Game Theoretic View of Secure Computation

    Asharov, Gilad; Canetti, Ran; Hazay, Carmit

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate how Game Theoretic concepts and formalism can be used to capture cryptographic notions of security. In the restricted but indicative case of two-party protocols in the face of malicious fail-stop faults, we first show how the traditional notions of secrecy and correctness of protoc......We demonstrate how Game Theoretic concepts and formalism can be used to capture cryptographic notions of security. In the restricted but indicative case of two-party protocols in the face of malicious fail-stop faults, we first show how the traditional notions of secrecy and correctness...... of protocols can be captured as properties of Nash equilibria in games for rational players. Next, we concentrate on fairness. Here we demonstrate a Game Theoretic notion and two different cryptographic notions that turn out to all be equivalent. In addition, we provide a simulation based notion that implies...

  20. The game as strategy for approach to sexuality with adolescents: theoretical-methodological reflections

    Vânia de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the Papo Reto [Straight Talk] game and reflect on its theoretical-methodological basis. Method: Analytical study on the process of elaboration of the Papo Reto online game, destined to adolescents aged 15-18 years, with access to the Game between 2014 and 2015. Results: the interactions of 60 adolescents from Belo Horizonte and São Paulo constituted examples of the potentialities of the Game to favor the approach to sexuality with adolescents through simulation of reality, invention and interaction. Based on those potentialities, four thinking categories were discussed: the game as pedagogic device; the game as simulation of realities; the game as device for inventive learning; and the game empowering the interaction. Conclusion: By permitting that the adolescents take risks on new ways, the Game allows them to become creative and active in the production of senses, in the creation of their discourses and in the ways of thinking, feeling and acting in the sexuality field.

  1. An introduction to game-theoretic modelling

    Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike

    2000-01-01

    This is an introduction to game theory and applications with an emphasis on self-discovery from the perspective of a mathematical modeller. The book deals in a unified manner with the central concepts of both classical and evolutionary game theory. The key ideas are illustrated throughout by a wide variety of well-chosen examples of both human and non-human behavior, including car pooling, price fixing, food sharing, sex allocation and competition for territories or oviposition sites. There are numerous exercises with solutions.

  2. Game Theoretic Risk Analysis of Security Threats

    Bier, Vicki M

    2008-01-01

    Introduces reliability and risk analysis in the face of threats by intelligent agents. This book covers applications to networks, including problems in both telecommunications and transportation. It provides a set of tools for applying game theory TO reliability problems in the presence of intentional, intelligent threats

  3. Game Theoretic Analysis of Road Traffic Problems in Nigeria (Pp ...

    User

    2011-05-20

    May 20, 2011 ... problems in Nigeria are analysed in the context of a social dilemma. Game .... Game theory is the study of interaction between rational players where the .... trigger strategy and the grim outcome of such a strategy is for the ...

  4. A Game-Theoretic Model of Marketing Skin Whiteners.

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies consistently find that people in less developed countries tend to regard light or "white" skin, particularly among women, as more desirable or superior. This is a study about the marketing of skin whiteners in these countries, where over 80 percent of users are typically women. It proceeds from the following premises: a) Purely market or policy-oriented approaches toward the risks and harms of skin whitening are cost-inefficient; b) Psychosocial and informational factors breed uninformed and risky consumer choices that favor toxic skin whiteners; and c) Proliferation of toxic whiteners in a competitive buyer's market raises critical supplier accountability issues. Is intentional tort a rational outcome of uncooperative game equilibria? Can voluntary cooperation nonetheless evolve between buyers and sellers of skin whiteners? These twin questions are key to addressing the central paradox in this study: A robust and expanding buyer's market, where cheap whitening products abound at a high risk to personal and societal health and safety. Game-theoretic modeling of two-player and n-player strategic interactions is proposed in this study for both its explanatory and predictive value. Therein also lie its practical contributions to the economic literature on skin whitening.

  5. A Game Theoretic Approach to Swarm Robotics

    S. N. Givigi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss some techniques for achieving swarm intelligent robots through the use of traits of personality. Traits of personality are characteristics of each robot that, altogether, define the robot's behaviours. We discuss the use of evolutionary psychology to select a set of traits of personality that will evolve due to a learning process based on reinforcement learning. The use of Game Theory is introduced, and some simulations showing its potential are reported.

  6. A Game Theoretic Fault Detection Filter

    Chung, Walter H.; Speyer, Jason L.

    1995-01-01

    The fault detection process is modelled as a disturbance attenuation problem. The solution to this problem is found via differential game theory, leading to an H(sub infinity) filter which bounds the transmission of all exogenous signals save the fault to be detected. For a general class of linear systems which includes some time-varying systems, it is shown that this transmission bound can be taken to zero by simultaneously bringing the sensor noise weighting to zero. Thus, in the limit, a complete transmission block can he achieved, making the game filter into a fault detection filter. When we specialize this result to time-invariant system, it is found that the detection filter attained in the limit is identical to the well known Beard-Jones Fault Detection Filter. That is, all fault inputs other than the one to be detected (the "nuisance faults") are restricted to an invariant subspace which is unobservable to a projection on the output. For time-invariant systems, it is also shown that in the limit, the order of the state-space and the game filter can be reduced by factoring out the invariant subspace. The result is a lower dimensional filter which can observe only the fault to be detected. A reduced-order filter can also he generated for time-varying systems, though the computational overhead may be intensive. An example given at the end of the paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the filter as a tool for fault detection and identification.

  7. A game-theoretic method for cross-layer stochastic resilient control design in CPS

    Shen, Jiajun; Feng, Dongqin

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the cross-layer security problem of cyber-physical system (CPS) is investigated from the game-theoretic perspective. Physical dynamics of plant is captured by stochastic differential game with cyber-physical influence being considered. The sufficient and necessary condition for the existence of state-feedback equilibrium strategies is given. The attack-defence cyber interactions are formulated by a Stackelberg game intertwined with stochastic differential game in physical layer. The condition such that the Stackelberg equilibrium being unique and the corresponding analytical solutions are both provided. An algorithm is proposed for obtaining hierarchical security strategy by solving coupled games, which ensures the operational normalcy and cyber security of CPS subject to uncertain disturbance and unexpected cyberattacks. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness and performance of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Multiple stakeholders in road pricing: A game theoretic approach

    Ohazulike, Anthony; Still, Georg J.; Kern, Walter; van Berkum, Eric C.; Hausken, Kjell; Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a game theoretic approach as an alternative to the standard multi-objective optimization models for road pricing. Assuming that various, partly conflicting traffic externalities (congestion, air pollution, noise, safety, etcetera) are represented by corresponding players acting on a

  9. Computational and Game-Theoretic Approaches for Modeling Bounded Rationality

    L. Waltman (Ludo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis studies various computational and game-theoretic approaches to economic modeling. Unlike traditional approaches to economic modeling, the approaches studied in this thesis do not rely on the assumption that economic agents behave in a fully rational way. Instead, economic

  10. Interactivity, Game Creation, Design, Learning, and Innovation

    This book constitutes the proceedings of two conferences: The 5th International Conference on ArtsIT, Interactivity and Game Creation (ArtsIT 2016) and the First International Conference on Design, Learning and Innovation (DLI 2016). ArtsIT is reflecting trends in the expanding field of digital art......, interactive art, and how game creation is considered an art form. The decision was made to augment the title of ArtsIT to be in future known as “The International Conference on Interactivity, Game Creation, Design, Learning, and Innovation”. The event was hosted in Esbjerg, Denmark in May 2016 and attracted...

  11. Audio Interaction in Computer Mediated Games

    J. R. Parker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sound in an interactive media environment has not been advanced, as a technology, as far as graphics or artificial intelligence. This discussion will explore the use of sound as a way to influence the player of a computer game, will show ways that a game can use sound as input, and will describe ways that the player can influence sound in a game. The role of sound in computer games will be explored some practical design ideas that can be used to improve the current state of the art will be given.

  12. A Game-Theoretical Approach to Multimedia Social Networks Security

    Liu, Enqiang; Liu, Zengliang; Shao, Fei; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The contents access and sharing in multimedia social networks (MSNs) mainly rely on access control models and mechanisms. Simple adoptions of security policies in the traditional access control model cannot effectively establish a trust relationship among parties. This paper proposed a novel two-party trust architecture (TPTA) to apply in a generic MSN scenario. According to the architecture, security policies are adopted through game-theoretic analyses and decisions. Based on formalized utilities of security policies and security rules, the choice of security policies in content access is described as a game between the content provider and the content requester. By the game method for the combination of security policies utility and its influences on each party's benefits, the Nash equilibrium is achieved, that is, an optimal and stable combination of security policies, to establish and enhance trust among stakeholders. PMID:24977226

  13. A game-theoretic approach to donor kidney sharing.

    O'Brien, B J

    1988-01-01

    Graft survival in renal transplantation is a function, amongst other things, of the degree of histocompatibility lymphocyte-A (HLA) tissue matching achieved between donor and recipient. Yet a donor procured at centre A might match a transplant candidate at centre B and vice versa. This raises the question of whether, and under what circumstances, surgeons will offer and exchange donor kidneys and gain from such trade in terms of graft survival. We analyse the problem in a game-theoretic framework where the choice of strategy 'to offer or not?' is evaluated in the context of the uncertainty of reciprocation by the other player(s) in the game. The equilibrium solution to a number of variations of the game is predicted to be non-cooperation resulting in collectively sub-optimal graft survival rates. Some policy options for improving cooperation are considered including exchange incentives and coercive measures.

  14. American and Canadian environmental federalism: A game-theoretic analysis

    Gillroy, J.M.

    1999-07-01

    To understand why environmental federalism is different in Canada and the United States, one might begin with the initial strategic realities that faced the Fathers of Canadian Confederation and the Framers of the Constitution of the US. This essay examined federalism from a game theoretic point of view, to integrate and expose the rational properties of the decision to federate and the logical entailments of that choice for environmental policy within two specific strategic contexts. Specifically, the author suggests that American environmental federalism has arisen in response to the strategic reality of a prisoner's dilemma, while Canadian environmental federalism can be analyzed as an effort to regulate confrontations within a game of chicken. In addition to the analysis of each federated structure, evidence from five case studies demonstrates the usefulness of games to the study of comparative federalism.

  15. Game-theoretic equilibrium analysis applications to deregulated electricity markets

    Joung, Manho

    This dissertation examines game-theoretic equilibrium analysis applications to deregulated electricity markets. In particular, three specific applications are discussed: analyzing the competitive effects of ownership of financial transmission rights, developing a dynamic game model considering the ramp rate constraints of generators, and analyzing strategic behavior in electricity capacity markets. In the financial transmission right application, an investigation is made of how generators' ownership of financial transmission rights may influence the effects of the transmission lines on competition. In the second application, the ramp rate constraints of generators are explicitly modeled using a dynamic game framework, and the equilibrium is characterized as the Markov perfect equilibrium. Finally, the strategic behavior of market participants in electricity capacity markets is analyzed and it is shown that the market participants may exaggerate their available capacity in a Nash equilibrium. It is also shown that the more conservative the independent system operator's capacity procurement, the higher the risk of exaggerated capacity offers.

  16. Online adaptive approach for a game-theoretic strategy for complete vehicle energy management

    Chen, H.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Weiland, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces an adaptive approach for a game-theoretic strategy on Complete Vehicle Energy Management. The proposed method enhances the game-theoretic approach such that the strategy is able to adapt to real driving behavior. The classical game-theoretic approach relies on one probability

  17. Game theoretic analysis of physical protection system design

    Canion, B.; Schneider, E.; Bickel, E.; Hadlock, C.; Morton, D.

    2013-01-01

    The physical protection system (PPS) of a fictional small modular reactor (SMR) facility have been modeled as a platform for a game theoretic approach to security decision analysis. To demonstrate the game theoretic approach, a rational adversary with complete knowledge of the facility has been modeled attempting a sabotage attack. The adversary adjusts his decisions in response to investments made by the defender to enhance the security measures. This can lead to a conservative physical protection system design. Since defender upgrades were limited by a budget, cost benefit analysis may be conducted upon security upgrades. One approach to cost benefit analysis is the efficient frontier, which depicts the reduction in expected consequence per incremental increase in the security budget

  18. Game theory in communication networks cooperative resolution of interactive networking scenarios

    Antoniou, Josephina

    2012-01-01

    A mathematical tool for scientists and researchers who work with computer and communication networks, Game Theory in Communication Networks: Cooperative Resolution of Interactive Networking Scenarios addresses the question of how to promote cooperative behavior in interactive situations between heterogeneous entities in communication networking scenarios. It explores network design and management from a theoretical perspective, using game theory and graph theory to analyze strategic situations and demonstrate profitable behaviors of the cooperative entities. The book promotes the use of Game T

  19. Game theoretic aspects of crowd renting | Nwobi-Okoye | Science ...

    Politicians and businessmen use various strategies to outwit their opponents. One such strategy is crowd renting, a powerful virtual strategy. A mathematical model developed by Nwobi-Okoye using game theory is used to show that crowd renting would always be the equilibrium strategy in strategic interactions involving ...

  20. The 'Interactive' of Interactive Storytelling: Customizing the Gaming Experience

    Bostan , Barbaros; Marsh , Tim

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In this article, we define interactive storytelling as a gaming experience where the form and content of the game is customized in real time and tailored to the preferences and needs of the player to maximixe enjoyment. The primary focus of interactive storytelling should not be on the attributes of the technology or characteristics of the medium, such as the AI techniques, planning formalisms, story representations, etc. but on different interaction levels provided by...

  1. Optimization of Investment Planning Based on Game-Theoretic Approach

    Elena Vladimirovna Butsenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The game-theoretic approach has a vast potential in solving economic problems. On the other hand, the theory of games itself can be enriched by the studies of real problems of decision-making. Hence, this study is aimed at developing and testing the game-theoretic technique to optimize the management of investment planning. This technique enables to forecast the results and manage the processes of investment planning. The proposed method of optimizing the management of investment planning allows to choose the best development strategy of an enterprise. This technique uses the “game with nature” model, and the Wald criterion, the maximum criterion and the Hurwitz criterion as criteria. The article presents a new algorithm for constructing the proposed econometric method to optimize investment project management. This algorithm combines the methods of matrix games. Furthermore, I show the implementation of this technique in a block diagram. The algorithm includes the formation of initial data, the elements of the payment matrix, as well as the definition of maximin, maximal, compromise and optimal management strategies. The methodology is tested on the example of the passenger transportation enterprise of the Sverdlovsk Railway in Ekaterinburg. The application of the proposed methodology and the corresponding algorithm allowed to obtain an optimal price strategy for transporting passengers for one direction of traffic. This price strategy contributes to an increase in the company’s income with minimal risk from the launch of this direction. The obtained results and conclusions show the effectiveness of using the developed methodology for optimizing the management of investment processes in the enterprise. The results of the research can be used as a basis for the development of an appropriate tool and applied by any economic entity in its investment activities.

  2. Strategy Effectiveness of Game-Theoretical Solution Concepts in Extensive-Form General-Sum Games

    Cermak, Jiri; Bosansky, Branislav; Gatti, Nicola

    Academic communities have adopted different conventions for ordering authors on academic publications. Are these choices inconsequential, or can they significantly impact individual authors, or even communities at large? We consider a game theoretic model to study allocation of credit to authors...

  3. Intelligent cognitive radio jamming - a game-theoretical approach

    Dabcevic, Kresimir; Betancourt, Alejandro; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo S.

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) promises to be a solution for the spectrum underutilization problems. However, security issues pertaining to cognitive radio technology are still an understudied topic. One of the prevailing such issues are intelligent radio frequency (RF) jamming attacks, where adversaries are able to exploit on-the-fly reconfigurability potentials and learning mechanisms of cognitive radios in order to devise and deploy advanced jamming tactics. In this paper, we use a game-theoretical approach to analyze jamming/anti-jamming behavior between cognitive radio systems. A non-zero-sum game with incomplete information on an opponent's strategy and payoff is modelled as an extension of Markov decision process (MDP). Learning algorithms based on adaptive payoff play and fictitious play are considered. A combination of frequency hopping and power alteration is deployed as an anti-jamming scheme. A real-life software-defined radio (SDR) platform is used in order to perform measurements useful for quantifying the jamming impacts, as well as to infer relevant hardware-related properties. Results of these measurements are then used as parameters for the modelled jamming/anti-jamming game and are compared to the Nash equilibrium of the game. Simulation results indicate, among other, the benefit provided to the jammer when it is employed with the spectrum sensing algorithm in proactive frequency hopping and power alteration schemes.

  4. Game Theoretic Analysis of Road User Safety Scenarios Involving Autonomous Vehicles

    Michieli, Umberto; Badia, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Interactions between pedestrians, bikers, and human-driven vehicles have been a major concern in traffic safety over the years. The upcoming age of autonomous vehicles will further raise major problems on whether self-driving cars can accurately avoid accidents; on the other hand, usability issues arise on whether human-driven cars and pedestrian can dominate the road at the expense of the autonomous vehicles which will be programmed to avoid accidents. This paper proposes some game theoretic...

  5. Theoretical studies of molecular interactions

    Lester, W.A. Jr. [Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research program is directed at extending fundamental knowledge of atoms and molecules including their electronic structure, mutual interaction, collision dynamics, and interaction with radiation. The approach combines the use of ab initio methods--Hartree-Fock (HF) multiconfiguration HF, configuration interaction, and the recently developed quantum Monte Carlo (MC)--to describe electronic structure, intermolecular interactions, and other properties, with various methods of characterizing inelastic and reaction collision processes, and photodissociation dynamics. Present activity is focused on the development and application of the QMC method, surface catalyzed reactions, and reorientation cross sections.

  6. Wireless Networks under a Backoff Attack: A Game Theoretical Perspective.

    Parras, Juan; Zazo, Santiago

    2018-01-30

    We study a wireless sensor network using CSMA/CA in the MAC layer under a backoff attack: some of the sensors of the network are malicious and deviate from the defined contention mechanism. We use Bianchi's network model to study the impact of the malicious sensors on the total network throughput, showing that it causes the throughput to be unfairly distributed among sensors. We model this conflict using game theory tools, where each sensor is a player. We obtain analytical solutions and propose an algorithm, based on Regret Matching, to learn the equilibrium of the game with an arbitrary number of players. Our approach is validated via simulations, showing that our theoretical predictions adjust to reality.

  7. Wireless Networks under a Backoff Attack: A Game Theoretical Perspective

    Juan Parras

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a wireless sensor network using CSMA/CA in the MAC layer under a backoff attack: some of the sensors of the network are malicious and deviate from the defined contention mechanism. We use Bianchi’s network model to study the impact of the malicious sensors on the total network throughput, showing that it causes the throughput to be unfairly distributed among sensors. We model this conflict using game theory tools, where each sensor is a player. We obtain analytical solutions and propose an algorithm, based on Regret Matching, to learn the equilibrium of the game with an arbitrary number of players. Our approach is validated via simulations, showing that our theoretical predictions adjust to reality.

  8. An experiential, game-theoretic pedagogy for sustainability ethics.

    Sadowski, Jathan; Seager, Thomas P; Selinger, Evan; Spierre, Susan G; Whyte, Kyle P

    2013-09-01

    The wicked problems that constitute sustainability require students to learn a different set of ethical skills than is ordinarily required by professional ethics. The focus for sustainability ethics must be redirected towards: (1) reasoning rather than rules, and (2) groups rather than individuals. This need for a different skill set presents several pedagogical challenges to traditional programs of ethics education that emphasize abstraction and reflection at the expense of experimentation and experience. This paper describes a novel pedagogy of sustainability ethics that is based on noncooperative, game-theoretic problems that cause students to confront two salient questions: "What are my obligations to others?" and "What am I willing to risk in my own well-being to meet those obligations?" In comparison to traditional professional ethics education, the game-based pedagogy moves the learning experience from: passive to active, apathetic to emotionally invested, narratively closed to experimentally open, and from predictable to surprising. In the context of game play, where players must make decisions that can adversely impact classmates, students typically discover a significant gap between their moral aspirations and their moral actions. When the games are delivered sequentially as part of a full course in Sustainability Ethics, students may experience a moral identity crisis as they reflect upon the incongruity of their self-understanding and their behavior. Repeated play allows students to reconcile this discrepancy through group deliberation that coordinates individual decisions to achieve collective outcomes. It is our experience that students gradually progress through increased levels of group tacit knowledge as they encounter increasingly complex game situations.

  9. Using games to provide interactive perioperative education.

    Carifa, Linda; Janiszewski Goodin, Heather

    2011-10-01

    Perioperative nurses must use critical thinking and sound clinical judgment to meet their patients' needs safely and effectively. This requires the integration and continual updating of large amounts of detailed clinical information. Innovative education strategies are designed to make teaching and learning more interesting and interactive, especially for the presentation of complex subject material. One interactive educational strategy is the use of games. Educational games can foster collaboration and critical thinking among peers and associates. An example of this was the Perioperative QuizBowl: Evidence-Based Practice presented at the annual AORN Congress from 2003 to 2010, which was used to teach and reinforce evidence-based practice in a fun, competitive way. Although AORN no longer presents this offering, the QuizBowl format demonstrates how educational games can support clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanoscale molecular communication networks: a game-theoretic perspective

    Jiang, Chunxiao; Chen, Yan; Ray Liu, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, communication between nanomachines is an important topic for the development of novel devices. To implement a nanocommunication system, diffusion-based molecular communication is considered as a promising bio-inspired approach. Various technical issues about molecular communications, including channel capacity, noise and interference, and modulation and coding, have been studied in the literature, while the resource allocation problem among multiple nanomachines has not been well investigated, which is a very important issue since all the nanomachines share the same propagation medium. Considering the limited computation capability of nanomachines and the expensive information exchange cost among them, in this paper, we propose a game-theoretic framework for distributed resource allocation in nanoscale molecular communication systems. We first analyze the inter-symbol and inter-user interference, as well as bit error rate performance, in the molecular communication system. Based on the interference analysis, we formulate the resource allocation problem as a non-cooperative molecule emission control game, where the Nash equilibrium is found and proved to be unique. In order to improve the system efficiency while guaranteeing fairness, we further model the resource allocation problem using a cooperative game based on the Nash bargaining solution, which is proved to be proportionally fair. Simulation results show that the Nash bargaining solution can effectively ensure fairness among multiple nanomachines while achieving comparable social welfare performance with the centralized scheme.

  11. Strategy elimination in games with interaction structures

    Witzel, A.; Apt, K.R.; Zvesper, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We study games in the presence of an interaction structure, which allows players to communicate their preferences, assuming that each player initially only knows his own preferences. We study the outcomes of iterated elimination of strictly dominated strategies (IESDS) that can be obtained in any

  12. Distraction sneakers decrease the expected level of aggression within groups: a game-theoretic model.

    Dubois, Frédérique; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain; Hamilton, Ian M; Grant, James W A; Lefebvre, Louis

    2004-08-01

    Hawk-dove games have been extensively used to predict the conditions under which group-living animals should defend their resources against potential usurpers. Typically, game-theoretic models on aggression consider that resource defense may entail energetic and injury costs. However, intruders may also take advantage of owners who are busy fighting to sneak access to unguarded resources, imposing thereby an additional cost on the use of the escalated hawk strategy. In this article we modify the two-strategy hawk-dove game into a three-strategy hawk-dove-sneaker game that incorporates a distraction-sneaking tactic, allowing us to explore its consequences on the expected level of aggression within groups. Our model predicts a lower proportion of hawks and hence lower frequencies of aggressive interactions within groups than do previous two-strategy hawk-dove games. The extent to which distraction sneakers decrease the frequency of aggression within groups, however, depends on whether they search only for opportunities to join resources uncovered by other group members or for both unchallenged resources and opportunities to usurp.

  13. Cooperation, norms, and revolutions: a unified game-theoretical approach.

    Dirk Helbing

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooperation is of utmost importance to society as a whole, but is often challenged by individual self-interests. While game theory has studied this problem extensively, there is little work on interactions within and across groups with different preferences or beliefs. Yet, people from different social or cultural backgrounds often meet and interact. This can yield conflict, since behavior that is considered cooperative by one population might be perceived as non-cooperative from the viewpoint of another. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the dynamics and outcome of the competitive interactions within and between groups, we study game-dynamical replicator equations for multiple populations with incompatible interests and different power (be this due to different population sizes, material resources, social capital, or other factors. These equations allow us to address various important questions: For example, can cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma be promoted, when two interacting groups have different preferences? Under what conditions can costly punishment, or other mechanisms, foster the evolution of norms? When does cooperation fail, leading to antagonistic behavior, conflict, or even revolutions? And what incentives are needed to reach peaceful agreements between groups with conflicting interests? CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our detailed quantitative analysis reveals a large variety of interesting results, which are relevant for society, law and economics, and have implications for the evolution of language and culture as well.

  14. N-barN interaction theoretical models

    Loiseau, B.

    1991-12-01

    In the framework of antinucleon-nucleon interaction theoretical models, our present understanding on the N-barN interaction is discussed, either from quark- or/and meson- and baryon-degrees of freedom, by considering the N-barN annihilation into mesons and the N-barN elastic and charge-exchange scattering. (author) 52 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Game theory decisions, interaction and evolution

    Webb, James N

    2007-01-01

    This introduction to game theory is written from a mathematical perspective. Its primary purpose is to be a first course for undergraduate students of mathematics, but it also contains material which will be of interest to advanced students or researchers in biology and economics. The outstanding feature of the book is that it provides a unified account of three types of decision problem: Situations involving a single decision-maker: in which a sequence of choices is to be made in "a game against nature". This introduces the basic ideas of optimality and decision processes. Classical game theory: in which the interactions of two or more decision-makers are considered. This leads to the concept of the Nash equilibrium. Evolutionary game theory: in which the changing structure of a population of interacting decision makers is considered. This leads to the ideas of evolutionarily stable strategies and replicator dynamics. An understanding of basic calculus and probability is assumed but no prior knowledge of gam...

  16. A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Attack Prediction

    Peng Liu

    2005-11-28

    The area investigated by this project is cyber attack prediction. With a focus on correlation-based prediction, current attack prediction methodologies overlook the strategic nature of cyber attack-defense scenarios. As a result, current cyber attack prediction methodologies are very limited in predicting strategic behaviors of attackers in enforcing nontrivial cyber attacks such as DDoS attacks, and may result in low accuracy in correlation-based predictions. This project develops a game theoretic framework for cyber attack prediction, where an automatic game-theory-based attack prediction method is proposed. Being able to quantitatively predict the likelihood of (sequences of) attack actions, our attack prediction methodology can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers and may greatly improve the accuracy of correlation-based prediction. To our best knowledge, this project develops the first comprehensive framework for incentive-based modeling and inference of attack intent, objectives, and strategies; and this project develops the first method that can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers. The significance of this research and the benefit to the public can be demonstrated to certain extent by (a) the severe threat of cyber attacks to the critical infrastructures of the nation, including many infrastructures overseen by the Department of Energy, (b) the importance of cyber security to critical infrastructure protection, and (c) the importance of cyber attack prediction to achieving cyber security.

  17. Game theoretical analysis of safeguards effectiveness. Pt. 3

    Avenhaus, R.; Canty, M.J.

    1989-12-01

    In Part 1 of the present study on safeguards effectiveness it was shown that for attribute sampling problems the guaranteed probability of detection can be used as a measure for the effectiveness of safeguards procedures. In Part 2 this measure was used for variable sampling problems, with given false alarm probabilities as boundary conditions. In Part 3 we show that the measure can be justified by appropriate game theoretical models. Furthermore, we show that, for attribute sampling, the equilibrium strategy of the operator is legal behavior if appropriate effort conditions are fulfilled, whether or not the inspector announces his strategy in advance. For variable sampling, legal behavior is equilibrium strategy of the operator only if the inspector announces his strategy. (orig.)

  18. Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction

    Watts , Cody; Sharlin , Ehud; Woytiuk , Peter

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Increasingly, the movements of players' physical bodies are being used as a method of controlling and playing video games. This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games; multiplayer games which players control by physically touching their partners. Although a small number of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed, the best practices for creating video games based on this unconventional interaction technique re...

  19. Mobile Gaming and Student Interactions in a Science Center: The Future of Gaming in Science Education

    Atwood-Blaine, Dana; Huffman, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the impact of an augmented reality iPad-based mobile game, called The Great STEM Caper, on students' interaction at a science center. An open-source, location-based game platform called ARIS (i.e. Augmented Reality and Interactive Storytelling) was used to create an iPad-based mobile game. The game used QR scan codes and a…

  20. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security networks, air traffic and emergency departments

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the roles of intelligent agents in networks, air traffic and emergency departments, this volume focuses on congestion in systems where safety and security are at stake, devoting special attention to applying game theoretic analysis of congestion to: protocols in wired and wireless networks; power generation, air transportation and emergency department overcrowding. Reviewing exhaustively the key recent research into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding, and safety and security elements, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between the different research approaches and serves to lay the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both way...

  1. Promoting Sex Education Among Teenagers Through an Interactive Game: Reasons for Success and Implications.

    Chu, Samuel Kai Wah; Kwan, Alvin C M; Reynolds, Rebecca; Mellecker, Robin R; Tam, Frankie; Lee, Grace; Hong, Athena; Leung, Ching Yin

    2015-06-01

    A game application, "Making Smart Choices", was developed to fill the gap of limited easy-to-access resources available on sex education in Hong Kong and to disseminate correct knowledge and positive attitudes toward sex to teenagers using popular platforms such as tablets, Facebook, and the Web. Three versions of the game (iPAD, Facebook, and Web-based) were developed using HTML5. A theoretical framework that involved game-based learning and participatory design approach was used to design, develop, modify, and optimize the game for use with secondary school students (n=1176) 12-16 years of age. Pre- and post-test scores of students' safer sex knowledge were compared to test the effectiveness of the game. Students' survey and interviews were analyzed to assess participant feelings and attitudes toward the game. The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test indicated that students' sex knowledge (n=788) improved with a medium effect size (0.477) after playing the game. Increases in positive attitudes toward sex and relationship and in awareness of making smart sexual choices were reported from student surveys and interviews. Students described the game as "interesting," "interactive," "informative," and "real-to-life." We advocate that the participatory design approach, which supports collaborative efforts of different stakeholders, is an effective framework for developing game-based learning tools for sex education. Our work provides preliminary findings that suggest game-based learning, preferably delivered through popular interactive platforms, can be effective in promoting sex education to teenagers.

  2. Towards a Game-Chatbot: Extending the Interaction in Serious Games

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Eikelboom, Johan; Bloemers, Erik; Van Winzum, Kees; Spronck, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P., Eikelboom, J., Bloemers, E., Van Winzum, K., & Spronck, P. (2012). Towards a Game-Chatbot: Extending the Interaction in Serious Games. In P. Felicia (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Games Based Learning (pp. 525-532). October, 4-5, 2012, Cork, Ireland. Academic Publishing International Limited, Reading, UK.

  3. It's All Part of the Game: Video Game Interaction Design and Business Performance.

    Shirinian, Ara

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of positive video game experiences and designs that can create them, including immediacy of feedback, allowing graceful recovery from mistakes, high-quality feedback, and input device mappings. Examines interface complexity. Concludes game designers must treat the interaction between human and video game as a formal…

  4. Towards a Game-Chatbot: Extending the Interaction in Serious Games

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Eikelboom, Johan; Bloemers, Erik; Van Winzum, Kees; Spronck, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P., Eikelboom, J., Bloemers, E., Van Winzum, K., & Spronck, P. (2012, 4-5 October). Towards a Game-Chatbot: Extending the Interaction in Serious Games. Presentation at the 6th European Conference on Games Based Learning, Cork, Ireland.

  5. Towards a Game-Chatbot: Extending the Interaction in Serious Games

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Eikelboom, Johan; Bloemers, Erik; Van Winzum, Kees; Spronck, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P., Eikelboom, J., Bloemers, E., Van Winzum, K., & Spronck, P. (2012). Towards a Game-Chatbot: Extending the Interaction in Serious Games. In P. Felicia (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Games Based Learning (pp. 525-532). October, 4-5, 2012, Cork, Ireland. Academic

  6. A Game Theoretic Approach to Nuclear Security Analysis against Insider Threat

    Kim, Kyonam; Kim, So Young; Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Schneider, Erich [Univ. of Texas at Austin, Texas (United States)

    2014-05-15

    As individuals with authorized access to a facility and system who use their trusted position for unauthorized purposes, insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also capitalize on their knowledge to exploit any vulnerabilities in safety-related systems, with cyber security of safety-critical information technology systems offering an important example of the 3S interface. While this Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) approach is appropriate for describing fundamentally random events like component failure of a safety system, it does not capture the adversary's intentions, nor does it account for adversarial response and adaptation to defensive investments. To address these issues of intentionality and interactions, this study adopts a game theoretic approach. The interaction between defender and adversary is modeled as a two-person Stackelberg game. The optimal strategy of both players is found from the equilibrium of this game. A defender strategy consists of a set of design modifications and/or post-construction security upgrades. An attacker strategy involves selection of a target as well as a pathway to that target. In this study, application of the game theoretic approach is demonstrated using a simplified test case problem. Novel to our approach is the modeling of insider threat that affects the non-detection probability of an adversary. The game-theoretic approach has the advantage of modelling an intelligent adversary who has an intention and complete knowledge of the facility. In this study, we analyzed the expected adversarial path and security upgrades with a limited budget with insider threat modeled as increasing the non-detection probability. Our test case problem categorized three groups of adversary paths assisted by insiders and derived the largest insider threat in terms of the budget for security upgrades. Certainly more work needs to be done to

  7. A Game Theoretic Approach to Nuclear Security Analysis against Insider Threat

    Kim, Kyonam; Kim, So Young; Yim, Mansung; Schneider, Erich

    2014-01-01

    As individuals with authorized access to a facility and system who use their trusted position for unauthorized purposes, insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also capitalize on their knowledge to exploit any vulnerabilities in safety-related systems, with cyber security of safety-critical information technology systems offering an important example of the 3S interface. While this Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) approach is appropriate for describing fundamentally random events like component failure of a safety system, it does not capture the adversary's intentions, nor does it account for adversarial response and adaptation to defensive investments. To address these issues of intentionality and interactions, this study adopts a game theoretic approach. The interaction between defender and adversary is modeled as a two-person Stackelberg game. The optimal strategy of both players is found from the equilibrium of this game. A defender strategy consists of a set of design modifications and/or post-construction security upgrades. An attacker strategy involves selection of a target as well as a pathway to that target. In this study, application of the game theoretic approach is demonstrated using a simplified test case problem. Novel to our approach is the modeling of insider threat that affects the non-detection probability of an adversary. The game-theoretic approach has the advantage of modelling an intelligent adversary who has an intention and complete knowledge of the facility. In this study, we analyzed the expected adversarial path and security upgrades with a limited budget with insider threat modeled as increasing the non-detection probability. Our test case problem categorized three groups of adversary paths assisted by insiders and derived the largest insider threat in terms of the budget for security upgrades. Certainly more work needs to be done to

  8. A SVM bases AI design for interactive gaming

    Jiang, Yang; Jiang, Jianmin; Palmer, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Interactive gaming requires automatic processing on large volume of random data produced by players on spot, such as shooting, football kicking, boxing etc. In this paper, we describe an artificial intelligence approach in processing such random data for interactive gaming by using a one-class support vector machine (OC-SVM). In comparison with existing techniques, our OC-SVM based interactive gaming design has the features of: (i): high speed processing, providing instant response to the pla...

  9. Merging Theoretical Models and Therapy Approaches in the Context of Internet Gaming Disorder: A Personal Perspective

    Young, Kimberly S.; Brand, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Although, it is not yet officially recognized as a clinical entity which is diagnosable, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been included in section III for further study in the DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013). This is important because there is increasing evidence that people of all ages, in particular teens and young adults, are facing very real and sometimes very severe consequences in daily life resulting from an addictive use of online games. This article summarizes general aspects of IGD including diagnostic criteria and arguments for the classification as an addictive disorder including evidence from neurobiological studies. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, this paper examines the use of one recently proposed model, the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model, for inspiring future research and for developing new treatment protocols for IGD. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework that explains symptoms of Internet addiction by looking at interactions between predisposing factors, moderators, and mediators in combination with reduced executive functioning and diminished decision making. Finally, the paper discusses how current treatment protocols focusing on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Internet addiction (CBT-IA) fit with the processes hypothesized in the I-PACE model. PMID:29104555

  10. Merging Theoretical Models and Therapy Approaches in the Context of Internet Gaming Disorder: A Personal Perspective.

    Young, Kimberly S; Brand, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Although, it is not yet officially recognized as a clinical entity which is diagnosable, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been included in section III for further study in the DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013). This is important because there is increasing evidence that people of all ages, in particular teens and young adults, are facing very real and sometimes very severe consequences in daily life resulting from an addictive use of online games. This article summarizes general aspects of IGD including diagnostic criteria and arguments for the classification as an addictive disorder including evidence from neurobiological studies. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, this paper examines the use of one recently proposed model, the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model, for inspiring future research and for developing new treatment protocols for IGD. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework that explains symptoms of Internet addiction by looking at interactions between predisposing factors, moderators, and mediators in combination with reduced executive functioning and diminished decision making. Finally, the paper discusses how current treatment protocols focusing on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Internet addiction (CBT-IA) fit with the processes hypothesized in the I-PACE model.

  11. Merging Theoretical Models and Therapy Approaches in the Context of Internet Gaming Disorder: A Personal Perspective

    Kimberly S. Young

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although, it is not yet officially recognized as a clinical entity which is diagnosable, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD has been included in section III for further study in the DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013. This is important because there is increasing evidence that people of all ages, in particular teens and young adults, are facing very real and sometimes very severe consequences in daily life resulting from an addictive use of online games. This article summarizes general aspects of IGD including diagnostic criteria and arguments for the classification as an addictive disorder including evidence from neurobiological studies. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, this paper examines the use of one recently proposed model, the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE model, for inspiring future research and for developing new treatment protocols for IGD. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework that explains symptoms of Internet addiction by looking at interactions between predisposing factors, moderators, and mediators in combination with reduced executive functioning and diminished decision making. Finally, the paper discusses how current treatment protocols focusing on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Internet addiction (CBT-IA fit with the processes hypothesized in the I-PACE model.

  12. Does Digital Game Interactivity Always Promote Self-Efficacy?

    Lee, Yu-Hao

    2015-11-01

    Interactive digital games can promote self-efficacy by engaging players in enactive and observational learning. However, interactivity does not always lead to greater self-efficacy. Important constructs in social cognitive theory, such as performance outcome and perceived similarity, are often not accounted for in studies that have tested the effect of digital game interactivity on self-efficacy. This study assessed the effects of interactive digital games compared with passive digital games based on video comparison, a common experimental design used to test the effect of digital game interactivity on self-efficacy. In addition, this study also evaluated player performance and measured perceived similarity to the observed player. Findings suggested that in general, digital game interactivity predicted higher self-efficacy compared with noninteractive passive games. However, in the noninteractive conditions, the effects of performance on self-efficacy were moderated by perceived similarity between the observer and the observed player. When the observed player was perceived to be similar to the observer, the effects of performance on self-efficacy were comparable to the interactive game, but when the observed player was perceived as dissimilar to the observer, observing the dissimilar player failed to increase observer self-efficacy. Implications for interactivity manipulations and game developers are discussed.

  13. A game theoretic framework for analyzing re-identification risk.

    Zhiyu Wan

    Full Text Available Given the potential wealth of insights in personal data the big databases can provide, many organizations aim to share data while protecting privacy by sharing de-identified data, but are concerned because various demonstrations show such data can be re-identified. Yet these investigations focus on how attacks can be perpetrated, not the likelihood they will be realized. This paper introduces a game theoretic framework that enables a publisher to balance re-identification risk with the value of sharing data, leveraging a natural assumption that a recipient only attempts re-identification if its potential gains outweigh the costs. We apply the framework to a real case study, where the value of the data to the publisher is the actual grant funding dollar amounts from a national sponsor and the re-identification gain of the recipient is the fine paid to a regulator for violation of federal privacy rules. There are three notable findings: 1 it is possible to achieve zero risk, in that the recipient never gains from re-identification, while sharing almost as much data as the optimal solution that allows for a small amount of risk; 2 the zero-risk solution enables sharing much more data than a commonly invoked de-identification policy of the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA; and 3 a sensitivity analysis demonstrates these findings are robust to order-of-magnitude changes in player losses and gains. In combination, these findings provide support that such a framework can enable pragmatic policy decisions about de-identified data sharing.

  14. A Game-Theoretic Model of Grounding for Referential Communication Tasks

    Thompson, William

    2009-01-01

    Conversational grounding theory proposes that language use is a form of rational joint action, by which dialog participants systematically and collaboratively add to their common ground of shared knowledge and beliefs. Following recent work applying "game theory" to pragmatics, this thesis develops a game-theoretic model of grounding that…

  15. Strategic interactions: Games of the Ju|'hoan.

    de Voogt, Alex

    2017-12-01

    Three strategic games played by the Ju|'hoan-a board, a card, and a gesture game-complicate the rhetorics that suggest an evolutionary or psychological significance of play. They are mostly played by adults, although every individual adult does not necessarily engage in each game. The Ju|'hoan card and board game practices were transmitted through contact across large parts of Botswana and Namibia, while the gesture game n!àì has been known in other San communities. It suggests that the significance of strategic games is more likely found in its potential for social interaction (i.e., allowing to overcome cultural divides) than in evolution and psychology. Within the anthropological literature, strategy games were thought to be absent in egalitarian societies, such as that of the Ju|'hoan. Here, the roles of power, competition, and winning were thought to be disruptive and unwanted. A closer examination of the details behind the Ju|'hoan games shows that not only were strategy games adopted and adapted from neighboring societies but that the game of n!àì was developed by the Ju|'hoan into a competitive one. The evolutionary or psychological significance of play is informed by studies on individual play, children's play, and games with informal rules. When considering strategic games throughout history, it is their role of facilitator rather than the playing practice itself that makes games relevant across languages, cultural divides, and sociopolitical boundaries.

  16. Interactive game programming with Python (CodeSkulptor)

    Ajayi, Richard Olugbenga

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, several types of gaming platforms have been created to encourage a more organised and friendly atmosphere for game lovers in various works of life, culture, and environment. This thesis focuses on the concept of interactive programming using Python. It encourages the use of Python to create simple interactive games applications based on basic human concept and ideas. CodeSkulptor is a browser-based IDE programming environment and uses the Python programming language. O...

  17. Guest editorial: Brain/neuronal computer games interfaces and interaction

    Coyle, D.; Principe, J.; Lotte, F.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays brainwave or electroencephalogram (EEG) controlled games controllers are adding new options to satisfy the continual demand for new ways to interact with games, following trends such as the Nintendo® Wii, Microsoft® Kinect and Playstation® Move which are based on accelerometers and motion capture. EEG-based brain-computer games interaction are controlled through brain-computer interface (BCI) technology which requires sophisticated signal processing to produce a low communication ban...

  18. Studying Economic Space: Synthesis of Balance and Game-Theoretic Methods of Modelling

    Natalia Gennadyevna Zakharchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces questions about development of models used to study economic space. The author proposes the model that combines balance and game-theoretic methods for estimating system effects of economic agents’ interactions in multi-level economic space. The model is applied to research interactions between economic agents that are spatially heterogeneous within the Russian Far East. In the model the economic space of region is considered in a territorial dimension (the first level of decomposing space and also in territorial and product dimensions (the second level of decomposing space. The paper shows the mechanism of system effects formation that exists in the economic space of region. The author estimates system effects, analyses the real allocation of these effects between economic agents and identifies three types of local industrial markets: with zero, positive and negative system effects

  19. ARZombie: A Mobile Augmented Reality Game with Multimodal Interaction

    Diogo Cordeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality games have the power to extend virtual gaming into real world scenarios with real people, while enhancing the senses of the user. This paper describes the AR- Zombie game developed with the aim of studying and developing mobile augmented reality applications, specifically for tablets, using face recognition interaction techniques. The goal of the ARZombie player is to kill zombies that are detected through the display of the device. Instead of using markers as a mean of tracking the zombies, this game incorporates a facial recognition system, which will enhance the user experience by improving the interaction of players with the real world. As the player moves around the environment, the game will display virtual zombies on the screen if the detected faces are recognized as belonging to the class of the zombies. ARZombie was tested with users to evaluate the interaction proposals and its components were evaluated regarding the performance in order to ensure a better gaming experience.

  20. Game-theoretic perspective of Ping-Pong protocol

    Kaur, Hargeet; Kumar, Atul

    2018-01-01

    We analyse Ping-Pong protocol from the point of view of a game. The analysis helps us in understanding the different strategies of a sender and an eavesdropper to gain the maximum payoff in the game. The study presented here characterizes strategies that lead to different Nash equilibriums. We further demonstrate the condition for Pareto optimality depending on the parameters used in the game. Moreover, we also analysed LM05 protocol and compared it with PP protocol from the point of view of a generic two-way QKD game with or without entanglement. Our results provide a deeper understanding of general two-way QKD protocols in terms of the security and payoffs of different stakeholders in the protocol.

  1. Theoretical considerations on multiparton interactions in QCD

    Diehl, Markus; Schaefer, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    We investigate several ingredients for a theory of multiple hard scattering in hadronhadron collisions. Issues discussed include the space-time structure of multiple interactions, their power behavior, spin and color correlations, interference terms, scale evolution and Sudakov logarithms. We discuss possibilities to constrain multiparton distributions by lattice calculations and by connecting them with generalized parton distributions. We show that the behavior of two-parton distributions at small interparton distances leads to problems with ultraviolet divergences and with double counting, which requires modification of the presently available theoretical framework. (orig.)

  2. Theoretical considerations on multiparton interactions in QCD

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Schaefer, Andreas [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2011-02-15

    We investigate several ingredients for a theory of multiple hard scattering in hadronhadron collisions. Issues discussed include the space-time structure of multiple interactions, their power behavior, spin and color correlations, interference terms, scale evolution and Sudakov logarithms. We discuss possibilities to constrain multiparton distributions by lattice calculations and by connecting them with generalized parton distributions. We show that the behavior of two-parton distributions at small interparton distances leads to problems with ultraviolet divergences and with double counting, which requires modification of the presently available theoretical framework. (orig.)

  3. Theoretical considerations on multiparton interactions in QCD

    Diehl, Markus; Schaefer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We investigate several ingredients for a theory of multiple hard scattering in hadron-hadron collisions. Issues discussed include the space-time structure of multiple interactions, their power behavior, spin and color correlations, interference terms, scale evolution and Sudakov logarithms. We discuss possibilities to constrain multiparton distributions by lattice calculations and by connecting them with generalized parton distributions. We show that the behavior of two-parton distributions at small interparton distances leads to problems with ultraviolet divergences and with double counting, which requires modification of the presently available theoretical framework.

  4. Mapping between Classical Risk Management and Game Theoretical Approaches

    Rajbhandari , Lisa; Snekkenes , Einar ,

    2011-01-01

    Part 2: Work in Progress; International audience; In a typical classical risk assessment approach, the probabilities are usually guessed and not much guidance is provided on how to get the probabilities right. When coming up with probabilities, people are generally not well calibrated. History may not always be a very good teacher. Hence, in this paper, we explain how game theory can be integrated into classical risk management. Game theory puts emphasis on collecting representative data on h...

  5. SWING - Simulation, Workshops, Interactive Environments and Gaming

    Mabogunje, Ade; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Ozgur, Eris

    2006-01-01

    Simple games are often used as illustrative elements in teaching and learning activities. However, there could be a different way to regard games and evaluate their effects in terms of learning mediation. Younger people have experienced that electronic gaming has gone from a minority activity a few...

  6. Theoretical aspects of business role-playing game for senior students

    Faychuk Olena Leonidivna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with some theoretically grounded features of the business role-playing game determined to improve the learning process of senior students (specialization «Social work». The authors give the classification of business role-playing games, benefits and effective application of the rules of role-plays, and possibilities of using them in the learning process. Business role-playing games provide students’ initiative, emotional saturation of the learning process and help to assimilate the basic theoretical knowledge.

  7. Linear game non-contextuality and Bell inequalities—a graph-theoretic approach

    Rosicka, M; Ramanathan, R; Gnaciński, P; Horodecki, M; Horodecki, K; Horodecki, P; Severini, S

    2016-01-01

    We study the classical and quantum values of a class of one- and two-party unique games, that generalizes the well-known XOR games to the case of non-binary outcomes. In the bipartite case the generalized XOR (XOR-d) games we study are a subclass of the well-known linear games. We introduce a ‘constraint graph’ associated to such a game, with the constraints defining the game represented by an edge-coloring of the graph. We use the graph-theoretic characterization to relate the task of finding equivalent games to the notion of signed graphs and switching equivalence from graph theory. We relate the problem of computing the classical value of single-party anti-correlation XOR games to finding the edge bipartization number of a graph, which is known to be MaxSNP hard, and connect the computation of the classical value of XOR-d games to the identification of specific cycles in the graph. We construct an orthogonality graph of the game from the constraint graph and study its Lovász theta number as a general upper bound on the quantum value even in the case of single-party contextual XOR-d games. XOR-d games possess appealing properties for use in device-independent applications such as randomness of the local correlated outcomes in the optimal quantum strategy. We study the possibility of obtaining quantum algebraic violation of these games, and show that no finite XOR-d game possesses the property of pseudo-telepathy leaving the frequently used chained Bell inequalities as the natural candidates for such applications. We also show this lack of pseudo-telepathy for multi-party XOR-type inequalities involving two-body correlation functions. (paper)

  8. Linear game non-contextuality and Bell inequalities—a graph-theoretic approach

    Rosicka, M.; Ramanathan, R.; Gnaciński, P.; Horodecki, K.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Severini, S.

    2016-04-01

    We study the classical and quantum values of a class of one- and two-party unique games, that generalizes the well-known XOR games to the case of non-binary outcomes. In the bipartite case the generalized XOR (XOR-d) games we study are a subclass of the well-known linear games. We introduce a ‘constraint graph’ associated to such a game, with the constraints defining the game represented by an edge-coloring of the graph. We use the graph-theoretic characterization to relate the task of finding equivalent games to the notion of signed graphs and switching equivalence from graph theory. We relate the problem of computing the classical value of single-party anti-correlation XOR games to finding the edge bipartization number of a graph, which is known to be MaxSNP hard, and connect the computation of the classical value of XOR-d games to the identification of specific cycles in the graph. We construct an orthogonality graph of the game from the constraint graph and study its Lovász theta number as a general upper bound on the quantum value even in the case of single-party contextual XOR-d games. XOR-d games possess appealing properties for use in device-independent applications such as randomness of the local correlated outcomes in the optimal quantum strategy. We study the possibility of obtaining quantum algebraic violation of these games, and show that no finite XOR-d game possesses the property of pseudo-telepathy leaving the frequently used chained Bell inequalities as the natural candidates for such applications. We also show this lack of pseudo-telepathy for multi-party XOR-type inequalities involving two-body correlation functions.

  9. Genre, technology and embodied interaction: The evolution of digital game genres and motion gaming

    Andreas Gregersen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology has been given relatively little attention in genre theory, but this article argues that material technologies can be important components in genre development. The argument is based on a historically informed analysis of digital games, with special attention paid to home console video games and recent genre developments within this domain commonly referred to as motion gaming. The main point is that digital game genres imply structured embodied activity. A constitutive element of digital game mediation is a control interface geared to player embodiment, and I propose the concept of ‘interaction modes’ to describe the coupling of technology and player embodiment and show how this can be integrated with genre theory. The resulting framework allows for increased attention to continuity and change in game and communication genres, material and digital technologies, and the related interaction modes.

  10. A game-theoretical model of private power production

    Xing, W.; Wu, F.F.

    2001-01-01

    Private power production has sprung up all over the world. The build-operate-transfer (BOT) arrangement has emerged as one of the most important options for private power production, especially in developing countries with rapidly growing demand and financial shortages. Based on oligopoly theory, the paper proposes a Stackelberg game model between a BOT investor and an electric utility whereby they can negotiate a long-term energy contract. Asymmetric pricing schemes are taken into account such that a host utility purchases electricity from a BOT company at its ''avoided cost'', and sells its electricity to end users at its ''average cost''. Our Stackelberg game model is transferred into a two-level optimization problem, and then solved by an iterative algorithm. The game model is demonstrated by an illustrative example. (author)

  11. A Game-theoretic View on Behavioural Visualisation

    Westergaard, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To bridge the gap between domain experts and formal methods experts, visualisations of the behaviour of formal models are used to let the domain expert understand and experiment with the formal model. In this paper we provide a definition of visualisations, founded in game-theory, which regards v...... visualisations as transition systems synchronised with formal models. We show example visualisations, use them to show winning strategies of games, and demonstrate how an industrial application of formal models benefited from this approach.......To bridge the gap between domain experts and formal methods experts, visualisations of the behaviour of formal models are used to let the domain expert understand and experiment with the formal model. In this paper we provide a definition of visualisations, founded in game-theory, which regards...

  12. A game-theoretical model of private power production

    Xing, W.; Wu, F.F. [University of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2001-03-01

    Private power production has sprung up all over the world. The build-operate-transfer (BOT) arrangement has emerged as one of the most important options for private power production, especially in developing countries with rapidly growing demand and financial shortages. Based on oligopoly theory, the paper proposes a Stackelberg game model between a BOT investor and an electric utility whereby they can negotiate a long-term energy contract. Asymmetric pricing schemes are taken into account such that a host utility purchases electricity from a BOT company at its ''avoided cost'', and sells its electricity to end users at its ''average cost''. Our Stackelberg game model is transferred into a two-level optimization problem, and then solved by an iterative algorithm. The game model is demonstrated by an illustrative example. (author)

  13. Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative......, and by doing so they create in humans what in modern play theory is known as a “state of play”...

  14. A Game Theoretical Approach for Solving Winner Determination Problems

    Chen-Kun Tsung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the winners in combinatorial auctions to maximize the auctioneer's revenue is an NP-complete problem. Computing an optimal solution requires huge computation time in some instances. In this paper, we apply three concepts of the game theory to design an approximation algorithm: the stability of the Nash equilibrium, the self-learning of the evolutionary game, and the mistake making of the trembling hand assumption. According to our simulation results, the proposed algorithm produces near-optimal solutions in terms of the auctioneer's revenue. Moreover, reasonable computation time is another advantage of applying the proposed algorithm to the real-world services.

  15. A survey of game-theoretic models of cooperative advertising

    Jørgensen, Steffen; Zaccour, G.

    2014-01-01

    environments. We also find that the work on static models is quite homogeneous, in the sense that most papers employ the same basic consumer demand specification and address the same situations of vertical integration and noncooperative games with simultaneous or sequential actions. The work on dynamic...

  16. Set-Theoretic Inequalities in Stochastic Noncooperative Games with Coalition

    Ailada Treerattrakoon

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We model and analyze antagonistic stochastic games of three players, two of whom form a coalition against the third one. The actions of the players are modeled by random walk processes recording the cumulative damages to each player at any moment of time. The game continues until the single player or the coalition is defeated. The defeat of any particular player takes place when the associated process (representing the collateral damage crosses a fixed threshold. Once the threshold is exceeded at some time, the associated player exits the game. All involved processes are being “observed by a third party process” so that the information regarding the status of all players is restricted to those special epochs. Furthermore, all processed are modulated (with their parameters being modified in due course of the game. We obtain a closed form joint functional of the named processes at key reference points.

  17. Understanding Protein Synthesis: An Interactive Card Game Discussion

    Lewis, Alison; Peat, Mary; Franklin, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a complex process and students find it difficult to understand. This article describes an interactive discussion "game" used by first year biology students at the University of Sydney. The students, in small groups, use the game in which the processes of protein synthesis are actioned by the students during a…

  18. Social Interaction in a Cooperative Brain-computer Interface Game

    Obbink, Michel; Gürkök, Hayrettin; Plass - Oude Bos, D.; Hakvoort, Gido; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Camurri, Antonio; Costa, Cristina

    Does using a brain-computer interface (BCI) influence the social interaction between people when playing a cooperative game? By measuring the amount of speech, utterances, instrumental gestures and empathic gestures during a cooperative game where two participants had to reach a certain goal, and

  19. Guest editorial: Brain/neuronal computer games interfaces and interaction

    Coyle, D.; Principe, J.; Lotte, F.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays brainwave or electroencephalogram (EEG) controlled games controllers are adding new options to satisfy the continual demand for new ways to interact with games, following trends such as the Nintendo® Wii, Microsoft® Kinect and Playstation® Move which are based on accelerometers and motion

  20. Digital Gaming Perspectives of Older Adults: Content vs. Interaction

    Marston, Hannah R.

    2013-01-01

    There were two objectives to this study: (a) to establish flow and (2) to establish whether computer game interaction or content was important to the older adult, using the Nintendo Wii and the Sony PlayStation 2 consoles. An earlier study had identified the sports genre as a preference, and three games (golf, tennis, and boxing) were selected…

  1. Interactive Music Video Games and Children's Musical Development

    Gower, Lily; McDowall, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Interactive music video games are a readily available, mainstream technology but they are not generally seen as educative tools. Nor are they established within school teaching and learning environments. This study investigated children's use of these games from a music education perspective. Nine children, aged 9-11 years, and two specialist…

  2. Spatial interaction models facility location using game theory

    D'Amato, Egidio; Pardalos, Panos

    2017-01-01

    Facility location theory develops the idea of locating one or more facilities by optimizing suitable criteria such as minimizing transportation cost, or capturing the largest market share. The contributions in this book focus an approach to facility location theory through game theoretical tools highlighting situations where a location decision is faced by several decision makers and leading to a game theoretical framework in non-cooperative and cooperative methods. Models and methods regarding the facility location via game theory are explored and applications are illustrated through economics, engineering, and physics. Mathematicians, engineers, economists and computer scientists working in theory, applications and computational aspects of facility location problems using game theory will find this book useful.

  3. AN OUTLINE OF INTERACTION TYPES IN PHYSICAL SERIOUS GAMES

    Majgaard, Gunver

    This poster explores a perspective in interaction design for physical serious games. It introduces a model for interaction types: horizontal, vertical and collaborative interaction at user level and developer's level. The thesis is that the richer and more meaningful the interaction is the better...

  4. A study of insider threat in nuclear security analysis using game theoretic modeling

    Kim, Kyo-Nam; Yim, Man-Sung; Schneider, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Implications of an insider threat in nuclear security were quantitatively analyzed. • The analysis was based on of a hypothetical nuclear facility and using game theoretic approach. • Through a sensitivity analysis, vulnerable paths and important parameters were identified. • The methodology can be utilized to prioritize the implementation of PPS improvements in a facility. - Abstract: An Insider poses a greater threat to the security system of a nuclear power plant (NPP) because of their ability to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility, to bypass dedicated security measures. If an insider colludes with an external terrorist group, this poses a key threat to the safety-security interface. However, despite the importance of the insider threat, few studies have been conducted to quantitatively analyze an insider threat. This research examines the quantitative framework for investigating the implications of insider threat, taking a novel approach. Conventional tools assessing the security threats to nuclear facilities focus on a limited number of attack pathways. These are defined by the modeler and are based on simple probabilistic calculations. They do not capture the adversary’s intentions nor do they account for their response and adaptation to defensive investments. As an alternative way of performing physical protection analysis, this research explores the use of game theoretic modeling of Physical Protection Systems (PPS) analysis by incorporating the implications of an insider threat, to address the issues of intentionality and interactions. The game theoretic approach has the advantage of modeling an intelligent adversary and insider who has an intention to do harm and complete knowledge of the facility. Through a quantitative assessment and sensitivity analysis, vulnerable but important parameters in this model were identified. This made it possible to determine which insider threat is more important. The

  5. Game-theoretic characterization of the Gurarii space

    Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 1 (2018), s. 53-59 ISSN 0003-889X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-27844S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : normed space * Banach–Mazur game * Gurarii space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.591, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00013-017-1088-2

  6. Game-theoretic characterization of the Gurarii space

    Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 1 (2018), s. 53-59 ISSN 0003-889X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-27844S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : normed space * Banach–Mazur game * Gurarii space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.591, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/ article /10.1007%2Fs00013-017-1088-2

  7. Video Games and the Militarisation of Society: Towards a Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

    Martino , John

    2012-01-01

    Part 4: Section 3: ICT for Peace and War; International audience; This paper outlines the relationship between military themed or oriented video and computer games and the process of militarisation. A theoretical and analytical framework which draws on elements of sociology, cultural studies and media analysis is required to help to understand the complex interplay between entertainment in the form of playable media, the military and the maintenance of Empire. At one level games can be descri...

  8. An exploratory game-theoretic analysis of biomass electricity generation supply chain

    Nasiri, Fuzhan; Zaccour, Georges

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a game-theoretic approach to model and analyze the process of utilizing biomass for power generation considering three players: distributor, facility developer, and participating farmer. We characterize the Nash equilibrium of the sequential game and discuss its features. A special attention is devoted to the analysis of the impact of incentives and initial target on the equilibrium, in which the biomass is part of electricity production.

  9. Assessing the advantage of morphological changes in Candida albicans: a game theoretical study

    Katarzyna M Tyc

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A range of attributes determines the virulence of human pathogens. During interactions with their hosts, pathogenic microbes often undergo transitions between distinct stages, and the ability to switch between these can be directly related to the disease process. Understanding the mechanisms and dynamics of these transitions is a key factor in understanding and combating infectious diseases. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans exhibits different morphotypes at different stages during the course of infection (candidiasis. For example, hyphae are considered to be the invasive form, which causes tissue damage, while yeast cells are predominant in the commensal stage. Here, we described interactions of C. albicans with its human host in a game theoretic model. In the game, players are fungal cells. Each fungal cell can adopt one of the two strategies: to exist as a yeast or hyphal cell. We characterized the ranges of model parameters in which the coexistence of both yeast and hyphal forms is plausible. Stability analysis of the system showed that, in theory, a reduced ability of the host to specifically recognize yeast and hyphal cells can result in bi-stability of the microbial populations’ profile. Inspired by the model analysis we reasoned that the types of microbial interactions can change during invasive candidiasis. We found that positive cooperation among fungal cells occurs in mild infections and an enhanced tendency to invade the host is associated with negative cooperation. The model can easily be extended to multi-player systems with direct application to identifying individuals that enhance either positive or negative cooperation. Results of the modelling approach have potential application in developing treatment strategies.

  10. Assessing the advantage of morphological changes in Candida albicans: a game theoretical study

    Tyc, Katarzyna M.; Kühn, Clemens; Wilson, Duncan; Klipp, Edda

    2014-01-01

    A range of attributes determines the virulence of human pathogens. During interactions with their hosts, pathogenic microbes often undergo transitions between distinct stages, and the ability to switch between these can be directly related to the disease process. Understanding the mechanisms and dynamics of these transitions is a key factor in understanding and combating infectious diseases. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans exhibits different morphotypes at different stages during the course of infection (candidiasis). For example, hyphae are considered to be the invasive form, which causes tissue damage, while yeast cells are predominant in the commensal stage. Here, we described interactions of C. albicans with its human host in a game theoretic model. In the game, players are fungal cells. Each fungal cell can adopt one of the two strategies: to exist as a yeast or hyphal cell. We characterized the ranges of model parameters in which the coexistence of both yeast and hyphal forms is plausible. Stability analysis of the system showed that, in theory, a reduced ability of the host to specifically recognize yeast and hyphal cells can result in bi-stability of the microbial populations' profile. Inspired by the model analysis we reasoned that the types of microbial interactions can change during invasive candidiasis. We found that positive cooperation among fungal cells occurs in mild infections and an enhanced tendency to invade the host is associated with negative cooperation. The model can easily be extended to multi-player systems with direct application to identifying individuals that enhance either positive or negative cooperation. Results of the modeling approach have potential application in developing treatment strategies. PMID:24567730

  11. A game-theoretic approach to real-time system testing

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a game-theoretic approach to the testing of uncontrollable real-time systems. By modelling the systems with Timed I/O Game Automata and specifying the test purposes as Timed CTL formulas, we employ a recently developed timed game solver UPPAAL-TIGA to synthesize winning...... strategies, and then use these strategies to conduct black-box conformance testing of the systems. The testing process is proved to be sound and complete with respect to the given test purposes. Case study and preliminary experimental results indicate that this is a viable approach to uncontrollable timed...... system testing....

  12. Evolution of Cooperation in Evolutionary Games for Heterogeneous Interactions

    Qian Xiaolan; Yang Junzhong

    2012-01-01

    When a population structure is modelled as a square lattice, the cooperation may be improved for an evolutionary prisoner dilemma game or be inhibited for an evolutionary snowdrift game. In this work, we investigate cooperation in a population on a square lattice where the interaction among players contains both prisoner dilemma game and snowdrift game. The heterogeneity in interaction is introduced to the population in two different ways: the heterogenous character of interaction assigned to every player (HCP) or the heterogenous character of interaction assigned to every link between any two players (HCL). The resonant enhancement of cooperation in the case of HCP is observed while the resonant inhibition of cooperation in the case of HCL is prominent. The explanations on the enhancement or inhibition of cooperation are presented for these two cases. (general)

  13. Interactive floating windows: a new technique for stereoscopic video games

    Zerebecki, Chris; Stanfield, Brodie; Tawadrous, Mina; Buckstein, Daniel; Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill

    2012-03-01

    The film industry has a long history of creating compelling experiences in stereoscopic 3D. Recently, the video game as an artistic medium has matured into an effective way to tell engaging and immersive stories. Given the current push to bring stereoscopic 3D technology into the consumer market there is considerable interest to develop stereoscopic 3D video games. Game developers have largely ignored the need to design their games specifically for stereoscopic 3D and have thus relied on automatic conversion and driver technology. Game developers need to evaluate solutions used in other media, such as film, to correct perceptual problems such as window violations, and modify or create new solutions to work within an interactive framework. In this paper we extend the dynamic floating window technique into the interactive domain enabling the player to position a virtual window in space. Interactively changing the position, size, and the 3D rotation of the virtual window, objects can be made to 'break the mask' dramatically enhancing the stereoscopic effect. By demonstrating that solutions from the film industry can be extended into the interactive space, it is our hope that this initiates further discussion in the game development community to strengthen their story-telling mechanisms in stereoscopic 3D games.

  14. Design sensitivities for interactive sport-training games

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2014-01-01

    and reflected upon. Based on the experiences gained from the design and development process, as well as examples from the existing field and skill acquisition theory, we present three areas of interest to consider for interactive sport-training game designers: Context Characteristics, Movement Patterns...... and Perceptual Reaction. From a discussion of these areas, we derive eight design sensitivities that emphasize issues, challenges and opportunities, important for the design, development and analysis of interactive sport-training games in general.......This paper presents the design and development process of an interactive football-training game that aims to improve players' ball-handling skills, and their ability to simultaneously survey the playing field. A small-scale experiment was conducted to test the game, and the results are presented...

  15. A Theoretical Framework for Serious Game Design: Exploring Pedagogy, Play and Fidelity and Their Implications for the Design Process

    Rooney, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that digital games can provide an engaging, motivating and "fun" experience for students. However an entertaining game does not necessarily constitute a meaningful, valuable learning experience. For this reason, experts espouse the importance of underpinning serious games with a sound theoretical framework which…

  16. Yamove! A Movement Synchrony Game That Choreographs Social Interaction

    Katherine Isbister

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design case study of Yamove!, a well-received dance battle game. The primary aim for the project was to design a mobile-based play experience that enhanced in-person social interaction and connection. The game emphasized the pleasures of mutual, improvised amateur movement choreography at the center of the experience, achieved through a core mechanic of synchronized movement. The project team engaged techniques from the independent ("indie" game development community that proved valuable in tempering the constraints to which technologically driven design can sometimes fall prey. Contributions of this work include (a presentation and discussion of a polished digital game that embodies design knowledge about engaging players in mutual physical improvisation that is socially supported by technology, and (b a case study of a design process influenced by indie game development that may help others interested in creating technologies that choreograph pleasurable intentional human movement in social contexts.

  17. Competitive game theoretic optimal routing in optical networks

    Yassine, Abdulsalam; Kabranov, Ognian; Makrakis, Dimitrios

    2002-09-01

    Optical transport service providers need control and optimization strategies for wavelength management, network provisioning, restoration and protection, allowing them to define and deploy new services and maintain competitiveness. In this paper, we investigate a game theory based model for wavelength and flow assignment in multi wavelength optical networks, consisting of several backbone long-haul optical network transport service providers (TSPs) who are offering their services -in terms of bandwidth- to Internet service providers (ISPs). The ISPs act as brokers or agents between the TSP and end user. The agent (ISP) buys services (bandwidth) from the TSP. The TSPs compete among themselves to sell their services and maintain profitability. We present a case study, demonstrating the impact of different bandwidth broker demands on the supplier's profit and the price paid by the network broker.

  18. Interference Management And Game Theoretic Analysis of Cognitive Radio

    Di Taranto, Rocco

    dynamics between independent primary and cognitive user and to derive rules of local action at the independent cognitive users that result in stable and efficient system operation. We have modeled our scenario via a non-cooperative power control game so that the corresponding Nash equilibriums are taken......Cognitive Radio systems are intended to dynamically access the spectrum that is underutilized by its owner at certain time, geographical location or frequency. Dynamic spectrum access presents a great opportunity to increase the available bandwidth, but it has also posed new challenges...... to the research community. This Ph.D. thesis deals with interference management in Cognitive Radio systems: interference management is a conditio sine qua non for cognitive radio systems, as they can re-use the primary resources underused or not utilized by the respective owners, provided that primary...

  19. Neutrosophic Game Theoretic Approach to Indo-Pak Conflict over Jammu-Kashmir

    Surapati Pramanik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the enduring conflict between India and Pakistan over Jammu and Kashmir since 1947. The ongoing conflict is analyzed as an enduring rivalry; characterized by three major wars (1947-48, 1965, 1971, low intensity military conflict (Siachen, mini war at Kargil (1999, internal insurgency, cross border terrorism. We examine the progress and the status of the dispute, as well as the dynamics of the India Pakistan relationship by considering the influence of USA and China in crisis dynamics. We discuss the possible solutions offered by the various study groups and persons. Most of the studies were done in crisp environment. Pramanik and Roy (S. Pramanik and T.K. Roy, Game theoretic model to the Jammu-Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan. International Journal of Mathematical Archive (IJMA, 4(8 (2013, 162-170. studied game theoretic model toJammu and Kashmir conflict in crisp environment. In the present study we have extended the concept of the game theoric model of the Jammu and Kashmir conflict in neutrosophic envirorment. We have explored the possibilities and developed arguments for an application of principle of neutrosophic game theory to understand properly of the Jammu and Kashmir conflict in terms of goals and strategy of either side. Standard 2×2 zero-sum game theoretic model used to identify an optimal solution.

  20. Decision support models for solid waste management: Review and game-theoretic approaches

    Karmperis, Athanasios C.; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The mainly used decision support frameworks for solid waste management are reviewed. ► The LCA, CBA and MCDM models are presented and their strengths, weaknesses, similarities and possible combinations are analyzed. ► The game-theoretic approach in a solid waste management context is presented. ► The waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework. ► Cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches to decision support for solid waste management are discussed. - Abstract: This paper surveys decision support models that are commonly used in the solid waste management area. Most models are mainly developed within three decision support frameworks, which are the life-cycle assessment, the cost–benefit analysis and the multi-criteria decision-making. These frameworks are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses as well as their critical issues are analyzed, while their possible combinations and extensions are also discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents how cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches can be used for the purpose of modeling and analyzing decision-making in situations with multiple stakeholders. Specifically, since a waste management model is sustainable when considering not only environmental and economic but also social aspects, the waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework in which future models can be developed

  1. Decision support models for solid waste management: Review and game-theoretic approaches

    Karmperis, Athanasios C., E-mail: athkarmp@mail.ntua.gr [Sector of Industrial Management and Operational Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Athens (Greece); Army Corps of Engineers, Hellenic Army General Staff, Ministry of Defence (Greece); Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios [Sector of Industrial Management and Operational Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The mainly used decision support frameworks for solid waste management are reviewed. ► The LCA, CBA and MCDM models are presented and their strengths, weaknesses, similarities and possible combinations are analyzed. ► The game-theoretic approach in a solid waste management context is presented. ► The waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework. ► Cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches to decision support for solid waste management are discussed. - Abstract: This paper surveys decision support models that are commonly used in the solid waste management area. Most models are mainly developed within three decision support frameworks, which are the life-cycle assessment, the cost–benefit analysis and the multi-criteria decision-making. These frameworks are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses as well as their critical issues are analyzed, while their possible combinations and extensions are also discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents how cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches can be used for the purpose of modeling and analyzing decision-making in situations with multiple stakeholders. Specifically, since a waste management model is sustainable when considering not only environmental and economic but also social aspects, the waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework in which future models can be developed.

  2. Combination of real options and game-theoretic approach in investment analysis

    Arasteh, Abdollah

    2016-09-01

    Investments in technology create a large amount of capital investments by major companies. Assessing such investment projects is identified as critical to the efficient assignment of resources. Viewing investment projects as real options, this paper expands a method for assessing technology investment decisions in the linkage existence of uncertainty and competition. It combines the game-theoretic models of strategic market interactions with a real options approach. Several key characteristics underlie the model. First, our study shows how investment strategies rely on competitive interactions. Under the force of competition, firms hurry to exercise their options early. The resulting "hurry equilibrium" destroys the option value of waiting and involves violent investment behavior. Second, we get best investment policies and critical investment entrances. This suggests that integrating will be unavoidable in some information product markets. The model creates some new intuitions into the forces that shape market behavior as noticed in the information technology industry. It can be used to specify best investment policies for technology innovations and adoptions, multistage R&D, and investment projects in information technology.

  3. By-product mutualism and the ambiguous effects of harsher environments - A game-theoretic model

    De Jaegher, Kris; Hoyer, Britta

    2016-01-01

    We construct two-player two-strategy game-theoretic models of by-product mutualism, where our focus lies on the way in which the probability of cooperation among players is affected by the degree of adversity facing the players. In our first model, cooperation consists of the production of a public

  4. A game theoretic model of the Northwestern European electricity market-market power and the environment

    Lise, W.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Kuik, O.; Kemfert, C.; Ostling, R.; Heinzow, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops a static computational game theoretic model. Illustrative results for the liberalising European electricity market are given to demonstrate the type of economic and environmental results that can be generated with the model. The model is empirically calibrated to eight

  5. Game Theoretic Centrality Analysis of Terrorist Networks : The Cases of Jemaah Islamiyah and Al Qaeda

    Lindelauf, R.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Husslage, B.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of key players in a terrorist network can lead to prevention of attacks, due to efficient allocation of surveillance means or isolation of key players in order to destabilize the network. In this paper we introduce a game theoretic approach to identify key players in terrorist

  6. Game Mechanics and Bodily Interactions: Designing Interactive Technologies for Sports Training

    Jensen, Mads Møller

    and enjoyment. Thus, despite being two coexisting research areas, they do not extend or contribute to one another per se. However, bridging this gap by combining skill acquisition knowledge from sports training technologies with motivational game mechanics from bodily games holds great potential for designing...... and developing relevant and engaging training experiences. I term this combination interactive sports training games. This dissertation bridges this gap by exploring how to design and develop bodily interactions that leverage the quality and engagement of sports training by using game mechanics, but also how...... to identify and avoid the pitfalls and challenges that emerge in the process. It further explores how competition can be facilitated in bodily games and how it affects players. These explorations are done by designing, developing and evaluating innovative interactive sports training games. The results...

  7. Game-theoretic strategies for asymmetric networked systems

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Ma, Chris Y. T. [Hang Seng Management College, Hon Kong; Hausken, Kjell [University of Stavanger, Norway; He, Fei [Texas A& M University, Kingsville, TX, USA; Yau, David K. Y. [Singapore University of Technology and Design; Zhuang, Jun [University at Buffalo (SUNY)

    2017-07-01

    Abstract—We consider an infrastructure consisting of a network of systems each composed of discrete components that can be reinforced at a certain cost to guard against attacks. The network provides the vital connectivity between systems, and hence plays a critical, asymmetric role in the infrastructure operations. We characterize the system-level correlations using the aggregate failure correlation function that specifies the infrastructure failure probability given the failure of an individual system or network. The survival probabilities of systems and network satisfy first-order differential conditions that capture the component-level correlations. We formulate the problem of ensuring the infrastructure survival as a game between anattacker and a provider, using the sum-form and product-form utility functions, each composed of a survival probability term and a cost term. We derive Nash Equilibrium conditions which provide expressions for individual system survival probabilities, and also the expected capacity specified by the total number of operational components. These expressions differ only in a single term for the sum-form and product-form utilities, despite their significant differences.We apply these results to simplified models of distributed cloud computing infrastructures.

  8. Game-theoretic pricing for video streaming in mobile networks.

    Lin, W Sabrina; Liu, K J Ray

    2012-05-01

    Mobile phones are among the most popular consumer devices, and the recent developments of 3G networks and smart phones enable users to watch video programs by subscribing data plans from service providers. Due to the ubiquity of mobile phones and phone-to-phone communication technologies, data-plan subscribers can redistribute the video content to nonsubscribers. Such a redistribution mechanism is a potential competitor for the mobile service provider and is very difficult to trace given users' high mobility. The service provider has to set a reasonable price for the data plan to prevent such unauthorized redistribution behavior to protect or maximize his/her own profit. In this paper, we analyze the optimal price setting for the service provider by investigating the equilibrium between the subscribers and the secondary buyers in the content-redistribution network. We model the behavior between the subscribers and the secondary buyers as a noncooperative game and find the optimal price and quantity for both groups of users. Based on the behavior of users in the redistribution network, we investigate the evolutionarily stable ratio of mobile users who decide to subscribe to the data plan. Such an analysis can help the service provider preserve his/her profit under the threat of the redistribution networks and can improve the quality of service for end users.

  9. Designing interactive outdoor games for children

    Soute, I.A.C.; Markopoulos, P.; Nijholt, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile outdoor games for groups of children have emerged recently as a credible technological proposition and as an area of research and development that promises substantial benefits for children regarding a more active lifestyle and the development of social skills. This chapter examines

  10. Optimization of rootkit revealing system resources – A game theoretic approach

    K. Muthumanickam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Malicious rootkit is a collection of programs designed with the intent of infecting and monitoring the victim computer without the user’s permission. After the victim has been compromised, the remote attacker can easily cause further damage. In order to infect, compromise and monitor, rootkits adopt Native Application Programming Interface (API hooking technique. To reveal the hidden rootkits, current rootkit detection techniques check different data structures which hold reference to Native APIs. To verify these data structures, a large amount of system resources are required. This is because of the number of APIs in these data structures being quite large. Game theoretic approach is a useful mathematical tool to simulate network attacks. In this paper, a mathematical model is framed to optimize resource consumption using game-theory. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to be proposed for optimizing resource consumption while revealing rootkit presence using game theory. Non-cooperative game model is taken to discuss the problem. Analysis and simulation results show that our game theoretic model can effectively reduce the resource consumption by selectively monitoring the number of APIs in windows platform.

  11. A Game Theoretic Approach for Balancing Energy Consumption in Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Yang, Liu; Lu, Yinzhi; Xiong, Lian; Tao, Yang; Zhong, Yuanchang

    2017-11-17

    Clustering is an effective topology control method in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), since it can enhance the network lifetime and scalability. To prolong the network lifetime in clustered WSNs, an efficient cluster head (CH) optimization policy is essential to distribute the energy among sensor nodes. Recently, game theory has been introduced to model clustering. Each sensor node is considered as a rational and selfish player which will play a clustering game with an equilibrium strategy. Then it decides whether to act as the CH according to this strategy for a tradeoff between providing required services and energy conservation. However, how to get the equilibrium strategy while maximizing the payoff of sensor nodes has rarely been addressed to date. In this paper, we present a game theoretic approach for balancing energy consumption in clustered WSNs. With our novel payoff function, realistic sensor behaviors can be captured well. The energy heterogeneity of nodes is considered by incorporating a penalty mechanism in the payoff function, so the nodes with more energy will compete for CHs more actively. We have obtained the Nash equilibrium (NE) strategy of the clustering game through convex optimization. Specifically, each sensor node can achieve its own maximal payoff when it makes the decision according to this strategy. Through plenty of simulations, our proposed game theoretic clustering is proved to have a good energy balancing performance and consequently the network lifetime is greatly enhanced.

  12. Prevention of treatable infectious diseases: A game-theoretic approach.

    Jijón, Sofía; Supervie, Virginie; Breban, Romulus

    2017-09-25

    We model outcomes of voluntary prevention using an imperfect vaccine, which confers protection only to a fraction of vaccinees for a limited duration. Our mathematical model combines a single-player game for the individual-level decision to get vaccinated, and a compartmental model for the epidemic dynamics. Mathematical analysis yields a characterization for the effective vaccination coverage, as a function of the relative cost of prevention versus treatment; note that cost may involve monetary as well as non-monetary aspects. Three behaviors are possible. First, the relative cost may be too high, so individuals do not get vaccinated. Second, the relative cost may be moderate, such that some individuals get vaccinated and voluntary vaccination alleviates the epidemic. In this case, the vaccination coverage grows steadily with decreasing relative cost of vaccination versus treatment. Unlike previous studies, we find a third case where relative cost is sufficiently low so epidemics may be averted through the use of prevention, even for an imperfect vaccine. However, we also found that disease elimination is only temporary-as no equilibrium exists for the individual strategy in this third case-and, with increasing perceived cost of vaccination versus treatment, the situation may be reversed toward the epidemic edge, where the effective reproductive number is 1. Thus, maintaining relative cost sufficiently low will be the main challenge to maintain disease elimination. Furthermore, our model offers insight on vaccine parameters, which are otherwise difficult to estimate. We apply our findings to the epidemiology of measles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Game Theoretic Framework for Incentive-Based Models of Intrinsic Motivation in Artificial Systems

    Kathryn Elizabeth Merrick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivations have recently been considered in reinforcement learning, active learning and supervised learning settings among others. This paper considers game theory as a novel setting for intrinsic motivation. A game theoretic framework for intrinsic motivation is formulated by introducing the concept of optimally motivating incentive as a lens through which players perceive a game. Transformations of four well-known mixed-motive games are presented to demonstrate the perceived games when players’ optimally motivating incentive falls in three cases corresponding to strong power, affiliation and achievement motivation. We use agent-based simulations to demonstrate that players with different optimally motivating incentive act differently as a result of their altered perception of the game. We discuss the implications of these results both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents or robots.

  14. A game theoretic framework for incentive-based models of intrinsic motivation in artificial systems.

    Merrick, Kathryn E; Shafi, Kamran

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivations have recently been considered in reinforcement learning, active learning and supervised learning settings among others. This paper considers game theory as a novel setting for intrinsic motivation. A game theoretic framework for intrinsic motivation is formulated by introducing the concept of optimally motivating incentive as a lens through which players perceive a game. Transformations of four well-known mixed-motive games are presented to demonstrate the perceived games when players' optimally motivating incentive falls in three cases corresponding to strong power, affiliation and achievement motivation. We use agent-based simulations to demonstrate that players with different optimally motivating incentive act differently as a result of their altered perception of the game. We discuss the implications of these results both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents or robots.

  15. A Framework for the Game-theoretic Analysis of Censorship Resistance

    Elahi Tariq

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a game-theoretic analysis of optimal solutions for interactions between censors and censorship resistance systems (CRSs by focusing on the data channel used by the CRS to smuggle clients’ data past the censors. This analysis leverages the inherent errors (false positives and negatives made by the censor when trying to classify traffic as either non-circumvention traffic or as CRS traffic, as well as the underlying rate of CRS traffic. We identify Nash equilibrium solutions for several simple censorship scenarios and then extend those findings to more complex scenarios where we find that the deployment of a censorship apparatus does not qualitatively change the equilibrium solutions, but rather only affects the amount of traffic a CRS can support before being blocked. By leveraging these findings, we describe a general framework for exploring and identifying optimal strategies for the censorship circumventor, in order to maximize the amount of CRS traffic not blocked by the censor. We use this framework to analyze several scenarios with multiple data-channel protocols used as cover for the CRS. We show that it is possible to gain insights through this framework even without perfect knowledge of the censor’s (secret values for the parameters in their utility function.

  16. Physical Protection System Design Analysis against Insider Threat based on Game Theoretic Modeling

    Kim, Kyo-Nam; Suh, Young-A; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Schneider, Erich [The University of Texas, Austin (United States)

    2015-05-15

    This study explores the use of game-theoretic modeling of physical protection analysis by incorporating the implications of an insider threat. The defender-adversary interaction along with the inclusion of an insider is demonstrated using a simplified test case problem at an experimental fast reactor system. Non-detection probability and travel time are used as a baseline of physical protection parameters in this model. As one of the key features of the model is its ability to choose among security upgrades given the constraints of a budget, the study also performed cost benefit analysis for security upgrades options. In this study, we analyzed the expected adversarial path and security upgrades with a limited budget with insider threat modeled as increasing the non-detection probability. Our test case problem categorized three types of adversary paths assisted by the insider and derived the largest insider threat in terms of the budget for security upgrades. More work needs to be done to incorporate complex dimensions of insider threats, which include but are not limited to: a more realistic mapping of insider threat, accounting for information asymmetry between the adversary, insider, and defenders, and assignment of more pragmatic parameter values.

  17. Defense of Cyber Infrastructures Against Cyber-Physical Attacks Using Game-Theoretic Models.

    Rao, Nageswara S V; Poole, Stephen W; Ma, Chris Y T; He, Fei; Zhuang, Jun; Yau, David K Y

    2016-04-01

    The operation of cyber infrastructures relies on both cyber and physical components, which are subject to incidental and intentional degradations of different kinds. Within the context of network and computing infrastructures, we study the strategic interactions between an attacker and a defender using game-theoretic models that take into account both cyber and physical components. The attacker and defender optimize their individual utilities, expressed as sums of cost and system terms. First, we consider a Boolean attack-defense model, wherein the cyber and physical subinfrastructures may be attacked and reinforced as individual units. Second, we consider a component attack-defense model wherein their components may be attacked and defended, and the infrastructure requires minimum numbers of both to function. We show that the Nash equilibrium under uniform costs in both cases is computable in polynomial time, and it provides high-level deterministic conditions for the infrastructure survival. When probabilities of successful attack and defense, and of incidental failures, are incorporated into the models, the results favor the attacker but otherwise remain qualitatively similar. This approach has been motivated and validated by our experiences with UltraScience Net infrastructure, which was built to support high-performance network experiments. The analytical results, however, are more general, and we apply them to simplified models of cloud and high-performance computing infrastructures. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Physical Protection System Design Analysis against Insider Threat based on Game Theoretic Modeling

    Kim, Kyo-Nam; Suh, Young-A; Yim, Man-Sung; Schneider, Erich

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the use of game-theoretic modeling of physical protection analysis by incorporating the implications of an insider threat. The defender-adversary interaction along with the inclusion of an insider is demonstrated using a simplified test case problem at an experimental fast reactor system. Non-detection probability and travel time are used as a baseline of physical protection parameters in this model. As one of the key features of the model is its ability to choose among security upgrades given the constraints of a budget, the study also performed cost benefit analysis for security upgrades options. In this study, we analyzed the expected adversarial path and security upgrades with a limited budget with insider threat modeled as increasing the non-detection probability. Our test case problem categorized three types of adversary paths assisted by the insider and derived the largest insider threat in terms of the budget for security upgrades. More work needs to be done to incorporate complex dimensions of insider threats, which include but are not limited to: a more realistic mapping of insider threat, accounting for information asymmetry between the adversary, insider, and defenders, and assignment of more pragmatic parameter values

  19. Bribe and Punishment: An Evolutionary Game-Theoretic Analysis of Bribery.

    Prateek Verma

    Full Text Available Harassment bribes, paid by citizens to corrupt officers for services the former are legally entitled to, constitute one of the most widespread forms of corruption in many countries. Nation states have adopted different policies to address this form of corruption. While some countries make both the bribe giver and the bribe taker equally liable for the crime, others impose a larger penalty on corrupt officers. We examine the consequences of asymmetric and symmetric penalties by developing deterministic and stochastic evolutionary game-theoretic models of bribery. We find that the asymmetric penalty scheme can lead to a reduction in incidents of bribery. However, the extent of reduction depends on how the players update their strategies over time. If the interacting members change their strategies with a probability proportional to the payoff of the alternative strategy option, the reduction in incidents of bribery is less pronounced. Our results indicate that changing from a symmetric to an asymmetric penalty scheme may not suffice in achieving significant reductions in incidents of harassment bribery.

  20. Bribe and Punishment: An Evolutionary Game-Theoretic Analysis of Bribery.

    Verma, Prateek; Sengupta, Supratim

    2015-01-01

    Harassment bribes, paid by citizens to corrupt officers for services the former are legally entitled to, constitute one of the most widespread forms of corruption in many countries. Nation states have adopted different policies to address this form of corruption. While some countries make both the bribe giver and the bribe taker equally liable for the crime, others impose a larger penalty on corrupt officers. We examine the consequences of asymmetric and symmetric penalties by developing deterministic and stochastic evolutionary game-theoretic models of bribery. We find that the asymmetric penalty scheme can lead to a reduction in incidents of bribery. However, the extent of reduction depends on how the players update their strategies over time. If the interacting members change their strategies with a probability proportional to the payoff of the alternative strategy option, the reduction in incidents of bribery is less pronounced. Our results indicate that changing from a symmetric to an asymmetric penalty scheme may not suffice in achieving significant reductions in incidents of harassment bribery.

  1. Theoretical status of weak and electromagnetic interactions

    Pandit, L. K.

    1980-07-01

    An extended simple version of the Weinberg gauge model is proposed to bring together weak and electromagnetic interactions under one theory. The essential features of the standard SU/sub 2/ (operating on)U/sub 1/ gauge scheme with four leptons and four quark flavours is recalled. Charged-current and neutral current interactions are described. Non-leptonic decays of strange particles are studied. The treatment is extended to 6-leptons and 6-quark flavours. The short comings of this model are discussed. Speculations on the unification of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are made.

  2. Modified economic order quantity (EOQ model for items with imperfect quality: Game-theoretical approaches

    Milad Elyasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decade, studying the economic order quantity (EOQ models with imperfect quality has appealed to many researchers. Only few papers are published discussing EOQ models with imperfect items in a supply chain. In this paper, a two-echelon decentralized supply chain consisting of a manufacture and a supplier that both face just in time (JIT inventory problem is considered. It is sought to find the optimal number of the shipments and the quantity of each shipment in a way that minimizes the both manufacturer’s and the supplier’s cost functions. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first paper that deals with imperfect items in a decentralized supply chain. Thereby, three different game theoretical solution approaches consisting of two non-cooperative games and a cooperative game are proposed. Comparing the results of three different scenarios with those of the centralized model, the conclusions are drawn to obtain the best approach.

  3. A Game-Theoretic Approach to Branching Time Abstract-Check-Refine Process

    Wang, Yi; Tamai, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    Since the complexity of software systems continues to grow, most engineers face two serious problems: the state space explosion problem and the problem of how to debug systems. In this paper, we propose a game-theoretic approach to full branching time model checking on three-valued semantics. The three-valued models and logics provide successful abstraction that overcomes the state space explosion problem. The game style model checking that generates counter-examples can guide refinement or identify validated formulas, which solves the system debugging problem. Furthermore, output of our game style method will give significant information to engineers in detecting where errors have occurred and what the causes of the errors are.

  4. Interaction with the game and motivation among players of massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Fuster, Héctor; Carbonell, Xavier; Chamarro, Andrés; Oberst, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about users interacting with Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG) is fundamental in order to prevent their potential negative effects on behavior. For this reason, the present study analyzed the relationship between styles of play and motivations. An online questionnaire asking for socio-demographic details, playing style, characteristics of the game played and motivations for playing, was answered by 430 Spanish-speaking MMORPG players (45.1% males). The identified profile for players, far away from the stereotype of an adolescent, consisted in a person who mainly plays on PvP (Player versus Player) servers, choosing the type of game according to his experience. Regarding motivations, they were interested in relating with other players through the game (Socialization), in discovering the game's possibilities and development of its adventures (Exploration), to a lesser extent in leadership and prestige (Achievement) and, lastly, identification with an avatar and escape from reality (Dissociation). Although part of the reason for playing was escapism and/or stress relief, the main motivation had a social nature. We conclude that MMORPG offer an attractive environment for a broad spectrum of people, and we have not been able to confirm the stereotype of a loner avoiding reality, taking refuge in games.

  5. A Game-theoretic Framework for Network Coding Based Device-to-Device Communications

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Sorour, Sameh; Tembine, Hamidou; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the delay minimization problem for instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) based deviceto- device (D2D) communications. In D2D enabled systems, users cooperate to recover all their missing packets. The paper proposes a game theoretic framework as a tool for improving the distributed solution by overcoming the need for a central controller or additional signaling in the system. The session is modeled by self-interested players in a non-cooperative potential game. The utility functions are designed so as increasing individual payoff results in a collective behavior achieving both a desirable system performance in a shared network environment and the Nash equilibrium. Three games are developed whose first reduces the completion time, the second the maximum decoding delay and the third the sum decoding delay. The paper, further, improves the formulations by including a punishment policy upon collision occurrence so as to achieve the Nash bargaining solution. Learning algorithms are proposed for systems with complete and incomplete information, and for the imperfect feedback scenario. Numerical results suggest that the proposed game-theoretical formulation provides appreciable performance gain against the conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP), especially for reliable user-to-user channels.

  6. Security Analysis of Smart Grid Cyber Physical Infrastructures Using Modeling and Game Theoretic Simulation

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T. [University of Idaho

    2015-01-01

    Cyber physical computing infrastructures typically consist of a number of sites are interconnected. Its operation critically depends both on cyber components and physical components. Both types of components are subject to attacks of different kinds and frequencies, which must be accounted for the initial provisioning and subsequent operation of the infrastructure via information security analysis. Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic Agent Based Game Theoretic (ABGT) simulations. Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. We concentrated our analysis on the electric sector failure scenarios and impact analyses by the NESCOR Working Group Study, From the Section 5 electric sector representative failure scenarios; we extracted the four generic failure scenarios and grouped them into three specific threat categories (confidentiality, integrity, and availability) to the system. These specific failure scenarios serve as a demonstration of our simulation. The analysis using our ABGT simulation demonstrates how to model the electric sector functional domain using a set of rationalized game theoretic rules decomposed from the failure scenarios in terms of how those scenarios might impact the cyber physical infrastructure network with respect to CIA.

  7. A Game-theoretic Framework for Network Coding Based Device-to-Device Communications

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-06-29

    This paper investigates the delay minimization problem for instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) based deviceto- device (D2D) communications. In D2D enabled systems, users cooperate to recover all their missing packets. The paper proposes a game theoretic framework as a tool for improving the distributed solution by overcoming the need for a central controller or additional signaling in the system. The session is modeled by self-interested players in a non-cooperative potential game. The utility functions are designed so as increasing individual payoff results in a collective behavior achieving both a desirable system performance in a shared network environment and the Nash equilibrium. Three games are developed whose first reduces the completion time, the second the maximum decoding delay and the third the sum decoding delay. The paper, further, improves the formulations by including a punishment policy upon collision occurrence so as to achieve the Nash bargaining solution. Learning algorithms are proposed for systems with complete and incomplete information, and for the imperfect feedback scenario. Numerical results suggest that the proposed game-theoretical formulation provides appreciable performance gain against the conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP), especially for reliable user-to-user channels.

  8. A Markov game theoretic data fusion approach for cyber situational awareness

    Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Cruz, Jose B., Jr.; Haynes, Leonard; Kruger, Martin; Blasch, Erik

    2007-04-01

    This paper proposes an innovative data-fusion/ data-mining game theoretic situation awareness and impact assessment approach for cyber network defense. Alerts generated by Intrusion Detection Sensors (IDSs) or Intrusion Prevention Sensors (IPSs) are fed into the data refinement (Level 0) and object assessment (L1) data fusion components. High-level situation/threat assessment (L2/L3) data fusion based on Markov game model and Hierarchical Entity Aggregation (HEA) are proposed to refine the primitive prediction generated by adaptive feature/pattern recognition and capture new unknown features. A Markov (Stochastic) game method is used to estimate the belief of each possible cyber attack pattern. Game theory captures the nature of cyber conflicts: determination of the attacking-force strategies is tightly coupled to determination of the defense-force strategies and vice versa. Also, Markov game theory deals with uncertainty and incompleteness of available information. A software tool is developed to demonstrate the performance of the high level information fusion for cyber network defense situation and a simulation example shows the enhanced understating of cyber-network defense.

  9. Study of network resource allocation based on market and game theoretic mechanism

    Liu, Yingmei; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Gang

    2004-04-01

    We work on the network resource allocation issue concerning network management system function based on market-oriented mechanism. The scheme is to model the telecommunication network resources as trading goods in which the various network components could be owned by different competitive, real-world entities. This is a multidisciplinary framework concentrating on the similarity between resource allocation in network environment and the market mechanism in economic theory. By taking an economic (market-based and game theoretic) approach in routing of communication network, we study the dynamic behavior under game-theoretic framework in allocating network resources. Based on the prior work of Gibney and Jennings, we apply concepts of utility and fitness to the market mechanism with an intention to close the gap between experiment environment and real world situation.

  10. A novel game theoretic approach for modeling competitive information diffusion in social networks with heterogeneous nodes

    Agha Mohammad Ali Kermani, Mehrdad; Fatemi Ardestani, Seyed Farshad; Aliahmadi, Alireza; Barzinpour, Farnaz

    2017-01-01

    Influence maximization deals with identification of the most influential nodes in a social network given an influence model. In this paper, a game theoretic framework is developed that models a competitive influence maximization problem. A novel competitive influence model is additionally proposed that incorporates user heterogeneity, message content, and network structure. The proposed game-theoretic model is solved using Nash Equilibrium in a real-world dataset. It is shown that none of the well-known strategies are stable and at least one player has the incentive to deviate from the proposed strategy. Moreover, violation of Nash equilibrium strategy by each player leads to their reduced payoff. Contrary to previous works, our results demonstrate that graph topology, as well as the nodes' sociability and initial tendency measures have an effect on the determination of the influential node in the network.

  11. Game-theoretic methods for functional response and optimal foraging behavior

    Cressman, R.; Křivan, Vlastimil; Brown, J. S.; Garay, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2014), e88773 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Grant - others:Hungarian National Research Fund(HU) K62000; Hungarian National Research Fund(HU) K67961 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : game-theoretic methods Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0088773

  12. Stochastic heterogeneous interaction promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game.

    Ping Zhu

    Full Text Available Previous studies mostly investigate player's cooperative behavior as affected by game time-scale or individual diversity. In this paper, by involving both time-scale and diversity simultaneously, we explore the effect of stochastic heterogeneous interaction. In our model, the occurrence of game interaction between each pair of linked player obeys a random probability, which is further described by certain distributions. Simulations on a 4-neighbor square lattice show that the cooperation level is remarkably promoted when stochastic heterogeneous interaction is considered. The results are then explained by investigating the mean payoffs, the mean boundary payoffs and the transition probabilities between cooperators and defectors. We also show some typical snapshots and evolution time series of the system. Finally, the 8-neighbor square lattice and BA scale-free network results indicate that the stochastic heterogeneous interaction can be robust against different network topologies. Our work may sharpen the understanding of the joint effect of game time-scale and individual diversity on spatial games.

  13. Non-Linear Interactive Stories in Computer Games

    Bangsø, Olav; Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Kocka, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    The paper introduces non-linear interactive stories (NOLIST) as a means to generate varied and interesting stories for computer games automatically. We give a compact representation of a NOLIST based on the specification of atomic stories, and show how to build an object-oriented Bayesian network...

  14. Games Con Men Play: The Semiosis of Deceptive Interaction.

    Hankiss, Agnes

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes some of the most frequent deceptive interactions as rendered through case histories of male con artists and their victims taken from police records. Discusses the recurrent elements in both the con-games strategies and victims' way of interpreting those strategies. (JMF)

  15. Game Theoretic Modeling of Water Resources Allocation Under Hydro-Climatic Uncertainty

    Brown, C.; Lall, U.; Siegfried, T.

    2005-12-01

    Typical hydrologic and economic modeling approaches rely on assumptions of climate stationarity and economic conditions of ideal markets and rational decision-makers. In this study, we incorporate hydroclimatic variability with a game theoretic approach to simulate and evaluate common water allocation paradigms. Game Theory may be particularly appropriate for modeling water allocation decisions. First, a game theoretic approach allows economic analysis in situations where price theory doesn't apply, which is typically the case in water resources where markets are thin, players are few, and rules of exchange are highly constrained by legal or cultural traditions. Previous studies confirm that game theory is applicable to water resources decision problems, yet applications and modeling based on these principles is only rarely observed in the literature. Second, there are numerous existing theoretical and empirical studies of specific games and human behavior that may be applied in the development of predictive water allocation models. With this framework, one can evaluate alternative orderings and rules regarding the fraction of available water that one is allowed to appropriate. Specific attributes of the players involved in water resources management complicate the determination of solutions to game theory models. While an analytical approach will be useful for providing general insights, the variety of preference structures of individual players in a realistic water scenario will likely require a simulation approach. We propose a simulation approach incorporating the rationality, self-interest and equilibrium concepts of game theory with an agent-based modeling framework that allows the distinct properties of each player to be expressed and allows the performance of the system to manifest the integrative effect of these factors. Underlying this framework, we apply a realistic representation of spatio-temporal hydrologic variability and incorporate the impact of

  16. Reciprocal Trust Mediates Deep Transfer of Learning between Games of Strategic Interaction

    Juvina, Ion; Saleem, Muniba; Martin, Jolie M.; Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Lebiere, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We studied transfer of learning across two games of strategic interaction. We found that the interpersonal relation between two players during and across two games influence development of reciprocal trust and transfer of learning from one game to another. We show that two types of similarities between the games affect transfer: (1) deep…

  17. Unreal Interactive Puppet Game Development Using Leap Motion

    Huang, An-Pin; Huang, Fay; Jhu, Jing-Siang

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposed a novel puppet play method utilizing recent technology. An interactive puppet game has been developed based on the theme of a famous Chinese classical novel. This project was implemented using Unreal Engine, which is a leading software of integrated tools for developers to design and build games. On the other hand, Leap Motion Controller is a sensor device for recognizing hand movements and gestures. It is commonly used in systems which require close-range finger-based user interaction. In order to manipulate puppets’ movements, the developed program employs the Leap Motion SDK, which provides a friendly way to add motion-controlled 3D hands to an Unreal game. The novelty of our project is to replace 3D model of rigged hands by two 3D humanoid rigged characters. The challenges of this task are two folds. First, the skeleton structure of a human hand and a humanoid character (i.e., puppets) are totally different. Making the puppets to follow the hand poses of the user and yet ensuring reasonable puppets’ movements has not been discussed in the literatures nor in the developer forums. Second, there are only a limited number of built-in recognizable hand gestures. More recognizable hand gestures need to be created for the interactive game. This paper reports the proposed solutions to these challenges.

  18. A Game-Theoretic Approach to Information-Flow Control via Protocol Composition

    Mário S. Alvim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the inference attacks studied in Quantitative Information Flow (QIF, the attacker typically tries to interfere with the system in the attempt to increase its leakage of secret information. The defender, on the other hand, typically tries to decrease leakage by introducing some controlled noise. This noise introduction can be modeled as a type of protocol composition, i.e., a probabilistic choice among different protocols, and its effect on the amount of leakage depends heavily on whether or not this choice is visible to the attacker. In this work, we consider operators for modeling visible and hidden choice in protocol composition, and we study their algebraic properties. We then formalize the interplay between defender and attacker in a game-theoretic framework adapted to the specific issues of QIF, where the payoff is information leakage. We consider various kinds of leakage games, depending on whether players act simultaneously or sequentially, and on whether or not the choices of the defender are visible to the attacker. In the case of sequential games, the choice of the second player is generally a function of the choice of the first player, and his/her probabilistic choice can be either over the possible functions (mixed strategy or it can be on the result of the function (behavioral strategy. We show that when the attacker moves first in a sequential game with a hidden choice, then behavioral strategies are more advantageous for the defender than mixed strategies. This contrasts with the standard game theory, where the two types of strategies are equivalent. Finally, we establish a hierarchy of these games in terms of their information leakage and provide methods for finding optimal strategies (at the points of equilibrium for both attacker and defender in the various cases.

  19. Earth Girl Volcano: An Interactive Game for Disaster Preparedness

    Kerlow, Isaac

    2017-04-01

    Earth Girl Volcano is an interactive casual strategy game for disaster preparedness. The project is designed for mainstream audiences, particularly for children, as an engaging and fun way to learn about volcano hazards. Earth Girl is a friendly character that kids can easily connect with and she helps players understand how to best minimize volcanic risk. Our previous award-winning game, Earth Girl Tsunami, has seen success on social media, and is available as a free app for both Android and iOS tables and large phones in seven languages: Indonesian, Thai, Tamil, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, French and English. This is the first public viewing of the Earth Girl Volcano new game prototype.

  20. Co-Evolution of Opinion and Strategy in Persuasion Dynamics:. AN Evolutionary Game Theoretical Approach

    Ding, Fei; Liu, Yun; Li, Yong

    In this paper, a new model of opinion formation within the framework of evolutionary game theory is presented. The model simulates strategic situations when people are in opinion discussion. Heterogeneous agents adjust their behaviors to the environment during discussions, and their interacting strategies evolve together with opinions. In the proposed game, we take into account payoff discount to join a discussion, and the situation that people might drop out of an unpromising game. Analytical and emulational results show that evolution of opinion and strategy always tend to converge, with utility threshold, memory length, and decision uncertainty parameters influencing the convergence time. The model displays different dynamical regimes when we set differently the rule when people are at a loss in strategy.

  1. Game-Theoretic Energy Management for Residential Users with Dischargeable Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Bingtuan Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The plug-in electric vehicle (PEV has attracted more and more attention because of the energy crisis and environmental pollution, which is also the main shiftable load of the residential users’ demand side management (DSM system in the future smart grid (SG. In this paper, we employ game theory to provide an autonomous energy management system among residential users considering selling energy back to the utility company by discharging the PEV’s battery. By assuming all users are equipped with smart meters to execute automatic energy consumption scheduling (ECS and the energy company can adopt adequate pricing tariffs relating to time and level of energy usage, we formulate an energy management game, where the players are the residential users and the strategies are their daily schedules of household appliance use. We will show that the Nash equilibrium of the formulated energy management game can guarantee the global optimization in terms of minimizing the energy costs, where the depreciation cost of PEV’s battery because of discharging and selling energy back is also considered. Simulation results verify that the proposed game-theoretic approach can reduce the total energy cost and individual daily electricity payment. Moreover, since plug-in electric bicycles (PEBs are currently widely used in China, simulation results of residential users owing household appliances and bidirectional energy trading of PEBs are also provided and discussed.

  2. Power Transmission Scheduling for Generators in a Deregulated Environment Based on a Game-Theoretic Approach

    Bingtuan Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a deregulated environment of the power market, in order to lower their energy price and guarantee the stability of the power network, appropriate transmission lines have to be considered for electricity generators to sell their energy to the end users. This paper proposes a game-theoretic power transmission scheduling for multiple generators to lower their wheeling cost. Based on the embedded cost method, a wheeling cost model consisting of congestion cost, cost of losses and cost of transmission capacity is presented. By assuming each generator behaves in a selfish and rational way, the competition among the multiple generators is formulated as a non-cooperative game, where the players are the generators and the strategies are their daily schedules of power transmission. We will prove that there exists at least one pure-strategy Nash equilibrium of the formulated power transmission game. Moreover, a distributed algorithm will be provided to realize the optimization in terms of minimizing the wheeling cost. Finally, simulations were performed and discussed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed non-cooperative game approach for the generators in a deregulated environment.

  3. A game theoretic approach to a finite-time disturbance attenuation problem

    Rhee, Ihnseok; Speyer, Jason L.

    1991-01-01

    A disturbance attenuation problem over a finite-time interval is considered by a game theoretic approach where the control, restricted to a function of the measurement history, plays against adversaries composed of the process and measurement disturbances, and the initial state. A zero-sum game, formulated as a quadratic cost criterion subject to linear time-varying dynamics and measurements, is solved by a calculus of variation technique. By first maximizing the quadratic cost criterion with respect to the process disturbance and initial state, a full information game between the control and the measurement residual subject to the estimator dynamics results. The resulting solution produces an n-dimensional compensator which expresses the controller as a linear combination of the measurement history. A disturbance attenuation problem is solved based on the results of the game problem. For time-invariant systems it is shown that under certain conditions the time-varying controller becomes time-invariant on the infinite-time interval. The resulting controller satisfies an H(infinity) norm bound.

  4. An Interactive Tool for Creating Multi-Agent Systems and Interactive Agent-based Games

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing principles from parallel and distributed processing combined with inspiration from modular robotics, we developed the modular interactive tiles. As an educational tool, the modular interactive tiles facilitate the learning of multi-agent systems and interactive agent-based games...

  5. A game theoretic framework for evaluation of the impacts of hackers diversity on security measures

    Zare Moayedi, Behzad; Azgomi, Mohammad Abdollahi

    2012-01-01

    Game theoretical methods offer new insights into quantitative evaluation of dependability and security. Currently, there is a wide range of useful game theoretic approaches to model the behaviour of intelligent agents. However, it is necessary to revise these approaches if there is a community of hackers with significant diversity in their behaviours. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to extend the basic ideas of applying game theory in stochastic modelling. The proposed method classifies the community of hackers based on two main criteria used widely in hacker classifications, which are motivation and skill. We use Markov chains to model the system and compute the transition rates between the states based on the preferences and the skill distributions of hacker classes. The resulting Markov chains can be solved to obtain the desired security measures. We also present the results of an illustrative example using the proposed approach, which examines the relation between the attributes of the community of hackers and the security measures.

  6. A theoretical study on interaction of proline with gold cluster

    with Au3 (Pakiari and Jamshidi 2007) and interaction of. ∗. Author for correspondence (harjinder.singh@iiit.ac.in) small gold clusters with xDNA base pairs (Sharma et al. 2009) have motivated us to carry out a theoretical study on interaction of proline with gold nanoparticles. Proline is unique among the natural amino acids ...

  7. An Activity Theoretical Approach to Social Interaction during Study Abroad

    Shively, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines how one study abroad student oriented to social interaction during a semester in Spain. Using an activity theoretical approach, the findings indicate that the student not only viewed social interaction with his Spanish host family and an expert-Spanish-speaking age peer as an opportunity for second language (L2) learning,…

  8. A Game Theoretic Optimization Method for Energy Efficient Global Connectivity in Hybrid Wireless Sensor Networks

    JongHyup Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For practical deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSN, WSNs construct clusters, where a sensor node communicates with other nodes in its cluster, and a cluster head support connectivity between the sensor nodes and a sink node. In hybrid WSNs, cluster heads have cellular network interfaces for global connectivity. However, when WSNs are active and the load of cellular networks is high, the optimal assignment of cluster heads to base stations becomes critical. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a game theoretic model to find the optimal assignment of base stations for hybrid WSNs. Since the communication and energy cost is different according to cellular systems, we devise two game models for TDMA/FDMA and CDMA systems employing power prices to adapt to the varying efficiency of recent wireless technologies. The proposed model is defined on the assumptions of the ideal sensing field, but our evaluation shows that the proposed model is more adaptive and energy efficient than local selections.

  9. A game-theoretic formulation of the homogeneous self-reconfiguration problem

    Pickem, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    In this paper we formulate the homogeneous two- and three-dimensional self-reconfiguration problem over discrete grids as a constrained potential game. We develop a game-theoretic learning algorithm based on the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm that solves the self-reconfiguration problem in a globally optimal fashion. Both a centralized and a fully decentralized algorithm are presented and we show that the only stochastically stable state is the potential function maximizer, i.e. the desired target configuration. These algorithms compute transition probabilities in such a way that even though each agent acts in a self-interested way, the overall collective goal of self-reconfiguration is achieved. Simulation results confirm the feasibility of our approach and show convergence to desired target configurations.

  10. Game-theoretic cooperativity in networks of self-interested units

    Barto, Andrew G.

    1986-08-01

    The behavior of theoretical neural networks is often described in terms of competition and cooperation. I present an approach to network learning that is related to game and team problems in which competition and cooperation have more technical meanings. I briefly describe the application of stochastic learning automata to game and team problems and then present an adaptive element that is a synthesis of aspects of stochastic learning automata and typical neuron-like adaptive elements. These elements act as self-interested agents that work toward improving their performance with respect to their individual preference orderings. Networks of these elements can solve a variety of team decision problems, some of which take the form of layered networks in which the ``hidden units'' become appropriate functional components as they attempt to improve their own payoffs.

  11. Game-Theoretical Design of an Adaptive Distributed Dissemination Protocol for VANETs.

    Iza-Paredes, Cristhian; Mezher, Ahmad Mohamad; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica; Forné, Jordi

    2018-01-19

    Road safety applications envisaged for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) depend largely on the dissemination of warning messages to deliver information to concerned vehicles. The intended applications, as well as some inherent VANET characteristics, make data dissemination an essential service and a challenging task in this kind of networks. This work lays out a decentralized stochastic solution for the data dissemination problem through two game-theoretical mechanisms. Given the non-stationarity induced by a highly dynamic topology, diverse network densities, and intermittent connectivity, a solution for the formulated game requires an adaptive procedure able to exploit the environment changes. Extensive simulations reveal that our proposal excels in terms of number of transmissions, lower end-to-end delay and reduced overhead while maintaining high delivery ratio, compared to other proposals.

  12. A game-theoretic formulation of the homogeneous self-reconfiguration problem

    Pickem, Daniel; Egerstedt, Magnus; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we formulate the homogeneous two- and three-dimensional self-reconfiguration problem over discrete grids as a constrained potential game. We develop a game-theoretic learning algorithm based on the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm that solves the self-reconfiguration problem in a globally optimal fashion. Both a centralized and a fully decentralized algorithm are presented and we show that the only stochastically stable state is the potential function maximizer, i.e. the desired target configuration. These algorithms compute transition probabilities in such a way that even though each agent acts in a self-interested way, the overall collective goal of self-reconfiguration is achieved. Simulation results confirm the feasibility of our approach and show convergence to desired target configurations.

  13. A Game Theoretic Optimization Method for Energy Efficient Global Connectivity in Hybrid Wireless Sensor Networks

    Lee, JongHyup; Pak, Dohyun

    2016-01-01

    For practical deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSN), WSNs construct clusters, where a sensor node communicates with other nodes in its cluster, and a cluster head support connectivity between the sensor nodes and a sink node. In hybrid WSNs, cluster heads have cellular network interfaces for global connectivity. However, when WSNs are active and the load of cellular networks is high, the optimal assignment of cluster heads to base stations becomes critical. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a game theoretic model to find the optimal assignment of base stations for hybrid WSNs. Since the communication and energy cost is different according to cellular systems, we devise two game models for TDMA/FDMA and CDMA systems employing power prices to adapt to the varying efficiency of recent wireless technologies. The proposed model is defined on the assumptions of the ideal sensing field, but our evaluation shows that the proposed model is more adaptive and energy efficient than local selections. PMID:27589743

  14. Classroom Games: Strategic Interaction on the Internet

    Marko Grobelnik; Charles A. Holt; Vesna Prasnikar

    1999-01-01

    Economics is often taught at a level of abstraction that can hinder some students from gaining basic intuition. However, lecture and textbook presentations can be complemented with classroom exercises in which students make decisions and interact. The approach can increase interest in, and decrease skepticism about, economic theory. This feature offers short descriptions of classroom exercises for a variety of economics courses, with something of an emphasis on the more popular undergraduate ...

  15. Spatial evolutionary games of interaction among generic cancer cells

    Bach, L.A.; Sumpter, D.J.T.; Alsner, J.

    2003-01-01

    Evolutionary game models of cellular interactions have shown that heterogeneity in the cellular genotypic composition is maintained through evolution to stable coexistence of growth-promoting and non-promoting cell types. We generalise these mean-field models and relax the assumption of perfect m...... at a cellular level. This study thus points a new direction towards more plausible spatial tumour modelling and the understanding of cancerous growth....

  16. Economic and game-theoretical analysis of CO2 reduction agreements

    Tahvonen, O.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of climate change and suggestions to stabilize CO 2 emissions have led to several different fields of research in resource and environmental economics. These include: 1. Studies on country specific and global greenhouse gas abatement costs. 2. Studies on global and country specific adaptation costs. 3. Game-theoretical analysis of greenhouse gas reduction agreements. 4. Studies on the relationship between CO 2 accumulation and natural resource utilization. 5. Models of climate change and intertemporal efficiency and equity. 6. Studies on emissions taxes and emissions permit markets for greenhouse gas abatement. The aim of this project is to contribute to the economic literature in fields 3, and 4

  17. Game-Theoretic Rate-Distortion-Complexity Optimization of High Efficiency Video Coding

    Ukhanova, Ann; Milani, Simone; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    profiles in order to tailor the computational load to the different hardware and power-supply resources of devices. In this work, we focus on optimizing the quantization parameter and partition depth in HEVC via a game-theoretic approach. The proposed rate control strategy alone provides 0.2 dB improvement......This paper presents an algorithm for rate-distortioncomplexity optimization for the emerging High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, whose high computational requirements urge the need for low-complexity optimization algorithms. Optimization approaches need to specify different complexity...

  18. Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives on Designing Video Studies of Interaction

    Anna-Lena Rostvall

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors discuss the theoretical basis for the methodological decisions made during the course of a Swedish research project on interaction and learning. The purpose is to discuss how different theories are applied at separate levels of the study. The study is structured on three levels, with separate sets of research questions and theoretical concepts. The levels reflect a close-up description, a systematic analysis, and an interpretation of how teachers and students act and interact. The data consist of 12 hours of video-recorded and transcribed music lessons from high school and college. Through a multidisciplinary theoretical framework, the general understanding of teaching and learning in terms of interaction can be widened. The authors also present a software tool developed to facilitate the processes of transcription and analysis of the video data.

  19. An Empirical Investigation into the Matching Problems among Game Theoretically Coordinating Parties in a Virtual Organization

    Muhammad Yasir

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Virtual organization emerged as a highly flexible structure in response to the rapidly changing environment of 20th century. This organization consists of independently working parties that combine their best possible resources to exploit the emerging market opportunities. There are no formal control and coordination mechanisms employed by the classical hierarchical structures. Parties, therefore, manage their dependencies on each other through mutual understanding and trust.Mathematician John Nash, having significant contributions in Game Theory suggests that in every non-cooperative game there is at least one equilibrium point. At this point, according to him, every strategy of the player represents a response to the others’ strategies. Such equilibria could exist in a virtual organization, at which parties coordinate which each other to optimize their performance.Coordination/Matching problems are likely to arise among game theoretically coordinating parties in a virtual organization, mainly due to lack of binding agreements. By identifying and resolving these matching problems, virtual organizations could achieve efficiency and better coordination among parties.  

  20. Game Theoretical Approaches for Transport-Aware Channel Selection in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Chen Shih-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectively sharing channels among secondary users (SUs is one of the greatest challenges in cognitive radio network (CRN. In the past, many studies have proposed channel selection schemes at the physical or the MAC layer that allow SUs swiftly respond to the spectrum states. However, they may not lead to enhance performance due to slow response of the transport layer flow control mechanism. This paper presents a cross-layer design framework called Transport Aware Channel Selection (TACS scheme to optimize the transport throughput based on states, such as RTT and congestion window size, of TCP flow control mechanism. We formulate the TACS problem as two different game theoretic approaches: Selfish Spectrum Sharing Game (SSSG and Cooperative Spectrum Sharing Game (CSSG and present novel distributed heuristic algorithms to optimize TCP throughput. Computer simulations show that SSSG and CSSG could double the SUs throughput of current MAC-based scheme when primary users (PUs use their channel infrequently, and with up to 12% to 100% throughput increase when PUs are more active. The simulation results also illustrated that CSSG performs up to 20% better than SSSG in terms of the throughput.

  1. A Game Theoretic Approach to Minimize the Completion Time of Network Coded Cooperative Data Exchange

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2014-05-11

    In this paper, we introduce a game theoretic framework for studying the problem of minimizing the completion time of instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) for cooperative data exchange (CDE) in decentralized wireless network. In this configuration, clients cooperate with each other to recover the erased packets without a central controller. Game theory is employed herein as a tool for improving the distributed solution by overcoming the need for a central controller or additional signaling in the system. We model the session by self-interested players in a non-cooperative potential game. The utility function is designed such that increasing individual payoff results in a collective behavior achieving both a desirable system performance in a shared network environment and the Pareto optimal solution. Through extensive simulations, our approach is compared to the best performance that could be found in the conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP) recovery process. Numerical results show that our formulation largely outperforms the conventional PMP scheme in most practical situations and achieves a lower delay.

  2. Game Theoretical Analysis on Cooperation Stability and Incentive Effectiveness in Community Networks.

    Song, Kaida; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yi; Qian, Depei; Zhang, Han; Cai, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Community networks, the distinguishing feature of which is membership admittance, appear on P2P networks, social networks, and conventional Web networks. Joining the network costs money, time or network bandwidth, but the individuals get access to special resources owned by the community in return. The prosperity and stability of the community are determined by both the policy of admittance and the attraction of the privileges gained by joining. However, some misbehaving users can get the dedicated resources with some illicit and low-cost approaches, which introduce instability into the community, a phenomenon that will destroy the membership policy. In this paper, we analyze on the stability using game theory on such a phenomenon. We propose a game-theoretical model of stability analysis in community networks and provide conditions for a stable community. We then extend the model to analyze the effectiveness of different incentive policies, which could be used when the community cannot maintain its members in certain situations. Then we verify those models through a simulation. Finally, we discuss several ways to promote community network's stability by adjusting the network's properties and give some proposal on the designs of these types of networks from the points of game theory and stability.

  3. Game Theoretical Analysis on Cooperation Stability and Incentive Effectiveness in Community Networks.

    Kaida Song

    Full Text Available Community networks, the distinguishing feature of which is membership admittance, appear on P2P networks, social networks, and conventional Web networks. Joining the network costs money, time or network bandwidth, but the individuals get access to special resources owned by the community in return. The prosperity and stability of the community are determined by both the policy of admittance and the attraction of the privileges gained by joining. However, some misbehaving users can get the dedicated resources with some illicit and low-cost approaches, which introduce instability into the community, a phenomenon that will destroy the membership policy. In this paper, we analyze on the stability using game theory on such a phenomenon. We propose a game-theoretical model of stability analysis in community networks and provide conditions for a stable community. We then extend the model to analyze the effectiveness of different incentive policies, which could be used when the community cannot maintain its members in certain situations. Then we verify those models through a simulation. Finally, we discuss several ways to promote community network's stability by adjusting the network's properties and give some proposal on the designs of these types of networks from the points of game theory and stability.

  4. An orbital emulator for pursuit-evasion game theoretic sensor management

    Shen, Dan; Wang, Tao; Wang, Gang; Jia, Bin; Wang, Zhonghai; Chen, Genshe; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh

    2017-05-01

    This paper develops and evaluates an orbital emulator (OE) for space situational awareness (SSA). The OE can produce 3D satellite movements using capabilities generated from omni-wheeled robot and robotic arm motion methods. The 3D motion of a satellite is partitioned into the movements in the equatorial plane and the up-down motions in the vertical plane. The 3D actions are emulated by omni-wheeled robot models while the up-down motions are performed by a stepped-motor-controlled-ball along a rod (robotic arm), which is attached to the robot. For multiple satellites, a fast map-merging algorithm is integrated into the robot operating system (ROS) and simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) routines to locate the multiple robots in the scene. The OE is used to demonstrate a pursuit-evasion (PE) game theoretic sensor management algorithm, which models conflicts between a space-based-visible (SBV) satellite (as pursuer) and a geosynchronous (GEO) satellite (as evader). The cost function of the PE game is based on the informational entropy of the SBV-tracking-GEO scenario. GEO can maneuver using a continuous and low thruster. The hard-in-loop space emulator visually illustrates the SSA problem solution based PE game.

  5. A Game Theoretic Approach to Minimize the Completion Time of Network Coded Cooperative Data Exchange

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Sorour, Sameh; Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a game theoretic framework for studying the problem of minimizing the completion time of instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) for cooperative data exchange (CDE) in decentralized wireless network. In this configuration, clients cooperate with each other to recover the erased packets without a central controller. Game theory is employed herein as a tool for improving the distributed solution by overcoming the need for a central controller or additional signaling in the system. We model the session by self-interested players in a non-cooperative potential game. The utility function is designed such that increasing individual payoff results in a collective behavior achieving both a desirable system performance in a shared network environment and the Pareto optimal solution. Through extensive simulations, our approach is compared to the best performance that could be found in the conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP) recovery process. Numerical results show that our formulation largely outperforms the conventional PMP scheme in most practical situations and achieves a lower delay.

  6. A Theoretical Bayesian Game Model for the Vendor-Retailer Relation

    Emil CRIŞAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider an equilibrated supply chain with two equal partners, a vendor and a retailer (also called newsboy type products supply chain. The actions of each partner are driven by profit. Given the fact that at supply chain level are specific external influences which affect the costs and concordant the profit, we use a game theoretic model for the situation, considering costs and demand. At theoretical level, symmetric and asymmetric information patterns are considered for this situation. There are at every supply chain’s level situations when external factors (such as inflation, raw-material rate influence the situation of each partner even if the information is well shared within the chain. The model we propose considers both the external factors and asymmetric information within a supply chain.

  7. Designing an optimal software intensive system acquisition: A game theoretic approach

    Buettner, Douglas John

    The development of schedule-constrained software-intensive space systems is challenging. Case study data from national security space programs developed at the U.S. Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center (USAF SMC) provide evidence of the strong desire by contractors to skip or severely reduce software development design and early defect detection methods in these schedule-constrained environments. The research findings suggest recommendations to fully address these issues at numerous levels. However, the observations lead us to investigate modeling and theoretical methods to fundamentally understand what motivated this behavior in the first place. As a result, Madachy's inspection-based system dynamics model is modified to include unit testing and an integration test feedback loop. This Modified Madachy Model (MMM) is used as a tool to investigate the consequences of this behavior on the observed defect dynamics for two remarkably different case study software projects. Latin Hypercube sampling of the MMM with sample distributions for quality, schedule and cost-driven strategies demonstrate that the higher cost and effort quality-driven strategies provide consistently better schedule performance than the schedule-driven up-front effort-reduction strategies. Game theory reasoning for schedule-driven engineers cutting corners on inspections and unit testing is based on the case study evidence and Austin's agency model to describe the observed phenomena. Game theory concepts are then used to argue that the source of the problem and hence the solution to developers cutting corners on quality for schedule-driven system acquisitions ultimately lies with the government. The game theory arguments also lead to the suggestion that the use of a multi-player dynamic Nash bargaining game provides a solution for our observed lack of quality game between the government (the acquirer) and "large-corporation" software developers. A note is provided that argues this multi

  8. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security traffic and transportation theory

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding and safety and security elements in traffic and transportation theory, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between different research approaches and through laying the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both ways – this book puts forward new congestion models, breaking new ground by introducing game theory and safety/security. Addressing the multiple actors who may hold different concerns regarding system reliability; e.g. one or several terrorists, a government, various local or regional government agencies, or others with stakes for or against system reliability, this book describes how ...

  9. Supply chain collaboration: A Game-theoretic approach to profit allocation

    Ponte, B.; Fernández, I.; Rosillo, R.; Parreño, J.; García, N.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to develop a theoretical framework for profit allocation, as a mechanism for aligning incentives, in collaborative supply chains. Design/methodology/approach: The issue of profit distribution is approached from a game-theoretic perspective. We use the nucleolus concept. The framework is illustrated through a numerical example based on the Beer Game scenario. Findings: The nucleolus offers a powerful perspective to tackle this problem, as it takes into consideration the bargaining power of the different echelons. We show that this framework outperforms classical alternatives. Research limitations/implications: The allocation of the overall supply chain profit is analyzed from a static perspective. Considering the dynamic nature of the problem would be an interesting next step. Practical implications: We provide evidence of drawbacks derived from classical solutions to the profit allocation problem. Real-world collaborative supply chains need of robust mechanisms like the one tackled in this work to align incentives from the various actors. Originality/value: Adopting an efficient collaborative solution is a major challenge for supply chains, since it is a wide and complex process that requires an appropriate scheme. Within this framework, profit allocation is essential.

  10. A Game-theoretical Approach for Distributed Cooperative Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Lu, Yimeng

    2018-05-01

    This thesis explores a game-theoretical approach for underwater environmental monitoring applications. We first apply game-theoretical algorithm to multi-agent resource coverage problem in drifting environments. Furthermore, existing utility design and learning process of the algorithm are modified to fit specific constraints of underwater exploration/monitoring tasks. The revised approach can take the real scenario of underwater monitoring applications such as the effect of sea current, previous knowledge of the resource and occasional communications between agents into account, and adapt to them to reach better performance. As the motivation of this thesis is from real applications, in this work we emphasize highly on implementation phase. A ROS-Gazebo simulation environment was created for preparation of actual tests. The algorithms are implemented in simulating both the dynamics of vehicles and the environment. After that, a multi-agent underwater autonomous robotic system was developed for hardware test in real settings with local controllers to make their own decisions. These systems are used for testing above mentioned algorithms and future development of other underwater projects. After that, other works related to robotics during this thesis will be briefly mentioned, including contributions in MBZIRC robotics competition and distributed control of UAVs in an adversarial environment.

  11. Supply chain collaboration: A Game-theoretic approach to profit allocation

    Ponte, B.; Fernández, I.; Rosillo, R.; Parreño, J.; García, N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to develop a theoretical framework for profit allocation, as a mechanism for aligning incentives, in collaborative supply chains. Design/methodology/approach: The issue of profit distribution is approached from a game-theoretic perspective. We use the nucleolus concept. The framework is illustrated through a numerical example based on the Beer Game scenario. Findings: The nucleolus offers a powerful perspective to tackle this problem, as it takes into consideration the bargaining power of the different echelons. We show that this framework outperforms classical alternatives. Research limitations/implications: The allocation of the overall supply chain profit is analyzed from a static perspective. Considering the dynamic nature of the problem would be an interesting next step. Practical implications: We provide evidence of drawbacks derived from classical solutions to the profit allocation problem. Real-world collaborative supply chains need of robust mechanisms like the one tackled in this work to align incentives from the various actors. Originality/value: Adopting an efficient collaborative solution is a major challenge for supply chains, since it is a wide and complex process that requires an appropriate scheme. Within this framework, profit allocation is essential.

  12. A Game Theoretical Approach to Hacktivism: Is Attack Likelihood a Product of Risks and Payoffs?

    Bodford, Jessica E; Kwan, Virginia S Y

    2018-02-01

    The current study examines hacktivism (i.e., hacking to convey a moral, ethical, or social justice message) through a general game theoretic framework-that is, as a product of costs and benefits. Given the inherent risk of carrying out a hacktivist attack (e.g., legal action, imprisonment), it would be rational for the user to weigh these risks against perceived benefits of carrying out the attack. As such, we examined computer science students' estimations of risks, payoffs, and attack likelihood through a game theoretic design. Furthermore, this study aims at constructing a descriptive profile of potential hacktivists, exploring two predicted covariates of attack decision making, namely, peer prevalence of hacking and sex differences. Contrary to expectations, results suggest that participants' estimations of attack likelihood stemmed solely from expected payoffs, rather than subjective risks. Peer prevalence significantly predicted increased payoffs and attack likelihood, suggesting an underlying descriptive norm in social networks. Notably, we observed no sex differences in the decision to attack, nor in the factors predicting attack likelihood. Implications for policymakers and the understanding and prevention of hacktivism are discussed, as are the possible ramifications of widely communicated payoffs over potential risks in hacking communities.

  13. Online channel operation mode: Game theoretical analysis from the supply chain power structure

    Song Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dual-channels have been widely used in practice, and the pricing decisions and the online channel operation mode choice have been the core problems in dual-channel supply chain management. This paper focuses on the online channel operation mode choice from the supply chain power structures based on game theoretical analysis. Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes three kinds of game theoretical models to analyze the impact of supply chain power structures on the optimal pricing and online channel operation mode choice. Findings: Results derived in this paper indicate that when the self-price elasticity is large, the power structures have no direct impact on the decisions. However, when the self-price elasticity is small and customers’ preference for the online channel is low, then in the MS market, it is better for the retailer to operate the online channel, while in the RS market or in the VN market, it is better for the manufacturer to operate the online channel. Research limitations/implications: In this paper, we do not consider stochastic demand and asymmetric information, which may not well suit the reality. Originality/value: This paper provides a different perspective to analyze the impact of supply chain power structures on the pricing decisions and online channel operation mode choice. The comparison of these two online channel operation modes in this paper is also a unique point.

  14. GeoQuest an Interactive Role Playing game

    Maraffi, Sabina; Sacerdoti, Francesco; Scamardella, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    The acquisition of knowledge and enhancing skills at actual time requires different approaches, involving students as much as possible, taking advantage of informal learning strengths and opportunities of formal learning. In this perspective, the game seems to be a perfect vehicle, not a single student's playing but a cooperative one. The GeoQuest project consists of an interactive role-playing game which involves all students using a patented system: the "teaching projector". This system allows the interaction of the class group through the use of smartphones and tablets, and it shows in real-time the game progress to the whole class. Our role-playing game is based on three routes at different degrees. The students, divided into several categories (physicist, chemists, disseminators, technicians, historians) have to follow a geological trail in order to discover the present and the past of the Earth. During the path, students have to pass some doors in teamwork; they allow assessment and represent the main sharing/disclosure moment. The doors allow to modulate the activities according to single lesson, teaching unit, module. Main Objectives: Working on PC by themselves, students could be even more alone: it needs a best fitting between ICT and cooperative learning. Role-playing helps students to reach their goals easily through cooperation; this in order to avoid the risk of loneliness of Inquiry Based Science Education, preserving entirely the educational value. Science Research now is based on field expert interaction: the role-playing game categories reflect the necessary team to get their goal. The several roles allow everyone to enhance their own skills. the "teaching projector" allows students to comment and to evaluate the groups activities and route them, providing real-time corrections to everybody. The playing categories represent all the aspects of the research areas: from scientists (physicists, chemists), to technicians, to disseminators and

  15. Environmental Policy and Technology Diffusion under Imperfect Competition. An Evolutionary Game Theoretical Approach

    De Vries, F.P.

    2003-05-01

    The analysis of the thesis centers around the diffusion incentives of different environmental policy instruments. Emission taxation, subsidies per unit of emission reduction, marketable emission permits and marketable emission credits will be discussed and compared to each other on how they affect the diffusion of an environmentally benign technology. The analysis is conducted within an applied evolutionary game theoretical framework. An extensive discussion of evolutionary game theory can be found in chapter 2. Chapter 3 reviews classical diffusion models: the epidemic, probit and classic game theoretical model. Then we shift our attention to general evolutionary diffusion models, followed by an outline of the use of evolutionary game theory as a tool for analyzing technology diffusion. The purpose of the chapter is to illustrate the main differences between the various models. Relevant parts of economic theory are reviewed in chapters 4 and 5. Chapter 4 contains a survey and interpretive assessment of the current literature dealing with the impact of environmental policy instruments on the adoption and diffusion of a pollution abatement technology. The chapter illustrates and criticizes the static character of the most influential models. In chapter 2 it will become apparent that an evolutionary analysis is quite appealing when markets axe characterized by perfect competition. Enhanced competitiveness forces firms to produce efficiently in order to avoid elimination. However, in imperfect competitive markets competition is limited to only a small number of firms. Since the central market structure in this thesis is that of imperfect competition, chapter 5 examines the literature on evolutionary game models applied to these type of markets. The survey reveals that the literature focuses on determining whether the evolutionary game models generate output equilibria identical to the traditional static Cournot and Bertrand models or to other output levels. Chapter 6

  16. Opportunities and Challenges of Implementing Instructional Games in Mathematics Classrooms: Examining the Quality of Teacher-Student Interactions during the Cover-Up and Un-Cover Games

    Heshmati, Saeideh; Kersting, Nicole; Sutton, Taliesin

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the design and implementation of the Cover-up and Un-cover games, two manipulative-based fraction games, in 14 fifth-grade classrooms. We examined how the fraction concepts were integrated into the game design and explored the nature of teacher-student interactions during games using lesson videos. Our examination showed that…

  17. Games and Diabetes: A Review Investigating Theoretical Frameworks, Evaluation Methodologies, and Opportunities for Design Grounded in Learning Theories.

    Lazem, Shaimaa; Webster, Mary; Holmes, Wayne; Wolf, Motje

    2015-09-02

    Here we review 18 articles that describe the design and evaluation of 1 or more games for diabetes from technical, methodological, and theoretical perspectives. We undertook searches covering the period 2010 to May 2015 in the ACM, IEEE, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, and Google Scholar online databases using the keywords "children," "computer games," "diabetes," "games," "type 1," and "type 2" in various Boolean combinations. The review sets out to establish, for future research, an understanding of the current landscape of digital games designed for children with diabetes. We briefly explored the use and impact of well-established learning theories in such games. The most frequently mentioned theoretical frameworks were social cognitive theory and social constructivism. Due to the limitations of the reported evaluation methodologies, little evidence was found to support the strong promise of games for diabetes. Furthermore, we could not establish a relation between design features and the game outcomes. We argue that an in-depth discussion about the extent to which learning theories could and should be manifested in the design decisions is required. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Direct observation of children's preferences and activity levels during interactive and online electronic games.

    Sit, Cindy H P; Lam, Jessica W K; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2010-07-01

    Interactive electronic games have recently been popularized and are believed to help promote children's physical activity (PA). The purpose of the study was to examine preferences and PA levels during interactive and online electronic games among overweight and nonoverweight boys and girls. Using a modification of the SOFIT, we systematically observed 70 Hong Kong Chinese children (35 boys, 35 girls; 50 nonoverweight, 20 overweight), age 9 to 12 years, during 2 60-minute recreation sessions and recorded their game mode choices and PA levels. During Session One children could play either an interactive or an online electronic bowling game and during Session Two they could play an interactive or an online electronic running game. Children chose to play the games during 94% of session time and split this time between interactive (52%) and online (48%) versions. They engaged in significantly more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during interactive games than their online electronic versions (70% vs. 2% of game time). Boys and nonoverweight children expended relatively more energy during the interactive games than girls and overweight children, respectively. New-generation interactive games can facilitate physical activity in children, and given the opportunity children may select them over sedentary versions.

  19. The Effects of Online Interactive Games on High School Students' Achievement and Motivation in History Learning

    Lin, Kuan-Cheng; Wei, Yu Che; Hung, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate that Digital Game Based Learning (DGBL) can foster learning effect. The purpose of this study is to survey whether the online game in junior high school students can encourage learning effect in Taiwan's History. So, the research applied Interactive Game-based Learning System (IGLS) to junior high history teaching as an…

  20. A Survey of Educational Games as Interaction Design Tools for Affective Learning: Thematic Analysis Taxonomy

    Yusoff, Zarwina; Kamsin, Amirrudin; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Chronopoulos, Anthony T.

    2018-01-01

    A Computer game is the new platform in generating learning experiences for educational purposes. There are many educational games that have been used as an interaction design tool in a learning environment to enhance students learning outcomes. However, research also claims that playing video games can have a negative impact on student behavior,…

  1. Countering Terrorist Ideologies: A Rational Actor and Game Theoretic Analysis of De-Radicalization Programs for Al-Jemaah Al-Islamiyah Prisoners in Singapore and Indonesia

    Pendleton, Paul

    2008-01-01

    .... This thesis, proposing that successful counter-ideology occurs at the level of the individual, constitutes a rational actor and game theoretic analysis of counterideology programs in Indonesia...

  2. Continued use of an interactive computer game-based visual perception learning system in children with developmental delay.

    Lin, Hsien-Cheng; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Chen, Yenming J; Wuang, Yee-Pay; Chen, Chiu-Ping; Wang, Chih-Chung; Huang, Chien-Ling; Wu, Tang-Meng; Ho, Wen-Hsien

    2017-11-01

    This study developed an interactive computer game-based visual perception learning system for special education children with developmental delay. To investigate whether perceived interactivity affects continued use of the system, this study developed a theoretical model of the process in which learners decide whether to continue using an interactive computer game-based visual perception learning system. The technology acceptance model, which considers perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived playfulness, was extended by integrating perceived interaction (i.e., learner-instructor interaction and learner-system interaction) and then analyzing the effects of these perceptions on satisfaction and continued use. Data were collected from 150 participants (rehabilitation therapists, medical paraprofessionals, and parents of children with developmental delay) recruited from a single medical center in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling and partial-least-squares techniques were used to evaluate relationships within the model. The modeling results indicated that both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness were positively associated with both learner-instructor interaction and learner-system interaction. However, perceived playfulness only had a positive association with learner-system interaction and not with learner-instructor interaction. Moreover, satisfaction was positively affected by perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived playfulness. Thus, satisfaction positively affects continued use of the system. The data obtained by this study can be applied by researchers, designers of computer game-based learning systems, special education workers, and medical professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Uncertainty quantification for mean field games in social interactions

    Dia, Ben Mansour

    2016-01-09

    We present an overview of mean field games formulation. A comparative analysis of the optimality for a stochastic McKean-Vlasov process with time-dependent probability is presented. Then we examine mean-field games for social interactions and we show that optimizing the long-term well-being through effort and social feeling state distribution (mean-field) will help to stabilize couple (marriage). However , if the cost of effort is very high, the couple fluctuates in a bad feeling state or the marriage breaks down. We then examine the influence of society on a couple using mean field sentimental games. We show that, in mean-field equilibrium, the optimal effort is always higher than the one-shot optimal effort. Finally we introduce the Wiener chaos expansion for the construction of solution of stochastic differential equations of Mckean-Vlasov type. The method is based on the Cameron-Martin version of the Wiener Chaos expansion and allow to quantify the uncertainty in the optimality system.

  4. Uncertainty quantification for mean field games in social interactions

    Dia, Ben Mansour

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of mean field games formulation. A comparative analysis of the optimality for a stochastic McKean-Vlasov process with time-dependent probability is presented. Then we examine mean-field games for social interactions and we show that optimizing the long-term well-being through effort and social feeling state distribution (mean-field) will help to stabilize couple (marriage). However , if the cost of effort is very high, the couple fluctuates in a bad feeling state or the marriage breaks down. We then examine the influence of society on a couple using mean field sentimental games. We show that, in mean-field equilibrium, the optimal effort is always higher than the one-shot optimal effort. Finally we introduce the Wiener chaos expansion for the construction of solution of stochastic differential equations of Mckean-Vlasov type. The method is based on the Cameron-Martin version of the Wiener Chaos expansion and allow to quantify the uncertainty in the optimality system.

  5. Game-theoretic modeling of curtailment rules and network investments with distributed generation

    Andoni, Merlinda; Robu, Valentin; Früh, Wolf-Gerrit; Flynn, David

    2017-01-01

    to validate our model. We show that charging a transmission fee as a proportion of the feed-in tariff price between 15% and 75% would allow both investors to implement their projects and achieve desirable distribution of the profit. Overall, our results show how using game-theoretic tools can help network operators to bridge the knowledge gap about setting the optimal curtailment rule and determining transmission charges for private network infrastructure.

  6. An Evolutionary Game Theoretic Approach to Multi-Sector Coordination and Self-Organization

    Fernando P. Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coordination games provide ubiquitous interaction paradigms to frame human behavioral features, such as information transmission, conventions and languages as well as socio-economic processes and institutions. By using a dynamical approach, such as Evolutionary Game Theory (EGT, one is able to follow, in detail, the self-organization process by which a population of individuals coordinates into a given behavior. Real socio-economic scenarios, however, often involve the interaction between multiple co-evolving sectors, with specific options of their own, that call for generalized and more sophisticated mathematical frameworks. In this paper, we explore a general EGT approach to deal with coordination dynamics in which individuals from multiple sectors interact. Starting from a two-sector, consumer/producer scenario, we investigate the effects of including a third co-evolving sector that we call public. We explore the changes in the self-organization process of all sectors, given the feedback that this new sector imparts on the other two.

  7. Coordination of pricing and co-op advertising models in supply chain: A game theoretic approach

    Amin Alirezaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-op advertising is an interactive relationship between manufacturer and retailer(s supply chain and makes up the majority of marketing budget in many product lines for manufacturers and retailers. This paper considers pricing and co-op advertising decisions in two-stage supply chain and develops a monopolistic retailer and duopolistic retailer's model. In these models, the manufacturer and the retailers play the Nash, Manufacturer-Stackelberg and cooperative game to make optimal pricing and co-op advertising decisions. A bargaining model is utilized for determine the best pricing and co-op advertising scheme for achieving full coordination in the supply chain.

  8. An Interactive Immersive Serious Game Application for Kunyu Quantu World Map

    Peng, S.-T.; Hsu, S.-Y.; Hsieh, K.-C.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, more and more digital technologies and innovative concepts are applied on museum education. One of the concepts applied is "Serious game." Serious game is not designed for entertainment purpose but allows users to learn real world's cultural and educational knowledge in the virtual world through game-experiencing. Technologies applied on serious game are identical to those applied on entertainment game. Nowadays, the interactive technology applications considering users' movement and gestures in physical spaces are developing rapidly, which are extensively used in entertainment games, such as Kinect-based games. The ability to explore space via Kinect-based games can be incorporated into the design of serious game. The ancient world map, Kunyu Quantu, from the collection of the National Palace Museum is therefore applied in serious game development. In general, the ancient world map does not only provide geological information, but also contains museum knowledge. This particular ancient world map is an excellent content applied in games as teaching material. In the 17th century, it was first used by a missionary as a medium to teach the Kangxi Emperor of the latest geologic and scientific spirits from the West. On this map, it also includes written biological knowledge and climate knowledge. Therefore, this research aims to present the design of the interactive and immersive serious game based installation that developed from the rich content of the Kunyu Quantu World Map, and to analyse visitor's experience in terms of real world's cultural knowledge learning and interactive responses.

  9. Resource Allocation for Multicell Device-to-Device Communications in Cellular Network: A Game Theoretic Approach

    Jun Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Device-to-Device (D2D communication has recently emerged as a promising technology to improve the capacity and coverage of cellular systems. To successfully implement D2D communications underlaying a cellular network, resource allocation for D2D links plays a critical role. While most of prior resource allocation mechanisms for D2D communications have focused on interference within a single-cell system, this paper investigates the resource allocation problem for a multicell cellular network in which a D2D link reuses available spectrum resources of multiple cells. A repeated game theoretic approach is proposed to address the problem. In this game, the base stations (BSs act as players that compete for resource supply of D2D, and the utility of each player is formulated as revenue collected from both cellular and D2D users using resources. Extensive simulations are conducted to verify the proposed approach and the results show that it can considerably enhance the system performance in terms of sum rate and sum rate gain.

  10. Game Theoretic Approach for Systematic Feature Selection; Application in False Alarm Detection in Intensive Care Units

    Fatemeh Afghah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensive Care Units (ICUs are equipped with many sophisticated sensors and monitoring devices to provide the highest quality of care for critically ill patients. However, these devices might generate false alarms that reduce standard of care and result in desensitization of caregivers to alarms. Therefore, reducing the number of false alarms is of great importance. Many approaches such as signal processing and machine learning, and designing more accurate sensors have been developed for this purpose. However, the significant intrinsic correlation among the extracted features from different sensors has been mostly overlooked. A majority of current data mining techniques fail to capture such correlation among the collected signals from different sensors that limits their alarm recognition capabilities. Here, we propose a novel information-theoretic predictive modeling technique based on the idea of coalition game theory to enhance the accuracy of false alarm detection in ICUs by accounting for the synergistic power of signal attributes in the feature selection stage. This approach brings together techniques from information theory and game theory to account for inter-features mutual information in determining the most correlated predictors with respect to false alarm by calculating Banzhaf power of each feature. The numerical results show that the proposed method can enhance classification accuracy and improve the area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve compared to other feature selection techniques, when integrated in classifiers such as Bayes-Net that consider inter-features dependencies.

  11. A Game-Theoretic approach to Fault Diagnosis of Hybrid Systems

    Davide Bresolin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical systems can fail. For this reason the problem of identifying and reacting to faults has received a large attention in the control and computer science communities. In this paper we study the fault diagnosis problem for hybrid systems from a game-theoretical point of view. A hybrid system is a system mixing continuous and discrete behaviours that cannot be faithfully modeled neither by using a formalism with continuous dynamics only nor by a formalism including only discrete dynamics. We use the well known framework of hybrid automata for modeling hybrid systems, and we define a Fault Diagnosis Game on them, using two players: the environment and the diagnoser. The environment controls the evolution of the system and chooses whether and when a fault occurs. The diagnoser observes the external behaviour of the system and announces whether a fault has occurred or not. Existence of a winning strategy for the diagnoser implies that faults can be detected correctly, while computing such a winning strategy corresponds to implement a diagnoser for the system. We will show how to determine the existence of a winning strategy, and how to compute it, for some decidable classes of hybrid automata like o-minimal hybrid automata.

  12. Role of word-of-mouth for programs of voluntary vaccination: A game-theoretic approach.

    Bhattacharyya, Samit; Bauch, Chris T; Breban, Romulus

    2015-11-01

    We propose a model describing the synergetic feedback between word-of-mouth (WoM) and epidemic dynamics controlled by voluntary vaccination. The key feature consists in combining a game-theoretic model for the spread of WoM and a compartmental model describing VSIR disease dynamics in the presence of a program of voluntary vaccination. We evaluate and compare two scenarios for determinants of behavior, depending on what WoM disseminates: (1) vaccine advertising, which may occur whether or not an epidemic is ongoing and (2) epidemic status, notably disease prevalence. Understanding the synergy between the two strategies could be particularly important for designing voluntary vaccination campaigns. We find that, in the initial phase of an epidemic, vaccination uptake is determined more by vaccine advertising than the epidemic status. As the epidemic progresses, epidemic status becomes increasingly important for vaccination uptake, considerably accelerating vaccination uptake toward a stable vaccination coverage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A game-theoretical approach for reciprocal security-related prevention investment decisions

    Reniers, Genserik; Soudan, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Every company situated within a chemical cluster faces important security risks from neighbouring companies. Investing in reciprocal security preventive measures is therefore necessary to avoid major accidents. These investments do not, however, provide a direct return on investment for the investor-company and thus plants are hesitative to invest. Moreover, there is likelihood that even if a company has fully invested in reciprocal security prevention, its neighbour has not, and as a result the company can experience a major accident caused by an initial (minor or major) accident that occurred in an adjacent chemical enterprise. In this article we employ a game-theoretic approach to interpret and model behaviour of two neighbouring chemical plants while negotiating and deciding on reciprocal security prevention investments.

  14. Economic and game-theoretical analysis of CO{sub 2} emission abatement

    Tahvonen, O. [Helsinki School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Current decisions on greenhouse gas emissions may have effects on human well being for centuries. This project has aimed to extend the economic models designed for analyzing this particular issue. A closely related topic follows from the fact that emitting CO{sub 2} can be interpreted as a utilization of a free access resource, i.e., when countries gain from utilizing cheap fossil fuels (relative to noncarbon energy sources), the possible loss any country suffers from climate change is only a negligible fraction of the total loss of all countries. Thus, from a global point of view, the incentives for an individual country to abate emissions is low. Economic understanding of these problems calls for dynamic game-theoretical models

  15. Formation of Virtual Organizations in Grids: A Game-Theoretic Approach

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Grosu, Daniel

    The execution of large scale grid applications requires the use of several computational resources owned by various Grid Service Providers (GSPs). GSPs must form Virtual Organizations (VOs) to be able to provide the composite resource to these applications. We consider grids as self-organizing systems composed of autonomous, self-interested GSPs that will organize themselves into VOs with every GSP having the objective of maximizing its profit. We formulate the resource composition among GSPs as a coalition formation problem and propose a game-theoretic framework based on cooperation structures to model it. Using this framework, we design a resource management system that supports the VO formation among GSPs in a grid computing system.

  16. Economic and game-theoretical analysis of CO{sub 2} emission abatement

    Tahvonen, O [Helsinki School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Current decisions on greenhouse gas emissions may have effects on human well being for centuries. This project has aimed to extend the economic models designed for analyzing this particular issue. A closely related topic follows from the fact that emitting CO{sub 2} can be interpreted as a utilization of a free access resource, i.e., when countries gain from utilizing cheap fossil fuels (relative to noncarbon energy sources), the possible loss any country suffers from climate change is only a negligible fraction of the total loss of all countries. Thus, from a global point of view, the incentives for an individual country to abate emissions is low. Economic understanding of these problems calls for dynamic game-theoretical models

  17. A game-theoretical pricing mechanism for multiuser rate allocation for video over WiMAX

    Chen, Chao-An; Lo, Chi-Wen; Lin, Chia-Wen; Chen, Yung-Chang

    2010-07-01

    In multiuser rate allocation in a wireless network, strategic users can bias the rate allocation by misrepresenting their bandwidth demands to a base station, leading to an unfair allocation. Game-theoretical approaches have been proposed to address the unfair allocation problems caused by the strategic users. However, existing approaches rely on a timeconsuming iterative negotiation process. Besides, they cannot completely prevent unfair allocations caused by inconsistent strategic behaviors. To address these problems, we propose a Search Based Pricing Mechanism to reduce the communication time and to capture a user's strategic behavior. Our simulation results show that the proposed method significantly reduce the communication time as well as converges stably to an optimal allocation.

  18. Game theoretic wireless resource allocation for H.264 MGS video transmission over cognitive radio networks

    Fragkoulis, Alexandros; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a method for the fair and efficient allocation of wireless resources over a cognitive radio system network to transmit multiple scalable video streams to multiple users. The method exploits the dynamic architecture of the Scalable Video Coding extension of the H.264 standard, along with the diversity that OFDMA networks provide. We use a game-theoretic Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) framework to ensure that each user receives the minimum video quality requirements, while maintaining fairness over the cognitive radio system. An optimization problem is formulated, where the objective is the maximization of the Nash product while minimizing the waste of resources. The problem is solved by using a Swarm Intelligence optimizer, namely Particle Swarm Optimization. Due to the high dimensionality of the problem, we also introduce a dimension-reduction technique. Our experimental results demonstrate the fairness imposed by the employed NBS framework.

  19. A game theoretical approach for QoS provisioning in heterogeneous networks

    A.S.M. Zadid Shifat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of mobile phone users, interference management is a big concern in this neoteric years. To cope with this problem along with ensuring better Quality of Service (QoS, femtocell plays an imperious preamble in heterogeneous networks (HetNets for some of its noteworthy characteristics. In this paper, we propose a game theoretic algorithm along with dynamic channel allocation and hybrid access mechanism with self-organizing power control scheme. With a view to resolving prioritized access issue, the concept of primary and secondary users is applied. Existence of pure strategy Nash equilibrium (NE has been investigated and comes to a perfection that our proposed scheme can be adopted both increasing capacity and increasing revenue of operators considering optimal price for consumers.

  20. Evolution of cooperation through adaptive interaction in a spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    Pan, Qiuhui; Liu, Xuesong; Bao, Honglin; Su, Yu; He, Mingfeng

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of adaptive interaction on the evolution of cooperation in a spatial prisoner's dilemma game. The connections of players are co-evolutionary with cooperation; whether adjacent players can play the prisoner's dilemma game is associated with the strategies they took in the preceding round. If a player defected in the preceding round, his neighbors will refuse to play the prisoner's dilemma game with him in accordance with a certain probability distribution. We use the disconnecting strength to represent this probability. We discuss the evolution of cooperation with different values of temptation to defect, sucker's payoff and disconnecting strength. The simulation results show that cooperation can be significantly enhanced through increasing the value of the disconnecting strength. In addition, the increase in disconnecting strength can improve the cooperators' ability to resist the increase in temptation and the decrease in reward. We study the parameter ranges for three different evolutionary results: cooperators extinction, defectors extinction, cooperator and defector co-existence. Meanwhile, we recruited volunteers and designed a human behavioral experiment to verify the theoretical simulation results. The punishment of disconnection has a positive effect on cooperation. A higher disconnecting strength will enhance cooperation more significantly. Our research findings reveal some significant insights into efficient mechanisms of the evolution of cooperation.

  1. Trophic interaction modifications: an empirical and theoretical framework.

    Terry, J Christopher D; Morris, Rebecca J; Bonsall, Michael B

    2017-10-01

    Consumer-resource interactions are often influenced by other species in the community. At present these 'trophic interaction modifications' are rarely included in ecological models despite demonstrations that they can drive system dynamics. Here, we advocate and extend an approach that has the potential to unite and represent this key group of non-trophic interactions by emphasising the change to trophic interactions induced by modifying species. We highlight the opportunities this approach brings in comparison to frameworks that coerce trophic interaction modifications into pairwise relationships. To establish common frames of reference and explore the value of the approach, we set out a range of metrics for the 'strength' of an interaction modification which incorporate increasing levels of contextual information about the system. Through demonstrations in three-species model systems, we establish that these metrics capture complimentary aspects of interaction modifications. We show how the approach can be used in a range of empirical contexts; we identify as specific gaps in current understanding experiments with multiple levels of modifier species and the distributions of modifications in networks. The trophic interaction modification approach we propose can motivate and unite empirical and theoretical studies of system dynamics, providing a route to confront ecological complexity. © 2017 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Reinventing the Arcade: Computer Game Mediated Play Spaces for Physical Interaction

    A. M. Connor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests that recent developments in video game technology have occurred in parallel to play being moved from public into private spaces, which has had impact on the way people interact with games. The paper also argues and that there is potentially value in the creation of public play spaces to create opportunities to utilise both technology and body for the benefit of community culture and experiences through gaming. Co-located social gaming coupled with tangible interfaces offer alternative possibilities for the local video game scene. This paper includes a descriptive account of Rabble Room Arcade, an experimental social event combining custom-built tangible interface devices and multiplayer video games. The event was designed around games that promoted a return to simplicity through the use of unique tangible controllers to allow casual gamers to connect to the game and to each other, whilst also transforming the event into a spectacle.

  3. Dvds, video games, and the cinema of interactions Dvds, video games, and the cinema of interactions

    Richard Grusin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The “cinema of interactions” in the title of my paper alludes to Tom Gunning’s paradigmatic conception of early cinema as a “cinema of attractions.” Borrowing from the idea that electronic textuality marks what has been called the late age of print, I argue that the history of cinema up to the present moment can be seen as an extension of early cinema. In describing the current cinematic moment in this fashion, I do not mean to suggest that film will disappear in the face of video games and other digital media, but rather that it will continue increasingly to be engaged with the social, technological, and aesthetic forms and practices of digital media. This engagement will not be marked (as many digital enthusiasts contend by the emergence of a distinctively new digital medium (and the concomitant abandonment of the technologically outmoded medium of celluloid film, but rather by the emergence of multiply networked, distributed forms of cinematic production and exhibition. Indeed I am convinced that in this sense we already find ourselves with a digital cinema—not as a distinctively new medium but as a hybrid network of media forms and practices. The “cinema of interactions” in the title of my paper alludes to Tom Gunning’s paradigmatic conception of early cinema as a “cinema of attractions.” Borrowing from the idea that electronic textuality marks what has been called the late age of print, I argue that the history of cinema up to the present moment can be seen as an extension of early cinema. In describing the current cinematic moment in this fashion, I do not mean to suggest that film will disappear in the face of video games and other digital media, but rather that it will continue increasingly to be engaged with the social, technological, and aesthetic forms and practices of digital media. This engagement will not be marked (as many digital enthusiasts contend by the emergence of a distinctively new digital medium

  4. Tourist activity planning in congested urban tourism environments : towards a game theoretic model and decision support system

    Han, Q.; Dellaert, B.G.C.; Raaij, van W.F.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Crouch, G.I.; Perdue, R/R/; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Uysal, M.

    2005-01-01

    Urban tourism has positive effects on the city such as generating financial support and improving the city's atmosphere, but may also have negative impacts such as overuse of resources. In this chapter, an activity-based approach to tourists' behaviour analysis is combined with a game-theoretic

  5. Theoretical Studies of Strongly Interacting Fine Particle Systems

    Fearon, Michael

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A theoretical analysis of the time dependent behaviour of a system of fine magnetic particles as a function of applied field and temperature was carried out. The model used was based on a theory assuming Neel relaxation with a distribution of particle sizes. This theory predicted a linear variation of S_{max} with temperature and a finite intercept, which is not reflected by experimental observations. The remanence curves of strongly interacting fine-particle systems were also investigated theoretically. It was shown that the Henkel plot of the dc demagnetisation remanence vs the isothermal remanence is a useful representation of interactions. The form of the plot was found to be a reflection of the magnetic and physical microstructure of the material, which is consistent with experimental data. The relationship between the Henkel plot and the noise of a particulate recording medium, another property dependent on the microstructure, is also considered. The Interaction Field Factor (IFF), a single parameter characterising the non-linearity of the Henkel plot, is investigated. These results are consistent with a previous experimental study. Finally the results of the noise power spectral density for erased and saturated recording media are presented, so that characterisation of interparticle interactions may be carried out with greater accuracy.

  6. Motion interactive video games in home training for children with cerebral palsy: parents' perceptions.

    Sandlund, Marlene; Dock, Katarina; Häger, Charlotte K; Waterworth, Eva Lindh

    2012-01-01

    To explore parents' perceptions of using low-cost motion interactive video games as home training for their children with mild/moderate cerebral palsy. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with parents from 15 families after participation in an intervention where motion interactive games were used daily in home training for their child. A qualitative content analysis approach was applied. The parents' perception of the training was very positive. They expressed the view that motion interactive video games may promote positive experiences of physical training in rehabilitation, where the social aspects of gaming were especially valued. Further, the parents experienced less need to take on coaching while gaming stimulated independent training. However, there was a desire for more controlled and individualized games to better challenge the specific rehabilitative need of each child. Low-cost motion interactive games may provide increased motivation and social interaction to home training and promote independent training with reduced coaching efforts for the parents. In future designs of interactive games for rehabilitation purposes, it is important to preserve the motivational and social features of games while optimizing the individualized physical exercise.

  7. The Effect of Interactivity with a Music Video Game on Second Language Vocabulary Recall

    Jonathan DeHaan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Video games are potential sources of second language input; however, the medium’s fundamental characteristic, interactivity, has not been thoroughly examined in terms of its effect on learning outcomes. This experimental study investigated to what degree, if at all, video game interactivity would help or hinder the noticing and recall of second language vocabulary. Eighty randomly-selected Japanese university undergraduates were paired based on similar English language and game proficiencies. One subject played an English-language music video game for 20 minutes while the paired subject watched the game simultaneously on another monitor. Following gameplay, a vocabulary recall test, a cognitive load measure, an experience questionnaire, and a two-week delayed vocabulary recall test were administered. Results were analyzed using paired samples t-tests and various analyses of variance. Both the players and the watchers of the video game recalled vocabulary from the game, but the players recalled significantly less vocabulary than the watchers. This seems to be a result of the extraneous cognitive load induced by the interactivity of the game; the players perceived the game and its language to be significantly more difficult than the watchers did. Players also reported difficulty simultaneously attending to gameplay and vocabulary. Both players and watchers forgot significant amounts of vocabulary over the course of the study. We relate these findings to theories and studies of vocabulary acquisition and video game-based language learning, and then suggest implications for language teaching and learning with interactive multimedia.

  8. Interactive 3D visualization for theoretical virtual observatories

    Dykes, T.; Hassan, A.; Gheller, C.; Croton, D.; Krokos, M.

    2018-06-01

    Virtual observatories (VOs) are online hubs of scientific knowledge. They encompass a collection of platforms dedicated to the storage and dissemination of astronomical data, from simple data archives to e-research platforms offering advanced tools for data exploration and analysis. Whilst the more mature platforms within VOs primarily serve the observational community, there are also services fulfilling a similar role for theoretical data. Scientific visualization can be an effective tool for analysis and exploration of data sets made accessible through web platforms for theoretical data, which often contain spatial dimensions and properties inherently suitable for visualization via e.g. mock imaging in 2D or volume rendering in 3D. We analyse the current state of 3D visualization for big theoretical astronomical data sets through scientific web portals and virtual observatory services. We discuss some of the challenges for interactive 3D visualization and how it can augment the workflow of users in a virtual observatory context. Finally we showcase a lightweight client-server visualization tool for particle-based data sets, allowing quantitative visualization via data filtering, highlighting two example use cases within the Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory.

  9. Interactive 3D Visualization for Theoretical Virtual Observatories

    Dykes, Tim; Hassan, A.; Gheller, C.; Croton, D.; Krokos, M.

    2018-04-01

    Virtual Observatories (VOs) are online hubs of scientific knowledge. They encompass a collection of platforms dedicated to the storage and dissemination of astronomical data, from simple data archives to e-research platforms offering advanced tools for data exploration and analysis. Whilst the more mature platforms within VOs primarily serve the observational community, there are also services fulfilling a similar role for theoretical data. Scientific visualization can be an effective tool for analysis and exploration of datasets made accessible through web platforms for theoretical data, which often contain spatial dimensions and properties inherently suitable for visualization via e.g. mock imaging in 2d or volume rendering in 3d. We analyze the current state of 3d visualization for big theoretical astronomical datasets through scientific web portals and virtual observatory services. We discuss some of the challenges for interactive 3d visualization and how it can augment the workflow of users in a virtual observatory context. Finally we showcase a lightweight client-server visualization tool for particle-based datasets allowing quantitative visualization via data filtering, highlighting two example use cases within the Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory.

  10. Meta matters in interactive storytelling and serious gaming (a play on worlds)

    Linssen, Johannes Maria

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the use of storytelling techniques in the domains of interactive storytelling and serious gaming. The field of interactive storytelling attempts to create and analyse systems that allow users to influence the plots of stories. Serious games provide experiences not

  11. Short-Term Psychological Effects of Interactive Video Game Technology Exercise on Mood and Attention

    Russell, William D.; Newton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Recent interest in interactive video game technology (IVGT) has spurred the notion that exercise from this technology may have meaningful physiological and psychological benefits for children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term psychological effects of interactive video game exercise in young adults and whether…

  12. Player-Game Interaction: An Ecological Analysis of Foreign Language Gameplay Activities

    Ibrahim, Karim

    2018-01-01

    This article describes how the literature on game-based foreign language (FL) learning has demonstrated that player-game interactions have a strong potential for FL learning. However, little is known about the fine-grained dynamics of these interactions, or how they could facilitate FL learning. To address this gap, the researcher conducted a…

  13. Commercially available interactive video games in burn rehabilitation: therapeutic potential.

    Parry, Ingrid S; Bagley, Anita; Kawada, Jason; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2012-06-01

    Commercially available interactive video games (IVG) like the Nintendo Wii™ (NW) and PlayStation™II Eye Toy (PE) are increasingly used in the rehabilitation of patients with burn. Such games have gained popularity in burn rehabilitation because they encourage range of motion (ROM) while distracting from pain. However, IVGs were not originally designed for rehabilitation purposes but rather for entertainment and may lack specificity for achieving rehabilitative goals. Objectively evaluating the specific demands of IVGs in relation to common burn therapy goals will determine their true therapeutic benefit and guide their use in burn rehabilitation. Upper extremity (UE) motion of 24 normal children was measured using 3D motion analysis during play with the two types of IVGs most commonly described for use after burn: NW and PE. Data was analyzed using t-tests and One-way Analysis of Variance. Active range of motion for shoulder flexion and abduction during play with both PE and NW was within functional range, thus supporting the idea that IVGs offer activities with therapeutic potential to improve ROM. PE resulted in higher demands and longer duration of UE motion than NW, and therefore may be the preferred tool when UE ROM or muscular endurance are the goals of rehabilitation. When choosing a suitable IVG for application in rehabilitation, the user's impairment together with the therapeutic attributes of the IVG should be considered to optimize outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. A framework for cognitive monitoring using computer game interactions.

    Jimison, Holly B; Pavel, Misha; Bissell, Payton; McKanna, James

    2007-01-01

    Many countries are faced with a rapidly increasing economic and social challenge of caring for their elderly population. Cognitive issues are at the forefront of the list of concerns. People over the age of 75 are at risk for medically related cognitive decline and confusion, and the early detection of cognitive problems would allow for more effective clinical intervention. However, standard cognitive assessments are not diagnostically sensitive and are performed infrequently. To address these issues, we have developed a set of adaptive computer games to monitor cognitive performance in a home environment. Assessment algorithms for various aspects of cognition are embedded in the games. The monitoring of these metrics allows us to detect within subject trends over time, providing a method for the early detection of cognitive decline. In addition, the real-time information on cognitive state is used to adapt the user interface to the needs of the individual user. In this paper we describe the software architecture and methodology for monitoring cognitive performance using data from natural computer interactions in a home setting.

  15. A theoretical analysis of temporal difference learning in the iterated prisoner's dilemma game.

    Masuda, Naoki; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2009-11-01

    Direct reciprocity is a chief mechanism of mutual cooperation in social dilemma. Agents cooperate if future interactions with the same opponents are highly likely. Direct reciprocity has been explored mostly by evolutionary game theory based on natural selection. Our daily experience tells, however, that real social agents including humans learn to cooperate based on experience. In this paper, we analyze a reinforcement learning model called temporal difference learning and study its performance in the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game. Temporal difference learning is unique among a variety of learning models in that it inherently aims at increasing future payoffs, not immediate ones. It also has a neural basis. We analytically and numerically show that learners with only two internal states properly learn to cooperate with retaliatory players and to defect against unconditional cooperators and defectors. Four-state learners are more capable of achieving a high payoff against various opponents. Moreover, we numerically show that four-state learners can learn to establish mutual cooperation for sufficiently small learning rates.

  16. Methodological Advances in Political Gaming: The One-Person Computer Interactive, Quasi-Rigid Rule Game.

    Shubik, Martin

    The main problem in computer gaming research is the initial decision of choosing the type of gaming method to be used. Free-form games lead to exciting open-ended confrontations that generate much information. However, they do not easily lend themselves to analysis because they generate far too much information and their results are seldom…

  17. Optimizing annotation resources for natural language de-identification via a game theoretic framework.

    Li, Muqun; Carrell, David; Aberdeen, John; Hirschman, Lynette; Kirby, Jacqueline; Li, Bo; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Malin, Bradley A

    2016-06-01

    de-identification of the HCO are 0.86 and 0.8, respectively. A game-based approach enables a more refined cost-benefit tradeoff, improving both privacy and utility for the HCO. For example, our investigation shows that it is possible for an HCO to release the data without spending all their budget on de-identification and still deter the attacker, with a precision of 0.77 and a recall of 0.61 for the de-identification. There also exist scenarios in which the model indicates an HCO should not release any data because the risk is too great. In addition, we find that the practice of paying fines back to a HCO (an artifact of suing for breach of contract), as opposed to a third party such as a federal regulator, can induce an elevated level of data sharing risk, where the HCO is incentivized to bait the attacker to elicit compensation. A game theoretic framework can be applied in leading HCO's to optimized decision making in natural language de-identification investments before sharing EMR data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Feasibility of an Exoskeleton-Based Interactive Video Game System for Upper Extremity Burn Contractures.

    Schneider, Jeffrey C; Ozsecen, Muzaffer Y; Muraoka, Nicholas K; Mancinelli, Chiara; Della Croce, Ugo; Ryan, Colleen M; Bonato, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    Burn contractures are common and difficult to treat. Measuring continuous joint motion would inform the assessment of contracture interventions; however, it is not standard clinical practice. This study examines use of an interactive gaming system to measure continuous joint motion data. To assess the usability of an exoskeleton-based interactive gaming system in the rehabilitation of upper extremity burn contractures. Feasibility study. Eight subjects with a history of burn injury and upper extremity contractures were recruited from the outpatient clinic of a regional inpatient rehabilitation facility. Subjects used an exoskeleton-based interactive gaming system to play 4 different video games. Continuous joint motion data were collected at the shoulder and elbow during game play. Visual analog scale for engagement, difficulty and comfort. Angular range of motion by subject, joint, and game. The study population had an age of 43 ± 16 (mean ± standard deviation) years and total body surface area burned range of 10%-90%. Subjects reported satisfactory levels of enjoyment, comfort, and difficulty. Continuous joint motion data demonstrated variable characteristics by subject, plane of motion, and game. This study demonstrates the feasibility of use of an exoskeleton-based interactive gaming system in the burn population. Future studies are needed that examine the efficacy of tailoring interactive video games to the specific joint impairments of burn survivors. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nash Bargaining Game-Theoretic Framework for Power Control in Distributed Multiple-Radar Architecture Underlying Wireless Communication System

    Chenguang Shi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel Nash bargaining solution (NBS-based cooperative game-theoretic framework for power control in a distributed multiple-radar architecture underlying a wireless communication system. Our primary objective is to minimize the total power consumption of the distributed multiple-radar system (DMRS with the protection of wireless communication user’s transmission, while guaranteeing each radar’s target detection requirement. A unified cooperative game-theoretic framework is proposed for the optimization problem, where interference power constraints (IPCs are imposed to protect the communication user’s transmission, and a minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR requirement is employed to provide reliable target detection for each radar. The existence, uniqueness and fairness of the NBS to this cooperative game are proven. An iterative Nash bargaining power control algorithm with low computational complexity and fast convergence is developed and is shown to converge to a Pareto-optimal equilibrium for the cooperative game model. Numerical simulations and analyses are further presented to highlight the advantages and testify to the efficiency of our proposed cooperative game algorithm. It is demonstrated that the distributed algorithm is effective for power control and could protect the communication system with limited implementation overhead.

  20. How much inequality in income is fair? A microeconomic game theoretic perspective

    Venkatasubramanian, Venkat; Luo, Yu; Sethuraman, Jay

    2015-10-01

    The increasing inequality in income and wealth in recent years, and the associated excessive pay packages of CEOs in the US and elsewhere, is of growing concern among policy makers as well as the common person. However, there seems to be no satisfactory answer, in conventional economic theories and models, to the fundamental questions of what kind of income distribution we ought to see, at least under ideal conditions, in a free market environment, and whether this distribution is fair. We propose a novel microeconomic game theoretic framework that addresses these questions and proves that the lognormal distribution is the fairest inequality of pay in an organization comprising of homogeneous agents, under ideal free market conditions at equilibrium. We also show that for a population of two different classes of agents, the equilibrium distribution is a combination of two different lognormal distributions where one of them, corresponding to the top ˜3-5% of the population, can be misidentified as a Pareto distribution. We compare our predictions with empirical data on global income inequality trends provided by Piketty and others. Our analysis suggests that the Scandinavian countries, and to a lesser extent Switzerland, Netherlands and Australia, have managed to get close to the ideal distribution for the bottom ˜99% of the population, while the US and UK remain less fair at the other extreme. Other European countries such as France and Germany, and Japan and Canada, are in the middle. Our theory also shows the deep and direct connection between potential game theory and statistical mechanics through entropy, which we identify as a measure of fairness in a distribution. This leads us to propose the fair market hypothesis, that the self-organizing dynamics of the ideal free market, i.e., Adam Smith's "invisible hand", not only promotes efficiency but also maximizes fairness under the given constraints.

  1. Critical supply network protection against intentional attacks: A game-theoretical model

    Bricha, Naji; Nourelfath, Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    A crucial issue in today's critical supply chains is how to protect facilities against intentional attacks, since it has become unacceptable to ignore the high impact of low probability disruptions caused by these attacks. This article develops a game-theoretical model to deal with the protection of facilities, in the context of the uncapacitated fixed-charge location problem. Given a set of investment alternatives for protecting the facilities against identified threats, the objective is to select the optimal defence strategy. The attacker is considered as a player who tries to maximise the expected damage while weighing against the attacks expenditures. The conflict on facilities vulnerability is modelled using the concept of contest. The vulnerability of a facility is defined by its destruction probability. Contest success functions determine the vulnerability of each facility dependent on the relative investments of the defender and the attacker on each facility, and on the characteristics of the contest. A method is developed to evaluate the utilities of the players (i.e., the defender and the attacker). This method evaluates many expected costs, including the cost needed to restore disabled facilities, the backorder cost, and the cost incurred because of the increase in transportation costs after attacks. In fact, when one or several facilities are unavailable, transportation costs will increase since reassigned customers may receive shipments from facilities which are farther away. The model considers a non-cooperative two-period game between the players, and an algorithm is presented to determine the equilibrium solution and the optimal defence strategy. An illustrative example is presented. The approach is compared to other suggested strategies, and some managerial insights are provided in the context of facility location

  2. HackAttack: Game-Theoretic Analysis of Realistic Cyber Conflicts

    Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Brady, Andrew C [Jefferson Middle School, Oak Ridge, TN; Brady, Ethan J [Oak Ridge High School, Oak Ridge, TN; Ferragut, Jacob M [Oak Ridge High School, Oak Ridge, TN; Ferragut, Nathan M [Oak Ridge High School, Oak Ridge, TN; Wildgruber, Max C [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Game theory is appropriate for studying cyber conflict because it allows for an intelligent and goal-driven adversary. Applications of game theory have led to a number of results regarding optimal attack and defense strategies. However, the overwhelming majority of applications explore overly simplistic games, often ones in which each participant s actions are visible to every other participant. These simplifications strip away the fundamental properties of real cyber conflicts: probabilistic alerting, hidden actions, unknown opponent capabilities. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to analyze a more realistic game, one in which different resources have different weaknesses, players have different exploits, and moves occur in secrecy, but they can be detected. Certainly, more advanced and complex games are possible, but the game presented here is more realistic than any other game we know of in the scientific literature. While optimal strategies can be found for simpler games using calculus, case-by-case analysis, or, for stochastic games, Q-learning, our more complex game is more naturally analyzed using the same methods used to study other complex games, such as checkers and chess. We define a simple evaluation function and employ multi-step searches to create strategies. We show that such scenarios can be analyzed, and find that in cases of extreme uncertainty, it is often better to ignore one s opponent s possible moves. Furthermore, we show that a simple evaluation function in a complex game can lead to interesting and nuanced strategies.

  3. Spatial Evolutionary Games of Interaction among Generic Cancer Cells

    Bach, Lars Arve; Sumpter, David J.T.; Alsner, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Evolutionary game models of cellular interactions have shown that heterogeneity in the cellular genotypic composition is maintained through evolution to stable coexistence of growth-promoting and non-promoting cell types. We generalise these mean-field models and relax the assumption of perfect...... mixing of cells by instead implementing an individual-based model that includes the stochastic and spatial effects likely to occur in tumours. The scope for coexistence of genotypic strategies changed with the inclusion of explicit space and stochasticity. The spatial models show some interesting...... deviations from their mean-field counterparts, for example the possibility of altruistic (paracrine) cell strategies to thrive. Such effects can however, be highly sensitive to model implementation and the more realistic models with semi-synchronous and stochastic updating do not show evolution of altruism...

  4. A game-theoretical model for selecting a site of non-preferred waste facilities

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Woon

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, a game-theoretic model (GTM) as a tool of conflict analysis is proposed for multiplayer multicriteria decision-making problems in a conflict situation. The developed GTM is used for obtaining the most possible resolutions in the conflict among multiple decision makers. The GTM is based on directed graph structure and solution concepts. To demonstrate the performance of the GTM, using a numerical example, the GTM is applied to an environmental conflict problem, especially a non-preferred waste disposal siting conflict available in the literature. It is found that with GTM the states in equilibrium can be recognized. The conflict under consideration is to select a site of non-preferred waste facilities. The government is to choose a site of installation for users of a toxic waste disposal facility. A certain time-point of interest is a period of time to select one of candidate sites that completely meet regular criteria of governmental body in charge of permitting a facility site. The facility siting conflict among multiple players (i.e., decision-makers, DMs) of concern is viewed as a multiple player-multiple criteria (MPMC) domain. For instance, three possible sites (i.e., site A, site B, and site C) to be selected by multiple players are characterized by the building cost, accessibility, and proximity to the residential area. Concerning the site A, the installation of a facility is not expensive, the accessible to a facility is easy, and the site A is located very near a residential area. Concerning site B, the facility is expensive to build, the facility is easily accessible, and the site is located near the residential area. Concerning site C, the installation cost is expensive, the accessibility is difficult, and the location of site is far from the residential area. In simple models, three main groups of players could be considered to be the government, users, and local residents. The government is to play a role as one of proponents or

  5. [Operation and interaction peculiarities of diagnostic laboratories involved in providing protection from infectious diseases during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi].

    Onishenko, G G; Popova, A Iu; Bragina, I V; Kuz'kin, B P; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Iu V; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhova, V P; Grechanaia, T V; Tesheva, S Ch; Kulichenko, A N; Efremenko, D B; Manin, E A; Kuznetsova, I V; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Rafeenko, G K; Shcherbina, L I; Zavora, D L; Briukhanov, A F; Eldinova, V E; Iunicheva, Iu V; Derliatko, S K; Komarov, N S

    2015-01-01

    The experience of the organization and functioning of the laboratory network during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is considered. Efforts to establish an effective system of laboratory support, the order of work and interaction of diagnostic laboratories involved in diseases control of population during the Olympic Games are analyzed.

  6. The decision to conduct a head-to-head comparative trial: a game-theoretic analysis.

    Mansley, Edward C; Elbasha, Elamin H; Teutsch, Steven M; Berger, Marc L

    2007-01-01

    Recent Medicare legislation calls on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to conduct research related to the comparative effectiveness of health care items and services, including prescription drugs. This reinforces earlier calls for head-to-head comparative trials of clinically relevant treatment alternatives. Using a game-theoretic model, the authors explore the decision of pharmaceutical companies to conduct such trials. The model suggests that an important factor affecting this decision is the potential loss in market share and profits following a result of inferiority or comparability. This hidden cost is higher for the market leader than the market follower, making it less likely that the leader will choose to conduct a trial. The model also suggests that in a full-information environment, it will never be the case that both firms choose to conduct such a trial. Furthermore, if market shares and the probability of proving superiority are similar for both firms, it is quite possible that neither firm will choose to conduct a trial. Finally, the results indicate that incentives that offset the direct cost of a trial can prevent a no-trial equilibrium, even when both firms face the possibility of an inferior outcome.

  7. Strategic exploration of battery waste management: A game-theoretic approach.

    Kaushal, Rajendra Kumar; Nema, Arvind K; Chaudhary, Jyoti

    2015-07-01

    Electronic waste or e-waste is the fastest growing stream of solid waste today. It contains both toxic substances as well as valuable resources. The present study uses a non-cooperative game-theoretic approach for efficient management of e-waste, particularly batteries that contribute a major portion of any e-waste stream and further analyses the economic consequences of recycling of these obsolete, discarded batteries. Results suggest that the recycler would prefer to collect the obsolete batteries directly from the consumer rather than from the manufacturer, only if, the incentive return to the consumer is less than 33.92% of the price of the battery, the recycling fee is less than 6.46% of the price of the battery, and the price of the recycled material is more than 31.08% of the price of the battery. The manufacturer's preferred choice of charging a green tax from the consumer can be fruitful for the battery recycling chain. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. A cooperative game-theoretic framework for negotiating marine spatial allocation agreements among heterogeneous players.

    Kyriazi, Zacharoula; Lejano, Raul; Maes, Frank; Degraer, Steven

    2017-02-01

    Marine spatial allocation has become, in recent decades, a political flashpoint, fuelled by political power struggles, as well as the continuously increasing demand for marine space by both traditional and emerging marine uses. To effectively address this issue, we develop a decision-making procedure, that facilitates the distribution of disputed areas of specific size among heterogeneous players in a transparent and ethical way, while considering coalitional formations through coexistence. To do this, we model players' alternative strategies and payoffs within a cooperative game-theoretic framework. Depending on whether transferable utility (TU) or non-transferable utility (NTU) is the more appropriate assumption, we illustrate the use of the TU Shapley value and the Lejano's fixed point NTU Shapley value to solve for the ideal allocations. The applicability and effectiveness of the process has been tested in a case study area, the Dogger Bank Special Area of Conservation in the North Sea, which involves three totally or partially conflicting activities, i.e. fishing, nature conservation and wind farm development. The findings demonstrate that the process is capable of providing a unique, fair and equitable division of space Finally, among the two solution concepts proposed the fixed point NTU Shapley value manages to better address the heterogeneity of the players and thus to provide a more socially acceptable allocation that favours the weaker player, while demonstrating the importance of the monetary valuation attributed by each use to the area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A game theoretic model of the Northwestern European electricity market-market power and the environment

    Lise, Wietze; Linderhof, Vincent; Kuik, Onno; Kemfert, Claudia; Ostling, Robert; Heinzow, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops a static computational game theoretic model. Illustrative results for the liberalising European electricity market are given to demonstrate the type of economic and environmental results that can be generated with the model. The model is empirically calibrated to eight Northwestern European countries, namely Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden. Different market structures are compared, depending on the ability of firms to exercise market power, ranging from perfect competition without market power to strategic competition where large firms exercise market power. In addition, a market power reduction policy is studied where the near-monopolies in France and Belgium are demerged into smaller firms. To analyse environmental impacts, a fixed greenhouse gas emission reduction target is introduced under different market structures. The results indicate that the effects of liberalisation depend on the resulting market structure, but that a reduction in market power of large producers may be beneficial for both the consumer (i.e. lower prices) and the environment (i.e. lower greenhouse gas permit price and lower acidifying and smog emissions)

  10. Sequential game-theoretical analysis of safeguards systems based on the principle of material accountability

    Abel, V.; Avenhaus, R.

    1981-01-01

    The international control of fissile material used in nuclear technology is based on the principle of material accountability, i. e. on the difference between book inventory and physical inventory of a plant at the end of an inventory period. Since statistical measurement errors cannot be avoided, this comparison calls for methods of statistical hypotheses testing. Moreover, game-theoretical methods are needed as an analytical tool, since if the plant operator wilfully diverts material he will do so in an optimal manner. In this article, the optimal test strategy is determined for the case of two inventory periods. Two assumptions are made: The operation of the plant is stopped after the first inventory period if the test indicates wilful diversion, and the plant operator chooses the probability of wilfully diverting material for both inventory periods before the start of the first period. The assertions which depend on the payoff parameters and the substitutes which must be given in the case that the payoff parameters cannot be estimated are discussed. (orig.) [de

  11. A game theoretical model of deforestation in human-environment relationships.

    Rodrigues, António; Koeppl, Heinz; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Satake, Akiko

    2009-05-07

    We studied a two-person game regarding deforestation in human-environment relationships. Each landowner manages a single land parcel where the state of land-use is forested, agricultural, or abandoned. The landowner has two strategies available: forest conservation and deforestation. The choice of deforestation provides a high return to the landowner, but it degrades the forest ecosystem services produced on a neighboring land parcel managed by a different landowner. Given spatial interactions between the two landowners, each landowner decides which strategy to choose by comparing the expected discounted utility of each strategy. Expected discounted utility is determined by taking into account the current and future utilities to be received, according to the state transition on the two land parcels. The state transition is described by a Markov chain that incorporates a landowner's choice about whether to deforest and the dynamics of agricultural abandonment and forest regeneration. By considering a stationary distribution of the Markov chain for land-use transitions, we derive explicit conditions for Nash equilibrium. We found that a slow regeneration of forests favors mutual cooperation (forest conservation). As the forest regenerates faster, mutual cooperation transforms to double Nash equilibria (mutual cooperation and mutual defection), and finally mutual defection (deforestation) leads to a unique Nash equilibrium. Two different types of social dilemma emerge in our deforestation game. The stag-hunt dilemma is most likely to occur under an unsustainable resource supply, where forest regenerates extremely slowly but agricultural abandonment happens quite rapidly. In contrast, the prisoner's dilemma is likely under a persistent or circulating supply of resources, where forest regenerates rapidly and agricultural abandonment occurs slowly or rapidly. These results show how humans and the environment mutually shape the dilemma structure in forest management

  12. EscapED: A Framework for Creating Educational Escape Rooms and Interactive Games to For Higher/Further Education.

    Samantha Jane Clarke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Game-based learning (GBL is often found to be technologically driven and more often than not, serious games for instance, are conceptualised and designed solely for digital platforms and state of the art technologies. To encourage a greater discussion on the potential benefits and challenges of a more holistic approach to developing GBL that promote human centered interactions and play for learning, the authors present the escapED programme. The escapED programme was conceived following the recent entertainment trend of escape rooms and is used for developing non-digital GBL approaches within education. escapED aids the design and creation of educational Escape Rooms and Interactive Gaming Experiences for staff and students in further/higher education settings. The paper first presents a pilot study that was used to assess the feasibility and acceptance of University teaching staff of embedding interactive GBL into a higher education environment. The authors then present the escapED theoretical framework that was used to create the prototype game for the pilot study as a tool to aid future design and development of on-site interactive experiences. The paper also presents an external developer report of using the escapED framework to develop a prototype game for teaching research methods to Southampton University students. Finally, the authors present a discussion on the use of the escapED framework so far and plans for future work and evaluation in order to provide engaging alternatives for learning and soft skills development amongst higher education staff andstudents.

  13. "Wait and see" vaccinating behaviour during a pandemic: a game theoretic analysis.

    Bhattacharyya, Samit; Bauch, Chris T

    2011-07-26

    During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, many individuals did not seek vaccination immediately but rather decided to "wait and see" until further information was available on vaccination costs. This behaviour implies two sources of strategic interaction: as more individuals become vaccinated, both the perceived vaccination cost and the probability that susceptible individuals become infected decline. Here we analyze the outcome of these two strategic interactions by combining game theory with a disease transmission model during an outbreak of a novel influenza strain. The model exhibits a "wait and see" Nash equilibrium strategy, with vaccine delayers relying on herd immunity and vaccine safety information generated by early vaccinators. This strategic behaviour causes the timing of the epidemic peak to be strongly conserved across a broad range of plausible transmission rates, in contrast to models without such adaptive behaviour. The model exhibits not only feedback mechanisms but also a feed-forward mechanism: a high initial perceived vaccination cost perpetuates high perceived vaccine costs (and lower vaccine coverage) throughout the remainder of the outbreak. This suggests that any effect of risk communication at the start of a pandemic outbreak will be amplified compared to the same amount of risk communication effort distributed throughout the outbreak. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Theoretical Models of Decision-Making in the Ultimatum Game: Fairness vs. Reason

    Guy Tatiana V.; Kárný Miroslav; Lintas Alessandra; Villa Alessandro E.P.

    2016-01-01

    According to game theory a human subject playing the ultimatum game should choose more for oneself and offer the least amount possible for co players (assumption of selfish rationality) (Rubinstein in J Econ Behav Organ 3(4):367–388 [1]). However economy sociology and neurology communities repeatedly claim non rationality of the human behaviour (Werner et al. in Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. Princeton University Press Princeton [2]) following the observation that responders reject of...

  15. Theoretical & Experimental Research in Weak, Electromagnetic & Strong Interactions

    Nandi, Satyanarayan [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Babu, Kaladi [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Rizatdinova, Flera [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Khanov, Alexander [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Haley, Joseph [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2015-09-17

    The conducted research spans a wide range of topics in the theoretical, experimental and phenomenological aspects of elementary particle interactions. Theory projects involve topics in both the energy frontier and the intensity frontier. The experimental research involves energy frontier with the ATLAS Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In theoretical research, novel ideas going beyond the Standard Model with strong theoretical motivations were proposed, and their experimental tests at the LHC and forthcoming neutrino facilities were outlined. These efforts fall into the following broad categories: (i) TeV scale new physics models for LHC Run 2, including left-right symmetry and trinification symmetry, (ii) unification of elementary particles and forces, including the unification of gauge and Yukawa interactions, (iii) supersummetry and mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking, (iv) superworld without supersymmetry, (v) general models of extra dimensions, (vi) comparing signals of extra dimensions with those of supersymmetry, (vii) models with mirror quarks and mirror leptons at the TeV scale, (viii) models with singlet quarks and singlet Higgs and their implications for Higgs physics at the LHC, (ix) new models for the dark matter of the universe, (x) lepton flavor violation in Higgs decays, (xi) leptogenesis in radiative models of neutrino masses, (xii) light mediator models of non-standard neutrino interactions, (xiii) anomalous muon decay and short baseline neutrino anomalies, (xiv) baryogenesis linked to nucleon decay, and (xv) a new model for recently observed diboson resonance at the LHC and its other phenomenological implications. The experimental High Energy Physics group has been, and continues to be, a successful and productive contributor to the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Members of the group performed search for gluinos decaying to stop and top quarks, new heavy gauge bosons decaying to top and bottom quarks, and vector-like quarks

  16. Design of an Interactive Game for Teaching War Ethics

    Doukas, Nikolaos; Drigas, Athanasios; Bardis, Nikolaos G.

    This work focuses on the use of computer simulations and computer games for the training of prospective and serving Armed Forces officers. A study of the use of computer simulations and games for teaching and training in the context of both the Armed Forces and civilian applications is presented. The study leads to high level specifications for the design of the proposed training game. The functional design of the proposed game is then explained and its rules are listed. The design is shown to offer the flexibility required for the teaching courses it is meant to serve. Further research necessary for the development of optimization algorithms necessary for the design is described.

  17. Modelling Titanic and Clash of Clans Games: Theoretical Definition and Application in Current Social Systems

    Jan Mertl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article develops research into Titanic games and the associated concepts anchored in game theory. It defines the conditions under which a Titanic game transitions into a Clash of Clans game and discusses the degree of punishment and its consequences for the nature of the game and the positions of the individual players. The game is analysed in significant detail, clearly showing what happens when diff erent strategies are chosen. At the same time, the article also looks at the context of social policy and social systems, where the application of the analysed games is very beneficial, and points to the example of the situation in the Czech health insurance system between 2000 and 2010. The identification of the proposed concepts and their possible existence in socio-economic reality enables us to substantially better see what games are being played or can be played, and as such to gain an understanding of what is happening. The article shows the diff erences between Titanic and Clash of Clans games and their possible application in current social systems.

  18. Mobile augmented games in playable cities : Humorous interaction with Pokémon Go

    Andujar, Marvin; Nijholt, Anton; Gilbert, Juan E.

    2017-01-01

    Mobile Augmented Reality (AR) games are changing the way players interact with other players and in cities in the real world. The game’s content influences players’ decision to explore the outside world (whole body movement outside the house) instead of staying inside playing stationary games (not

  19. Guess who? An interactive and entertaining game-like platform for investigating human emotions

    Ahmad, M.I.; Tariq, H.; Saeed, M.; Shahid, S.; Krahmer, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the design and the development of a highly customizable interactive platform ‘Guess Who’, which was designed as a tool for investigating human emotions in a variety of experimental setups. In its essence, ‘Guess Who?’ is actually a game, which includes typical game elements

  20. Learner Interaction in a Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG): A Sociocultural Discourse Analysis

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the linguistic and social interaction of four intermediate EFL learners during game play in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Twelve illustrative episodes drawn from the participants' text chat, collected in four 70-minute sessions held over a one-month period, are analyzed from a…

  1. Stereogame: An Interactive Computer Game That Engages Students in Reviewing Stereochemistry Concepts

    da Silva, Jose´ Nunes, Jr.; Lima, Mary Anne Sousa; Moreira, Joao Victor Xerez; Alexandre, Francisco Serra Oliveira; de Almeida, Diego Macedo; de Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao Ferreira; Leite, Antonio Jose´ Melo, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    This report provides information about an interactive computer game that allows undergraduate students to review individually stereochemistry topics in an engaging way by responding to 230 novel questions distributed at three difficulty levels. Responses from students and instructors who have played the game have been quite positive. Stereogame is…

  2. Can an Interactive Digital Game Help French Learners Improve Their Pronunciation?

    Cardoso, Walcir; Rueb, Avery; Grimshaw, Jennica

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the pedagogical use of an interactive mobile digital game, Prêt à Négocier (PàN), on improving learners' pronunciation of French as a Second Language (FSL), using three holistic measures: comprehensibility, fluency, and overall pronunciation. Two groups of FSL learners engaged in different types of game-playing…

  3. Outbreak!: Teaching Clinical and Diagnostic Microbiology Methodologies with an Interactive Online Game

    Clark, Sherri; Smith, Geoffrey Battle

    2004-01-01

    Outbreak! is an online, interactive educational game that helps students and teachers learn and evaluate clinical microbiology skills. When the game was used in introductory microbiology laboratories, qualitative evaluation by students showed very positive responses and increased learning. Outbreak! allows students to design diagnostic tests and…

  4. Design and evaluation of RaPIDO, a platform for rapid prototyping of interactive outdoor games

    Soute, I.; Vacaretu, T.; de Wit, J.; Markopoulos, P.

    Outdoor, multi-player games involving social interaction and physical activity are an emerging class of applications particularly interesting for children, for whom the attraction and the health and developmental benefits are clear cut. Implementing and prototyping such games present non-trivial

  5. Interaction between Gaming and Multistage Guiding Strategies on Students' Field Trip Mobile Learning Performance and Motivation

    Chen, Chih-Hung; Liu, Guan-Zhi; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an integrated gaming and multistage guiding approach was proposed for conducting in-field mobile learning activities. A mobile learning system was developed based on the proposed approach. To investigate the interaction between the gaming and guiding strategies on students' learning performance and motivation, a 2 × 2 experiment was…

  6. Social Interactions under Incomplete Information: Games, Equilibria, and Expectations

    Yang, Chao

    My dissertation research investigates interactions of agents' behaviors through social networks when some information is not shared publicly, focusing on solutions to a series of challenging problems in empirical research, including heterogeneous expectations and multiple equilibria. The first chapter, "Social Interactions under Incomplete Information with Heterogeneous Expectations", extends the current literature in social interactions by devising econometric models and estimation tools with private information in not only the idiosyncratic shocks but also some exogenous covariates. For example, when analyzing peer effects in class performances, it was previously assumed that all control variables, including individual IQ and SAT scores, are known to the whole class, which is unrealistic. This chapter allows such exogenous variables to be private information and models agents' behaviors as outcomes of a Bayesian Nash Equilibrium in an incomplete information game. The distribution of equilibrium outcomes can be described by the equilibrium conditional expectations, which is unique when the parameters are within a reasonable range according to the contraction mapping theorem in function spaces. The equilibrium conditional expectations are heterogeneous in both exogenous characteristics and the private information, which makes estimation in this model more demanding than in previous ones. This problem is solved in a computationally efficient way by combining the quadrature method and the nested fixed point maximum likelihood estimation. In Monte Carlo experiments, if some exogenous characteristics are private information and the model is estimated under the mis-specified hypothesis that they are known to the public, estimates will be biased. Applying this model to municipal public spending in North Carolina, significant negative correlations between contiguous municipalities are found, showing free-riding effects. The Second chapter "A Tobit Model with Social

  7. Feasibility of a Low-Cost, Interactive Gaming System to Assess Balance in Older Women.

    Hall, Courtney D; Clevenger, Carolyn K; Wolf, Rachel A; Lin, James S; Johnson, Theodore M; Wolf, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    The use of low-cost interactive game technology for balance rehabilitation has become more popular recently, with generally good outcomes. Very little research has been undertaken to determine whether this technology is appropriate for balance assessment. The Wii balance board has good reliability and is comparable to a research-grade force plate; however, recent studies examining the relationship between Wii Fit games and measures of balance and mobility demonstrate conflicting findings. This study found that the Wii Fit was feasible for community-dwelling older women to safely use the balance board and quickly learn the Wii Fit games. The Ski Slalom game scores were strongly correlated with several balance and mobility measures, whereas Table Tilt game scores were not. Based on these findings, the Ski Slalom game may have utility in the evaluation of balance problems in community-dwelling older adults.

  8. Mobile Rhythmic Interaction in a Sonic Tennis Game

    Baldan, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De; Serafin, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    on the display, the device can be used as a motion-based controller, exploiting its internal motion sensors to their full potential. The game aims to be useful for both entertainment and educational purposes, and enjoyable both by visually-impaired (the main target audience for audio-based games nowadays...

  9. Analyzing Interaction Patterns to Verify a Simulation/Game Model

    Myers, Rodney Dean

    2012-01-01

    In order for simulations and games to be effective for learning, instructional designers must verify that the underlying computational models being used have an appropriate degree of fidelity to the conceptual models of their real-world counterparts. A simulation/game that provides incorrect feedback is likely to promote misunderstanding and…

  10. Interaction times change evolutionary outcomes: Two-player matrix games

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Cressman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 416, MAR 07 (2017), s. 199-207 ISSN 0022-5193 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 690817 - FourCmodelling Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : evolutionary game theory * Hawk-Dove game * pair formation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519317300103

  11. Factorization and escorting in the game-theoretical approach to non-extensive entropy measures

    Topsøe, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    A factorisation for a game between "nature" and "the physicist" is established, thereby searating the roles of the two parties.......A factorisation for a game between "nature" and "the physicist" is established, thereby searating the roles of the two parties....

  12. Set-theoretical and Combinatorial Instruments for Problem Space Analysis in Adaptive Serious Games.

    Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; van der Maas, Han L.J.; Maurer, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The Computerized Adaptive Practice (CAP) system describes a set of algorithms for assessing player’s expertise and difficulties of in-game problems and for adapting the latter to the former. However, an effective use of CAP requires that in-game problems are designed carefully and refined over time

  13. Interplay of Languaging and Gameplay: Player-Game Interactions as Ecologies for Languaging and Situated L2 Development

    Ibrahim, Karim Hesham Shaker

    2016-01-01

    The field of game-mediated L2 learning has grown exponentially, and much has been discovered about the potentials of game-mediated interactions for L2 development, yet the fine-grained dynamics of player-game interactions and how they come to facilitate and afford L2 development are still largely underexplored. To address this gap in the…

  14. By-product mutualism and the ambiguous effects of harsher environments - A game-theoretic model.

    De Jaegher, Kris; Hoyer, Britta

    2016-03-21

    We construct two-player two-strategy game-theoretic models of by-product mutualism, where our focus lies on the way in which the probability of cooperation among players is affected by the degree of adversity facing the players. In our first model, cooperation consists of the production of a public good, and adversity is linked to the degree of complementarity of the players׳ efforts in producing the public good. In our second model, cooperation consists of the defense of a public, and/or a private good with by-product benefits, and adversity is measured by the number of random attacks (e.g., by a predator) facing the players. In both of these models, our analysis confirms the existence of the so-called boomerang effect, which states that in a harsh environment, the individual player has few incentives to unilaterally defect in a situation of joint cooperation. Focusing on such an effect in isolation leads to the "common-enemy" hypothesis that a larger degree of adversity increases the probability of cooperation. Yet, we also find that a sucker effect may simultaneously exist, which says that in a harsh environment, the individual player has few incentives to unilaterally cooperate in a situation of joint defection. Looked at in isolation, the sucker effect leads to the competing hypothesis that a larger degree of adversity decreases the probability of cooperation. Our analysis predicts circumstances in which the "common enemy" hypothesis prevails, and circumstances in which the competing hypothesis prevails. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A game-theoretic approach for calibration of low-cost magnetometers under noise uncertainty

    Siddharth, S.; Ali, A. S.; El-Sheimy, N.; Goodall, C. L.; Syed, Z. F.

    2012-02-01

    Pedestrian heading estimation is a fundamental challenge in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-denied environments. Additionally, the heading observability considerably degrades in low-speed mode of operation (e.g. walking), making this problem even more challenging. The goal of this work is to improve the heading solution when hand-held personal/portable devices, such as cell phones, are used for positioning and to improve the heading estimation in GNSS-denied signal environments. Most smart phones are now equipped with self-contained, low cost, small size and power-efficient sensors, such as magnetometers, gyroscopes and accelerometers. A magnetometer needs calibration before it can be properly employed for navigation purposes. Magnetometers play an important role in absolute heading estimation and are embedded in many smart phones. Before the users navigate with the phone, a calibration is invoked to ensure an improved signal quality. This signal is used later in the heading estimation. In most of the magnetometer-calibration approaches, the motion modes are seldom described to achieve a robust calibration. Also, suitable calibration approaches fail to discuss the stopping criteria for calibration. In this paper, the following three topics are discussed in detail that are important to achieve proper magnetometer-calibration results and in turn the most robust heading solution for the user while taking care of the device misalignment with respect to the user: (a) game-theoretic concepts to attain better filter parameter tuning and robustness in noise uncertainty, (b) best maneuvers with focus on 3D and 2D motion modes and related challenges and (c) investigation of the calibration termination criteria leveraging the calibration robustness and efficiency.

  16. A game-theoretic approach for calibration of low-cost magnetometers under noise uncertainty

    Siddharth, S; Ali, A S; El-Sheimy, N; Goodall, C L; Syed, Z F

    2012-01-01

    Pedestrian heading estimation is a fundamental challenge in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-denied environments. Additionally, the heading observability considerably degrades in low-speed mode of operation (e.g. walking), making this problem even more challenging. The goal of this work is to improve the heading solution when hand-held personal/portable devices, such as cell phones, are used for positioning and to improve the heading estimation in GNSS-denied signal environments. Most smart phones are now equipped with self-contained, low cost, small size and power-efficient sensors, such as magnetometers, gyroscopes and accelerometers. A magnetometer needs calibration before it can be properly employed for navigation purposes. Magnetometers play an important role in absolute heading estimation and are embedded in many smart phones. Before the users navigate with the phone, a calibration is invoked to ensure an improved signal quality. This signal is used later in the heading estimation. In most of the magnetometer-calibration approaches, the motion modes are seldom described to achieve a robust calibration. Also, suitable calibration approaches fail to discuss the stopping criteria for calibration. In this paper, the following three topics are discussed in detail that are important to achieve proper magnetometer-calibration results and in turn the most robust heading solution for the user while taking care of the device misalignment with respect to the user: (a) game-theoretic concepts to attain better filter parameter tuning and robustness in noise uncertainty, (b) best maneuvers with focus on 3D and 2D motion modes and related challenges and (c) investigation of the calibration termination criteria leveraging the calibration robustness and efficiency. (paper)

  17. The role of IDH1 mutated tumour cells in secondary glioblastomas: an evolutionary game theoretical view

    Basanta, David; Scott, Jacob G.; Rockne, Russ; Swanson, Kristin R.; Anderson, Alexander R. A.

    2011-02-01

    Recent advances in clinical medicine have elucidated two significantly different subtypes of glioblastoma which carry very different prognoses, both defined by mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH-1). The mechanistic consequences of this mutation have not yet been fully clarified, with conflicting opinions existing in the literature; however, IDH-1 mutation may be used as a surrogate marker to distinguish between primary and secondary glioblastoma multiforme (sGBM) from malignant progression of a lower grade glioma. We develop a mathematical model of IDH-1 mutated secondary glioblastoma using evolutionary game theory to investigate the interactions between four different phenotypic populations within the tumor: autonomous growth, invasive, glycolytic, and the hybrid invasive/glycolytic cells. Our model recapitulates glioblastoma behavior well and is able to reproduce two recent experimental findings, as well as make novel predictions concerning the rate of invasive growth as a function of vascularity, and fluctuations in the proportions of phenotypic populations that a glioblastoma will experience under different microenvironmental constraints.

  18. The role of IDH1 mutated tumour cells in secondary glioblastomas: an evolutionary game theoretical view

    Basanta, David; Scott, Jacob G; Anderson, Alexander R A; Rockne, Russ; Swanson, Kristin R

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in clinical medicine have elucidated two significantly different subtypes of glioblastoma which carry very different prognoses, both defined by mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH-1). The mechanistic consequences of this mutation have not yet been fully clarified, with conflicting opinions existing in the literature; however, IDH-1 mutation may be used as a surrogate marker to distinguish between primary and secondary glioblastoma multiforme (sGBM) from malignant progression of a lower grade glioma. We develop a mathematical model of IDH-1 mutated secondary glioblastoma using evolutionary game theory to investigate the interactions between four different phenotypic populations within the tumor: autonomous growth, invasive, glycolytic, and the hybrid invasive/glycolytic cells. Our model recapitulates glioblastoma behavior well and is able to reproduce two recent experimental findings, as well as make novel predictions concerning the rate of invasive growth as a function of vascularity, and fluctuations in the proportions of phenotypic populations that a glioblastoma will experience under different microenvironmental constraints

  19. Bringing VR and spatial 3D interaction to the masses through video games.

    LaViola, Joseph J

    2008-01-01

    This article examines why innovations such as the Sony EyeToy and Nintendo Wii have been so successful and discusses the research opportunities presented by the latest commercial push for spatial 3D interaction in games.

  20. A Monte-Carlo game theoretic approach for Multi-Criteria Decision Making under uncertainty

    Madani, Kaveh; Lund, Jay R.

    2011-05-01

    Game theory provides a useful framework for studying Multi-Criteria Decision Making problems. This paper suggests modeling Multi-Criteria Decision Making problems as strategic games and solving them using non-cooperative game theory concepts. The suggested method can be used to prescribe non-dominated solutions and also can be used as a method to predict the outcome of a decision making problem. Non-cooperative stability definitions for solving the games allow consideration of non-cooperative behaviors, often neglected by other methods which assume perfect cooperation among decision makers. To deal with the uncertainty in input variables a Monte-Carlo Game Theory (MCGT) approach is suggested which maps the stochastic problem into many deterministic strategic games. The games are solved using non-cooperative stability definitions and the results include possible effects of uncertainty in input variables on outcomes. The method can handle multi-criteria multi-decision-maker problems with uncertainty. The suggested method does not require criteria weighting, developing a compound decision objective, and accurate quantitative (cardinal) information as it simplifies the decision analysis by solving problems based on qualitative (ordinal) information, reducing the computational burden substantially. The MCGT method is applied to analyze California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta problem. The suggested method provides insights, identifies non-dominated alternatives, and predicts likely decision outcomes.

  1. Learner interaction in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG): A sociocultural discourse analysis

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the linguistic and social interaction of four intermediate EFL learners during game play in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Twelve illustrative episodes drawn from the participants’ text chat, collected in four 70-minute sessions held over a one-month period, are analyzed from a sociocultural perspective. Qualitative analysis reveals the presence of interactional features associated with the development of sociocultural competence...

  2. Computer games may be good for your health: shifting healthcare behavior via interactive drama videogames.

    Silverman, Barry G; Mosley, Josh; Johns, Michael; Weaver, Ransom; Green, Melanie; Holmes, John; Kimmel, Stephen; Holmes, William

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that interactive learning systems have an important role in reducing health risks and improving general health status. This theater style demonstration is aimed at harnessing people's passions for videogames and the movies, and a major purpose of this research is to explore alternative ways for a game generator to help authors to introduce entertainment and free play as well as learning by teaching into role playing games and interactive dramas that are behavioral interventions in disguise.

  3. Modelling the host-pathogen interactions of macrophages and Candida albicans using Game Theory and dynamic optimization.

    Dühring, Sybille; Ewald, Jan; Germerodt, Sebastian; Kaleta, Christoph; Dandekar, Thomas; Schuster, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    The release of fungal cells following macrophage phagocytosis, called non-lytic expulsion, is reported for several fungal pathogens. On one hand, non-lytic expulsion may benefit the fungus in escaping the microbicidal environment of the phagosome. On the other hand, the macrophage could profit in terms of avoiding its own lysis and being able to undergo proliferation. To analyse the causes of non-lytic expulsion and the relevance of macrophage proliferation in the macrophage- Candida albicans interaction, we employ Evolutionary Game Theory and dynamic optimization in a sequential manner. We establish a game-theoretical model describing the different strategies of the two players after phagocytosis. Depending on the parameter values, we find four different Nash equilibria and determine the influence of the systems state of the host upon the game. As our Nash equilibria are a direct consequence of the model parameterization, we can depict several biological scenarios. A parameter region, where the host response is robust against the fungal infection, is determined. We further apply dynamic optimization to analyse whether macrophage mitosis is relevant in the host-pathogen interaction of macrophages and C. albicans For this, we study the population dynamics of the macrophage- C. albicans interactions and the corresponding optimal controls for the macrophages, indicating the best macrophage strategy of switching from proliferation to attacking fungal cells. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. From Team Play to Squad Play: The Militarisation of Interactions in Multiplayer FPS Video Games

    Adam Duell

    2014-01-01

    Since the onset of E-sports we have seen the development from casual players to professional players who push the boundary of game mastery to new heights via coordinated team play. In this short paper I explore how a group of video game players adopt military-style communication methods and strategies to coordinate their actions in the popular tactical First Person Shooter (FPS) video game DayZ (Bohemia Interactive, 2014).  Utilising the key components of team interaction in the context of di...

  5. The Olympic Games broadcasted as Interactive Television - New Media new Games?

    Bjørner, Thomas

    or delayed video coverage of the Olympic Games. The Torino Olympic Broadcasting was the first to be filmed entirely in High Definition Television. In the future the use of digital video processing, computer vision, 3D-visualisation and animation techniques allow viewers to watch sports events almost......The Olympic Games is the world´s largest media event and television is the engine that has driven the growth of the Olympic Movement. Increases in broadcast revenue over the past two decades have provided the Olympic Movement with a huge financial base. More networks than ever before broadcast...... the Olympic Games to more countries and territories, with a record number of hours, a significant rise in the total viewing hours, and dramatic increases in live and prime-time coverage. Over 300 channels transmitted 35.000 hours of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games. The future of television is digital, which...

  6. Traffic Games: Modeling Freeway Traffic with Game Theory.

    Cortés-Berrueco, Luis E; Gershenson, Carlos; Stephens, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    We apply game theory to a vehicular traffic model to study the effect of driver strategies on traffic flow. The resulting model inherits the realistic dynamics achieved by a two-lane traffic model and aims to incorporate phenomena caused by driver-driver interactions. To achieve this goal, a game-theoretic description of driver interaction was developed. This game-theoretic formalization allows one to model different lane-changing behaviors and to keep track of mobility performance. We simulate the evolution of cooperation, traffic flow, and mobility performance for different modeled behaviors. The analysis of these results indicates a mobility optimization process achieved by drivers' interactions.

  7. A Game Theoretical Approach Based Bidding Strategy Optimization for Power Producers in Power Markets with Renewable Electricity

    Yi Tang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a competitive electricity market with substantial involvement of renewable electricity, maximizing profits by optimizing bidding strategies is crucial to different power producers including conventional power plants and renewable ones. This paper proposes a game-theoretic bidding optimization method based on bi-level programming, where power producers are at the upper level and utility companies are at the lower level. The competition among the multiple power producers is formulated as a non-cooperative game in which bidding curves are their strategies, while uniform clearing pricing is considered for utility companies represented by an independent system operator. Consequently, based on the formulated game model, the bidding strategies for power producers are optimized for the day-ahead market and the intraday market with considering the properties of renewable energy; and the clearing pricing for the utility companies, with respect to the power quantity from different power producers, is optimized simultaneously. Furthermore, a distributed algorithm is provided to search the solution of the generalized Nash equilibrium. Finally, simulation results were performed and discussed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed non-cooperative game-based bi-level optimization approach.

  8. A Game Theoretical Study of Generalised Trust and Reciprocation in Poland : I. Theory and Experimental Design

    Urszula Markowska-Przybyła

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although studies using experimental game theory have been carried out in various countries, no such major study has occurred in Poland. The study described here aims to investigate generalized trust and reciprocation among Polish students. In the literature, these traits are seen to be positively correlated with economic growth. Poland is regarded as the most successful post-soviet bloc country in transforming to a market economy but the level of generalised trust compared to other postcommunist countries is reported to be low. This study aims to see to what degree this reported level of generalised trust is visible amongst young Poles via experimental game theory, along with a questionnaire. The three games to be played have been described. Bayesian equilibria illustrating behavior observed in previous studies have been derived for two of these games and the experimental procedure has been described. (original abstract

  9. A game theoretic algorithm to detect overlapping community structure in networks

    Zhou, Xu; Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Yanheng; Sun, Geng

    2018-04-01

    Community detection can be used as an important technique for product and personalized service recommendation. A game theory based approach to detect overlapping community structure is introduced in this paper. The process of the community formation is converted into a game, when all agents (nodes) cannot improve their own utility, the game process will be terminated. The utility function is composed of a gain and a loss function and we present a new gain function in this paper. In addition, different from choosing action randomly among join, quit and switch for each agent to get new label, two new strategies for each agent to update its label are designed during the game, and the strategies are also evaluated and compared for each agent in order to find its best result. The overlapping community structure is naturally presented when the stop criterion is satisfied. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms other similar algorithms for detecting overlapping communities in networks.

  10. Power allocation for target detection in radar networks based on low probability of intercept: A cooperative game theoretical strategy

    Shi, Chenguang; Salous, Sana; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jianjiang

    2017-08-01

    Distributed radar network systems have been shown to have many unique features. Due to their advantage of signal and spatial diversities, radar networks are attractive for target detection. In practice, the netted radars in radar networks are supposed to maximize their transmit power to achieve better detection performance, which may be in contradiction with low probability of intercept (LPI). Therefore, this paper investigates the problem of adaptive power allocation for radar networks in a cooperative game-theoretic framework such that the LPI performance can be improved. Taking into consideration both the transmit power constraints and the minimum signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) requirement of each radar, a cooperative Nash bargaining power allocation game based on LPI is formulated, whose objective is to minimize the total transmit power by optimizing the power allocation in radar networks. First, a novel SINR-based network utility function is defined and utilized as a metric to evaluate power allocation. Then, with the well-designed network utility function, the existence and uniqueness of the Nash bargaining solution are proved analytically. Finally, an iterative Nash bargaining algorithm is developed that converges quickly to a Pareto optimal equilibrium for the cooperative game. Numerical simulations and theoretic analysis are provided to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  11. The impacts of gaming expansion on economic growth: a theoretical reconsideration.

    Li, Guoqiang; Gu, Xinhua; Siu, Ricardo Chi Sen

    2010-06-01

    This paper employs a general equilibrium framework to analyze the effects on economic growth of global expansions in casino gaming, which exports gambling services largely to non-residents. Both domestic and foreign investments in the gaming sector bring in not only substantial revenues but also positive spillover effects on related sectors and even on the entire local economy. However, an over-expansion of commercial gambling may lead to deterioration in the terms of trade with an adverse impact on real income. If this situation persists, it would not be impossible for immiserizing growth to occur. As a highly profitable sector, casino gaming may enable its operators to diversify out of this risk if they invest retained profits in non-gaming sectors to cash in on the spillover effects it has created. The gaming-dominant economy can then be directed on a more balanced and sustainable growth path, and will become less susceptible to business cycles. Indeed, economic experiences in the world's major casino resorts are consistent basically with this argument for diversification. We believe that after the current global crisis fades away, economic growth and resulting surges in global demand for gambling services can provide further opportunities for the expansion of existing casino resorts and the development of new gaming markets.

  12. A Survey of Game Theoretic Approaches to Modelling Decision-Making in Information Warfare Scenarios

    Kathryn Merrick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and autonomous systems. Subsequently, an important research direction is concerned with modelling decision-making processes. One approach to this involves modelling decision-making scenarios as games using game theory. This paper presents a survey of information warfare literature, with the purpose of identifying games that model different types of information warfare operations. Our contribution is a systematic identification and classification of information warfare games, as a basis for modelling decision-making by humans and machines in such scenarios. We also present a taxonomy of games that map to information warfare and cyber crime problems as a precursor to future research on decision-making in such scenarios. We identify and discuss open research questions including the role of behavioural game theory in modelling human decision making and the role of machine decision-making in information warfare scenarios.

  13. Supply Chain Strategies for Quality Inspection under a Customer Return Policy: A Game Theoretical Approach

    Vijay Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the quality inspection strategies in a supplier–buyer supply chain under a customer return policy. This paper primarily focuses on product quality and quality inspection techniques to maximize the actors’ and supply chain’s profits using game theory approach. The supplier–buyer setup is described in terms of textile manufacturer–retailer supply chain where quality inspection is an important aspect and the product return from the customer is generally accepted. Textile manufacturer produces the product, whereas, retailer acts as a reseller who buys the products from the textile manufacturer and sells them to the customers. In this context, the former invests in the product quality whereas the latter invests in the random quality inspection and traceability. The relationships between the textile manufacturer and the retailer are recognized as horizontal and vertical alliances and modeled using non-cooperative and cooperative games. The non-cooperative games are based on the Stackelberg and Nash equilibrium models. Further, bargaining and game change scenarios have been discussed to maximize the profit under different games. To understand the appropriateness of a strategic alliance, a computational study demonstrates textile manufacturer–retailer relation under different game scenarios.

  14. Gaming for health: a systematic review of the physical and cognitive effects of interactive computer games in older adults.

    Bleakley, Chris M; Charles, Darryl; Porter-Armstrong, Alison; McNeill, Michael D J; McDonough, Suzanne M; McCormack, Brendan

    2015-04-01

    This systematic review examined the physical and cognitive effects of physically based interactive computer games (ICGs) in older adults. Literature searching was carried out from January 2000 to June 2011. Eligible studies were trials involving older adults (>65 years) describing the effects of ICGs with a physical component (aerobic, strength, balance, flexibility) on physical or cognitive outcomes. Secondary outcomes included adverse effects, compliance, and enjoyment. Twelve trials met the inclusion criteria. ICG interventions varied in terms of software, game type, and nature of the computer interaction. Although there was preliminary evidence that ICG is a safe and effective exercise intervention for older adults, the dearth of high-quality evidence limits this finding. No major adverse effects were reported and two studies reported minor events. ICG could be improved further by tailoring interventions for older adults; in particular, they should aim to optimize participant safety, motivation, and enjoyment for this population. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. [The influences of interaction during online gaming on sociability and aggression in real life].

    Fuji, Kei; Yoshida, Fujio

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the influences of online gaming on sociability and aggression in real life. It was hypothesized that the effects of online gaming would differ depending on the interaction style of the online-gamers. Online-gamers in Japan (n = 1 477) were asked to respond to questionnaires that measured interaction style during online gaming, the effects of sociability and aggression, as well as social and individual orientation in real life. Factor analysis of the scores for interaction style extracted five factors. Covariance structure analysis indicated that sociable interactions such as "Broadening relations" and "Feeling of belonging" promoted sociability in real life. In addition, "Release from daily hassles" promoted sociability and decreased aggression. In contrast, non-sociable and aggressive interactions decreased sociability and increased aggression. The results also suggested that a social orientation in real life promoted sociable interactions during game playing, while an individual orientation promoted non-sociable and aggressive interactions. These results supported the hypotheses and suggested that online gaming resulted in positive outcomes for those who are socially, but negative outcomes for those who are not.

  16. A Game-Theoretic Response Strategy for Coordinator Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Liu, Jianhua; Yue, Guangxue; Shang, Huiliang; Li, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    The coordinator is a specific node that controls the whole network and has a significant impact on the performance in cooperative multihop ZigBee wireless sensor networks (ZWSNs). However, the malicious node attacks coordinator nodes in an effort to waste the resources and disrupt the operation of the network. Attacking leads to a failure of one round of communication between the source nodes and destination nodes. Coordinator selection is a technique that can considerably defend against attack and reduce the data delivery delay, and increase network performance of cooperative communications. In this paper, we propose an adaptive coordinator selection algorithm using game and fuzzy logic aiming at both minimizing the average number of hops and maximizing network lifetime. The proposed game model consists of two interrelated formulations: a stochastic game for dynamic defense and a best response policy using evolutionary game formulation for coordinator selection. The stable equilibrium best policy to response defense is obtained from this game model. It is shown that the proposed scheme can improve reliability and save energy during the network lifetime with respect to security. PMID:25105171

  17. Keys to Successful Interactive Storytelling: A Study of the Booming "Choose-Your-Own-Adventure" Video Game Industry

    Tyndale, Eric; Ramsoomair, Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Video gaming has become a multi-billion dollar industry that continues to capture the hearts, minds and pocketbooks of millions of gamers who span all ages. Narrative and interactive games form part of this market. The popularity of tablet computers and the technological advances of video games have led to a renaissance in the genre for both youth…

  18. Interactive Multimedia System Using Serious Game for Users with Motor Disabilities

    A. Jaume-i-Capó

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available User demotivation is habitual in a long-term rehabilitation process, because this process usually consists in repetitive and intensive activities which become boring after hundreds of sessions. Research studies have shown that serious games help to motivate users in a rehabilitation process. Motor rehabilitation consists of body movements that can be captured and patients can have difficulties in holding physical devices. For this reason, therapy studies include vision input devices and propose what features are desirable for rehabilitation serious games. In this paper, we present a case of success, an interactive multimedia system using a serious game to improve abilities of patients with cerebral palsy.

  19. An interactive game-based shoulder wheel system for rehabilitation

    Chou LW

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Ming Chang,1,* Yen-Ching Chang,2,3 Hsiao-Yun Chang,4 Li-Wei Chou5,6,* 1Department of Applied Informatics and Multimedia, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan; 2Department of Medical Informatics, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Department of Medical Imaging, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 6School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Increases in the aging population and in the number of accidents have resulted in more people suffering from physical impairments or disabilities. Rehabilitation therapy thus attracts greater attention as a means of helping patients recover and return to a normal life. With the extremely long and tedious nature of traditional rehabilitation, patients are reluctant to continue the entire process, thus the expected effects of the therapy cannot be obtained. Games are well known to help patients improve their concentration and shift their attention away from the discomfort of their injuries during rehabilitation. Thus, incorporating game technology into a rehabilitation program may be a promising approach.Methods: In this study, a gaming system used for shoulder rehabilitation was developed. The mechanical parts and electric circuits were integrated to mimic the functionalities of a shoulder wheel. Several games were also designed to suit the rehabilitation needs of the patients based on the age and gender differences among the individual users, enabling individuals to undergo the rehabilitation process by playing games. Two surveys were conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of the participants regarding the gaming system.Results: The results of the online survey among a larger population

  20. A GAME THEORETIC ANALYSIS OF U.S. RICE EXPORT POLICY: THE CASE OF JAPAN AND KOREA

    Lee, Dae-Seob; Kennedy, P. Lynn

    2002-01-01

    As a result of the Uruguay Round (UR), the impact on the international rice market is dramatic.The major U.S. benefit of the UR has been the access to the Japanese market. However, the U.S. share of this import market has been unstable and the share of Korean rice market is nearly zero prior to February 2002. Econometric estimation and Political Preference Function (PPF) approach are incorporated into a game theoretic analysis to analyze U.S. export potential to Japan and Korea.

  1. Digital gaming and second language development: Japanese learners interactions in a MMORPG

    Mark Peterson

    2011-01-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are identified as valuable arenas for language learning, as they provide access to contexts and types of interaction that are held to be beneficial in second language acquisition research. This paper will describe the development and key features of these games, and explore claims made regarding their value as environments for language learning. The discussion will then examine current research. This is followed by an analysis of t...

  2. Students' interaction for enhancing learning motivation and learning success: findings from integrating a simulation game into a university course

    Otto, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, a vast amount of literature has been published discussing the educational use of simulation games in higher education. Since their emergence in the 1960s, simulation games have had a substantial effect on the way we think about teaching and learning in higher education. One reason simulation games are regarded as superior to traditional teaching is that they encourage students to interact and collaborate. Simulation games can therefore be subsumed under Kolbs learning model...

  3. From Team Play to Squad Play: The Militarisation of Interactions in Multiplayer FPS Video Games

    Adam Duell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the onset of E-sports we have seen the development from casual players to professional players who push the boundary of game mastery to new heights via coordinated team play. In this short paper I explore how a group of video game players adopt military-style communication methods and strategies to coordinate their actions in the popular tactical First Person Shooter (FPS video game DayZ (Bohemia Interactive, 2014.  Utilising the key components of team interaction in the context of distributed and ad-hoc military teams (Pascual et al., 1997, I show how a group of players evolved their interactions from team play to squad play. I argue that squad play is an advancement of the strategic and tactical thinking embodied in team play through the adoption of real-world military interaction and communication strategies.

  4. Adaptive Game Level Creation through Rank-based Interactive Evolution

    Liapis, Antonios; Martínez, Héctor Pérez; Togelius, Julian

    2013-01-01

    as fitness functions for the optimization of the generated content. The preference models are built via ranking-based preference learning, while the content is generated via evolutionary search. The proposed method is evaluated on the creation of strategy game maps, and its performance is tested using...

  5. Redefining toys, games and entertainment products by designing playful interactions

    Bekker, M.M.; Hummels, C.C.M.; Nemeth, A.G.G.E.; Mendels, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how students are taught to design (computer) games and toys in a broad sense of the word at the Department of Industrial Design at the Eindhoven University of Technology. The curriculum is highly project driven, which means that students acquire a large amount of hands-on

  6. A serious game for interactive teaching of Newton's laws

    Van Der Linden, Anne; Van Joolingen, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    One goal of physics teaching is to tackle students' preconceptions about the laws of motion and promote student comprehension based on physical concepts. In this study, we used a serious 3D immersive game to put students in situations in which their preconceptions are no longer adequate

  7. Game-Theoretic Social-Aware Resource Allocation for Device-to-Device Communications Underlaying Cellular Network

    Lei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Device-to-Device communication underlaying cellular network can increase the spectrum efficiency due to direct proximity communication and frequency reuse. However, such performance improvement is influenced by the power interference caused by spectrum sharing and social characteristics in each social community jointly. In this investigation, we present a dynamic game theory with complete information based D2D resource allocation scheme for D2D communication underlaying cellular network. In this resource allocation method, we quantify both the rate influence from the power interference caused by the D2D transmitter to cellular users and rate enhancement brought by the social relationships between mobile users. Then, the utility function maximization game is formulated to optimize the overall transmission rate performance of the network, which synthetically measures the final influence from both power interference and sociality enhancement. Simultaneously, we discuss the Nash Equilibrium of the proposed utility function maximization game from a theoretical point of view and further put forward a utility priority searching algorithm based resource allocation scheme. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme attains better performance compared with the other two advanced proposals.

  8. Hegemons, Leaders and Followers: A Game-Theoretic Approach to the Postwar Dynamics of International Political Economy

    Kjell Hausken

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the concept of hegemony to leadership theory, which has developed mainly as a critique of hegemonic stability theory. We argue that it makes sense to combine the two theories by introducing the concept of 'size' into neoliberal thinking about International Political Economy. We accept the neo-institutional hypothesis that a hegemon is not needed to provide public goods, and demonstrate with non-cooperative games how multiple leaders may jointly provide public goods. A game-theoretic model is developed illustrating with Nash equilibria the conditions under which a hegemon rationally switches from hegemony to leadership. It also shows why followers rationally switch from free-riding in their consumption of the public goods to taking part in leading, in the sense of contributing to covering the cost of the production of the public goods. The emergence of joint leadership leads to multiple equilibria in the sense of allowing for multiple stable leadership constellations. The actors are in a mixed-motive or coordination game where they have different preferences for the equilibria, and thus different preferences for which strategies to choose, and for who is to take part in covering the cost of the production of the public goods. Two aspects of joint leadership 'after hegemony' are treated, namely coercive and benevolent leadership on the one hand, and collective action in the sense of joint leadership on the other hand. Finally, future leadership constellations and the quest for international order are discussed.

  9. Improving Simulated Annealing by Replacing Its Variables with Game-Theoretic Utility Maximizers

    Wolpert, David H.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Tumer, Kagan

    2001-01-01

    The game-theory field of Collective INtelligence (COIN) concerns the design of computer-based players engaged in a non-cooperative game so that as those players pursue their self-interests, a pre-specified global goal for the collective computational system is achieved as a side-effect. Previous implementations of COIN algorithms have outperformed conventional techniques by up to several orders of magnitude, on domains ranging from telecommunications control to optimization in congestion problems. Recent mathematical developments have revealed that these previously developed algorithms were based on only two of the three factors determining performance. Consideration of only the third factor would instead lead to conventional optimization techniques like simulated annealing that have little to do with non-cooperative games. In this paper we present an algorithm based on all three terms at once. This algorithm can be viewed as a way to modify simulated annealing by recasting it as a non-cooperative game, with each variable replaced by a player. This recasting allows us to leverage the intelligent behavior of the individual players to substantially improve the exploration step of the simulated annealing. Experiments are presented demonstrating that this recasting significantly improves simulated annealing for a model of an economic process run over an underlying small-worlds topology. Furthermore, these experiments reveal novel small-worlds phenomena, and highlight the shortcomings of conventional mechanism design in bounded rationality domains.

  10. Concurrent Transmission Based on Channel Quality in Ad Hoc Networks: A Game Theoretic Approach

    Chen, Chen; Gao, Xinbo; Li, Xiaoji; Pei, Qingqi

    In this paper, a decentralized concurrent transmission strategy in shared channel in Ad Hoc networks is proposed based on game theory. Firstly, a static concurrent transmissions game is used to determine the candidates for transmitting by channel quality threshold and to maximize the overall throughput with consideration of channel quality variation. To achieve NES (Nash Equilibrium Solution), the selfish behaviors of node to attempt to improve the channel gain unilaterally are evaluated. Therefore, this game allows each node to be distributed and to decide whether to transmit concurrently with others or not depending on NES. Secondly, as there are always some nodes with lower channel gain than NES, which are defined as hunger nodes in this paper, a hunger suppression scheme is proposed by adjusting the price function with interferences reservation and forward relay, to fairly give hunger nodes transmission opportunities. Finally, inspired by stock trading, a dynamic concurrent transmission threshold determination scheme is implemented to make the static game practical. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme is feasible to increase concurrent transmission opportunities for active nodes, and at the same time, the number of hunger nodes is greatly reduced with the least increase of threshold by interferences reservation. Also, the good performance on network goodput of the proposed model can be seen from the results.

  11. Proof-theoretic analysis of rationality for strategic games with arbitrary strategy sets

    Zvesper, J.A.; Apt, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    In the context of strategic games, we provide an axiomatic proof of the statement "Common knowledge of rationality implies that the players will choose only strategies that survive the iterated elimination of strictly dominated strategies." Rationality here means playing only strategies one believes

  12. Scientific approaches and techniques for negotiation : a game theoretic and artificial intelligence perspective

    E.H. Gerding (Enrico); D.D.B. van Bragt; J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractDue to the rapid growth of electronic environments (such as the Internet) much research is currently being performed on autonomous trading mechanisms. This report contains an overview of the current literature on negotiations in the fields of game theory and artificial intelligence (AI).

  13. Online Games as a Component of School Textbooks: A Test Predicting the Diffusion of Interactive Online Games Designed for the Textbook Reformation in South Korea

    Kim, Do Kyun; Dinu, Lucian F.; Chung, Wonjon

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the South Korean government is in the process of transforming school textbooks from a paper-based platform to a computer-based digital platform. Along with this effort, interactive online educational games (edu-games) have been examined as a potential component of the digital textbooks. Based on the theory of diffusion of innovations,…

  14. A Tabletop Board Game Interface for Multi-User Interaction with a Storytelling System

    Alofs, T.; Theune, Mariet; Swartjes, I.M.T.; Camurri, A.; Costa, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Interactive Storyteller is an interactive storytelling system with a multi-user tabletop interface. Our goal was to design a generic framework combining emergent narrative, where stories emerge from the actions of autonomous intelligent agents, with the social aspects of traditional board games.

  15. An evolutionary-game model of tumour-cell interactions: possible relevance to gene therapy

    Bach, L.A.; Bentzen, S.M.; Alsner, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Evolutionary games have been applied as simple mathematical models of populations where interactions between individuals control the dynamics. Recently, it has been proposed to use this type of model to describe the evolution of tumour cell populations with interactions between cells. We extent...

  16. The Human-Computer Interaction of Cross-Cultural Gaming Strategy

    Chakraborty, Joyram; Norcio, Anthony F.; Van Der Veer, Jacob J.; Andre, Charles F.; Miller, Zachary; Regelsberger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the cultural dimensions of the human-computer interaction that underlies gaming strategies. The article is a desktop study of existing literature and is organized into five sections. The first examines the cultural aspects of knowledge processing. The social constructs technology interaction is discussed. Following this, the…

  17. Play with Me! Gender-Typed Social Play Behavior Analysis in Interactive Tag Games

    Moreno, Alejandro; Poppe, R.W.; Heylen, Dirk K J

    2016-01-01

    Promoting social behavior is one of the key goals in interactive games. In this paper, we present an experimental study in the Interactive Tag Playground (ITP) to investigate whether social behaviors reported in literature can also be observed through automated analysis. We do this by analyzing

  18. Play with Me! Gender-Typed Social Play Behavior Analysis in Interactive Tag Games

    Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    Promoting social behavior is one of the key goals in interactive games. In this paper, we present an experimental study in the Interactive Tag Playground (ITP) to investigate whether social behaviors reported in literature can also be observed through automated analysis. We do this by analyzing

  19. Games for health : Proceedings of the 3rd european conference on gaming and playful interaction in health care

    Schouten, B.A.M.; Fedtke, S.; Bekker, M.M.; Schijven, M.; Gekker, A.

    2013-01-01

    Founded in 2004, the Games for Health Project supports community, knowledge and business development efforts to use cutting-edge games and game technologies to improve health and health care. The Games for Health Conference brings together researchers, medical professionals and game developers to

  20. Game of Words: Prototype of a Digital Game Focusing on Oral Production (and Comprehension) through Asynchronous Interaction

    Loiseau, Mathieu; Hallal, Racha; Ballot, Pauline; Gazidedja, Ada

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a learning game designed according to a strategy focusing on favouring the learners' "playful attitude". The game's modalities pertain to what we might call "guessing games". The chosen avatar of such guessing games both exists as learning and Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) board games. We explain in…

  1. Games for Health 2014 : Proceedings of the 4th conference on gaming and playful interaction in healthcare

    Schouten, B.A.M.; Fedtke, S.; Schijven, M.; Vosmeer, M.; Gekker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Founded in 2004, the Games for Health Project supports community, knowledge and business development efforts to use cutting-edge games and game technologies to improve health and health care. The Games for Health Conference brings together researchers, medical professionals and game developers to

  2. Game-Theoretic Comparison Approach for Intercontinental Container Transportation: A Case between China and Europe with the B&R Initiative

    Xi Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a game-theoretic model to analyze the competition between two container freight transportation modes (shipping and railway using competitive game strategic interactions method, namely, deterrence, by taking account of the most cost-effective scale of the transportation capacity settings. The competition was set against the background of China’s Belt and Road (B&R Initiative as a new situation for intercontinental Sino-Europe container freight transportation. The behavior of each mode (modeled as a carrier, resp. is characterized by an optimization model with the objective of minimizing its cost by setting optimal basic freight rate and transportation deployment. A firm can use this method to compare the difference in the time value of the cargos and reduce the expense during the whole transportation process. Finally, the developed model is numerically evaluated by a case study of intercontinental transportation between Hefei (China and Hamburg (Germany. The results show that deterrence effects largely depend on the deterrence objective, and the differential in the cost of two transportation modes tends to be stable with higher values in the deterrence objective. In the new intercontinental circumstance, the mode of railway transportation provides a new way to transport the cargos between China and Europe.

  3. Cooperation, psychological game theory, and limitations of rationality in social interaction.

    Colman, Andrew M

    2003-04-01

    Rational choice theory enjoys unprecedented popularity and influence in the behavioral and social sciences, but it generates intractable problems when applied to socially interactive decisions. In individual decisions, instrumental rationality is defined in terms of expected utility maximization. This becomes problematic in interactive decisions, when individuals have only partial control over the outcomes, because expected utility maximization is undefined in the absence of assumptions about how the other participants will behave. Game theory therefore incorporates not only rationality but also common knowledge assumptions, enabling players to anticipate their co-players' strategies. Under these assumptions, disparate anomalies emerge. Instrumental rationality, conventionally interpreted, fails to explain intuitively obvious features of human interaction, yields predictions starkly at variance with experimental findings, and breaks down completely in certain cases. In particular, focal point selection in pure coordination games is inexplicable, though it is easily achieved in practice; the intuitively compelling payoff-dominance principle lacks rational justification; rationality in social dilemmas is self-defeating; a key solution concept for cooperative coalition games is frequently inapplicable; and rational choice in certain sequential games generates contradictions. In experiments, human players behave more cooperatively and receive higher payoffs than strict rationality would permit. Orthodox conceptions of rationality are evidently internally deficient and inadequate for explaining human interaction. Psychological game theory, based on nonstandard assumptions, is required to solve these problems, and some suggestions along these lines have already been put forward.

  4. S3D depth-axis interaction for video games: performance and engagement

    Zerebecki, Chris; Stanfield, Brodie; Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill; Collins, Karen

    2013-03-01

    Game developers have yet to embrace and explore the interactive stereoscopic 3D medium. They typically view stereoscopy as a separate mode that can be disabled throughout the design process and rarely develop game mechanics that take advantage of the stereoscopic 3D medium. What if we designed games to be S3D-specific and viewed traditional 2D viewing as a separate mode that can be disabled? The design choices made throughout such a process may yield interesting and compelling results. Furthermore, we believe that interaction within a stereoscopic 3D environment is more important than the visual experience itself and therefore, further exploration is needed to take into account the interactive affordances presented by stereoscopic 3D displays. Stereoscopic 3D displays allow players to perceive objects at different depths, thus we hypothesize that designing a core mechanic to take advantage of this viewing paradigm will create compelling content. In this paper, we describe Z-Fighter a game that we have developed that requires the player to interact directly along the stereoscopic 3D depth axis. We also outline an experiment conducted to investigate the performance, perception, and enjoyment of this game in stereoscopic 3D vs. traditional 2D viewing.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERACTIVITY ON CONSUMER ATTITUDE OF ADVERTISING IN VIDEO GAMES

    Alina SZUZ‐POP (GHIRVU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Progress of new digital technologies has led to a new type of consumer, more dynamic and difficult to satisfy, which made the efficiency of the old promotion methods to decrease. Marketers who are looking for new ways to reach their audience found in online video games a reliable ally. Previous studies that have been conducted internationally showed that advertising through online games and delivering promotional messages in the virtual space mediated by Internet technology has a high degree of acceptance from the public. In Romania such studies are lacking , and this gap in the literature led to the need to study the potential that promoting in video game has on consumers from this market . In this paper we present some of the results of a larger quantitative research, which has investigated several aspects that influence consumer attitudes towards video games with advertising content, focusing on the factor with the most strongly impact - interactivity . The study used self-administered online questionnaire method to collect primary data that were further analyzed by descriptive statistical methods and factor analysis . The results revealed that in general the consummers from Romania have a positive attitude towards advertising presented in video games and the interactivity given by the game construction that allows the manipulation of branded objects during a play session has a direct and positive influence on the attitude.

  6. Evolution of interactions and cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game.

    Chunyan Zhang

    Full Text Available We study the evolution of cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game where players are allowed to establish new interactions with others. By employing a simple coevolutionary rule entailing only two crucial parameters, we find that different selection criteria for the new interaction partners as well as their number vitally affect the outcome of the game. The resolution of the social dilemma is most probable if the selection favors more successful players and if their maximally attainable number is restricted. While the preferential selection of the best players promotes cooperation irrespective of game parametrization, the optimal number of new interactions depends somewhat on the temptation to defect. Our findings reveal that the "making of new friends" may be an important activity for the successful evolution of cooperation, but also that partners must be selected carefully and their number limited.

  7. Game Channels for Trustless Off-Chain Interactions in Decentralized Virtual Worlds

    Daniel Kraft

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Blockchains can be used to build multi-player online games and virtual worlds that require no central server. This concept is pioneered by Huntercoin, but it leads to large growth of the blockchain and heavy resource requirements. In this paper, we present a new protocol inspired by payment channels and sidechains that allows for trustless off-chain interactions of players in private turn-based games. They are usually performed without requiring space in the public blockchain, but if a dispute arises, the public network can be used to resolve the conflict. We also analyze the resulting security guarantees and describe possible extensions to games with shared turns and for near real-time interaction. Our proposed concept can be used to scale Huntercoin to very large or even infinite worlds and to enable almost real-time interactions between players.

  8. Quantitative Models of Imperfect Deception in Network Security using Signaling Games with Evidence

    Pawlick, Jeffrey; Zhu, Quanyan

    2017-01-01

    Deception plays a critical role in many interactions in communication and network security. Game-theoretic models called "cheap talk signaling games" capture the dynamic and information asymmetric nature of deceptive interactions. But signaling games inherently model undetectable deception. In this paper, we investigate a model of signaling games in which the receiver can detect deception with some probability. This model nests traditional signaling games and complete information Stackelberg ...

  9. Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of an Evolutionary Social-Learning Game

    2012-01-13

    Nettle outlines the circumstances in which verbal communication is evolutionarily adaptive, and why few species have developed the ability to use...language despite its apparent advantages [28]. Nettle uses a significantly simpler model than the Cultaptation game, but provides insight that may be useful...provided by Kearns et al. was designed as an online algorithm, so it only returns the near-optimal action for the state at the root of the search tree

  10. Transboundary water management Game-theoretic lessons for projects on the US-Mexico border*

    Frisvold, George B.; Caswell, Margriet F.

    2000-01-01

    Of the twelve million people who live within 100 km of the US-Mexico border, 90 percent are clustered in trans boundary sister cities that share common water sources and pollution problems. New institutions created to address environmental concerns over NAFTA offer the promise of greater financial and technical assistance for water management in border cities. This paper reviews US-Mexico border water issues and institutions. Using insights from game theory, it draws policy lessons for instit...

  11. China-Japan-Korea (CJK)'s FTA Strategy towards ASEAN Countries: A Game Theoretical Approach

    Fithra Faisal Hastiadi

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the FTA strategies of China, Japan and Korea (CJK) toward ASEAN countries using a three-player game. It explores the implications of China, Japan, and/or Korea participating in an FTA with ASEAN and the corresponding rewards in a payoff matrix. The Nash equilibrium occurs when China, Korea and Japan all choose to participate in an FTA with ASEAN. Dominant strategies and response functions for each country are analyzed using Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) and Vector Auto ...

  12. Game-theoretical approach to solving problems encountered in energy policy

    Lutz, B.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives a short survey of the essential outlines of the Harsanyi/Selten solution concept for non-cooperative games, Nash's bargaining model, and the Shapley procedure. By combining elements of these theories it is tried to obtain a more realistic solution concept for cooperative behavior. In particular, the condition of implementing the announced threat strategies in case that negotiations break down can be dispensed. A computer code for the solution of any given two person game with complete evaluations of the cooperative case. As part of the general program a computer code for the solution of two-person non-cooperative games by means of the Harsanyi/Selten theory is offered for the first time. To demonstrate the applicability to decision making problems a strongly simplified example from the area of energy politics is chosen. For the participants of the conflict - administration and the group of individual energy users - the utility matrix with respect to the coal sector is to be found. The Analytic Hierarchy Process due to SAATY seems to be an appropriate means. The necessary computer codes are implemented. The evaluation takes account of cooperative behavior as well as of non-cooperative. Inspite of strong abstractions and separation from the overlying system surprisingly pleasant results can be achieved.

  13. Game-theoretic control of PHEV charging with power flow analysis

    Yuan Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to an ever-increasing market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs, the charging demand is expected to become a main determinant of the load in future distribution systems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of controlling in-home charging of PHEVs to accomplish peak load shifting while maximizing the revenue of the distribution service provider (DSP and PHEV owners. A leader-follower game model is proposed to characterize the preference and revenue expectation of PHEV owners and DSP, respectively. The follower (PHEV owner decides when to start charging based on the pricing schedule provided by the leader (DSP. The DSP can incentivize the charging of PHEV owners to avoid system peak load. The costs associated with power distribution, line loss, and voltage regulation are incorporated in the game model via power flow analysis. Based on a linear approximation of the power flow equations, the solution of sub-game perfect Nash equilibrium (SPNE is obtained. A case study is performed based on the IEEE 13-bus test feeder and realistic PHEV charging statistics, and the results demonstrate that our proposed PHEV charging control scheme can significantly improve the power quality in distribution systems by reducing the peak load and voltage fluctuations.

  14. Low energy p anti p strong interactions: theoretical perspective

    Dover, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Several of the frontier problems in low energy nucleon-antinucleon phenomenology are addressed. Spin observables and dynamical selection rules in N anti N annihilation are used as examples of phenomena which offer particularly strong constraints on theoretical models, formulated either in terms of meson and baryon exchange or as effective operators in a non-perturbative quark-gluon picture. 24 refs

  15. Gaming

    Duke, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Als Richard Duke sein Buch ""Gaming: The Future's Language"" 1974 veröffentlichte, war er ein Pionier für die Entwicklung und Anwendung von Planspielen in Politik, Strategieentwicklung und Management. Das Buch wurde zu einem viel zitierten Standardwerk. 2014 feiert die von Richard D. Duke gegründete International Simulation and Gaming Association (ISAGA) ihr 45-jähriges Bestehen. Gleichzeitig legt Richard D. Duke eine überarbeitete Auflage seines Klassikers vor.   Inhaltsverzeichnis TABLE OF CONTENTSAcknowledgments Preface SECTION I1. The ProblemSECTION II2. Modes of Human Communication3. Mode

  16. Using Music to Communicate Geoscience in Films, Videos and Interactive Games

    Kerlow, I.

    2017-12-01

    Music is a powerful storytelling device and an essential component in today's movies and interactive games. Communicating Earth science can be enhanced and focused with the proper use of a musical score, particularly in the context of documentary films, television programs, interactive games and museum installations. This presentation presents five simple professional techniques to integrate music, visuals and voice-over narration into a single cohesive story that is emotionally engaging. It also presents five practical tips to improve the success of a musical collaboration. The concepts in question are illustrated with practical audio and video examples from real science projects.

  17. A Learning and Interaction design framework, from a study on formulating principles for the design of engaging music learning games

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke; Ørngreen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    Based on a preliminary action research study investigating the design of digital music games and years of experiences from interaction design processes of learning resources, this extended abstract presents a framework that mixes designs for learning principles and game design with a process view...... using a simple interaction design lifecycle. Though the first outset was to design engaging music games, the resulting framework has a more generic character....

  18. A game-theoretic approach to optimize ad hoc networks inspired by small-world network topology

    Tan, Mian; Yang, Tinghong; Chen, Xing; Yang, Gang; Zhu, Guoqing; Holme, Petter; Zhao, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Nodes in ad hoc networks are connected in a self-organized manner. Limited communication radius makes information transmit in multi-hop mode, and each forwarding needs to consume the energy of nodes. Insufficient communication radius or exhaustion of energy may cause the absence of some relay nodes and links, further breaking network connectivity. On the other hand, nodes in the network may refuse to cooperate due to objective faulty or personal selfish, hindering regular communication in the network. This paper proposes a model called Repeated Game in Small World Networks (RGSWN). In this model, we first construct ad hoc networks with small-world feature by forming "communication shortcuts" between multiple-radio nodes. Small characteristic path length reduces average forwarding times in networks; meanwhile high clustering coefficient enhances network robustness. Such networks still maintain relative low global power consumption, which is beneficial to extend the network survival time. Then we use MTTFT strategy (Mend-Tolerance Tit-for-Tat) for repeated game as a rule for the interactions between neighbors in the small-world networks. Compared with other five strategies of repeated game, this strategy not only punishes the nodes' selfishness more reasonably, but also has the best tolerance to the network failure. This work is insightful for designing an efficient and robust ad hoc network.

  19. DEVELOPING VISUAL NOVEL GAME WITH SPEECH-RECOGNITION INTERACTIVITY TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’ MASTERY ON ENGLISH EXPRESSIONS

    Elizabeth Anggraeni Amalo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of English-expressions has always been done through conversation samples in form of written texts, audio recordings, and videos. In the meantime, the development of computer-aided learning technology has made autonomous language learning possible. Game, as one of computer-aided learning technology products, can serve as a medium to provide educational contents like that of language teaching and learning. Visual Novel is considered as a conversational game that is suitable to be combined with English-expressions material. Unlike the other click-based interaction Visual Novel Games, the visual novel game in this research implements speech recognition as the interaction trigger. Hence, this paper aims at elaborating how visual novel games are utilized to deliver English-expressions with speech recognition command for the interaction. This research used Research and Development (R&D method with Experimental design through control and experimental groups to measure its effectiveness in enhancing students’ English-expressions mastery. ANOVA was utilized to prove the significant differences between the control and experimental groups. It is expected that the result of this development and experiment can devote benefits to the English teaching and learning, especially on English-expressions.

  20. A Development of Game-Based Learning Environment to Activate Interaction among Learners

    Takaoka, Ryo; Shimokawa, Masayuki; Okamoto, Toshio

    Many studies and systems that incorporate elements such as “pleasure” and “fun” in the game to improve a learner's motivation have been developed in the field of learning environments. However, few are the studies of situations where many learners gather at a single computer and participate in a game-based learning environment (GBLE), and where the GBLE designs the learning process by controlling the interactions between learners such as competition, collaboration, and learning by teaching. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a framework of educational control that induces and activates interaction between learners intentionally to create a learning opportunity that is based on the knowledge understanding model of each learner. In this paper, we explain the design philosophy and the framework of our GBLE called “Who becomes the king in the country of mathematics?” from a game viewpoint and describe the method of learning support control in the learning environment. In addition, we report the results of the learning experiment with our GBLE, which we carried out in a junior high school, and include some comments by a principal and a teacher. From the results of the experiment and some comments, we noticed that a game may play a significant role in weakening the learning relationship among students and creating new relationships in the world of the game. Furthermore, we discovered that learning support control of the GBLE has led to activation of the interaction between learners to some extent.

  1. Metallacarboranes and their interactions: theoretical insights and their applicability

    Farras, P.; Juárez-Pérez, E. J.; Lepšík, Martin; Luque, R.; Núnez, R.; Teixidor, F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 9 (2012), s. 3445-3463 ISSN 0306-0012 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00320901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : density-functional theory * nonlinear-optical properties * NMR chemical-shifts * HIV protease * sandwich complexes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 24.892, year: 2012

  2. Game theory : Noncooperative games

    van Damme, E.E.C.; Wright, J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe noncooperative game models and discuss game theoretic solution concepts. Some applications are also noted. Conventional theory focuses on the question ‘how will rational players play?’, and has the Nash equilibrium at its core. We discuss this concept and its interpretations, as well as

  3. Color blindness and interracial interaction: playing the political correctness game.

    Norton, Michael I; Sommers, Samuel R; Apfelbaum, Evan P; Pura, Natassia; Ariely, Dan

    2006-11-01

    Two experiments explored the ramifications of endorsing color blindness as a strategy for appearing unprejudiced. In Study 1, Whites proved adept at categorizing faces on the basis of race, but understated their ability to do so. In Study 2, Whites playing the Political Correctness Game--a matching task that requires describing other individuals--were less likely to use race as a descriptor when paired with a Black partner than when paired with a White partner, a strategy that impaired communication and performance. In addition, avoidance of race was associated with Whites making less eye contact with and appearing less friendly toward Black partners.

  4. MODELLING THE INTERACTION IN GAME SPORTS - RELATIVE PHASE AND MOVING CORRELATIONS

    Martin Lames

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Model building in game sports should maintain the constitutive feature of this group of sports, the dynamic interaction process between the two parties. For single net/wall games relative phase is suggested to describe the positional interaction between the two players. 30 baseline rallies in tennis were examined and relative phase was calculated by Hilbert transform from the two time-series of lateral displacement and trajectory in the court respectively. Results showed that relative phase indicates some aspects of the tactical interaction in tennis. At a more abstract level the interaction between two teams in handball was studied by examining the relationship of the two scoring processes. Each process can be conceived as a random walk. Moving averages of the scoring probabilities indicate something like a momentary strength. A moving correlation (length = 20 ball possessions describes the momentary relationship between the teams' strength. Evidence was found that this correlation is heavily time-dependent, in almost every single game among the 40 examined ones we found phases with a significant positive as well as significant negative relationship. This underlines the importance of a dynamic view on the interaction in these games.

  5. A Game Theoretical Model for Location of Terror Response Facilities under Capacitated Resources

    Lingpeng Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the effect of capacity constraints on the locations of terror response facilities. We assume that the state has limited resources, and multiple facilities may be involved in the response until the demand is satisfied consequently. We formulate a leader-follower game model between the state and the terrorist and prove the existence and uniqueness of the Nash equilibrium. An integer linear programming is proposed to obtain the equilibrium results when the facility number is fixed. The problem is demonstrated by a case study of the 19 districts of Shanghai, China.

  6. How Serious Do We Need to Be? Improving Information Literacy Skills through Gaming and Interactive Elements

    Ana van Meegen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Catching the attention of highly technologically and visually oriented students is a challenge for libraries. The number of students entering the universities is increasing and a face-to-face learning setting is an impossible mission for the few available subject librarians. This paper demonstrates how effective the use of serious game or other web-based interactive elements can be for teaching information literacy. By means of quasi-experimental research the impact that the game Saving Asia on students’ learning is analysed and compared to a web-based online tutorial of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Free University of Amsterdam. This research demonstrated that the game needs to be improved if it is to fit into the regular curriculum of the university, but interactive elements definitely improve learning results.

  7. Phone, Email and Video Interactions with Characters in an Epidemiology Game: Towards Authenticity

    Ney, Muriel; Gonçalves, Celso; Blacheff, Nicolas; Schwartz, Claudine; Bosson, Jean-Luc

    A key concern in game-based learning is the level of authenticity that the game requires in order to have an accurate match of what the learners can expect in the real world with what they need to learn. In this paper, we show how four challenges to the designer of authentic games have been addressed in a game for an undergraduate course in a medical school. We focus in particular on the system of interaction with different characters of the game, namely, the patients and a number of professionals. Students use their personal phone and email application, as well as various web sites. First, we analyze the authenticity of the game through four attributes, authenticity of the character, of the content of the feedback, of the mode and channel of communication and of the constraints. Second, the perceived authenticity (by students) is analyzed. The later is threefold and defined by an external authenticity (perceived likeness with a real life reference), an internal authenticity (perceived internal coherence of the proposed situations) and a didactical authenticity (perceived relevance with respect to learning goals).

  8. A study of the dynamics of multi-player games on small networks using territorial interactions.

    Broom, Mark; Lafaye, Charlotte; Pattni, Karan; Rychtář, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the study of structured populations using models of evolutionary processes on graphs has begun to incorporate a more general type of interaction between individuals, allowing multi-player games to be played among the population. In this paper, we develop a birth-death dynamics for use in such models and consider the evolution of populations for special cases of very small graphs where we can easily identify all of the population states and carry out exact analyses. To do so, we study two multi-player games, a Hawk-Dove game and a public goods game. Our focus is on finding the fixation probability of an individual from one type, cooperator or defector in the case of the public goods game, within a population of the other type. We compare this value for both games on several graphs under different parameter values and assumptions, and identify some interesting general features of our model. In particular there is a very close relationship between the fixation probability and the mean temperature, with high temperatures helping fitter individuals and punishing unfit ones and so enhancing selection, whereas low temperatures give a levelling effect which suppresses selection.

  9. Teens, Video Games, and Civics: Teens' Gaming Experiences Are Diverse and Include Significant Social Interaction and Civic Engagement

    Lenhart, Amanda; Kahne, Joseph; Middaugh, Ellen; Macgill, Alexandra Rankin; Evans, Chris; Vitak, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Video games provide a diverse set of experiences and related activities and are part of the lives of almost all teens in America. To date, most video game research has focused on how games impact academic and social outcomes (particularly aggression). There has also been some exploration of the relationship between games and civic outcomes, but as…

  10. A Video Game-Based Framework for Analyzing Human-Robot Interaction: Characterizing Interface Design in Real-Time Interactive Multimedia Applications

    2006-01-01

    segments video game interaction into domain-independent components which together form a framework that can be used to characterize real-time interactive...multimedia applications in general and HRI in particular. We provide examples of using the components in both the video game and the Unmanned Aerial

  11. A Game Theoretic Approach for Improving Environmental and Economic Performance in a Dual-Channel Green Supply Chain

    Weimin Ma

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate economic performance and environmental performance of a dual-channel green supply chain (GSC. Given that most relevant literature still focus on the descriptive aspect of GSC, we adopt game theoretic approach rather than qualitative analysis method to address the following problems: (1 How can the integration of environmental and economic sustainability goals be achieved in GSC? (2 What is the impact of customer environmental awareness on the green level and profitability of the GSC? (3 How does the market demand changes in the presence of the online direct channel in addition to the traditional one? We establish four game models, which are decentralized scenario, centralized scenario, retailer-led revenue-sharing scenario and bargaining revenue-sharing scenario. In the decentralized scenario, participants in a GSC make individual decisions based on their specific interests. In the centralized scenario, the GSC is regarded as a whole and the participants make collective decisions to maximize the overall profit of the GSC. In addition, in the two revenue-sharing scenarios, revenue-sharing contracts as the important profit coordination systems are set up and the revenue-sharing ratio is determined either by the retailer or through bargaining. Moreover, the cost of green product research and development, customer environmental awareness and price sensitivity are also taken into account in the four scenarios. By comparing and analyzing the four game models, we recommend the two revenue-sharing scenarios as the optimum choice and improving green awareness as a feasible strategy to achieve the integration of economic and environmental goals of the GSC. Additionally, we find that online sales has become a major distribution channel of the GSC.

  12. A Game-Theoretical Approach for Spectrum Efficiency Improvement in Cloud-RAN

    Zhuofu Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As tremendous mobile devices access to the Internet in the future, the cells which can provide high data rate and more capacity are expected to be deployed. Specifically, in the next generation of mobile communication 5G, cloud computing is supposed to be applied to radio access network. In cloud radio access network (Cloud-RAN, the traditional base station is divided into two parts, that is, remote radio heads (RRHs and base band units (BBUs. RRHs are geographically distributed and densely deployed, so as to achieve high data rate and low latency. However, the ultradense deployment inevitably deteriorates spectrum efficiency due to the severer intercell interference among RRHs. In this paper, the downlink spectrum efficiency can be improved through the cooperative transmission based on forming the coalitions of RRHs. We formulate the problem as a coalition formation game in partition form. In the process of coalition formation, each RRH can join or leave one coalition to maximize its own individual utility while taking into account the coalition utility at the same time. Moreover, the convergence and stability of the resulting coalition structure are studied. The numeric simulation result demonstrates that the proposed approach based on coalition formation game is superior to the noncooperative method in terms of the aggregate coalition utility.

  13. Using Game Theoretic Models to Predict Pilot Behavior in NextGen Merging and Landing Scenario

    Yildiz, Yildiray; Lee, Ritchie; Brat, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an implementation of the Semi Network-Form Game framework to predict pilot behavior in a merging and landing scenario. In this scenario, two aircraft are approaching to a freeze horizon with approximately equal distance when they become aware of each other via an ADS-B communication link that will be available in NextGen airspace. Both pilots want to gain advantage over the other by entering the freeze horizon earlier and obtain the first place in landing. They re-adjust their speed accordingly. However, they cannot simply increase their speed to the maximum allowable values since they are concerned with safety, separation distance, effort, possibility of being vectored-off from landing and possibility of violating speed constraints. We present how to model these concerns and the rest of the system using semi network-from game framework. Using this framework, based on certain assumptions on pilot utility functions and on system configuration, we provide estimates of pilot behavior and overall system evolution in time. We also discuss the possible employment of this modeling tool for airspace design optimization. To support this discussion, we provide a case where we investigate the effect of increasing the merging point speed limit on the commanded speed distribution and on the percentage of vectored aircraft.

  14. The Sharing of Benefits from a Logistics Alliance Based on a Hub-Spoke Network: A Cooperative Game Theoretic Approach

    Minyoung Yea

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates a strategic alliance as a horizontal cooperation in the logistics and transportation industries by considering various sharing rules with a cooperative game approach. Through forging a strategic alliance, carriers gain extra benefits from resource sharing and high efficiency resource utilization. In particular, our research focuses on the cost savings from using larger vehicles utilizing collective market demand and regarding them as benefits of cooperation. The model conceptualizes the characteristic function of cost savings by coalitions that take into account the hub-spoke network which is common in transportation services. To share the improved profits fairly between members, we use different allocation schemes: the Shapley value, the core center, the τ -value, and the nucleolus. By analyzing those cooperative game theoretic solutions employing an alliance composed of three carriers, we investigate whether satisfaction in this specific coalition provides an incentive for carriers to join such a coalition. Our results from the analysis, with respect to fair allocation schemes, provide a practical and academic foundation for further research.

  15. The Impact of an Interactive Computer Game on the Quality of Life of Children Undergoing Chemotherapy.

    Fazelniya, Zahra; Najafi, Mostafa; Moafi, Alireza; Talakoub, Sedigheh

    2017-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) of children with cancer reduces right from the diagnosis of disease and the start of treatment. Computer games in medicine are utilized to interact with patients and to improve their health-related behaviors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of an interactive computer game on the QOL of children undergoing chemotherapy. In this clinical trial, 64 children with cancer aged between 8 and12 years were selected through convenience sampling and randomly assigned to experimental or control group. The experimental group played a computer game for 3 hours a week for 4 consecutive weeks and the control group only received routine care. The data collection tool was the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 3.0 Cancer Module Child self-report designed for children aged between 8 to 12 years. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS software. Before intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean total QOL score ( p = 0.87). However, immediately after the intervention ( p = 0.02) and 1 month after the intervention ( p computer games seem to be effective as a tool in influencing health-related behavior and improving the QOL of children undergoing chemotherapy. Therefore, according to the findings of this study, computer games can be used to improve the QOL of children undergoing chemotherapy.

  16. A Study of Interaction Patterns and Awareness Design Elements in a Massively Multiplayer Online Game

    Tiffany Y. Tang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs have been known to create rich and versatile social worlds for thousands of millions of players to participate. As such, various game elements and advance technologies such as artificial intelligence have been applied to encourage and facilitate social interactions in these online communities, the key to the success of MMOGs. However, there is a lack of studies addressing the usability of these elements in games. In this paper, we look into interaction patterns and awareness design elements that support the awareness in LastWorld and FairyLand. Experimental results obtained through both in-game experiences and player interviews reveal that not all awareness tools (e.g., an in-game map have been fully exploited by players. In addition, those players who are aware of these tools are not satisfied with them. Our findings suggest that awareness-oriented tools/channels should be easy to interpret and rich in conveying “knowledge” so as to reduce players-cognitive overload. These findings of this research recommend considerations of early stage MMOG design.

  17. Using Language Games as a Way to Investigate Interactional Engagement in Human-Robot Interaction

    Jensen, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    how students' engagement with a social robot can be systematically investigated and evaluated. For this purpose, I present a small user study in which a robot plays a word formation game with a human, in which engagement is determined by means of an analysis of the 'language games' played...

  18. A game-theoretic architecture for visible watermarking system of ACOCOA (adaptive content and contrast aware technique

    Tsai Min-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Digital watermarking techniques have been developed to protect the intellectual property. A digital watermarking system is basically judged based on two characteristics: security robustness and image quality. In order to obtain a robust visible watermarking in practice, we present a novel watermarking algorithm named adaptive content and contrast aware (ACOCOA, which considers the host image content and watermark texture. In addition, we propose a powerful security architecture against attacks for visible watermarking system which is based on game-theoretic approach that provides an equilibrium condition solution for the decision maker by studying the effects of transmission power on intensity and perceptual efficiency. The experimental results demonstrate that the feasibility of the proposed approach not only provides effectiveness and robustness for the watermarked images, but also allows the watermark encoder to obtain the best adaptive watermarking strategy under attacks.

  19. Domino effects within a chemical cluster: a game-theoretical modeling approach by using Nash-equilibrium.

    Reniers, Genserik; Dullaert, Wout; Karel, Soudan

    2009-08-15

    Every company situated within a chemical cluster faces domino effect risks, whose magnitude depends on every company's own risk management strategies and on those of all others. Preventing domino effects is therefore very important to avoid catastrophes in the chemical process industry. Given that chemical companies are interlinked by domino effect accident links, there is some likelihood that even if certain companies fully invest in domino effects prevention measures, they can nonetheless experience an external domino effect caused by an accident which occurred in another chemical enterprise of the cluster. In this article a game-theoretic approach to interpret and model behaviour of chemical plants within chemical clusters while negotiating and deciding on domino effects prevention investments is employed.

  20. The value of private patient information in the physician-patient relationship: a game-theoretic account.

    De Jaegher, Kris

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a game-theoretical model of the physician-patient relationship. There is a conflict of interests between physician and patient, in that the physician prefers the patient to always obtain a particular treatment, even if the patient would not consider this treatment in his interest. The patient obtains imperfect cues of whether or not he needs the treatment. The effect of an increase in the quality of the patient's private information is studied, in the form of an improvement in the quality of his cues. It is shown that when the patient's information improves in this sense, he may either become better off or worse off. The precise circumstances under which either result is obtained are derived.

  1. Interaction with an Edu-Game: A Detailed Analysis of Student Emotions and Judges' Perceptions

    Conati, Cristina; Gutica, Mirela

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a study that explored the emotions experienced by students during interaction with an educational game for math (Heroes of Math Island). Starting from emotion frameworks in affective computing and education, we considered a larger set of emotions than in related research. For emotion labeling, we started from a standard…

  2. Rehabilitation of handwriting skills in stroke patients using interactive games : a pilot study

    Curtis, J.S.; Ruijs, L.S.; de Vries, M.H.E.; Winters, R.; Martens, J.B.O.S.

    This paper describes an interactive application that aims to support the rehabilitation of handwriting skills in people that suffer from paralysis after a stroke. The purpose of the application is to make the rehabilitation of handwriting skills fun and engaging. Four platform-independent games with

  3. The DiaCog: A Prototype Tool for Visualizing Online Dialog Games' Interactions

    Yengin, Ilker; Lazarevic, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes and explains the design of a prototype learning tool named the DiaCog. The DiaCog visualizes dialog interactions within an online dialog game by using dynamically created cognitive maps. As a purposefully designed tool for enhancing learning effectiveness the DiaCog might be applicable to dialogs at discussion boards within a…

  4. Interaction between Dutch soccer teams and fans: a mathematical analysis through cooperative game theory

    Hou, D.; Driessen, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the first lustrum of the Club Positioning Matrix (CPM) for professional Dutch soccer teams, we model the interaction between soccer teams and their potential fans as a cooperative cost game based on the annual voluntary sponsorships of fans in order to validate their fan registration in

  5. Strategic interaction between government and central bank in framework of cooperative and non-cooperative games

    Mahmoudinia, D.; Engwerda, Jacob; Esfahani, Rahim Dallali; Dastjerdi, R.B.; Fakhar, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed the strategic interaction between government and central bank in Iranian economy. Using dynamic differential games and Nash equilibrium within cooperative and non-cooperative setting, we try to find the optimal values of debt, deficit and monetary base. The results of

  6. Emotional Engagement, Social Interactions, and the Development of an Afterschool Game Design Curriculum

    Kwah, Helen; Milne, Catherine; Tsai, Tzuchi; Goldman, Ricki; Plass, Jan L.

    2016-01-01

    This formative design study examines how a program curriculum and implementation was emergently (re)designed in dynamic relation to the expressed emotions of teachers and students. The context was a yearlong afterschool game design program for STEM learning at an urban and public all-girls middle school. Using Randall Collins' (Interaction ritual…

  7. A Video Game-Based Framework for Analyzing Human-Robot Interaction: Characterizing Interface Design in Real-Time Interactive Multimedia Applications

    Richer, Justin; Drury, Jill L

    2006-01-01

    .... This paper segments video game interaction into domain-independent components which together form a framework that can be used to characterize real-time interactive multimedia applications in general...

  8. Elastic interaction of partially debonded circular inclusions. I. Theoretical solution

    Kushch, V.I.; Shmegera, S.V.; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2010-01-01

    and provides a simple and rapidly convergent iterative algorithm. The presented numerical data show an accuracy and numerical efficiency of the proposed method and discover the way and extent to which the elastic interaction between the partially debonded inclusions affects the local fields, stress intensity...... factors and the energy release rate at the interface crack tips....

  9. USING EYE TRACKING TO MEASURE ONLINE INTERACTIVITY: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

    Adriana-Emilia ROBU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding that each and every company, even the sweetshop around the corner has found its way to the Internet, some customers still hesitate to shop online or to shop from one site and ignore the other. In order to build an online effective communication between the participants, one of the most important factors is interactivity. In the last decade it received extensive attention in the marketing literature, but few are the studies which have seen new methods to measure it. Eye tracking technology has been broadly used in the cognitive sciences. The purpose of this study is to investigate the existing literature in order to give insights into the eye tracking methodology when measuring the online interactivity. It also describes the eye tracking technology in general, extracts various examples from the eye tracking research field, with different applications, highlights its importance when analyzing the online consumer behavior, giving examples from various studies and finds the key points of the methodological difficulties. Finally, this work has an important merit for the future studies when taking into consideration the eye tracking technology in the online interactivity research and further, it is relevant for marketers, regarding the enhancement of online interactive interfaces and web or mobile applications.

  10. Local Voltage Control in Distribution Networks: A Game-Theoretic Perspective

    Zhou, Xinyang; Tian, Jie; Chen, Lijun; Dall' Anese, Emiliano

    2016-11-21

    Inverter-based voltage regulation is gaining importance to alleviate emerging reliability and power-quality concerns related to distribution systems with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper seeks contribution in the domain of reactive power compensation by establishing stability of local Volt/VAr controllers. In lieu of the approximate linear surrogate used in the existing work, the paper establishes existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium point using nonlinear AC power flow model. Key to this end is to consider a nonlinear dynamical system with non-incremental local Volt/VAr control, cast the Volt/VAr dynamics as a game, and leverage the fixed-point theorem as well as pertinent contraction mapping argument. Numerical examples are provided to complement the analytical results.

  11. Crime and Punishment in Classroom: a Game-Theoretic Approach for Student Cheating

    Marcelo de C. Griebeler

    Full Text Available We provide the microeconomic foundations of cheating in classroom through a static game with complete information. Our setting is composed by two students, who must choose whether or not to cheat, and a professor, who must choose how much effort to exert in trying to catch dishonest students. Our findings support the determinants of cheating found by the empirical literature, mainly those related to the penalty's level. It is also emphasized the importance of professors being well-motivated (with low disutility of effort and worried about fairness in classroom. The several extensions of the baseline model reinforce the importance of the cost-benefit analysis to understand dishonest behavior in classroom. Finally, by relaxing the complete information assumption, we discuss the role of students' uncertainty about the professor's type and how low effort professors can send signals to create incentives for honest behavior.

  12. A resource-based game theoretical approach for the paradox of the plankton

    Weini Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of species diversity is a central focus in ecology. It is not rare to observe more species than the number of limiting resources, especially in plankton communities. However, such high species diversity is hard to achieve in theory under the competitive exclusion principles, known as the plankton paradox. Previous studies often focus on the coexistence of predefined species and ignore the fact that species can evolve. We model multi-resource competitions using evolutionary games, where the number of species fluctuates under extinction and the appearance of new species. The interspecific and intraspecific competitions are captured by a dynamical payoff matrix, which has a size of the number of species. The competition strength (payoff entries is obtained from comparing the capability of species in consuming resources, which can change over time. This allows for the robust coexistence of a large number of species, providing a possible solution to the plankton paradox.

  13. A resource-based game theoretical approach for the paradox of the plankton.

    Huang, Weini; de Araujo Campos, Paulo Roberto; Moraes de Oliveira, Viviane; Fagundes Ferrreira, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of species diversity is a central focus in ecology. It is not rare to observe more species than the number of limiting resources, especially in plankton communities. However, such high species diversity is hard to achieve in theory under the competitive exclusion principles, known as the plankton paradox. Previous studies often focus on the coexistence of predefined species and ignore the fact that species can evolve. We model multi-resource competitions using evolutionary games, where the number of species fluctuates under extinction and the appearance of new species. The interspecific and intraspecific competitions are captured by a dynamical payoff matrix, which has a size of the number of species. The competition strength (payoff entries) is obtained from comparing the capability of species in consuming resources, which can change over time. This allows for the robust coexistence of a large number of species, providing a possible solution to the plankton paradox.

  14. A Game Theoretic Approach for Modeling Privacy Settings of an Online Social Network

    Jundong Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Users of online social networks often adjust their privacy settings to control how much information on their profiles is accessible to other users of the networks. While a variety of factors have been shown to affect the privacy strategies of these users, very little work has been done in analyzing how these factors influence each other and collectively contribute towards the users’ privacy strategies. In this paper, we analyze the influence of attribute importance, benefit, risk and network topology on the users’ attribute disclosure behavior by introducing a weighted evolutionary game model. Results show that: irrespective of risk, users aremore likely to reveal theirmost important attributes than their least important attributes; when the users’ range of influence is increased, the risk factor plays a smaller role in attribute disclosure; the network topology exhibits a considerable effect on the privacy in an environment with risk.

  15. Local Voltage Control in Distribution Networks: A Game-Theoretic Perspective: Preprint

    Zhou, Xinyang; Tian, Jie; Chen, Lijun; Dall' Anese, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Inverter-based voltage regulation is gaining importance to alleviate emerging reliability and power-quality concerns related to distribution systems with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper seeks contribution in the domain of reactive power compensation by establishing stability of local Volt/VAr controllers. In lieu of the approximate linear surrogate used in the existing work, the paper establishes existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium point using nonlinear AC power flow model. Key to this end is to consider a nonlinear dynamical system with non-incremental local Volt/VAr control, cast the Volt/VAr dynamics as a game, and leverage the fixed-point theorem as well as pertinent contraction mapping argument. Numerical examples are provided to complement the analytical results.

  16. A game theoretical approach for cooperative green mobile operators under roaming price consideration

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-09-11

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a green mobile operator collaborating with other traditional mobile operators. Its goal is to minimize its CO2 emissions, maximize its profit or achieve or tradeoff between both objectives by offloading its users to neighbor networks and exploiting renewable energies. On the other hand, traditional mobile operators aim to maximize their profits by attracting the maximum number of roamed users. The problem is modeled as a two-level Stackelberg game and its equilibrium is derived. A green mobile operator level that determines how many users per each base station to offload to each neighbor network, and a non-green mobile operator level where operators focus on finding the optimal roaming price. Our simulation results show a significant saving in terms of CO2 emissions compared to the non-cooperation case and that roaming decision depends essentially on the availability of renewable energy in base station sites. © 2015 IEEE.

  17. A GOAL QUESTION METRIC (GQM APPROACH FOR EVALUATING INTERACTION DESIGN PATTERNS IN DRAWING GAMES FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Dana Sulistiyo Kusumo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest to use smart devices’ drawing games for educational benefit. In Indonesia, our government classifies children age four to six years old as preschool children. Not all preschool children can use drawing games easily. Further, drawing games may not fulfill all Indonesia's preschool children’s drawing competencies. This research proposes to use Goal-Question Metric (GQM to investigate and evaluate interaction design patterns of preschool children in order to achieve the drawing competencies for preschool children in two drawing Android-based games: Belajar Menggambar (in English: Learn to Draw and Coret: Belajar Menggambar (in English: Scratch: Learn to Draw. We collected data from nine students of a preschool children education in a user research. The results show that GQM can assist to evaluate interaction design patterns in achieving the drawing competencies. Our approach can also yield interaction design patterns by comparing interaction design patterns in two drawing games used.

  18. Interactive Game for Teaching Laser Amplification Used at the National Ignition Facility

    Lin, E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to create an interactive game to expose high school students to concepts in laser amplification by demonstrating the National Ignition Facility's main amplifier at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. To succeed, the game had to be able to communicate effectively the basic concepts of laser amplification as accurately as possible and to be capable of exposing as many students as possible. Since concepts need to be communicated in a way that students understand, the Science Content Standards for California Public Schools were used to make assumptions about high school students knowledge of light. Effectively communicating a new concept necessitates the omission on terminology and symbolism. Therefore, creating a powerful experience was ideal for communicating this material. Various methods of reinforcing this experience ranging from color choice to abstractions kept the student focused on the game to maximize concept retention. The program was created in Java to allow the creation of a Java Applet that can be embedded onto a webpage, which is a perfect medium for mass exposure. Because a game requires interaction, the game animations had to be easily manipulated to enable the program to respond to user input. Image sprites, as opposed to image folders, were used in these animations to minimize the number of Hypertext Transfer Protocol connections, and thus, significantly reduce the transfer time of necessary animation files. These image sprites were loaded and cropped into a list of animation frames. Since the caching of large transition animations caused the Java Virtual Machine to run out of memory, large animations were implemented as animated Graphics Interchange Format images since transitions require no interaction, and thus, no frame manipulation was needed. This reduced the animation's memory footprint. The first version of this game was completed during this project. Future work for the project could include the creation

  19. Interactive Game for Teaching Laser Amplification Used at the National Ignition Facility

    Lin, E

    2009-08-06

    The purpose of this project was to create an interactive game to expose high school students to concepts in laser amplification by demonstrating the National Ignition Facility's main amplifier at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. To succeed, the game had to be able to communicate effectively the basic concepts of laser amplification as accurately as possible and to be capable of exposing as many students as possible. Since concepts need to be communicated in a way that students understand, the Science Content Standards for California Public Schools were used to make assumptions about high school students knowledge of light. Effectively communicating a new concept necessitates the omission on terminology and symbolism. Therefore, creating a powerful experience was ideal for communicating this material. Various methods of reinforcing this experience ranging from color choice to abstractions kept the student focused on the game to maximize concept retention. The program was created in Java to allow the creation of a Java Applet that can be embedded onto a webpage, which is a perfect medium for mass exposure. Because a game requires interaction, the game animations had to be easily manipulated to enable the program to respond to user input. Image sprites, as opposed to image folders, were used in these animations to minimize the number of Hypertext Transfer Protocol connections, and thus, significantly reduce the transfer time of necessary animation files. These image sprites were loaded and cropped into a list of animation frames. Since the caching of large transition animations caused the Java Virtual Machine to run out of memory, large animations were implemented as animated Graphics Interchange Format images since transitions require no interaction, and thus, no frame manipulation was needed. This reduced the animation's memory footprint. The first version of this game was completed during this project. Future work for the project could include the

  20. On the cybernetic arrangement of feedback in serious games: A systems-theoretical perspective

    Westera, Wim

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the cybernetic regulation of complex human learning and teaching. It provides a theoretical description of the arrangement of adaptive, machine- generated learner feedback which relies on cybernetic principles. Cybernetics — today often referred to as control theory, or

  1. Use of an interactive game to increase food acceptance--a pilot study.

    Gillis, L

    2003-09-01

    Techniques to improve food selection in healthy children with long standing food refusal are limited. The use of educational games has been successful in getting children to increase knowledge in healthy eating, but it is uncertain whether this translates into behaviour change. Therefore the purpose of this study was to test the use of an interactive food game to increase food acceptance in healthy-weight school-age children with chronic food refusal. Children attended an outpatient clinic and played an interactive game with a therapist and one parent during which non-preferred foods were consumed. Weekly recording of food consumption occurred with diet analysis by a Registered Dietitian three times during a 1-year time span. The children increased their repertoire of foods and had a more balanced intake. The changes in intake were incorporated into their daily meal patterns in the home setting and were maintained for 1 year. An interactive food game is a successful tool for increasing food variety in healthy children with chronic food refusal. As this report included only three subjects, the results will be used for subsequent work on this topic.

  2. Theoretical and observational constraints on {Lambda}-dark matter interaction

    Costa, Francisco Ernandes Matos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IAG/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Phenomenological models with variable cosmological term (decaying vacuum) have been proposed in literature as an attempt to alleviate the cosmological constant problem and more recently the coincidence problem. In the context of the general relativity theory a cosmological term that varies in space or time requires a coupling with some other cosmic component, so that the total energy-momentum tensor is conserved. In this work we investigate a general class of interacting models in which the attenuated dilution of cold dark matter scales as a{sup -3} (a), where f(a) is an arbitrary function of the cosmic scale factor (a). From thermodynamic arguments, we show that f(a) is proportional to entropy source of the particle creation process. In order to investigate the cosmological consequences of this kind of interacting models, we expand f(a) in a power series up to the first order [f(a) = f{sub 0} + f{sub 1}a, where f{sub 0} and f{sub 1} are constants] and viable cosmological solutions are obtained. In particular, we show that the energy densities of the dark components present a term which dilutes at the same rate acting as a curvature in the evolution of the Universe. Finally, we use current Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) data to place constraints on the interacting function f(a). We also show that an energy flow from dark matter to cosmological term or vice-versa is observationally allowed, however, the second law of thermodynamics forbids an energy flow from dark matter to cosmological term. (author)

  3. Earth Girl Volcano: An Interactive Casual Game about Complex Volcanic Hazards

    Kerlow, I.

    2017-12-01

    Earth Girl Volcano is an interactive casual strategy game for disaster preparedness. The project is designed for mainstream audiences, particularly for children, as an engaging and fun way to learn about volcano hazards, monitoring, and mitigation strategies. The game is deceptively simple but it provides a toolbox to address practically all volcanic hazards ranging from gas and ash fall to pyroclastic flows, lava and lahars. This presentation shows the basic dynamic to explore the area, assess the risk, choose the best-suited tools and execute a mitigation strategy within the available budget. This game is a real-time simulation of a crowd evacuation that allows players to intervene before and during the disaster.

  4. Asymmetries of Knowledge and Epistemic Change in Social Gaming Interaction

    Piirainen-Marsh, Arja; Tainio, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    While a growing number of studies investigate the role of knowledge and interactional management of knowledge asymmetries in conversation analysis, the epistemic organization of multilingual and second language interactions is still largely unexplored. This article addresses this issue by investigating how knowledge asymmetries and changing…

  5. Playing Goffman's Information Game: A Classroom Activity Involving Student Interactions

    McCoy, Charles Allan

    2017-01-01

    Goffman's dramaturgical approach is frequently used to introduce undergraduate students to the sociological understanding of human interaction. While a number of scholars have designed engaging student activities that highlight Goffman's approach, most of these activities tend to involve atypical embarrassing interactions or norm-breaking…

  6. Graph theoretic analysis of protein interaction networks of eukaryotes

    Goh, K.-I.; Kahng, B.; Kim, D.

    2005-11-01

    Owing to the recent progress in high-throughput experimental techniques, the datasets of large-scale protein interactions of prototypical multicellular species, the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, have been assayed. The datasets are obtained mainly by using the yeast hybrid method, which contains false-positive and false-negative simultaneously. Accordingly, while it is desirable to test such datasets through further wet experiments, here we invoke recent developed network theory to test such high-throughput datasets in a simple way. Based on the fact that the key biological processes indispensable to maintaining life are conserved across eukaryotic species, and the comparison of structural properties of the protein interaction networks (PINs) of the two species with those of the yeast PIN, we find that while the worm and yeast PIN datasets exhibit similar structural properties, the current fly dataset, though most comprehensively screened ever, does not reflect generic structural properties correctly as it is. The modularity is suppressed and the connectivity correlation is lacking. Addition of interologs to the current fly dataset increases the modularity and enhances the occurrence of triangular motifs as well. The connectivity correlation function of the fly, however, remains distinct under such interolog additions, for which we present a possible scenario through an in silico modeling.

  7. Interactive motion-controlled games in the neurorehabilitation of adult post-stroke patients

    Emilia Mikołajewska

    2015-08-01

    Emilia Mikołajewska Rehabilitation Clinic Military Clinical Hospital No. 10 and Polyclinic Bydgoszcz, Poland e-mail: e.mikolajewska@wp.pl, emiliam@cm.umk.pl www: http://emikolajewska.netstrefa.eu   Keywords: neurorehabilitation; physiotherapy; stroke; neurological deficit; therapeutic game.   Abstract   Despite efforts of scientists and clinicians stroke still constitutes one of the major causes of disability worldwide. Motion-controlled video games become increasingly common adjunct to the traditional physical therapy. Such games are usually available, low-cost, fun, and functional ways to increase everyday treatment possibilities, both in hospital, ambulatory and home settings. Research and scientific publications concerning this issue are still rare. Assessment how interactive motion-controlled games can be incorporated into current guidelines of the eclectic approach within neurorehabilitation of adult post-stroke survivors is key issue within contemporary neurorehabilitation of adults. Complementary use of such games may constitute another breakthrough both in in-patient and out-patient rehabilitation and care. This review aims at potential of aforementioned solutions and modalities for the rehabilitation of function in cases of stroke.

  8. Out-of-pile simulation experiments and theoretical analysis on sodium fuel interaction

    Conti, M.; Luigi, G. Di; Federico, A.; Mennini, G.; Scarano, G.; Tavano, F.

    1978-01-01

    Activities on fuel coolant interaction are being carried out since many years at C.N.E.N. in the frame of the Italian Fast Reactor Program. This paper describes the experimental and theoretical results recently obtained. (author)

  9. Fe dimers: a theoretical study of the hyperfine interactions

    Guenzburger, D.J.R.; Saitovitch, E.M.B.

    1981-01-01

    The electronic structures of diatomic molecules Fe 2 and FeM, where M = Mn, Co, Ni and Cu, are investigated by molecular orbitals calculations using a discrete variational method and a local approximation for the exchange interaction. The one-electron wave functions obtained are used to calculate electric field gradients, electronic charge and spin densities at the Fe nucleus and spin-dipolar hyperfine fields, which are related to measured hyperfine parameters reported from experiments in solid inert-gas matrices. Molecular orbitals energy schemes and population analysis are presented. These and other aspects of the electronic structure of the FeM molecules are used in a qualitative interpretation of the hyperfine data; in some cases, are given suggestions for the ground-state configuration. (Author) [pt

  10. Dvds, video games, and the cinema of interactions

    Richard Grusin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The “cinema of interactions” in the title of my paper alludes to Tom Gunning’s paradigmatic conception of early cinema as a “cinema of attractions.” Borrowing from the idea that electronic textuality marks what has been called the late age of print, I argue that the history of cinema up to the present moment can be seen as an extension of early cinema. In describing the current cinematic moment in this fashion, I do not mean to suggest that film will disappear in the face of video games and other digital media, but rather that it will continue increasingly to be engaged with the social, technological, and aesthetic forms and practices of digital media. This engagement will not be marked (as many digital enthusiasts contend by the emergence of a distinctively new digital medium (and the concomitant abandonment of the technologically outmoded medium of celluloid film, but rather by the emergence of multiply networked, distributed forms of cinematic production and exhibition. Indeed I am convinced that in this sense we already find ourselves with a digital cinema—not as a distinctively new medium but as a hybrid network of media forms and practices.

  11. Teaching versus enforcing game rules in preschoolers' peer interactions.

    Köymen, Bahar; Schmidt, Marco F H; Rost, Loreen; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Children use normative language in two key contexts: when teaching others and when enforcing social norms. We presented pairs of 3- and 5-year-old peers (N=192) with a sorting game in two experimental conditions (in addition to a third baseline condition). In the teaching condition, one child was knowledgeable, whereas the other child was ignorant and so in need of instruction. In the enforcement condition, children learned conflicting rules so that each child was making mistakes from the other's point of view. When teaching rules to an ignorant partner, both age groups used generic normative language ("Bunnies go here"). When enforcing rules on a rule-breaking partner, 3-year-olds used normative utterances that were not generic and aimed at correcting individual behavior ("No, this goes there"), whereas 5-year-olds again used generic normative language, perhaps because they discerned that instruction was needed in this case as well. Young children normatively correct peers differently depending on their assessment of what their wayward partners need to bring them back into line. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A game theoretical approach for cooperative environmentally friendly cellular networks powered by the smart grid

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the collaboration between multiple mobile operators to optimize the energy efficiency of cellular networks, maximize their profits or achieve or tradeoff between both objectives. Mobile operators cooperate together by eliminating redundant base stations (BSs) using a low complexity algorithm that aims to maximize their objective functions subject to a quality of service constraint. The problem is modeled as a two-level Stackelberg game: a mobile operator level and a smart grid level. Indeed, in our framework, we assume that cellular networks are powered by multiple energy providers existing in the smart grid characterized by different pollutant levels in addition to renewable energy source deployed in BS sites. The objective is to find the best active BS combination and the optimal procurement decision needed to the network operation during collaboration by considering electricity real-time pricing. Our study includes the daily traffic variation in addition to the daily green energy availability. Our simulation results show a significant saving in terms of CO2 emissions compared to the non-collaboration case and that cooperative mobile operators exploiting renewables are more awarded than traditional operators. © 2014 IEEE.

  13. Multi-Party Energy Management for Clusters of Roof Leased PV Prosumers: A Game Theoretical Approach

    Nian Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The roof-leased business mode is an important development method for the distributed photovoltaic (PV systems. In this paper, the benefits of the PV energy are considered in a PV cluster (PVC consisting of a certain number of prosumers and a PVC operator (PVCO. In order to distribute the benefits, a multi-party energy management method for the PVC is proposed, including an internal pricing model and a demand response (DR model. First, the dynamic internal pricing model for the trading between PVCO and prosumers is formulated according to the economic principle of demand and supply relation. Moreover, in order to improve the local consumption of PV energy, the DR model is formulated as a non-cooperative game among the prosumers. Meanwhile, the existence and uniqueness of the Nash Equilibrium (NE are proved, and a distributed solving algorithm is introduced to approach the NE solution. Finally, the PVC including four prosumers is selected as the study object, the results have shown that the internal pricing model and DR model can improve the benefit of both prosumers and PVCO, as well as the local consumption of PV energy.

  14. A Game Theoretic Framework for Bandwidth Allocation and Pricing in Federated Wireless Networks

    Gu, Bo; Yamori, Kyoko; Xu, Sugang; Tanaka, Yoshiaki

    With the proliferation of IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks, large numbers of wireless access points have been deployed, and it is often the case that a user can detect several access points simultaneously in dense metropolitan areas. Most owners, however, encrypt their networks to prevent the public from accessing them due to the increased traffic and security risk. In this work, we use pricing as an incentive mechanism to motivate the owners to share their networks with the public, while at the same time satisfying users' service demand. Specifically, we propose a “federated network” concept, in which radio resources of various wireless local area networks are managed together. Our algorithm identifies two candidate access points with the lowest price being offered (if available) to each user. We then model the price announcements of access points as a game, and characterize the Nash Equilibrium of the system. The efficiency of the Nash Equilibrium solution is evaluated via simulation studies as well.

  15. Evaluating display fidelity and interaction fidelity in a virtual reality game.

    McMahan, Ryan P; Bowman, Doug A; Zielinski, David J; Brady, Rachael B

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, consumers have witnessed a technological revolution that has delivered more-realistic experiences in their own homes through high-definition, stereoscopic televisions and natural, gesture-based video game consoles. Although these experiences are more realistic, offering higher levels of fidelity, it is not clear how the increased display and interaction aspects of fidelity impact the user experience. Since immersive virtual reality (VR) allows us to achieve very high levels of fidelity, we designed and conducted a study that used a six-sided CAVE to evaluate display fidelity and interaction fidelity independently, at extremely high and low levels, for a VR first-person shooter (FPS) game. Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the effects of fidelity on the user in a complex, performance-intensive context. The results of our study indicate that both display and interaction fidelity significantly affect strategy and performance, as well as subjective judgments of presence, engagement, and usability. In particular, performance results were strongly in favor of two conditions: low-display, low-interaction fidelity (representative of traditional FPS games) and high-display, high-interaction fidelity (similar to the real world).

  16. Video game interfaces for interactive lower and upper member therapy.

    Uribe-Quevedo, Alvaro; Perez-Gutierrez, Byron; Alves, Silas

    2013-01-01

    With recent advances in electronics and mechanics, a new trend in interaction is taking place changing how we interact with our environment, daily tasks and other people. Even though sensor based technologies and tracking systems have been around for several years, recently they have become affordable and used in several areas such as physical and mental rehabilitation, educational applications, physical exercises, and natural interactions, among others. This work presents the integration of two mainstream videogame interfaces as tools for developing an interactive lower and upper member therapy tool. The goal is to study the potential of these devices as complementing didactic elements for improving and following user performance during a series of exercises with virtual and real devices.

  17. Theoretical studies of some nonlinear laser-plasma interactions

    Cohen, B.I.

    1975-01-01

    The nonlinear coupling of intense, monochromatic, electromagnetic radiation with plasma is considered in a number of special cases. The first part of the thesis serves as an introduction to three-wave interactions. A general formulation of the stimulated scattering of transverse waves by longitudinal modes in a warm, unmagnetized, uniform plasma is constructed. A general dispersion relation is derived that describes Raman and Brillouin scattering, modulational instability, and induced Thomson scattering. Raman scattering (the scattering of a photon into another photon and an electron plasma wave) is investigated as a possible plasma heating scheme. Analytic theory complemented by computer simulation is presented describing the nonlinear mode coupling of laser light with small and large amplitude, resonantly excited electron plasma waves. The simulated scattering of a coherent electromagnetic wave by low frequency density perturbations in homogeneous plasma is discussed. A composite picture of the linear dispersion relations for filamentation and Brillouin scattering is constructed. The absolute instability of Brillouin weak and strong coupling by analytic and numerical means is described

  18. Casual Games

    Hansen, Ole Ertløv

    2015-01-01

    Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put...... forward by recent research. The theoretical approach is based on media psychology, phenomenology and reversal theory. Finally it is argued that playing casual games is fundamental pleasurable to both paratelic as well as telic metamotivational states....

  19. Skills-O-Mat: Computer Supported Interactive Motion- and Game-Based Training in Mixing Alginate in Dental Education

    Hannig, Andreas; Lemos, Martin; Spreckelsen, Cord; Ohnesorge-Radtke, Ulla; Rafai, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The training of motor skills is a crucial aspect of medical education today. Serious games and haptic virtual simulations have been used in the training of surgical procedures. Otherwise, however, a combination of serious games and motor skills training is rarely used in medical education. This article presents Skills-O-Mat, an interactive serious…

  20. Engaging autistic children in imitation and turn-taking games with multiagent system of interactive lighting blocks

    Brok, J.C.J.; Barakova, E.I.; Yang, H.S.; et al., xx

    2010-01-01

    In this paper game scenarios that aim to establish elements of cooperative play such as imitation and turn taking between children with autism and a caregiver are investigated. Multiagent system of interactive blocks is used to facilitate the games. The training elements include verbal description

  1. Game Theoretic Analysis of Cooperative Message Forwarding in Opportunistic Mobile Networks.

    Pal, Sujata; Saha, Barun Kumar; Misra, Sudip

    2017-12-01

    In cooperative communication, a set of players forming a coalition ensures communal behavior among themselves by helping one another in message forwarding. Opportunistic mobile networks (OMNs) require multihop communications for transferring messages from the source to the destination nodes. However, noncooperative nodes only forward their own messages to others, and drop others' messages upon receiving them. So, the message delivery overhead increases in OMN. For minimizing the overhead and maximizing the delivery rate, we propose two coalition-based cooperative schemes: 1) simple coalition formation (SCF) and 2) overlapping coalition formation (OCF) game. In SCF, we consider the presence of a central information center, whereas OCF is a fully distributed scheme. In SCF, coalitions are disjoint, whereas in OCF, a node may be the member of multiple coalitions at the same time. All nodes in a coalition help each other cooperatively by forwarding group messages to the intermediate or destination nodes. The goal of the nodes is to achieve high success rate in delivering messages. The proposed SCF scheme is cohesive, in which disjoint coalitions always combine to form grand coalition. In OCF, a node reaches a stable grand coalition when all the nodes of the OMN are members of overlapping coalition of the node. No node gains by deviating from the grand coalition in SCF and OCF. Simulation results based on synthetic mobility model and real-life traces show that the message delivery ratio of OMNs increase by up to 67%, as compared to the noncooperative scenario. Moreover, the message overhead ratio using the proposed coalition-based schemes reduces by up to about (1/3)rd of that of the noncooperative communication scheme.

  2. In vitro drug interaction of levocetirizine and diclofenac: Theoretical and spectroscopic studies

    Abo Dena, Ahmed S.; Abdel Gaber, Sara A.

    2017-06-01

    Levocetirizine dihydrochloride is known to interact with some anti-inflammatory drugs. We report here a comprehensive integrated theoretical and experimental study for the in vitro drug interaction between levocetirizine dihydrochloride (LEV) and diclofenac sodium (DIC). The interaction of the two drugs was confirmed by the molecular ion peak obtained from the mass spectrum of the product. Moreover, FTIR and 1HNMR spectra of the individual drugs and their interaction product were inspected to allocate the possible sites of interaction. In addition, quantum mechanical DFT calculations were performed to search for the interaction sites and to verify the types of interactions deduced from the spectroscopic studies such as charge-transfer and non-bonding π-π interactions. It was found that the studied drugs interact with each other in aqueous solution via four types of interactions, namely, ion-pair formation, three weak hydrogen bonds, non-bonding π-π interactions and charge-transfer from DIC to LEV.

  3. Cognitive Model of Trust Dynamics Predicts Human Behavior within and between Two Games of Strategic Interaction with Computerized Confederate Agents.

    Collins, Michael G; Juvina, Ion; Gluck, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner's Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game's optimal outcome) as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game's optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game). The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model's a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model's predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair.

  4. Digital gaming and second language development: Japanese learners interactions in a MMORPG

    Mark Peterson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs are identified as valuable arenas for language learning, as they provide access to contexts and types of interaction that are held to be beneficial in second language acquisition research. This paper will describe the development and key features of these games, and explore claims made regarding their value as environments for language learning. The discussion will then examine current research. This is followed by an analysis of the findings from an experimental qualitative study that investigates the interaction and attitudes of Japanese English as a foreign language learners who participated in MMORPG-based game play. The analysis draws attention to the challenging nature of the communication environment and the need for learner training. The findings indicate that system management issues, proficiency levels, the operation of affective factors, and prior gaming experiences appeared to influence participation. The data shows that for the intermediate learners who were novice users, the interplay of these factors appeared to restrict opportunities to engage in beneficial forms of interaction. In a positive finding, it was found that the intermediate and advanced level participants effectively utilized both adaptive and transfer discourse management strategies. Analysis reveals they took the lead in managing their discourse, and actively engaged in collaborative social interaction involving dialog in the target language. Participant feedback suggests that real time computer-based nature of the interaction provided benefits. These include access to an engaging social context, enjoyment, exposure to new vocabulary, reduced anxiety, and valuable opportunities to practice using a foreign language. This paper concludes by identifying areas of interest for future research.

  5. Virtual reality and interactive digital game technology: new tools to address obesity and diabetes.

    Skip Rizzo, Albert; Lange, Belinda; Suma, Evan A; Bolas, Mark

    2011-03-01

    The convergence of the exponential advances in virtual reality (VR)-enabling technologies with a growing body of clinical research and experience has fueled the evolution of the discipline of clinical VR. This article begins with a brief overview of methods for producing and delivering VR environments that can be accessed by users for a range of clinical health conditions. Interactive digital games and new forms of natural movement-based interface devices are also discussed in the context of the emerging area of exergaming, along with some of the early results from studies of energy expenditure during the use of these systems. While these results suggest that playing currently available active exergames uses significantly more energy than sedentary activities and is equivalent to a brisk walk, these activities do not reach the level of intensity that would match playing the actual sport, nor do they deliver the recommended daily amount of exercise for children. However, these results provide some support for the use of digital exergames using the current state of technology as a complement to, rather than a replacement, for regular exercise. This may change in the future as new advances in novel full-body interaction systems for providing vigorous interaction with digital games are expected to drive the creation of engaging, low-cost interactive game-based applications designed to increase exercise participation in persons at risk for obesity. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Virtual Reality and Interactive Digital Game Technology: New Tools to Address Obesity and Diabetes

    “Skip” Rizzo, Albert; Lange, Belinda; Suma, Evan A; Bolas, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The convergence of the exponential advances in virtual reality (VR)-enabling technologies with a growing body of clinical research and experience has fueled the evolution of the discipline of clinical VR. This article begins with a brief overview of methods for producing and delivering VR environments that can be accessed by users for a range of clinical health conditions. Interactive digital games and new forms of natural movement-based interface devices are also discussed in the context of the emerging area of exergaming, along with some of the early results from studies of energy expenditure during the use of these systems. While these results suggest that playing currently available active exergames uses significantly more energy than sedentary activities and is equivalent to a brisk walk, these activities do not reach the level of intensity that would match playing the actual sport, nor do they deliver the recommended daily amount of exercise for children. However, these results provide some support for the use of digital exergames using the current state of technology as a complement to, rather than a replacement, for regular exercise. This may change in the future as new advances in novel full-body interaction systems for providing vigorous interaction with digital games are expected to drive the creation of engaging, low-cost interactive game-based applications designed to increase exercise participation in persons at risk for obesity. PMID:21527091

  7. Airflow Interaction Interface: Playful 3-D CAD and Gaming

    Wendrich, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the vision and development of a tangible user interface (TUI) that allows ‘glassblowing-like’ interaction (IA) with a computer. The premise is that human fidelity in exerting pressure and airflow (i.e. breathing, blowing) could stimulate intuition, creative processing, and

  8. Exchange coupling interactions in a Fe6 complex: A theoretical study using density functional theory

    Cauchy, Thomas; Ruiz, Eliseo; Alvarez, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical methods based on density functional theory have been employed to analyze the exchange interactions in an Fe 6 complex. The calculated exchange coupling constants are consistent with an S=5 ground state and agree well with those reported previously for other Fe III polynuclear complexes. Ferromagnetic interactions may appear through exchange pathways formed by two bridging hydroxo or oxo ligands

  9. Interaction between adrenaline and dibenzo-18-crown-6: Electrochemical, nuclear magnetic resonance, and theoretical study

    Yu, Zhang-Yu; Liu, Tao; Wang, Xue-Liang

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between adrenaline (Ad) and dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) was studied by cyclic voltammetry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the theoretical calculations, respectively. The results show that DB18C6 will affect the electron transfer properties of Ad. DB18C6 can form stable supramolecular complexes with Ad through ion-dipole and hydrogen bond interactions.

  10. DEFENSE-ATTACK INTERACTION OVER OPTIMALLY DESIGNED DEFENSE SYSTEMS VIA GAMES AND RELIABILITY

    Isis Didier Lins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes defense systems taking into account the strategic interactions between two rational agents; one of them is interested in designing a defense system against purposeful attacks of the other. The interaction is characterized by a sequential game with perfect and complete information. Reliability plays a fundamental role in both defining agents' actions and in measuring performance of the defense system for which a series-parallel configuration is set up by the defender. The attacker, in turn, focuses on only one defense subsystem in order to maximize her efficiency in attacking. An algorithm involving backward induction is developed to determine the equilibrium paths of the game. Application examples are also provided.

  11. The impact of an interactive computer game on the quality of life of children undergoing chemotherapy

    Zahra Fazelniya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality of life (QOL of children with cancer reduces right from the diagnosis of disease and the start of treatment. Computer games in medicine are utilized to interact with patients and to improve their health-related behaviors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of an interactive computer game on the QOL of children undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 64 children with cancer aged between 8 and12 years were selected through convenience sampling and randomly assigned to experimental or control group. The experimental group played a computer game for 3 hours a week for 4 consecutive weeks and the control group only received routine care. The data collection tool was the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module Child self-report designed for children aged between 8 to 12 years. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS software. Results: Before intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean total QOL score (p = 0.87. However, immediately after the intervention (p = 0.02 and 1 month after the intervention (p < 0.001, the overall mean QOL score was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group. Conclusions: Based on the findings, computer games seem to be effective as a tool in influencing health-related behavior and improving the QOL of children undergoing chemotherapy. Therefore, according to the findings of this study, computer games can be used to improve the QOL of children undergoing chemotherapy.

  12. Feasibility Study of Interactive Game Technologies to Improve Experience with Inhaler Spacer Devices in Young Children

    Aslam, Tariq; Shakir, Savana; Murray, Clare

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionThe correct use of inhaler devices with facemasks and spacers in young children can be difficult for both children and parents, resulting in distress for both, poor adherence and ineffective drug delivery. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the utility and impact of an interactive electronic game designed to improve the experience of spacer devices in young asthmatic children.MethodsThe Respiratory Aid For Inhaler (RAFIhaler) technology consists of a smartphone mounte...

  13. A Communities of Practice Perspective on Educational Computer Games

    Reese, Curt

    2008-01-01

    Educational computer games provide an environment in which interactions among students, teachers, and texts differ non-trivially from those of the traditional classroom. In order to build and research computer games effectively, it is important to provide a theoretical background that adequately describes and explains learning and interactions in…

  14. Interactive Digital Serious Games for the Assessment, Rehabilitation, and Prediction of Dementia

    Sayed Kazmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a serious, progressive, and often debilitating illness with no known cure, having a severe adverse effect on memory, behaviour, reasoning, and communication. A comprehensive review of current refereed research material in the use of games in this area is scarce and suffers from being orientated towards commercially available games or derivatives such as “Dr. Kawashima’s brain training.” There is much lesser concern for bespoke research grade alternatives. This review will attempt to assess the current state of the art in research orientated games for dementia, importantly identifying systems capable of prediction before the onset of the disease. It can be ascertained from the literature reviewed that there are clearly a large number of interactive computer game based mechanisms used for dementia. However, these are each highly intrusive in terms of affecting normal living and the patient is aware of being tested; furthermore their long-term or real benefits are unknown as is their effect over conventional tests. It is important to predict cognitive impairment at a stage early enough to maximise benefit from treatment and therapeutic intervention. Considering the availability, use, and increasing power of modern mobile smartphones, it is logically plausible to explore this platform for dementia healthcare.

  15. Effects of interactive games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    AlSaif, Amer A; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] Motor control and muscle strength impairments are the prime reasons for motor behavior disorders in children with spastic cerebral palsy. These impairments lead to histological changes in muscle growth and the learning of motor skills. Therefore, such children experience reduced muscle force generation and decreased muscle flexibility. We investigated the effect of training with Nintendo Wii Fit games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children with cerebral palsy spastic diplegia aged 6-10 years diagnosed with level-3 functional capabilities according to the Gross Motor Classification System (GMFCS) were enrolled. Participants were divided randomly into equal groups: group (A) that practiced with the Nintendo Wii Fit game for at least 20 minutes/day for 12 weeks and group (B) that underwent no training (control group). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (mABC-2) was used to assess motor performance, because it mainly involves motor tasks very similar to those involved in playing Nintendo Wii Fit games, e.g., goal-directed arm movements, balancing, and jumping. [Results] There were significant improvements in the subscales of the motor performance test of those who practiced with the Nintendo Wii, while the control group showed no significant changes. [Conclusion] Using motion interactive games in home rehabilitation is feasible for children with cerebral palsy.

  16. Statistical mechanics of spatial evolutionary games

    Miekisz, Jacek

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the long-run behaviour of stochastic dynamics of many interacting players in spatial evolutionary games. In particular, we investigate the effect of the number of players and the noise level on the stochastic stability of Nash equilibria. We discuss similarities and differences between systems of interacting players maximizing their individual payoffs and particles minimizing their interaction energy. We use concepts and techniques of statistical mechanics to study game-theoretic models. In order to obtain results in the case of the so-called potential games, we analyse the thermodynamic limit of the appropriate models of interacting particles

  17. A game-theoretic framework for estimating a health purchaser's willingness-to-pay for health and for expansion.

    Yaesoubi, Reza; Roberts, Stephen D

    2010-12-01

    A health purchaser's willingness-to-pay (WTP) for health is defined as the amount of money the health purchaser (e.g. a health maximizing public agency or a profit maximizing health insurer) is willing to spend for an additional unit of health. In this paper, we propose a game-theoretic framework for estimating a health purchaser's WTP for health in markets where the health purchaser offers a menu of medical interventions, and each individual in the population selects the intervention that maximizes her prospect. We discuss how the WTP for health can be employed to determine medical guidelines, and to price new medical technologies, such that the health purchaser is willing to implement them. The framework further introduces a measure for WTP for expansion, defined as the amount of money the health purchaser is willing to pay per person in the population served by the health provider to increase the consumption level of the intervention by one percent without changing the intervention price. This measure can be employed to find how much to invest in expanding a medical program through opening new facilities, advertising, etc. Applying the proposed framework to colorectal cancer screening tests, we estimate the WTP for health and the WTP for expansion of colorectal cancer screening tests for the 2005 US population.

  18. Game Theoretic Analysis of Carbon Emission Abatement in Fashion Supply Chains Considering Vertical Incentives and Channel Structures

    Longfei He

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We study an emission-dependent dyadic fashion supply chain made up of a supplier and a manufacturer, both of which can reduce their own component/product emissions to serve the carbon-footprint sensitive consumers. With Carbon Tax regulation, we consider four scenarios resulting from two ways in form of adopting transfer price contract and/or introducing third-party emission-reduction service (TPERS to enhance the efficiency of systematic emission reductions. We refine four models from these corresponding scenarios, which in turn constitute a decision-making framework composed of determining vertical incentives and choosing supply chain structures. By exploiting Stackelberg games in all models, we compare their emission reduction efficiencies and profitability for each pair of settings. Theoretic analysis and numerical studies show that adopting vertical transfer payment schemes can definitely benefit channel carbon footprint reduction and Pareto improvement of supply chain profitability, regardless of whether the emission-reduction service exists or not. However, whether introducing TPERS or not is heavily depending on systematic parameters when the transfer payment incentive is adopted there. We also provide insights on the sensitivity of carbon tax parameters with respect to the supply chain performance, overall carbon emission reduction, vertical incentive and TPERS adopting decision-makings.

  19. Do Interactive Globes and Games Help Students Learn Planetary Science?

    Coba, Filis; Burgin, Stephen; De Paor, Declan; Georgen, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of animations and interactive visualizations in undergraduate science education might lead one to assume that these teaching aids enhance student learning. We tested this assumption for the case of the Google Earth virtual globe with a comparison of control and treatment student groups in a general education class of over 370 students at a large public university. Earth and Planetary Science course content was developed in two formats: using Keyhole Markup Language (KML) to create interactive tours in Google Earth (the treatment group) and Portable Document Format (PDF) for on-screen reading (the control group). The PDF documents contained identical text and images to the placemark balloons or "tour stops" in the Google Earth version. Some significant differences were noted between the two groups based on the immediate post-questionnaire with the KML students out-performing the PDF students, but not on the delayed measure. In a separate but related project, we undertake preliminary investigations into methods of teaching basic concepts in planetary mantle convection using numerical simulations. The goal of this project is to develop an interface with a two-dimensional finite element model that will allow students to vary parameters such as the temperatures assigned to the boundaries of the model domain, to help them actively explore important variables that control convection.

  20. Analysis of Context Dependence in Social Interaction Networks of a Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game

    Son, Seokshin; Kang, Ah Reum; Kim, Hyun-chul; Kwon, Taekyoung; Park, Juyong; Kim, Huy Kang

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances in modern computing and information technology have enabled millions of people to interact online via various social network and gaming services. The widespread adoption of such online services have made possible analysis of large-scale archival data containing detailed human interactions, presenting a very promising opportunity to understand the rich and complex human behavior. In collaboration with a leading global provider of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (...

  1. The Classification of the Real-Time Interaction-Based Behavior of Online Game Addiction in Children and Early Adolescents in Thailand

    Kongkarn Vachirapanang; Sakoontip Tuisima; Sukree Sinthupinyo; Puntip Sirivunnabood

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to study actual behaviors of Thai children and early adolescents with different levels of game addiction while playing online games from an angle of the interaction between a user and computer. Real-time interaction-based behavior data from a program agent installed in personal computers in 20 sample houses were screened along with consent given by children and their parents. Collection of data about game-playing periods, frequency, game-playing times, text-based chatting, mou...

  2. Packing, Scheduling and Covering Problems in a Game-Theoretic Perspective

    Karlstrom, Leif

    Magma transport pathways through Earth's crust span 12--15 orders of magnitude in time and space, with unsteadiness at all scales. However emergent organization of this system is widespread, recorded by spatial loci of volcanism at the surface and large-scale, rapid outpourings of magma throughout the geologic record. This thesis explores several mechanisms for the organization and time evolution of magma transport, from the deep crust to the surface. A primary focus (Chapters 2--5) is the filling, stability and drainage of magma chambers, structures which function both as reservoirs feeding individual volcanic eruptions and as stalling points in the crust where magma accumulates and differentiation occurs. We show that magma chambers may dictate the spatio-temporal organization of magma rising through crust (Chapters 2--3), control the surface eruptive progression of extreme mantle melting events (Chapter 4), and actively set the size of calderas that form during shallow, crystal rich eruptions (Chapter 5). Each of these chapters explores variations on a hypothesis: interactions between magma chamber stresses and the rheology of surrounding crustal materials evolve during magma transport and this unsteady process helps determine the magnitude, location, and timing of surface eruptions. The last part of this thesis (Chapters 6--7) focuses on surface transport processes, the meandering of melt channels on the surface of glaciers and lava flows. We show that the meandering instability is a generic feature of flow over an erodable substrate, despite significantly different fluid characteristics and erosion mechanics.

  3. A Game Theoretic Framework for Green HetNets Using D2D Traffic Offload and Renewable Energy Powered Base Stations

    Yaacoub, Elias; Ghazzai, Hakim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    This chapter investigates the interplay between cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green communications in LTE heterogeneous networks (HetNets). Two game theoretic concepts are studied and analyzed in order to perform dynamic HetNet base station (BS) on/off switching. The first approach is a coalition-based method whereas the second is based on the Nash bargaining solution. Afterwards, a method for coupling the BS on/off switching approach with D2D collaborative communications is presented and shown to lead to increased energy efficiency. The savings are additionally increased when a portion of the small cell BSs in a HetNet are powered by renewable energy sources. Different utility functions, modeling the game theoretic framework governing the energy consumption balance between the cellular network and the mobile terminals (MTs), are proposed and compared, and their impact on MT quality of service (QoS) is analyzed.

  4. A Game Theoretic Framework for Green HetNets Using D2D Traffic Offload and Renewable Energy Powered Base Stations

    Yaacoub, Elias

    2015-08-26

    This chapter investigates the interplay between cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green communications in LTE heterogeneous networks (HetNets). Two game theoretic concepts are studied and analyzed in order to perform dynamic HetNet base station (BS) on/off switching. The first approach is a coalition-based method whereas the second is based on the Nash bargaining solution. Afterwards, a method for coupling the BS on/off switching approach with D2D collaborative communications is presented and shown to lead to increased energy efficiency. The savings are additionally increased when a portion of the small cell BSs in a HetNet are powered by renewable energy sources. Different utility functions, modeling the game theoretic framework governing the energy consumption balance between the cellular network and the mobile terminals (MTs), are proposed and compared, and their impact on MT quality of service (QoS) is analyzed.

  5. Game Design to Measure Reflexes and Attention Based on Biofeedback Multi-Sensor Interaction

    Inigo de Loyola Ortiz-Vigon Uriarte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-sensor system for implementing biofeedback as a human-computer interaction technique in a game involving driving cars in risky situations. The sensors used are: Eye Tracker, Kinect, pulsometer, respirometer, electromiography (EMG and galvanic skin resistance (GSR. An algorithm has been designed which gives rise to an interaction logic with the game according to the set of physiological constants obtained from the sensors. The results reflect a 72.333 response to the System Usability Scale (SUS, a significant difference of p = 0.026 in GSR values in terms of the difference between the start and end of the game, and an r = 0.659 and p = 0.008 correlation while playing with the Kinect between the breathing level and the energy and joy factor. All the sensors used had an impact on the end results, whereby none of them should be disregarded in future lines of research, even though it would be interesting to obtain separate breathing values from that of the cardio.

  6. Design of robotic leg and physiotherapy (ROLEP) assist with interactive game

    Hasan, A. F.; Husin, M. F. Che; Hashim, M. N.; Rosli, K. A.; Roslim, F. R. A.; Abidin, A. F. Z.

    2017-09-01

    Injuries in certain parts of the feet can cause a person to have difficulty in walking or running if it is not treated through physiotherapy. In Malaysia, therapy centers only provide a service or the use of basic tools that are not efficient as more sophisticated equipment requires a high cost. In fact, exercise requiring close monitoring physiotherapist are also at a high cost. Therefore, using robot therapy is a new technology that can provide an alternative way to solve this problem. The implementation of this project has produced a robotic physiotherapy which has one degree of freedom, portable and inexpensive way to help the movement of the patient's leg. It covers basic electrical circuits, mechanical components, programming and has been combined with an interactive game as the main driver. ROLEP (Robotic-Leg-Physiotherapy) is able to help patients through the therapy process. It was built using CT-UNO as its microprocessor connected to MD10-C which acted as the motor driver. The interactive game produced by using Unity game software is a key driver in getting rid of boredom and reduce pain. As a result, ROLEP designed can operate well within its range of the patient's weight. It has the advantage of portability and easy to use by the patients. ROLEP expected to help patients undergoing therapy process more efficient and interesting in the process of recovery.

  7. Game Design to Measure Reflexes and Attention Based on Biofeedback Multi-Sensor Interaction

    Ortiz-Vigon Uriarte, Inigo de Loyola; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya; Garcia-Chimeno, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-sensor system for implementing biofeedback as a human-computer interaction technique in a game involving driving cars in risky situations. The sensors used are: Eye Tracker, Kinect, pulsometer, respirometer, electromiography (EMG) and galvanic skin resistance (GSR). An algorithm has been designed which gives rise to an interaction logic with the game according to the set of physiological constants obtained from the sensors. The results reflect a 72.333 response to the System Usability Scale (SUS), a significant difference of p = 0.026 in GSR values in terms of the difference between the start and end of the game, and an r = 0.659 and p = 0.008 correlation while playing with the Kinect between the breathing level and the energy and joy factor. All the sensors used had an impact on the end results, whereby none of them should be disregarded in future lines of research, even though it would be interesting to obtain separate breathing values from that of the cardio. PMID:25789493

  8. Planning additional drilling campaign using two-space genetic algorithm: A game theoretical approach

    Kumral, Mustafa; Ozer, Umit

    2013-03-01

    Grade and tonnage are the most important technical uncertainties in mining ventures because of the use of estimations/simulations, which are mostly generated from drill data. Open pit mines are planned and designed on the basis of the blocks representing the entire orebody. Each block has different estimation/simulation variance reflecting uncertainty to some extent. The estimation/simulation realizations are submitted to mine production scheduling process. However, the use of a block model with varying estimation/simulation variances will lead to serious risk in the scheduling. In the medium of multiple simulations, the dispersion variances of blocks can be thought to regard technical uncertainties. However, the dispersion variance cannot handle uncertainty associated with varying estimation/simulation variances of blocks. This paper proposes an approach that generates the configuration of the best additional drilling campaign to generate more homogenous estimation/simulation variances of blocks. In other words, the objective is to find the best drilling configuration in such a way as to minimize grade uncertainty under budget constraint. Uncertainty measure of the optimization process in this paper is interpolation variance, which considers data locations and grades. The problem is expressed as a minmax problem, which focuses on finding the best worst-case performance i.e., minimizing interpolation variance of the block generating maximum interpolation variance. Since the optimization model requires computing the interpolation variances of blocks being simulated/estimated in each iteration, the problem cannot be solved by standard optimization tools. This motivates to use two-space genetic algorithm (GA) approach to solve the problem. The technique has two spaces: feasible drill hole configuration with minimization of interpolation variance and drill hole simulations with maximization of interpolation variance. Two-space interacts to find a minmax solution

  9. Game theory.

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Learn English or die: The effects of digital games on interaction and willingness to communicate in a foreign language

    Hayo Reinders

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a lot of interest in the potential role of digital games in language education. Playing digital games is said to be motivating to students and to benefit the development of social skills, such as collaboration, and metacognitive skills such as planning and organisation. An important potential benefit is also that digital games encourage the use of the target language in a non-threatening environment. Willingness to communicate has been shown to affect second language acquisition in a number of ways and it is therefore important to investigate if there is a connection between playing games and learners’ interaction in the target language. In this article we report on the results of a pilot study that investigated the effects of playing an online multiplayer game on the quantity and quality of second language interaction in the game and on participants’ willingness to communicate in the target language. We will show that digital games can indeed affect second language interaction patterns and contribute to second language acquisition, but that this depends, like in all other teaching and learning environments, on careful pedagogic planning of the activity.

  11. Social Interaction Behavior in ADHD in Adults in a Virtual Trust Game.

    Lis, Stefanie; Baer, Nina; Franzen, Nele; Hagenhoff, Meike; Gerlach, Maika; Koppe, Georgia; Sammer, Gebhard; Gallhofer, Bernd; Kirsch, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Social cognitive functions in adults with ADHD were investigated in a virtual social exchange game. The sample consisted of 40 participants (20 adult ADHD participants, 20 healthy controls). Participants played a multiround trust game with virtual trustees who differed in regard to fairness and presence of emotional facial cues. Investments were higher in ADHD participants than in healthy participants except for partners who played fair with constant neutral expressions. ADHD patients did not adapt their behavior to the fairness of the trustee. In the presence of emotional facial cues, ADHD and healthy participants transferred more monetary units to happy rather than angry-looking trustees. Differences in investment behavior were not linked to deficits in emotion-recognition abilities or cognitive dysfunctions. Alterations in interaction behavior and in the formation of a general attitude toward social partners could be shown in adults with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Game Design Narrative for Learning: Appropriating Adventure Game Design Narrative Devices and Techniques for the Design of Interactive Learning Environments

    Dickey, Michele D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual analysis is to investigate how contemporary video and computer games might inform instructional design by looking at how narrative devices and techniques support problem solving within complex, multimodal environments. Specifically, this analysis presents a brief overview of game genres and the role of narrative in…

  13. Behavioural studies of strategic thinking in games.

    Camerer, Colin F.

    2003-05-01

    Game theory is a mathematical language for describing strategic interactions, in which each player's choice affects the payoff of other players (where players can be genes, people, companies, nation-states, etc.). The impact of game theory in psychology has been limited by the lack of cognitive mechanisms underlying game-theoretic predictions. 'Behavioural game theory' is a recent approach linking game theory to cognitive science by adding cognitive details about 'social utility functions', theories of limits on iterated thinking, and statistical theories of how players learn and influence others. New directions include the effects of game descriptions on choice ('framing'), strategic heuristics, and mental representation. These ideas will help root game theory more deeply in cognitive science and extend the scope of both enterprises.

  14. Development and Alpha Testing of QuitIT: An Interactive Video Game to Enhance Skills for Coping With Smoking Urges.

    Krebs, Paul; Burkhalter, Jack E; Snow, Bert; Fiske, Jeff; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2013-09-11

    Despite many efforts at developing relapse prevention interventions, most smokers relapse to tobacco use within a few months after quitting. Interactive games offer a novel strategy for helping people develop the skills required for successful tobacco cessation. The objective of our study was to develop a video game that enables smokers to practice strategies for coping with smoking urges and maintaining smoking abstinence. Our team of game designers and clinical psychologists are creating a video game that integrates the principles of smoking behavior change and relapse prevention. We have reported the results of expert and end-user feedback on an alpha version of the game. The alpha version of the game consisted of a smoking cue scenario often encountered by smokers. We recruited 5 experts in tobacco cessation research and 20 current and former smokers, who each played through the scenario. Mixed methods were used to gather feedback on the relevance of cessation content and usability of the game modality. End-users rated the interface from 3.0 to 4.6/5 in terms of ease of use and from 2.9 to 4.1/5 in terms of helpfulness of cessation content. Qualitative themes showed several user suggestions for improving the user interface, pacing, and diversity of the game characters. In addition, the users confirmed a high degree of game immersion, identification with the characters and situations, and appreciation for the multiple opportunities to practice coping strategies. This study highlights the procedures for translating behavioral principles into a game dynamic and shows that our prototype has a strong potential for engaging smokers. A video game modality exemplifies problem-based learning strategies for tobacco cessation and is an innovative step in behavioral management of tobacco use.

  15. Theoretical Foundations of Future Teachers’ Preparedness for Moral and Aesthetic Interaction with Learners

    Botakoz A. Zhekibaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents one of the results of scientific research, focused on the theoretical foundations of the formation of future teachers’ preparedness for moral and aesthetic interaction with learners. Due to the fact that the key concept of the research theme is "interaction", basic theoretical philosophic principles, revealing the essence of this phenomenon and its relation to education, which are consistently regarded as categories of social interaction, were used as a basis. Basing on the analysis of scientific works, key characteristics of interaction as a philosophical category were identified: general form of links of any systems; simultaneous existence of objects (subjects; consistency and two-sidedness of links; awareness and goal-orientedness; interdependence of sides change; internal mutual activity of subjects; subject-subject and subject-object relationships within the system.

  16. Impact of a financial risk-sharing scheme on budget-impact estimations: a game-theoretic approach.

    Gavious, Arieh; Greenberg, Dan; Hammerman, Ariel; Segev, Ella

    2014-06-01

    As part of the process of updating the National List of Health Services in Israel, health plans (the 'payers') and manufacturers each provide estimates on the expected number of patients that will utilize a new drug. Currently, payers face major financial consequences when actual utilization is higher than the allocated budget. We suggest a risk-sharing model between the two stakeholders; if the actual number of patients exceeds the manufacturer's prediction, the manufacturer will reimburse the payers by a rebate rate of α from the deficit. In case of under-utilization, payers will refund the government at a rate of γ from the surplus budget. Our study objective was to identify the optimal early estimations of both 'players' prior to and after implementation of the risk-sharing scheme. Using a game-theoretic approach, in which both players' statements are considered simultaneously, we examined the impact of risk-sharing within a given range of rebate proportions, on players' early budget estimations. When increasing manufacturer's rebate α to be over 50 %, then manufacturers will announce a larger number, and health plans will announce a lower number of patients than they would without risk sharing, thus substantially decreasing the gap between their estimates. Increasing γ changes players' estimates only slightly. In reaction to applying a substantial risk-sharing rebate α on the manufacturer, both players are expected to adjust their budget estimates toward an optimal equilibrium. Increasing α is a better vehicle for reaching the desired equilibrium rather than increasing γ, as the manufacturer's rebate α substantially influences both players, whereas γ has little effect on the players behavior.

  17. Theoretical Bases of the Model of Interaction of the Government and Local Government Creation

    Nikolay I. Churinov

    2015-01-01

    Article is devoted to questions of understanding of a theoretical component: systems of interaction of bodies of different levels of the government. Author researches historical basis of the studied subject by research of foreign and domestic scientific experience in area of the theory of the state and the law. Much attention is paid to the scientific aspect of the question. By empirical approach interpretation of the theory of interaction of public authorities and local government, and also ...

  18. Game theory and plant ecology.

    McNickle, Gordon G; Dybzinski, Ray

    2013-04-01

    The fixed and plastic traits possessed by a plant, which may be collectively thought of as its strategy, are commonly modelled as density-independent adaptations to its environment. However, plant strategies may also represent density- or frequency-dependent adaptations to the strategies used by neighbours. Game theory provides the tools to characterise such density- and frequency-dependent interactions. Here, we review the contributions of game theory to plant ecology. After briefly reviewing game theory from the perspective of plant ecology, we divide our review into three sections. First, game theoretical models of allocation to shoots and roots often predict investment in those organs beyond what would be optimal in the absence of competition. Second, game theoretical models of enemy defence suggest that an individual's investment in defence is not only a means of reducing its own tissue damage but also a means of deflecting enemies onto competitors. Finally, game theoretical models of trade with mutualistic partners suggest that the optimal trade may reflect competition for access to mutualistic partners among plants. In short, our review provides an accessible entrance to game theory that will help plant ecologists enrich their research with its worldview and existing predictions. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  19. RELATION BETWEEN BASIC PHYSICAL CAPABILITIES AND THE THEORETIC KNOWLEDGE LAWS OF THE GAME WITH THE SUCCESS OF REFREEING OF FOOTBALL REFEREES

    Rusmir Mrković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to establish a relation in-between the basic physical capabilities and the theoretic knowledge laws of the game with the success in refereeing of football referees of the Sarajevo Canton. The population from which samples were taken are football referees of the Sarajevo Canton, 90 of them, age span from 18- 45 years of age and who have met the criteria for getting a license to be referees in football matches in the next season at all levels of competition in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The sample of variables in this research covers areas of basic motorics (18, theoretic knowledge laws of the games (17 and the estimate of success in refereeing in football games (7 variables. The results of the final analysis show that the whole system of variables which in this research represent basic physical capabilities and the knowledge Laws of the game by the football referees of the Sarajevo Canton has a statistical connection with the system of variables which in this research makes the success of refereeing of football referees. Since football is an activity that has almost the most complexity (referees are a part of football, we can say that the selected system of variables has a relatively good connection for success and that these variables are very important in order for one referee to perform his task as good as possible at one match.. Of course during the training process attention should be given on the development of all basic physical capabilities, and not only one dimension of the physical area because in general we have to be physically and cognitively be present in order to finish the game at a high rhythm but making mistakes the least as possible

  20. Game theory and its role in determining optimal policies and strategic interaction between fiscal and monetary policymakers : (Application of differential game theory and stackelberg games)

    Mahmoudinia, D.; Esfahani, Rahim Dalali; Engwerda, Jacob; Dastjerdi, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we follow several purpose. In the first section, the game theory concept and the formation of its fundamental concepts is examined. After that, we investigate that how von Neumann-Morgenstern (1944) and john Nash (1950-1953) works, caused the formation of modern game theory. Then, we

  1. A Theoretical Cybernetic Macro-Script to Articulate Collaborative Interactions of Cyber Entities in Virtual Worlds

    Pellas, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the dissemination and exploitation of three-dimensional (3D) multi-user virtual worlds in higher education have been disclosed from their widespread acceptance as candidate learning platforms. However, it is still lacking a theoretical cybernetic macro-script to elaborate the coordination of multiple complex interactions among…

  2. Cold neutron interaction with a classical electric field: Some basic theoretical and experimental considerations

    Bruce, S.; Diaz-Valdes, J.; Bennun, L.; Minning, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    We explore the feasibility of performing an experiment to measure the interaction of cold neutrons with a given classical electric field. Bound and scattering states could be detected by means of an approximate Aharonov-Casher configuration. The theoretical background is presented and then some primary elements for building a neutron detector of this nature are proposed

  3. Knowing You, Knowing Me (KYKM: An interactive game to address positive mother-daughter communication and relationships.

    Mary eKatsikitis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This technical report describes an interactive game environment designed to bring mothers and their adolescent daughters together to discuss three issues that have previously been shown in the literature to be of concern to families, as young girls transition from middle childhood to the adolescent years. The game is called Knowing you, Knowing me or KYKM, and is used to help mothers and daughters discuss the following three topics: positive communication skills, relationship building, and managing risky behaviours in the social environment. As the game remains untested, its limitations and future implications of its utility are discussed.

  4. Knowing You, Knowing Me (KYKM): an interactive game to address positive mother-daughter communication and relationships.

    Katsikitis, Mary; Jones, Christian; Muscat, Melody; Crawford, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This technical report describes an interactive game environment designed to bring mothers and their adolescent daughters together to discuss three issues that have previously been shown in the literature to be of concern to families, as young girls transition from middle childhood to the adolescent years. The game is called Knowing you, Knowing me or KYKM, and is used to help mothers and daughters discuss the following three topics: positive communication skills, relationship building, and managing risky behaviors in the social environment. As the game remains untested, its limitations and future implications of its utility are discussed.

  5. Effect of Growing Size of Interaction Neighbors on the Evolution of Cooperation in Spatial Snowdrift Game

    Zhang Juanjuan; Sun Shiwen; Wang Li; Xia Chengyi; Wang Juan; Wang Zhen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of the size of interaction neighbors (k) on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial snowdrift game. At first, we consider the effects of noise K and cost-to-benefit ratio r, the simulation results indicate that the evolution of cooperation depends on the combined action of noise and cost-to-benefit ratio. For a lower r, the cooperators are multitudinous and the cooperation frequency ultimately increases to 1 as the increase of noise. However, for a higher r, the defectors account for the majority of the game and dominate the game if the noise is large enough. Then we mainly investigate how k influences the evolution of cooperation by varying the noise in detail. We find that the frequency of cooperators is closely related to the size of neighborhood and cost-to-benefit ratio r. In the case of lower r, the augmentation of k plays no positive role in promoting the cooperation as compared with that of k = 4, while for higher r the cooperation is improved for a growing size of neighborhood. At last, based on the above discussions, we explore the cluster-forming mechanism among the cooperators. The current results are beneficial to further understand the evolution of cooperation in many natural, social and biological systems. (general)

  6. Effectiveness of interactive, online games in learning neuroscience and students' perception of the games as learning tools. A pre-experimental study.

    Thompson, Marilyn E; Ford, Ruth; Webster, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Neurological concepts applicable to a doctorate in occupational therapy are often challenging to comprehend, and students are required to demonstrate critical reasoning skills beyond simply recalling the information. To achieve this, various learning and teaching strategies are used, including the use of technology in the classroom. The availability of technology in academic settings has allowed for diverse and active teaching approaches. This includes videos, web-based instruction, and interactive online games. In this quantitative pre-experimental analysis, the learning and retention of neuroscience concepts by 30 occupational therapy doctoral students, who participated in an interactive online learning experience, were assessed. The results suggest that student use of these tools may enhance their learning of neuroscience. Furthermore, the students felt that the sites were appropriate, beneficial to them, and easy to use. Thus, the use of online, interactive neuroscience games may be effective in reinforcing lecture materials. This needs to be further assessed in a larger sample size.

  7. Sequential interactions-in which one player plays first and another responds-promote cooperation in evolutionary-dynamical simulations of single-shot Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift games.

    Laird, Robert A

    2018-05-21

    Cooperation is a central topic in evolutionary biology because (a) it is difficult to reconcile why individuals would act in a way that benefits others if such action is costly to themselves, and (b) it underpins many of the 'major transitions of evolution', making it essential for explaining the origins of successively higher levels of biological organization. Within evolutionary game theory, the Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift games are the main theoretical constructs used to study the evolution of cooperation in dyadic interactions. In single-shot versions of these games, wherein individuals play each other only once, players typically act simultaneously rather than sequentially. Allowing one player to respond to the actions of its co-player-in the absence of any possibility of the responder being rewarded for cooperation or punished for defection, as in simultaneous or sequential iterated games-may seem to invite more incentive for exploitation and retaliation in single-shot games, compared to when interactions occur simultaneously, thereby reducing the likelihood that cooperative strategies can thrive. To the contrary, I use lattice-based, evolutionary-dynamical simulation models of single-shot games to demonstrate that under many conditions, sequential interactions have the potential to enhance unilaterally or mutually cooperative outcomes and increase the average payoff of populations, relative to simultaneous interactions-benefits that are especially prevalent in a spatially explicit context. This surprising result is attributable to the presence of conditional strategies that emerge in sequential games that can't occur in the corresponding simultaneous versions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interactive forms of conducting business and role games in dialogical training

    Medvedeva, L.; Yushkov, E.; Yakovlev, D.; Bogatyreova, M.

    2017-01-01

    Mastering interactive technologies by teachers of higher educational institutions is the basis of enhancing the quality of education. The competent use of interactive forms of business and role-play games at seminars strengthens a pedagogical effect on the development of the culture of thinking, professional and personal qualities of students, as well as provides an in-depth study of the subject and acquisition of scientific cognition methods. Dialogical thinking creates a truly open mind for sharing opinions and freely discussing suggestions made by the participants, especially in situations of seeking effective task-solving methods. In order to train competitive graduates, ready to act efficiently in their future career, it is necessary to apply innovational interactive technologies in the educational process.

  9. Social Media Interactions and Online Games - Building up New Human Relationships in Danube Region

    Predrag K Nikolić

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are trying to explore possibilities of using online environment, multiplayer gaming culture and social media networks to engage people in the Danube Region around social, multi-cultural and environment initiatives. The Danube Region online community could become a new cultural phenomena, technology mediated, built on human interactions, common interests and cultural heritage which open space for future humancentered social and infrastructural design initiatives. We believe that such social media environment could also be a research playground where people form Danube Region may express their needs and desires as well as to leave the trace of their behavior, significant for further Danube Region development.

  10. Theoretical Substantiation of Formation of Integration Forms of Interaction of Enterprises when Developing the Innovation Policy

    Manoylenko Oleksandr V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers issues, connected with activation of innovation activity of engineering enterprises on the basis of application of integration forms of interaction. It justifies a necessity of formation of infrastructure of interaction of an enterprise when introducing innovation models of development with consideration of realisation of goals of all interested parties. The article offers a generalised scheme of organisational interaction of an enterprise in external environment and a matrix of functional provision of the integration process. The theoretical approach that is considered in the article allows increase of innovation activity of engineering enterprises and minimisation of expenditures of own resources when realising innovation policy of an enterprise.

  11. Game Analytics for Game User Research, Part 1

    Seif El-Nasr, Magy; Desurvire, Heather; Aghabeigi, Bardia

    2013-01-01

    The emerging field of game user research (GUR) investigates interaction between players and games and the surrounding context of play. Game user researchers have explored methods from, for example, human-computer interaction, psychology, interaction design......The emerging field of game user research (GUR) investigates interaction between players and games and the surrounding context of play. Game user researchers have explored methods from, for example, human-computer interaction, psychology, interaction design...

  12. In vitro drug interaction of levocetirizine and diclofenac: Theoretical and spectroscopic studies.

    Abo Dena, Ahmed S; Abdel Gaber, Sara A

    2017-06-15

    Levocetirizine dihydrochloride is known to interact with some anti-inflammatory drugs. We report here a comprehensive integrated theoretical and experimental study for the in vitro drug interaction between levocetirizine dihydrochloride (LEV) and diclofenac sodium (DIC). The interaction of the two drugs was confirmed by the molecular ion peak obtained from the mass spectrum of the product. Moreover, FTIR and 1 HNMR spectra of the individual drugs and their interaction product were inspected to allocate the possible sites of interaction. In addition, quantum mechanical DFT calculations were performed to search for the interaction sites and to verify the types of interactions deduced from the spectroscopic studies such as charge-transfer and non-bonding π-π interactions. It was found that the studied drugs interact with each other in aqueous solution via four types of interactions, namely, ion-pair formation, three weak hydrogen bonds, non-bonding π-π interactions and charge-transfer from DIC to LEV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games and Interaction: A Measurable Model of Interaction for Online Learning

    Anderson, Bodi

    2014-01-01

    This current study examines the need for operational definitions of the concept of interaction in distance education studies. It is proposed that a discourse analysis of linguistic features conversation noted as being representative of interaction can be used to operationalize interaction in synchronous CMC. This study goes on compare two…

  14. Video Games and Education: Designing Learning Systems for an Interactive Age

    Squire, Kurt D.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, attention has been paid to computer and video games as a medium for learning. This article provides a way of conceptualizing them as possibility spaces for learning. It provides an overview of two research programs: (1) an after-school program using commercial games to develop deep expertise in game play and game creation, and (2) an…

  15. A game theory approach for competition and cooperation among project’s subcontractors with interaction activities

    Ashkan Hafezalkotob

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Some projects are often performed by many subcontractors that cooperate with each other and some of them are conducted by outsourcing them to several firms; so subcontractors carry out activities in competition. Appropriate trade-off between time and cost and achieving more benefit and cost saving are objectives of both models. In this paper, it is investigated that how different subcontractors of a project can cooperate to achieve more advantages if possible and how sub-contractors can compete to make the results better and find the optimum cost to minimize the time for each of them. The competition here does not mean eliminating a competitor, but the aim is to challenge the contractors in order to choose the best decision. The purpose of this study is to address the challenges in time and cost management and to find more profit allocation among subcontractors and fair competition for fair allocation as well. A model based on cooperative game theory in time/cost trade-off problem of projects is suggested and then a competition model among subcontractors based on non-cooperative game theory is proposed. A case study is rep-resented to comprehensively illustrate the problem, the cooperative techniques of cooperative game theory, and the payoff matrix of non-cooperative model among subcontractors. Results of the proposed model reveal that subcontractors can obtain higher profit from cooperation if pos-sible. When they outsource the project and compete with each other, they must consider the in-teraction activities and choose the best strategies for cost saving and gain more reward from the client. Moreover, it is found that some techniques such as Shapley value, Core, Max-Min Core, or Equal Profit Method (EPM are able to fairly assign extra profit of cooperation, and using the payoff matrix, Nash equilibrium, and Nash bargaining helps to find the optimum point to mini-mize time and cost for interaction activities state.

  16. Defining Game Mechanics

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  17. Mechanizing Exploratory Game Design

    Smith, Adam Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Game design is an art form that deals with inherently interactive artifacts. Game designers craft games (assembled from rule systems and content), but they really seek to manipulate play: the interaction between games and players. When developing new games that are similar to past games, a designer may rely on previous experience with related designs and relatively easy access to players familiar with conventional design choices. When exploratorily venturing into uncharted territory, uncoveri...

  18. Risk and Interaction Aversion: Screening Mechanisms in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game

    Canova, Gabriel A.; Arenzon, Jeferson J.

    2017-09-01

    When the interactions between cooperators (C) and defectors (D) can be partially avoided within a population, there may be an overall enhancement of cooperation. One example of such screening mechanism occurs in the presence of risk-averse agents (loners, L) that are neutral towards others, i.e., both L and its opponent, whatever its strategy, receive the same payoff. Their presence in the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game sustains the coexistence of cooperators and defectors far beyond the level attained in their absence. Another screening mechanism is a heterogeneous landscape obtained, for example, by site diluting the lattice. In this case, cooperation is enhanced with some fraction of such inactive, interaction-averse sites. By considering the interplay of both mechanisms, we show that there is an explosive increase in the range of densities, just above the percolation threshold, where neutrality is prevented and loners become extinct, the behavior reverting to the pure PD game. Interestingly, this occurs despite defectors being usually abundant in that region. This has to be compared with the corresponding loner-free region in the undiluted case that, besides being very small, is dominated by cooperators.

  19. Activity in the superior temporal sulcus highlights learning competence in an interaction game.

    Haruno, Masahiko; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2009-04-08

    During behavioral adaptation through interaction with human and nonhuman agents, marked individual differences are seen in both real-life situations and games. However, the underlying neural mechanism is not well understood. We conducted a neuroimaging experiment in which subjects maximized monetary rewards by learning in a prisoner's dilemma game with two computer agents: agent A, a tit-for-tat player who repeats the subject's previous action, and agent B, a simple stochastic cooperator oblivious to the subject's action. Approximately 1/3 of the subjects (group I) learned optimally in relation to both A and B, while another 1/3 (group II) did so only for B. Post-experiment interviews indicated that group I exploited the agent strategies more often than group II. Significant differences in learning-related brain activity between the two groups were only found in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) for both A and B. Furthermore, the learning performance of each group I subject was predictable based on this STS activity, but not in the group II subjects. This differential activity could not be attributed to a behavioral difference since it persisted in relation to agent B for which the two groups behaved similarly. In sharp contrast, the brain structures for reward processing were recruited similarly by both groups. These results suggest that STS provides knowledge of the other agent's strategies for association between action and reward and highlights learning competence during interactive reinforcement learning.

  20. Game theory in the death galaxy: interaction of cancer and stromal cells in tumour microenvironment.

    Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Tlsty, Thea D; Sturm, James C; Austin, Robert H

    2014-08-06

    Preventing relapse is the major challenge to effective therapy in cancer. Within the tumour, stromal (ST) cells play an important role in cancer progression and the emergence of drug resistance. During cancer treatment, the fitness of cancer cells can be enhanced by ST cells because their molecular signalling interaction delays the drug-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. On the other hand, competition among cancer and ST cells for space or resources should not be ignored. We explore the population dynamics of multiple myeloma (MM) versus bone marrow ST cells by using an experimental microecology that we call the death galaxy, with a stable drug gradient and connected microhabitats. Evolutionary game theory is a quantitative way to capture the frequency-dependent nature of interactive populations. Therefore, we use evolutionary game theory to model the populations in the death galaxy with the gradients of pay-offs and successfully predict the future densities of MM and ST cells. We discuss the possible clinical use of such analysis for predicting cancer progression.

  1. Interactive video gaming compared with health education in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a feasibility study.

    Hughes, Tiffany F; Flatt, Jason D; Fu, Bo; Butters, Meryl A; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Ganguli, Mary

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of a trial of Wii interactive video gaming, and its potential efficacy at improving cognitive functioning compared with health education, in a community sample of older adults with neuropsychologically defined mild cognitive impairment. Twenty older adults were equally randomized to either group-based interactive video gaming or health education for 90 min each week for 24 weeks. Although the primary outcomes were related to study feasibility, we also explored the effect of the intervention on neuropsychological performance and other secondary outcomes. All 20 participants completed the intervention, and 18 attended at least 80% of the sessions. The majority (80%) of participants were "very much" satisfied with the intervention. Bowling was enjoyed by the most participants and was also rated the highest among the games for mental, social, and physical stimulation. We observed medium effect sizes for cognitive and physical functioning in favor of the interactive video gaming condition, but these effects were not statistically significant in this small sample. Interactive video gaming is feasible for older adults with mild cognitive impairment, and medium effect sizes in favor of the Wii group warrant a larger efficacy trial. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Development and evaluation of an interactive dental video game to teach dentin bonding.

    Amer, Rafat S; Denehy, Gerald E; Cobb, Deborah S; Dawson, Deborah V; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; Bergeron, Cathia

    2011-06-01

    Written and clinical tests compared the change in clinical knowledge and practical clinical skill of first-year dental students watching a clinical video recording of the three-step etch-and-rinse resin bonding system to those using an interactive dental video game teaching the same procedure. The research design was a randomized controlled trial with eighty first-year dental students enrolled in the preclinical operative dentistry course. Students' change in knowledge was measured through written examination using a pre-test and a post-test, as well as clinical tests in the form of a benchtop shear bond strength test. There was no statistically significant difference between teaching methods in regards to change in either knowledge or clinical skills, with one minor exception relating to the wetness of dentin following etching. Students expressed their preference for an interactive self-paced method of teaching.

  3. Game-Based Teaching

    Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    This chapter outlines theoretical and empirical perspectives on how Game-Based Teaching can be integrated within the context of formal schooling. Initially, this is done by describing game scenarios as models for possible actions that need to be translated into curricular knowledge practices...... approaches to game-based teaching, which may or may not correspond with the pedagogical models of particular games....

  4. Game Theoretic Analysis of Pricing and Cooperative Advertising in a Reverse Supply Chain for Unwanted Medications in Households

    Meina Hua

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Improper disposal of household unwanted medications (UMs is an emergency problem around the world that adversely affects the sustainability of the environment and human’s health. However, the current disposal practices, mainly based on advertising and collecting status, are unsatisfactory in most countries and regions. Thus, some scholars proposed an alternative disposal practice that is to provide incentives to customers. This study aims to compare a Single Model (advertising only with a Joint Model (advertising with take-back pricing in a two-echelon reverse supply chain (RSC that is composed of one disposer and one collector. In each model, four games (non-cooperative, collector as the Stackelberg leader, disposer as the Stackelberg leader, and cooperative were established in order to identify the optimal pricing and advertising strategies for both members. The results of the study indicate that there is a Pareto dominant range for Joint Model compared to Single Model, whereas Single Model has no Pareto improvement in any games. Furthermore, in non-cooperative games of Joint Model, it is better to implement the leader-follower structure rather than simultaneous movement structure. Additionally, it is verified that the cooperative game is feasible, which leads to the cooperation between the disposer and the collector, and the extra profit from the cooperation can be shared based on the Nash bargaining game. However, in Single Model, it is better for the disposer to act as a channel leader and the collector figures the follower.

  5. Assessing the acceptability and usability of an interactive serious game in aiding treatment decisions for patients with localized prostate cancer.

    Reichlin, Lindsey; Mani, Nithya; McArthur, Kara; Harris, Amy M; Rajan, Nithin; Dacso, Clifford C

    2011-01-12

    Men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer face a potentially life-altering treatment decision that can be overwhelming. Enhancing patient knowledge through education can significantly reduce feelings of uncertainty while simultaneously increasing confidence in decision making. Serious games have been shown in other populations to increase health knowledge and assist with the health decision-making process. We developed an interactive serious game, Time After Time, which translates evidence-based treatment outcome data into an accessible and understandable format that men can utilize in their prostate cancer treatment decision-making process. The game specifically aims to raise men's awareness and understanding of the impact of health-related quality of life issues associated with the major treatment options and to enrich their conversations with their health care providers. This study determined the acceptability and usability of the alpha version of Time After Time, an interactive decision aid for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer, in order to inform future iterations of the serious game. The study employed a mixed methods approach to assess the acceptability and usability of the Time After Time serious game using qualitative focus groups and a quantitative Likert scale survey. A total of 13 men who had already completed treatment for localized prostate cancer completed the survey and participated in focus group meetings. The majority of the study participants rated Time After Time as an appropriate decision tool for localized prostate cancer and verified that it meets its goals of increasing focus on side effects and generating questions for the patient's health care team. However, participants also expressed concerns about game usability and the diversity of information covered regarding treatment options and potential treatment outcomes. Serious games are a promising approach to health education and decision support for older men. Participants

  6. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Aromatic-Aromatic Interaction in Isolated Capped Dipeptides

    Gloaguen, E.; Valdés, H.; Pagliarulo, F.; Pollet, R.; Tardivel, B.; Hobza, Pavel; Piuzzi, F.; Mons, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 9 (2010), s. 2973-2982 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : aromatic residues interactions * Ac-Phe-Phe-NH2 dipeptides * Ac-Phe-D-Phe-NH2 dipeptides * correlated ab initio calculations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.732, year: 2010

  7. Contribution to the theoretical study of metallic systems containing rare earths: hyperfine interactions and exchange coupling

    Troper, A.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical study involving rare earth impurities, which were embedded in transition metals (s-p or noble), from the point of view of the hyperfine interactions is presented. A model was created to describe a d-resonance (Anderson-Moriya) acting on a s-p conduction band which was strongly perturbed by a slater-koster potential, used to describe the rare earths which were diluted in matrices of transition elements. (author)

  8. Theoretical Bases of the Model of Interaction of the Government and Local Government Creation

    Nikolay I. Churinov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to questions of understanding of a theoretical component: systems of interaction of bodies of different levels of the government. Author researches historical basis of the studied subject by research of foreign and domestic scientific experience in area of the theory of the state and the law. Much attention is paid to the scientific aspect of the question. By empirical approach interpretation of the theory of interaction of public authorities and local government, and also subjective estimated opinion of the author is given.

  9. A theoretical study of interaction effects on the remanence curves of particulate dispersions

    Fearon, M.; Chantrell, R. W.; Wohlfarth, E. P.

    1990-05-01

    The remanence curves of strongly interacting fine-particle systems are investigated theoretically. It is shown that the Henkel plot of the dc demagnetisation remanence vs. the isothermal remanence is a useful representation of interactions. The form of the plot is found to be a reflection of the magnetic and physical microstructure of the material, which is consistent with experimental data. The relationship between the Henkel plot and the noise of a particulate recording medium, another property dependent on the microstructure, is also considered. The Interaction Field Factor (IFF), a single parameter characterising the non-linearity of the Henkel plot, is also investigated. The results are consistent with a previous experimental study. Finally, the effect of interactions on the Switching Field Distribution are investigated.

  10. RELATION BETWEEN BASIC PHYSICAL CAPABILITIES AND THE THEORETIC KNOWLEDGE LAWS OF THE GAME WITH THE SUCCESS OF REFREEING OF FOOTBALL REFEREES

    Rusmir Mrković; Munir Talović; Midhat Mekić; Eldin Jelešković; Haris Alić

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to establish a relation in-between the basic physical capabilities and the theoretic knowledge laws of the game with the success in refereeing of football referees of the Sarajevo Canton. The population from which samples were taken are football referees of the Sarajevo Canton, 90 of them, age span from 18- 45 years of age and who have met the criteria for getting a license to be referees in football matches in the next season at all levels of competition in Bosnia...

  11. The persuasive aims of Metal Gear Solid: A discourse theoretical approach to the study of argumentation in video games

    Stamenkovic, Dusan; Jacevic, Milan; Wildfeuer, Janina

    2017-01-01

    in a representative video game combine so as to convince the player to act, play, and perhaps think accordingly. The multimodal approach employed in the paper combines the notion of discourse aims and the rhetorical and argumentative structure of Metal Gear Solid (Kojima, 1998), and analyses different narrative...... strategies and verbal cues, as well as the overall interface, control, and gameplay. The results suggest that verbal and textual cues combine with audio-visual elements and highly specific gameplay strategies in order to refrain the player from killing enemies. This might indicate that video games are likely...

  12. Advanced theoretical and experimental studies in automatic control and information systems. [including mathematical programming and game theory

    Desoer, C. A.; Polak, E.; Zadeh, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    A series of research projects is briefly summarized which includes investigations in the following areas: (1) mathematical programming problems for large system and infinite-dimensional spaces, (2) bounded-input bounded-output stability, (3) non-parametric approximations, and (4) differential games. A list of reports and papers which were published over the ten year period of research is included.

  13. Analysis of Context Dependence in Social Interaction Networks of a Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game

    Son, Seokshin; Kang, Ah Reum; Kim, Hyun-chul; Kwon, Taekyoung; Park, Juyong; Kim, Huy Kang

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances in modern computing and information technology have enabled millions of people to interact online via various social network and gaming services. The widespread adoption of such online services have made possible analysis of large-scale archival data containing detailed human interactions, presenting a very promising opportunity to understand the rich and complex human behavior. In collaboration with a leading global provider of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs), here we present a network science-based analysis of the interplay between distinct types of user interaction networks in the virtual world. We find that their properties depend critically on the nature of the context-interdependence of the interactions, highlighting the complex and multilayered nature of human interactions, a robust understanding of which we believe may prove instrumental in the designing of more realistic future virtual arenas as well as provide novel insights to the science of collective human behavior. PMID:22496771

  14. Analysis of context dependence in social interaction networks of a massively multiplayer online role-playing game.

    Son, Seokshin; Kang, Ah Reum; Kim, Hyun-chul; Kwon, Taekyoung; Park, Juyong; Kim, Huy Kang

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances in modern computing and information technology have enabled millions of people to interact online via various social network and gaming services. The widespread adoption of such online services have made possible analysis of large-scale archival data containing detailed human interactions, presenting a very promising opportunity to understand the rich and complex human behavior. In collaboration with a leading global provider of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs), here we present a network science-based analysis of the interplay between distinct types of user interaction networks in the virtual world. We find that their properties depend critically on the nature of the context-interdependence of the interactions, highlighting the complex and multilayered nature of human interactions, a robust understanding of which we believe may prove instrumental in the designing of more realistic future virtual arenas as well as provide novel insights to the science of collective human behavior.

  15. Analysis of context dependence in social interaction networks of a massively multiplayer online role-playing game.

    Seokshin Son

    Full Text Available Rapid advances in modern computing and information technology have enabled millions of people to interact online via various social network and gaming services. The widespread adoption of such online services have made possible analysis of large-scale archival data containing detailed human interactions, presenting a very promising opportunity to understand the rich and complex human behavior. In collaboration with a leading global provider of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs, here we present a network science-based analysis of the interplay between distinct types of user interaction networks in the virtual world. We find that their properties depend critically on the nature of the context-interdependence of the interactions, highlighting the complex and multilayered nature of human interactions, a robust understanding of which we believe may prove instrumental in the designing of more realistic future virtual arenas as well as provide novel insights to the science of collective human behavior.

  16. Games of multicellularity.

    Kaveh, Kamran; Veller, Carl; Nowak, Martin A

    2016-08-21

    Evolutionary game dynamics are often studied in the context of different population structures. Here we propose a new population structure that is inspired by simple multicellular life forms. In our model, cells reproduce but can stay together after reproduction. They reach complexes of a certain size, n, before producing single cells again. The cells within a complex derive payoff from an evolutionary game by interacting with each other. The reproductive rate of cells is proportional to their payoff. We consider all two-strategy games. We study deterministic evolutionary dynamics with mutations, and derive exact conditions for selection to favor one strategy over another. Our main result has the same symmetry as the well-known sigma condition, which has been proven for stochastic game dynamics and weak selection. For a maximum complex size of n=2 our result holds for any intensity of selection. For n≥3 it holds for weak selection. As specific examples we study the prisoner's dilemma and hawk-dove games. Our model advances theoretical work on multicellularity by allowing for frequency-dependent interactions within groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Some Analytical Properties of the Model for Stochastic Evolutionary Games in Finite Populations with Non-uniform Interaction Rate

    Quan Ji; Wang Xianjia

    2013-01-01

    Traditional evolutionary games assume uniform interaction rate, which means that the rate at which individuals meet and interact is independent of their strategies. But in some systems, especially biological systems, the players interact with each other discriminately. Taylor and Nowak (2006) were the first to establish the corresponding non-uniform interaction rate model by allowing the interaction rates to depend on strategies. Their model is based on replicator dynamics which assumes an infinite size population. But in reality, the number of individuals in the population is always finite, and there will be some random interference in the individuals' strategy selection process. Therefore, it is more practical to establish the corresponding stochastic evolutionary model in finite populations. In fact, the analysis of evolutionary games in a finite size population is more difficult. Just as Taylor and Nowak said in the outlook section of their paper, ''The analysis of non-uniform interaction rates should be extended to stochastic game dynamics of finite populations''. In this paper, we are exactly doing this work. We extend Taylor and Nowak's model from infinite to finite case, especially focusing on the infiuence of non-uniform connection characteristics on the evolutionary stable state of the system. We model the strategy evolutionary process of the population by a continuous ergodic Markov process. Based on the limit distribution of the process, we can give the evolutionary stable state of the system. We make a complete classification of the symmetric 2 × 2 games. For each case game, the corresponding limit distribution of the Markov-based process is given when noise intensity is small enough. In contrast with most literatures in evolutionary games using the simulation method, all our results obtained are analytical. Especially, in the dominant-case game, coexistence of the two strategies may become evolutionary stable states in our model. This result can be

  18. Evolutionary game theory: molecules as players.

    Bohl, Katrin; Hummert, Sabine; Werner, Sarah; Basanta, David; Deutsch, Andreas; Schuster, Stefan; Theissen, Günter; Schroeter, Anja

    2014-12-01

    In this and an accompanying paper we review the use of game theoretical concepts in cell biology and molecular biology. This review focuses on the subcellular level by considering viruses, genes, and molecules as players. We discuss in which way catalytic RNA can be treated by game theory. Moreover, genes can compete for success in replication and can have different strategies in interactions with other genetic elements. Also transposable elements, or "jumping genes", can act as players because they usually bear different traits or strategies. Viruses compete in the case of co-infecting a host cell. Proteins interact in a game theoretical sense when forming heterodimers. Finally, we describe how the Shapley value can be applied to enzymes in metabolic pathways. We show that game theory can be successfully applied to describe and analyse scenarios at the molecular level resulting in counterintuitive conclusions.

  19. Interactive Biophysics with Microswimmers: Education, Cloud Experimentation, Programmed Swarms, and Biotic Games

    Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar

    Modern biotechnology gets increasingly powerful to manipulate and measure microscopic biophysical processes. Nevertheless, no platform exists to truly interact with these processes, certainly not with the convenience that we are accustomed to from our electronic smart devices. In my talk I will provide the rational for such Interactive Biotechnology and conceptualize its core component, the BPU (biotic processing unit), which is then connected to an according user interface. The biophysical phenomena currently featured on these platforms utilize the phototactic response of motile microorganisms, e.g., Euglena gracilis, resulting in spatio-temporal dynamics from the single cell to the self-organized multi-cellular scale. I will demonstrate multiple platforms, such as scalable biology cloud experimentation labs, tangible museum exhibits, biotic video games, low-cost interactive DIY kits using smartphones, and programming languages for swarm robotics. I will discuss applications for education as well as for professional and citizen science. Hence, we turn traditionally observational microscopy into an interactive experience. I was told that presenting in the educational section does not count against the ''one author - one talk policy'' - so I submit two abstracts. In case of conflict - please contact me: ingmar@stanford.edu.

  20. Game Theory of Tumor–Stroma Interactions in Multiple Myeloma: Effect of Nonlinear Benefits

    Javad Salimi Sartakhti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells and stromal cells often exchange growth factors with paracrine effects that promote cell growth: a form of cooperation that can be studied by evolutionary game theory. Previous models have assumed that interactions between cells are pairwise or that the benefit of a growth factor is a linear function of its concentration. Diffusible factors, however, affect multiple cells and generally have nonlinear effects, and these differences are known to have important consequences for evolutionary dynamics. Here, we study tumor–stroma paracrine signaling using a model with multiplayer collective interactions in which growth factors have nonlinear effects. We use multiple myeloma as an example, modelling interactions between malignant plasma cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Nonlinear benefits can lead to results not observed in linear models, including internal mixed stable equilibria and cyclical dynamics. Models with linear effects, therefore, do not lead to a meaningful characterization of the dynamics of tumor–stroma interactions. To understand the dynamics and the effect of therapies it is necessary to estimate the shape of the benefit functions experimentally and parametrize models based on these functions.