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Sample records for gambling problem symptom

  1. Gambling Problem Symptom Patterns and Stability across Individual and Timeframe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Sarah; Josefsen, Line Gebauer; LaBrie, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Few studies investigate gambling problems at the symptom level; even fewer investigate how symptom patterns change throughout the course of a gambling disorder. The current study utilized the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Grant et al., 2004) to investi...

  2. Gambling Problem Symptom Patterns and Stability across Individual and Timeframe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Sarah; Josefsen, Line Gebauer; LaBrie, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Few studies investigate gambling problems at the symptom level; even fewer investigate how symptom patterns change throughout the course of a gambling disorder. The current study utilized the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Grant et al., 2004) to investi...... of progression to PG among participants at-risk for PG. The differential diagnostic value of various reported symptoms, as well as their lack of stability, has implications for both researchers and clinicians. 2009 APA, all rights reserved....

  3. Differential Effects of Formal and Informal Gambling on Symptoms of Problem Gambling During Voluntary Self-Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Amanda V; Cohen, Irwin M; Davies, Garth

    2018-01-18

    Voluntary self-exclusion (VSE) programs enable problem gamblers to engage in a break from casino-based gambling. The current study analyzed the effects of a VSE program in British Columbia, Canada on problem gambling symptoms and the comparative reductions in problem gambling symptoms when participants abstained from gambling, continued to participate in non-casino based gambling, or attempted to violate their exclusion contract. 269 participants completed two telephone interviews over a 6-month period. Participants were administered the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). Substantial reductions in PGSI scores were observed after 6 months. Program violators had significantly smaller PGSI Difference Scores by Time 2 compared to those who continued to gamble outside of the casino and those who completely abstained from all gambling. There were no significant differences between those who gambled informally and those who abstained. A multiple regression identified that while access to counselling and length of enrollment also contributed to the reduction in PGSI scores, violation attempts were most strongly associated with smaller reductions in symptoms of problem gambling. These results imply that some gamblers can successfully engage in non-casino based forms of gambling and still experience reductions in symptoms of problem gambling. Future analyses will explore characteristics associated with group membership that may help to identify which participants can successfully engage in non-casino based gambling without re-triggering symptoms of problem gambling.

  4. Gambling frequency and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in relation to problem gambling among Swedish adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Charlotta; Wagner, Philippe; Nilsson, Kent W; Leppert, Jerzy; Åslund, Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the associations between gambling frequency, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and problem gambling among adolescent boys and girls. One hypothesis was that adolescents with increased ADHD symptoms have a higher frequency of gambling compared to adolescents with fewer ADHD symptoms. A population-based sample of adolescents (aged 15-18 years) completed a questionnaire on demographics, gambling habits, ADHD symptoms, and problematic gambling; 1412 adolescents (from 4440 sampled) with gambling experience were included in the final sample. A zero-inflated negative binomial regression analysis revealed that increased ADHD symptoms, higher gambling frequency, and higher age were associated with lower odds for being non-susceptible to gambling problems. Moreover, gambling frequency interacted with ADHD symptoms in predicting probability of being non-susceptible to gambling problems. However, when analysing those already susceptible to problem gambling, ADHD symptoms did not modify the effect of gambling frequency on the expected magnitude of gambling problems. In susceptible individuals, problem gambling increased with both increased ADHD symptoms and increased gambling frequency, but the level of problems due to gambling frequency did not change depending on the ADHD symptom level. There was an interaction effect between sex and gambling frequency in relation to gambling problems. Adolescents with ADHD symptoms seem to be more sensitive to gambling, in terms of being susceptible to developing gambling problems. However, once susceptible, adolescents with ADHD symptoms are affected by gambling frequency similarly to other susceptible participants.

  5. Problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shane

    2014-06-01

    Problem gambling is an increasingly common problem in Australia. General practitioners (GPs) have an important role in ensuring that problem gambling is detected and treated. We review the clinical issues associated with the detection and treatment of problem gambling. At any one time 1% of the adult Australian population satisfy the clinical criteria for problem gambling; a further 4% are at a significant risk. Problem gambling frequently presents with other serious mental health conditions. There are several guidelines from the National Health and Medical Research Council and Australian Medical Association that recommend GP involvement in screening for problem gambling. Simple one-item tools are available for that purpose. GP screening and referral for problem gambling addresses the currently very low rates of treatment. Effective and durable psychological treatments are available for the treatment of problem gambling including cognitive behaviour therapy and motivational interviewing.

  6. Gambling frequency and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in relation to problem gambling among Swedish adolescents: A population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Charlotta; Wagner, Philippe; Nillson, Kent W.; Leppert, Jerzy; Aslund, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Aim To investigate the associations between gambling frequency, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and problem gambling among adolescent boys and girls. One hypothesis was that adolescents with increased ADHD symptoms have a higher frequency of gambling compared to adolescents with fewer ADHD symptoms. Method A population-based sample of adolescents (aged 15?18 years) completed a questionnaire on demographics, gambling habits, ADHD symptoms, and problematic gambling; 14...

  7. Problem gambling and internalising symptoms: a longitudinal analysis of common and specific social environmental protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Toumbourou, John W; Dowling, Nicki A

    2015-07-01

    Comorbidity between problem gambling and internalising disorders (anxiety and depression) has long been recognised. However, it is not clear how these relationships develop, and what factors can foster resilience to both conditions. The current study draws on longitudinal cohort data to investigate: 1) the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between problem gambling and internalising symptoms; 2) whether there are common and/or specific social environmental factors protective against both internalising symptoms and problem gambling in young adulthood; and 3) interactive protective factors (i.e., those that moderate the relationship between problem gambling and internalising symptoms). A sample of 2248 young adults (55% female) completed a survey in 2010 (T1) and 2012 (T2) which assessed problem gambling (measured via two items based on established measures), internalising symptoms, and social environmental protective factors. A positive cross-sectional relationship between problem gambling and internalising symptoms was found; however, there was no statistically significant longitudinal relationship between the two conditions. Protective factors for internalising symptoms were observed within the domains of the community, family and peer group; however, there were no statistically significant protective factors identified for problem gambling. These findings demonstrate that the social environmental protective factors for adult internalising symptoms assessed in the present study are poor longitudinal predictors of young adult problem gambling. Given the lack of common protective factors, it may be necessary to focus on separate factors to protect against each condition, if we are to address the comorbidity between problem gambling and internalising symptoms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Depression symptoms and reasons for gambling sequentially mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles and problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Matthew T; Penniston, Trinda L; Vilhena-Churchill, Natalie; Michael Bagby, R; Quilty, Lena C

    2018-03-01

    One of the central pathways to problem gambling (PG) is gambling to cope with negative moods, which is a cardinal feature of depression. Insecure attachment styles are also etiologically related to depression; and, therefore, by extension, those who are insecurely attached may engage in excessive gambling behaviors to cope with depression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate this and to this end predicted that depression severity and coping motives for gambling would conjointly mediate the relations between insecure attachment styles and PG. Data came from a larger investigation of PG within mood disorders. Participants exhibited a lifetime depressive or bipolar disorder and endorsed a mood episode within the past ten years. Participants (N=275) completed self-report measures during a two-day assessment. Path analysis supported two main indirect effects. First, anxious attachment predicted elevated depression, which in turn predicted increased coping motives for gambling, which subsequently predicted greater PG severity. Second, this double mediational pathway was also observed for avoidant attachment. Results suggest that insecure attachment relates to PG via depressive symptoms and coping-related gambling motives. Mood symptoms and associated gambling motives are malleable and are promising targets of gambling interventions for insecurely attached individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating Possible Reciprocal Relations Between Depressive and Problem Gambling Symptoms in Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinneck, Annie; Mackinnon, Sean P; Stewart, Sherry H

    2016-02-01

    Previous cross-sectional research has shown that depression and problem gambling co-occur. Longitudinal research, however, allows for a better determination of directionality, as behavioural changes in gambling involvement can be more reliably studied over time. Our study assesses symptoms of depression and problem gambling across 4 waves and addresses whether their relation is directional (with one reliably preceding the other), bidirectional, or pathoplastic. As part of the Manitoba Longitudinal Study of Young Adults, prospective data were collected on Canadian young adults' (Wave 1: n = 679, 51.8% female, aged 18 to 20 years) depressive symptoms, involvement in gambling, and risky gambling behaviour. Recruitment and the first cycle of data collection (Wave 1) took place in fall 2007. Three additional waves of data collection then occurred in 12- to 18-month intervals: fall 2008, spring 2010, and spring 2011. The Problem Gambling Severity Index and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form were administered through telephone interview at each wave. Bivariate growth curves showed that depressive and problem gambling symptoms were positively correlated at Wave 1, Wave 2, and Wave 4. Neither disorder was found to be a risk factor for the other, and depression and problem gambling were not pathoplastically related (that is, increases in one did not result in increases in the other over time, and vice versa). While depression and problem gambling are related, their co-occurrence may be better explained not by depressive- or gambling-related risk, but by the presence of a common underlying factor (such as substance abuse). © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Longitudinal Links between Impulsivity, Gambling Problems and Depressive Symptoms: A Transactional Model from Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, Frederic; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Wanner, Brigitte; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research shows high co-morbidity between gambling problems and depressive symptoms, but the directionality of this link is unclear. Moreover, the co-occurrence of gambling problems and depressive symptoms could be spurious and explained by common underlying risk factors such as impulsivity and socio-family risk. The goals of the…

  11. Gambling and problem gambling in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    To provide an overview of gambling in the Netherlands, focusing on historical background, policy, legislation, prevalence of problem gambling, availability of treatment options and research base. Literature review. Contradictions between gambling policy and practice have been present in the past

  12. Co-development of Problem Gambling and Depression Symptoms in Emerging Adults: A Parallel-Process Latent Class Growth Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, Jason D; Keough, Matthew T; Roberts, Lance W

    2018-02-21

    This study examines whether there are multiple joint trajectories of depression and problem gambling co-development in a sample of emerging adults. Data were from the Manitoba Longitudinal Study of Young Adults (n = 679), which was collected in 4 waves across 5 years (age 18-20 at baseline). Parallel process latent class growth modeling was used to identified 5 joint trajectory classes: low decreasing gambling, low increasing depression (81%); low stable gambling, moderate decreasing depression (9%); low stable gambling, high decreasing depression (5%); low stable gambling, moderate stable depression (3%); moderate stable problem gambling, no depression (2%). There was no evidence of reciprocal growth in problem gambling and depression in any of the joint classes. Multinomial logistic regression analyses of baseline risk and protective factors found that only neuroticism, escape-avoidance coping, and perceived level of family social support were significant predictors of joint trajectory class membership. Consistent with the pathways model framework, we observed that individuals in the problem gambling only class were more likely using gambling as a stable way to cope with negative emotions. Similarly, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of family support were associated with increased odds of being in a class with moderate to high levels of depressive symptoms (but low gambling problems). The results suggest that interventions for problem gambling and/or depression need to focus on promoting more adaptive coping skills among more "at-risk" young adults, and such interventions should be tailored in relation to specific subtypes of comorbid mental illness.

  13. Gambling and problem gambling in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudriaan, Anna E

    2014-07-01

    To provide an overview of gambling in the Netherlands, focusing on historical background, policy, legislation, prevalence of problem gambling, availability of treatment options and research base. Literature review. Contradictions between gambling policy and practice have been present in the past 15-20 years, and have led to an increasingly stricter gambling regulation to retain the government policy to restrict gambling within a national monopoly. Conversely, political efforts have been made to legalize internet gambling, but have not yet been approved. Compared to other European countries, slot machine gambling and casino gambling are relatively popular, whereas betting is relatively unpopular. Last-year problem gambling prevalence (South Oaks Gambling Screen score > 5) is estimated at 0.22-0.15% (2005, 2011). Treatment for problem gambling is covered by health insurance under the same conditions as substance dependence, but only a small proportion of Dutch problem gamblers seeks help at addiction treatment centres. Gambling policy in the Netherlands has become stricter during recent last years in order to maintain the Dutch gambling monopoly. Problem gambling in the Netherlands is relatively stable. Dutch research on problem gambling has a lack of longitudinal studies. Most of the epidemiological gambling studies are reported in non-peer-reviewed research reports, which diminishes control by independent peers on the methodology and interpretation of results. Recent efforts to enhance consistency in research methods between gambling studies over time could enhance knowledge on changes in (problem) gambling in the Netherlands. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. The Association of Form of Gambling with Problem Gambling Among American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Welte, John W.; Barnes, Grace M.; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O.; Hoffman, Joseph H.

    2009-01-01

    A random telephone survey was conducted with 2274 U.S. residents aged 14-21. Analyses were performed to assess the relationship between the specific gambling games played and the extent of problem gambling symptoms. The forms of gambling that were most associated with gambling problems were card games, casino gambling, “other” gambling on routine activities, and betting on games of skill such as basketball, pool, or golf. The form of gambling which made the largest contribution to gambling pr...

  15. Internet gambling in problem gambling college students

    OpenAIRE

    Petry, Nancy M.; Gonzalez-Ibanez, Angels

    2015-01-01

    Internet gambling is popular in college students and associated with problem gambling behaviors. This study evaluated Internet gambling in 117 students participating in study evaluating brief interventions to reduce gambling; the brief interventions consisted of minimal advice, motivational enhancement therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (1–4 sessions). Compared to their counterparts who did not gamble via the Internet (n = 60), those who reported recent Internet gambling (n = 57) wager...

  16. A Systematic Review of Land-Based Self-Exclusion Programs: Demographics, Gambling Behavior, Gambling Problems, Mental Symptoms, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Roxana; Kräplin, Anja; Pittig, Andre; Bühringer, Gerhard

    2018-05-02

    Systematic and quantitative reviews on the effects of land-based self-exclusion are scarce. Therefore, the current review aimed to provide a comprehensive summary of (1) the demographic characteristics of land-based self-excluders and changes after exclusion, including (2) gambling behavior, (3) gambling problems, (4) mental symptoms, and (5) mental health. A systematic database and literature search was performed following PRISMA guidelines. Nineteen naturalistic studies met the eligibility criteria. The quality of all included records was rated via adaption of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results from higher-quality records were more heavily weighted. Self-excluders were predominantly men in their early or middle forties. Changes after exclusion revealed wide ranges in the rates of abstinence (13-81%), rates of gambling reduction (29-92%), and rates of exclusion breaches (8-59%). The records consistently demonstrated significant changes in pathological gambling from before exclusion (61-95%) to after exclusion (13-26%). Up to 73% of self-excluders exhibited symptoms of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders at program enrollment. Several aspects of mental health improved after exclusion, e.g., quality of life. Problem and pathological gambling are most prevalent in young men, but self-exclusion was most prominent in middle-aged men. The magnitude of effects widely differed between studies despite overall benefits of self-exclusion, and many individuals continued gambling after exclusion. This shortcoming could be minimized using improved access controls and the extension of exclusion to other gambling segments. High rates of pathological gambling and other mental disorders in self-excluders highlight the need for improved early detection and treatment accessibility.

  17. Internet gambling in problem gambling college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M; Gonzalez-Ibanez, Angels

    2015-06-01

    Internet gambling is popular in college students and associated with problem gambling behaviors. This study evaluated Internet gambling in 117 students participating in study evaluating brief interventions to reduce gambling; the brief interventions consisted of minimal advice, motivational enhancement therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (1-4 sessions). Compared to their counterparts who did not gamble via the Internet (n = 60), those who reported recent Internet gambling (n = 57) wagered in greater frequencies and amounts and reported missing school more often and more problems with family and anxiety due to gambling. Recent Internet gamblers demonstrated similar reductions in gambling over time and in response to the brief interventions as non-Internet gamblers. These data suggest that Internet gambling is common in problem gambling college students, and students who wager over the Internet can benefit from brief interventions.

  18. Metacognitions in problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Annika; Fernie, Bruce A; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2011-03-01

    Problem gambling is heterogeneous in nature, ranging in severity from occasional but problematic gambling episodes, to extreme, impulsive and pervasive gambling behaviour. Problem gambling may be accompanied by a sense of impaired control and can give rise to financial, interpersonal, legal and vocational costs for the sufferer, their families and society. This study investigated the relationship among metacognitions, anxiety, depression and gambling in a sample of problem gamblers. A total of 91 individuals attending gambling treatment services completed a battery of self-report instruments that consisted of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the South Oaks Gambling Scale (SOGS). Correlation analyses showed that anxiety, depression and metacognitions were positively and significantly correlated with both gambling consequences and behaviour. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that two metacognitive constructs (negative beliefs about thoughts concerning uncontrollability and danger and beliefs about the need to control thoughts) predicted gambling behaviour independently of anxiety and depression. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that metacognitions play a role in problem gambling.

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Gambling Behavior: Mediating Role of Coping Motivation and Gambling Refusal Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Martens, Matthew P; Arterberry, Brooke J

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the variables that contribute to the comorbidity of depression and gambling behaviors is important in developing effective intervention strategies for those who experience gambling-related problems. The purpose of this study was to implement core concepts from Jacob's general theory of addiction and the social cognitive theory in a multiple mediation model. Specifically, we tested two models to examine whether coping motivation and refusal self-efficacy mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms, gambling related problems, and days gambled. Data was collected from 333 undergraduate students at a large public Midwest university, participating in a larger clinical trial. Analyses indicated a direct effect between depressive symptoms and gambling related problems. Depressive symptoms were found to have a significant indirect effect through coping motivation and gambling refusal self-efficacy on gambling related problems and days gambled. These results provide further support regarding the mechanisms through which depressive symptoms may increase risk for problematic gambling behavior.

  20. Problem Gambling on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, Jennifer L.; Hanson, William E.

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of college students gamble, with some doing so problematically. This article discusses gambling and problem gambling among college students, framing it as an emerging health issue on college campuses nationwide. Given that 4 out of 5 college students admit to gambling, and that approximately 8% gamble problematically, it is…

  1. Predictors of Problem Gambling in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, John W; Barnes, Grace M; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O; Wieczorek, William F

    2017-06-01

    In this article we examine data from a national U.S. adult survey of gambling to determine correlates of problem gambling and discuss them in light of theories of the etiology of problem gambling. These include theories that focus on personality traits, irrational beliefs, anti-social tendencies, neighborhood influences and availability of gambling. Results show that males, persons in the 31-40 age range, blacks, and the least educated had the highest average problem gambling symptoms. Adults who lived in disadvantaged neighborhoods also had the most problem gambling symptoms. Those who attended religious services most often had the fewest problem gambling symptoms, regardless of religious denomination. Respondents who reported that it was most convenient for them to gamble had the highest average problem gambling symptoms, compared to those for whom gambling was less convenient. Likewise, adults with the personality traits of impulsiveness and depression had more problem gambling symptoms than those less impulsive or depressed. Respondents who had friends who approve of gambling had more problem gambling symptoms than those whose friends did not approve of gambling. The results for the demographic variables as well as for impulsiveness and religious attendance are consistent with an anti-social/impulsivist pathway to problem gambling. The results for depression are consistent with an emotionally vulnerable pathway to problem gambling.

  2. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  3. Gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billieux, Joël; Achab, Sophia; Savary, Jean-Félix; Simon, Olivier; Richter, Frédéric; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

    2016-09-01

    To provide an overview of gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland, including historical aspects, past and current legislation and policies, treatment options and the research base. A literature search was conducted on two databases (PubMed and PsycINFO), and official government and statistical reports selected from the official websites of four sources (Federal Office of Justice; Federal Gambling Board; Federal Office of Statistics; Swiss Lottery and Betting Board). After a history of banning or partial banning, Swiss gambling became regulated at the beginning of the 20th century through successive laws. The current system is characterized by important differences in the law and policies for casinos and lotteries, and contradictions in the regulation of these two areas are still under debate in order to develop new legislation. Gambling is widespread in Switzerland, and the prevalence of problem gambling in this country was comparable to that in other European countries in 2014. Most gambling treatment facilities are integrated into mental health treatment services that have out-patient programmes, and treatment for problem gambling is covered by a universal compulsory Swiss health insurance system. The availability of public funding for gambling research is still limited. Switzerland needs to develop a more coherent regulatory and prevention policy approach to gambling, overcoming conflicts in the current dual system of federal and cantonal regulation. Recent efforts to enhance funding for gambling research are promising, and could lead to a more systematic analysis of the efficacy of prevention and treatment programmes. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Problem gambling and social work

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jim

    2017-01-01

    This presentation summarises research on problem gambling and gambling related harm which is of relevance to social work practice. Issues in relation to adults with care and support needs are highlighted, methods of identifying and screening for gambling problems summarised, and information on ways of helping and signposting problem gamblers to helping agencies presented.

  5. Dissociative symptoms in pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

    2003-01-01

    Dissociation is increasingly being recognized as both a normal process and as a psychophysiological aspect of a number of mental disorders. The purpose of this investigation was to shed light on a possible link between dissociation and pathological gambling, a relatively common disorder whose phenomenology remains understudied. Thirty adult outpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling and had no comorbidity were administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). The pathological gamblers had DES scores that did not significantly differ from those reported by normal controls (t = -0.620; d.f. = 29; p = 0.540). Pathological gamblers do not appear to experience dissociative symptoms (as reflected on the DES) at a rate significantly different from those found in normal controls. Because pathological gamblers seeking medication treatment, as in this study, may differ from others with pathological gambling, further studies are needed. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Gambling and gambling-related problems in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleur, Marc

    2015-12-01

    To provide an overview of the gambling landscape and gambling-related problems in France, including the history, legislation, gambling policy and epidemiological data on excessive gambling. A literature review, using Medline, PsycInfo and Toxibase/OFDT databases, based on the systematic monitoring of scientific literature since 2008 (including French and international papers). Since 1776 and the creation of the royal lottery, state monopoly has been the main pillar of gambling policy in France. Increases in gambling venues and opportunities, growing evidence of gambling-related problems, pressures from the European Commission and the growth of on-line gambling have led to major changes in this policy: while land-based gambling remains mainly in the form of a state monopoly, on-line gambling was partially liberalized in 2010, and regulation authorities were established. The first epidemiological survey was conducted in 2010. Rates of problematic gambling in France are within the average of other European countries. Treatment has begun to be made available within addiction centres. A majority of on-line gamblers in France use legal websites, which was one of the initial goals of liberalization. Recent studies confirm that the prevalence of problem gambling in France is far higher among on-line gamblers than among land-based gamblers; however, this difference cannot be attributed only to greater addictiveness of on-line gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Association of cognitive distortions with problem and pathological gambling in adult male twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Hong; Shah, Kamini R; Phillips, Sharon M; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Volberg, Rachel; Eisen, Seth A

    2008-09-30

    Treatment studies suggest that gambling-related irrational beliefs and attitudes (i.e., cognitive distortions (CDs)) contribute to the risk for problem gambling behavior. In a community sample of men, we investigated the associations among lifetime gambling-related CDs, psychiatric disorders other than pathological gambling , and problem gambling severity. Subjects were 1354 members of the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Problem gambling and gambling-related CDs were derived from a 2002 interview using the National Opinion Research Center DSM-IV Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS). Exploratory factor analysis was performed with the 12 CD items to identify an underlying construct. Generalized linear models were computed to test for associations among CDs, psychiatric disorders other than pathological gambling, and gambling problem severity. Co-twin control analyses of monozygotic twin pairs discordant for problem gambling severity adjusted for genetic and shared environmental influences. Twelve CD items related to one underlying CD construct. After adjustment for lifetime psychiatric disorders, pathological gambling symptoms were positively associated with higher CD scores. Pathological gambling symptoms remained significantly associated with CD scores after controlling for genetic and shared environmental influence. These results provide empirical support for an association between gambling-related CDs and gambling problem severity, even after controlling for genetic and shared environmental influences and non-pathological gambling psychiatric disorders. Public health messages and therapeutic interventions that reinforce the randomness of gambling and draw attention to distorted thinking may prevent the development of problem gambling and improve treatment outcomes.

  8. Superstitious Beliefs and Problem Gambling Among Thai Lottery Gamblers: The Mediation Effects of Number Search and Gambling Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravichai, Sunisa; Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2015-12-01

    Thai lottery gamblers won prizes after betting on numbers they obtained from newspaper stories. We hypothesized that Thai lottery gamblers' superstitious beliefs were related to their problem gambling through the mediation of number search and gambling intensity. In a study among 380 Thai lottery gamblers, superstitious beliefs were operationally defined as the beliefs in events or objects that seemed to reveal numbers, number search as an attempt to identify numbers to bet, gambling intensity as the frequency and amounts of lottery gambling, and problem gambling as the symptoms of problems relating to lottery gambling. Results support the hypotheses. There is a statistically significant indirect relationship between Thai lottery gamblers' superstitious beliefs and their problem gambling through the mediation of number search and gambling intensity. Thai lottery gamblers need to be reminded that their superstitious beliefs and number search are precursors of their problem gambling.

  9. The relationship between gambling fallacies and problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Carrie A; Williams, Robert J

    2016-09-01

    The cognitive model of problem gambling posits that erroneous gambling-related fallacies are key in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. However, this contention is based on cross-sectional rather than longitudinal associations between these constructs, and gambling fallacy instruments that may have inflated this associated by their inclusion of problem gambling symptomatology. The current research re-evaluates the relationship between problem gambling and gambling-specific erroneous cognitions in a 5-year longitudinal study of gambling using a psychometrically sound measure of erroneous gambling-related cognitions. The sample used in this study (n = 4,121) was recruited from the general population in Ontario, Canada, and the retention rate over 5 years was exceptionally high (93.9%). The total sample was similar, in age and gender distributions, to the census data at the time of data collection for Canadian adults (18-24 years, n = 265, 55.8% female; 25-44 years, n = 1,667, 56.4% female; 45-64 years, n = 1,731, 55.4% female; 65 + years, n = 458, 44.75% female). Results of both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses confirm that gambling-specific fallacies appear to be etiologically related to the subsequent appearance of problem gambling, but to a weaker degree than previously presumed, and in a bidirectional manner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlishaw, Sean; Merkouris, Stephanie; Dowling, Nicki; Anderson, Christopher; Jackson, Alun; Thomas, Shane

    2012-11-14

    Various psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling have been evaluated in randomised trials. A synthesis of best-quality evidence is required. The objective was to synthesise evidence from randomised trials of psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling (cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT), motivational interviewing therapy, integrative therapy, other psychological therapy), in order to indicate the efficacy of therapies and durability of therapy effects, relative to control conditions. We conducted a search of the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR), which includes relevant randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: CENTRAL (The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) (all years), EMBASE (1974 -), MEDLINE (1950 -) and PsycINFO (1967 -). We also carried out complementary searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, LILACS and CENTRAL for studies published between January 1980 and October 2011. We examined the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov and also conducted manual searches of selected journals and reference lists of included studies. Included studies were clinical trials using random allocation to groups, considering pathological or problem gamblers, and evaluating a psychological therapy for pathological or problem gambling. Control conditions included 'no treatment' controls, referral to Gamblers Anonymous and non-specific treatment component controls. We systematically extracted data on the characteristics and results of studies. Primary outcomes were measures of gambling symptom severity, financial loss from gambling and frequency of gambling. Secondary outcomes were occurrence of pathological gambling diagnoses and depression and anxiety symptoms. Treatment effects were defined by comparisons between therapy and control conditions at post-treatment assessments (conducted from 0 to 3 months

  11. Do High School Students in India Gamble? A Study of Problem Gambling and Its Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisoorya, T S; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; Thennarassu, K; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Benegal, Vivek; George, Sanju

    2017-06-01

    Studies from the West suggest that significant numbers of high school students gamble, despite it being illegal in this age group. To date, there have been no studies on the prevalence of gambling among senior high school and higher secondary school students in India. This study reports point prevalence of gambling and its psychosocial correlates among high school students in the State of Kerala, India. 5043 high school students in the age group 15-19 years, from 73 schools, were selected by cluster random sampling from the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, South India. They completed questionnaires that assessed gambling, substance use, psychological distress, suicidality, and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Of a total of 4989 completed questionnaires, 1400 (27.9 %) high school students reported to have ever gambled and 353 (7.1 %) were problem gamblers. Of those who had ever gambled, 25.2 % were problem gamblers. Sports betting (betting on cricket and football) was the most popular form of gambling followed by the lottery. Problem gamblers when compared with non-problem gamblers and non-gamblers were significantly more likely to be male, have academic failures, have higher rates of lifetime alcohol and tobacco use, psychological distress, suicidality, history of sexual abuse and higher ADHD symptom scores. Gambling among adolescents in India deserves greater attention, as one in four students who ever gambled was a problem gambler and because of its association with a range of psychosocial variables.

  12. Gambling and Problem Gambling among Canadian Urban Aboriginals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Belanger, Yale D; Prusak, S Yvonne

    2016-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of gambling and problem gambling in urban Aboriginals in the Canadian Prairie provinces and to determine the predictors of problem gambling. In total, 1114 Aboriginals living in 15 cities in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba were recruited via posters and direct solicitation at Native Friendship Centres, shopping malls, and other locations where Aboriginals congregated. They each completed a self-administered 5- to 10-minute survey. Urban Aboriginals in the present sample were found to have a much higher level of gambling participation than the general Canadian public, especially for electronic gambling machines, instant lotteries, and bingo. Their intensity of participation in terms of number of formats, frequency of play, and gambling expenditure was also very high. This, in turn, is an important contributing factor to their very high rate of problem gambling, which was found to be 27.2%. Problem gambling was higher in males, unemployed people, and cities having the highest proportion of their population consisting of urban Aboriginals. Urban Aboriginal people appear to have some of the highest known rates of problem gambling of any group in Canada. This is attributable to having many more risk factors for problem gambling, such as a greater level of participation in gambling, greater participation in continuous forms of gambling (e.g., electronic gambling machines), younger average age, higher rates of substance abuse and mental health problems, and a range of disadvantageous social conditions (e.g., poverty, unemployment, poor education, cultural stress) that are conducive to the development of addictive behaviour. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Problem gambling and drinking among Finnish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järvinen-Tassopoulos Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM - This qualitative study expands on female problem gambling by examining short online narratives written by Finnish women. Problem gambling is analysed within the familial context in order to discover gendered roles and practices, and in relation to substance use and abuse in women’s lives. DESIGN - Two sets of qualitative data were used in this study. The first set was collected from two online discussion forums, and the second set was extracted from an online counselling service data in 2008. Chosen messages formed short narratives of women’s problem gambling trajectory (51 cases. The data were analysed in accordance with the content analysis method. RESULTS - Women had started gambling either in adolescence or in adulthood. Most of the women played on slot machines or gambled online. The lack of coping skills, stressful events in life and troubled relationships made the women more vulnerable to gambling harms and other addictions. In some couples, partners were either drinking or gambling. This made the women’s lives even more complicated, because they could not count on their partners’ help and support. The women tried to hide the consequences of their problem gambling for fear of losing their significant others. CONCLUSIONS - Female gambling and female problem gambling are complex concepts influenced by social, cultural and political factors. This study has shown in its limited framework that female problem gambling is related to the gambling environment, the social acceptance of gambling and the regulation of gambling operations within the place of jurisdiction.

  14. Gambling Problems in the General Danish Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten

    and estimate prevalence of gambling problems using sample weights and controlling for sample selection. We find that 95.4% of the population has no detectable risk, 2.9% has an early risk, 0.8% has an intermediate risk, 0.7% has an advanced risk, and 0.2% can be classified as problem gamblers...... ratesof detectable gambling risk groups, since gambling behavior is positively correlated with the decision to participate in gambling surveys. We also find that imposing a threshold gambling history leads to underestimation of the prevalence of gambling problems.......We compare several popular survey instruments for measuring gambling behavior and gambling propensity to assess if they differ in their classification of individuals in the general adult Danish population. We also examine correlations with standard survey instruments for alcohol use, anxiety...

  15. Relationships Between Perceived Family Gambling and Peer Gambling and Adolescent Problem Gambling and Binge-Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zu Wei; Yip, Sarah W; Steinberg, Marvin A; Wampler, Jeremy; Hoff, Rani A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N

    2017-12-01

    The study systematically examined the relative relationships between perceived family and peer gambling and adolescent at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking. It also determined the likelihood of at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking as a function of the number of different social groups with perceived gambling. A multi-site high-school survey assessed gambling, alcohol use, presence of perceived excessive peer gambling (peer excess-PE), and family gambling prompting concern (family concern-FC) in 2750 high-school students. Adolescents were separately stratified into: (1) low-risk, at-risk, and problem/pathological gambling groups; and, (2) non-binge-drinking, low-frequency-binge-drinking, and high-frequency-binge-drinking groups. Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to each other, FC and PE were associated with greater likelihoods of at-risk and problem/pathological gambling. However, only FC was associated with binge-drinking. Logistic regression revealed that adolescents who endorsed either FC or PE alone, compared to no endorsement, were more likely to have at-risk and problem/pathological gambling, relative to low-risk gambling. Adolescents who endorsed both FC and PE, compared to PE alone, were more likely to have problem/pathological gambling relative to low-risk and at-risk gambling. Relative to non-binge-drinking adolescents, those who endorsed both FC and PE were more likely to have low- and high-frequency-binge-drinking compared to FC alone or PE alone, respectively. Family and peer gambling individually contribute to adolescent at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking. Strategies that target adolescents as well as their closely affiliated family and peer members may be an important step towards prevention of harm-associated levels of gambling and alcohol use in youths.

  16. Problem Gambling: One for the Money…?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, M; Morris, M

    2015-12-01

    Recent research indicates a diverse range of motivations may help explain problem gambling. However, the role of specific motivations in gambling behaviour is not well understood. The primary objective of the current study was to investigate the role of gambling motivations by comparing two competing models. Namely, the efficacy of monetary motivation model was compared to a model where the emotion focused motivations of excitement, escape, and ego were constrained as the only predictors of problem gambling scores. A sample of 2,033 respondents were drawn from the general community and completed a questionnaire concerning their gambling behaviours and beliefs about gambling as an escape, a social occasion, a way to win money, an exciting activity, and as a means to enhance self-importance. Comparison of the competing models revealed that gambling for the chance to win money was not the most prominent motivation in the prediction of problem gambling scores. Instead, the model that allowed the emotion focussed motivation to predict gambling problems was shown to provide a superior fit to the data. These findings underscore the importance of considering a range of motivational influences on gambling behaviour. Moreover, it appears the emotional aspects associated with gambling play a prominent role in sustained gambling behaviour.

  17. Does your older adult client have a gambling problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Cindy Sullivan; Schlenker, Emily; Hickey, Kari

    2011-06-01

    Pathological gambling is becoming an increasing problem in today's culture, particularly because opportunities and inducements to gamble abound. This article describes symptoms, consequences, and comorbidities experienced by pathological gamblers. Gambling pathology is often invisible because pathological gamblers seldom disclose gambling problems to their primary care provider. Thus, nurses will benefit from knowledge of the physical and emotional signs of the disorder. A two-question assessment tool, the Lie/Bet Questionnaire, is useful in helping nurses identify pathological gamblers. Interventions and treatment options, including group therapy and environmental modification, are also discussed. As always, education concerning problems and consequences of pathological gambling is a first step. Because research has indicated that visits to casinos by older adults have doubled since 1975, the authors use an example of an older adult to clarify the issues. Although the article's content is applicable to clients across the life span, it has particular significance for older adults. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. The relationship of tobacco use with gambling problem severity and gambling treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlaug, Brian L; Stinchfield, Randy; Golberstein, Ezra; Grant, Jon E

    2013-09-01

    This study sought to examine the impact of tobacco use on gambling treatment. Pathological gambling (PG) is a psychiatric condition associated with significant financial, emotional, and psychosocial consequences. Elevated rates of nicotine dependence have been associated with increased gambling severity and more frequent psychiatric problems. A total of 385 treatment-seeking pathological gamblers enrolled in one of 11 gambling treatment providers in Minnesota were assessed. Linear regression modeling was used to examine demographic and clinical variables at treatment entry and the relationship between those variables and the number of days gambled at a 6-month posttreatment. Logistic regression was utilized to assess predictors of treatment completion. Daily tobacco use was reported in 244 (63.4%) subjects. Tobacco users presented with significantly more severe gambling and mental health symptoms at treatment intake. Daily tobacco use, however, was not significantly associated with the number of days gambled or with treatment completion. Although tobacco users present with greater gambling problem severity, they had similar rates of treatment completion and treatment outcomes as nonusers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between gambling attitudes, involvement, and problems in adolescence: Examining the moderating role of coping strategies and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Ramsay W; Youssef, George J; Hasking, Penelope; Yücel, Murat; Jackson, Alun C; Dowling, Nicki A

    2016-07-01

    Several factors are associated with an increased risk of adolescent problem gambling, including positive gambling attitudes, higher levels of gambling involvement, ineffective coping strategies and unhelpful parenting practices. It is less clear, however, how these factors interact or influence each other in the development of problem gambling behavior during adolescence. The aim of the current study was to simultaneously explore these predictors, with a particular focus on the extent to which coping skills and parenting styles may moderate the expected association between gambling involvement and gambling problems. Participants were 612 high school students. The data were analyzed using a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression model, controlling for gender. Although several variables predicted the number of symptoms associated with problem gambling, none of them predicted the probability of displaying any problem gambling. Gambling involvement fully mediated the relationship between positive gambling attitudes and gambling problem severity. There was a significant relationship between gambling involvement and problems at any level of problem focused coping, reference to others and inconsistent discipline. However, adaptive coping styles employed by adolescents and consistent disciplinary practices by parents were buffers of gambling problems at low levels of adolescent gambling involvement, but failed to protect adolescents when their gambling involvement was high. These findings indicate that research exploring the development of gambling problems is required and imply that coping and parenting interventions may have particular utility for adolescents who are at risk of development gambling problems but who are not gambling frequently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Buddhist philosophy for the treatment of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonin, Edo; Van Gordon, William; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-06-01

    Purpose In the last five years, scientific interest into the potential applications of Buddhist-derived interventions (BDIs) for the treatment of problem gambling has been growing. This paper reviews current directions, proposes conceptual applications, and discusses integration issues relating to the utilisation of BDIs as problem gambling treatments. Method Aliterature search and evaluation of the empirical literature for BDIs as problem gambling treatments was undertaken. Results To date, research has been limited to cross-sectional studies and clinical case studies and findings indicate that Buddhist-derived mindfulness practices have the potential to play an important role in ameliorating problem gambling symptomatology. As an adjunct to mindfulness, other Buddhist-derived practices are also of interest including: (i) insight meditation techniques (e.g., meditation on 'emptiness') to overcome avoidance and dissociation strategies, (ii) 'antidotes' (e.g., patience, impermanence, etc.) to attenuate impulsivity and salience-related issues, (iii) loving-kindness and compassion meditation to foster positive thinking and reduce conflict, and (iv) 'middle-way' principles and 'bliss-substitution' to reduce relapse and temper withdrawal symptoms. In addition to an absence of controlled treatment studies, the successful operationalisation of BDIs as effective treatments for problem gambling may be impeded by issues such as a deficiency of suitably experienced BDI clinicians, and the poor provision by service providers of both BDIs and dedicated gambling interventions. Conclusions Preliminary findings for BDIs as problem gambling treatments are promising, however, further research is required.

  1. The intergenerational transmission of problem gambling: The mediating role of offspring gambling expectancies and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Oldenhof, E; Shandley, K; Youssef, G J; Vasiliadis, S; Thomas, S A; Frydenberg, E; Jackson, A C

    2018-02-01

    The risk for developing a gambling problem is greater among offspring who have a problem gambling parent, yet little research has directly examined the mechanisms by which this transmission of problem gambling occurs. For this reason, the present study sought to examine the degree to which children's expectancies and motives relating to gambling explain, at least in part, the intergenerational transmission of problem gambling. Participants (N=524; 56.5% male) were recruited from educational institutions, and retrospectively reported on parental problem gambling. Problem gambling was measured using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and a range of positive and negative expectancies and gambling motives were explored as potential mediators of the relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling. The relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling was significant, and remained so after controlling for sociodemographic factors and administration method. Significant mediators of this relationship included self-enhancement expectancies (feeling in control), money expectancies (financial gain), over-involvement (preoccupation with gambling) and emotional impact expectancies (guilt, shame, and loss), as well as enhancement motives (gambling to increase positive feelings) and coping motives (gambling to reduce or avoid negative emotions). All mediators remained significant when entered into the same model. The findings highlight that gambling expectancies and motives present unique pathways to the development of problem gambling in the offspring of problem gambling parents, and suggest that gambling cognitions may be potential candidates for targeted interventions for the offspring of problem gamblers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Piliwaiwai: Problem Gambling in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Gambling is illegal in Hawai‘i, but it is accessible through technology (eg, the internet), inexpensive trips to Las Vegas, and illegal gaming such as lottery sales, internet gambling, and sports betting. Where there are opportunities to gamble, there is a probability that problem gambling exists. The social costs of gambling are estimated to be as high as $26,300,000 for Hawai‘i. Because no peer-reviewed research on this topic exists, this paper has gathered together anecdotal accounts and media reports of illegal gambling in Hawai‘i, the existence of Gamblers Anonymous meetings operating on some of the islands, and an account of workshops on problem gambling that were provided by the author on three Hawaiian Islands. Through these lenses of gambling in Hawai‘i, it is suggested that there are residents in Hawai‘i who do experience problem gambling, yet it is unknown to what extent. Nonetheless, this paper argues that research and perhaps a public health initiative are warranted. PMID:27011888

  3. Piliwaiwai: Problem Gambling in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robin-Marie

    2016-03-01

    Gambling is illegal in Hawai'i, but it is accessible through technology (eg, the internet), inexpensive trips to Las Vegas, and illegal gaming such as lottery sales, internet gambling, and sports betting. Where there are opportunities to gamble, there is a probability that problem gambling exists. The social costs of gambling are estimated to be as high as $26,300,000 for Hawai'i. Because no peer-reviewed research on this topic exists, this paper has gathered together anecdotal accounts and media reports of illegal gambling in Hawai'i, the existence of Gamblers Anonymous meetings operating on some of the islands, and an account of workshops on problem gambling that were provided by the author on three Hawaiian Islands. Through these lenses of gambling in Hawai'i, it is suggested that there are residents in Hawai'i who do experience problem gambling, yet it is unknown to what extent. Nonetheless, this paper argues that research and perhaps a public health initiative are warranted.

  4. A Latent Class Analysis (LCA) of problem gambling among a sample of community-recruited gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Williams, Renee M; Hong, Song Iee

    2007-11-01

    Problem gambling rates are relatively low (2%-4%), yet these gamblers experience multisystemic negative consequences, high comorbidity, and low treatment utilization. We aimed to characterize variations in gambling patterns to inform prevention and intervention efforts. Using community advertising, we recruited a diverse sample of lifetime gamblers (n = 312) for telephone interviews for a psychometric study of the newly developed Computerized-Gambling Assessment Module. Latent Class Analysis enumerated and classified gambling subgroups by distinctive gambling patterns, based on 8 composite scales functioning as validators of latent class membership (i.e., diagnostic gambling symptoms, reasons for gambling, gambling "withdrawal-like" symptoms, problem gambling perceptions, gambling venues, financial sources for gambling, gambling treatment/help-seeking, and religiosity/spirituality). Based on a distinguishing clustering pattern driven by 6 of 8 factors, we found a 6-class solution was the best-fitting solution. Gambling severity is most strongly characterized not only by symptomatology but also by the number of gambling treatment/help-seeking sources used.

  5. The prevalence and nature of gambling and problem gambling in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki Joon

    2013-05-01

    To establish the current prevalence of gambling and problem gambling in South Korea and to determine the associated demographic and game play patterns. Administration of a gambling survey over the phone to 4,000 randomly selected South Korean adults (19+), supplemented by an online survey of 4,330 members of a South Korean online panel. The past year prevalence of gambling among South Korean adults was 41.8 %. The past year engagement in individual forms of gambling was 36.2 % for lotteries and instant lotteries; 12.0 % for social gambling; 2.3 % for sports betting; 1.5 % for casino gambling; 1.5 % for internet gambling; and 1.1 % for horse, bicycle, or motor boat betting. The past year prevalence of problem gambling was 0.5 %. Logistic regression identified the best predictors of problem gambling to be: having a greater number of gambling fallacies; gambling on the internet; betting on horses, bicycling, or motor boat racing; social gambling; male gender; mental health problems; sports betting; motivation for gambling (gambling to escape); casino gambling; and lower income. The past year prevalence of gambling (41.8 %) and problem gambling (0.5 %) in South Korea is low compared to other countries, especially relative to other Asian jurisdictions. This relatively low prevalence of gambling is likely related to the very strong negative attitudes toward it, the low participation by females, and restricted access. The low prevalence of problem gambling is likely related to the relatively low prevalence of gambling and restricted access to continuous forms of gambling. The variables that are predictive of problem gambling in South Korea are quite similar to those found in other countries with a couple of important differences.

  6. Greater involvement and diversity of Internet gambling as a risk factor for problem gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Gainsbury, Sally M.; Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex; Hing, Nerilee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Concerns that Internet gambling has elevated the prevalence of problem gambling have not been substantiated; however, evidence suggests a subgroup of Internet gamblers do experience higher rates of gambling harms. Greater overall involvement in gambling appears to be predictive of harms. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between Internet gamblers with a single or multiple online gambling accounts, including their gambling behaviours, factors influencing their on...

  7. When the Stakes Turn Toxic: Learn about Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011 Print this issue When the Stakes Turn Toxic Learn About Problem Gambling Send us your comments ... gambling. you lose a job, educational opportunity or relationship because of gambling. you find that no matter ...

  8. Problem and Pathological Gambling among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchfield, Randy; Hanson, William E.; Olson, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines problem and pathological gambling among college students and reports on prevalence rate, risk and protective factors, prevention and intervention, and recommendations for college student personnel and other university administrators.

  9. Problem Gambling in New Mexico: 1996 and 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Randall; Blankenship, Jason; May, Philip; Woodall, Gill

    2009-01-01

    Included in both the 1996 and 1998 Survey of Gambling Behavior in New Mexico was a scale of individual problem gambling. To assess problems related to gambling behavior, questions were developed using the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. The purpose of this paper is to describe problem gamblers in New Mexico. Descriptive data indicate…

  10. A systematic review of treatments for problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M; Ginley, Meredith K; Rash, Carla J

    2017-12-01

    Gambling problems impact 0.2%-4.0% of the population, and research related to treating gambling has burgeoned in the last decades. This article reviews trials for psychosocial treatments of gambling problems. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Standards, we identified 21 randomized trials. Eleven studies evaluated interventions delivered via multisession, in-person therapy: cognitive therapies, cognitive-behavioral (CB) therapies, and motivational interventions (MI) alone or with CB therapies. An additional 10 studies used approaches that involved 1 or fewer in-person sessions; these included workbooks with CB exercises alone or in combination with MI and brief feedback or advice interventions. Although most studies found some benefits of CB therapy (alone or combined with MI) and brief feedback or advice relative to the control condition in the short term, only a handful of studies demonstrated any long-term benefits. Nearly half the studies used waitlist controls, precluding an understanding of long-term efficacy, and standardized outcomes measures are also lacking. Populations also differ markedly across studies, from nontreatment-seeking persons who screened positive for gambling problems to those with severe gambling disorder, and these discrepant populations may require different interventions. Although problem gamblers with less pronounced symptoms may benefit from very minimal interventions, therapist contact generally improved outcomes relative to entirely self-directed interventions, and at least some therapist contact may be necessary for patients with more severe gambling pathology to benefit from CB interventions. As treatment services for gambling continue to grow, this review provides timely information on best practices for gambling treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Game On: Past Year Gambling, Gambling-Related Problems, and Fantasy Sports Gambling Among College Athletes and Non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Nelson, Sarah E; Gallucci, Andrew R

    2016-06-01

    College students experience higher rates of gambling-related problems than most other population segments, including the general population. Although Division I (D1) athletes often have more at stake than the average student if and when they gamble (e.g., the potential to lose their athletic eligibility), relatively few studies have assessed the gambling behavior of this population and none have specifically assessed fantasy sports gambling. We conducted a study to examine gambling behavior (past-year gambling, gambling-related problems, and fantasy sport gambling) among a sample (N = 692) of college students at a private religiously affiliated university in the Southwest US. The sample for our study was unique in that approximately 30 % of the participants were D1 athletes. We compared the gambling behavior among three groups based on the athlete status: D1 athletes, club/intramural/recreational (CIR) athletes, and non-athletes (NAs). Compared to females in our sample, males observed higher rates of past year gambling, fantasy sports participation, fantasy sports gambling, and gambling-related problems. Among males, we found that CIR athletes observed the highest rates of past year gambling and fantasy sports participation and D1 athletes observed higher rates than NAs. We did not find differences in fantasy sport gambling and past year gambling-related problems based on athlete status in males or females.

  12. Gambling as a Social Problem: On the Social Conditions of Gambling in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmaki, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Canadian legalized gambling has undergone a massive growth, resulting in numerous social problems such as crime, political corruption, and, most importantly, pathological gambling. When it comes to theorizing gambling in Canada, pathological gambling has been the centre of the attention for two related reasons: (1) the increasing…

  13. Internet Gambling and Problem Gambling among 13 to 18 Year Old Adolescents in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olason, Daniel Thor; Kristjansdottir, Elsa; Einarsdottir, Hafdis; Haraldsson, Haukur; Bjarnason, Geir; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports findings on Internet gambling and problem gambling among Icelandic youth. Participants were 1.537 13-18 year-old students, 786 boys and 747 girls. Results revealed that 56.6% had gambled at least once in the past 12 months and 24.3% on the Internet. Gender and developmental differences were found for Internet gambling, as boys…

  14. Opportunity Structure for Gambling and Problem Gambling among Employees in the Transport Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revheim, Tevje; Buvik, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Working conditions for employees in the transport sector might present an opportunity structure for gambling by providing access to gambling during the workday. This study investigates connections between opportunity structure, gambling during the workday, and gambling problems among employees in the transport sector. Data has been collected from…

  15. The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems in a community sample of adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, David C; Schopflocher, Don P; el-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Wood, Robert T

    2010-09-01

    The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems was examined in a community sample of men and women (N = 1,372). As hypothesized, individuals with gambling problems reported greater childhood maltreatment than individuals without gambling problems. Childhood maltreatment predicted severity of gambling problems and frequency of gambling even when other individual and social factors were controlled including symptoms of alcohol and other drug use disorders, family environment, psychological distress, and symptoms of antisocial disorder. In contrast to findings in treatment-seeking samples, women with gambling problems did not report greater maltreatment than men with gambling problems. These results underscore the need for both increased prevention of childhood maltreatment and increased sensitivity towards trauma issues in gambling treatment programs for men and women.

  16. Greater involvement and diversity of Internet gambling as a risk factor for problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex; Hing, Nerilee

    2015-08-01

    Concerns that Internet gambling has elevated the prevalence of problem gambling have not been substantiated; however, evidence suggests a subgroup of Internet gamblers do experience higher rates of gambling harms. Greater overall involvement in gambling appears to be predictive of harms. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between Internet gamblers with a single or multiple online gambling accounts, including their gambling behaviours, factors influencing their online gambling and risk of experiencing gambling problems. Internet gamblers (3178) responding to an online survey that assessed their gambling behaviour, and use of single or multiple online gambling accounts. Results revealed that multiple account holders were more involved gamblers, gambling on more activities and more frequently, and had higher rates of gambling problems than single account holders. Multiple account holders selected gambling sites based on price, betting options, payout rates and game experience, whereas single account holders prioritized legality and consumer protection features. Results suggest two different types of Internet gamblers: one motivated to move between sites to optimize preferred experiences with a tendency to gamble in a more volatile manner; and a smaller, but more stable group less influenced by promotions and experiences, and seeking a reputable and safe gambling experience. As the majority of Internet gamblers use multiple accounts, more universal responsible gambling strategies are needed to assist gamblers to track and control their expenditure to reduce risks of harm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Greater involvement and diversity of Internet gambling as a risk factor for problem gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex; Hing, Nerilee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Concerns that Internet gambling has elevated the prevalence of problem gambling have not been substantiated; however, evidence suggests a subgroup of Internet gamblers do experience higher rates of gambling harms. Greater overall involvement in gambling appears to be predictive of harms. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between Internet gamblers with a single or multiple online gambling accounts, including their gambling behaviours, factors influencing their online gambling and risk of experiencing gambling problems. Methods: Internet gamblers (3178) responding to an online survey that assessed their gambling behaviour, and use of single or multiple online gambling accounts. Results: Results revealed that multiple account holders were more involved gamblers, gambling on more activities and more frequently, and had higher rates of gambling problems than single account holders. Multiple account holders selected gambling sites based on price, betting options, payout rates and game experience, whereas single account holders prioritized legality and consumer protection features. Conclusion: Results suggest two different types of Internet gamblers: one motivated to move between sites to optimize preferred experiences with a tendency to gamble in a more volatile manner; and a smaller, but more stable group less influenced by promotions and experiences, and seeking a reputable and safe gambling experience. As the majority of Internet gamblers use multiple accounts, more universal responsible gambling strategies are needed to assist gamblers to track and control their expenditure to reduce risks of harm. PMID:25745873

  18. Characteristics of pathological gamblers with a problem gambling parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Liana; Odlaug, Brian L; Kim, Suck Won; Grant, Jon E

    2009-01-01

    This analysis compares the characteristics of adult pathological gamblers with and without a problem gambling parent. A sample of 517 individuals with current DSM-IV pathological gambling was categorized based on presence of a parental problem gambler. Groups were compared on clinical characteristics, gambling severity, gambling-related problems, and psychiatric comorbidity. Although the groups were similar on most measures, pathological gamblers with at least one problem gambling parent were more likely to have a father with an alcohol abuse/dependence problem; have financial and legal problems; and report daily nicotine use. Females with a problem gambling parent had significantly earlier onset of gambling behavior, were significantly more likely to have a father with an alcohol use disorder, and were significantly more likely to have financial problems secondary to gambling than females without a problem gambling parent. Males with a problem gambling parent were significantly more likely to have a father with an alcohol use disorder and have legal problems secondary to gambling compared to males without a problem gambling parent. Treatment approaches may need to be tailored for specific problems secondary to gambling and gender issues based on the history of having a problem gambling parent.

  19. Correlates of At-Risk/Problem Internet Gambling in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined Internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling in adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the Internet. Method: Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut…

  20. Gambling as an Emerging Health Problem on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhldreher, Wendy L.; Stuhldreher, Thomas J.; Forrest, Kimberly Y-Z

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors documented the prevalence of gambling and correlates to health among undergraduates. Methods: The authors analyzed data from a health-habit questionnaire (gambling questions included) given to students enrolled in a university-required course. Results: Gambling and problems with gambling were more frequent among men than…

  1. Attitudes Towards Gambling, Gambling Problems, and Treatment Among Hispanics in Imperial County, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Michael D; Camacho, Alvaro; Pereda, Karina; Santana, Katricia; Calix, Iberia; Fong, Timothy W

    2016-09-01

    Gambling problems are associated with a wide range of serious negative personal, social, health, and mental health consequences and are an important public health concern. Some data suggest that gambling problems may be more prevalent among Hispanics, but few studies have been conducted in this community. The aim of the current study was to gather community-based, gambling-related data in order to increase understanding of gambling problems and their treatment in the Hispanic community. We conducted a mixed-methods study of gambling behavior and attitudes towards gambling, those with gambling problems, and professional treatment for gambling problems in a publicly funded health center serving a primarily Hispanic clientele. Study participants included clinic staff and clinic patients. All participants completed a brief, self-report survey; however, staff participated in a focus group on gambling issues and patients were interviewed individually about gambling issues. Nearly 80 % of patients had gambled in the past month, as compared to about 36 % of clinic staff. Survey data showed that patients had many risk factors for gambling problems. Focus group and interview information indicated that most viewed gambling problems as a form of addiction, the elderly were seen as being at increased risk for gambling problems, and gambling outings represented one of the few recreational opportunities in the region. The majority of both staff and patients believed that there was a need for gambling-related treatment services in the county; however, a notable minority of patients said that they would first seek help from a trusted relative or family member. Possible avenues to increase awareness of, screening for, and treatment for gambling problems may include collaborations with publicly funded health care centers and the training of promotoras to serve as an interface between health services and the community.

  2. Predicting gambling problems from gambling outcome expectancies in college student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Paskus, Thomas S

    2014-03-01

    While previous research has suggested the potential importance of gambling outcome expectancies in determining gambling behaviour among adolescents, the predictive ability of gambling outcome expectancies has not yet been clearly delineated for college-aged youth. The current study aims to explore the relationships between gender and outcome expectancies in the prediction of gambling severity among college student-athletes. Data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) study assessing gambling behaviours and problems among U.S. college student-athletes were utilized. Complete data was available for 7,517 student-athletes. As expected, male college student-athletes reported more gambling participation as well as greater gambling problems than their female counterparts. Findings showed positive relationships between the outcome expectancies of financial gain, and negative emotional impacts and gambling problems. That is, those who endorsed more items on the outcome expectancy scales for financial gain and negative emotional impacts also tended to endorse more gambling-related problems. Findings also showed a negative relationship between outcome expectancies of fun and enjoyment, and gambling problems over and above the variance accounted for by gender. Those with gambling problems were less likely to have the expectation that gambling would be fun than those without gambling problems. Despite NCAA efforts to curb gambling activity, the results suggest that college student-athletes are at risk for over-involvement in gambling. Therefore, it is important to explore gambling outcome expectancies within this group since the motivations and reasons for gambling might be able to inform treatment initiatives.

  3. Correlates of at-risk/problem internet gambling in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N; Wareham, Justin D; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A

    2011-02-01

    The Internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined Internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling in adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the Internet. Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut high school student gamblers were analyzed using χ(2) and logistic regression analyses. At-risk/problem gambling was found more frequently in adolescent Internet gamblers than in non-Internet gamblers. Compared with at-risk/problem gambling in the non-Internet gambling group, at-risk/problem gambling in the Internet gambling group was more strongly associated with poor academic performance and substance use (particularly current heavy alcohol use; odds ratio 2.99; p = .03) and less strongly associated with gambling with friends (odds ratio 0.32; p = .0003). At-risk/problem gambling in the Internet and non-Internet gambling groups, respectively, was associated at p teenagers' involvement in Internet gambling, particularly because adolescent at-risk/problem Internet gambling appears specifically associated with non-peer involvement, heavy alcohol use, and poor academic functioning. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The intersection of obesity and the longitudinal course of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppink, Eric W; Fridberg, Daniel J; Redden, Sarah A; Grant, Jon E

    2016-12-30

    The purpose of this analysis was to assess the potential association between body mass index (BMI) and change in gambling symptom severity in a sample of non-treatment-seeking problem gamblers over a one year period. One-hundred sixty problem gamblers age 18-29 were recruited from the surrounding community and completed assessments of gambling behavior and related variables at baseline and one-year visits. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the association between BMI and symptom change, while accounting for nicotine use, gender, age, and baseline gambling severity. The sample included 102 normal weight, 35 overweight, and 23 obese gamblers. Groups differed in sex, age, gambling risk level, and current nicotine use. There was a significant obesity x baseline gambling risk level interaction for the model predicting changes in GD-YBOCS scores over the 1-year follow-up. Obese participants with gambling disorder showed significantly smaller improvements in symptoms over one year than normal weight participants. Results suggest that obesity predicts smaller improvements in gambling symptoms over time in those meeting criteria for gambling disorder. Future research should clarify the possible influence of impulsivity on this association, and assess the clinical utility of weight management programs in treatments for gambling disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictors of Problem Gambling Severity in Treatment Seeking Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounslow, Vanessa; Smith, David; Battersby, Malcolm; Morefield, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Problem gambling has become a widespread problem following the rapid expansion of electronic gaming machines into hotels and clubs over the last 10 years. Recent literature indicates that certain factors can influence problem gambling severity, such as psychiatric co-morbidity and personality traits, gambling related cognitions, substance use and…

  6. Gambling experiences, problems, research and policy: gambling in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Monika; Kräplin, Anja; Braun, Barbara; Kraus, Ludwig

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an overview of gambling in Germany, including historical development, legislative and economic changes as well as treatment options and their effectiveness. The available scientific literature and research reports on gambling in Germany were reviewed to obtain relevant information on history, commercialization, legislation, treatment and research agenda. Gambling in Germany is characterized by compromises between protective and economic efforts. At present, gambling is illegal in Germany, and provision is subject to the state monopoly. Mere gaming machines (specific slot machines) are not classified as gambling activity, permitting commercial providers. In recent years, implementing regulations for state gambling and gaming machines have been changed. Concerning the treatment of pathological gambling, various options exist; treatment costs have been covered by health and pension insurance since 2001. Information on the effectiveness of treatment in Germany is limited. Similarly, the number of peer-reviewed publications on gambling is small. German gambling legislation was subject to major changes in the past years. Based on the available body of research (longitudinal), studies on risk and protective factors and the aetiology of pathological gambling are needed. The effectiveness of pathological gambling treatment in Germany and the impact of gambling regulations on gambling behaviour also need to be investigated. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Problem Gambling Family Impacts: Development of the Problem Gambling Family Impact Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Suomi, A; Jackson, A C; Lavis, T

    2016-09-01

    Although family members of problem gamblers frequently present to treatment services, problem gambling family impacts are under-researched. The most commonly endorsed items on a new measure of gambling-related family impacts [Problem Gambling Family Impact Measure (PG-FIM: Problem Gambler version)] by 212 treatment-seeking problem gamblers included trust (62.5 %), anger (61.8 %), depression or sadness (58.7 %), anxiety (57.7 %), distress due to gambling-related absences (56.1 %), reduced quality time (52.4 %), and communication breakdowns (52.4 %). The PG-FIM (Problem Gambler version) was comprised of three factors: (1) financial impacts, (2) increased responsibility impacts, and (3) psychosocial impacts with good psychometric properties. Younger, more impulsive, non-electronic gaming machine (EGM) gamblers who had more severe gambling problems reported more financial impacts; non-EGM gamblers with poorer general health reported more increased responsibility impacts; and more impulsive non-EGM gamblers with more psychological distress and higher gambling severity reported more psychosocial impacts. The findings have implications for the development of interventions for the family members of problem gamblers.

  8. The PROblem Gambling RESearch Study (PROGRESS) research protocol: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of psychological interventions for problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shane A; Merkouris, Stephanie S; Browning, Colette J; Radermacher, Harriet; Feldman, Susan; Enticott, Joanne; Jackson, Alun C

    2015-11-24

    International prevalence rates for problem gambling are estimated at 2.3%. Problem gambling is a serious global public health concern due to adverse personal and social consequences. Previous research evaluating the effectiveness of psychological interventions for the treatment of problem gambling has been compromised by methodological limitations, including small sample sizes and the use of waitlist control groups. This article describes the study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), behaviour therapy (BT), motivational interviewing (MI) against a non-directive supportive therapy (NDST) control, in treating problem gambling. This study was a mixed-methods design, with a parallel group, pragmatic RCT as the primary component, and embedded qualitative studies conducted alongside. A total of 297 participants were recruited from the community in Victoria, Australia. Individuals aged 18 years and over, could communicate in English and wished to receive treatment for a gambling problem were eligible. Participants were randomly allocated in to 1 of the 4 psychological interventions: CBT, BT, MI and NDST. Repeated measures were conducted at pretreatment and post-treatment, and 6 and 12 months post-treatment. The statistical analysis will use an intention-to-treat approach. Multilevel mixed modelling will be used to examine changes in the primary outcome measures: gambling symptom severity, using the Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale, and gambling behaviours (frequency, time and expenditure). Secondary outcomes are depression, anxiety, stress and alcohol use. Individual semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted at pretreatment and post-treatment and 12 months post-treatment for a subset of participants (n=66). This study was approved by the Victorian Department of Justice, Monash University and the University of Melbourne Human Research Ethics Committees. Findings

  9. Culture and age influences upon gambling and problem gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythily Subramaniam

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: For the majority of older adults, gambling remains a recreational activity that is entertaining and a way of socialization. However, one must remain cognizant of the possible risks for some to develop disordered gambling.

  10. Dopaminergic Medication in Parkinson's Disease and Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olley, Jacqueline; Blaszczynski, Alex; Lewis, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Studies on Parkinson's disease patients on dopaminergic medication report elevated rates of problem gambling. Results suggest changes in gambling behaviour are associated with the commencement and termination of dopaminergic medication implying a direct causal relationship. However, previous reports have not controlled for possible factors independent of dopamine medication contributing to the onset of problem gambling. This study aimed to explore the temporal relationships between problem gambling and dopamine medication taking into account premorbid gambling risk factors in a sample of Parkinson's disease patients. Twenty patients with Parkinson's disease meeting criteria for moderate risk or problem gambling were compared to twenty patients with Parkinson's disease who did not meet such criteria. The cross-sectional research design compared between group qualitative and quantitative differences. Participants completed an in-depth interview and timeline follow back, and battery of psychometric measures assessing impulsivity, gambling status, affective states, and obsessionality. Results revealed a complex and varied temporal relationship between dopaminergic medication onset and gambling. A small number of participants manifested excessive gambling following dopaminergic medication, with some ceasing on reduction in dosage or change in agonist class. Many demonstrated a range of individual and situational characteristic similar to problem gamblers in the general population, and in older adults with gambling problems. The obtained results provide a better understanding of the role of dopaminergic medication in problem gambling. Such findings have theoretical relevance to the reward deficiency model of gambling and have implications for the treatment of pathological gambling in PD and the general community.

  11. Gambling and Problem Gambling in the United States: Changes Between 1999 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, John W; Barnes, Grace M; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O; Hoffman, Joseph H; Wieczorek, William F

    2015-09-01

    Telephone surveys of US adults were conducted in 1999-2000 and again in 2011-2013. The same questions and methods were used so as to make the surveys comparable. There was a reduction in percentage of past-year gambling and in frequency of gambling. Rates of problem gambling remained stable. Lottery was included among the specific types of gambling for which past year participation and frequency of play declined. Internet gambling was the only form of gambling for which the past-year participation rate increased. The average win/loss increased for several forms of gambling, providing a modest indication that gamblers were betting more, albeit less frequently. Between the two surveys, the rates of past-year participation in gambling declined markedly for young adults. In both surveys, rates of problem gambling were higher for males than females, and this difference increased markedly between surveys as problem gambling rates increased for males and decreased for females. For the combined surveys, rates of problem gambling were highest for blacks and Hispanics and lowest for whites and Asians. In both surveys, the rates of problem gambling declined as socio-economic status became higher. Possible explanations for these trends are discussed.

  12. Risk Factors for Problem Gambling in California: Demographics, Comorbidities and Gambling Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volberg, Rachel A; McNamara, Lauren M; Carris, Kari L

    2017-07-06

    While population surveys have been carried out in numerous jurisdictions internationally, little has been done to assess the relative strength of different risk factors that may contribute to the development of problem gambling. This is an important preparatory step for future research on the etiology of problem gambling. Using data from the 2006 California Problem Gambling Prevalence Survey, a telephone survey of adult California residents that used the NODS to assess respondents for gambling problems, binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify demographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, and gambling participation variables that statistically predicted the odds of being a problem or pathological gambler. In a separate approach, linear regression analysis was used to assess the impact of changes in these variables on the severity of the disorder. In both of the final models, the greatest statistical predictor of problem gambling status was past year Internet gambling. Furthermore, the unique finding of a significant interaction between physical or mental disability, Internet gambling, and problem gambling highlights the importance of exploring the interactions between different forms of gambling, the experience of mental and physical health issues, and the development of problem gambling using a longitudinal lens.

  13. Young Adults with Gambling Problems: The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2010-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…

  14. Italian Adult Gambling Behavior: At Risk and Problem Gambler Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalera, Cesare; Bastiani, Luca; Gusmeroli, Pamela; Fiocchi, Adelmo; Pagnini, Francesco; Molinari, Enrico; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2017-11-13

    The present study examined adult gambling behaviours from a local perspective in order to assess the adult at risk and problem gambler's profile stratified by genre and by different forms of game. 4773 Italian adults from 18 to 94 years old were administered a survey to assess socio-cultural information related to gambling behaviour and the SOGS to evaluate gambling behaviour severity. Logistic regression evidenced that both at risk and problem gamblers are associated with male gender, players that use to play to more than one game, gambling with strategy-based games. People with a gambler father or both parents who used to gamble were significantly more associated with problem gambling behaviour than participants with non-gambler parents. These results present adult profiles of at risk and problem providing a more clear understanding about the relationships between gambling behavior severity and type of gambling.

  15. Problem gambling in adolescents: an examination of the pathways model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rina; Nower, Lia; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Blaszczynski, Alex; Faregh, Neda; Temcheff, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    This research tests the applicability of the Integrated Pathways Model for gambling to adolescent problem gamblers, utilizing a cross-sectional design and self-report questionnaires. Although the overall sample consisted of 1,133 adolescents (Quebec: n = 994, 87.7 %; Ontario: n = 139, 12.3 %: Male = 558, 49.5 %; Female = 569, 50.5 %), only problem gamblers were retained in testing the model (N = 109). Personality and clinical features were assessed using the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory, attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) using the Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-Report Scale, and the DSM-IV-MR-J and Gambling Activities Questionnaire to determine gambling severity and reasons for gambling. Latent class analysis concluded 5 classes, yet still provided preliminary support for three distinct subgroups similar to those proposed by the Pathways Model, adding a depression only subtype, and a subtype of problem gamblers experiencing both internalizing and externalizing disorders. ADHD symptoms were found to be common to 4 of the 5 classes.

  16. Health/functioning characteristics, gambling behaviors and gambling-related motivations in adolescents stratified by gambling problem severity: Findings from a high-school survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yip, Sarah W.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2011-01-01

    In adults, different levels of gambling problem severity are differentially associated with measures of health and general functioning, gambling behaviors and gambling-related motivations. Here we present data from a survey of 2,484 Connecticut high school students, and investigate the data stratifying by gambling problem severity based on DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Problem/pathological gambling was associated with a range of negative functions; e.g., poor academic performance...

  17. The effect of online gambling on gambling problems and resulting economic health costs in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effertz, Tobias; Bischof, Anja; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich

    2018-01-23

    Problematic and pathological gambling have emerged as substantial problems in many countries. One potential accelerating factor for this phenomenon during recent years is the Internet, which offers different kinds of games and online applications for gambling that are faster, more attractive due to a variety of design and marketing options, less costly and potentially more addictive than terrestrial gambling opportunities. However, the contributing role of the Internet for problematic gambling has not been analyzed sufficiently so far and remains inconclusive. The current study is based on a representative sample with 15,023 individuals from Germany. With a new concept of assessing online gambling with its relative fraction of total gambling activities and a control-function approach to account for possible endogeneity of online gambling, we estimate the impact of online gambling on gambling behavior while additionally controlling for a rich set of important covariates, like education, employment situation and family status. The results show that, on average, replacing 10% of offline gambling with online gambling increases the likelihood of being a problematic gambler by 8.8-12.6%. This increase is equivalent to 139,322 problematic gamblers and 27.24 million € per year of additional expenditures in the German health sector. Our findings underpin the necessity to keep online gambling restricted to prevent further developments of problematic and pathological gambling in Germany.

  18. A cross-sectional study of problem gambling and its correlates among college students in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sanju; Ts, Jaisoorya; Nair, Sivasankaran; Rani, Anjana; Menon, Priya; Madhavan, Revamma; Rajan, Jeevan Chakkandan; Radhakrishnan, Komath Sankaran; Jose, Vineeta; Benegal, Vivek; Thennarasu, K; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-05-01

    In the Western world, a significant portion of college students have gambled. College gamblers have one of the highest rates of problem gambling. To date, there have been no studies on gambling participation or the rates of problem gambling in India. This study evaluated the prevalence of gambling participation and problem gambling in college students in India. It also evaluated demographic and psychosocial correlates of gambling in that population. We surveyed 5784 college students from 58 colleges in the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, India, using cluster random sampling. Students completed questionnaires that addressed gambling, substance use, psychological distress, suicidality and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 5580 completed questionnaires were returned, and while only 1090 (19.5%) college students reported having ever gambled, 415 (7.4%) reported problem gambling. Lotteries were the most popular form of gambling. Problem gamblers in comparison with non-gamblers were significantly more likely to be male, have a part-time job, greater academic failures, higher substance use, higher psychological distress scores, higher suicidality and higher ADHD symptom scores. In comparison with non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers were significantly more likely to have greater academic failures, higher psychological distress scores, higher suicidality and higher ADHD symptom scores. This study, the first to look at the prevalence of gambling in India, found relatively low rates of gambling participation in college students but high rates of problem gambling among those who did gamble. Correlates of gambling were generally similar to those noted in other countries. Since 38% of college students who had gambled had a gambling problem, there is a need for immediate public health measures to raise awareness about gambling, and to prevent and treat problem gambling in this population. S.G. was (until October 2014) a member of the UK Responsible

  19. The Intergenerational Association Between Parents' Problem Gambling and Impulsivity-Hyperactivity/Inattention Behaviors in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E

    2017-11-04

    Despite the well-established association between problem gambling and ADHD core categories of impulsivity-hyperactivity and inattention, the link between parents' problem gambling and impulsivity-hyperactivity/inattention (IH/I) behaviors in children has not been investigated. This study investigated the association between parents' problem gambling and children's IH/I behaviors while controlling for potential confounding variables. A population-based prospective cohort followed-up from kindergarten to age 30, the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC), provided data over three generations. Among 1358 participants at age 30, parents with a child aged 1 year or older (N = 468; Mean age = 4.65 years; SD = 2.70) were selected. Generalized Linear Models included measures of grandparents' and parents' problem gambling, parents' IH/I behaviors in childhood, and a host of risk factors and comorbidities to predict IH/I in children. Intergenerational bivariate associations were observed between grandparents' problem gambling, parents' IH/I in childhood and problem gambling at age 30, and between parents' IH/I, problem gambling, and children's IH/I behaviors. Parents' problem gambling predicted children's IH/I behaviors above and beyond the effects of covariates such as family and socioeconomic characteristics, alcohol and drug use, depression symptoms and parents' gambling involvement. Parents' IH/I behaviors in childhood also predicted children's IH/I and had a moderating, enhancing effect on parents' problem gambling association with their offspring's IH/I behaviors. Problem gambling is a characteristic of parents' mental health that is distinctively associated with children's IH/I behaviors, above and beyond parents' own history of IH/I and of typically related addictive, psychopathological or socioeconomic risk factors and comorbidities.

  20. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Problem Gambling among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Krieger, Heather; Tackett, Jennifer L; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-06-01

    The college years are a formative period where the risk for development of problematic gambling is high. Research examining racial and ethnic differences in gambling behaviors has been limited and inconsistent. The aims of this study were to examine racial and ethnic differences in problem gambling among a large sample of college students. Undergraduates (N = 3058) from a large southern university completed an online screening questionnaire which included demographics, gambling frequency, gambling expenditure (i.e. money lost) in the previous 6 months, and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Negative binomial regression results indicated that Asian participants gambled less frequently than participants who were Caucasian or Hispanic/Latino(a), but spent more money than participants who were African-American (AA)/Black or Hispanic/Latino(a). A significantly larger proportion of Asian students met probable pathological gambling criteria (SOGS 5+; 7.8 %) and at-risk gambling criteria (SOGS 3+; 16.3 %)) than Caucasian (5.2; 10.1 %), AA/Black (3.9; 10.2 %), or Hispanic/Latino(a) (3.6; 9.4 %) students. Additionally, a significantly larger proportion of Asian students endorsed problematic gambling indicators such as lying about losses, feeling guilty about gambling, feeling like they had a gambling problem, being criticized for their gambling, feeling like they couldn't stop gambling, losing time from school or work due to gambling, having a family history of problem gambling, and arguing with close others about their gambling than Caucasian, AA/Black or Hispanic/Latino(a) students. Results suggest that Asian students may be a high-risk sub-group of college gamblers, and that there is a critical need for targeted interventions for this population.

  1. Problem gambling among ethnic minorities: results from an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caler, Kyle R; Vargas Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Nower, Lia

    2017-01-01

    A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341) to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394), Black (n = 261), or Asian/other (n = 177). Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  2. Problem gambling among ethnic minorities: results from an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R. Caler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341 to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394, Black (n = 261, or Asian/other (n = 177. Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  3. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Franco, Christine A; Hoff, Rani A; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Analyses utilized survey data from 1591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Franco, Christine A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Methods Analyses utilized survey data from 1,591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. Results For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Discussion Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Conclusion Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. PMID:25959617

  5. Association of Problem Gambling with Type of Gambling Among Italian General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalese, Marco; Bastiani, Luca; Salvadori, Stefano; Gori, Mercedes; Lewis, Isabella; Jarre, Paolo; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2016-09-01

    The origin of gambling disorders is uncertain; however, research has shown a tendency to focus on specific types of games as a potential important risk factor. The principal aim of this study is to examine the relationships between types of gambling practices and gambling disorder. The data were extracted from IPSAD-Italia(®) 2010-2011 (Italian Population Survey on Alcohol and other Drugs), a survey among the Italian general population which collects socio-cultural information, information about the use of drugs, legal substances and gambling habits. In order to identify the "problem gambler" we used the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Three groups are considered in this analysis: no-risk gamblers, low-risk gamblers, moderate-risk/problem gamblers. Type of gambling practice was considered among two types of gambler: one-game players and multi-games players. 1.9 % of multi-game players were considered problem gamblers, only 0.6 % of one-game players were problem gamblers (p gambling severity was associated with multi-game players (OR = 2.23, p gambling severity among both one-game players and multi-game players, with scores of OR equal to 4.3 and 4.5 respectively. These findings suggest a popular perception of risk associated with this type of gambling for the development of gambling problems.

  6. Fraternity as "Enabling Environment:" Does Membership Lead to Gambling Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddix, J. Patrick; Hardy, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that fraternity membership is the most reliable predictor of gambling and gambling problems on campus. The purpose of this study was to determine if problematic gambling could be linked to specific aspects of fraternity membership. Though the null hypothesis (no enabling environment) failed to be rejected, descriptive…

  7. Problem Gambling among Young People in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Derrick Ssewanyana; Derrick Ssewanyana; Byron Bitanihirwe

    2018-01-01

    Gambling is a cross-cultural and global activity which typically involves the wagering of money or an item of monetary value on an outcome that is governed by chance. Although gambling is positioned as a legitimate recreational and leisure activity within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), there is widespread recognition among healthcare professionals and policy-makers that gambling has the capacity to become dysfunctional in a minority. Emerging knowledge suggests that problem gambling is rapidly evo...

  8. Self-Directed Gambling Changes: Trajectory of Problem Gambling Severity in Absence of Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Godinho, Alexandra; Hodgins, David C; Hendershot, Christian S; Cunningham, John A

    2018-03-27

    Most problem gamblers do not seek formal treatment, recovering on their own through cognitive re-appraisal or self-help strategies. Although barriers to treatment have been extensively studied, there is a paucity of research on self-directed changes in problem gambling and very few studies have examined these changes prospectively. The aim of this study was to examine the trajectory of gambling severity and behavior change over an 18-month period, among a sample of non-treatment seeking/attending problem gamblers recruited from the community (N = 204) interested in quitting or reducing gambling. Separate mixed effects models revealed that in absence of formal treatment, significant reductions in gambling severity, frequency, and amount gambled could be observed over the course of a 6 to 9-month period and that changes experienced within the first 12 months were maintained for an extended 6 months. Problem gambling severity at baseline was significantly associated with changes in severity over time, such that participants with more severe gambling problems demonstrated greater reductions in their gambling severity over time. A total of 11.1% of participants gambled within a low-risk threshold at 18 months, although 28.7% of the sample reported consecutive gambling severity scores below problem levels for the duration of 1 year or longer. The findings suggest that among problem gamblers motivated to quit or reduce their gambling, significant self-directed changes in gambling severity can occur over a relatively short time. Additional prospective studies are needed to document the role of specific self-help tools or thought processes in exacting gambling changes.

  9. The Relationships between Mental Health Symptoms and Gambling Behavior in the Transition from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic; Pallesen, Ståle; Hanss, Daniel; Leino, Tony; Molde, Helge; Mentzoni, Rune A.; Torsheim, Torbjørn

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of longitudinal investigations of gambling behavior in the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. We conducted a longitudinal investigation of the associations and patterns of change between mental health symptoms and gambling behavior. A representative sample of Norwegians completed questionnaires containing demographic, mental health, and gambling measures at age 17 (N = 2055), and at ages 18 (N = 1334) and 19 (N = 1277). Using latent class analysis, three classes of gambling behavior were identified: consistent non-gambling (71.1%), consistent non-risk gambling (23.8%), and risky-and-problem gambling (5.1%). Being male, showing higher physical and verbal aggression and having more symptoms of depression were associated with greater odds of belonging to the risky-and-problem gambling class at age 17. Overall, the risky-and-problem gambling class had the highest physical and verbal aggression, anxiety, and depression at 19 years. Our findings elucidate the reciprocal relationship between mental health and gambling behavior in the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood, and the importance of recognizing these factors in designing targeted interventions. PMID:28408894

  10. Gambling behavior and problem gambling reflecting social transition and traumatic childhood events among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    to study gambling behavior and problem gambling among Greenland Inuit in relation to the ongoing social transition and traumatic events during childhood. Design, settings and participants: A large representative cross-sectional study among Greenland Inuit (n=2189). Data was collected among adults (18......+) in 9 towns and 13 villages in Greenland from 2005-2010. Measurements: Problem gambling, gambling behavior and traumatic childhood events were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. The lie/bet screen was used to identify past year and lifetime problem gambling. Social transition...... was measured as place of residence and a combination of residence, education and occupation. Findings: The lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 16% among men and 10% among women (p

  11. Gambling Behavior and Problem Gambling Reflecting Social Transition and Traumatic Childhood Events Among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    gambling behavior and problem gambling among Greenland Inuit in relation to the ongoing social transition and traumatic events during childhood. A large representative cross-sectional study was conducted among Greenland Inuit (n = 2,189). Data was collected among adults (18+) in 9 towns and 13 villages...... in Greenland from 2005 to 2010. Problem gambling, gambling behavior and traumatic childhood events were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. The lie/bet screen was used to identify past year and lifetime problem gambling. Social transition was measured as place of residence and a combination...... of residence, education and occupation. The lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 16 % among men and 10 % among women (p ...

  12. Gambling disorder, DSM-5 criteria and symptom severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Gambling disorder (GD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition whose severity is typically defined by the number of DSM-5 criteria met out of a maximum of nine. The relationships between the levels of gambling severity, thus defined, and other measures of psychopathology and everyday...... of variance models. Results: The sample included 574 adults with GD, of whom 73 (12.7%) had mild, 184 (32.1%) moderate, and 317 (55.2%) severe GD. The moderate and severe cases, compared to mild severity group tended be older, had later age of onset, lost more money to gambling in the preceding year, had...... for Pathological Gambling (PG-YBOCS) discriminated significantly between all three groups. Conclusions: Several measures of psychopathology and functional impact of gambling symptoms appear similar between moderate and severe GD cases, while mild cases are clearly differentiated from moderate and severe cases...

  13. Factors Associated with the Severity of Gambling Problems in a Community Gambling Treatment Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namrata, Raylu; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Factors (demographics, gambling behaviors and comorbid problems) that may be related to the severity of gambling problems were investigated among 440 problem gamblers seeking treatment in an Australian outpatient treatment agency. The participants were divided into sub-threshold pathological gamblers (SPGs; N = 104) and pathological gamblers (PGs;…

  14. Problem gambling symptomatology and alcohol misuse among adolescents: A parallel-process latent growth curve model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti-Packer, Seema; Hodgins, David C; El-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Currie, Shawn R; Williams, Robert J; Smith, Garry J; Schopflocher, Don P

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine the possible temporal associations between alcohol misuse and problem gambling symptomatology from adolescence through to young adulthood. Parallel-process latent growth curve modeling was used to examine the trajectories of alcohol misuse and symptoms of problem gambling over time. Data were from a sample of adolescents recruited for the Leisure, Lifestyle, and Lifecycle Project in Alberta, Canada (n = 436), which included 4 assessments over 5 years. There was an average decline in problem gambling symptoms followed by an accelerating upward trend as the sample reached the legal age to gamble. There was significant variation in the rate of change in problem gambling symptoms over time; not all respondents followed the same trajectory. There was an average increase in alcohol misuse over time, with significant variability in baseline levels of use and the rate of change over time. The unconditional parallel process model indicated that higher baseline levels of alcohol misuse were associated with higher baseline levels of problem gambling symptoms. In addition, higher baseline levels of alcohol misuse were associated with steeper declines in problem gambling symptoms over time. However, these between-process correlations did not retain significance when covariates were added to the model, indicating that one behavior was not a risk factor for the other. The lack of mutual influence in the problem gambling symptomatology and alcohol misuse processes suggest that there are common risk factors underlying these two behaviors, supporting the notion of a syndrome model of addiction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Relationship Between Impulsivity And Problem Gambling In Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Secades-Villa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gambling has become one of the most frequently reported addictive behaviors among young people. Understanding risk factors associated with the onset or maintenance of gambling problems in adolescence has implications for its prevention and treatment. The main aim of the present study was to examine the potential relationships between impulsivity and problem gambling in adolescence. Participants were 874 high school students (average age: 15 years old who were surveyed to provide data on gambling and impulsivity. Self-reported gambling behavior was assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen – Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA and impulsivity was measured using the Impulsive Sensation Seeking Questionnaire (ZKPQ, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11-A, and a delay discounting task. The data were analyzed using both a prospective-longitudinal and a cross-sectional design. In the longitudinal analyses, results showed that the impulsivity subscale of the ZKPQ increased the risk of problem gambling (p =.003. In the cross-sectional analyses, all the impulsivity measures were higher in at-risk/problem gamblers than in non-problem gamblers (p = .04; .03 and .01 respectively. These findings further support the relationship between impulsivity and gambling in adolescence. Moreover, our findings suggest a bidirectional relationship between impulsivity and problem gambling in adolescence. These results have consequences for the development of prevention and treatment programs for adolescents with gambling problems.

  16. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Problem Gambling in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Martínez-Loredo, Victor; Grande-Gosende, Aris; Fernández-Hermida, José R

    2016-01-01

    Gambling has become one of the most frequently reported addictive behaviors among young people. Understanding risk factors associated with the onset or maintenance of gambling problems in adolescence has implications for its prevention and treatment. The main aim of the present study was to examine the potential relationships between impulsivity and problem gambling in adolescence. Participants were 874 high school students (average age: 15 years old) who were surveyed to provide data on gambling and impulsivity. Self-reported gambling behavior was assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen - Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA) and impulsivity was measured using the Impulsive Sensation Seeking Questionnaire (ZKPQ), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11-A), and a delay discounting task. The data were analyzed using both a prospective-longitudinal and a cross-sectional design. In the longitudinal analyses, results showed that the impulsivity subscale of the ZKPQ increased the risk of problem gambling ( p = 0.003). In the cross-sectional analyses, all the impulsivity measures were higher in at-risk/problem gamblers than in non-problem gamblers ( p = 0.04; 0.03; and 0.01, respectively). These findings further support the relationship between impulsivity and gambling in adolescence. Moreover, our findings suggest a bidirectional relationship between impulsivity and problem gambling in adolescence. These results have consequences for the development of prevention and treatment programs for adolescents with gambling problems.

  17. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, −0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling. PMID:28849669

  18. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, -0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling.

  19. Problem and Pathological Gambling in a Sample of Casino Patrons

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Timothy W.; Campos, Michael D.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Davis, Alice; Marco, Adrienne; Pecanha, Viviane; Rosenthal, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Relatively few studies have examined gambling problems among individuals in a casino setting. The current study sought to examine the prevalence of gambling problems among a sample of casino patrons and examine alcohol and tobacco use, health status, and quality of life by gambling problem status. To these ends, 176 casino patrons were recruited by going to a Southern California casino and requesting that they complete an anonymous survey. Results indicated the following lifetime rates for at...

  20. Gambling experiences, problems and policy in India: a historical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benegal, Vivek

    2013-12-01

    This paper seeks to provide a historical overview of gambling and contemporary anti-gambling legislation in India. Based on a review of available literature, including historical sources, publications in the lay press and internet sources, this paper draws together evidence to present a synopsis of gambling and anti-gambling measures from antiquity to present times. Gambling is a popular pastime and has been a ubiquitous part of daily life from antiquity until the present. Archaic laws, framed in the 19th century, still regulate gambling in India, with a formal ban on most forms of gambling. This has created a huge illegal gambling market, with its attendant problems. Recent developments, including an explosion of sports betting operations (especially in cricket) and internet betting sites, are challenging the status quo and leading to calls for legalizing gambling. Concern for the consequences of pathological/ problem gambling is conspicuous by its absence in popular discourse and academic research. Despite the importance and longevity of the practice of gambling in the daily life of India, and the opposition to it, due to the potential for individual and societal harm there is a surprising lack of contemporary curiosity and scholarly literature on pathological gambling from the region. The prohibitions against gambling are being increasingly challenged to change to a system of legalized gambling. To inform and guide public policy and future legislation, there is a serious need to initiate rational, scientific enquiries into the nature and impact of gambling in India. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Problem Gambling and the Youth-to-Adulthood Transition: Assessing Problem Gambling Severity Trajectories in a Sample of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, Jason D; Melnyk, Timothy S; Roberts, Lance W

    2015-12-01

    In this study, using four wave longitudinal data, we examined problem gambling severity trajectories in a sample of young adults. Using latent growth curve modeling, we examined how initial level of problem gambling severity and the rate of change were affected by 11 time-invariant predictors: gender, age of onset of gambling, experiencing a big win early in gambling career, experiencing a big loss early in gambling career, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, anxiety, depression, perceived social support, illusion of control, and impulsiveness. Five of the eleven predictors affected initial levels of problem gambling severity; however only impulsiveness affected the rate of change across time. The mean trajectory was negative (lessening of problem gambling risk severity across time), but there was significant inter-individual variation in trajectories and initial levels of problem gambling severity. The main finding of problem gambling risk diminishing over time challenges the conventional picture of problem gambling as an inevitable "downward spiral," at least among young adults, and suggests that targeted prevention campaigns may be a cost-effective alternative for reaching treatment resistant youth.

  2. Problem gambling: patients affected by their own or another's gambling may approve of help from general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sean; McCormick, Ross; Lamont, Michael; Penfold, Alison

    2007-06-29

    To identify the health effects, including depression, on problem gambling patients and family members, and their perception of their GP as a help provider for problem gambling. 1580 patients from practices in Auckland, Taranaki, and Rotorua completed an anonymous questionnaire containing brief screens for problem gambling, effects on family of gambling, and depression. Patients were asked to assess their GP as a help provider for problem gambling. 7.5% of patients were positive for problem gambling, ranging from 3% of NZ European patients to 24% of Pacific patients; 18% of patients were affected by another's gambling. Less than one in four problem gambling patients, and one in three family positives, did not perceive their GP as a suitable help provider for problem gambling issues. Problem gambling patients were more likely than other patients to approve their GP as a help-provider. Patients affected by problem gambling were more depressed than other patients. No other disease indicators were found. Patients over 54 years are less likely than others to be problem gamblers. Problem gambling is associated with depression in patients. GPs are an important complementary resource for brief interventions for gambling problems, and for some possibly a more acceptable alternative than attending specialist problem gambling treatment providers.

  3. Breadth and depth involvement: Understanding Internet gambling involvement and its relationship to gambling problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; Gray, Heather M

    2014-06-01

    The "involvement effect" refers to the finding that controlling for gambling involvement often reduces or eliminates frequently observed game-specific associations with problem gambling. In other words, broader patterns of gambling behavior, particularly the number of types of games played over a defined period, contribute more to problem gambling than playing specific games (e.g., lottery, casino, Internet gambling). This study extends this burgeoning area of inquiry in three primary ways. First, it tests independently and simultaneously the predictive power of two gambling patterns: breadth involvement (i.e., the number of games an individual plays) and depth involvement (i.e., the number of days an individual plays). Second, it includes the first involvement analyses of actual betting activity records that are associated with clinical screening information. Third, it evaluates and compares the linearity of breadth and depth effects. We conducted analyses of the actual gambling activity of 1,440 subscribers to the bwin.party gambling service who completed an online gambling disorder screen. In all, 11 of the 16 games we examined had a significant univariate association with a positive screen for gambling disorder. However, after controlling for breadth involvement, only Live Action Internet sports betting retained a significant relationship with potential gambling-related problems. Depth involvement, though significantly related to potential problems, did not impact game-based gambling disorder associations as much as breadth involvement. Finally, breadth effects appeared steeply linear, with a slight quadratic component manifesting beyond four games played, but depth effects appeared to have a strong linear component and a slight cubic component.

  4. Beyond Recreational Gambling : a Psychological Perspective on Risk- and Problem Gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Sundqvist, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to examine risk gambling in the general population from a psychological perspective. This was done in three studies targeting personality, risky alcohol habits and gambling motives, respectively. Initially, 19 530 randomly assigned Swedish citizens were screened for problem gambling via telephone using the two questions in the Lie/Bet questionnaire. This sample constitutes the basis for one of the studies in the thesis. For the other studies, individuals ans...

  5. On the latent structure of problem gambling: a taxometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Richard J E; O'Malley, Claire; Tunney, Richard J

    2014-10-01

    To test whether problem gambling is a categorical or dimensional disorder on the basis of two problem gambling assessments. This distinction discriminates between two different conceptualizations of problem gambling: one that problem gambling is defined by its addictive properties, the other that it is a continuum of harm. Using The British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2010, a nationally representative sample of the United Kingdom conducted by the National Centre for Social Research, five different taxometric analyses were carried out on cases from two problem gambling screens: the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) and a measure derived from the DSM-IV Pathological Gambling criteria. Two further analyses were conducted on the total scores for these measures. There was strong evidence that both scales were measuring a categorical construct. Fit indices consistently supported a categorical interpretation [comparison curve fit index (CCFI) > 0.6]. The PGSI analysis indicated the presence of a taxon (CCFIs = 0.633, 0.756). The analysis conducted on the adapted DSM-IV criteria indicated stronger quantitative support for a taxon (CCFIs = 0.717, 0.811 and 0.756) but items probing a loss of control were inconsistent. The taxometric analyses of both scales support a categorical interpretation (CCFIs = 0.628, 0.567), but extreme caution should be used due to high nuisance covariance. Two problem gambling screens (the Problem Gambling Severity Index and a measure derived from the DSM-IV Pathological Gambling criteria) appear to measure a categorical construct that taps into a categorical, loss of control model of problem gambling. There is some evidence that the two screens measure different aspects of an addiction construct. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Psychosocial correlates of problem gambling in Australian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfabbro, Paul; Lahn, Julie; Grabosky, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between problem gambling and psychological and social adjustment in Australian adolescents. A sample of 926 adolescents (mean age = 14.46 years) in the Australian Capital Territory were administered a standardized series of measures relating to gambling and psychosocial adjustment. Young people were asked to indicate how often they gambled, to report any difficulties that they might have been experiencing with gambling, and to complete a variety of measures of psychosocial health, including: the GHQ-12, Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and other measures of social functioning. The results were generally consistent with previous international studies. Those adolescents classified as problem gamblers were found to have poorer scores on all psychosocial measures. Although many in the problem gambling group reported being part of a socially active peer group, they also reported being more alienated and unpopular among their classmates. The results suggest that problem gambling appears to be a significant risk factor for poorer mental health among Australia adolescents. Given previous adult research indicating a link between early gambling and long-term gambling problems and poorer life outcomes (e.g. Abbott, McKenna and Giles, 2000 in New Zealand), these findings suggest a need to enhance existing educational initiatives and services specifically designed to assist adolescents with gambling problems.

  7. "Alea Iacta Est" (a case series report of problem and pathological gambling).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koić, Elvira; Filaković, Pavo; Djordjević, Veljko; Nadj, Sanea

    2009-09-01

    Gambling or gaming is a common term for a group of various games, activities and behavior that involve wagering money on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning additional money, i.e., a player risks and hopes to get back what he/she had gambled, or to win more. When the player is unable to resist impulses to gamble, and gambling behavior harmfully affects him or the others, then he/she is suffering from the so called "pathological gambling", which is one of six categories of the "Impulse control disorders" in the International Classification of Diseases. Since, at present, there is no standardized program and approach to the problem of gambling in Croatia, and having in mind the arising accessibility and popularity of the "games of chance", the authors are presenting seven cases of problem and pathological gambling and call for broad public discussion on the problem from medical-psychiatric and forensic-point of view. The first patient was treated on an outpatient basis with cognitive-behavioral and family therapy for problem gambling; for the second patient was treated for impulse control disorders; for the third patient gambling was a symptom of psychotic form of depressive disorder; the fourth had primary diagnosis of personality disorder; and the fifth patient was prosecuted for armed robbery and evaluated by a psychiatric expert. The sixth and the seventh patients were women suffering from primary bipolar affective and major depressive disorder, respectively. The authors conclude that, due to the size of the problem and its consequences, the prevention of pathological gambling is very important. The prevention can be carried out primarily through screening at the school level and primary health care services, whereas secondary screening may be conducted through the system of psychiatric care. It is recommended to invest into research, education of a wider population, and development of preventive programs.

  8. Gambling and Problem Gambling in Victoria, Australia: Changes over 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max; Stone, Christine A; Billi, Rosa; Yeung, Kristal

    2016-03-01

    Rates of gambling and gambling-related harm fluctuate over time, influenced by availability, adaptation and demographic change, among other things. Assessing change is compromised by methodological variation. The main aim of this paper is to assess change in gambling participation and problems in adult Victorians over a 5-year period. Data are from the Victorian Gambling Study (VGS) 2008-2012 (n = 15,000) and the 2003 Victorian Longitudinal Attitudes Survey (n = 8479). An additional aim was to determine the impact of methodological differences on prevalence estimates. Despite gambling availability increasing and more activities being included participation rates declined substantially. Decreases occurred across almost all demographic groups and gambling activities. When adjustments were made for methodological differences there were no significant changes in problem, moderate risk and low risk gambling. Males and people with lower education had higher rates in both surveys. In the latter survey, two groups that experienced large participation reductions, namely young adults and metropolitan residents, emerged as additional groups with higher rates of problem and moderate-risk gambling. Further research is required to discover why overall rates of harm may have plateaued when participation continues to fall and why some groups with reduced participation experience increased harm. The findings suggest that availability and total consumption models are over-simplistic. They further suggest that to be effective prevention programmes will need to extend beyond gambling availability to include interventions directed towards individuals at risk and wider environmental determinants of vulnerability and harm. Additionally this study found that restricting administration of the problem gambling measure to subsets of gamblers generate significantly lower prevalence estimates, implying that many previous surveys under-portray gambling-related harm and that without appropriate

  9. The Relationship Between Distance from Gambling Venues and Gambling Participation and Problem Gambling Among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, John W; Barnes, Grace M; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O; Hoffman, Joseph H; Wieczorek, William F

    2016-12-01

    In this article we examine the relationship between extent of gambling for U.S. adults and the distance from their residence to the nearest casino or track. We employ data from a telephone survey of U.S. adults conducted in 2011-2013. The chances that the respondents gambled in the past year, were frequent gamblers, or were problem gamblers were greater if they lived close to a casino. The chances that the respondents gambled in the past year or were frequent gamblers were greater if they lived close to a horse or dog track. The effects of closeness to a casino on the likelihood of past-year gambling, frequent gambling, and problem gambling, as well as the effect of closeness to a track on past-year gambling, extended to about 30 miles from the respondent's home. In addition, the concentration of casinos within 30 miles of the respondent's home was positively related to the respondents' chance of being a frequent or problem gambler. If a respondent had no casinos within 30 miles, he or she had a 2.7 % chance of being a problem gambler; if one casino, a 3.9 % chance; if six or more, a 6.2 % chance. The authors estimate that at least part of this effect is causal.

  10. Age-related physical and psychological vulnerability as pathways to problem gambling in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Adrian; Griffiths, Mark; Pattinson, Julie; Keatley, David

    2018-03-01

    Background To inform clinical treatment and preventative efforts, there is an important need to understand the pathways to late-life gambling disorder. Aims This study assesses the association between age-related physical health, social networks, and problem gambling in adults aged over 65 years and assesses the mediating role of affective disorders in this association. Methods The sample comprised 595 older adults (mean age: 74.4 years, range: 65-94 years; 77.1% female) who were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to assess physical frailty, geriatric pain, loneliness, geriatric depression, geriatric anxiety, and problem gambling. Results Pathway analysis demonstrated associations between these variables and gambling problems, providing a good fit for the data, but that critically these relationships were mediated by both anxiety and depression symptoms. Conclusions This study indicates that late-life problem gambling may develop as vulnerable individuals gamble to escape anxiety and depression consequent to deteriorating physical well-being and social support. When individuals develop late-life problem gambling, it is recommended that the treatment primarily focuses upon targeting and replacing avoidant coping approaches.

  11. Harmonizing Screening for Gambling Problems in Epidemiological Surveys - Development of the Rapid Screener for Problem Gambling (RSPG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Perrot, Bastien; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims The aim of this study was to test the screening properties of several combinations of items from gambling scales, in order to harmonize screening of gambling problems in epidemiological surveys. The objective was to propose two brief screening tools (three items or less) for a use in interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Methods We tested the screening properties of combinations of items from several gambling scales, in a sample of 425 gamblers (301 non-problem gamblers and 124 disordered gamblers). Items tested included interview-based items (Pathological Gambling section of the DSM-IV, lifetime history of problem gambling, monthly expenses in gambling, and abstinence of 1 month or more) and self-report items (South Oaks Gambling Screen, Gambling Attitudes, and Beliefs Survey). The gold standard used was the diagnosis of a gambling disorder according to the DSM-5. Results Two versions of the Rapid Screener for Problem Gambling (RSPG) were developed: the RSPG-Interview (RSPG-I), being composed of two interview items (increasing bets and loss of control), and the RSPG-Self-Assessment (RSPG-SA), being composed of three self-report items (chasing, guiltiness, and perceived inability to stop). Discussion and conclusions We recommend using the RSPG-SA/I for screening problem gambling in epidemiological surveys, with the version adapted for each purpose (RSPG-I for interview-based surveys and RSPG-SA for self-administered surveys). This first triage of potential problem gamblers must be supplemented by further assessment, as it may overestimate the proportion of problem gamblers. However, a first triage has the great advantage of saving time and energy in large-scale screening for problem gambling.

  12. Problem and pathological gambling in a sample of casino patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Timothy W; Campos, Michael D; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Davis, Alice; Marco, Adrienne; Pecanha, Viviane; Rosenthal, Richard J

    2011-03-01

    Relatively few studies have examined gambling problems among individuals in a casino setting. The current study sought to examine the prevalence of gambling problems among a sample of casino patrons and examine alcohol and tobacco use, health status, and quality of life by gambling problem status. To these ends, 176 casino patrons were recruited by going to a Southern California casino and requesting that they complete an anonymous survey. Results indicated the following lifetime rates for at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling: 29.2, 10.7, and 29.8%. Differences were found with regards to gambling behavior, and results indicated higher rates of smoking among individuals with gambling problems, but not higher rates of alcohol use. Self-rated quality of life was lower among pathological gamblers relative to non-problem gamblers, but did not differ from at-risk or problem gamblers. Although subject to some limitations, our data support the notion of higher frequency of gambling problems among casino patrons and may suggest the need for increased interventions for gambling problems on-site at casinos.

  13. Trait Mindfulness, Problem-Gambling Severity, Altered State of Awareness and Urge to Gamble in Poker-Machine Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeith, Charles F A; Rock, Adam J; Clark, Gavin I

    2017-06-01

    In Australia, poker-machine gamblers represent a disproportionate number of problem gamblers. To cultivate a greater understanding of the psychological mechanisms involved in poker-machine gambling, a repeated measures cue-reactivity protocol was administered. A community sample of 38 poker-machine gamblers was assessed for problem-gambling severity and trait mindfulness. Participants were also assessed regarding altered state of awareness (ASA) and urge to gamble at baseline, following a neutral cue, and following a gambling cue. Results indicated that: (a) urge to gamble significantly increased from neutral cue to gambling cue, while controlling for baseline urge; (b) cue-reactive ASA did not significantly mediate the relationship between problem-gambling severity and cue-reactive urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue); (c) trait mindfulness was significantly negatively associated with both problem-gambling severity and cue-reactive urge (i.e., from neutral cue to gambling cue, while controlling for baseline urge); and (d) trait mindfulness did not significantly moderate the effect of problem-gambling severity on cue-reactive urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue). This is the first study to demonstrate a negative association between trait mindfulness and cue-reactive urge to gamble in a population of poker-machine gamblers. Thus, this association merits further evaluation both in relation to poker-machine gambling and other gambling modalities.

  14. Online Help for Problem Gambling among Chinese Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Boon Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the perceptions and accessibility of online help for problem gambling among Chinese youths. A group of undergraduates participated in a survey cum laboratory exercise to search for help for problem gambling in Macao, Hong Kong, and China. Online search engines were used. During the search process,…

  15. Independent Correlates of Reported Gambling Problems amongst Indigenous Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Matthew; Young, Martin

    2010-01-01

    To identify independent correlates of reported gambling problems amongst the Indigenous population of Australia. A cross-sectional design was applied to a nationally representative sample of the Indigenous population. Estimates of reported gambling problems are presented by remoteness and jurisdiction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to…

  16. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study…

  17. Problem Gambling and Delinquent Behaviours Among Adolescents: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryszajtys, David T; Hahmann, Tara E; Schuler, Andrée; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Ziegler, Carolyn P; Matheson, Flora I

    2018-02-22

    Despite many studies indicating an association between problem gambling and delinquent behaviours among adolescents, there has been no effort to systematically analyze the state of the literature on this relationship. To fill this gap, we conducted a scoping review of the literature published between 2000 and 2016 on problem gambling and delinquent behaviours among adolescents. We searched twelve databases and reviewed reference lists to identify eligible studies. Search terms included a combination of medical subject headings and keywords for gambling, youth, and delinquency, which were combined with the Boolean operator "AND". 1795 studies were identified through the literature search. Nine studies were eligible for inclusion. All of the studies were conducted in North America, with primarily male participants, and most of the data were cross-sectional. No qualitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Screening tools used to measure problem gambling were inconsistent, making comparisons across studies difficult. We found a consistent moderate to strong association between problem gambling and delinquent behaviour. Only one study presented associations by socio-economic status and none considered gender, sex or ethnic differences. Studies in the review showed that problem gambling is associated with both violent and non-violent behaviours among adolescents. These associations may suggest that problem gambling and delinquent behaviours have common risk factors and reflect a syndrome of risky behaviours best targeted through prevention and treatment that is holistic and considers the context in which the youth is situated. Further research is warranted to better understand the relationship between problem gambling and delinquent behaviours.

  18. The Relationship Between Problem Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluk, O R; Youssef, G J; Dowling, N A

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that treatment-seeking problem gamblers display elevated rates of ADHD and that adolescents who screen positive for ADHD are more likely to engage in gambling, develop gambling problems, and experience a greater severity in gambling problems. This study aimed to (a) compare the prevalence of ADHD in treatment-seeking problem gamblers to the general population; (b) investigate the relationships between ADHD and problem gambling severity, cluster B personality disorders, motor impulsivity, alcohol use, substance use, gender, and age; and (c) investigate the degree to which these factors moderate the relationship between ADHD and problem gambling severity. Participants included 214 adults (154 males, 58 females, 2 unspecified) who sought treatment for their gambling problems at a specialist gambling agency in Melbourne, Australia. Almost one-quarter (24.9 %) of treatment-seeking problem gamblers screened positively for ADHD, which was significantly higher than the 14 % prevalence in a community sample. ADHD was significantly positively correlated with problem gambling severity, motor impulsivity, and cluster B personality disorders, but was not associated with alcohol and substance use, gender or age. None of the factors significantly moderated the relationship between ADHD and problem gambling severity. These findings suggest that a considerable proportion of treatment-seeking problem gamblers report ADHD and that their clinical profile is complicated by the presence of high impulsivity and cluster B personality disorders. They highlight the need for specialist gambling agencies to develop screening, assessment, and management protocols for co-occurring ADHD to enhance the effectiveness of treatment.

  19. Problem Gambling in the UK: Implications for Health, Psychosocial Adjustment and Health Care Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlishaw, Sean; Kessler, David

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that rates of gambling problems are increasing in the UK, but has provided limited consideration of possible implications for individuals, families and communities. This study examines the associations involving problem gambling and indicators of mental and physical health, as well as psychosocial adjustment and health care usage, in a representative sample from England. Data were derived from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, which is a representative study of adults (n = 7,403). Regression models evaluated the correlates of problem gambling. There were associations with problem gambling and mental health (anxiety, neurotic symptoms and substance use problems) and psychosocial maladjustment (suicidality, financial difficulties and social support). There were limited influences on physical health that were beyond socioeconomic factors and substance use problems. Notwithstanding, the results demonstrated over-representation of gambling problems in certain health-care settings. Findings support recognition of problem gambling as a public health concern in the UK, and initiatives for intervening in health-care services where conditions are over-represented. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Problem Gambling in a Sample of Older Adult Casino Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, Mark; Mann, Robert E; McCready, John; Matheson, Flora I; Turner, Nigel E; Hamilton, Hayley A; Schrans, Tracy; Ialomiteanu, Anca

    2017-01-01

    As older adults continue to make up a greater proportion of the Canadian population, it becomes more important to understand the implications that their leisure activities have for their physical and mental health. Gambling, in particular, is a form of leisure that is becoming more widely available and has important implications for the mental health and financial well-being of older adults. This study examines a large sample (2103) of casino-going Ontarian adults over the age of 55 and identifies those features of their gambling participation that are associated with problem gambling. Logistic regression analysis is used to analyze the data. Focusing on types of gambling participated in and motivations for visiting the casino, this study finds that several forms of gambling and motivations to gamble are associated with greater risk of problem gambling. It also finds that some motivations are associated with lower risk of problem gambling. The findings of this study have implications related to gambling availability within an aging population.

  1. Comorbid Problem Gambling and Major Depression in a Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Leanne; Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David C; Dobson, Keith S; El-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Currie, Shawn R; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Schopflocher, Don P

    2015-12-01

    Major depression is among the most common comorbid conditions in problem gambling. However, little is known about the effects of comorbid depression on problem gambling. The present study examined the prevalence of current major depression among problem gamblers (N = 105) identified from a community sample of men and women in Alberta, and examined group differences in gambling severity, escape motivation for gambling, family functioning, childhood trauma, and personality traits across problem gamblers with and without comorbid depression. The prevalence of major depression among the sample of problem gamblers was 32.4%. Compared to problem gamblers without depression (n = 71), problem gamblers with comorbid depression (n = 34) reported more severe gambling problems, greater history of childhood abuse and neglect, poorer family functioning, higher levels of neuroticism, and lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Furthermore, the problem gamblers with comorbid depression had greater levels of childhood abuse and neglect, worse family functioning, higher neuroticism, and lower agreeableness and conscientiousness than a comparison sample of recreational gamblers with depression (n = 160). These findings underscore the need to address comorbid depression in assessment and treatment of problem gambling and for continued research on how problem gambling is related to frequently co-occurring disorders such as depression.

  2. Exploring the Impact of Gambling Advertising: An Interview Study of Problem Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2009-01-01

    This study qualitatively explored the impact of gambling advertising on problem gambling by interviewing twenty-five people with current or past gambling problems. Interviews were relatively long and involved the participants' viewing numerous examples of gambling advertising. A quarter of the participants reported that gambling advertising had no…

  3. Daily Fantasy Sports Players: Gambling, Addiction, and Mental Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nower, Lia; Caler, Kyle R; Pickering, Dylan; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2018-01-19

    Studies point to a relationship between fantasy sports/daily fantasy sports (DFS) play and gambling behavior. However, little is known about the nature of those relationships, particularly regarding the development of gambling problems. This study investigates the nature, frequency, and preferences of gambling behavior as well as problem gambling severity and comorbid conditions among DFS players. Data were collected from an epidemiologic survey of 3634 New Jersey residents on gambling and leisure activities. Participants were contacted by phone (land-line and cell) and online to obtain a representative, cross-sectional sample of non-institutionalized adults, aged 18 years or older. Excluding non-gamblers, the remaining 2146 participants, included in these analyses, indicated they had either played DFS (n = 299) or had gambled but not played DFS (1847) in the past year. Univariate comparisons and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the most significant characteristics and predictors of DFS players. Overall, a higher number of gambling activities, high frequency gambling, male gender, and reports of suicidal thoughts in the past year were most predictive of DFS players. Being Hispanic (vs. Caucasian) and/or single (vs. married or living with a partner) also doubled the odds of DFS play. Findings suggest that DFS players are characterized by high gambling frequency and problem severity and comorbid problems, notably suicidal ideation. Future research should examine the motivations and possible etiological sub-types of DFS players and the nature and course of DFS play, particularly in relation to gambling behavior and the development of gambling and other problems.

  4. Comorbidity of Alcohol and Gambling Problems in Emerging Adults: A Bifactor Model Conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Krieger, Heather; Neighbors, Clayton; Rinker, Dipali; Rodriguez, Lindsey; Edward, Gottheil

    2017-03-01

    Addictive disorders, such as pathological gambling and alcohol use disorders, frequently co-occur at greater than chance levels. Substantive questions stem from this comorbidity regarding the extent to which shared variance between gambling and alcohol use reflects a psychological core of addictive tendencies, and whether this differs as a function of gender. The aims of this study were to differentiate both common and unique variance in alcohol and gambling problems in a bifactor model, examine measurement invariance of this model by gender, and identify substantive correlates of the final bifactor model. Undergraduates (N = 4475) from a large northwestern university completed an online screening questionnaire which included demographics, quantity of money lost and won when gambling, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the AUDIT, gambling motives, drinking motives, personality, and the Brief Symptom Inventory. Results suggest that the bifactor model fit the data well in the full sample. Although the data suggest configural invariance across gender, factor loadings could not be constrained to be equal between men and women. As such, general and specific factors were examined separately by gender with a more intensive subsample of females and males (n = 264). Correlations with motivational tendencies, personality traits, and mental health symptoms indicated support for the validity of the bifactor model, as well as gender-specific patterns of association. Results suggest informative distinctions between shared and unique attributes related to problematic drinking and gambling.

  5. Comorbidity of Alcohol and Gambling Problems in Emerging Adults: A Bifactor Model Conceptualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Heather; Neighbors, Clayton; Rinker, Dipali; Rodriguez, Lindsey; Edward, Gottheil

    2017-01-01

    Addictive disorders, such as pathological gambling and alcohol use disorders, frequently co-occur at greater than chance levels. Substantive questions stem from this comorbidity regarding the extent to which shared variance between gambling and alcohol use reflects a psychological core of addictive tendencies, and whether this differs as a function of gender. The aims of this study were to differentiate both common and unique variance in alcohol and gambling problems in a bifactor model, examine measurement invariance of this model by gender, and identify substantive correlates of the final bifactor model. Undergraduates (N = 4475) from a large northwestern university completed an online screening questionnaire which included demographics, quantity of money lost and won when gambling, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the AUDIT, gambling motives, drinking motives, personality, and the Brief Symptom Inventory. Results suggest that the bifactor model fit the data well in the full sample. Although the data suggest configural invariance across gender, factor loadings could not be constrained to be equal between men and women. As such, general and specific factors were examined separately by gender with a more intensive subsample of females and males (n = 264). Correlations with motivational tendencies, personality traits, and mental health symptoms indicated support for the validity of the bifactor model, as well as gender-specific patterns of association. Results suggest informative distinctions between shared and unique attributes related to problematic drinking and gambling. PMID:27260007

  6. Interactive Drawing Therapy and Chinese Migrants with Gambling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Everts, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic Chinese migrants in a country like New Zealand face a range of well-documented challenges. A proportion of such migrants find that recreational gambling turns into a pernicious gambling problem. This issue is addressed through illustrated case studies of Interactive Drawing Therapy, a drawing-based modality of therapy that facilitates…

  7. Problem Gambling in Chinese American Adolescents: Characteristics and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Eddie Yu-Wai; Woo, Kent

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the characteristics and risk factors of problem gambling among Chinese American adolescents. A total of 192 Chinese American students (aged 13-19) from 9th to 12th grades were recruited from three high schools in San Francisco, California. Students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for…

  8. Electronic Interests and Behaviours Associated with Gambling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G.; Ogeil, Rowan P.; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Multiple computing devices continue to develop capabilities that support online gambling, resulting in the need to evaluate the extent that this trend will contribute to gambling problems. A sample of 1,141 participants completed an online survey assessing interest in and difficulties limiting use of digital services. Questionnaire items measured…

  9. When Problem Gambling Is the Primary Reason for Seeking Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, John; Mazmanian, Dwight; Penney, Alexander; Black, Nancy; Nguyen, An

    2011-01-01

    An existing database was used to compare problem gamblers (N = 138) who presented for treatment of their gambling problem to two other groups: alcohol and/or drug addiction clients who also had a gambling problem (N = 280) or who did not have a gambling problem (N = 2178). Clients with gambling as their primary problem were more likely to be…

  10. Client and clinician-rated characteristics of problem gamblers with and without history of gambling-related illegal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jennifer D; Lister, Jamey J; Struble, Cara A; Cairncross, Molly; Carr, Meagan M; Ledgerwood, David M

    2018-03-12

    Individuals with gambling disorder are at an elevated risk for engaging in gambling-related illegal behaviors. The present study examined client (N = 88) and clinician ratings (N = 30) of client characteristics associated with a history of gambling-related illegal behaviors. We also examined client characteristics associated with history of arrest for a gambling-related crime. Gambling-related illegal behaviors and arrest were common (57.3% and 23.9%, respectively) in the present sample. Clients of younger age, and those with greater gambling-related financial consequences, lifetime alcohol problems, impulsivity, mood symptoms, and daily living role difficulties were more likely to report gambling-related illegal behaviors. Clients who had been arrested for a gambling-related crime were more likely to report daily living and role functioning difficulties and lifetime alcohol problems. Clinicians rated clients with a history of gambling-related illegal behaviors and/or gambling-related arrests as more impulsive, and clinicians also endorsed higher rates of treatment failure among these clients. Both client and clinician report suggested that clients with a history of illegal behaviors may have a variety of comorbid problems that may be a focus of clinical intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Problem Gambling among Young People in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Ssewanyana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gambling is a cross-cultural and global activity which typically involves the wagering of money or an item of monetary value on an outcome that is governed by chance. Although gambling is positioned as a legitimate recreational and leisure activity within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, there is widespread recognition among healthcare professionals and policy-makers that gambling has the capacity to become dysfunctional in a minority. Emerging knowledge suggests that problem gambling is rapidly evolving in to a public health concern in SSA, especially among youth. This article focuses on problem gambling among young people in SSA with an emphasis on three key themes: (1 gambling behavior and patterns in SSA; (2 public health and socioeconomic implications of gambling in SSA; and (3 public health policies and interventions for addressing this issue. We believe that collaborative efforts between government, prevention specialists, legislators, researchers, treatment providers, and other stake holders can influence the uptake of research findings necessary to implement social policies and design effective public health intervention options to combat problem gambling and its associated implications among young people in SSA.

  12. Problem Gambling among Young People in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssewanyana, Derrick; Bitanihirwe, Byron

    2018-01-01

    Gambling is a cross-cultural and global activity which typically involves the wagering of money or an item of monetary value on an outcome that is governed by chance. Although gambling is positioned as a legitimate recreational and leisure activity within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), there is widespread recognition among healthcare professionals and policy-makers that gambling has the capacity to become dysfunctional in a minority. Emerging knowledge suggests that problem gambling is rapidly evolving in to a public health concern in SSA, especially among youth. This article focuses on problem gambling among young people in SSA with an emphasis on three key themes: (1) gambling behavior and patterns in SSA; (2) public health and socioeconomic implications of gambling in SSA; and (3) public health policies and interventions for addressing this issue. We believe that collaborative efforts between government, prevention specialists, legislators, researchers, treatment providers, and other stake holders can influence the uptake of research findings necessary to implement social policies and design effective public health intervention options to combat problem gambling and its associated implications among young people in SSA.

  13. Problem Gambling among Young People in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssewanyana, Derrick; Bitanihirwe, Byron

    2018-01-01

    Gambling is a cross-cultural and global activity which typically involves the wagering of money or an item of monetary value on an outcome that is governed by chance. Although gambling is positioned as a legitimate recreational and leisure activity within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), there is widespread recognition among healthcare professionals and policy-makers that gambling has the capacity to become dysfunctional in a minority. Emerging knowledge suggests that problem gambling is rapidly evolving in to a public health concern in SSA, especially among youth. This article focuses on problem gambling among young people in SSA with an emphasis on three key themes: (1) gambling behavior and patterns in SSA; (2) public health and socioeconomic implications of gambling in SSA; and (3) public health policies and interventions for addressing this issue. We believe that collaborative efforts between government, prevention specialists, legislators, researchers, treatment providers, and other stake holders can influence the uptake of research findings necessary to implement social policies and design effective public health intervention options to combat problem gambling and its associated implications among young people in SSA. PMID:29479527

  14. The prevalence and determinants of problem gambling in Australia: assessing the impact of interactive gambling and new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Hing, Nerilee; Wood, Robert; Lubman, Dan I; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2014-09-01

    New technology is changing the nature of gambling with interactive modes of gambling becoming putatively associated with higher rates of problem gambling. This paper presents the first nationally representative data on the prevalence and correlates of problem gambling among Australian adults since 1999 and focuses on the impact of interactive gambling. A telephone survey of 15,006 adults was conducted. Of these, 2,010 gamblers (all interactive gamblers and a randomly selected subsample of those reporting land-based gambling in the past 12 months) also completed more detailed measures of problem gambling, substance use, psychological distress, and help-seeking. Problem gambling rates among interactive gamblers were 3 times higher than for noninteractive gamblers. However, problem and moderate risk gamblers were most likely to attribute problems to electronic gaming machines and land-based gambling, suggesting that although interactive forms of gambling are associated with substantial problems, interactive gamblers experience significant harms from land-based gambling. The findings demonstrate that problem gambling remains a significant public health issue that is changing in response to new technologies, and it is important to develop strategies that minimize harms among interactive gamblers.

  15. Prevalence of Problem Gambling Among Adolescents: A Comparison Across Modes of Access, Gambling Activities, and Levels of Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Roz, Alba; Fernández-Hermida, José R; Weidberg, Sara; Martínez-Loredo, Victor; Secades-Villa, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    The high availability and accessibility of online gambling have recently caused public concern regarding the potential increase of gambling-related problems among young people. Nonetheless, few studies among adults and none among adolescents have explored specific characteristics of gamblers as a function of gambling venues to date. This study sought to analyze the prevalence of gambling among a sample of adolescents in the last year, as well as sociodemographic and gambling-related characteristics as possible predictors of at-risk and problem gambling. The sample comprised 1313 adolescents aged 14-18 years. Participants were asked to respond to several questions regarding their gambling behavior. Chi square and ANOVA tests were performed in order to explore differences between groups, and a set of multinomial regressions established significant severity predictors. The prevalence of at-risk and problem gambling was 4 and 1.2 %, respectively. Regression analyses showed that having a relative with gambling problems predicted at-risk gambling. Both living with only one parent or not living with parents at all, and the prevalence of Electronic Gambling Machines in the last year were associated with problem gambling. Mixed-mode gambling was a predictor of both at-risk and problem gambling. Our findings extend previous research on gambling among adolescents by exploring gambling behavior according to different modes of access. Although the prevalence of exclusive online gambling among the total sample was low, these results support the need to consider specific subgroups of gamblers and their concrete related features when conducting both indicated prevention and treatment protocols for adolescents.

  16. Child maltreatment and problem gambling: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Wendy; Sacco, Paul; Downton, Katherine; Ludeman, Emilie; Levy, Lauren; Tracy, J Kathleen

    2016-08-01

    This study systematically reviews research on child maltreatment and risk of gambling problems in adulthood. It also reviews adult problem gamblers' risk of abusing or neglecting their own children. Multiple database searches were conducted using pre-defined search terms related to gambling and child abuse and neglect. We identified 601 unique references and excluded studies if they did not report original research, or did not specifically measure child maltreatment or gambling. Twelve studies that included multivariable analysis of childhood maltreatment exposure and problem gambling were identified. Six of seven studies examining childhood sexual abuse and four of five examining physical abuse showed a significant positive association between abuse and later gambling problems (odds ratios for sexual abuse 2.01-3.65; physical abuse 2.3-2.8). Both studies examining psychological maltreatment and two of three examining neglect identified positive associations with problem gambling. In most studies, risks were reduced or eliminated when controlling for other mental health disorders. The three studies measuring risk of child abuse and neglect among current problem gamblers suggest an increased risk for child physical abuse and medical conditions indicative of neglect although there is a considerable amount of variation among studies. Child abuse is associated with increased risk of gambling problems - gambling treatment providers should ask about maltreatment history as part of their clinical assessment. Problem gamblers may be more likely to physically abuse or neglect their children, but data here are more limited. Child welfare professionals should consider asking questions about parental gambling when assessing family risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Health/functioning characteristics, gambling behaviors and gambling-related motivations in adolescents stratified by gambling problem severity: Findings from a high-school survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Sarah W.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    In adults, different levels of gambling problem severity are differentially associated with measures of health and general functioning, gambling behaviors and gambling-related motivations. Here we present data from a survey of 2,484 Connecticut high school students, and investigate the data stratifying by gambling problem severity based on DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Problem/pathological gambling was associated with a range of negative functions; e.g., poor academic performance, substance use, dysphoria/depression, and aggression. These findings suggest a need for improved interventions related to adolescent gambling and a need for additional research into the relationship (e.g., mediating factors) between gambling and risk and protective behaviors. PMID:21999494

  18. The influence of impulsiveness on binge eating and problem gambling: A prospective study of gender differences in Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farstad, Sarah M; von Ranson, Kristin M; Hodgins, David C; El-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Schopflocher, Don P

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the degree to which facets of impulsiveness predicted future binge eating and problem gambling, 2 theorized forms of behavioral addiction. Participants were 596 women and 406 men from 4 age cohorts randomly recruited from a Canadian province. Participants completed self-report measures of 3 facets of impulsiveness (negative urgency, sensation seeking, lack of persistence), binge-eating frequency, and problem-gambling symptoms. Impulsiveness was assessed at baseline, and assessments of binge eating and problem gambling were followed up after 3 years. Weighted data were analyzed using zero-inflated negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found evidence of transdiagnostic and disorder-specific predictors of binge eating and problem gambling. Negative urgency emerged as a common predictor of binge eating and problem gambling among women and men. There were disorder-specific personality traits identified among men only: High lack-of-persistence scores predicted binge eating and high sensation-seeking scores predicted problem gambling. Among women, younger age predicted binge eating and older age predicted problem gambling. Thus, there are gender differences in facets of impulsiveness that longitudinally predict binge eating and problem gambling, suggesting that treatments for these behaviors should consider gender-specific personality and demographic traits in addition to the common personality trait of negative urgency. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The extent and distribution of gambling harm in Finland as assessed by the Problem Gambling Severity Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisamo, Susanna U; Mäkelä, Pia; Salonen, Anne H; Lintonen, Tomi P

    2015-08-01

    Preventing gambling harm has become a policy priority in many European countries. Adverse consequences related to problem gambling are well known, but few studies have analyzed gambling-related harm in detail in general population samples. We determined the extent and distribution of gambling harm in Finland, as assessed by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), and analyzed gambling involvement, demographics and their association with various types of harm. A nationwide telephone survey was conducted among 4484 Finns aged 15-74 years in 2011-12. Gambling-related harms were based on the nine-item PGSI. Gambling involvement was measured by gambling frequency and weekly average gambling expenditure. Associations among harms, demographics and gambling involvement were examined in logistic regression. During the previous year, 13% of respondents experienced at least one gambling-related harm (males 18.1%, females 7.2%). The four commonest harms were 'chasing losses' (8.6%), 'escalating gambling to maintain excitement' (3.1%), 'betting more than could afford to lose' (2.8%), and 'feeling guilty' (2.6%). The harm profile in descending order was the same for both genders but differed in prevalence. Young age (gambling and spending over €21 per week on gambling were related to the harms. Our results provide support for the public health approach to gambling: harms were reported even at low gambling frequency-expenditure levels. In addition to the high-risk approach, adopting a population-level approach to preventing gambling harm could shift the population distribution of harm in a lower direction. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of internet gambling on gambling problems: a comparison of moderate-risk and problem Internet and non-Internet gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Hing, Nerilee; Wood, Robert; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2013-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported higher rates of gambling problems among Internet compared with non-Internet gamblers. However, little research has examined those at risk of developing gambling problems or overall gambling involvement. This study aimed to examine differences between problem and moderate-risk gamblers among Internet and non-Internet gamblers to determine the mechanisms for how Internet gambling may contribute to gambling problems. Australian gamblers (N = 6,682) completed an online survey that included measures of gambling participation, problem gambling severity, and help seeking. Compared with non-Internet gamblers, Internet gamblers were younger, engaged in a greater number of gambling activities, and were more likely to bet on sports. These differences were significantly greater for problem than moderate-risk gamblers. Non-Internet gamblers were more likely to gamble on electronic gaming machines, and a significantly higher proportion of problem gamblers participated in this gambling activity. Non-Internet gamblers were more likely to report health and psychological impacts of problem gambling and having sought help for gambling problems. Internet gamblers who experience gambling-related harms appear to represent a somewhat different group from non-Internet problem and moderate-risk gamblers. This has implications for the development of treatment and prevention programs, which are often based on research that does not cater for differences between subgroups of gamblers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Where Lies the Harm in Lottery Gambling? A Portrait of Gambling Practices and Associated Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Jean-Michel; Kairouz, Sylvia; Monson, Eva; Eroukmanoff, Vincent

    2018-03-13

    Lotteries are one of the most prevalent forms of gambling and generate substantial state revenues. They are also argued to be one of the least harmful forms of gambling. This paper is one of the first to examine exclusive lottery gamblers and compares their gambling patterns and problems as well other associated risky behaviours to those who are not exclusive lottery gamblers. Data were derived from two large surveys conducted with representative adult samples in France (n = 15,635) and Québec (n = 23,896). Participants were separated into two groups: exclusive lottery gamblers (ELGs) and non-exclusive lottery gamblers. Using multivariate analysis, study results reveal that ELGs, who represent two thirds of gamblers, generally exhibit less intensive gambling patterns and are less likely to report other risky behaviours. However, harms associated with moderate risk and problem gambling are found to be concentrated in specific subpopulations for both groups, primarily males, older individuals, and those who report lower income and education level. Given widespread participation in lotteries and concentration of harm within specific subgroups, these findings point to the need for prevention efforts despite the lower levels of harm associated with lottery gambling.

  2. Risk Factors for Gambling Problems: An Analysis by Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex; Tolchard, Barry; Nower, Lia

    2016-06-01

    Differences in problem gambling rates between males and females suggest that associated risk factors vary by gender. Previous combined analyses of male and female gambling may have obscured these distinctions. This study aimed to develop separate risk factor models for gambling problems for males and for females, and identify gender-based similarities and differences. It analysed data from the largest prevalence study in Victoria Australia (N = 15,000). Analyses determined factors differentiating non-problem from at-risk gamblers separately for women and men, then compared genders using interaction terms. Separate multivariate analyses determined significant results when controlling for all others. Variables included demographics, gambling behaviour, gambling motivations, money management, and mental and physical health. Significant predictors of at-risk status amongst female gamblers included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on private betting, electronic gaming machines (EGMs), scratch tickets or bingo, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. For males, risk factors included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, low education, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on EGMs, table games, races, sports or lotteries, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. High risk groups requiring appropriate interventions comprise young adults, especially males; middle-aged female EGM gamblers; non-English speaking populations; frequent EGM, table games, race and sports gamblers; and gamblers motivated by escape.

  3. Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events.

  4. Gambling-Related Problems as a Mediator Between Treatment and Mental Health with At-Risk College Student Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisner, Irene Markman; Bowen, Sarah; Lostutter, Ty W; Cronce, Jessica M; Granato, Hollie; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-09-01

    Disordered gambling has been linked to increased negative affect, and some promising treatments have been shown to be effective at reducing gambling behaviors and related problems (Larimer et al. in Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012). The current study seeks to expand upon the findings of Larimer et al. (Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012) by examining the relationship between gambling-related problems and mental health symptoms in college students. Specifically, the three-group design tested the effects of two brief interventions for gambling—an individual, in-person personalized feedback intervention (PFI) delivered using motivational interviewing and group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, versus assessment only on mood outcomes. The mediating effect of gambling-related problems on mood was also explored. Participants (N = 141; 65% men; 60% Caucasian, 28% Asian) were at-risk college student gamblers [South Oaks Gambling Screen (Lesieur and Blume in Am J Psychiatry 144:1184-1188, 1987) ≥3], assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Gambling problems were assessed using the Gambling Problems Index (Neighbors et al. in J Gamb Stud 18:339-360, 2002). Mental health symptoms were assessed using the depression, anxiety, and hostility subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis in Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI): administration, scoring, and procedures manual, National Computer Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, 1993). Results revealed that the PFI condition differentially reduced negative mood, and that reductions in gambling-related problems partially mediated this effect. Implications for intervention for comorbid mood and gambling disorders are discussed.

  5. Prevalence of adolescent problem gambling: a systematic review of recent research

    OpenAIRE

    Calado, F; Alexandre, J; Griffiths, MD

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that gambling is a popular activity among adolescents. Following a rapid expansion of legalized gambling opportunities and the emergence of new forms of gambling, many researchers have carried out studies on adolescent gambling and problem gambling. The present paper reviews studies that have been conducted worldwide since 2000, and then presents a more detailed picture of adolescent gambling research in Europe, by providing a country-by country analysis. After an ...

  6. Gambling Participation and Problem Gambling Severity in a Stratified Random Survey: Findings from the Second Social and Economic Impact Study of Gambling in Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Darren R; Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C; Thomas, Shane A

    2015-12-01

    Demographic characteristics associated with gambling participation and problem gambling severity were investigated in a stratified random survey in Tasmania, Australia. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted in March 2011 resulting in a representative sample of 4,303 Tasmanian residents aged 18 years or older. Overall, 64.8% of Tasmanian adults reported participating in some form of gambling in the previous 12 months. The most common forms of gambling were lotteries (46.5%), keno (24.3%), instant scratch tickets (24.3%), and electronic gaming machines (20.5%). Gambling severity rates were estimated at non-gambling (34.8%), non-problem gambling (57.4%), low risk gambling (5.3%), moderate risk (1.8%), and problem gambling (.7%). Compared to Tasmanian gamblers as a whole significantly higher annual participation rates were reported by couples with no children, those in full time paid employment, and people who did not complete secondary school. Compared to Tasmanian gamblers as a whole significantly higher gambling frequencies were reported by males, people aged 65 or older, and people who were on pensions or were unable to work. Compared to Tasmanian gamblers as a whole significantly higher gambling expenditure was reported by males. The highest average expenditure was for horse and greyhound racing ($AUD 1,556), double the next highest gambling activity electronic gaming machines ($AUD 767). Compared to Tasmanian gamblers as a whole problem gamblers were significantly younger, in paid employment, reported lower incomes, and were born in Australia. Although gambling participation rates appear to be falling, problem gambling severity rates remain stable. These changes appear to reflect a maturing gambling market and the need for population specific harm minimisation strategies.

  7. Brief telephone interventions for problem gambling: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max; Hodgins, David C; Bellringer, Maria; Vandal, Alain C; Palmer Du Preez, Katie; Landon, Jason; Sullivan, Sean; Rodda, Simone; Feigin, Valery

    2018-05-01

    Problem gambling is a significant public health issue world-wide. There is substantial investment in publicly funded intervention services, but limited evaluation of effectiveness. This study investigated three brief telephone interventions to determine whether they were more effective than standard helpline treatment in helping people to reduce gambling. Randomized clinical trial. National gambling helpline in New Zealand. A total of 462 adults with problem gambling. INTERVENTIONS AND COMPARATOR: (1) Single motivational interview (MI), (2) single motivational interview plus cognitive-behavioural self-help workbook (MI + W) and (3) single motivational interview plus workbook plus four booster follow-up telephone interviews (MI + W + B). Comparator was helpline standard care [treatment as usual (TAU)]. Blinded follow-up was at 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes were days gambled, dollars lost per day and treatment goal success. There were no differences across treatment arms, although participants showed large reductions in gambling during the 12-month follow-up period [mean reduction of 5.5 days, confidence interval (CI) = 4.8, 6.2; NZ$38 lost ($32, $44; 80.6%), improved (77.2%, 84.0%)]. Subgroup analysis revealed improved days gambled and dollars lost for MI + W + B over MI or MI + W for a goal of reduction of gambling (versus quitting) and improvement in dollars lost by ethnicity, gambling severity and psychological distress (all P gambling severity than TAU or MI at 12 months and also better for those with higher psychological distress and lower self-efficacy to MI (all P problem gambling in New Zealand, brief telephone interventions are associated with changes in days gambling and dollars lost similar to more intensive interventions, suggesting that more treatment is not necessarily better than less. Some client subgroups, in particular those with greater problem severity and greater distress, achieve better outcomes when they receive more

  8. Gambling cognition and subjective well-being as mediators between perceived stress and problem gambling: a cross-cultural study on White and Chinese problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Oei, Tian Po

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to delineate various pathways whereby cognitive and emotional vulnerabilities triggered by stress would lead to disruptive gambling. A multiple mediation framework was proposed to specify that gambling cognition and subjective well-being would mediate the influence of perceived stress on problem gambling. The cross-cultural validity of the proposed framework was examined with 132 White gamblers in Australia and 154 Chinese gamblers in China. They completed psychological scales on perceived stress, gambling expectancy bias, gambling refusal efficacy, negative affect, life satisfaction, and problem gambling. Compared to Chinese gamblers, White gamblers reported higher levels of perceived stress, gambling expectancy bias, and problem gambling as well as more pervasive negative affect and lower levels of life satisfaction. Results showed that the proposed multiple mediation framework fit the data better than two alternative plausible models. Life satisfaction and gambling refusal efficacy were two consistent mediators across White and Chinese gamblers. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Getting grounded in problematic play: using digital grounded theory to understand problem gambling and harm minimisation opportunities in remote gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Parke, Jonathan; Parke, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to explore patterns of problem gambling in the remote gambling sector and to provide new ideas and theoretical foundations for strategies to mitigate risks and harms. Only problem gamblers were studied; low-risk, moderate risk and non-problem gamblers were beyond the scope of this research. The study did not have a priori hypotheses to test; rather the research aim was to generate new theoretical concepts to help account for patterns of problem gambling observed within ...

  10. An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Problem Gambling Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Steinberg, Lynne; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Hofmeyr, Andre; Dellis, Andrew; Ross, Don; Kincaid, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Increases in the availability of gambling heighten the need for a short screening measure of problem gambling. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) is a brief measure that allows for the assessment of characteristics of gambling behavior and severity and its consequences. The authors evaluate the psychometric properties of the PGSI using…

  11. Stacked Deck: An Effective, School-Based Program for the Prevention of Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.

    2010-01-01

    School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and…

  12. Problem gambling and homelessness: results from an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nower, Lia; Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Pollio, David E; North, Carol S

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of gambling disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders in a homeless population and identify features related to potential subtypes. At baseline, participants were administered a structured interview including socio-demographic sections of the National Comorbidity Study (NCS) interview; seven diagnostic sections of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS); the alcohol and drug abuse sections of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Substance Abuse Module (CIDI-SAM); and the Homeless Supplement to the DIS. At nine months post-baseline assessment, participants were administered additional NCS family history questions and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Participants were an epidemiologic sample of 275 predominately African-American homeless individuals, grouped as lifetime non-gamblers (n = 60), recreational gamblers (n = 152), and problem gamblers (n = 63), recruited on the street and through homeless shelters. Results indicate that lifetime rates of sub-clinical problem (46.2%) and disordered (12.0%) gambling were significantly higher than in the general population. Problem gamblers were more likely than non-problem gamblers to meet diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, and any psychiatric disorder, and more likely than non-gamblers to use illicit drugs or meet criteria for abuse/dependence for nicotine, alcohol, or any substance. This study provides evidence that problem gambling is a significant public health issue among the African-American homeless population. Homeless services should include assessment for problem gambling along with psychiatric disorders and referrals to resources and treatment programs. Future studies should explore the relationship of the onset and course of problem gambling and other psychiatric disorders with homelessness as well as racial differences in gambling patterns and problem severity

  13. Gambling related family coping and the impact of problem gambling on families in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Mei Lo Chan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite substantial evidence that problem gambling is associated with a wide range of family difficulties, limited effort has been devoted to studying the negative impacts on family members as a result of problem gambling and how they cope and function under the impacts of problem gambling in Chinese communities. Among the very few Chinese-specific gambling-related family impact studies, none have examined how gambling-related family coping responses are related to gambling-related family impacts. Based on a sample of treatment-seeking Chinese family members of problem gamblers, this study aimed to explore: (1 the demographic characteristics and health and psychological well-being of the family members; (2 the gambling-related family member impacts (active disturbance, worrying behavior; (3 the family coping strategies (engaged, tolerant-inactive and withdrawal coping; (4 the relationship between gambling-related family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. It was hypothesized that positive significant relationships would be found between family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. From March 2011 to February 2012, a total of 103 family members of problem gamblers who sought help from Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Even Centre in Hong Kong were interviewed. Results showed that a majority of family members were partners or ex-partners of the gambler with low or no income. A large proportion of participants reported moderate to high psychological distress (72.6 %, poor to fair general health (60.2 %, and poor to neither good nor bad quality of life (61.1 %. Family member impacts were positively significantly correlated to all family coping strategies and psychological distress. Tolerant-inactive coping had the strongest relationships with family member impacts and psychological distress. Strong relationships between family member impacts and psychological distress were also

  14. Gambling related family coping and the impact of problem gambling on families in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Elda Mei Lo; Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C; Shek, Daniel Tan-Lei

    Despite substantial evidence that problem gambling is associated with a wide range of family difficulties, limited effort has been devoted to studying the negative impacts on family members as a result of problem gambling and how they cope and function under the impacts of problem gambling in Chinese communities. Among the very few Chinese-specific gambling-related family impact studies, none have examined how gambling-related family coping responses are related to gambling-related family impacts. Based on a sample of treatment-seeking Chinese family members of problem gamblers, this study aimed to explore: (1) the demographic characteristics and health and psychological well-being of the family members; (2) the gambling-related family member impacts (active disturbance, worrying behavior); (3) the family coping strategies (engaged, tolerant-inactive and withdrawal coping); (4) the relationship between gambling-related family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. It was hypothesized that positive significant relationships would be found between family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. From March 2011 to February 2012, a total of 103 family members of problem gamblers who sought help from Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Even Centre in Hong Kong were interviewed. Results showed that a majority of family members were partners or ex-partners of the gambler with low or no income. A large proportion of participants reported moderate to high psychological distress (72.6 %), poor to fair general health (60.2 %), and poor to neither good nor bad quality of life (61.1 %). Family member impacts were positively significantly correlated to all family coping strategies and psychological distress. Tolerant-inactive coping had the strongest relationships with family member impacts and psychological distress. Strong relationships between family member impacts and psychological distress were also found. The results

  15. Characteristics of problem gambling in a Canadian context: a preliminary study using a DSM-IV-based questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, C M; Cox, B J

    1999-06-01

    To develop a self-report instrument to assess diagnostic criteria and associated features of pathological gambling in order to learn more about the characteristics of individuals who seek treatment for gambling problems in a Canadian setting. Fifty-seven adults seeking treatment for gambling problems at the Addictions Foundation of Manitoba were assessed. There was substantial variation in the endorsement of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) symptoms. Lying to family members or friends and "chasing" previous gambling losses were frequently reported, while more serious consequences (for example, relationship breakup, job losses) were less frequent. DSM-IV ratings were correlated (r = 0.59) with the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Many individuals reported gambling as a way to alleviate dysphoric mood, and 30% reported receiving mental health services in the past. Approximately 50% reported suicidal ideation, although recent suicide attempts were not common. These preliminary results of Canadian adults seeking treatment for gambling problems suggest a somewhat different profile from many United States studies, which often rely on older male pathological gamblers. More systematic investigation of the presence of major depression and other psychiatric disorders is warranted. Consistent with demographic data collected at the Addictions Foundation of Manitoba, it appears that video lottery terminals play a major role in the type of problem gambling experience seen in Canadian settings.

  16. Distorted Beliefs about Luck and Skill and Their Relation to Gambling Problems and Gambling Behavior in Dutch Gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Cowie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamblers’ cognitive distortions are thought to be an important mechanism involved in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. The Gambling Cognitions Inventory (GCI evaluates two categories of distortions: beliefs that one is lucky (i.e., “Luck/Chance” and beliefs that one has special gambling-related skills (i.e., “Skill/Attitude”. Prior psychometric evaluations of the GCI demonstrated the utility of both subscales as measures of distortions and their concurrent relations to gambling problems among Canadian gamblers. However, these associations have not yet been studied in gamblers from other cultures nor have relationships between the GCI and indices of gambling behavior been investigated. In addition, the predictive validity of the GCI scales have not been evaluated in studies to date. The present study investigated the validity of the GCI as a measure of cognitive distortions in a sample of 49 Dutch gamblers by examining its concurrent and prospective relationships to both gambling problems (as measured through a standardized nine-item questionnaire assessing gambling-related problems and behaviors (as measured through two variables: days spent gambling and time spent gambling in minutes at baseline and over 1-month and 6-month intervals. The GCI subscales were internally consistent at all timepoints, and moderately to strongly inter-correlated at all timepoints. Each subscale correlated with an independent dimension of gambling both concurrently and prospectively: Luck/Chance was related to greater gambling problems and Skill/Attitude was related to greater gambling behavior. Thus, the two GCI subscales, while inter-correlated, appear to be related to different gambling outcomes, at least among Dutch gamblers. Moreover, the first evidence of the predictive validity of the GCI scales was demonstrated over a 1-month and 6-month interval. It is recommended that both types of cognitive distortions be considered in research

  17. Distorted Beliefs about Luck and Skill and Their Relation to Gambling Problems and Gambling Behavior in Dutch Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Megan E.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Salmon, Joshua; Collins, Pam; Al-Hamdani, Mohammed; Boffo, Marilisa; Salemink, Elske; de Jong, David; Smits, Ruby; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2017-01-01

    Gamblers’ cognitive distortions are thought to be an important mechanism involved in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. The Gambling Cognitions Inventory (GCI) evaluates two categories of distortions: beliefs that one is lucky (i.e., “Luck/Chance”) and beliefs that one has special gambling-related skills (i.e., “Skill/Attitude”). Prior psychometric evaluations of the GCI demonstrated the utility of both subscales as measures of distortions and their concurrent relations to gambling problems among Canadian gamblers. However, these associations have not yet been studied in gamblers from other cultures nor have relationships between the GCI and indices of gambling behavior been investigated. In addition, the predictive validity of the GCI scales have not been evaluated in studies to date. The present study investigated the validity of the GCI as a measure of cognitive distortions in a sample of 49 Dutch gamblers by examining its concurrent and prospective relationships to both gambling problems (as measured through a standardized nine-item questionnaire assessing gambling-related problems) and behaviors (as measured through two variables: days spent gambling and time spent gambling in minutes) at baseline and over 1-month and 6-month intervals. The GCI subscales were internally consistent at all timepoints, and moderately to strongly inter-correlated at all timepoints. Each subscale correlated with an independent dimension of gambling both concurrently and prospectively: Luck/Chance was related to greater gambling problems and Skill/Attitude was related to greater gambling behavior. Thus, the two GCI subscales, while inter-correlated, appear to be related to different gambling outcomes, at least among Dutch gamblers. Moreover, the first evidence of the predictive validity of the GCI scales was demonstrated over a 1-month and 6-month interval. It is recommended that both types of cognitive distortions be considered in research and clinical

  18. The intergenerational transmission of at-risk/problem gambling: The moderating role of parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki A; Shandley, Kerrie A; Oldenhof, Erin; Affleck, Julia M; Youssef, George J; Frydenberg, Erica; Thomas, Shane A; Jackson, Alun C

    2017-10-01

    Although parenting practices are articulated as underlying mechanisms or protective factors in several theoretical models, their role in the intergenerational transmission of gambling problems has received limited research attention. This study therefore examined the degree to which parenting practices (positive parenting, parental involvement, and inconsistent discipline) moderated the intergenerational transmission of paternal and maternal problem gambling. Students aged 12-18 years (N = 612) recruited from 17 Australian secondary schools completed a survey measuring parental problem gambling, problem gambling severity, and parenting practices. Participants endorsing paternal problem gambling (23.3%) were 4.3 times more likely to be classified as at-risk/problem gamblers than their peers (5.4%). Participants endorsing maternal problem gambling (6.9%) were no more likely than their peers (4.0%) to be classified as at-risk/problem gamblers. Paternal problem gambling was a significant predictor of offspring at-risk/problem gambling after controlling for maternal problem gambling and participant demographic characteristics. The relationship between maternal problem gambling and offspring at-risk/problem gambling was buffered by parental involvement. Paternal problem gambling may be important in the development of adolescent at-risk/problem gambling behaviours and higher levels of parental involvement buffers the influence of maternal problem gambling in the development of offspring gambling problems. Further research is therefore required to identify factors that attenuate the seemingly greater risk of transmission associated with paternal gambling problems. Parental involvement is a potential candidate for prevention and intervention efforts designed to reduce the intergenerational transmission of gambling problems. (Am J Addict 2017;26:707-712). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  19. A Theoretical Model of EGM Problem Gambling: More than a Cognitive Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anna Christina; Sullivan, Gavin Brent; Allen, Felicity Catherine Louise

    2009-01-01

    Although electronic gaming machine (EGM) gambling is established as a particularly risky form of gambling (Dowling, Smith and Thomas, "Addiction" 100:33-45, 2005), models of problem gambling continue to be generalist so factors and processes specific to EGM gambling can be overlooked. This study conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 EGM…

  20. A Preliminary Investigation into Motivational Factors Associated with Older Adults' Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dave; Clarkson, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the relative importance of older problem gamblers' motives for gambling. A questionnaire consisting of demographic items, questions about gambling behavior, the past year Revised South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS-R), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Gambling Motivation Scale (GMS), was completed by a…

  1. A cross-sectional study of problem gambling and its correlates among college students in South India

    OpenAIRE

    George, Sanju; TS, Jaisoorya; Nair, Sivasankaran; Rani, Anjana; Menon, Priya; Madhavan, Revamma; Rajan, Jeevan Chakkandan; Radhakrishnan, Komath Sankaran; Jose, Vineeta; Benegal, Vivek; Thennarasu, K.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Western world, a significant portion of college students have gambled. College gamblers have one of the highest rates of problem gambling. To date, there have been no studies on gambling participation or the rates of problem gambling in India. Aims This study evaluated the prevalence of gambling participation and problem gambling in college students in India. It also evaluated demographic and psychosocial correlates of gambling in that population. Method We surveyed 5784 col...

  2. Identifying indicators of harmful and problem gambling in a Canadian sample through receiver operating characteristic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C; Avila Murati, Daniela; Bagby, R Michael

    2014-03-01

    Many gamblers would prefer to reduce gambling on their own rather than to adopt an abstinence approach within the context of a gambling treatment program. Yet responsible gambling guidelines lack quantifiable markers to guide gamblers in wagering safely. To address these issues, the current investigation implemented receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify behavioral indicators of harmful and problem gambling. Gambling involvement was assessed in 503 participants (275 psychiatric outpatients and 228 community gamblers) with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Overall gambling frequency, duration, and expenditure were able to distinguish harmful and problematic gambling at a moderate level. Indicators of harmful gambling were generated for engagement in specific gambling activities: frequency of tickets and casino; duration of bingo, casino, and investments; and expenditures on bingo, casino, sports betting, games of skill, and investments. Indicators of problem gambling were similarly produced for frequency of tickets and casino, and expenditures on bingo, casino, games of skill, and investments. Logistic regression analyses revealed that overall gambling frequency uniquely predicted the presence of harmful and problem gambling. Furthermore, frequency indicators for tickets and casino uniquely predicted the presence of both harmful and problem gambling. Together, these findings contribute to the development of an empirically based method enabling the minimization of harmful or problem gambling through self-control rather than abstinence.

  3. Dimensions of problem gambling behavior associated with purchasing sports lottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai; Mao, Luke Lunhua; Zhang, James J; Wu, Yin; Li, Anmin; Chen, Jing

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the dimensions of problem gambling behaviors associated with purchasing sports lottery in China. This was accomplished through the development and validation of the Scale of Assessing Problem Gambling (SAPG). The SAPG was initially developed through a comprehensive qualitative research process. Research participants (N = 4,982) were Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets, who responded to a survey packet, representing a response rate of 91.4%. Data were split into two halves, one for conducting an EFA and the other for a CFA. A five-factor model with 19 items (Social Consequence, Financial Consequence, Harmful Behavior, Compulsive Disorder, and Depression Sign) showed good measurement properties to assess problem gambling of sports lottery consumers in China, including good fit to the data (RMSEA = 0.050, TLI = 0.978, and CFI = 0.922), convergent and discriminate validity, and reliability. Regression analyses revealed that except for Depression Sign, the SAPG factors were significantly (P gambling associated with Chinese sports lottery. The developed scale may be adopted by researchers and practitioners to examine problem gambling behaviors and develop effective prevention and intervention procedures based on tangible evidence.

  4. The Public Stigma of Problem Gambling: Its Nature and Relative Intensity Compared to Other Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Nuske, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling attracts considerable public stigma, with deleterious effects on mental health and use of healthcare services amongst those affected. However, no research has examined the extent of stigma towards problem gambling within the general population. This study aimed to examine the stigma-related dimensions of problem gambling as perceived by the general public compared to other health conditions, and determine whether the publicly perceived dimensions of problem gambling predict its stigmatisation. A sample of 2000 Australian adults was surveyed, weighted to be representative of the state population by gender, age and location. Based on vignettes, the online survey measured perceived origin, peril, concealability, course and disruptiveness of problem gambling and four other health conditions, and desired social distance from each. Problem gambling was perceived as caused mainly by stressful life circumstances, and highly disruptive, recoverable and noticeable, but not particularly perilous. Respondents stigmatised problem gambling more than sub-clinical distress and recreational gambling, but less than alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia. Predictors of stronger stigma towards problem gambling were perceptions it is caused by bad character, is perilous, non-recoverable, disruptive and noticeable, but not due to stressful life circumstances, genetic/inherited problem, or chemical imbalance in the brain. This new foundational knowledge can advance understanding and reduction of problem gambling stigma through countering inaccurate perceptions that problem gambling is caused by bad character, that people with gambling problems are likely to be violent to other people, and that people cannot recover from problem gambling.

  5. Pathological and problem gambling in substance use treatment: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlishaw, Sean; Hakes, Jahn K

    2015-08-01

    Pathological and problem gambling may be common yet frequently undetected conditions in substance use treatment. This paper reports findings on the prevalence of gambling comorbidities in these clinical contexts that are generalizable across regions and settings. It indicates the implications of such conditions for treatment of substance use problems. A U.S. representative sample of n = 402 patients reporting past-year treatment for substance use problems was derived from wave 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Weighted prevalence estimates were produced and regression analyses used to examine correlates of gambling symptoms. Rates of lifetime pathological gambling (5+ DSM-IV symptoms) and problem gambling (3+ DSM-IV symptoms) were 4.3% (s.e. = 1.3%) and 7.2% (s.e. = 1.6%), respectively. Lifetime gambling symptoms were associated with Axis II disorders, but no Axis I diagnoses. There was limited evidence of associations with substance usage, mental or physical health and medical utilization. There were associations with financial crises and relationship breakdown, during and after treatment. Gambling problems are elevated in substance use treatment but may be less common than previously thought; when considered nationally and across clinical settings. They may have modest associations with clinical characteristics given high levels of psychiatric severity that characterise treatment seeking samples overall. Notwithstanding, the results suggest that gambling comorbidities should be standard considerations in substance use treatment. They may signal complex conditions characterised by pervasive underlying psychopathology, and psychosocial difficulties that accumulate over time. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  6. Professional help-seeking for gambling problems: awareness, barriers and motivators for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally; Hing, Nerilee; Suhonen, Niko

    2014-06-01

    Despite the negative consequences associated with gambling, few problem gamblers seek professional help. This study aimed to examine awareness of professional sources of help and help-seeking behaviour amongst regular and problem gamblers. Australian gamblers (N = 730) were recruited from the general population, multicultural gambling venues, and gambling helplines and treatment services. Surveys measured awareness of professional help services, help-seeking behaviour and motivators and barriers to seeking help. Gamblers demonstrated low awareness of professional help services. Problem gamblers born in Australia or who were divorced were more likely to seek help. Problem gamblers who were reluctant to seek help due to a desire solve the problem on their own and feeling ashamed for themselves or their family pride were more likely to have overcome these barriers to seek help. However, significant barriers related to denial of problem severity and concerns about the ability to access low cost services that cater for multicultural populations predicted a lower likelihood of having sought help. Public education should aim to de-mystify the treatment process and educate gamblers about symptoms of problem gambling to reduce shame, stigma, and denial and encourage help-seeking. Ongoing education and promotion of help services is required to increase awareness of the resources available, including targeted promotions to increase awareness of relevant services among specific populations.

  7. Prevalence of gambling, depressive symptoms and cognitive distortions in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera, Belén del Valle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the presence of depressive symptoms and cognitive distortions in a sample of undergraduate students and investigate the possible relationship with severity of gambling disorders. To this aim, a sample of 277 local students (66.8 % women between 18 and 35 years completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS, a Gambling Prevalence Questionnaire, the Gambling Belief Questionnaire Spanish Version (GBQ-S and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. No differences in depression symptoms were found depending on gambling frequency and SOGS´s scores. The presence of cognitive distortions in less severe forms of gambling disorders was corroborated. Cognitive distortions’ levels increased with increasing severity and frequency of gambling.

  8. Interactions between risk and protective factors on problem gambling in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Tian P S; Goh, Zhengqin

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationships between risk (i.e., gambling cognitions, gambling urges, psychological distress) and protective factors (i.e., life satisfaction, resilience, gambling refusal self-efficacy) and problem gambling among 310 Singaporeans aged between 18 and 73 years. Data on demographics, risk and protective factors, and gambling behavior were collected through electronic and paper surveys. Hierarchical multiple regression was employed to assess the contributions of the risk and protective factors in predicting problem gambling. Three risk factors (i.e., gambling cognitions, gambling urges, psychological distress) and two protective factors (i.e., resilience, gambling refusal self-efficacy) were found to significantly and uniquely predict problem gambling. Furthermore, the risk factors significantly interacted with the protective factors to moderate gambling severity. Gambling refusal self-efficacy shows significant protective effects against problem gambling, while the effects of resilience on gambling vary across settings. Both factors need to be taken into account in the understanding of problem gambling.

  9. Management of gambling addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivangi Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambling is defined as staking something on a contingency. Many traders are gambling without even knowing it. Health professionals need to consider the harmful effects of gambling considering that gambling can destroy families and has medical consequences. A 40-year-old bank manager diagnosed initially with mood disorder with two attempts of self-harm in the past 3 years was eventually diagnosed as a case of gambling addiction using both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria and Problem Gambling Severity Index. The participant's gambling urges were not caused by any “trigger” incident, were independent of mood disorder, and were so severe to lead him to deliberate self-harm. Even after adequate trial of two mood stabilizers from different classes including lithium, the patient neither showed improvement in mood symptoms nor his gambling behavior; however, patient's gambling behavior and mood symptoms both showed marked improvement following start of naltrexone up to a dose of 100 mg/day and were maintained at 6-month follow-up with gradual decline in craving for gambling as monitored on Problem Gambling Severity Index. Gambling addiction appears to be a very serious problem and can cause significant problems in the lives of people it affects and their family members.

  10. The Temporal Sequencing of Problem Gambling and Comorbid Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Louise; Haw, John; Hing, Nerilee

    2012-01-01

    Two qualitative studies were undertaken to identify the prevalent comorbid mental disorders in treatment seeking problem gamblers and to also identify the temporal sequencing of the disorders. A forum with problem gambling counsellors and interviews with 24 mental health experts were undertaken. There was general agreement that the most commonly…

  11. The intergenerational transmission of problem gambling: The mediating role of parental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Shandley, K; Oldenhof, E; Youssef, G J; Thomas, S A; Frydenberg, E; Jackson, A C

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the intergenerational transmission of problem gambling and the potential mediating role of parental psychopathology (problem drinking, drug use problems, and mental health issues). The study comprised 3953 participants (1938 males, 2015 females) recruited from a large-scale Australian community telephone survey of adults retrospectively reporting on parental problem gambling and psychopathology during their childhood. Overall, 4.0% [95%CI 3.0, 5.0] (n=157) of participants reported paternal problem gambling and 1.7% [95%CI 1.0, 2.0] (n=68) reported maternal problem gambling. Compared to their peers, participants reporting paternal problem gambling were 5.1 times more likely to be moderate risk gamblers and 10.7 times more likely to be problem gamblers. Participants reporting maternal problem gambling were 1.7 times more likely to be moderate risk gamblers and 10.6 times more likely to be problem gamblers. The results revealed that the relationships between paternal-and-participant and maternal-and-participant problem gambling were significant, but that only the relationship between paternal-and-participant problem gambling remained statistically significant after controlling for maternal problem gambling and sociodemographic factors. Paternal problem drinking and maternal drug use problems partially mediated the relationship between paternal-and-participant problem gambling, and fully mediated the relationship between maternal-and-participant problem gambling. In contrast, parental mental health issues failed to significantly mediate the transmission of gambling problems by either parent. When parental problem gambling was the mediator, there was full mediation of the effect between parental psychopathology and offspring problem gambling for fathers but not mothers. Overall, the study highlights the vulnerability of children from problem gambling households and suggests that it would be of value to target prevention and intervention

  12. Updates of the prevalence of problem gambling in Romanian teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, Viorel; Todirita, Izabela Ramona

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to find out what is the prevalence of pathological in Romanian teenagers. We questioned one thousand thirty-two teenagers in Cluj-Napoca and Harghita counties. Participants completed a questionnaire with 40 items including gamblers anonymous twenty questions. The sample included teenagers aged 11-19 years; 65.57% were male and 34.43% were female. The subjects were divided into three groups: non-gambling/recreational gambling or occasional gambling (0-1 positive answers -Level 1)-753 subjects (72.96%) [316 females and 437 males]; problem gambling (2-6 points-Level 2)-243 subjects (23.54%) [43 females and 200 males]; pathological gambling (above 7 points-Level 3)-36 subjects (3.48%) [3 females and 33 males]. The mean age of pathological gamblers was 16.48 years. Gender differences were as expected, males engaging in pathological gambling (91.66% from pathological gamblers) more than females did (8.33% from pathological gamblers). Data revealed that the most encountered games practiced weekly were sport bets and slot machines in the case of 36.11% of the pathological gamblers; lotto, internet casino and pool bets each with 25%, followed by roulette and black-jack with 22.22%.From those who reported practicing gambling at a pathological level 66.66% engaged in alcohol consumption, 13.88% illicit drug use and 19.44% licit drugs. Just 16.66% smoke cigarettes. Data revealed higher rates of prevalence in Romanian teenagers than in other Central and Eastern European countries. A prevalence study at a national level should be designed.

  13. Untangling the Complex Needs of People Experiencing Gambling Problems and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Louise; Tiyce, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    People with gambling problems are now recognised among those at increased risk of homelessness, and the link between housing and gambling problems has been identified as an area requiring further research. This paper discusses the findings of a qualitative study that explored the relationship between gambling problems and homelessness. Interviews…

  14. Using the CPGI to Determine Problem Gambling Prevalence in Australia: Measurement Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alun C.; Wynne, Harold; Dowling, Nicki A.; Tomnay, Jane E.; Thomas, Shane A.

    2010-01-01

    Most states and territories in Australia have adopted the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index as the standard measure of problem gambling in their prevalence studies and research programs. However, notwithstanding this attempted standardisation, differences in sampling and recruitment methodologies and in…

  15. Betting on the evidence: reported gambling problems among the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Matthew; Young, Martin

    2009-12-01

    To address a shortfall in evidence with which to justify gambling-specific interventions for the Indigenous population, we analysed two surveys (2002 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey and General Social Survey) that contain information on reported gambling problems for the NT. Estimates of reported gambling problems are presented for each state and territory by remoteness for the Indigenous and total population for 2002. Factor analysis was used to identify the relationship between gambling problems and other negative life events for the NT Indigenous and total population. High levels of reported gambling problems were apparent for the Indigenous population particularly in the remote parts of the NT and Queensland. Gambling problems were associated with other stressors relating to social transgressions. Among the NT Indigenous population, gambling problems were correlated with levels of crowding, community involvement, personal and community violence and self-assessed health status. The high levels of reported gambling problems suggest that gambling is causing significant problems for Indigenous people. The multivariable adjusted associations indicate that gambling-related problems are intimately connected to a range of community contexts. Policies of intervention need to address broader social and environmental contexts that are intrinsically associated with gambling (and associated problems), in addition to public education in harm associated with gambling and provision of counselling services to assist problem gamblers.

  16. Gambling behavior and problems among older adults: a systematic review of empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Hong, Song-Iee; Wang, Chong-Wen; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M

    2012-09-01

    With the rapid aging of the population and the increased availability of gambling facilities over the past three decades, older adults may gamble more and may be increasingly at risk for problem gambling (PG) or pathological gambling disorder (PGD). To facilitate a better understanding of gambling behavior among older adults that will inform preventive strategies, this article systematically examined empirical studies on issues related to older adults' gambling. This article reviewed 75 empirical studies including data on the distribution and determinants of PG and PGD and the outcomes of gambling. This review used the broad term of "disordered gambling" as a means to explain a continuum of problems caused by PG and PGD. The analyses covered seven topics concerning older adults' gambling behaviors: Participation rates for gambling, prevalence rates of disordered gambling, motivation for initially beginning to gamble, risk and protective factors for disordered gambling, and negative and positive health outcomes from gambling. Based on research gaps identified in the review, this article proposes six recommendations for future studies focusing on well-being of older adults who gamble, research method issues, and taking into account older adults' inspirations and adjustment to the aging process in the 21st century.

  17. Client Engagement Characteristics Associated with Problem Gambling Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki A.; Cosic, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Previous research examining the factors associated with problem gambling treatment outcomes has examined client factors and to date, treatment characteristics, therapist factors, and client-therapist interactions have essentially remained unexplored. This study aimed to investigate how client engagement variables (client-rated therapeutic…

  18. Using Problem Gambling Helpline Data to Inform Addiction Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Margaret K.; Diaz, Sebastian; Moore, Lucas C.

    2006-01-01

    There appears to be an association between substance use and pathological gambling disorders in the research. This will present concerns for clinicians in substance use treatment programs as clients present with the co-occurring disorders. This exploratory study provides descriptive information learned from calls made to a problem gambling…

  19. Prevalence of gambling problems among the clients of a toronto homeless shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Flora I; Devotta, Kimberly; Wendaferew, Aklilu; Pedersen, Cheryl

    2014-06-01

    Few studies have examined the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling among clients of homeless service agencies. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of problem gambling among these clients. We collected primary data on gambling using the NORC diagnostic screen for disorders. Using a modified time-location recruitment approach 264 clients of a community homeless service agency were screened for lifetime gambling problems. Descriptive statistics were produced using SPSSX. The prevalence of lifetime problem gambling was 10 % and that of pathological gambling was 25 % in this sample. The prevalence of lifetime problem and pathological gambling was alarmingly high relative to the general population lifetime prevalence. Better insight into interventions for gambling that might reduce risk of homelessness will help service agencies gauge the needs of their clients and to implement change to service delivery and screening practices.

  20. Adolescent alcohol-drinking frequency and problem-gambling severity: adolescent perceptions regarding problem-gambling prevention and parental/adult behaviors and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ardeshir S; Balodis, Iris M; Pilver, Corey E; Leeman, Robert F; Hoff, Rani A; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-01-01

    The study examined in adolescents how alcohol-drinking frequency relates to gambling-related attitudes and behaviors and perceptions of both problem-gambling prevention strategies and adult (including parental) behaviors/attitudes. A survey assessing alcohol, gambling, and health and functioning measures in 1609 high school students. Students were stratified into low-frequency/nondrinking and high-frequency-drinking groups, and into low-risk and at-risk/problematic gambling groups. High-frequency drinking was associated with at-risk/problematic gambling (χ(2)(1,N = 1842) = 49.22, P drinking versus low-frequency/nondrinking adolescents exhibited more permissive attitudes towards gambling (e.g., less likely to report multiple problem-gambling prevention efforts to be important). At-risk problematic gamblers exhibited more severe drinking patterns and greater likelihood of acknowledging parental approval of drinking (χ(2)(1, N = 1842) = 31.58, P drinking adolescents (odds ratio [OR] = 3.17, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = [1.97, 5.09]) versus low-frequency/nondrinking (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = [0.61, 2.68]) adolescents (interaction OR = 1.78, 95% CI = [1.05, 3.02]). Interrelationships between problematic drinking and gambling in youth may relate to more permissive attitudes across these domains. Stronger links between at-risk/problem gambling and gambling with adults in the high-frequency-drinking group raises the possibility that interventions targeting adults may help mitigate youth gambling and drinking.

  1. Distorted Beliefs about Luck and Skill and Their Relation to Gambling Problems and Gambling Behavior in Dutch Gamblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, M.E.; Stewart, S.H.; Salmon, J.; Collins, P.; Al-Hamdani, M.; Boffo, M.; Salemink, E.; de Jong, D.; Smits, R.; Wiers, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Gamblers' cognitive distortions are thought to be an important mechanism involved in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. The Gambling Cognitions Inventory (GCI) evaluates two categories of distortions: beliefs that one is lucky (i.e., "Luck/Chance") and beliefs that one has special

  2. Player Preferences and Social Harm: An Analysis of the Relationships between Player Characteristics, Gambling Modes, and Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Martin; Stevens, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    To explore the structure of gambling participation and its association with problem gambling, we draw upon Caillois's distinction between games based on competition (i.e. "agon") and those based on chance (i.e. "alea"). The idea that "alea" and "agon" are socially patterned and associated with differing…

  3. An Exploratory Study of Problem Gambling on Casino versus Non-Casino Electronic Gaming Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dave; Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max; Hodgins, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Electronic gaming machines (EGMs) have been frequently associated with problem gambling. Little research has compared the relative contribution of casino EGMs versus non-casino EGMs on current problem gambling, after controlling for demographic factors and gambling behaviour. Our exploratory study obtained data from questionnaires administered to…

  4. Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

  5. Stacking the Odds: A Phenomenological Study of Non-Problem Gambling in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Brad; Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, phenomenological-hermeneutic study was to explore the experience of non-problem gambling by older adults. Twelve older gamblers were identified as non-problem gamblers using two gambling screens and participated in in-depth interviews about their experience of gambling. Two major themes emerged from the interviews:…

  6. Problem gambling of Chinese college students: application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2012-06-01

    The present study, using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), investigated psychological correlates of intention to gamble and problem gambling among Chinese college students. Nine hundred and thirty two Chinese college students (aged from 18 to 25 years) in Hong Kong and Macao were surveyed. The findings generally support the efficacy of the TPB in explaining gambling intention and problems among Chinese college students. Specifically, the results of the path analysis indicate gambling intention and perceived control over gambling as the most proximal predictors of problem gambling, whereas attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control, which are TPB components, influence gambling intention. Thus, these three TPB components should make up the core contents of the prevention and intervention efforts against problem gambling for Chinese college students.

  7. Stacked Deck: an effective, school-based program for the prevention of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Wood, Robert T; Currie, Shawn R

    2010-06-01

    School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and skills for good decision making and problem solving. An overriding theme of the program is to approach life as a "smart gambler" by determining the odds and weighing the pros versus cons of your actions. A total of 949 grade 9-12 students in 10 schools throughout southern Alberta received the program and completed baseline and follow-up measures. These students were compared to 291 students in 4 control schools. Four months after receiving the program, students in the intervention group had significantly more negative attitudes toward gambling, improved knowledge about gambling and problem gambling, improved resistance to gambling fallacies, improved decision making and problem solving, decreased gambling frequency, and decreased rates of problem gambling. There was no change in involvement in high risk activities or money lost gambling. These results indicate that Stacked Deck is a promising curriculum for the prevention of problem gambling.

  8. Gender differences in the associations of gambling activities and suicidal behaviors with problem gambling in a nationally representative French sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husky, Mathilde M; Michel, Grégory; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of the present study are to describe gender differences in factors associated with moderate risk and problem gambling. Data were extracted from the 2010 Health Barometer, a large survey on a representative sample of the general population aged 15-85 years living in France (n=27,653), carried out by the National Institute for Health Promotion and Health Education. Data were collected between October 2009 and July 2010. A computer-assisted telephone interview system was used. The findings indicate that men are three times more likely to experience problems with gambling. Men and women have different patterns of gambling activities. Men were more involved with Rapido, internet gambling, sports and racetrack betting, poker, and casino tables, whereas women gambled more often on scratch games. Both men and women engaging in immediate reward games were significantly more likely to experience difficulties with gambling. This association, however, was stronger in women. Furthermore, suicidal ideation and behaviors were more likely to be associated with gambling problems in women as compared to men. The study underscores the importance of considering gender-related differences in the study of gambling behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk Factors for Gambling Problems on Online Electronic Gaming Machines, Race Betting and Sports Betting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M; Browne, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Growth of Internet gambling has fuelled concerns about its contribution to gambling problems. However, most online gamblers also gamble on land-based forms, which may be the source of problems for some. Studies therefore need to identify the problematic mode of gambling (online or offline) to identify those with an online gambling problem. Identifying most problematic form of online gambling (e.g., EGMs, race betting, sports betting) would also enable a more accurate examination of gambling problems attributable to a specific online gambling form. This study pursued this approach, aiming to: (1) determine demographic, behavioral and psychological risk factors for gambling problems on online EGMs, online sports betting and online race betting; (2) compare the characteristics of problematic online gamblers on each of these online forms. An online survey of 4,594 Australian gamblers measured gambling behavior, most problematic mode and form of gambling, gambling attitudes, psychological distress, substance use, help-seeking, demographics and problem gambling status. Problem/moderate risk gamblers nominating an online mode of gambling as their most problematic, and identifying EGMs ( n = 98), race betting ( n = 291) or sports betting ( n = 181) as their most problematic gambling form, were compared to non-problem/low risk gamblers who had gambled online on these forms in the previous 12 months ( n = 64, 1145 and 1213 respectively), using bivariate analyses and then logistic regressions. Problem/moderate risk gamblers on each of these online forms were then compared. Risk factors for online EGM gambling were: more frequent play on online EGMs, substance use when gambling, and higher psychological distress. Risk factors for online sports betting were being male, younger, lower income, born outside of Australia, speaking a language other than English, more frequent sports betting, higher psychological distress, and more negative attitudes toward gambling. Risk factors for

  10. Risk Factors for Gambling Problems on Online Electronic Gaming Machines, Race Betting and Sports Betting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M.; Browne, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Growth of Internet gambling has fuelled concerns about its contribution to gambling problems. However, most online gamblers also gamble on land-based forms, which may be the source of problems for some. Studies therefore need to identify the problematic mode of gambling (online or offline) to identify those with an online gambling problem. Identifying most problematic form of online gambling (e.g., EGMs, race betting, sports betting) would also enable a more accurate examination of gambling problems attributable to a specific online gambling form. This study pursued this approach, aiming to: (1) determine demographic, behavioral and psychological risk factors for gambling problems on online EGMs, online sports betting and online race betting; (2) compare the characteristics of problematic online gamblers on each of these online forms. An online survey of 4,594 Australian gamblers measured gambling behavior, most problematic mode and form of gambling, gambling attitudes, psychological distress, substance use, help-seeking, demographics and problem gambling status. Problem/moderate risk gamblers nominating an online mode of gambling as their most problematic, and identifying EGMs (n = 98), race betting (n = 291) or sports betting (n = 181) as their most problematic gambling form, were compared to non-problem/low risk gamblers who had gambled online on these forms in the previous 12 months (n = 64, 1145 and 1213 respectively), using bivariate analyses and then logistic regressions. Problem/moderate risk gamblers on each of these online forms were then compared. Risk factors for online EGM gambling were: more frequent play on online EGMs, substance use when gambling, and higher psychological distress. Risk factors for online sports betting were being male, younger, lower income, born outside of Australia, speaking a language other than English, more frequent sports betting, higher psychological distress, and more negative attitudes toward gambling. Risk factors for

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Problem Gambling in a Representative Sample of Norwegian 17-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Blaszczynski, Alex; Molde, Helge; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-09-01

    We report data collected in a representative sample of 17-year-old Norwegians to investigate prevalence rates of non-problem, risk, and problem gambling, as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). In addition, we explored the importance of demographic, personality, motivational, social, and health variables explaining variance in adolescent gambling. Prevalence rates of risk and problem gambling were low but similar to those found in previous studies outside of Norway using the PGSI in adolescent samples. With regard to the relative importance of the various covariates, we found that motivational variables (future gambling intentions, attitudes toward gambling, and gambling-related knowledge) distinguished best between those who did not gamble, non-problem gamblers, and risk and problem gamblers. Furthermore, social variables were important covariates of adolescent gambling; significant associations were found for family and friends' approval of gambling, parental monitoring, father's level of education, and having relatives or friends with a history of a gambling disorder. We discuss possible reasons for differences between the covariates with regard to their importance for explaining adolescent gambling and address implications for future research.

  12. Problem Gambling among Adolescent Girls in Croatia—The Role of Different Psychosocial Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Huic

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instruments that are not specifically developed for use on adolescents. In order to contribute to a better understanding of adolescent gambling this study focuses on problem gambling among girls. We consider different social, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors as predictors of girl problem gambling. A total of 1,372 high-school girls from 7 Croatian cities participated in the study. They provided data on their gambling activities, peer gambling, cognitive distortions related to gambling, motivation for gambling, and levels of general risky behavior. As the only instrument developed specifically for use on adolescents, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory was used to examine adverse gambling consequences. Results show 7.4% of girls can be considered regular gamblers, and out of those who gambled at least once in their lifetime (n = 862, 11.2% already experience mild adverse consequences because of their gambling (at risk gamblers, with 3.2% experiencing serious consequences (problem gamblers. In general, girls seem to prefer lotto and scratch cards, but sports betting seems to be the preferred game of choice among regular girl gamblers. A hierarchical regression model confirmed the importance of much the same factors identified as risky for the development of problem gambling among adolescent boys—cognitive distortions, motives to earn money, to be better at gambling and to relax, the experiences of winning large and the drive to continue gambling

  13. Problem Gambling among Adolescent Girls in Croatia-The Role of Different Psychosocial Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huic, Aleksandra; Dodig Hundric, Dora; Kranzelic, Valentina; Ricijas, Neven

    2017-01-01

    Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instruments that are not specifically developed for use on adolescents. In order to contribute to a better understanding of adolescent gambling this study focuses on problem gambling among girls. We consider different social, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors as predictors of girl problem gambling. A total of 1,372 high-school girls from 7 Croatian cities participated in the study. They provided data on their gambling activities, peer gambling, cognitive distortions related to gambling, motivation for gambling, and levels of general risky behavior. As the only instrument developed specifically for use on adolescents, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory was used to examine adverse gambling consequences. Results show 7.4% of girls can be considered regular gamblers, and out of those who gambled at least once in their lifetime ( n = 862), 11.2% already experience mild adverse consequences because of their gambling (at risk gamblers), with 3.2% experiencing serious consequences (problem gamblers). In general, girls seem to prefer lotto and scratch cards, but sports betting seems to be the preferred game of choice among regular girl gamblers. A hierarchical regression model confirmed the importance of much the same factors identified as risky for the development of problem gambling among adolescent boys-cognitive distortions, motives to earn money, to be better at gambling and to relax, the experiences of winning large and the drive to continue gambling, together with

  14. Problem Gambling among Adolescent Girls in Croatia—The Role of Different Psychosocial Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huic, Aleksandra; Dodig Hundric, Dora; Kranzelic, Valentina; Ricijas, Neven

    2017-01-01

    Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instruments that are not specifically developed for use on adolescents. In order to contribute to a better understanding of adolescent gambling this study focuses on problem gambling among girls. We consider different social, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors as predictors of girl problem gambling. A total of 1,372 high-school girls from 7 Croatian cities participated in the study. They provided data on their gambling activities, peer gambling, cognitive distortions related to gambling, motivation for gambling, and levels of general risky behavior. As the only instrument developed specifically for use on adolescents, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory was used to examine adverse gambling consequences. Results show 7.4% of girls can be considered regular gamblers, and out of those who gambled at least once in their lifetime (n = 862), 11.2% already experience mild adverse consequences because of their gambling (at risk gamblers), with 3.2% experiencing serious consequences (problem gamblers). In general, girls seem to prefer lotto and scratch cards, but sports betting seems to be the preferred game of choice among regular girl gamblers. A hierarchical regression model confirmed the importance of much the same factors identified as risky for the development of problem gambling among adolescent boys—cognitive distortions, motives to earn money, to be better at gambling and to relax, the experiences of winning large and the drive to continue gambling, together with

  15. Gambling-Related Distortions and Problem Gambling in Adolescents: A Model to Explain Mechanisms and Develop Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anna Donati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a number of gambling preventive initiatives have been realized with adolescents, many of them have been developed in absence of a clear and explicitly described theoretical model. The present work was aimed to analyze the adequacy of a model to explain gambling behavior referring to gambling-related cognitive distortions (Study 1, and to verify the effectiveness of a preventive intervention developed on the basis of this model (Study 2. Following dual-process theories on cognitive functioning, in Study 1 we tested a model in which mindware gap, i.e., susceptibility to the gambler’s fallacy, and contaminated mindware, i.e., superstitious thinking, were the antecedents of gambling-related cognitive distortions that, in turn, affect gambling frequency and problem gambling. Participants were 306 male adolescents (Mage = 17.2 years. A path analysis indicated that cognitive distortions have a mediating role in the relationship that links probabilistic reasoning fallacy and superstitious thinking with problem gambling. Following these findings, in Study 2 we developed a school-based intervention aimed to reduce gambling-related cognitive distortions acting on the above cited mindware problems. A pre- and post-test design – with a 6 months follow-up – was performed with 34 male adolescents (Mage = 16.8, randomly assigned to two groups (Training and No Training, and their baseline equivalence was verified. A Mixed 2 × 2 ANOVA attested a significant Time X Group interaction, indicating a significant reduction of the cognitive distortions from pre-test to post-test only in the Training group. The follow-up attested to the stability of the training effects and the reduction of gambling frequency over time. These findings suggest that prevention strategies should address mindware problems, which can be considered as predictors of gambling-related cognitive distortions.

  16. Gambling-Related Distortions and Problem Gambling in Adolescents: A Model to Explain Mechanisms and Develop Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Iozzi, Adriana; Manfredi, Antonella; Fagni, Fabrizio; Primi, Caterina

    2018-01-01

    Although a number of gambling preventive initiatives have been realized with adolescents, many of them have been developed in absence of a clear and explicitly described theoretical model. The present work was aimed to analyze the adequacy of a model to explain gambling behavior referring to gambling-related cognitive distortions (Study 1), and to verify the effectiveness of a preventive intervention developed on the basis of this model (Study 2). Following dual-process theories on cognitive functioning, in Study 1 we tested a model in which mindware gap, i.e., susceptibility to the gambler’s fallacy, and contaminated mindware, i.e., superstitious thinking, were the antecedents of gambling-related cognitive distortions that, in turn, affect gambling frequency and problem gambling. Participants were 306 male adolescents (Mage = 17.2 years). A path analysis indicated that cognitive distortions have a mediating role in the relationship that links probabilistic reasoning fallacy and superstitious thinking with problem gambling. Following these findings, in Study 2 we developed a school-based intervention aimed to reduce gambling-related cognitive distortions acting on the above cited mindware problems. A pre- and post-test design – with a 6 months follow-up – was performed with 34 male adolescents (Mage = 16.8), randomly assigned to two groups (Training and No Training), and their baseline equivalence was verified. A Mixed 2 × 2 ANOVA attested a significant Time X Group interaction, indicating a significant reduction of the cognitive distortions from pre-test to post-test only in the Training group. The follow-up attested to the stability of the training effects and the reduction of gambling frequency over time. These findings suggest that prevention strategies should address mindware problems, which can be considered as predictors of gambling-related cognitive distortions. PMID:29354081

  17. Gambling-Related Distortions and Problem Gambling in Adolescents: A Model to Explain Mechanisms and Develop Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Iozzi, Adriana; Manfredi, Antonella; Fagni, Fabrizio; Primi, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Although a number of gambling preventive initiatives have been realized with adolescents, many of them have been developed in absence of a clear and explicitly described theoretical model. The present work was aimed to analyze the adequacy of a model to explain gambling behavior referring to gambling-related cognitive distortions (Study 1), and to verify the effectiveness of a preventive intervention developed on the basis of this model (Study 2). Following dual-process theories on cognitive functioning, in Study 1 we tested a model in which mindware gap , i.e., susceptibility to the gambler's fallacy, and contaminated mindware , i.e., superstitious thinking, were the antecedents of gambling-related cognitive distortions that, in turn, affect gambling frequency and problem gambling. Participants were 306 male adolescents ( M age = 17.2 years). A path analysis indicated that cognitive distortions have a mediating role in the relationship that links probabilistic reasoning fallacy and superstitious thinking with problem gambling. Following these findings, in Study 2 we developed a school-based intervention aimed to reduce gambling-related cognitive distortions acting on the above cited mindware problems. A pre- and post-test design - with a 6 months follow-up - was performed with 34 male adolescents ( M age = 16.8), randomly assigned to two groups (Training and No Training), and their baseline equivalence was verified. A Mixed 2 × 2 ANOVA attested a significant Time X Group interaction, indicating a significant reduction of the cognitive distortions from pre-test to post-test only in the Training group. The follow-up attested to the stability of the training effects and the reduction of gambling frequency over time. These findings suggest that prevention strategies should address mindware problems, which can be considered as predictors of gambling-related cognitive distortions.

  18. Stress moderates the relationships between problem-gambling severity and specific psychopathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Kraus, Shane W; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which stress moderated the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychopathologies. We analyzed Wave-1 data from 41,869 participants of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Logistic regression showed that as compared to a non-gambling (NG) group, individuals at-risk gambling (ARG) and problem gambling (PPG) demonstrated higher odds of multiple Axis-I and Axis-II disorders in both high- and low-stress groups. Interactions odds ratios were statistically significant for stress moderating the relationships between at-risk gambling (versus non-gambling) and Any Axis-I and Any Axis-II disorder, with substance-use and Cluster-A and Cluster-B disorders contributing significantly. Some similar patterns were observed for pathological gambling (versus non-gambling), with stress moderating relationships with Cluster-B disorders. In all cases, a stronger relationship was observed between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology in the low-stress versus high-stress groups. The findings suggest that perceived stress accounts for some of the variance in the relationship between problem-gambling severity and specific forms of psychopathology, particularly with respect to lower intensity, subsyndromal levels of gambling. Findings suggest that stress may be particularly important to consider in the relationships between problem-gambling severity and substance use and Cluster-B disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Pathological and Sub-Clinical Problem Gambling in a New Zealand Prison: A Comparison of the Eight and SOGS Gambling Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sean; Brown, Robert; Skinner, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Prison populations have been identified as having elevated levels of problem gambling prevalence, and screening for problem gambling may provide an opportunity to identify and address a behavior that may otherwise lead to re-offending. A problem gambling screen for this purpose would need to be brief, simple to score, and be able to be…

  20. Evaluating the role of social marketing campaigns to prevent youth gambling problems: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerlian, Carmen; Derevensky, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Gambling among adolescents is a growing public health concern. To date, social marketing as a strategy to address problem gambling among youth has not been widely used. A qualitative study through the use of focus groups was conducted to explore adolescents' exposure to existing prevention campaigns and their message content and communication strategy preferences for a youth gambling social marketing campaign. Participants prefer that youth gambling ads depict real-life stories, use an emotional appeal and portray the negative consequences associated with gambling problems. They further recommend illustrating the basic facts of gambling using simple messages that raise awareness without making a judgement. Participants caution against the "don't do it" approach, suggesting it does not reflect the current youth gambling culture. This study should serve as a starting point for the development of a gambling prevention social marketing campaign. Targeting variables and campaign strategies highlighted should be considered in the early stages of development and tested along the way.

  1. The Prevalence of Problem Gambling in Denmark in 2005 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Eiberg, Stig; Davidsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Gambling is a worldwide phenomenon. For most persons this causes only small or no problems, but for some, pathological gambling can be the result of entering the gambling environment. The objectives were to estimate the past year and lifetime prevalence of problem gambling in the adult Danish...... was based on region-stratified random sample of 10,916 Danish citizens (response rate: 52.1 %) and the survey in 2010 was based on a random sample of 23,405 Danish citizens (response rate: 62.7 %). Problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. The past year prevalence of problem gamblers...... or cohabiting. The present study indicates that a high level of education and being employed have a protective effect against problem gambling. More research is needed in order to understand what attracts and maintains the interest of men in gambling environments as well as why women are not occupied...

  2. Curing Problem or Pathological Gambling: Don't Bet on It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Joseph C.

    2004-01-01

    This review of literature on problem and pathological gambling provides the reader with some historical perspectives on gambling and its growth as an industry. The causes and effects of the identified disorders related to gambling are discussed with indications for therapeutic intervention.

  3. Problem gambling worldwide: An update and systematic review of empirical research (2000-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Filipa; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Problem gambling has been identified as an emergent public health issue, and there is a need to identify gambling trends and to regularly update worldwide gambling prevalence rates. This paper aims to review recent research on adult gambling and problem gambling (since 2000) and then, in the context of a growing liberalization of the gambling market in the European Union, intends to provide a more detailed analysis of adult gambling behavior across European countries. Methods A systematic literature search was carried out using academic databases, Internet, and governmental websites. Results Following this search and utilizing exclusion criteria, 69 studies on adult gambling prevalence were identified. These studies demonstrated that there are wide variations in past-year problem gambling rates across different countries in the world (0.12-5.8%) and in Europe (0.12-3.4%). However, it is difficult to directly compare studies due to different methodological procedures, instruments, cut-offs, and time frames. Despite the variability among instruments, some consistent results with regard to demographics were found. Discussion and conclusion The findings highlight the need for continuous monitoring of problem gambling prevalence rates in order to examine the influence of cultural context on gambling patterns, assess the effectiveness of policies on gambling-related harms, and establish priorities for future research.

  4. Problem gambling worldwide: An update and systematic review of empirical research (2000–2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Filipa; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Problem gambling has been identified as an emergent public health issue, and there is a need to identify gambling trends and to regularly update worldwide gambling prevalence rates. This paper aims to review recent research on adult gambling and problem gambling (since 2000) and then, in the context of a growing liberalization of the gambling market in the European Union, intends to provide a more detailed analysis of adult gambling behavior across European countries. Methods A systematic literature search was carried out using academic databases, Internet, and governmental websites. Results Following this search and utilizing exclusion criteria, 69 studies on adult gambling prevalence were identified. These studies demonstrated that there are wide variations in past-year problem gambling rates across different countries in the world (0.12–5.8%) and in Europe (0.12–3.4%). However, it is difficult to directly compare studies due to different methodological procedures, instruments, cut-offs, and time frames. Despite the variability among instruments, some consistent results with regard to demographics were found. Discussion and conclusion The findings highlight the need for continuous monitoring of problem gambling prevalence rates in order to examine the influence of cultural context on gambling patterns, assess the effectiveness of policies on gambling-related harms, and establish priorities for future research. PMID:27784180

  5. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne

    2013-01-01

    ) on slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder....... This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...... gambling symptom severity using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). The results showed that pathological gambling sufferers had significantly higher response frequency than non-problem gamblers, and that response frequency was significantly correlated with SOGS symptom severity among pathological...

  6. Predictors of engaging in problem gambling treatment: data from the West Virginia Problem Gamblers Help Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Jeremiah; Burton, Steve; Rash, Carla J; Moran, Sheila; Biller, Warren; Krudelbach, Norman; Phoenix, Natalie; Morasco, Benjamin J

    2011-06-01

    Gambling help-lines are an essential access point, or frontline resource, for treatment seeking. This study investigated treatment engagement after calling a gambling help-line. From 2000-2007 over 2,900 unique callers were offered an in-person assessment appointment. Logistic regression analyses assessed predictors of (a) accepting the referral to the in-person assessment appointment and (b) attending the in-person assessment appointment. Over 76% of callers accepted the referral and 55% of all callers attended the in-person assessment appointment. This treatment engagement rate is higher than typically found for other help-lines. Demographic factors and clinical factors such as gender, severity of gambling problems, amount of gambling debt, and coercion by legal and social networks predicted engagement in treatment. Programmatic factors such as offering an appointment within 72 hr also aided treatment engagement. Results suggest gambling help-lines can be a convenient and confidential way for many individuals with gambling problems to access gambling-specific treatment. Alternative services such as telephone counseling may be beneficial for those who do not engage in treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Gamble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Wissner, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we present Gamble, a small game of dice that is played by two users and an embodied conversational agent (ECA). By its abilities to communicate and collaborate, an ECA is well suited for engaging users in entertaining social interactions. Gamble is used as a test bed...

  8. Gambling Related Cognitive Distortions in Adolescence: Relationships with Gambling Problems in Typically Developing and Special Needs Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robyn N; Parker, James D A; Keefer, Kateryna V; Kloosterman, Patricia H; Summerfeldt, Laura J

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the link between problematic gambling and gambling related cognitions (GRCs) in a large sample of adolescents with (N = 266) and without (N = 1,738) special education needs (SEN) between the ages of 14 and 18 years attending several high schools in eastern central Ontario. The adolescents with SENs were identified as having various learning disorders and/or internalizing and externalizing problems [e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)]. All adolescents completed a self-report questionnaire package that included the GRC Scale (GRCS; Raylu and Oei in Addiction 99:757-769, 2004), as well as measures of problem gambling, negative affect, and ADHD symptomatology. Results showed that adolescents with SEN hold more erroneous beliefs about gambling and had a higher risk of developing problematic patterns of gambling behaviour than their typically developing peers. Moreover, the GRCS subscales were found to be strong predictors of problem gambling among adolescents both with and without SEN, accounting for a substantial amount of the variance even when controlling for the effects of age, gender, ADHD, and negative affect. It is suggested that intervention and prevention programs aimed at adolescent gambling need to give particular attention to those with SEN.

  9. Gender differences in the associations between past-year gambling problems and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2008-03-01

    Psychiatric disorders frequently co-occur with pathological gambling. The extent to which co-occurence extends to subsyndromal levels of gambling or differs between women and men is incompletely understood. To examine whether the association between psychiatric disorders and past-year gambling problems is stronger in women than men. Data from the national epidemiological survey of alcoholism and related disorders (NESARC) (n = 43,093) were analyzed. Increasing severity of past-year gambling problems was associated with increasing odds of most past-year Axis I and lifetime Axis II disorders, regardless of gender. Associations between gambling problems and major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder, and nicotine dependence were statistically stronger in women than in men. A severity-related association exists between past-year gambling problems and psychiatric disorders. The stronger associations in women suggest that gambling research, prevention and treatment efforts consider gender differences.

  10. Primed for change: facilitating factors in problem gambling treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Kevin; Pascual-Leone, Antonio

    2009-03-01

    To successfully facilitate the treatment of problem gambling, change processes should be examined in order to identify those variables that differentiate good versus poor treatment outcomes. The current study explored the change facilitating effects of certain characteristics or conditions of an individual being treated: emotional support, instrumental support, emotional awareness, GA involvement, and depressed affect. These conditions were hypothesized to be predictive of a change-oriented mindset (i.e., "resources for change") measured by abstinence self-efficacy, motivation for change, and readiness for change. Participants were 60 outpatients (54.2% male; M age = 46.7 years) with problem gambling recruited from several treatment centres throughout Ontario, Canada. Results indicated that: (1) depressed affect and emotional support seem to influence self-efficacy for abstinence, (2) emotional support alone appears to influence motivation for change, and (3) GA involvement, depressed affect, and emotional awareness, together, seem to influence readiness for change. These findings have implications for promoting change oriented dispositions in problem gambling individuals.

  11. Adolescent Alcohol-Drinking Frequency and Problem-Gambling Severity: Adolescent Perceptions Regarding Problem-Gambling Prevention and Parental/Adult Behaviors and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Balodis, Iris M.; Pilver, Corey E.; Leeman, Robert F.; Hoff, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine in adolescents how alcohol-drinking frequency relates to gambling-related attitudes and behaviors and their perceptions of both problem-gambling prevention strategies and adult (including parental) behaviors/attitudes. Methods A survey assessing alcohol, gambling and health and functioning measures in 1609 high-school students. Students were stratified into low-frequency/non-drinking and high-frequency drinking groups, and into low-risk and at-risk/problematic gambling groups. Results High-frequency drinking was associated with at-risk/problematic gambling (χ2(1, N=1842)=49.22, pgambling (e.g., less likely to report multiple problem-gambling prevention efforts to be important). At-risk problematic gamblers exhibited more severe drinking patterns and greater likelihood of acknowledging parental approval of drinking (χ2(1, N=1842)=31.58, pProblem-gambling severity was more strongly related to gambling with adults among high-frequency-drinking adolescents (odds ratio [OR]=3.17, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=[1.97, 5.09]) versus low-frequency/non-drinking (OR=1.86, 95%CI=[0.61, 2.68]) adolescents (Interaction OR=1.78, 95%CI=[1.05, 3.02]). Conclusions Inter-relationships between problematic drinking and gambling in youth may relate to more permissive attitudes across these domains. Stronger links between at-risk/problem gambling and gambling with adults in the high-frequency-drinking group raises the possibility that interventions targeting adults may help mitigate youth gambling and drinking. PMID:25147928

  12. Comparative Analysis of Potential Risk Factors for at-Risk Gambling, Problem Gambling and Gambling Disorder among Current Gamblers—Results of the Austrian Representative Survey 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Buth

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The risk of developing a problem gambling behavior is distributed unequally among the population. For example, individuals who report stressful life events, show impairments of mental health or belong to a socio-economically deprived group are affected more frequently by gambling problems. The aim of our study is to investigate whether these risk factors are equally relevant for all gambling groups (social = 0 DSM-5 criteria, at risk = 1 DSM-5 criterion, problem = 2–3 DSM-5 criteria, disordered = 4–9 DSM-5 criteria.Methods: Of a total of 10,000 participants in the representative gambling survey in Austria in 2015, 4,082 individuals reported gambling during the last 12 months and were allocated to the four gambling groups according to DSM-5. With social gamblers as the reference group, relevant risk factors for the other three groups were identified by means of bi- and multivariate multinomial logistic regression.Results: Significant risk factors for gambling disorder are at-risk alcohol use (OR = 4.9, poor mental health (OR = 5.9, young age (≤26 years, OR = 2.1, a low level of formal education (OR = 2.4, having grown up with a single parent (OR = 2.5, parents with addiction problems (OR = 2.3 and belonging to the working class (OR = 2.9. Risk factors for problem gambling are parents with addiction problems (OR = 3.8, poor mental health (OR = 2.6 and a young age (OR = 2.2. With regard to at-risk gambling, only growing up with a single parent was relevant (OR = 2.4.Conclusion: Overall, the results of this study suggest, that the number and the influence of the included risk factors differ between gambling problem groups. Apparently, the development of severe gambling problems is to a lesser extent facilitated by specific risk factors than by their cumulative presence. Therefore, future prevention and treatment measures should place a particular focus on individuals who have experienced growing up in a difficult family situation

  13. Comparative Analysis of Potential Risk Factors for at-Risk Gambling, Problem Gambling and Gambling Disorder among Current Gamblers—Results of the Austrian Representative Survey 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buth, Sven; Wurst, Friedrich M.; Thon, Natasha; Lahusen, Harald; Kalke, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing a problem gambling behavior is distributed unequally among the population. For example, individuals who report stressful life events, show impairments of mental health or belong to a socio-economically deprived group are affected more frequently by gambling problems. The aim of our study is to investigate whether these risk factors are equally relevant for all gambling groups (social = 0 DSM-5 criteria, at risk = 1 DSM-5 criterion, problem = 2–3 DSM-5 criteria, disordered = 4–9 DSM-5 criteria). Methods: Of a total of 10,000 participants in the representative gambling survey in Austria in 2015, 4,082 individuals reported gambling during the last 12 months and were allocated to the four gambling groups according to DSM-5. With social gamblers as the reference group, relevant risk factors for the other three groups were identified by means of bi- and multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Results: Significant risk factors for gambling disorder are at-risk alcohol use (OR = 4.9), poor mental health (OR = 5.9), young age (≤26 years, OR = 2.1), a low level of formal education (OR = 2.4), having grown up with a single parent (OR = 2.5), parents with addiction problems (OR = 2.3) and belonging to the working class (OR = 2.9). Risk factors for problem gambling are parents with addiction problems (OR = 3.8), poor mental health (OR = 2.6) and a young age (OR = 2.2). With regard to at-risk gambling, only growing up with a single parent was relevant (OR = 2.4). Conclusion: Overall, the results of this study suggest, that the number and the influence of the included risk factors differ between gambling problem groups. Apparently, the development of severe gambling problems is to a lesser extent facilitated by specific risk factors than by their cumulative presence. Therefore, future prevention and treatment measures should place a particular focus on individuals who have experienced growing up in a difficult family situation, have

  14. Comparative Analysis of Potential Risk Factors for at-Risk Gambling, Problem Gambling and Gambling Disorder among Current Gamblers-Results of the Austrian Representative Survey 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buth, Sven; Wurst, Friedrich M; Thon, Natasha; Lahusen, Harald; Kalke, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing a problem gambling behavior is distributed unequally among the population. For example, individuals who report stressful life events, show impairments of mental health or belong to a socio-economically deprived group are affected more frequently by gambling problems. The aim of our study is to investigate whether these risk factors are equally relevant for all gambling groups (social = 0 DSM-5 criteria, at risk = 1 DSM-5 criterion, problem = 2-3 DSM-5 criteria, disordered = 4-9 DSM-5 criteria). Methods: Of a total of 10,000 participants in the representative gambling survey in Austria in 2015, 4,082 individuals reported gambling during the last 12 months and were allocated to the four gambling groups according to DSM-5. With social gamblers as the reference group, relevant risk factors for the other three groups were identified by means of bi- and multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Results: Significant risk factors for gambling disorder are at-risk alcohol use (OR = 4.9), poor mental health (OR = 5.9), young age (≤26 years, OR = 2.1), a low level of formal education (OR = 2.4), having grown up with a single parent (OR = 2.5), parents with addiction problems (OR = 2.3) and belonging to the working class (OR = 2.9). Risk factors for problem gambling are parents with addiction problems (OR = 3.8), poor mental health (OR = 2.6) and a young age (OR = 2.2). With regard to at-risk gambling, only growing up with a single parent was relevant (OR = 2.4). Conclusion: Overall, the results of this study suggest, that the number and the influence of the included risk factors differ between gambling problem groups. Apparently, the development of severe gambling problems is to a lesser extent facilitated by specific risk factors than by their cumulative presence. Therefore, future prevention and treatment measures should place a particular focus on individuals who have experienced growing up in a difficult family situation, have poor

  15. Teen Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Teen Gambling Page Content Article Body How can I tell ... son or daughter is having a problem with gambling? Look for the following warning signs: Finding gambling " ...

  16. Problem Gambling Associated with Violent and Criminal Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Plauborg, Rikke; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the number of criminal charges among problem gamblers (N = 384) and non-problem gamblers including non-gamblers (N = 18,241) and examines whether problem gambling is more strongly associated with income-generating crimes like theft, fraud and forgery than other types of crimes...... such as violent crimes. A cohort study was carried out, based on data from the Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010, which were linked at the individual level with data from The Danish National Criminal Register. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between...

  17. Understanding the Relationship Between Sports-Relevant Gambling and Being At-Risk for a Gambling Problem Among American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchica, Loredana; Zhao, Yaxi; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Ivoska, William

    2017-06-01

    Fantasy sports is a growing industry with a reported 56.8 million individuals participating in the United States and Canada alone in 2015. Whereas this activity has attracted considerable public attention, little research has examined its impact on adolescents in spite of their high rates of gambling. The current study examined the relationship between regular participation (more than once a month) in sport-relevant gambling activities among adolescents and those identified as being at-risk for a gambling problem. Questionnaire responses were collected from high school students (N = 6818; 49 % male) in Wood County, Ohio, United States. Statistical analyses revealed that regular involvement in sports betting, fantasy sports betting, and daily fantasy sports betting among adolescents was associated with a higher risk of gambling problems. Further, although males participate more frequently in these activities, females who participate have a stronger likelihood of being at-risk. Students aged 16-19 years old are at a higher risk for developing a gambling problem compared to younger adolescents when regularly engaging in sports-related gambling. Moreover, regularly participating in daily fantasy sports is the strongest predictor of at-risk gambling behavior in 13-15 year old students. A hierarchical logistic regression supports that controlling for gender and age, all forms of sport-relevant gambling activities are significant predictors of at-risk gambling. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of sports betting and fantasy sports on adolescents and establishes an initial step for future studies to further investigate these relationships.

  18. Gambling participation and problems among employees at a university health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M; Mallya, Sarita

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the frequency and intensity of gambling behaviors among employees at an academic health center. Employees were sent an anonymous questionnaire assessing demographic characteristics, participation in gambling activities, and gambling-related problems. Of the 904 respondents, 96% reported gambling in their lifetimes, with 69% gambling in the past year, 40% in the past two months, and 21% in the past week. The most common forms of gambling were lottery and scratch tickets, slot machines, card playing, sports betting, bingo, and track. Only 1.2% of the sample reported gambling on the internet. Using scores on the South Oaks Gambling Screen, 3.0% of the respondents were classified as Level 2 (or problem) gamblers, and an additional 1.8% were Level 3 (or pathological) gamblers. Compared to Level 1 (non-problem) gamblers, Level 2 and Level 3 gamblers were more likely to be male, single, and employed full-time, and to have lower income and education. About half of the Level 2 and Level 3 gamblers reported interest in an evaluation of their gambling behaviors and treatment interventions. These data suggest the need to screen for gambling problems in health care professionals and to provide gambling-specific treatments.

  19. Prevalence of Adolescent Problem Gambling: A Systematic Review of Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Filipa; Alexandre, Joana; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-06-01

    Previous research has shown that gambling is a popular activity among adolescents. Following a rapid expansion of legalized gambling opportunities and the emergence of new forms of gambling, many researchers have carried out studies on adolescent gambling and problem gambling. The present paper reviews studies that have been conducted worldwide since 2000, and then presents a more detailed picture of adolescent gambling research in Europe, by providing a country-by country analysis. After an extensive search on academic databases and following an exclusion process, 44 studies were identified. The findings showed that 0.2-12.3 % of youth meet criteria for problem gambling, notwithstanding differences among assessment instruments, cut-offs, and timeframes. However, despite this variability, several demographic characteristics were associated with adolescent gambling involvement and problem gambling. It is concluded that a small but significant minority of adolescents have gambling-related problems. Such findings will hopefully encourage more research into youth gambling to further understand the determinants of this phenomenon.

  20. Problem gambling among international and domestic university students in Australia: who is at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan M; Thomas, Anna C; Kalé, Sudhir; Spence, Mark; Zlatevska, Natalina; Staiger, Petra K; Graffam, Joseph; Kyrios, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Young people are a high risk group for gambling problems and university (college) students fall into that category. Given the high accessibility of gambling in Australia and its association with entertainment, students from overseas countries, particularly those where gambling is restricted or illegal, may be particularly vulnerable. This study examines problem gambling and its correlates among international and domestic university students using a sample of 836 domestic students (286 males; 546 females); and 764 international students (369 males; 396 females) at three Australian universities. Our findings indicate that although most students gamble infrequently, around 5 % of students are problem gamblers, a proportion higher than that in the general adult population. Popular gambling choices include games known to be associated with risk (cards, horse races, sports betting, casino games, and gaming machines) as well as lotto/scratch tickets. Males are more likely to be problem gamblers than females, and almost 10 % of male international students could be classified as problem gamblers. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that male gender, international student status, financial stress, negative affect and frequency of gambling on sports, horses/dogs, table games, casino gaming machines, internet casino games and bingo all significantly predicted problem gambling. Results from this study could inform gambling-education programs in universities as they indicate which groups are more vulnerable and specify which games pose more risk of problem gambling.

  1. Gender Differences in the Presentation of Observable Risk Indicators of Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfabbro, Paul; Thomas, Anna; Armstrong, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    In many countries where gambling is legalised, there has been a strong public policy focus on the need for strategies to reduce gambling related harm. These have often included policies requiring staff in gambling venues to identify and/or assist people who might be experiencing gambling-related harm. To facilitate this process, researchers have developed visible behavioural indicators that might be used to profile potentially problematic gambling. Few of these studies have, however, examined whether such indicators or 'warning signs' might differ between men and women. In this study, we describe the results of an analysis of data drawn from 1185 fortnightly gamblers that included 338 problem gamblers as classified by the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Indicators of problem gambling were similar between males and females with a few key exceptions. Indicators reflecting emotional distress were more commonly reported by females with gambling problems, whereas problem gambling males were more likely to display aggressive behaviour towards gambling devices and others in the venue. Amongst males, signs of emotional distress as well as attempts to conceal their presence in venues from others most strongly differentiated between problem and non-problem gamblers. Amongst females, signs of anger, a decline in grooming and those attempts to access credit were the most distinguishing indicators. These findings have implications for the refinement of identification policies and practices.

  2. Bet Anywhere, Anytime: An Analysis of Internet Sports Bettors' Responses to Gambling Promotions During Sports Broadcasts by Problem Gambling Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex Myles Thomas; Lamont, Matthew; Vitartas, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Promotions for online sports betting during televised sports broadcasts are regularly viewed by millions of Australians, raising concerns about their impacts on vulnerable groups including at-risk and problem gamblers. This study examined whether responses to these promotions varied with problem gambling severity amongst 455 Australian Internet sports bettors participating in an online survey. Results indicated that young male Internet sports bettors are especially vulnerable to gambling problems, particularly if they hold positive attitudes to gambling sponsors who embed promotions into sports broadcasts and to the promotional techniques they use and this heightens the risk that alluring messages contribute to excessive gambling. As problem gambling severity increased, so too did recognition that these promotions have impacted negatively on their sports betting behaviour. Because a plethora of sports betting brands and promotions are now heavily integrated into sports coverage, social marketing efforts are needed to offset their persuasive appeal and counter the positive attitudes towards them that appear linked to excessive gambling amongst Internet sports bettors.

  3. Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Predict Attentional Bias in Non-problem Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Leigh D; Bowling, Alison C

    2015-12-01

    Problem gambling has been identified as a public health concern in Australia, and a considerable proportion of regular gamblers may be at risk of developing gambling related problems. Attentional bias to salient cues has been observed in substance addictions, and to some extent, in problem gamblers. This bias appears to be indicative of an increase in sensitisation to salient cues as a result of continued reforcement of a related behaviour. To test for an attentional bias to gambling-related stimuli in non-problem gamblers, the relationships between gambling frequency, gambling attitudes and beliefs (GABS-23), and attentional bias were investigated. Participants (N = 38) viewed simultaneous pairs of gambling-related and neutral images and performed a dot probe task, during which their eye-movements were recorded. This enabled both direct and indirect measures of attentional bias to be obtained. Gambling frequency and GABS-23 scores predicted both direct and indirect measures of a bias in the maintenance of attention to gambling cues. No bias in attentional engagement was found. These results suggest that regular gamblers who have not yet developed any related problems show signs of sensitisation to gambling cues and may be at risk of progressing further towards problem gambling.

  4. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, ps...

  5. Patterns of Gambling Activities and Gambling Problems Among Italian High School Students: Results from a Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luigi, Nicola; Gibertoni, Dino; Randon, Emanuela; Scorcu, Antonello E

    2017-04-22

    This study aims to provide an estimate of the prevalence of gambling among Italian adolescents and a description of their patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) using a latent class analysis on 13 different types of games. A nationwide sample of 10,959 Italian high school students was recruited in 2013. We assessed problem gambling using the South Oaks Gambling Screen: Revisited for Adolescent (SOGS-RA) scale. Approximately half (50.6%) of students reported gambling at least once in the previous year; 5.0% of them were problem gamblers and 9.1% were at-risk gamblers according to their SOGS-RA scores. Eight PGAs were identified, among which heavy players (1.7% of students) could be classified as problem gamblers and broad skill players (2.0%) and lotteries & sports players (2.4%) as "at-risk" players. These high-risk classes were consistently associated with risky behaviours in terms of substance use, school performance, money spent on gambling and family environment; the other five classes identified low-risk players associated with safe behaviours. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify PGAs among Italian adolescents. Problem gamblers are not a homogeneous group in terms of patterns of gambling activities and are associated with different risk factors, among which environmental factors, such as parents' gambling attitude and behaviour, deserve special attention. The acknowledgment of such patterns and risk factors could be useful in developing sensible public policies addressing prevention strategies and regulatory instruments.

  6. The Relationship of Tobacco Use With Gambling Problem Severity and Gambling Treatment Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Stinchfield, Randy; Golberstein, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to examine the impact of tobacco use on gambling treatment. Pathological gambling (PG) is a psychiatric condition associated with significant financial, emotional, and psychosocial consequences. Elevated rates of nicotine dependence have been associated with increased gambling s....... (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)....

  7. Prevalence and correlates of problem gambling in people with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydock, Maria; Cowlishaw, Sean; Harvey, Carol; Castle, David

    2015-04-01

    There are few published studies on the comorbidity of psychosis and problem gambling. This paper provides estimates of the prevalence and clinical correlates of problem gambling in a representative sample of people with psychotic disorders. The second Australian national survey of psychosis was undertaken in 2010 and included adults (18-64 years) attending mental health services. Problem gambling was measured using the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI) at two sites of this study, with 442 participants providing data suitable for analysis. There were 151 participants who screened positive to past-year gambling. 4.1% of the total sample was classified as low risk gamblers, 6.4% were moderate risk gamblers and 5.8% were problem gamblers. Moderate risk/problem gamblers were more likely to be male, have left school with no qualifications and have sought financial assistance in the last year. There was a significant association with substance use, including alcohol use disorders and use of cannabis and 'other' drugs (excluding cannabis). People with psychosis are four times more likely to have a gambling problem than the general population. The association of gambling with substance use disorders is consistent with community studies, while the increased need for financial assistance suggests that problem gambling increases the likelihood of financial harm for this population. Clinicians should screen for comorbid gambling problems in people with psychosis, while there is also a need for additional research into this area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differences in gambling problem severity and gambling and health/functioning characteristics among Asian-American and Caucasian high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E; Tan, Hwee Sim; Hoff, Rani A; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-12-30

    Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adolescents significantly differed on problem-gambling severity, with Asian-American adolescents more often reporting not gambling (24.8% vs. 16.4%), but when they did report gambling, they showed higher levels of at-risk/problem gambling (30.6% vs. 26.4%). Parental approval or disapproval of adolescent gambling also significantly differed between races, with Asian-American adolescents more likely to perceive both parental disapproval (50.0% vs. 38.2%) and approval (19.3% vs. 9.6%) of gambling. Asian-American adolescents were also more likely to express concern about gambling among close family members (25.2% vs. 11.6%). Among Asian-American adolescents, stronger associations were observed between at-risk/problem gambling and smoking cigarettes (interaction odds ratio=12.6). In summary, differences in problem-gambling severity and gambling perceptions indicate possible cultural differences in familial attitudes towards gambling. Stronger links between cigarette smoking and risky/problematic gambling amongst Asian-American adolescents suggest that prevention and treatment efforts targeting youth addictions consider cultural differences. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Differences in gambling problem severity and gambling and health/functioning characteristics among Asian-American and Caucasian high-school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E.; Tan, Hwee Sim; Hoff, Rani A.; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1,659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adolescents significantly differed on problem-gambling severity, with Asian-American adolescents more often reporting not gambling (24.8% vs. 16.4%), but when they did report gambling, they showed higher levels of at-risk/problem gambling (30.6% vs. 26.4%). Parental approval or disapproval of adolescent gambling also significantly differed between races, with Asian-American adolescents more likely to perceive both parental disapproval (50.0% vs. 38.2%) and approval (19.3% vs. 9.6%) of gambling. Asian-American adolescents were also more likely to express concern about gambling among close family members (25.2% vs. 11.6%). Among Asian-American adolescents, stronger associations were observed between at-risk/problem gambling and smoking cigarettes (interaction odds ratio=12.6). In summary, differences in problem-gambling severity and gambling perceptions indicate possible cultural differences in familial attitudes towards gambling. Stronger links between cigarette smoking and risky/problematic gambling amongst Asian-American adolescents suggest that prevention and treatment efforts targeting youth addictions consider cultural differences. PMID:24183532

  10. How coping styles, cognitive distortions, and attachment predict problem gambling among adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Filipa; Alexandre, Joana; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Recent research suggests that youth problem gambling is associated with several factors, but little is known how these factors might influence or interact each other in predicting this behavior. Consequently, this is the first study to examine the mediation effect of coping styles in the relationship between attachment to parental figures and problem gambling. Methods A total of 988 adolescents and emerging adults were recruited to participate. The first set of analyses tested the adequacy of a model comprising biological, cognitive, and family variables in predicting youth problem gambling. The second set of analyses explored the relationship between family and individual variables in problem gambling behavior. Results The results of the first set of analyses demonstrated that the individual factors of gender, cognitive distortions, and coping styles showed a significant predictive effect on youth problematic gambling, and the family factors of attachment and family structure did not reveal a significant influence on this behavior. The results of the second set of analyses demonstrated that the attachment dimension of angry distress exerted a more indirect influence on problematic gambling, through emotion-focused coping style. Discussion This study revealed that some family variables can have a more indirect effect on youth gambling behavior and provided some insights in how some factors interact in predicting problem gambling. Conclusion These findings suggest that youth gambling is a multifaceted phenomenon, and that the indirect effects of family variables are important in estimating the complex social forces that might influence adolescent decisions to gamble.

  11. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Compulsive Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people enjoy gambling, whether it's betting on a horse or playing poker on the Internet. Most people who gamble don't have a problem, but some lose control of their gambling. Signs of problem gambling include Always thinking about ...

  13. An exploratory examination of marijuana use, problem-gambling severity, and health correlates among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAMMOND, CHRISTOPHER J.; PILVER, COREY E.; RUGLE, LOREEN; STEINBERG, MARVIN A.; MAYES, LINDA C.; MALISON, ROBERT T.; KRISHNAN-SARIN, SUCHITRA; HOFF, RANI A.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Gambling is common in adolescents and at-risk and problem/pathological gambling (ARPG) is associated with adverse measures of health and functioning in this population. Although ARPG commonly co-occurs with marijuana use, little is known how marijuana use influences the relationship between problem-gambling severity and health- and gambling-related measures. Methods: Survey data from 2,252 Connecticut high school students were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results: ARPG was found more frequently in adolescents with lifetime marijuana use than in adolescents denying marijuana use. Marijuana use was associated with more severe and a higher frequency of gambling-related behaviors and different motivations for gambling. Multiple health/functioning impairments were differentially associated with problem-gambling severity amongst adolescents with and without marijuana use. Significant marijuana-use-by-problem-gambling-severity-group interactions were observed for low-average grades (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = [0.20, 0.77]), cigarette smoking (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = [0.17, 0.83]), current alcohol use (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = [0.14, 0.91]), and gambling with friends (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = [0.28, 0.77]). In all cases, weaker associations between problem-gambling severity and health/functioning correlates were observed in the marijuana-use group as compared to the marijuana-non-use group. Conclusions: Some academic, substance use, and social factors related to problem-gambling severity may be partially accounted for by a relationship with marijuana use. Identifying specific factors that underlie the relationships between specific attitudes and behaviors with gambling problems and marijuana use may help improve intervention strategies. PMID:25215219

  14. Problem gambling and substance use in patients attending community mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Victoria; Dowling, Nicki A; Lee, Stuart; Rodda, Simone; Garfield, Joshua Benjamin Bernard; Volberg, Rachel; Kulkarni, Jayashri; Lubman, Dan Ian

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Relatively little is known about co-occurring gambling problems and their overlap with other addictive behaviors among individuals attending mental health services. We aimed to determine rates of gambling and substance use problems in patients accessing mental health services in Victoria, Australia. Methods A total of 837 adult patients were surveyed about their gambling and administered standardized screening tools for problem gambling and harmful tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. Prevalence of gambling problems was estimated and regression models used to determine predictors of problem gambling. Results The gambling participation rate was 41.6% [95% CI = 38.2-44.9]. The Problem Gambling Severity Index identified 19.7% [CI = 17.0-22.4] as "non-problem gamblers," 7.2% [CI = 5.4-8.9] as "low-risk" gamblers, 8.4% [CI = 6.5-10.2] as "moderate-risk" gamblers, and 6.3% [CI = 4.7-8.0] as "problem gamblers." One-fifth (21.9%) of the sample and 52.6% of all gamblers were identified as either low-risk, moderate-risk, or problem gamblers (PGs). Patients classified as problem and moderate-risk gamblers had significantly elevated rates of nicotine and illicit drug dependence (p gambling. Discussion and conclusions Patients were less likely to gamble, but eight times as likely to be classified as PG, relative to Victoria's adult general population. Elevated rates of harmful substance use among moderate-risk and PG suggest overlapping vulnerability to addictive behaviors. These findings suggest mental health services should embed routine screening into clinical practice, and train clinicians in the management of problem gambling.

  15. An Investigation of the Association Between Shame and Problem Gambling: The Mediating Role of Maladaptive Coping Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagintweit, Hera E; Thompson, Kara; Goldstein, Abby L; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-12-01

    Despite often being considered equivalent affective states, shame and guilt have differential associations with problem gambling with only shame showing a strong positive association with problem gambling. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the shame-problem gambling association. Further, shame and guilt are associated with distinct coping strategies, with shame motivating maladaptive coping (e.g., avoidance, escape) and guilt motivating adaptive coping (e.g., taking corrective action). This study aimed to examine whether maladaptive coping motives for gambling mediate the relationship between shame, but not guilt, and gambling problems. Participants were 196 (126 male) regular gamblers who completed a same and guilt scale, the Problem Gambling Severity Index, and a modified Gambling Motives Questionnaire, which assessed individual motives to engage in gambling for coping, enhancement, or social reasons. Results indicated that coping motives for gambling fully mediated the relationship between shame and problem gambling severity, but did not mediate the association between guilt and problem gambling severity. Experiencing shame contributes to problem gambling as a result of gambling to cope with negative affect. Cultivating more adaptive strategies to cope with shame may be effective in preventing and treating problem gambling.

  16. Problem Gambling Among Ontario Students: Associations with Substance Abuse, Mental Health Problems, Suicide Attempts, and Delinquent Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven; Turner, Nigel E; Ballon, Bruce; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Murray, Robert; Adlaf, Edward M; Ilie, Gabriela; den Dunnen, Wendy; Mann, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes gambling problems among Ontario students in 2009 and examines the relationship between gambling problems and substance use problems, mental health problem indicators, and delinquent behaviors. Data were derived from the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12. Gambling problems were measured as 2 or more of 6 indicators of problem gambling. In total 2.8% of the students surveyed endorsed two or more of the problem gambling items. The odds of problem gamblers reporting mental distress was 4.2 times higher than the rest of the sample and the odds of problem gamblers reporting a suicide attempt were 17.8 times greater than the rest of the sample. In addition compared to the rest of the students, delinquent behaviors were also more common among problem gamblers, including theft (OR = 14.5), selling marijuana (OR = 19.6), gang fights (OR = 11.3) and carrying a handgun (OR = 11.2). In a multivariate analysis, substance-use problems, mental health problems, and the participation in a variety of delinquent behaviors remained significantly associated with youth problem gambling behavior. Students who report problem gambling behaviors show increased substance abuse, mental health, and delinquency/criminal problems that are similar to those seen among adult problem gamblers. The association between these problems suggests that these problems could be addressed in a unified manner.

  17. Cultural influences on stigmatization of problem gambling: East Asian and Caucasian canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Jasmin; Horch, Jenny D; Hodgins, David C

    2011-12-01

    Cultural influences on problem gambling stigma were examined using a between subject vignette study design. Students of East Asian (n = 64) and Caucasian (n = 50) ancestry recruited from a Canadian University rated a vignette describing either an East Asian problem gambler or a Caucasian problem gambler on a measure of attitudinal social distance. In accordance with the hypothesis, a factorial ANOVA revealed that East Asian Canadians stigmatize problem gambling more than Caucasian Canadians. Moreover, East Asian participants stigmatized the East Asian individual described in the vignette more than they did the Caucasian individual. Individuals with gambling problems were generally not perceived as being dangerous. However, participants who perceived problem gambling as a dangerous condition wanted more social distance than those who did not perceive individuals with a gambling problem as dangerous.

  18. Problem-gambling severity, suicidality and DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Kraus, Shane W; Hoff, Rani A; Clerici, Massimo; Potenza, Marc N

    2018-07-01

    Despite the strong associations between personality disorders and problem/pathological gambling, few studies have investigated the relationships between personality disorders, problem-gambling severity and suicidal thoughts/behaviors. We examined the relationships between problem-gambling severity and personality disorders among individuals with differing levels of suicidality (none, thoughts alone, attempts). We analyzed data from 13,543 participants of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) study. First, differences in sociodemographic characteristics and prevalence of personality disorders were analyzed according to problem-gambling severity and suicidality status. Second, we performed a logistic regression to assess among the relationship between problem-gambling severity and DSM-IV Axis II psychopathology according to suicidality level. At-risk or problem/pathological gambling groups showed higher rates of a wide range of personality disorders compared to non-gamblers. Logistic regression showed that at-risk pathological gamblers had a higher odds ratio for any personality disorder in the group with no history of suicidality, particularly for cluster-B personality disorders. Odds ratio interaction analysis identified the relationship between problem-gambling severity and personality disorders, particularly those in cluster B, differ according to suicidality status. Our findings suggest a complex relationship between suicidality, problem-gambling severity and personality disorders. The stronger relationship between problem-gambling severity and personality disorders in people with no suicidality as compared to some suicidality suggests that some of the relationship between greater problem-gambling severity and Axis II psychopathology is accounted for by increased suicidality. The findings have implications for clinical interventions targeting suicidality in individuals with gambling disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The relation between personal relative deprivation and the urge to gamble among gamblers is moderated by problem gambling severity: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Mitchell J; Shead, N Will; Olson, James M

    2015-06-01

    One psychosocial factor that has been identified to motivate gambling is personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of a desired and deserved outcome compared to some referent. Although several lines of evidence point to a positive association between PRD and the urge to gamble, the factors that might moderate this relation have yet to be investigated. Through a quantitative research synthesis, we sought to test (a) the overall relation between PRD and gambling urges among people reporting recent gambling experience, and (b) whether this relation is moderated by problem gambling severity. Meta-analysis revealed that, overall, higher self-reported PRD was associated with stronger urges to gamble (r=.26). A meta-regression revealed that, across studies, the strength of this relation depended on problem gambling severity, such that the relation between PRD and gambling urges was stronger among samples higher in average problem gambling severity. This pattern was corroborated by an analysis of the aggregated individual participant data (N=857), such that PRD predicted gambling urges only among participants higher in problem gambling severity. The potential practical implications and limitations of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The association between compulsory school achievement and problem gambling among Swedish young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröberg, Frida; Modin, Bitte; Rosendahl, Ingvar K; Tengström, Anders; Hallqvist, Johan

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to examine the association between school grades at the age of 16 years and problem gambling at the age of 17-25 years among Swedish females and males. In a cohort design, we followed the 16- to 24-year-old participants in the representative Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study for 2 years, 2008/2009 and 2009/2010, generating 3,816 person-years of follow-up time. The outcome, incidence of mild and moderate/severe gambling problems, was measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index in telephone interviews. The exposure was register-linked information about final grades in compulsory school. The association between school grades and problem gambling was estimated in multinomial logistic regressions. Low and average school grades were associated with increased incidence of mild and moderate/severe problem gambling compared to high grades, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, psychological distress, and alcohol use. Low grades, compared to high grades, were associated with a higher risk of mild gambling problems for adolescent males, whereas the incidence proportion of moderate/severe problem gambling was high for males aged 20-25 years with low grades, among whom unemployment was also very high. Furthermore, we found a strong and graded association between school grades and moderate/severe problem gambling for women in both age groups, despite a low prevalence of gambling participation among females compared to males. Our findings show that Swedish youth with low school achievement have an increased risk of gambling problems up to 8 years after school graduation, after control for confounding from sociodemographic characteristics, psychological distress, and alcohol use, and that this association is stronger for females than males. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationships Between Problem-Gambling Severity and Psychopathology as Moderated by Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanacora, Rachel L; Whiting, Seth W; Pilver, Corey E; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims Problem and pathological gambling have been associated with elevated rates of both Axis-I and Axis-II psychiatric disorders. Although both problem gambling and psychiatric disorders have been reported as being more prevalent among lower income vs. middle/higher income groups, how income might moderate the relationship between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology is incompletely understood. To examine the associations between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology in lower income and middle/higher income groups. Methods Data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (n = 43,093) were analyzed in adjusted logistic regression models to investigate the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders within and across income groups. Results Greater problem-gambling severity was associated with increased odds of multiple psychiatric disorders for both lower income and middle/higher income groups. Income moderated the association between problem/pathological gambling and alcohol abuse/dependence, with a stronger association seen among middle/higher income respondents than among lower income respondents. Discussion and conclusions The findings that problem-gambling severity is related to psychopathology across income groups suggest a need for public health initiatives across social strata to reduce the impact that problem/pathological gambling may have in relation to psychopathology. Middle/higher income populations, perhaps owing to the availability of more "disposable income," may be at greater risk for co-occurring gambling and alcohol-use psychopathology and may benefit preferentially from interventions targeting both gambling and alcohol use.

  2. Empirical measures vs. perceived gambling severity among youth: why adolescent problem gamblers fail to seek treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoon, Karen; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2003-07-01

    A comparison of empirical measures and perceived gambling severity among youth was conducted. Participants (N=980), mean age of 18.6 years, completed several widely accepted measures of pathological gambling [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Juveniles (DSM-IV-J), South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), and Gambler's Anonymous 20 Questions (GA 20)] and a questionnaire assessing gambling behavior. Findings revealed that while the DSM-IV-J, SOGS-RA, and GA 20 identified between 3.4% and 5.8% of participants as probable pathological gamblers, only 1.1% of individuals classified themselves as such. Further, 3.3% of the population reported that they considered themselves problem gamblers and 66% reported being social gamblers. It appears as though either youth are grossly underestimating the severity of their gambling problems or the gambling screens are overestimating prevalence rates. The clinical implications and future directions for research are considered.

  3. Getting a grip on problem gambling: what can neuroscience tell us?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, Anna E.; Yücel, Murat; van Holst, Ruth J.

    2014-01-01

    In problem gamblers, diminished cognitive control and increased impulsivity is present compared to healthy controls. Moreover, impulsivity has been found to be a vulnerability marker for the development of pathological gambling (PG) and problem gambling (PrG) and to be a predictor of relapse. In

  4. Introducing the Hero Complex and the Mythic Iconic Pathway of Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Early research into the motivations behind problem gambling reflected separate paradigms of thought splitting our understanding of the gambler into divergent categories. However, over the past 25 years, problem gambling is now best understood to arise from biological, environmental, social, and psychological processes, and is now encapsulated…

  5. A Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Psychoeducational Group Manual for Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Abigail; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on problem gambling in adults and includes a detailed mindfulness-based psychoeducational group manual for problem gambling, complete with an extensive group counselling consent form, assessment and screening protocols, 10 user-friendly lesson plans, templates for a…

  6. Gambling Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your family and friends. Second, you can join Gamblers Anonymous, a self-help group for problem gamblers. Your ... people who have a gambling problem? Other Organizations Gamblers Anonymous National Council on Problem Gambling Last Updated: March ...

  7. Marital Status and Problem Gambling Among Australian Older Adults: The Mediating Role of Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botterill, Emma; Gill, Peter Richard; McLaren, Suzanne; Gomez, Rapson

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling rates in older adults have risen dramatically in recent years and require further investigation. Limited available research has suggested that social needs may motivate gambling and hence problem gambling in older adults. Un-partnered older adults may be at greater risk of problem gambling than those with a partner. The current study explored whether loneliness mediated the marital status-problem gambling relationship, and whether gender moderated the mediation model. It was hypothesised that the relationship between being un-partnered and higher levels of loneliness would be stronger for older men than older women. A community sample of Australian men (n = 92) and women (n = 91) gamblers aged from 60 to 90 years (M = 69.75, SD = 7.28) completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Problem Gambling Severity Index. The results supported the moderated mediation model, with loneliness mediating the relationship between marital status and problem gambling for older men but not for older women. It appears that felt loneliness is an important predictor of problem gambling in older adults, and that meeting the social and emotional needs of un-partnered men is important.

  8. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time......) on slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder....... This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...

  9. Injunctive norms and problem gambling among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lostutter, Ty W; Whiteside, Ursula; Fossos, Nicole; Walker, Denise D; Larimer, Mary E

    2007-09-01

    Two studies examined the relationships among injunctive norms and college student gambling. In study 1 we evaluated the accuracy of perceptions of other students' approval of gambling and the relationship between perceived approval and gambling behavior. In study 2 we evaluated gambling behavior as a function of perceptions of approval of other students, friends, and family. In study 1, which included 2524 college students, perceptions of other students' approval of gambling were found to be overestimated and were negatively associated with gambling behavior. The results of study 2, which included 565 college students, replicated the findings of study 1 and revealed positive associations between gambling behavior and perceived approval of friends and family. Results highlight the complexity of injunctive norms and the importance of considering the reference group (e.g., peers, friends, family members) in their evaluation. Results also encourage caution in considering the incorporation of injunctive norms in prevention and intervention approaches.

  10. Psychological Vulnerability and Problem Gambling: The Mediational Role of Cognitive Distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, David; Sévigny, Serge; Giroux, Isabelle; Jacques, Christian

    2018-01-03

    Despite numerous studies demonstrating the influence of cognitive distortions on gambling problem severity, empirical data regarding the role of psychological vulnerability on the latter is limited. Hence, this study assesses the mediating effect of cognitive distortions between psychological vulnerability (personality and mood), and gambling problem severity. It also verifies whether the relationships between these variables differs according to the preferred gambling activity. The sample is composed of 272 male gamblers [191 poker players; 81 video lottery terminal (VLT) players] aged between 18 and 82 years (M = 35.2). Bootstrap analysis results revealed that cognitive distortions mediate the effect of narcissism on gambling problem severity for both groups. The level of depression for VLT players significantly predicted gambling problem severity, both directly and indirectly via the mediating effect of cognitive distortions. Mediation analyses also indicated that narcissism had an indirect impact on problem gambling through cognitive distortions for both groups. These findings suggest that certain vulnerabilities related to personality and mood may influence cognitive distortion intensity and gambling problem severity. In addition, psychological vulnerabilities could differ based on preferred gambling activity. These results may be useful for prevention policies, identifying high risk gamblers and planning psychological interventions.

  11. Gambling in Ethnic Adolescent Populations: An Exploratory Study of the Utility of Problem Behaviour Theory as an Explanatory Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangeneh, Masood; Mann, Robert E.; McCready, John; Oseni, Lola

    2010-01-01

    Problem gambling is a growing concern among adolescents today. According to recent studies, rates of problem gambling among youth are higher than those reported by adults. Though few in number, studies have also shown certain ethnic communities to be prone to gambling-related problems and related problematic behaviours. As yet, there is no…

  12. Problem gambling and help seeking among Chinese international students: narratives of place identity transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wendy Wen; Tse, Samson

    2015-03-01

    This article uses examples of problem gambling and help seeking among Chinese international students in New Zealand to demonstrate place identity transformation. Two-wave narrative interviews were conducted with 15 Chinese international students. Place identity among participants is shown to be a process that features the transformation of participants' identity. While the casinos in which the Chinese international students gambled gave rise to negative place identities, positive place identities facilitated the participants to change their problematic gambling. Through the investigation of place identity transformation, this article promotes a strength-based, non-labelling approach to intervention for people who are concerned about their gambling behaviours. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Demographic, Behavioural and Normative Risk Factors for Gambling Problems Amongst Sports Bettors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Vitartas, Peter; Lamont, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Sports betting is growing exponentially, is heavily marketed and successfully targets young adult males. Associated gambling problems are increasing. Therefore, understanding risk factors for problem gambling amongst sports bettors is an increasingly important area of research to inform the appropriate design and targeting of public health and treatment interventions. This study aimed to identify demographic, behavioural and normative risk factors for gambling problems amongst sports bettors. An online survey of 639 Australian sports bettors using online, telephone and retail betting channels was conducted. Results indicated that vulnerable sports bettors for higher risk gambling are those who are young, male, single, educated, and employed full-time or a full-time student. Risk of problem gambling was also found to increase with greater frequency and expenditure on sports betting, greater diversity of gambling involvement, and with more impulsive responses to betting opportunities, including in-play live action betting. Normative influences from media advertising and from significant others were also associated with greater problem gambling risk. The results of this study can inform a suite of intervention, protection and treatment initiatives targeted especially at young male adults and adolescents that can help to limit the harm from this gambling form.

  14. Problem Gambling and Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki; Suomi, Aino; Jackson, Alun; Lavis, Tiffany; Patford, Janet; Cockman, Suzanne; Thomas, Shane; Bellringer, Maria; Koziol-Mclain, Jane; Battersby, Malcolm; Harvey, Peter; Abbott, Max

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a systematic review of the empirical evidence related to the association between problem gambling and intimate partner violence (IPV). We identified 14 available studies in the systematic search (8 for victimisation only, 4 for perpetration only and 2 for both victimisation and perpetration). Although there were some equivocal findings, we found that most of the available research suggests that there is a significant relationship between problem gambling and being a victim of IPV. There was more consistent evidence that there is a significant relationship between problem gambling and perpetration of IPV. Meta-analyses revealed that over one third of problem gamblers report being victims of physical IPV (38.1%) or perpetrators of physical IPV (36.5%) and that the prevalence of problem gambling in IPV perpetrators is 11.3%. Although the exact nature of the relationships between problem gambling and IPV is yet to be determined, the findings suggest that less than full employment and clinical anger problems are implicated in the relationship between problem gambling and IPV victimization and that younger age, less than full employment, clinical anger problems, impulsivity, and alcohol and substance use are implicated in the relationship between problem gambling and IPV perpetration. The findings highlight the need for treatment services to undertake routine screening and assessment of problem gambling, IPV, alcohol and substance use problems, and mental health issues and provide interventions designed to manage this cluster of comorbid conditions. Further research is also required to investigate the relationship between problem gambling and violence that extends into the family beyond intimate partners. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Chinese Beliefs in Luck are Linked to Gambling Problems via Strengthened Cognitive Biases: A Mediation Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Matthew S M; Rogers, Robert D

    2017-12-01

    Problematic patterns of gambling and their harms are known to have culturally specific expressions. For ethnic Chinese people, patterns of superstitious belief in this community appear to be linked to the elevated rates of gambling-related harms; however, little is known about the mediating psychological mechanisms. To address this issue, we surveyed 333 Chinese gamblers residing internationally and used a mediation analysis to explore how gambling-related cognitive biases, gambling frequency and variety of gambling forms ('scope') mediate the association between beliefs in luck and gambling problems. We found that cognitive biases and scope were significant mediators of this link but that the former is a stronger mediator than the latter. The mediating erroneous beliefs were not specific to any particular type of cognitive bias. These results suggest that Chinese beliefs in luck are expressed as gambling cognitive biases that increase the likelihood of gambling problems, and that biases that promote gambling (and its harms) are best understood within their socio-cultural context.

  16. From problem people to addictive products: a qualitative study on rethinking gambling policy from the perspective of lived experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Helen E; Thomas, Samantha L; Robinson, Priscilla

    2018-04-06

    Previous research has shown that government and industry discussions of gambling may focus on personal responsibility for gambling harm. In Australia, these discussions have largely excluded people with lived experience of problem gambling, including those involved in peer support and advocacy. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with people with current or previous problem gambling on electronic gaming machines (EGMs) involved in peer support and advocacy activities, using an approach informed by Interpretive Policy Analysis and Constructivist Grounded Theory. Participants perceived that government and industry discussed gambling as safe and entertaining with a focus on personal responsibility for problem gambling. This focus on personal responsibility was perceived to increase stigma associated with problem gambling. In contrast, they described gambling as risky, addictive and harmful, with problem gambling resulting from the design of EGMs. As a result of their different perspectives, participants proposed different interventions to reduce gambling harm, including reducing accessibility and making products safer. Challenging the discourses used by governments and industry to describe gambling, using the lived experience of people with experience of gambling harm, may result in reduced stigma associated with problem gambling, and more effective public policy approaches to reducing harm.

  17. Environmental Correlates of Gambling Behavior among College Students: A Partial Application of Problem Behavior Theory to Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, Emerson M., Jr.; McCausland, Claudia; Whelan, James P.; Luellen, Jason; Meyers, Andrew W.; Studaway, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relation between gambling behavior among college students and the perceived environment, the component of problem behavior theory (Jessor & Jessor, 1977) that assesses the ways that youth perceive their parents and peers. Two hundred and thirty-three ethnically diverse undergraduates at a large urban public university…

  18. How Anticipated and Experienced Stigma Can Contribute to Self-Stigma: The Case of Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T

    2017-01-01

    The degree to which anticipated and experienced public stigma contribute to self-stigma remains open to debate, and little research has been conducted into the self-stigma of problem gambling. This study aimed to examine which aspects of anticipated and experienced stigma (if any) predict the anticipated level of public stigma associated with problem gambling and the degree of self-stigma felt by people experiencing problem gambling. An online survey of 177 Australians experiencing problem gambling examined whether aspects of the public characterization of problem gambling, anticipated reactions to problem gamblers, and experiences of devaluation and discrimination predicted anticipated level of public stigma and self-stigma. The study found that self-stigma increases with expectations that the public applies a range of negative stereotypes to people with gambling problems, holds demeaning and discriminatory attitudes toward them, and considers them to lead highly disrupted lives. These variables directly predicted anticipated level of public stigma and indirectly predicted self-stigma. These findings lend weight to conceptualizations of self-stigma as an internalization of actual or anticipated public stigma. They also highlight the need for stigma reduction efforts, particularly those that lower negative stereotyping and prejudicial attitudes, to improve currently low rates of help-seeking amongst people with gambling problems.

  19. Gambling problems among patients in primary care: a cross-sectional study of general practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlishaw, Sean; Gale, Lone; Gregory, Alison; McCambridge, Jim; Kessler, David

    2017-04-01

    Primary care is an important context for addressing health-related behaviours, and may provide a setting for identification of gambling problems. To indicate the extent of gambling problems among patients attending general practices, and explore settings or patient groups that experience heightened vulnerability. Cross-sectional study of patients attending 11 general practices in Bristol, South West England. Adult patients ( n = 1058) were recruited from waiting rooms of practices that were sampled on the basis of population characteristics. Patients completed anonymous questionnaires comprising measures of mental health problems (for example, depression) and addictive behaviours (for example, risky alcohol use). The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) measured gambling problems, along with a single-item measure of gambling problems among family members. Estimates of extent and variability according to practice and patient characteristics were produced. There were 0.9% of all patients exhibiting problem gambling (PGSI ≥5), and 4.3% reporting problems that were low to moderate in severity (PGSI 1-4). Around 7% of patients reported gambling problems among family members. Further analyses indicated that rates of any gambling problems (PGSI ≥1) were higher among males and young adults, and more tentatively, within a student healthcare setting. They were also elevated among patients exhibiting drug use, risky alcohol use, and depression. There is need for improved understanding of the burden of, and responses to, patients with gambling problems in general practices, and new strategies to increase identification to facilitate improved care and early intervention. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  20. Gambling problems among patients in primary care: a cross-sectional study of general practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlishaw, Sean; Gale, Lone; Gregory, Alison; McCambridge, Jim; Kessler, David

    2017-01-01

    Background Primary care is an important context for addressing health-related behaviours, and may provide a setting for identification of gambling problems. Aim To indicate the extent of gambling problems among patients attending general practices, and explore settings or patient groups that experience heightened vulnerability. Design and setting Cross-sectional study of patients attending 11 general practices in Bristol, South West England. Method Adult patients (n = 1058) were recruited from waiting rooms of practices that were sampled on the basis of population characteristics. Patients completed anonymous questionnaires comprising measures of mental health problems (for example, depression) and addictive behaviours (for example, risky alcohol use). The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) measured gambling problems, along with a single-item measure of gambling problems among family members. Estimates of extent and variability according to practice and patient characteristics were produced. Results There were 0.9% of all patients exhibiting problem gambling (PGSI ≥5), and 4.3% reporting problems that were low to moderate in severity (PGSI 1–4). Around 7% of patients reported gambling problems among family members. Further analyses indicated that rates of any gambling problems (PGSI ≥1) were higher among males and young adults, and more tentatively, within a student healthcare setting. They were also elevated among patients exhibiting drug use, risky alcohol use, and depression. Conclusion There is need for improved understanding of the burden of, and responses to, patients with gambling problems in general practices, and new strategies to increase identification to facilitate improved care and early intervention. PMID:28289016

  1. A cross-sectional study of problem and pathological gambling in patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2009-09-01

    Community data suggest frequent co-occurrence between schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and problem gambling. However, gambling behaviors in large samples of patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder have not been systematically examined to date. A sample of outpatient subjects (N = 337) diagnosed with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and who were treated in either the VA Connecticut Healthcare System or the Connecticut Mental Health Center was interviewed in order to examine the prevalence estimates and clinical correlates of problem and pathological gambling. Multinomial logistic regression models investigated clinically relevant measures in recreational or problem/pathological gamblers, as compared to nongamblers. Data were collected between June 2002 and November 2003. Sixty-five participants (19%) met criteria for past-year problem/pathological gambling, with 10% meeting criteria for pathological gambling. Significant correlates of problem and pathological gambling from multivariable models included greater alcohol use severity (P = .007), higher depression scores (P = .04), and more outpatient mental health care utilization (P = .03). Participants with problem/pathological gambling were more likely than recreational gamblers to gamble for excitement, gamble more frequently and heavily, and report either sports or card gambling as favorite. A substantial proportion of individuals in treatment for psychotic disorders report past-year gambling problems. Patients with co-occurring alcohol use problems and depression may be at particularly high risk. These findings suggest the need for improved prevention and treatment efforts related to problem/pathological gambling in individuals with psychotic disorders. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Examining the presence of problem gambling awareness messages on college counseling center websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Christopher J; Wright, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    College students are more at-risk for developing a gambling problem than the general adult U.S. population. Information behavior and information seeking theories, as well as empirical evidence, indicate that one resource that may provide guidance for students dealing with this issue is the college counseling center website (CCW). This study addressed the presence and nature of problem gambling messages on CCWs. As a random sample, 203 CCWs were selected to assess how frequently they provided any information about problem gambling, as well as the specific types of communications CCWs offered on this topic. Results showed that CCWs rarely included any messages about problem gambling. Specifically, only 15% of all CCWs contained information about problem gambling. Furthermore, messages about problem gambling were presented significantly less frequently than messages involving alcohol abuse, substance abuse, depression, anxiety/stress, and psychological struggles with food. Given the prevalence of problem gambling among college students, as well as the value that college students place on information provided on CCWs, it is important that these sites offer more information concerning this issue.

  3. Tracking online poker problem gamblers with player account-based gambling data only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquiens, Amandine; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Benyamina, Amine; Lagadec, Marthylle; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Reynaud, Michel

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to develop and validate an instrument to track online problem poker gamblers with player account-based gambling data (PABGD). We emailed an invitation to all active poker gamblers on the online gambling service provider Winamax. The 14,261 participants completed the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). PGSI served as a gold standard to track problem gamblers (i.e., PGSI ≥ 5). We used a stepwise logistic regression to build a predictive model of problem gambling with PABGD, and validated it. Of the sample 18% was composed of online poker problem gamblers. The risk factors of problem gambling included in the predictive model were being male, compulsive, younger than 28 years, making a total deposit > 0 euros, having a mean loss per gambling session > 1.7 euros, losing a total of > 45 euros in the last 30 days, having a total stake > 298 euros, having > 60 gambling sessions in the last 30 days, and multi-tabling. The tracking instrument had a sensitivity of 80%, and a specificity of 50%. The quality of the instrument was good. This study illustrates the feasibility of a method to develop and validate instruments to track online problem gamblers with PABGD only. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A free ride? An analysis of the association of casino bus tours and problem gambling among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, Mark; Mann, Robert E; Matheson, Flora I; Turner, Nigel E; Hamilton, Hayley A; McCready, John

    2017-12-01

    Little research has examined the relationship between incentives used by gambling venues to attract customers and the experience of gambling-related harm. Organized and subsidized bus tours are a common example of such incentives. The aim of this study was to examine whether bus-tour patronage was associated with increased odds of problem gambling among older adults. This study also compared rates of bus-tour use by socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behaviours. Pearson's χ 2 tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests were applied for bivariate analyses. Multivariate generalized mixed-effects regression modelling was used to examine the relationship between bus-tour patronage and problem gambling while controlling for possible confounding factors. Seven gambling venues located in Central and Southwestern Ontario, Canada. A total of 1978 gambling venue patrons over the age of 55 years. Problem gambling as indicated by the Problem Gambling Severity Index, bus-tour patronage in the 12 months prior to the survey, spending per gambling visit and past-month slot machine participation. Regression analyses showed that bus-tour patronage was associated with higher odds of problem gambling [odds ratio (OR) = 1.71, confidence interval (CI) = 1.06, 2.76] after controlling for several demographic characteristics, type of gambling and gambling expenditures. Bivariate analyses showed past-year bus-tour patronage was associated with more frequent slot machine play (χ 2 = 48.16, P gambling venue visits (P gambling per casino visit (P gambling venues is associated with increased risk of problem gambling. Bus-tour patrons are more likely to be female, born outside Canada and above the age of 75 years. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Social strain, couple dynamics and gender differences in gambling problems: evidence from Chinese married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of the influence of couple dynamics on gender differences in gambling behavior remains meager. Building on general strain theory from the sociology of deviance and stress crossover theory from social psychology, we argue that the strain encountered by one partner in a social setting may affect his or her spouse. For instance, the wife of a man under more social strain may experience more strain in turn and thus be at a higher risk of developing disordered gambling than the wife of a man under less social strain. Using community survey data of 1620 Chinese married couples, we performed multilevel dyad analyses to address social strain and couple dynamics, in addition to their roles as predictors of gambling behavior in both spouses. This was a community survey of Hong Kong and therefore was not representative of China. Based on the DSM-IV screen, the rates of probable problem gambling and pathological gambling among male partners (12.8% vs. 2.5%) were twice those among female partners (5.2% vs. 0.3%). We also found that the social strain experienced by a male partner significantly predicted both his and his wife's likelihood of developing gambling problems. Although a female partner's exposure to social strain was a significant correlate of her gambling problem, it had no significant association with her husband's gambling behavior. These results suggest that the cross-spouse transference of social strain may be a gendered process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Apathy symptoms modulate motivational decision making on the Iowa gambling task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njomboro Progress

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study represents an initial attempt to assess the role of apathy in motivated decision making on the Iowa Gambling Task. Clinical descriptions of patients with apathy highlight deficits in the cognitive, emotional and behavioural aspects of goal directed activity, yet standard neurocognitive tests of these measures fail to demonstrate reliable sensitivity to the disorder. Available research suggests the Iowa Gambling Task is a robust test of complex emotional socio-executive processes involved in motivational decision making, which can analogue real-world goal-directed behaviour. Methods We ask whether performance on the Iowa Gambling Task can distinguish brain damaged patients with apathy symptoms from 1 brain damaged patients without apathy and 2 neurologically intact controls. Overall, 22 healthy adults and 29 brain damaged patients took part in this study. Results Brain damaged patients with apathy were distinctively impaired on the Iowa Gambling Task compared to both non-apathetic brain damaged patients and neurologically intact healthy controls. On the other hand, standard measures for the cognitive control of behaviour failed to show this sensitivity. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the Iowa Gambling Task is sensitive to the presence of apathy symptoms. We discuss these findings in terms of neurocognition deficits in apathy and the related implications for rehabilitation and clinical intervention.

  7. Validation of the problem gambling severity index using confirmatory factor analysis and rasch modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Natalie V; Currie, Shawn R; Hodgins, David C; Casey, David

    2013-09-01

    The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), a screening tool used to measure the severity of gambling problems in general population research, was subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch modelling to (a) confirm the one-factor structure; (b) assess how well the items measure the continuum of problem gambling severity; (c) identify sources of differential item functioning among relevant subpopulations of gamblers. Analyses were conducted on a nationally representative sample of over 25,000 gamblers compiled by merging data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI) integrated datasets. Results provided support for a one-factor model that was invariant across gender, age, income level, and gambler type. Rasch modelling revealed a well-fitting, unidimensional model with no miss-fitting items. The average severity assessed by the PGSI is consistent with moderately severe problem gambling. The PGSI is therefore weak in assessing low to moderate problem severity, a notable limitation of most brief gambling screens. Evidence of clinically significant differential item functioning was found with only one item, borrowing money to gamble, which behaved differently in gamblers who play electronic gaming machines or casino games compared to gamblers who avoid these games. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The Application of an Etiological Model of Personality Disorders to Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith; Allen, J Sabura; Dowling, Nicki A

    2015-12-01

    Problem gambling is a significant mental health problem that creates a multitude of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and social difficulties. Recent empirical evidence suggests that personality disorders, and in particular borderline personality disorder (BPD), are commonly co-morbid with problem gambling. Despite this finding there has been very little research examining overlapping factors between these two disorders. The aim of this review is to summarise the literature exploring the relationship between problem gambling and personality disorders. The co-morbidity of personality disorders, particularly BPD, is reviewed and the characteristics of problem gamblers with co-morbid personality disorders are explored. An etiological model from the more advanced BPD literature-the biosocial developmental model of BPD-is used to review the similarities between problem gambling and BPD across four domains: early parent-child interactions, emotion regulation, co-morbid psychopathology and negative outcomes. It was concluded that personality disorders, in particular BPD are commonly co-morbid among problem gamblers and the presence of a personality disorder complicates the clinical picture. Furthermore BPD and problem gambling share similarities across the biosocial developmental model of BPD. Therefore clinicians working with problem gamblers should incorporate routine screening for personality disorders and pay careful attention to the therapeutic alliance, client motivations and therapeutic boundaries. Furthermore adjustments to therapy structure, goals and outcomes may be required. Directions for future research include further research into the applicability of the biosocial developmental model of BPD to problem gambling.

  9. Gambling problems in the family – A stratified probability sample study of prevalence and reported consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øren Anita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior studies on the impact of problem gambling in the family mainly include help-seeking populations with small numbers of participants. The objective of the present stratified probability sample study was to explore the epidemiology of problem gambling in the family in the general population. Methods Men and women 16–74 years-old randomly selected from the Norwegian national population database received an invitation to participate in this postal questionnaire study. The response rate was 36.1% (3,483/9,638. Given the lack of validated criteria, two survey questions ("Have you ever noticed that a close relative spent more and more money on gambling?" and "Have you ever experienced that a close relative lied to you about how much he/she gambles?" were extrapolated from the Lie/Bet Screen for pathological gambling. Respondents answering "yes" to both questions were defined as Concerned Significant Others (CSOs. Results Overall, 2.0% of the study population was defined as CSOs. Young age, female gender, and divorced marital status were factors positively associated with being a CSO. CSOs often reported to have experienced conflicts in the family related to gambling, worsening of the family's financial situation, and impaired mental and physical health. Conclusion Problematic gambling behaviour not only affects the gambling individual but also has a strong impact on the quality of life of family members.

  10. Teacher awareness and attitudes regarding adolescent risky behaviours: is adolescent gambling perceived to be a problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevensky, Jeffrey L; St-Pierre, Renee A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Gupta, Rina

    2014-06-01

    Despite legislative prohibitions, there is empirical evidence that youth gamble on both regulated and unregulated activities. The current survey was designed to assess teachers' awareness and attitudes regarding adolescent gambling and other high-risk behaviours. Three-hundred and ninety teachers from Ontario and Quebec, with experience teaching students aged 12-18, completed an online survey. Results suggest that teachers are aware of the fact that youth gamble. Furthermore, they recognized the addictive nature of gambling and their subsequent consequences. Despite overestimating the proportion of youth experiencing gambling problems, gambling was viewed as being the least serious of issues affecting youth, with drug use and school violence topping the list. Almost half of respondents indicated that gambling in school can constitute a good learning activity. In regards to prevention, all other risky behaviours and academic problems were perceived as issues needing greater attention than gambling. These results, which are largely consistent with findings from a previous study examining parental perceptions of adolescent risky behaviours, suggest a need for greater awareness and teacher education.

  11. Gambling problems in the family--a stratified probability sample study of prevalence and reported consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Oren, Anita; Bakken, Inger Johanne

    2008-12-16

    Prior studies on the impact of problem gambling in the family mainly include help-seeking populations with small numbers of participants. The objective of the present stratified probability sample study was to explore the epidemiology of problem gambling in the family in the general population. Men and women 16-74 years-old randomly selected from the Norwegian national population database received an invitation to participate in this postal questionnaire study. The response rate was 36.1% (3,483/9,638). Given the lack of validated criteria, two survey questions ("Have you ever noticed that a close relative spent more and more money on gambling?" and "Have you ever experienced that a close relative lied to you about how much he/she gambles?") were extrapolated from the Lie/Bet Screen for pathological gambling. Respondents answering "yes" to both questions were defined as Concerned Significant Others (CSOs). Overall, 2.0% of the study population was defined as CSOs. Young age, female gender, and divorced marital status were factors positively associated with being a CSO. CSOs often reported to have experienced conflicts in the family related to gambling, worsening of the family's financial situation, and impaired mental and physical health. Problematic gambling behaviour not only affects the gambling individual but also has a strong impact on the quality of life of family members.

  12. Assessing the Need for Higher Levels of Care Among Problem Gambling Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, David M; Arfken, Cynthia L

    2017-12-01

    Most treatment for gambling disorder is provided on an outpatient basis. Only a small number of jurisdictions in North America provide higher levels of gambling treatment, such as residential or intensive outpatient (IOP) care, despite the potential need for these services. Further, there appear to be few guidelines for determining appropriate level of gambling treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess the appropriateness of higher levels of problem gambling care among clients receiving outpatient treatment. Problem gamblers and their therapists independently completed questionnaires that assessed the need and desire for residential and IOP treatment. About 42% of problem gambling outpatients noted that they would be "probably" or "definitely" willing to attend residential treatment, and about half indicated they would be equally likely to attend IOP. Therapists recommended about a third of their clients as appropriate for higher levels of care. For both client and therapist assessments, there was a significant association between desire or recommendation for level of treatment and severity of gambling and co-occurring problems. Further, therapist recommendations for level of care were significantly associated with client willingness to attend higher levels of treatment. Our data reveal the potential need for higher levels of care for problem gambling, as evaluated by clients and their therapists. Policy implications for the funding of residential and IOP treatment are discussed.

  13. Examining Links between Post-Traumatic Stress and Gambling Motives: The Role of Positive Gambling Expectancies

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Ian; Grubbs, Joshua; Bradley, David; Chapman, Heather; Milner, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    Problem gambling and gambling disorder are associated with a range of mental health concerns that extend beyond gambling behaviors alone. Prior works have consistently linked gambling disorder with symptoms of post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder, both cross-sectionally and over time. However, very little work has examined the specific relationships between these two disorders. The present work postulated that post-traumatic stress is likely associated with unique beliefs ...

  14. Reliability of Instruments Measuring At-Risk and Problem Gambling Among Young Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Robert; Castrén, Sari; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to clarify which instruments measuring at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG) among youth are reliable and valid in light of reported estimates of internal consistency, classification accuracy, and psychometric properties. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, and Psyc....... Reliability estimates were reported for five ARPG instruments. Most studies (66%) evaluated the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents. The Gambling Addictive Behavior Scale for Adolescents was the only novel instrument. In general, the evaluation of instrument reliability was superficial. Despite...... its rare use, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory (CAGI) had a strong theoretical and methodological base. The Gambling Addictive Behavior Scale for Adolescents and the CAGI were the only instruments originally developed for youth. All studies, except the CAGI study, were population based. ARPG...

  15. And that is Where the Fun Ends - General Practitioners' Conceptualisation of the Line Between Recreational and Problem Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Egerer Michael

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - Problem gambling is normally identified by fixed criteria of harm adapted from those of substance abuse and by focusing on the individual gambler. However, rigid definitions neglect institutional variations of gambling practices within different legislative configurations. This study proposes analysing the line between recreational and problem gambling by focusing on gambling behaviour and looking at the corruption of the defining factors of play (Cail-lois, 1958 in three different institutional contexts. DESIGN - A stimulated focus-group method (Reception Analytical Group Interview was applied to seven groups of Finnish and French general practitioners each and three groups of German ones to study the variations of conceptualising the defining factors of play as introduced by Caillois. RESULTS - Corruption of play was distinguished by participants from all three countries as the dividing line between recreational and problem gambling, but cultural variations were found: the French and German GPs emphasised the loss of the exceptionality of gambling, whereas the Finnish GPs highlighted the invasion of the home by online gambling. Furthermore, the Finnish and German participants were more concerned about the use of gambling as an emotional regulator, while French GPs echoed the French medical model in discussing the adrenaline rush of problem gamblers. CONCLUSIONS - Caillois' defining factors of play can be used to distinguish recreational from problem gambling and to offer a more encompassing definition of problem gambling. The perception of the line between recreational and problem gambling also seems to depend on the institutional and cultural context.

  16. Indicated prevention of problem gambling among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takushi, Ruby Y; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E; Lostutter, Ty W; Cronce, Jessica M; Marlatt, G Alan

    2004-01-01

    This research provides a brief qualitative description of the development of an indicated prevention intervention for college student gamblers. The proposed intervention integrates alcohol prevention strategies with elements of gambling treatment. The intervention combines cognitive-behavioral skills-training and motivational interviewing and includes personalized normative feedback, cognitive correction, discussion of gambling consequences, and relapse prevention techniques. Examples detailing all phases of the intervention are provided from interviews conducted in a pilot of the intervention. Preliminary pilot data suggests the intervention shows promise in reducing high risk gambling among college students.

  17. The protective role of religiosity against problem gambling: findings from a five-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti-Packer, Seema; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna

    2017-11-06

    Little research has examined the potential protective influence of religiosity against problem gambling; a common addictive behavior, and one with a host of associated negative health and social outcomes. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the potential longitudinal association between religiosity and problem gambling among adults and (2) the potential moderating role of gender on this association. Data were from five waves of the Quinte Longitudinal Study (QLS), between 2006 and 2010. Participants were Canadian adults from Belleville, Ontario, Canada (n = 4121). A multiple group (based on gender) latent growth curve analysis was conducted to examine the overall trajectory of problem gambling severity. Two models were tested; the first examined the influence of past-year religious service attendance, and the second examined an overall measure of personal religiosity on the trajectory of problem gambling. The Problem and Pathological Gambling Measure (PPGM) was used as a continuous measure. The Rohrbaugh-Jessor Religiosity Scale (RJRS) was used to assess past-year frequency of religious service attendance and personal religiosity. Religious affiliation (Protestant, Catholic, Atheist/Agnostic, Other, Prefer not to say) was also included in the models. At baseline, higher frequency of past-year religious service attendance (males: β= -0.54, females: β= -0.68, p problem gambling severity. These findings suggest that religiosity may act as a static protective factor against problem gambling severity but may play a less significant role in predicting change in problem gambling severity over time.

  18. Problem gambling subtypes based on psychological distress, alcohol abuse and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomi, Aino; Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C

    2014-12-01

    The notion of comorbidities within problem gambling populations has important clinical implications, particularly for appropriate treatment matching. The comorbidities most commonly cited in problem gambling literature include depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse and impulsivity. Previous research shows evidence of patterns in multiple co-occurring comorbidities and that there may be different subtypes of gamblers based on these patterns. To further the current understanding of gambling subtypes, the aim of our study was to identify subtypes of gamblers currently in treatment. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis yielded four mutually exclusive groups of 202 gamblers: (1) gamblers with comorbid psychological problems (35%); (2) 'pure' gamblers without other comorbidities (27%); (3) gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse (25%); and (4) 'multimorbid' gamblers (13%). The four groups differed on demographic information, drug use and gambling behaviours including gambling activity and problem gambling severity. Gamblers with comorbid psychological problems were more likely to be older women on low income, more likely to report a family history of psychological problems and were more often electronic gaming machine players. As expected, 'pure' gamblers had lower problem gambling severity and were more likely to report current abstinence. Gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse were more likely to be young men who used stimulant drugs, endorsed a higher quality of life and worked full-time. 'Multimorbid' gamblers were elevated on all comorbidities, had general problems related to their health and wellbeing and reported high rates of hostility and aggression. These groups combine elements of existing conceptual models of gambling subtypes and may require different treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigating Veterans' Pre-, Peri-, and Post-Deployment Experiences as Potential Risk Factors for Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Seth W; Potenza, Marc N; Park, Crystal L; McKee, Sherry A; Mazure, Carolyn M; Hoff, Rani A

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Gambling disorder and its comorbid diagnoses are observed at higher rates in military veterans than in the general population. A significant research gap exists regarding the relationships of veterans' life and service experiences to problematic gambling. The present study explored pre-, peri-, and post-deployment factors associated with problem gambling in veterans. Methods Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (n = 738; 463 males, and 275 females) completed questionnaires via structured telephone interview. We conducted bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses exploring associations among problem-gambling severity and socio-demographic variables, psychiatric comorbidities, and 10 scales of the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory measuring experiences pre-, peri-, and post-deployment. Results Approximately 4.2% of veterans indicated at-risk or probable pathological gambling (ARPG) post-deployment (two or more DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling). Bivariate analyses found more severe gambling in males, higher frequencies of post-traumatic stress disorder, substance dependence, traumatic brain injury, panic disorder, and depression in veterans with ARPG, and higher general harassment during deployment, and lower social support and more stressful life events post-deployment in those with ARPG. In multivariable models, both post-deployment factors remained significantly associated with ARPG. Discussion The study suggests that problem gambling among veterans is related to service experiences, and particularly to life experiences post-deployment. Conclusions Adverse service and life experiences and lack of social support may contribute to the risk of problem gambling in military veterans. Investigation of how Veterans Affairs clinical settings may serve veterans following deployment to prevent behavioral addictions is warranted.

  20. A counselling line for problem and pathological gambling in South Africa: Preliminary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Heidi; Pretorius, Adele; Stein, Dan J

    2014-09-01

    Various countries and states have established telephone counselling lines for people with pathological or problem gambling. Data from such services may contribute to describing systematically the nature of gambling problems in a particular area. To date, however, few data have been published on such a telephone counselling line in a low or middle income country. Data on calls to the telephone counselling line of the National Responsible Gambling Foundation of South Africa were captured over a 6-month period. Such data include socio-demographic variables, the primary reason for calling, the source of the referral, preferred method of gambling, impairment as a consequence of gambling, and history of treatment for psychiatric disorders, comorbid alcohol abuse and illicit drug use. Calls were received from a broad range of people; the mean age of callers was 37 years, the majority were male (62%) and many were married (45%). Primary reasons for calling included the feeling of being unable to stop gambling without the help of a professional (41%), financial concerns (32%), legal problems (13%), pressure from family (10%), and suicidal thoughts (2%). The majority of callers contacted the counselling line after having heard about it by word of mouth (70%). The most common forms of gambling were slot machines (51%) and casino games (21%). Fourteen percent of callers reported having received help for other psychiatric disorders, 11% reported alcohol use disorders and 6% illicit drug use. These data from South Africa are consistent with prior research indicating that pathological and problem gambling are seen in a range of socio-demographic groups, and that such behaviour is associated with significant morbidity and comorbidity. More work is needed locally to inform younger gamblers, gamblers using the informal gambling sector, and unemployed gamblers of the existing telephone counselling lines.

  1. Testing the Emotional Vulnerability Pathway to Problem Gambling in Culturally Diverse University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hum, Sandra; Carr, Sherilene M

    2018-02-12

    Loneliness and adapting to an unfamiliar environment can increase emotional vulnerability in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) university students. According to Blaszczynski and Nower's pathways model of problem and pathological gambling, this emotional vulnerability could increase the risk of problem gambling. The current study examined whether loneliness was associated with problem gambling risk in CALD students relative to their Australian peers. Additionally, differences in coping strategies were examined to determine their buffering effect on the relationship. A total of 463 female and 165 male university students (aged 18-38) from Australian (38%), mixed Australian and CALD (23%) and CALD (28%) backgrounds responded to an online survey of problem gambling behaviour, loneliness, and coping strategies. The results supported the hypothesis that loneliness would be related to problem gambling in CALD students. There was no evidence of a moderating effect of coping strategies. Future research could test whether the introduction of programs designed to alleviate loneliness in culturally diverse university students reduces their risk of developing problem gambling.

  2. Commonalities in the psychological factors associated with problem gambling and Internet dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Brown, M

    2010-08-01

    The most commonly applied conceptual approach for excessive Internet use has been as a behavioral addiction, similar to pathological or problem gambling. In order to contribute to the understanding of Internet dependence as a disorder resembling problem gambling, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between problem gambling and Internet dependence and the degree to which psychological factors associated with problem gambling are relevant to the study of Internet dependence. The factors of depression, anxiety, student stressors, loneliness, and social support were examined in a sample of university students from several Australian universities. The findings revealed that there is no overlap between the populations reporting problem gambling and Internet dependence, but that individuals with these disorders report similar psychological profiles. Although requiring replication with larger community samples and longitudinal designs, these preliminary findings suggest that problem gambling and Internet dependence may be separate disorders with common underlying etiologies or consequences. The implications of the findings in relation to the conceptualization and management of these disorders are briefly discussed.

  3. Problem gambling and family violence: prevalence and patterns in treatment-seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Jackson, A C; Suomi, A; Lavis, T; Thomas, S A; Patford, J; Harvey, P; Battersby, M; Koziol-McLain, J; Abbott, M; Bellringer, M E

    2014-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and patterns of family violence in treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Secondary aims were to identify the prevalence of problem gambling in a family violence victimisation treatment sample and to explore the relationship between problem gambling and family violence in other treatment-seeking samples. Clients from 15 Australian treatment services were systematically screened for problem gambling using the Brief Bio-Social Gambling Screen and for family violence using single victimisation and perpetration items adapted from the Hurt-Insulted-Threatened-Screamed (HITS): gambling services (n=463), family violence services (n=95), alcohol and drug services (n=47), mental health services (n=51), and financial counselling services (n=48). The prevalence of family violence in the gambling sample was 33.9% (11.0% victimisation only, 6.9% perpetration only, and 16.0% both victimisation and perpetration). Female gamblers were significantly more likely to report victimisation only (16.5% cf. 7.8%) and both victimisation and perpetration (21.2% cf. 13.0%) than male gamblers. There were no other demographic differences in family violence prevalence estimates. Gamblers most commonly endorsed their parents as both the perpetrators and victims of family violence, followed by current and former partners. The prevalence of problem gambling in the family violence sample was 2.2%. The alcohol and drug (84.0%) and mental health (61.6%) samples reported significantly higher rates of any family violence than the gambling sample, while the financial counselling sample (10.6%) reported significantly higher rates of problem gambling than the family violence sample. The findings of this study support substantial comorbidity between problem gambling and family violence, although this may be accounted for by a high comorbidity with alcohol and drug use problems and other psychiatric disorders. They highlight the need for routine

  4. Problem gambling and the five-factor model of personality: a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Molde, Helge; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge of the personality characteristics of individuals who develop gambling problems is important for designing targeted prevention efforts. Previous studies of the relationship between the five-factor model of personality and gambling problems were based on small samples not representative of the general population. We estimated differences in neuroticism, extroversion, intellect, agreeableness and conscientiousness between non-problem gamblers and individuals with low, moderate and severe gambling problems. Cross-sectional survey. Norway. A total of 10 081 (51.5% female) individuals aged 16-74 years (mean age 46.5 years). The Problem Gambling Severity Index, The Mini-International Personality Item Pool and demographic variables. Differences between groups of gamblers were analysed by ordinary least-squares regression models separately for each personality trait adjusting for gender, age, cohabitation, level of education and work status. Gamblers with low, moderate and severe levels of gambling problems differed significantly from non-problem gamblers in neuroticism (b = 0.16, 0.34 and 0.66, respectively, all P problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers in agreeableness (b = -0.21, P gambling problems were much more prevalent among men than women, and more prevalent among those who live alone, individuals without tertiary education and among those who are unemployed or on disability pension. A higher level of problem gambling severity appears to be associated with higher scores on neuroticism, and with lower scores on conscientiousness and agreeableness in the Mini-International Personality Item Pool. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. From boredom to dependence: The medicalisation of the Swedish gambling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edman Johan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - The aim of this study is to investigate the medicalising of gambling problems by comparing the political discussions on gambling in the Swedish Parliament in the early 1970s and the early 2010s. DESIGN - Against a theoretical background on medicalising processes in general, and medicalisation of gambling problems in particular, we have analysed discussion protocols and parliamentary bills in the Swedish Parliament from the years 1970-1975 and 2012-2013. RESULTS - The problem descriptions of the 1970s and 2010s are, in certain respects, strikingly similar, identifying proactive operators such as the gambling companies and highlighting an inadequate legal framework. But where the MPs of the 1970s put some effort into describing the drab society which fed the need for gambling, the elected representatives of the 2010s shortcut to individual dependence. CONCLUSIONS - EU membership and the development of the Internet have made effective control and regulation impossible in the early 2010s and the political handling of the Swedish gambling problem is therefore a clear example of how market liberalisation can pave the way for individualisation, medicalisation and depoliticisation of social problems.

  6. Addiction-Like Mobile Phone Behavior – Validation and Association With Problem Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fransson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone use and its potential addiction has become a point of interest within the research community. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Test of Mobile Dependence (TMD, and to investigate if there are any associations between mobile phone use and problem gambling. This was a cross-sectional study on a Swedish general population. A questionnaire consisting of a translated version of the TMD, three problem gambling questions (NODS-CLiP together with two questions concerning previous addiction treatment was published online. Exploratory factor analysis based on polychoric correlations was performed on the TMD. Independent samples T-tests, Mann-Whitney test, logistic regression analyses and ANOVA were performed to examine mean differences between subjects based on TMD test score, gambling and previous addiction treatment. A total of 1,515 people (38.3% men answered the questionnaire. The TMD showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.905, and significant correlation with subjective dependence on one's mobile phone. Women scored higher on the TMD and 15-18 year olds had the highest mean test score. The TMD test score was significantly associated with problem gambling, but only when controlling for age and sex. Various separated items related to mobile phone use were associated with problem gambling. The TMD had acceptable internal consistency and correlates with subjective dependence, while future confirmatory factor analysis is recommended. An association between mobile phone use and problem gambling may be possible, but requires further research.

  7. Assisting an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Kathy S; Dart, Katrina M; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Reavley, Nicola J

    2017-08-02

    Gambling problems appear to be more prevalent in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population than in the non-Indigenous population. Although gambling harms can be significant, treatment-seeking rates are low. The Delphi expert consensus method was used to develop a set of guidelines on how a family or community member can assist an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems. Building on a previous systematic review of websites, books and journal articles a questionnaire was developed that contained items about the knowledge, skills and actions needed for supporting an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems. These items were rated over three rounds by an expert panel comprising professionals who provide treatment to or conduct research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with gambling problems. A total of 22 experts rated 407 helping statements according to whether they thought the statements should be included in these guidelines. There were 225 helping statements that were endorsed by at least 90% of participants. These endorsed statements were used to develop the guidelines. Experts were able to reach substantial consensus on how someone can recognise the signs of gambling problems and support an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person to change.

  8. Rates of problematic gambling in a British homeless sample: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Aitken, Mike; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2015-06-01

    Homelessness and problem gambling are two public health concerns in the UK that are rarely considered concurrently, and little is known about the extent of gambling involvement and problematic gambling in the homeless. We recruited 456 individuals attending homelessness services in London, U.K. All participants completed a screen for gambling involvement, and where gambling involvement was endorsed, the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) was administered. The PGSI risk categories were compared against data from the 2010 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (BGPS). PGSI problem gambling was indicated in 11.6% of the homeless population, compared to 0.7% in the BGPS. Of participants endorsing any PGSI symptoms, a higher proportion of homeless participants were problem gamblers relative to the low and moderate risk groups, compared to the BGPS data. These results confirm that the homeless constitute a vulnerable population for problem gambling, and that diagnostic tools for gambling involvement should be integrated into homelessness services in the U.K.

  9. Lifetime of Prevalence and Risk Factors of Problem and Pathologic Gambling in North Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakıcı, Mehmet; Çakıcı, Ebru; Karaaziz, Meryem

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the results of the national survey of adult gambling behavior in North Cyprus (NC) in 2012 are presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of adults' participation in gambling, and to determine the prevalence of 'problem and pathological gambling' in NC. The population of this study was formed from all the people living permanently in NC, speaking Turkish, and within the age group 18-65. Household interviews were conducted with 966 people. To obtain data, a 30 item questionnaire prepared by the researchers and a Turkish version of the Revised South Oaks Gambling Screen were used. Prevalence rates are compared with the results of the study conducted in 2007 using the same methodology and survey form. The lifetime prevalence of participating at least once in any of the 17 gambling activities investigated in the survey was 66.4 %. 3.5 % of the respondents scored as lifetime probable pathological gamblers and 9.2 % as probable problem gamblers. Risk factors for becoming probable problem and pathological gamblers include being male, being in the 19-28 age group, having a high education level, having a job and being born in Cyprus. This study shows that the prevalence of problem gambling is high in NC and increasing gradually. NC has socio-cultural features such as a history of colonization, socioeconomic problems and high unemployment, similar to other high prevalence gambling regions, which is suggestive of the importance of socio-cultural factors on gambling behavior.

  10. Fun Seeking and Reward Responsiveness Moderate the Effect of the Behavioural Inhibition System on Coping-Motivated Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Matthew T; Wardell, Jeffrey D; Hendershot, Christian S; Bagby, R Michael; Quilty, Lena C

    2017-09-01

    Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) predicts that the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) may relate to coping-motivated problem gambling, given its central role in anxiety. Studies examining the BIS-problem gambling association, however, are mixed. The revised RST posits that the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) may moderate the effect of the BIS on coping-motivated problem gambling. A concurrently strong BAS may highlight the negatively reinforcing effects of gambling, which may strengthen coping motives and increase gambling-related harms. We examined these interactive effects to clarify the moderators and mediators of the negative reinforcement pathway to problem gambling. Data came from a larger investigation of problem gambling among individuals with mood disorders. All participants (N = 275) met criteria for a lifetime depressive or bipolar disorder. During a two-day assessment, participants completed a diagnostic assessment and self-reports. Mediated moderation path analysis showed positive indirect effects from the BIS to problem gambling via coping motives at high, but not at low, levels of BAS-Reward Responsiveness and BAS-Fun Seeking. Enhancement motives were also found to mediate the associations of BAS-Fun Seeking and BAS-Drive with problem gambling. Reward Responsiveness and Fun Seeking facets of the BAS may strengthen coping gambling motives within the mood disorders.

  11. Problem and Pathological Gambling in Schizophrenia: Exploring Links with Substance Use and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortgang, Rebecca G; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2018-02-16

    High rates of both problem and pathological gambling (PPG) and substance-use disorders (SUDs) have been reported in schizophrenia, and yet PPG frequently goes undetected in clinical practice and unexamined in research. Here, we aimed to examine the relationship between PPG and SUDs in a large sample of patients across several factors related to both gambling and substance use, including poly-substance use. Additionally, delay discounting is a form of impulsivity known to positively associate with both PPG and SUDs and thought to underlie mechanisms of addiction in both contexts. We aimed to investigate the relationship between PPG and delay discounting in schizophrenia. 337 individuals with schizophrenia completed structured face-to-face interviews regarding gambling behaviors, substance use, and delay discounting. PPG in schizophrenia was associated with substance use, in particular with poly-substance use, and with delay discounting among males. Factors related to substance use were strongly linked with gambling in this sample, but not always with PPG more than recreational gambling. Our findings overall support the notions that multiple forms of gambling in schizophrenia are clinically relevant, that gambling may share common substrates with substance use, and that delay discounting represents a potential mechanism of this association in males.

  12. Gratitude, Hope, Mindfulness and Personal-Growth Initiative: Buffers or Risk Factors for Problem Gambling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Jasmine M. Y.; Tsai, Jung-Shun; Raylu, Namrata; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of prevention and intervention research in problem gambling (PG) has focused on identifying negative risk factors. However, not all at-risk individuals go on to develop anticipated disorders and many thrive in spite of them. In healthcare settings, PG and other disorders are typically conceptualized from the biomedical perspective that frame disorders as something negative residing within the individual and reduction in negativity is seen as success. Indeed, this problem-focused conceptualization may be adequate in many cases as reducing PG behaviour is undoubtedly an important outcome, but the focus on negativity alone is too narrow to capture the complexity of human behaviour. Hence, this study attempts to bridge the gap in literature by providing an evaluation of the predictive ability of the positive dispositions on problem gambling severity, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. The positive psychological dispositions examined were curiosity, gratitude, hope, personal growth initiative, and mindfulness. Participants consisted of 801 Taiwanese Chinese students and community individuals (Mean age = 25.36 years). Higher levels of gratitude and hope have been found to predict lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, or gambling urges. Meanwhile, higher mindfulness predicted lower PG, but only among Chinese males. However, lower personal growth initiative predicted lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. These analyses have small to medium effect sizes with significant predictions. Findings of this study have essential implications in understanding and treating Chinese problem gamblers. These positive dispositions should be addressed by mental health professionals in preventative and treatment programs among Chinese individuals. Further implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24523854

  13. Age-related physical and psychological vulnerability as pathways to problem gambling in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Parke, A; Griffiths, M; Pattinson, J; Keatley, D

    2018-01-01

    Background: To inform clinical treatment and preventative efforts, there is an important need to understand the pathways to late-life gambling disorder. Aims: This study assesses the association between age-related physical health, social networks, and problem gambling in adults aged over 65 years and assesses the mediating role of affective disorders in this association. Methods: The sample comprised 595 older adults (mean age: 74.4 years, range: 65–94 years; 77.1% female) who were interview...

  14. Gratitude, hope, mindfulness and personal-growth initiative: buffers or risk factors for problem gambling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine M Y Loo

    Full Text Available The majority of prevention and intervention research in problem gambling (PG has focused on identifying negative risk factors. However, not all at-risk individuals go on to develop anticipated disorders and many thrive in spite of them. In healthcare settings, PG and other disorders are typically conceptualized from the biomedical perspective that frame disorders as something negative residing within the individual and reduction in negativity is seen as success. Indeed, this problem-focused conceptualization may be adequate in many cases as reducing PG behaviour is undoubtedly an important outcome, but the focus on negativity alone is too narrow to capture the complexity of human behaviour. Hence, this study attempts to bridge the gap in literature by providing an evaluation of the predictive ability of the positive dispositions on problem gambling severity, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. The positive psychological dispositions examined were curiosity, gratitude, hope, personal growth initiative, and mindfulness. Participants consisted of 801 Taiwanese Chinese students and community individuals (Mean age = 25.36 years. Higher levels of gratitude and hope have been found to predict lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, or gambling urges. Meanwhile, higher mindfulness predicted lower PG, but only among Chinese males. However, lower personal growth initiative predicted lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. These analyses have small to medium effect sizes with significant predictions. Findings of this study have essential implications in understanding and treating Chinese problem gamblers. These positive dispositions should be addressed by mental health professionals in preventative and treatment programs among Chinese individuals. Further implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  15. Improved Outcomes Following a Single Session Web-Based Intervention for Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, S N; Lubman, D I; Jackson, A C; Dowling, N A

    2017-03-01

    Research suggests online interventions can have instant impact, however this is yet to be tested with help-seeking adults and in particular those with problem gambling. This study seeks to determine the immediate impact of a single session web-based intervention for problem gambling, and to examine whether sessions evaluated positively by clients are associated with greater improvement. The current study involved 229 participants classified as problem gamblers who agreed to participate after accessing Gambling Help Online between November 2010 and February 2012. Almost half were aged under 35 years of age (45 %), male (57 %) as well as first time treatment seekers (62 %). Participants completed measures of readiness to change and distress both prior to and post-counselling. Following the provision of a single-session of counselling, participants completed ratings of the character of the session (i.e., degree of depth and smoothness) post-counselling. A significant increase in confidence to resist and urge to gamble and a significant decrease in distress (moderate effect size; d = .56 and .63 respectively) was observed after receiving online counselling. A hierarchical regression indicated the character of the session was a significant predictor of change in confidence, however only the sub-scale smoothness was a significant predictor of change in distress. This was the case even after controlling for pre-session distress, session word count and client characteristics (gender, age, preferred gambling activity, preferred mode of gambling, gambling severity, and preferred mode of help-seeking). These findings suggest that single session web-based counselling for problem gambling can have immediate benefits, although further research is required to examine the impact on longer-term outcomes.

  16. Pathologic gambling and bankruptcy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana; Odlaug, Brian L; Kim, Suck Won

    2010-01-01

    Although prior studies have examined rates of bankruptcy in pathologic gambling (PG), there are only limited data regarding the clinical correlates of those with PG who declare bankruptcy because of gambling. Five hundred seventeen consecutive subjects with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, PG (54.7% females; mean age 47.6 years) were grouped into 2 categories: those who had (n = 93; 18.0%) and had not (n = 424; 82.0%) declared bankruptcy secondary to gambling. Groups were compared on clinical characteristics, gambling severity (using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling, Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale; Clinical Global Impression-severity scale, and time and money spent gambling), and psychiatric comorbidity. Gamblers who had declared bankruptcy were more likely to be single (P = .004); have an earlier age of problem gambling onset (P = .032); and have more financial (P bankruptcy in PG may be associated with specific clinical differences. Treatment strategies may want to assess bankruptcy status to develop more effective treatments that take account of these clinical differences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pathological Gambling and Bankruptcy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Schreiber, Liana; Odlaug, Brian L.; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-01-01

    Background Although prior studies have examined rates of bankruptcy in pathological gambling (PG), there is only limited data regarding the clinical correlates of those with PG who declare bankruptcy due to gambling. Method 517 consecutive subjects with DSM-IV PG (54.7% females; mean age = 47.6) were grouped into two categories: those who had (n=93; 18.0%) and had not (n=424; 82.0%) declared bankruptcy secondary to gambling. Groups were compared on clinical characteristics, gambling severity (using the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Pathological Gambling, Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale; Clinical Global Impression – Severity scale, and time and money spent gambling) and psychiatric comorbidity. Results Gamblers who had declared bankruptcy were more likely to be single (p=.004), have an earlier age of problem gambling onset (p=.032), and have more financial (pbankruptcy in PG may be associated with specific clinical differences. Treatment strategies may want to assess bankruptcy status to develop more effective treatments that take account of these clinical differences. PMID:20152290

  18. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.

  19. Concerned significant others of people with gambling problems in Finland: a cross-sectional population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Anne H; Castrén, Sari; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli

    2014-04-24

    Problem gambling not only impacts those directly involved, but also the concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers. The aims of this study were to investigate the proportion of male and female CSOs at the population level; to investigate who the CSOs were concerned about; and to investigate sociodemographic factors, gender differences, gambling behaviour, and health and well-being among CSOs and non-CSOs. The data (n = 4484) were based on a cross-sectional population study. Structured telephone interviews were conducted in 2011-2012. The data were weighted based on age, gender and residency. The respondents were defined as CSOs if they reported that at least one of their significant others (father, mother, sister/brother, grandparent, spouse, own child/children, close friend) had had gambling problems. Statistical significance was determined by chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression analysis. Altogether, 19.3% of the respondents were identified as CSOs. Most commonly, the problem gambler was a close friend (12.4%) of the CSO. The percentage of close friends having a gambling problem was larger among male CSOs (14.4%) compared with female CSOs (10.3%; p ≤ 0.001), while the percentage of partners with gambling problem was larger among females (2.6%) than among males (0.8%; p ≤ 0.001). In the best fitting model, the odds ratio (95% CI) of being a male CSO was 2.03 (1.24-3.31) for past-year gambling problems, 1.46 (1.08-1.97) for loneliness and 1.78 (1.38-2.29) for risky alcohol consumption. The odds ratio (95% CI) of being a female CSO was 1.51 (1.09-2.08) for past-year gambling involvement, 3.05 (1.18-7.90) for past-year gambling problems, 2.21 (1.24-3.93) for mental health problems, 1.39 (1.03-1.89) for loneliness and 1.97 (1.43-2.71) for daily smoking. CSOs of problem gamblers often experience cumulating problems such as their own risky gambling behaviour, health problems and other addictive disorders. The

  20. Gender differences in felt stigma and barriers to help-seeking for problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Alison; Salmon, Christina; Dufresne, Kristen; Carasco-Lee, Alexandra; Matheson, Flora I

    2016-06-01

    Men and women differ in their patterns of help-seeking for health and social problems. For people experiencing problem gambling, feelings of stigma may affect if and when they reach out for help. In this study we examine men's and women's perceptions of felt stigma in relation to help-seeking for problematic gambling. Using concept mapping, we engaged ten men and eighteen women in group activities. We asked men and women about their perceptions of the pleasurable aspects and negative consequences of gambling; they generated a list of four hundred and sixteen statements. These statements were parsed for duplication and for relevance to the study focal question and reduced to seventy-three statements by the research team. We then asked participants to rate their perceptions of how much felt stigma (negative impact on one's own or family's reputation) interfered with help-seeking for gambling. We analyzed the data using a gender lens. Men and women felt that shame associated with gambling-related financial difficulties was detrimental to help-seeking. For men, the addictive qualities of and emotional responses to gambling were perceived as stigma-related barriers to help-seeking. For women, being seduced by the 'bells and whistles' of the gambling venue, their denial of their addiction, their belief in luck and that the casino can be beat, and the shame of being dishonest were perceived as barriers to help-seeking. Efforts to engage people who face gambling problems need to consider gendered perceptions of what is viewed as stigmatizing.

  1. Gambling problems and comorbidity with alcohol use disorders in Chinese-, Korean-, and White-American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Wall, Tamara L

    2016-04-01

    This study examined gambling behaviors and the relationship between gambling problems and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among Chinese-, Korean-, and White-American college students. Participants were 678 (179 Chinese, 194 Korean, and 305 White; 50% female) 21-26 year-old (M = 22.0 ± 1.36) students attending one university in California. The South Oaks Gambling Screen was administered to assess gambling behavior and the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism was administered to diagnose lifetime AUDs. Chi-squares and multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to test our hypotheses. Rates of lifetime ever gambling and weekly gambling were similar across the three ethnic groups, but participation in five types of gambling behavior differed. Chinese had the highest rates of gambling problems followed by Koreans and then Whites. Univariate odds ratios determined being Chinese or Korean, being male, and having an AUD were risk factors for gambling problems. When stratified by gender and ethnicity, having an AUD was not related to gambling problems in women, but was strongly associated with gambling problems in Chinese and White men and modestly associated in Korean men. This was true despite low rates of AUDs in Chinese men. Gambling problems were strongly comorbid with AUDs in Chinese- and White-American men, and moderately comorbid in Korean-American men. No relationship of AUD with gambling problems was found in women. The results highlight the importance of assessing disaggregated Asian-American subgroups with respect to addictive behaviors and their comorbidity. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders: Advancing a developing field of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Merkouris, S S; Lorains, F K

    2016-07-01

    Despite significant psychiatric comorbidity in problem gambling, there is little evidence on which to base treatment recommendations for subpopulations of problem gamblers with comorbid psychiatric disorders. This mini-review draws on two separate systematic searches to identify possible interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders, highlight the gaps in the currently available evidence base, and stimulate further research in this area. In this mini-review, only 21 studies that have conducted post-hoc analyses to explore the influence of psychiatric disorders or problem gambling subtypes on gambling outcomes from different types of treatment were identified. The findings of these studies suggest that most gambling treatments are not contraindicated by psychiatric disorders. Moreover, only 6 randomized studies comparing the efficacy of interventions targeted towards specific comorbidity subgroups with a control/comparison group were identified. The results of these studies provide preliminary evidence for modified dialectical behavior therapy for comorbid substance use, the addition of naltrexone to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for comorbid alcohol use problems, and the addition of N-acetylcysteine to tobacco support programs and imaginal desensitisation/motivational interviewing for comorbid nicotine dependence. They also suggest that lithium for comorbid bipolar disorder, escitalopram for comorbid anxiety disorders, and the addition of CBT to standard drug treatment for comorbid schizophrenia may be effective. Future research evaluating interventions sequenced according to disorder severity or the functional relationship between the gambling behavior and comorbid symptomatology, identifying psychiatric disorders as moderators of the efficacy of problem gambling interventions, and evaluating interventions matched to client comorbidity could advance this immature field of study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The four Es of problem gambling: a psychological measure of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockloff, Matthew J; Dyer, Victoria

    2006-01-01

    A focus group of Reno area Gamblers Anonymous members identified four psychological traits contributing to risk for problem gambling, including: Escape, Esteem, Excess and Excitement. A panel of four experts authored 240 Likert-type items to measure these traits. By design, none of the items explicitly referred to gambling activities. Study 1 narrowed the field of useful items by employing a quasi-experimental design which compared the answers of Reno area Gamblers Anonymous members (N = 39) to a control sample (N = 34). Study 2 submitted successful items, plus new items authored with the knowledge gained from Study 1, to validation in a random sample telephone survey across Queensland, Australia (N=2577). The final 40 item Four Es scale (4Es) was reliable (alpha=.90); predicted gambling problems as measured by the Canadian Problem Gambling Index of Severity (PGSI, Ferris & Wynne (2001). The Canadian Problem Gambling Index: Final Report: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse); and distinguished problem gamblers from persons with alcohol abuse problems. The new scale can provide a basis for further study in harm minimization, treatment, and theory development.

  4. Sharing problem gamblers’ experiences: a text analysis of gambling stories via online forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caputo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored some common thematic domains which characterised problem gambling experiences of adult Italian participants with the aim of understanding motivations and expectations of problem gamblers and thus promoting better psychological interventions. Emotional Text Analysis was performed on 24 problem gambling stories collected via online forum in order to detect the main themes (cluster analysis and latent factors (correspondence analysis emerging in gamblers’ narratives. Five themes emerged which respectively refer to guilt (16.15%, obsession (27.60%, disease (30.77%, risk taking (15.89% and emotion regulation (4.17%. In addition, four synthetic dimensions were detected which consent to account the variability of problem gambling experience based on: struggle against compulsion (F1, ambivalent acceptance of gambling (F2, interpersonal detachment (F3 and illusion of control (F4. From the emotional experience shaping the problem gamblers’ narratives, this research study allows the identification of some factors which can contribute to quality research on problem gambling and which can provide some useful suggestion for treatment.

  5. Alexithymia predicts loss chasing for people at risk for problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Peter A; Ross, Katherine E

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between alexithymia and loss-chasing behavior in people at risk and not at risk for problem gambling. Methods An opportunity sample of 58 (50 males and 8 females) participants completed the Problem Gambling Severity Index and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). They then completed the Cambridge Gambling Task from which a measure of loss-chasing behavior was derived. Results Alexithymia and problem gambling risk were significantly positively correlated. Subgroups of non-alexithymic and at or near caseness for alexithymia by low risk and at risk for problem gambling were identified. The results show a clear difference for loss-chasing behavior for the two alexithymia conditions, but there was no evidence that low and at-risk problem gamblers were more likely to loss chase. The emotion-processing components of the TAS-20 were shown to correlate with loss chasing. Discussion and conclusion These findings suggest that loss-chasing behavior may be particularly prevalent in a subgroup of problem gamblers those who are high in alexithymia.

  6. Life events and problem gambling severity: A prospective study of adult gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Christelle; Kairouz, Sylvia; Nadeau, Louise; Monson, Eva

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have shown that gambling problems are cyclical but few have empirically investigated factors that are associated with change. The purpose of this article is to prospectively examine associations between life events and problem gambling severity in a cohort of gamblers. Occurrence of life events and gambling problem severity were assessed 3 times over a period of 2 years in a cohort of nonproblem and problem gamblers (N = 179) drawn from a representative sample derived from a population survey. Cross-lagged analyses revealed that cumulative number of life events were associated with an increase in severity of problem gambling 12 months later. Regression analyses showed that significant life events in several domains, for example, "change in sleeping habits," "accidental injury or illness" or "retirement," are likely to be associated over time to the increase or the continuation of risky gambling habits. This study's findings on the potential negative influence of cumulative number of life events, or of specific ones, are informative for secondary prevention and treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. A prospective study of adolescent risk and protective factors for problem gambling among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Dowling, Nicki A; Toumbourou, John W

    2014-02-01

    There is a paucity of research examining prospective predictors of problem gambling. The current study utilised a large longitudinal data set (N = 2328) to examine a large range of adolescent risk and protective factors for problem gambling in young adulthood. These risk and protective factors covered the domains of the community, family, school, peer group and individual. Numerous predictors associated with the family, school and peer-individual were statistically significant in analyses adjusted for gender and age. However, in the fully adjusted multivariate analyses, only two predictors were statistically significant. Within this model, gender (female) was associated with a reduced risk of young adult problem gambling, while family rewards for prosocial involvement moderated the risk relationship between adolescent alcohol use and young adult problem gambling. These findings highlight the importance of adolescent alcohol use and family environment as potentially modifiable predictors of young adult problem gambling. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Unpacking the public stigma of problem gambling: The process of stigma creation and predictors of social distancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims Public stigma diminishes the health of stigmatized populations, so it is critical to understand how and why stigma occurs to inform stigma reduction measures. This study aimed to examine stigmatizing attitudes held toward people experiencing problem gambling, to examine whether specific elements co-occur to create this public stigma, and to model explanatory variables of this public stigma. Methods An online panel of adults from Victoria, Australia (N = 2,000) was surveyed. Measures were based on a vignette for problem gambling and included demographics, gambling behavior, perceived dimensions of problem gambling, stereotyping, social distancing, emotional reactions, and perceived devaluation and discrimination. A hierarchical linear regression was conducted. Results People with gambling problems attracted substantial negative stereotypes, social distancing, emotional reactions, and status loss/discrimination. These elements were associated with desired social distance, as was perceived that problem gambling is caused by bad character, and is perilous, non-recoverable, and disruptive. Level of contact with problem gambling, gambling involvement, and some demographic variables was significantly associated with social distance, but they explained little additional variance. Discussion and conclusions This study contributes to the understanding of how and why people experiencing gambling problems are stigmatized. Results suggest the need to increase public contact with such people, avoid perpetuation of stereotypes in media and public health communications, and reduce devaluing and discriminating attitudes and behaviors.

  9. Barriers and Facilitators of Responding to Problem Gambling: Perspectives from Australian Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, S N; Manning, V; Dowling, N A; Lee, S J; Lubman, D I

    2018-03-01

    Despite high rates of comorbidity between problem gambling and mental health disorders, few studies have examined barriers or facilitators to the implementation of screening for problem gambling in mental health services. This exploratory qualitative study identified key themes associated with screening in mental health services. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 30 clinicians and managers from 11 mental health services in Victoria, Australia. Major themes and subthemes were identified using qualitative content analysis. Six themes emerged including competing priorities, importance of routine screening, access to appropriate screening tools, resources, patient responsiveness and workforce development. Barriers to screening included a focus on immediate risk as well as gambling being often considered as a longer-term concern. Clinicians perceived problem gambling as a relatively rare condition, but did acknowledge the need for brief screening. Facilitators to screening were changes to system processes, such as identification of an appropriate brief screening instrument, mandating its use as part of routine screening, as well as funded workforce development activities in the identification and management of problem gambling.

  10. Improving spatial microsimulation estimates of health outcomes by including geographic indicators of health behaviour: The example of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Francis; Young, Martin; Doran, Bruce

    2017-07-01

    Gambling is an important public health issue, with recent estimates ranking it as the third largest contributor of disability adjusted life years lost to ill-health. However, no studies to date have estimated the spatial distribution of gambling-related harm in small areas on the basis of surveys of problem gambling. This study extends spatial microsimulation approaches to include a spatially-referenced measure of health behaviour as a constraint variable in order to better estimate the spatial distribution of problem gambling. Specifically, this study allocates georeferenced electronic gaming machine expenditure data to small residential areas using a Huff model. This study demonstrates how the incorporation of auxiliary spatial data on health behaviours such as gambling expenditure can improve spatial microsimulation estimates of health outcomes like problem gambling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Proposing a health promotion framework to address gambling problems in Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Marisa; Coalter, Nicola; Gordon, Ashley; Breen, Helen

    2018-02-01

    Gambling impacts affect Australian Indigenous families and communities in diverse and complex ways. Indigenous people throughout Australia engage in a broad range of regulated and unregulated gambling activities. Challenges in this area include the complexities that come with delivering services and programmes between the most remote regions, to highly populated towns and cities of Australia. There is little knowledge transfer between states and territories in Australia and no conceptual understanding or analysis of what constitutes 'best practice' in gambling service delivery for Indigenous people, families and communities. This article reviews health promotion approaches used in Australia, with a particular focus on Indigenous and gambling-based initiatives. Contributing to this review is an examination of health promotion strategies used in Indigenous gambling service delivery in the Northern Territory, New South Wales and Western Australia, demonstrating diversity and innovation in approaches. The article concludes by emphasizing the potential value of adopting health promotion strategies to underpin programme and service delivery for addressing gambling problems in Australian Indigenous communities. However, success is contingent on robust, evidence-based programme design, implementation and evaluation that adhere to health promotion principles. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Adult ADHD Is Associated With Gambling Severity and Psychiatric Comorbidity Among Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura; Fischer, Gabriele

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is as follows: (a) exploring retrospective childhood and adult ADHD symptomatology in treatment-seeking gamblers, (b) providing detailed characteristics of the association between pathological gambling (PG) and ADHD, and (c) identifying risk factors for a history of ADHD. Eighty problem gamblers (20% female) were examined using a standardized interview (PG: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4th ed.; DSM-IV] criteria, Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey; ADHD: Wender Utah Rating Scale- deutsche Kurzform, Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale; comorbidities: Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview). Forty-three percentage of patients screened positive for childhood ADHD, and in 11%, ADHD persisted in adulthood. Patients with adult ADHD had more severe gambling problems ( p = .009, d = 1.03) and a higher number of psychiatric comorbidities ( p problem/pathological gamblers.

  13. Reliability and Validity of Three Instruments (DSM-IV, CPGI, and PPGM) in the Assessment of Problem Gambling in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Ki-Joon; Williams, Robert J; Lee, Choong-Ki

    2015-09-01

    Most research on the assessment, epidemiology, and treatment of problem gambling has occurred in Western jurisdictions. This potentially limits the cross-cultural validity of problem gambling assessment instruments as well as etiological models of problem gambling. The primary objective of the present research was to investigate the reliability and validity of three problem gambling assessment instruments within a South Korean context. A total of 4,330 South Korean adults participated in a comprehensive assessment of their gambling behavior that included the administration of the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling (NODS), the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI), and the Problem and Pathological Gambling Measure (PPGM). Cronbach alpha showed that all three instruments had good internal consistency. Concurrent validity was established by the significant associations observed between scores on the instruments and measures of gambling involvement (number of gambling formats engaged in; frequency of gambling; and gambling expenditure). Most importantly, kappa statistics showed that all instruments have satisfactory classification accuracy against clinical assessment of problem gambling conducted by South Korean clinicians (NODS κ = .66; PPGM κ = .62; CPGI κ = .51). These results confirm that Western-derived operationalizations of problem gambling have applicability in a South Korean setting.

  14. Prevention paradox logic and problem gambling: Does low-risk gambling impose a greater burden of harm than high-risk gambling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfabbro, Paul; King, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Background and aims The aim of this paper is to examine the evidence and arguments in favor of prevention paradox (PP) logic in the context of problem gambling. Evidence from recent studies of gambling and the distribution of harm across lower and higher risk gamblers is reviewed to examine the contention that the absolute burden of harm is greater in low-risk (LR) gamblers than the problem gamblers. Methods The review examines a number of methodological and conceptual concerns about existing evidence in support of the PP. Results The principal problems identified include the misclassification of LR gamblers; the use of binary scoring method that understates the frequency of harms in high-risk populations; a tendency to confuse behavior and harm; and the use of potentially overly inclusive definitions of harm with low thresholds of severity. Discussion and conclusions This paper makes a number of recommendations for enhancement of this area of research, including the use of clear definitions of harm and LR behavior and a greater focus on harm with material impacts on people's quality of life.

  15. Gambling Type, Substance Abuse, Health and Psychosocial Correlates of Male and Female Problem Gamblers in a Nationally Representative French Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaire, C; Kovess-Masfety, V; Guignard, R; Richard, J B; du Roscoät, E; Beck, F

    2017-06-01

    Many studies carried out on treatment-seeking problem gamblers (PG) have reported high levels of comorbid substance use disorders, and mental and physical health problems. Nevertheless, general population studies are still sparse, most of them have been carried out in the United States or Canada, and gender differences have not always been considered. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the type of games, and psychological and physical correlates in male and female PG in a nationally representative French sample. The total sample studied involved 25,647 subjects aged 15-85 years, including 333 PG and 25,314 non-problem gamblers (NPG). Data were extracted from a large survey of a representative sample of the French general population. They were evaluated for sociodemographic variables, gambling behavior, type of gambling activity, substance use, psychological distress, body mass index, chronic disease, and lack of sleep. Overall, there were significant differences between PG and NPG in gender, age, education, employment and marital status, substance use disorders (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine and heroin), psychological distress, obesity, lack of sleep and type of gambling activity. Although male and female PG had different profiles, the gambling type, especially strategic games, appeared as an important variable in the relationship between gender and problem gambling. This research underlines the importance of considering gender differences and gambling type in the study of gambling disorders. Identifying specific factors in the relationship between gender, gambling type and gambling problems may help improve clinical interventions and health promotion strategies.

  16. The prevalence, incidence, and gender and age-specific incidence of problem gambling: results of the Swedish longitudinal gambling study (Swelogs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max; Romild, Ulla; Volberg, Rachel

    2018-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence, incidence and gender and age-specific incidence of problem gambling in the Swedish adult population. Longitudinal cohort study with linkage to register data. Sweden. Stratified random sample aged 16-84 years at baseline (n = 8165) re-assessed a year later (n = 6021). Problem gambling (life-time and past 12 months) was measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised (SOGS-R). Past 12-month (current) problem gambling was also measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). The SOGS-R combined current pathological and problem gambling prevalence rate (PR) was 2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8-2.4] at baseline and 1.7 (1.4-2.0) at follow-up, approximately half the corresponding life-time estimates.[Correction added on 22 Dec 2017, after first online publication: In the preceding sentence, the SOGS-R combined current pathological and problem gambling prevalence rate (PR) was incorrectly reported as being double the corresponding life-time rate. It has been corrected in this version.] PGSI combined current problem and moderate-risk gambling PRs were 2.2 (1.9-2.5) at baseline and 1.9 (1.6-2.2) at follow-up. Combined incidence rates (IRs) were 1.0 (0.8-1.3) (SOGS-R) and 1.4 (1.1-1.7) (PGSI), with more than three-quarters being new cases. While first-time IRs did not vary by gender, males had a higher relapse IR and proportionately more females were new cases. The young adult IR was more than double the older adult IR; similar proportions were new cases. The actual incidence of problem gambling relapse in Sweden is likely to be higher than estimated. The profile of problem gambling in Sweden is likely to change over time, with increased proportions of women and older adults. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Problem gambling knowledge and perceived community impact among Asian-Pacific Islanders and non Asian-Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Timothy; Campos, Michael; Rosenthal, Richard; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Schwartz, Bryan; Davis, Alice; Chung, Bowen

    2010-04-01

    Emerging data suggest that problem/pathological gambling may be highly prevalent among Asian-Pacific Islanders (APIs) and that can be a major concern to their communities. This study surveyed problem/pathological gambling knowledge, attitudes, and perceived community impact of problem gambling among self-identified male and female APIs and non-APIs attending one of two API community events in Los Angeles County. Unexpectedly, our results indicated no effect for ethnicity with regards to ratings of problem/pathological gambling knowledge, community impact, or consequences. However, a gender effect with women reporting less problem/pathological-gambling-related knowledge than men, regardless of ethnicity was found. Over 40% of all respondents reported that problem/pathological gambling impacted their communities 'a lot', and the ratings for the impact of problem/pathological gambling was equal to ratings for other significant public health issues like diabetes, depression, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse. Based on these results, it is recommended that evidence-based legislation support the development of culturally-relevant prevention and intervention programs for problem/pathological gambling in Los Angeles County.

  18. The Use of Social Marketing to Influence the Development of Problem Gambling in the UK: Implications for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jane E.; Tapp, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the authors present and debate the theoretical case for the use of social marketing to help reduce problem gambling in the public health context of the UK. Is triangulated between the key theories and principles of social marketing, the key literature and its theoretical application to the debate about reducing problem gambling in…

  19. Online interventions for problem gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Cunningham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity between problem gambling and depression or anxiety is common. Further, the treatment needs of people with co-occurring gambling and mental health symptoms may be different from those of problem gamblers who do not have a co-occurring mental health concern. The current randomized controlled trial (RCT will evaluate whether there is a benefit to providing access to mental health Internet interventions (G + MH intervention in addition to an Internet intervention for problem gambling (G-only intervention in participants with gambling problems who do or do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms. Methods Potential participants will be screened using an online survey to identify participants meeting criteria for problem gambling. As part of the baseline screening process, measures of current depression and anxiety will be assessed. Eligible participants agreeing (N = 280 to take part in the study will be randomized to one of two versions of an online intervention for gamblers – an intervention that just targets gambling issues (G-only versus a website that contains interventions for depression and anxiety in addition to an intervention for gamblers (G + MH. It is predicted that problem gamblers who do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms will display no significant difference between intervention conditions at a six-month follow-up. However, for those with co-occurring mental health symptoms, it is predicted that participants receiving access to the G + MH website will display significantly reduced gambling outcomes at six-month follow-up as compared to those provided with G-only website. Discussion The trial will produce information on the best means of providing online help to gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02800096 ; Registration date: June 14, 2016.

  20. Online interventions for problem gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, John A; Hodgins, David C; Bennett, Kylie; Bennett, Anthony; Talevski, Marina; Mackenzie, Corey S; Hendershot, Christian S

    2016-07-22

    Comorbidity between problem gambling and depression or anxiety is common. Further, the treatment needs of people with co-occurring gambling and mental health symptoms may be different from those of problem gamblers who do not have a co-occurring mental health concern. The current randomized controlled trial (RCT) will evaluate whether there is a benefit to providing access to mental health Internet interventions (G + MH intervention) in addition to an Internet intervention for problem gambling (G-only intervention) in participants with gambling problems who do or do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms. Potential participants will be screened using an online survey to identify participants meeting criteria for problem gambling. As part of the baseline screening process, measures of current depression and anxiety will be assessed. Eligible participants agreeing (N = 280) to take part in the study will be randomized to one of two versions of an online intervention for gamblers - an intervention that just targets gambling issues (G-only) versus a website that contains interventions for depression and anxiety in addition to an intervention for gamblers (G + MH). It is predicted that problem gamblers who do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms will display no significant difference between intervention conditions at a six-month follow-up. However, for those with co-occurring mental health symptoms, it is predicted that participants receiving access to the G + MH website will display significantly reduced gambling outcomes at six-month follow-up as compared to those provided with G-only website. The trial will produce information on the best means of providing online help to gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02800096 ; Registration date: June 14, 2016.

  1. Problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders among American-Indian/Alaska native adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Smith, Philip H; Pilver, Corey; Hoff, Rani; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the association between problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders among American-Indian/Alaska-Native (AI/AN) individuals. Thus, we examined these factors among a nationally representative sample of AI/AN and other American adults in the USA. Using the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data, we conducted separate Wald tests and multinomial logistic regression analyses comparing AI/AN to black/African American, white/Caucasian, and all other racial/ethnic groups, respectively. Relative to other American adults, AI/AN adults were least likely to report non-/low-frequency gambling (NG: AI/AN 66.5%, white/Caucasian 70.5%, black/African American 72.8%, other racial/ethnic group 72.3%) and most likely to report low-risk gambling (LRG: AI/AN 30.1%, white/Caucasian 26.5%, black/African American 23.4%, other racial/ethnic group 24.7%). The association between at-risk/problem-gambling (ARPG) and any past-year Axis-I disorder was stronger among AI/AN versus other American adults. Although ARPG and LRG were associated with multiple past-year Axis-I and lifetime Axis-II psychiatric disorders in both AI/AN and other American adults, LRG was more strongly associated with both Axis-I disorders (particularly major depression, generalized anxiety disorder and nicotine dependence) and Cluster-B Axis-II (particularly antisocial personality disorder) disorders in AI/AN versus other American adults. A stronger association between problem-gambling severity and past-year psychiatric disorders among AI/AN relative to other American adults suggests the importance of enhancing mental health and problem-gambling prevention and treatment strategies that may help AI/AN individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gambling disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, David C; Stea, Jonathan N; Grant, Jon E

    2011-11-26

    Gambling disorders, including pathological gambling and problem gambling, have received increased attention from clinicians and researchers over the past three decades since gambling opportunities have expanded around the world. This Seminar reviews prevalence, causes and associated features, screening and diagnosis, and treatment approaches. Gambling disorders affect 0·2-5·3% of adults worldwide, although measurement and prevalence varies according to the screening instruments and methods used, and availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities. Several distinct treatment approaches have been favourably evaluated, such as cognitive behavioural and brief treatment models and pharmacological interventions. Although promising, family therapy and support from Gamblers Anonymous are less well empirically supported. Gambling disorders are highly comorbid with other mental health and substance use disorders, and a further understanding is needed of both the causes and treatment implications of this disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Screening for problem gambling within mental health services: a comparison of the classification accuracy of brief instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki A; Merkouris, Stephanie S; Manning, Victorian; Volberg, Rachel; Lee, Stuart J; Rodda, Simone N; Lubman, Dan I

    2017-12-23

    Despite the over-representation of people with gambling problems in mental health populations, there is limited information available to guide the selection of brief screening instruments within mental health services. The primary aim was to compare the classification accuracy of nine brief problem gambling screening instruments (two to five items) with a reference standard among patients accessing mental health services. The classification accuracy of nine brief screening instruments was compared with multiple cut-off scores on a reference standard. Eight mental health services in Victoria, Australia. A total of 837 patients were recruited consecutively between June 2015 and January 2016. The brief screening instruments were the Lie/Bet Questionnaire, Brief Problem Gambling Screen (BPGS) (two- to five-item versions), NODS-CLiP, NODS-CLiP2, Brief Biosocial Gambling Screen (BBGS) and NODS-PERC. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) was the reference standard. The five-item BPGS was the only instrument displaying satisfactory classification accuracy in detecting any level of gambling problem (low-risk, moderate-risk or problem gambling) (sensitivity = 0.803, specificity = 0.982, diagnostic efficiency = 0.943). Several shorter instruments adequately detected both problem and moderate-risk, but not low-risk, gambling: two three-item instruments (NODS-CLiP, three-item BPGS) and two four-item instruments (NODS-PERC, four-item BPGS) (sensitivity = 0.854-0.966, specificity = 0.901-0.954, diagnostic efficiency = 0.908-0.941). The four-item instruments, however, did not provide any considerable advantage over the three-item instruments. Similarly, the very brief (two-item) instruments (Lie/Bet and two-item BPGS) adequately detected problem gambling (sensitivity = 0.811-0.868, specificity = 0.938-0.943, diagnostic efficiency = 0.933-0.934), but not moderate-risk or low-risk gambling. The optimal brief screening instrument for mental health services

  4. Exposure to and engagement with gambling marketing in social media: Reported impacts on moderate-risk and problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; King, Daniel L; Russell, Alex M T; Delfabbro, Paul; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Hing, Nerilee

    2016-03-01

    Digital advertising for gambling and specifically marketing via social media have increased in recent years, and the impact on vulnerable consumers, including moderate-risk and problem gamblers, is unknown. Social media promotions often fall outside of advertising restrictions and codes of conduct and may have an inequitable effect on susceptible gamblers. This study aimed to investigate recall of exposure to, and reported impact on gamblers of, gambling promotions and marketing content on social media, with a focus on vulnerable users currently experiencing gambling problems. Gamblers who use social media (N = 964) completed an online survey assessing their exposure to and engagement with gambling operators on social media, their problem gambling severity, and the impact of social media promotions on their gambling. Gamblers at moderate risk and problem gamblers were significantly more likely to report having been exposed to social media gambling promotions and indicated actively engaging with gambling operators via these platforms. They were more likely to self-report that they had increased gambling as a result of these promotions, and over one third reported that the promotions had increased their problems. This research suggests that gamblers at moderate risk or those experiencing gambling problems are more likely to be impacted by social media promotions, and these may play a role in exacerbating disordered gambling. Future research should verify these self-reported results with behavioral data. However, the potential influence of advertisements via these new platforms should be considered by clinicians and policymakers, given their potential role in the formation of this behavioral addiction. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Assessment of Problem Gambling in a Chinese Context: The Chinese G-MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a severe lack of instruments to assess problem gambling in Chinese people. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Maroondah Assessment Profile for Problem Gambling (Chinese G-MAP, based on the responses of eight problem gamblers and 125 pathological gamblers seeking help from a problem gambling treatment center. Reliability analyses showed that the G-MAP and its related domains and scales were generally internally consistent. There are also several lines of evidence suggesting that the Chinese G-MAP and the various domains are valid: (a the various G-MAP domain and scale measures were significantly correlated among themselves, (b the G-MAP measures were significantly correlated with pathological gambling behavior assessed by the 4th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, and (c the G-MAP total scale and domain measures were able to discriminate problem gamblers and pathological gamblers. The present study suggests that the Chinese G-MAP possesses acceptable psychometric properties that can be used in research and practice settings.

  6. Thresholds of probable problematic gambling involvement for the German population: Results of the Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosowski, Tim; Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Consumption measures in gambling research may help to establish thresholds of low-risk gambling as 1 part of evidence-based responsible gambling strategies. The aim of this study is to replicate existing Canadian thresholds of probable low-risk gambling (Currie et al., 2006) in a representative dataset of German gambling behavior (Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology [PAGE]; N = 15,023). Receiver-operating characteristic curves applied in a training dataset (60%) extracted robust thresholds of low-risk gambling across 4 nonexclusive definitions of gambling problems (1 + to 4 + Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition [DSM-5] Composite International Diagnostic Interview [CIDI] symptoms), different indicators of gambling involvement (across all game types; form-specific) and different timeframes (lifetime; last year). Logistic regressions applied in a test dataset (40%) to cross-validate the heuristics of probable low-risk gambling incorporated confounding covariates (age, gender, education, migration, and unemployment) and confirmed the strong concurrent validity of the thresholds. Moreover, it was possible to establish robust form-specific thresholds of low-risk gambling (only for gaming machines and poker). Possible implications for early detection of problem gamblers in offline or online environments are discussed. Results substantiate international knowledge about problem gambling prevention and contribute to a German discussion about empirically based guidelines of low-risk gambling. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Naltrexone and Disulfiram Treatment Response in Veterans With Alcohol Dependence and Co-Occurring Problem-Gambling Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Kraus, Shane W; Petrakis, Ismene L

    Disordered gambling behavior frequently co-occurs with alcohol dependence and other psychiatric conditions. Using data from a previously published trial, we conducted secondary analyses to examine the influence of problem-gambling features on treatment outcome for alcohol dependence or co-occurring psychopathology assessed via DSM-IV criteria. Two hundred fifty-four patients with alcohol dependence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders were treated for 12 weeks in an outpatient medication study conducted at 3 Veterans Administration outpatient clinics from October 1998 to March 2002. Randomization included assignment to 1 of 4 groups: (1) naltrexone alone, (2) placebo alone, (3) (open-label) disulfiram and (blinded) naltrexone, or (4) (open-label) disulfiram and (blinded) placebo. One hundred seventy-four participants were evaluated for the diagnostic inclusionary criteria for pathological gambling using the Massachusetts Gambling Screen. Primary outcome and secondary outcome measures assessed alcohol use and psychiatric domains. Forty-five of 174 participants (25.9%) exhibited problem-gambling features (acknowledged 1 or more inclusionary criteria for pathological gambling). A gambling-group-by-disulfiram interaction was observed for abstinence, with problem-gambling features not associated with beneficial response to disulfiram (z = 6.58, P = .01). Participants with problem-gambling features reported significantly less improvement over time in general psychiatric functioning (z = 2.62, P = .01), specifically within somatization (z = 3.77, P gambling features and poorer outcomes in alcohol and multiple nonsubstance psychiatric domains suggests the need for improved screening for gambling problems in dually diagnosed populations and for the development of empirically validated treatments for individuals with these disorders. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Relationships between problematic Internet use and problem-gambling severity: Findings from a high-school survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Yvonne H.C.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen J.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    With the popularity of Internet use among adolescents, there is concern that some youth may display problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. Although excessive patterns of Internet use was considered for inclusion in the DSM-5 with pathological gambling and substance-use disorders in a category of addictive disorders, it was determined that more research was needed on Internet-use behaviors before such actions be further considered and possibly undertaken. The present study is the first to investigate whether at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) may moderate the strength of association between problem-gambling severity and gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures in adolescents. Survey data from 1884 Connecticut high-school student stratified by Internet use (ARPIU vs. non-ARPIU) were examined in bivariate analyses and logistic regression models. Gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures were mostly positively associated with problem-gambling severity in both Internet use groups. Interaction odds ratio revealed that the strength of the associations between problem-gambling severity and marijuana, alcohol and caffeine use were stronger amongst the non-ARPIU compared to the ARPIU group, suggesting that the relationships between these substance use behaviors and problem gambling may be partially accounted for by ARPIU. Future studies should examine the extent to which preventative interventions targeting both problematic Internet use and problem gambling may synergistically benefit measures of health and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescence. PMID:24140304

  9. The relationship between problem gambling and mental and physical health correlates among a nationally representative sample of Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Cox, Brian J; Martens, Patricia J; Sareen, Jitender; Enns, Murray W

    2010-01-01

    Gambling has become an increasingly common activity among women since the widespread growth of the gambling industry. Currently, our knowledge of the relationship between problem gambling among women and mental and physical correlates is limited. Therefore, important relationships between problem gambling and health and functioning, mental disorders, physical health conditions, and help-seeking behaviours among women were examined using a nationally representative Canadian sample. Data were from the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.2 (CCHS 1.2; n = 10,056 women aged 15 years and older; data collected in 2002). The statistical analysis included binary logistic regression, multinomial logistic regression, and linear regression models. Past 12-month problem gambling was associated with a significantly higher probability of current lower general health, suicidal ideation and attempts, decreased psychological well-being, increased distress, depression, mania, panic attacks, social phobia, agoraphobia, alcohol dependence, any mental disorder, comorbidity of mental disorders, chronic bronchitis, fibromyalgia, migraine headaches, help-seeking from a professional, attending a self-help group, and calling a telephone help line (odds ratios ranged from 1.5 to 8.2). Problem gambling was associated with a broad range of negative health correlates among women. Problem gambling is an important public health concern. These findings can be used to inform healthy public policies on gambling.

  10. Profiling Online Poker Players: Are Executive Functions Correlated with Poker Ability and Problem Gambling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavella, Mauro; Pelagatti, Matteo; Westin, Jerker; Lepore, Gabriele; Cherubini, Paolo

    2018-01-12

    Poker playing and responsible gambling both entail the use of the executive functions (EF), which are higher-level cognitive abilities. This study investigated if online poker players of different ability showed different performances in their EF and if so, which functions were the most discriminating for their playing ability. Furthermore, it assessed if the EF performance was correlated to the quality of gambling, according to self-reported questionnaires (PGSI, SOGS, GRCS). Three poker experts evaluated anonymized poker hand history files and, then, a trained professional administered an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Data analysis determined which variables of the tests correlated with poker ability and gambling quality scores. The highest correlations between EF test results and poker ability and between EF test results and gambling quality assessment showed that mostly different clusters of executive functions characterize the profile of the strong(er) poker player and those ones of the problem gamblers (PGSI and SOGS) and the one of the cognitions related to gambling (GRCS). Taking into consideration only the variables overlapping between PGSI and SOGS, we found some key predictive factors for a more risky and harmful online poker playing: a lower performance in the emotional intelligence competences (Emotional Quotient inventory Short) and, in particular, those grouped in the Intrapersonal scale (emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, self-regard, independence and self-actualization).

  11. Pokies and poverty: problem gambling risk factor geography in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Benedict W; Rigby, Janette E; Huriwai, Terry

    2006-03-01

    Up to 2% of adults in New Zealand can be considered problem gamblers, where the activity has an impact on the well-being of those who gamble, and often their close associates. The most common activity involves non-casino gaming machines (NCGMs). This paper explores the geography of gambling 'opportunity' at small-area scales, and finds excess provision in those areas classified as highly deprived. Geographically weighted regression has been used to investigate the possibility that the degree of inequity in NCGM provision varies across New Zealand. As machines are licensed, this provides an opportunity for policy implementation towards risk reduction.

  12. Gender by Preferred Gambling Activity in Treatment Seeking Problem Gamblers: A Comparison of Subgroup Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanbhai, Yasmin; Smith, David; Battersby, Malcolm

    2017-03-01

    Problem gambling is a growing public health concern and treatment incompletion levels remain high. The study aims to support and extend previous studies in relation to the heterogeneity of the gambling population based on gender and gambling type, and the implications of subgroup differences on treatment outcomes. Additionally, the concept of drop-out is addressed in terms of categorical treatment measures. The empirical findings are examined in the context of the theoretical framework of the pathways model. Participants were recruited from the Statewide Gambling Therapy Service and stratified into subgroups based on gender and gambling mode preference [Electronic Gambling Machines (EGM) or track race betters]. Baseline predictors collected and analysed using multinomial logistical regression included demographic information as well as gambling variables, while treatment outcomes consisted of three therapist rated measures. Significant differences between the subgroups were found for age, marital and employment status, gambling duration, alcohol use and the Kessler 10 measure of psychological distress. Specifically, male track race gamblers were younger, married, employed, had a longer duration of gambling, higher alcohol use and lower psychological distress relative to EGM users. No difference was found in any of the treatment outcomes, however, consistent with previous studies, all subgroups had high treatment incompletion levels. The findings demonstrate the importance of screening, assessing and treating problem gamblers as a heterogeneous group with different underlying demographics and psychopathologies. It is also hoped future studies will continue to address treatment incompletion with a re-conceptualisation of the term drop-out.

  13. Decision making under ambiguity but not under risk is related to problem gambling severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Bechara, Antoine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between problem gambling severity and decision-making situations that vary in two degrees of uncertainty (probability of outcome is known: decision-making under risk; probability of outcome is unknown: decision-making under ambiguity). For

  14. A Study on Problem and Pathological Gambling among University Students in South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, A. R.; Blanksby, P.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the correlates of problem and pathological gambling among university students in South Australia. Convenience sampling method was used to select participants ("n" = 163; 55.2 per cent women, 44.8 per cent men; age range 17-57 years) from two faculties in a South Australian university. A…

  15. COMT genotype, gambling activity, and cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Leppink, Eric W; Redden, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    adjustment and delay aversion) and the Spatial Working Memory task (total errors). This study adds to the growing literature on the role of COMT in impulsive behaviors by showing that the Val/Val genotype was associated with specific clinical and cognitive elements among young adults who gamble......Neuropsychological studies of adults with problem gambling indicate impairments across multiple cognitive domains. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays a unique role in the regulation of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, and has been implicated in the cognitive dysfunction evident in problem...... gambling. This study examined adults with varying levels of gambling behavior to determine whether COMT genotype was associated with differences in gambling symptoms and cognitive functioning. 260 non-treatment-seeking adults aged 18-29 years with varying degrees of gambling behavior provided saliva...

  16. "Talk with me": perspectives on services for men with problem gambling and housing instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilcher, Sara J T; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Skinner, Wayne; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Ferentzy, Peter; Wendaferew, Aklilu; Hwang, Stephen W; Matheson, Flora I

    2016-08-02

    Problem gambling and homelessness are recognized as important public health concerns that significantly impact individuals, their friends and families, communities and broader society. We aimed to explore the experiences with health and social services of men who had histories of problem gambling and housing instability in Toronto, Ontario. We used a community-based participatory approach with a multi-service agency serving low-income individuals. We conducted qualitative interviews with men (n = 30) who had experienced problem gambling and housing instability. Our interviews employed open-ended questions to elicit men's perceptions of services related to housing instability, problem gambling and other comorbid conditions (e.g., mental illness, substance use). We reviewed relevant themes related to experiences with services (e.g., Use of and feedback on: health and social services, housing services, justice/legal aid services, substance use services, gambling services; stigma; goals; triggers; physical health; coping strategies; finances; relationships; barriers to services and recommendations for services). The concept of person-centred engagement was identified as a main overarching theme, and seemed to be lacking in most of the men's experiences of services. Person-centred engagement for these men entailed empowerment and autonomy; empathy, compassion and sincerity; respectful communication; and tailored and holistic life plans. While there was a strong emphasis placed on independence, the men identified the importance of positive therapeutic relationships as being critical aspects of the recovery process. Based on our analyses, several recommendations were identified: 1) Increasing general awareness of services for problem gambling; 2) Delivering integrated services in a one-stop-shop; 3) Addressing mental health with psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy; 4) Providing timely access to prevention and recovery services; and 5) Enhancing life skills with peer

  17. The relative contribution of metacognitions and attentional control to the severity of gambling in problem gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcantonio M. Spada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the relationship between metacognitions, attentional control, and the severity of gambling in problem gamblers. One hundred and twenty six problem gamblers completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21, the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire 30, the Attentional Control Scale, and the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Results revealed that negative affect, four out of five metacognitions factors (positive beliefs about worry, negative beliefs about thoughts concerning danger and uncontrollability, cognitive confidence and beliefs about the need to control thoughts, and all attentional control factors (focusing, shifting and flexible control of thought were correlated, in the predicted directions, with the severity of gambling. The same metacognitions were also found to be correlated, in the predicted directions, with attention focusing, however only negative beliefs about thoughts concerning danger and uncontrollability and cognitive confidence were found to be correlated with attention shifting and flexible control of thought. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that beliefs about the need to control thoughts were the only predictor of the severity of gambling controlling for negative affect. Overall these findings support the hypotheses and are consistent with the metacognitive model of psychological dysfunction. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. How the causes, consequences and solutions for problem gambling are reported in Australian newspapers: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Helen E; Thomas, Samantha L; Robinson, Priscilla; Daube, Mike

    2014-12-01

    To inform public health approaches to problem gambling by examining how the news media covers problem gambling, with a particular focus on the causes, consequences and solutions to problem gambling, and the 'actors' and sources who influence media coverage. A qualitative content analysis guided by framing theory analysed coverage of problem gambling in Australian newspapers in the period 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012. Solutions to problem gambling were more frequently discussed than causes and consequences. A focus on the responsibility of individuals was preferred to reporting that focused on broader social, ecological, and industry determinants of problem gambling. Reporting was highly politicised, with politicians frequently quoted and political issues frequently discussed. In contrast, the community sector, health professionals and problem gamblers were rarely quoted. This analysis has revealed the need for a more proactive, coordinated approach to the media by both public health researchers and health groups. The establishment of a gambling-specific coalition to push for evidence-based reform is recommended. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  19. Gambling-Related Distortions and Problem Gambling in Adolescents: A Model to Explain Mechanisms and Develop Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Iozzi, Adriana; Manfredi, Antonella; Fagni, Fabrizio; Primi, Caterina

    2018-01-01

    Although a number of gambling preventive initiatives have been realized with adolescents, many of them have been developed in absence of a clear and explicitly described theoretical model. The present work was aimed to analyze the adequacy of a model to explain gambling behavior referring to gambling-related cognitive distortions (Study 1), and to verify the effectiveness of a preventive intervention developed on the basis of this model (Study 2). Following dual-process theories on cognitive ...

  20. [Gambling addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, J; Meyer, G; Hayer, T

    2013-05-01

    Extensive coherent clinical, psychopathological, neurobiological and genetic similarities with substance-related addictions justify the forthcoming classification of gambling addiction under the new category "Substance Use and Addictive Disorders" in the DSM-5. Thus, gambling addiction can be regarded as the prototype of behavioral addiction. In general it should be kept in mind that isolated gambling forms are associated with varying addictive potential due to specific situational and structural game characteristics. High rates of indebtedness, suicidality, social isolation and gambling-related crime often accompany pathological gambling. As a consequence gambling addiction represents a mental disorder with a significant economic burden. In Germany 12-month prevalence rates for problem gambling in adulthood range from 0.24 % to 0.64  % and for pathological gambling from 0.20 % to 0.56 %. Because gambling products rank among the so-called demeriting (i.e. potentially harmful) social activities, player and youth protection measures to prevent gambling disorders and associated crime should be best regulated as a state monopoly.

  1. Psychological vulnerability and problem gambling: an application of Durand Jacobs' general theory of addictions to electronic gaming machine playing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Jessica; Delfabbro, Paul; Denson, Linley A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an empirical investigation of the validity of Jacobs' (in J Gambl Behav 2:15-31, 1986) general theory of addictions in relation to gambling problems associated with electronic gaming machines (EGM). Regular EGM gamblers (n = 190) completed a series of standardised measures relating to psychological and physiological vulnerability, substance use, dissociative experiences, early childhood trauma and abuse and problem gambling (the Problem Gambling Severity Index). Statistical analysis using structural equation modelling revealed clear relationships between childhood trauma and life stressors and psychological vulnerability, dissociative-like experiences and problem gambling. These findings confirm and extend a previous model validated by Gupta and Derevensky (in J Gambl Stud 14: 17-49, 1998) using an adolescent population. The significance of these findings are discussed for existing pathway models of problem gambling, for Jacobs' theory, and for clinicians engaged in assessment and intervention.

  2. Problematic Alcohol Use and Problem Gambling: Associations to Structural and Functional aspects of Social Ties in a Finnish Population Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordmyr Johanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – This study aims to explore associations between structural and functional aspects of social networks and relationships (here labelled social ties among individuals exhibiting problematic alcohol use and problem gambling, respectively.

  3. The impact of gambling advertising: Problem gamblers report stronger impacts on involvement, knowledge, and awareness than recreational gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-06-01

    Although there is a general lack of empirical evidence that advertising influences gambling participation, the regulation of gambling advertising is hotly debated among academic researchers, treatment specialists, lobby groups, regulators, and policymakers. This study contributes to the ongoing debate by investigating perceived impacts of gambling advertising in a sample of gamblers drawn from the general population in Norway (n = 6,034). Three dimensions of advertising impacts were identified, representing perceived impacts on (a) gambling-related attitudes, interest, and behavior ("involvement"); (b) knowledge about gambling options and providers ("knowledge"); and (c) the degree to which people are aware of gambling advertising ("awareness"). Overall, impacts were strongest for the knowledge dimension, and, for all 3 dimensions, the impact increased with level of advertising exposure. Those identified as problem gamblers in the sample (n = 57) reported advertising impacts concerning involvement more than recreational gamblers, and this finding was not attributable to differences in advertising exposure. Additionally, younger gamblers reported stronger impacts on involvement and knowledge but were less likely to agree that they were aware of gambling advertising than older gamblers. Male gamblers were more likely than female gamblers to report stronger impacts on both involvement and knowledge. These findings are discussed with regard to existing research on gambling advertising as well as their implications for future research and policy-making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Direct and indirect influences of fate control belief, gambling expectancy bias, and self-efficacy on problem gambling and negative mood among Chinese college students: a multiple mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Wu, Anise M S

    2010-12-01

    A multiple mediation model was proposed to integrate core concepts of the social axioms framework and the social cognitive theory in order to understand gambling behavior. It was hypothesized that the influence of general fate control belief on problem gambling and negative mood would be mediated by gambling-specific beliefs. Data from 773 Chinese college recreational gamblers were collected. The bootstrapping procedure was used to test the multiple mediation hypotheses. Significant indirect effects of fate control belief on problem gambling and negative mood through two gambling-specific mediators were found. Gambling expectancy bias was a more salient mediator than gambling self-efficacy. Fate control belief was also found to have a significant direct effect on negative mood. In general, a high level of general fate control belief was related to greater gambling expectancy bias and lower self-efficacy in resisting gambling, which were in turn related to problem gambling and negative mood. Limitations and implications of the study were discussed.

  5. The role of mindfulness in problem gambling and implications for treatment

    OpenAIRE

    de Lisle, Steven Mark

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have been identified as a ‘third wave’ in the cognitive behavioural tradition which may improve problem gambling outcomes. However, there is a paucity of research that has investigated the mechanisms by which mindfulness may impart therapeutic benefit. The broader mindfulness literature suggests that mindfulness functions by promoting awareness and acceptance of present moment cognitive and emotional states associated with the experience of psychological distre...

  6. Effects of a workplace prevention programme for problem gambling: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Jonas; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Rozental, Alexander; Carlbring, Per

    2017-09-25

    Despite being considered a public health problem, no prevention programme for problem gambling in workplace settings has been scientifically evaluated. This study aims to fill a critical gap in the field of problem gambling by implementing and evaluating a large-scale prevention programme in organisations. Ten organisations, with a total of n=549 managers and n=8572 employees, will be randomised to either receiving a prevention programme or to a waitlist control condition. Measurements will be collected at the baseline and 3, 12 and 24 months after intervention. The primary outcome of interest is the managers' inclination to act when worried or suspicious about an employee's problem gambling or other harmful use. Additional outcomes of interest include the Problem Gambling Severity Index and gambling habits in both managers and employees. Furthermore, qualitative analyses of the responses from semistructured interviews with managers will be performed. This study has been approved by the regional ethics board of Stockholm, Sweden, and it will contribute to the body of knowledge concerning prevention of problem gambling. The findings will be published in peer-reviewed, open-access journals. NCT02925286; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. National Helpline for Problem Gambling: A Profile of Its Users’ Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bastiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambling has seen a significant increase in Italy in the last 10 years and has rapidly become a public health issue, and for these reasons the first National Helpline for Problem Gambling (GR-Helpline has been established. The aims of this study are to describe the GR-Helpline users’ characteristics and to compare the prevalence rates of the users with those of moderate-risk/problematic gamblers obtained from the national survey (IPSAD 2010-2011. Statistical analysis was performed on data obtained from the counselling sessions (phone/e-mail/chat carried out on 5,805 users (57.5% gamblers; 42.5% families/friends. This confirms that the problems related to gambling concern not only the gamblers but also their families and friends. Significant differences were found between gamblers and families/friends involving gender (74% of gamblers were male; 76.9% of families/friends were female, as well as age-classes and geographical area. Female gamblers had a higher mean age (47.3 versus 40.2 years and preferred nonstrategy-based games. Prevalence rates of GR-Helpline users and of moderate risk/problematic gamblers were correlated (Rho = 0.58; p=0.0113. The results highlight the fact that remote access to counselling can be an effective means of promoting treatment for problem gamblers who do not otherwise appeal directly for services.

  8. A meta-regression analysis of 41 Australian problem gambling prevalence estimates and their relationship to total spending on electronic gaming machines

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    Francis Markham

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many jurisdictions regularly conduct surveys to estimate the prevalence of problem gambling in their adult populations. However, the comparison of such estimates is problematic due to methodological variations between studies. Total consumption theory suggests that an association between mean electronic gaming machine (EGM and casino gambling losses and problem gambling prevalence estimates may exist. If this is the case, then changes in EGM losses may be used as a proxy indicator for changes in problem gambling prevalence. To test for this association this study examines the relationship between aggregated losses on electronic gaming machines (EGMs and problem gambling prevalence estimates for Australian states and territories between 1994 and 2016. Methods A Bayesian meta-regression analysis of 41 cross-sectional problem gambling prevalence estimates was undertaken using EGM gambling losses, year of survey and methodological variations as predictor variables. General population studies of adults in Australian states and territory published before 1 July 2016 were considered in scope. 41 studies were identified, with a total of 267,367 participants. Problem gambling prevalence, moderate-risk problem gambling prevalence, problem gambling screen, administration mode and frequency threshold were extracted from surveys. Administrative data on EGM and casino gambling loss data were extracted from government reports and expressed as the proportion of household disposable income lost. Results Money lost on EGMs is correlated with problem gambling prevalence. An increase of 1% of household disposable income lost on EGMs and in casinos was associated with problem gambling prevalence estimates that were 1.33 times higher [95% credible interval 1.04, 1.71]. There was no clear association between EGM losses and moderate-risk problem gambling prevalence estimates. Moderate-risk problem gambling prevalence estimates were not explained by

  9. A meta-regression analysis of 41 Australian problem gambling prevalence estimates and their relationship to total spending on electronic gaming machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Francis; Young, Martin; Doran, Bruce; Sugden, Mark

    2017-05-23

    Many jurisdictions regularly conduct surveys to estimate the prevalence of problem gambling in their adult populations. However, the comparison of such estimates is problematic due to methodological variations between studies. Total consumption theory suggests that an association between mean electronic gaming machine (EGM) and casino gambling losses and problem gambling prevalence estimates may exist. If this is the case, then changes in EGM losses may be used as a proxy indicator for changes in problem gambling prevalence. To test for this association this study examines the relationship between aggregated losses on electronic gaming machines (EGMs) and problem gambling prevalence estimates for Australian states and territories between 1994 and 2016. A Bayesian meta-regression analysis of 41 cross-sectional problem gambling prevalence estimates was undertaken using EGM gambling losses, year of survey and methodological variations as predictor variables. General population studies of adults in Australian states and territory published before 1 July 2016 were considered in scope. 41 studies were identified, with a total of 267,367 participants. Problem gambling prevalence, moderate-risk problem gambling prevalence, problem gambling screen, administration mode and frequency threshold were extracted from surveys. Administrative data on EGM and casino gambling loss data were extracted from government reports and expressed as the proportion of household disposable income lost. Money lost on EGMs is correlated with problem gambling prevalence. An increase of 1% of household disposable income lost on EGMs and in casinos was associated with problem gambling prevalence estimates that were 1.33 times higher [95% credible interval 1.04, 1.71]. There was no clear association between EGM losses and moderate-risk problem gambling prevalence estimates. Moderate-risk problem gambling prevalence estimates were not explained by the models (I 2  ≥ 0.97; R 2  ≤ 0.01). The

  10. Impulsivity and cognitive distortions in pathological gamblers attending the UK National Problem Gambling Clinic: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczuk, R; Bowden-Jones, H; Verdejo-Garcia, A; Clark, L

    2011-12-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a form of behavioural addiction that has been associated with elevated impulsivity and also cognitive distortions in the processing of chance, probability and skill. We sought to assess the relationship between the level of cognitive distortions and state and trait measures of impulsivity in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Thirty pathological gamblers attending the National Problem Gambling Clinic, the first National Health Service clinic for gambling problems in the UK, were compared with 30 healthy controls in a case-control design. Cognitive distortions were assessed using the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS). Trait impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P, which includes scales of urgency, the tendency to be impulsive in positive or negative mood states. Delay discounting rates were taken as a state measure of impulsive choice. Pathological gamblers had elevated impulsivity on several UPPS-P subscales but effect sizes were largest (Cohen's d>1.4) for positive and negative urgency. The pathological gamblers also displayed higher levels of gambling distortions, and elevated preference for immediate rewards, compared to controls. Within the pathological gamblers, there was a strong relationship between the preference for immediate rewards and the level of cognitive distortions (R2=0.41). Impulsive choice in the gamblers was correlated with the level of gambling distortions, and we hypothesize that an impulsive decision-making style may increase the acceptance of erroneous beliefs during gambling play.

  11. Preventing and responding to gambling-related harm and crime in the workplace

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    Binde Per

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Problem gambling, even if it occurs in leisure time, can cause harm in the workplace. Problem gamblers are preoccupied with gambling and often suffer from psychiatric and psychosomatic symptoms caused by their excessive gambling. This may lead to inefficiency at work and absenteeism. Severe gambling problems typically lead to a constant need for money, which may result in theft of money or goods from the workplace and in embezzlement. This paper outlines measures to prevent and respond to gambling-related harm and crime in the workplace.

  12. A longitudinal study of the individual- and group-level problematic gaming and associations with problem gambling among Swedish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W

    2018-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the long-term stability of problematic gaming among adolescents and whether problematic gaming at wave 1 (W1) was associated with problem gambling at wave 2 (W2), three years later. Data from the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Västmanland born in 1997 and 1999, were accessed and analyzed in two waves W2, N  =   1576; 914 (58%) girls). At W1, the adolescents were 13 and 15 years old, and at W2, they were 16 and 18 years old. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), and gambling frequencies. Stability of gaming was determined using Gamma correlation, Spearman's rho, and McNemar. Logistic regression analysis and general linear model (GLM) analysis were performed and adjusted for sex, age, and ethnicity, frequency of gambling activities and gaming time at W1, with PGSI as the dependent variable, and GAIT as the independent variable, to investigate associations between problematic gaming and problem gambling. Problematic gaming was relative stable over time, γ = 0.739, p  ≤   .001, ρ = 0.555, p  ≤   .001, and McNemar p  ≤   .001. Furthermore, problematic gaming at W1 increased the probability of having problem gambling three years later, logistic regression OR = 1.886 (95% CI 1.125-3.161), p  =   .016, GLM F  = 10.588, η 2  = 0.007, p =  .001. Problematic gaming seems to be relatively stable over time. Although associations between problematic gaming and later problem gambling were found, the low explained variance indicates that problematic gaming in an unlikely predictor for problem gambling within this sample.

  13. Relationships between problematic internet use and problem-gambling severity: findings from a high-school survey.

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    Yau, Yvonne H C; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen J; Hoff, Rani A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-01-01

    With the popularity of Internet use among adolescents, there is concern that some youth may display problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. Although excessive patterns of Internet use was considered for inclusion in the DSM-5 with pathological gambling and substance-use disorders in a category of addictive disorders, it was determined that more research was needed on Internet-use behaviors before such actions be further considered and possibly undertaken. The present study is the first to investigate whether at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) may moderate the strength of association between problem-gambling severity and gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures in adolescents. Survey data from 1884 Connecticut high-school student stratified by Internet use (ARPIU vs. non-ARPIU) were examined in bivariate analyses and logistic regression models. Gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures were mostly positively associated with problem-gambling severity in both Internet use groups. Interaction odds ratio revealed that the strength of the associations between problem-gambling severity and marijuana, alcohol and caffeine use were stronger amongst the non-ARPIU compared to the ARPIU group, suggesting that the relationships between these substance use behaviors and problem gambling may be partially accounted for by ARPIU. Future studies should examine the extent to which preventative interventions targeting both problematic Internet use and problem gambling may synergistically benefit measures of health and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescence. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Online and Mobile Interventions for Problem Gambling, Alcohol, and Drugs: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Isabelle; Goulet, Annie; Mercier, Jonathan; Jacques, Christian; Bouchard, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Online interventions for gambling, alcohol, and illegal drug related problems have been developing at a fast pace over the past decade. Yet, little is known about the content and efficacy of interventions provided entirely online for reducing drug/alcohol use and gambling, or about the characteristics of those who use these interventions. This systematic review aims to describe the characteristics of online interventions, their efficacy, and the profile of their clientele. Documentation was mainly obtained through four scientific databases in psychology, technology, and medical research (PsychINFO, MedLine, Francis, and INSPEC) using three keywords (substances or gambling, intervention, Internet). Of the 4,708 documents initially identified, 18 studies meeting admissibility criteria were retained and analyzed after exclusion of duplicates and non-relevant documents. No study in the review related to problem gambling. The majority of interventions were based upon motivational or cognitive-behavioral theoretical approaches and called upon well-established therapeutic components in the field of addictions. The participants in these studies were generally adults between 30 and 46 years old with a high school education and presenting a high risk or problematic use. More than three quarters of the studies showed a short-term decrease in use that was maintained 6 months later, but only two studies included a 12 months follow-up. Online interventions seem promising and appear to meet the needs of participants who are in the workforce and seeking help for the first time. Long-term efficacy studies should nonetheless be conducted.

  15. Getting a grip on problem gambling: What can neuroscience tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Goudriaan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In problem gamblers, diminished cognitive control and increased impulsivity is present compared to healthy controls. Moreover, impulsivity has been found to be a vulnerability marker for the development of pathological gambling (PG and problem gambling (PrG and to be a predictor of relapse. In this review, the most recent findings on functioning of the brain circuitry relating to impulsivity and cognitive control in PG and PrG are discussed. Diminished functioning of several prefrontal areas and of the anterior cingulate cortex indicate that cognitive-control related brain circuitry functions are diminished in PG and PrG compared to healthy controls. From the available cue reactivity studies on PG and PrG, increased responsiveness towards gambling stimuli in fronto-striatal reward circuitry and brain areas related to attentional processing is present compared to healthy controls. At this point it is unresolved whether PG is associated with hyper- or hypo-activity in the reward circuitry in response to monetary cues. More research is needed to elucidate the complex interactions for reward responsivity in different stages of gambling and across different types of reward. Conflicting findings from basic neuroscience studies are integrated in the context of recent neurobiological addiction models. Neuroscience studies on the interface between cognitive control and motivational processing are discussed in light of current addiction theories.Clinical implications: we suggest that innovation in PG therapy should focus on improvement of dysfunctional cognitive control and/or motivational functions. The implementation of novel treatment methods like neuromodulation, cognitive training and pharmacological interventions as add-on therapies to standard treatment in PG and PrG, in combination with the study of their effects on brain-behavior mechanisms could prove an important clinical step forward towards personalizing and improving treatment results in PG.

  16. Online and Mobile Interventions for Problem Gambling, Alcohol, and Drugs: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Giroux

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Online interventions for gambling, alcohol, and illegal drug related problems have been developing at a fast pace over the past decade. Yet, little is known about the content and efficacy of interventions provided entirely online for reducing drug/alcohol use and gambling, or about the characteristics of those who use these interventions. This systematic review aims to describe the characteristics of online interventions, their efficacy, and the profile of their clientele. Documentation was mainly obtained through four scientific databases in psychology, technology, and medical research (PsychINFO, MedLine, Francis, and INSPEC using three keywords (substances or gambling, intervention, Internet. Of the 4,708 documents initially identified, 18 studies meeting admissibility criteria were retained and analyzed after exclusion of duplicates and non-relevant documents. No study in the review related to problem gambling. The majority of interventions were based upon motivational or cognitive-behavioral theoretical approaches and called upon well-established therapeutic components in the field of addictions. The participants in these studies were generally adults between 30 and 46 years old with a high school education and presenting a high risk or problematic use. More than three quarters of the studies showed a short-term decrease in use that was maintained 6 months later, but only two studies included a 12 months follow-up. Online interventions seem promising and appear to meet the needs of participants who are in the workforce and seeking help for the first time. Long-term efficacy studies should nonetheless be conducted.

  17. Trait urgency and gambling problems in young people by age: the mediating role of decision-making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Griffiths, Mark D; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Santinello, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    Although the personality trait of urgency has been linked to problem gambling, less is known about psychological mechanisms that mediate the relationship between urgency and problem gambling. One individual variable of potential relevance to impulsivity and addictive disorders is age. The aims of this study were to examine: (i) a theoretical model associating urgency and gambling problems, (ii) the mediating effects of decision-making processes (operationalized as preference for small/immediate rewards and lower levels of deliberative decision-making); and (iii) age differences in these relationships. Participants comprised 986 students (64% male; mean age=19.51 years; SD=2.30) divided into three groups: 16-17 years, 18-21 years, and 22-25 years. All participants completed measures of urgency, problem gambling, and a delay-discounting questionnaire involving choices between a smaller amount of money received immediately and a larger amount of money received later. Participants were also asked to reflect on their decision-making process. Compared to those aged 16-17 years and 22-25 years, participants aged 18-21 years had a higher level of gambling problems and decreased scores on lower levels of deliberative decision-making. Higher levels of urgency were associated with higher levels of gambling problems. The association was mediated by a lower level of deliberative decision-making and preference for an immediate/small reward. A distinct pathway was observed for lower levels of deliberative decision-making. Young people who tend to act rashly in response to extreme moods, had lower levels of deliberative decision-making, that in turn were positively related to gambling problems. This study highlights unique decision-making pathways through which urgency trait may operate, suggesting that those developing prevention and/or treatment strategies may want to consider the model's variables, including urgency, delay discounting, and deliberative decision

  18. A Longitudinal Empirical Investigation of the Pathways Model of Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allami, Youssef; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Carbonneau, René; Lacourse, Éric; Tremblay, Richard E

    2017-12-01

    The pathways model of problem gambling suggests the existence of three developmental pathways to problem gambling, each differentiated by a set of predisposing biopsychosocial characteristics: behaviorally conditioned (BC), emotionally vulnerable (EV), and biologically vulnerable (BV) gamblers. This study examined the empirical validity of the Pathways Model among adolescents followed up to early adulthood. A prospective-longitudinal design was used, thus overcoming limitations of past studies that used concurrent or retrospective designs. Two samples were used: (1) a population sample of French-speaking adolescents (N = 1033) living in low socio-economic status (SES) neighborhoods from the Greater Region of Montreal (Quebec, Canada), and (2) a population sample of adolescents (N = 3017), representative of French-speaking students in Quebec. Only participants with at-risk or problem gambling by mid-adolescence or early adulthood were included in the main analysis (n = 180). Latent Profile Analyses were conducted to identify the optimal number of profiles, in accordance with participants' scores on a set of variables prescribed by the Pathways Model and measured during early adolescence: depression, anxiety, impulsivity, hyperactivity, antisocial/aggressive behavior, and drug problems. A four-profile model fit the data best. Three profiles differed from each other in ways consistent with the Pathways Model (i.e., BC, EV, and BV gamblers). A fourth profile emerged, resembling a combination of EV and BV gamblers. Four profiles of at-risk and problem gamblers were identified. Three of these profiles closely resemble those suggested by the Pathways Model.

  19. Cue-Reactive Altered State of Consciousness Mediates the Relationship Between Problem-Gambling Severity and Cue-Reactive Urge in Poker-Machine Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Christopher; Rock, Adam J; Clark, Gavin I

    2016-06-01

    In order to enhance our understanding of the nature of poker-machine problem-gambling, a community sample of 37 poker-machine gamblers (M age = 32 years, M PGSI = 5; PGSI = Problem Gambling Severity Index) were assessed for urge to gamble (responses on a visual analogue scale) and altered state of consciousness (assessed by the Altered State of Awareness dimension of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory) at baseline, after a neutral cue, and after a gambling cue. It was found that (a) problem-gambling severity (PGSI score) predicted increase in urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue, controlling for baseline; sr (2) = .19, p = .006) and increase in altered state of consciousness (from neutral cue to gambling cue, controlling for baseline; sr (2) = .57, p gambling cue) mediated the relationship between problem-gambling severity and increase in urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue; κ(2) = .40, 99 % CI [.08, .71]). These findings suggest that cue-reactive altered state of consciousness is an important component of cue-reactive urge in poker-machine problem-gamblers.

  20. Problem Gambling Among Urban and Rural Gamblers in Limpopo Province, South Africa: Associations with Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use and Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaal, Linda; Sinclair, Heidi; Stein, Dan J; Myers, Bronwyn

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the mental health correlates of problem gambling in low- and-middle-income countries such as South Africa and whether these correlates vary by urbanicity. To address this gap, we examined mental health factors associated with problem gambling among gamblers in Limpopo Province, South Africa disaggregated by rural, peri-urban and urban location. A survey of gambling behaviour and mental health was conducted among 900 gamblers. Overall, 28.3 % were at high risk and 38.1 % were at moderate risk for problem gambling. For the entire sample, hazardous/harmful alcohol use was associated with almost twofold increased chance of being at moderate risk (AOR 1.83; 95 % CI 1.08, 3.11) and almost sevenfold greater odds (AOR 6.93; 95 % CI 4.03-11.93) of being at high risk for problem gambling. Psychological distress was associated with being at high risk for problem gambling only (AOR 1.18; 95 % CI 1.14-1.22). After stratifying by urbanicity, hazardous/harmful alcohol use and psychological distress remained associated with high risk gambling across all locations. We found little knowledge of a free gambling helpline and other gambling services-particularly in less urbanised environments [χ(2) (2), 900 = 40.4; p gambling services include screening and treatment for common mental disorders.

  1. Pathological gambling: An overview

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    Shalini Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambling activities are popular as a form of recreation and have been a source of income for many people worldwide. Although gambling has been common across continents and time, and a subset of individuals experience problems with gambling. This review attempts to provide an overview of problem gambling for clinicians who are likely to encounter such patients in their practice. The review discusses the relevance, nosology, and epidemiology of gambling. We also discuss the associated comorbidities and principles of management of pathological gambling.

  2. Cross Validation of the Gambling Problem Severity Subscale of the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Index (CAGI/GPSS) on a Sample of Ontario High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nigel E; Elton-Marshall, Tara; Shi, Jing; Wiebe, Jamie; Boak, Angela; van der Maas, Mark; Mann, Robert E

    2017-11-28

    This paper reports on the cross validation of the Gambling Problem Severity Subscale of the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Index (CAGI/GPSS). The CAGI/GPSS was included in a large school based drug use and health survey conducted in 2015. Data from students in grades 9-12 (ages 13-20 years) derived from the (N = 3369 students). The CAGI/GPSS produced an alpha of 0.789. A principle component analysis revealed two eigenvalues greater than one. An oblique rotation revealed these components to represent consequences and over involvement. The CAGI/GPSS indicated that 1% of the students fell into the "red" category indicating a severe problem and an additional 3.3% scored in the "yellow" category indicating low to moderate problems. The CAGI/GPSS was shown to be significantly correlated with gambling frequency (r = 0.36), largest expenditure (r = 0.37), sex (more likely to be male) (r = -0.19), lower school marks (r = -0.07), hazardous drinking, (r = 0.16), problem video game play (r = 0.16), as well as substance abuse. The CAGI/GPSS was cross validated using a shorted version of the short SOGS, r = 0.48. In addition the CAGI/GPSS and short SOGS produced very similar patterns of correlations results. The results support the validity and reliability of the CAGI/GPSS as a measure of gambling problems among adolescents.

  3. Testing an Incentive-Sensitisation Approach to Understanding Problem Slot-Machine Gambling Using an Online Slot-Machine Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Belinda; Cummins, Robert

    2017-10-16

    This study aims to test the application of the incentive-sensitisation theory to slot-machine gambling behaviour. The theory posits that for problem gamblers (PGs), gambling strengthens the response of motivational pathways in the mid-brain to gambling cues, eliciting strong wanting, independent of liking. Non-problem gamblers (NPGs) experience weaker changes to motivational pathways so liking and wanting remain associated. Hence, it is predicted that wanting to gamble will be greater than liking for PGs but there will be no difference for NPGs; wanting will be greater for PGs than for NPGs; and, wanting but not liking will predict whether PGs continue gambling, whereas both will predict this for NPGs. During gambling on an online simulated slot-machine, 39 PGs and 87 NPGs rated 'liking' and 'wanting'. Participants played at least 3 blocks of 10-20 spins, and then had the option of playing up to 4 additional blocks; to continue playing they had to complete an effortful task, so that 'number of blocks played' acted as an additional indirect measure of wanting. Results supported hypotheses except on the indirect measure of wanting (the number of blocks played).

  4. A qualitative analysis of the effects of a comorbid disordered gambling diagnosis with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, Igor; Clark, Cameron M; Hodgins, David C; Goghari, Vina M

    2016-03-01

    Little research has examined the association between disordered gambling and psychosis. In addition, clinicians treating schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders rarely screen for or treat comorbid gambling problems due to diagnostic overshadowing. Thus, the effects of disordered gambling on symptoms of schizophrenia and vice versa remain largely unexplored and unidentified in research and clinical practice. The goal of the present study was to explore qualitatively the reciprocal associations between schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and disordered gambling through content and functional analyses from the perspective of the affected individual. Eight participants who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and disordered gambling participated in a qualitative interview examining key antecedents associated with their gambling, as well as perceived functional consequences of gambling. Content analysis revealed unique patterns of responses specific to individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder that are not typically observed in individuals with disordered gambling alone. Specifically, gambling as filling a need for activity, and gambling as a means of connecting with society/world were the notable reasons for engaging in problematic gambling. Furthermore, some, but not all participants described a direct exacerbation of their psychosis by gambling and a greater involvement in gambling due to their symptoms of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Similarities and Differences between Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Problems vs. Alcohol and Substance Use Problems in Relation to the Progressive Model of Self-stigma

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    Belle Gavriel-Fried

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: People with gambling as well as substance use problems who are exposed to public stigmatization may internalize and apply it to themselves through a mechanism known as self-stigma. This study implemented the Progressive Model for Self-Stigma which consists four sequential interrelated stages: awareness, agreement, application and harm on three groups of individuals with gambling, alcohol and other substance use problems. It explored whether the two guiding assumptions of this model (each stage is precondition for the following stage which are trickle-down in nature, and correlations between proximal stages should be larger than correlations between more distant stages would differentiate people with gambling problems from those with alcohol and other substance use problems in terms of their patterns of self-stigma and in terms of the stages in the model.Method: 37 individuals with gambling problems, 60 with alcohol problems and 51 with drug problems who applied for treatment in rehabilitation centers in Israel in 2015–2016 were recruited. They completed the Self-stigma of Mental Illness Scale-Short Form which was adapted by changing the term “mental health” to gambling, alcohol or drugs, and the DSM-5-diagnostic criteria for gambling, alcohol or drug disorder.Results: The assumptions of the model were broadly confirmed: a repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that in all three groups there was a difference between first two stages (aware and agree and the latter stages (apply and harm. In addition, the gambling group differed from the drug use and alcohol groups on the awareness stage: individuals with gambling problems were less likely to be aware of stigma than people with substance use or alcohol problems.Conclusion: The internalization of stigma among individuals with gambling problems tends to work in a similar way as for those with alcohol or drug problems. The differences between the gambling group and the alcohol and other

  6. Examination of Chinese Gambling Problems through a Socio-Historical-Cultural Perspective

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    Samson Tse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to highlight emerging trends about Chinese people and gambling addiction over the last 15 years, and to provide a discourse on the potential link between gambling and Chinese culture and history. The authors reported on the phenomenon of gambling among Chinese people using relevant research studies and reports and traditional Chinese literature. Chinese people have elevated levels of gambling addiction compared to their Western counterparts. These elevated rates are coupled with the rapid expansion of gambling venues within the Pan-Pacific region. While there is an accumulated body of research on Chinese and gambling, a systematic cultural analysis of Chinese gambling is still under development. We undertook a brief comparison between two ancient civilizations, China and Rome, in order to gain better understanding about gambling among Chinese people. To effectively deal with gambling addictions among Chinese people, it is imperative to develop culturally responsive interventions.

  7. Problem Gambling Messages on College Counseling Center Websites: An Over-Time and Cross-Country Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Christopher J; Luo, Yi; Wright, Paul J; Kraus, Ashley

    2016-03-01

    Gambling problems remain more prevalent among college students than any other adult population. Among the different informational services available to students struggling with this issue, the convenience, anonymity, and accessibility of the college counseling center website (CCW) make this a particularly appealing resource. This updated assessment explored the nature and frequency of problem gambling messages on U.S. CCWs. and assessed whether differences existed between U.S. and U.K. sites. Results showed that problem gambling remains disproportionately underrepresented on U.S. CCWs compared to other mental health concerns. Furthermore, in only one instance-links to pamphlets-did findings indicate any over-time increase in website communications. Overall, problem gambling than U.S. CCWs, this was mostly limited to links to self-help groups and issue-specific websites. Given the substantial health, social, and financial consequences linked to problem gambling behaviors, universities must focus on incorporating more information about this issue on CCWs and pursue initiatives to promote this service.

  8. Differences in the Associations between Gambling Problem Severity and Psychiatric Disorders among Black and White Adults: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

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    Barry, Declan T.; Stefanovics, Elina A.; Desai, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2010-01-01

    We examined differences in the associations of gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among a nationally representative sample of 32,316 black and white adults. Black respondents were more likely than white ones to exhibit problem or pathological gambling and a stronger relationship between subsyndromal gambling and any mood disorder, hypomania, and any substance use disorder. Differences in the patterns of co-occurring disorders between syndromal and particularly subsyndromal le...

  9. Excessive Gambling and Online Gambling Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirola, Anu; Kaakinen, Markus; Oksanen, Atte

    2018-04-05

    The Internet provides an accessible context for online gambling and gambling-related online communities, such as discussion forums for gamblers. These communities may be particularly attractive to young gamblers who are active Internet users. The aim of this study was to examine the use of gambling-related online communities and their relevance to excessive gambling among 15-25-year-old Finnish Internet users (N = 1200). Excessive gambling was assessed by using the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Respondents were asked in a survey about their use of various kinds of gambling-related online communities, and sociodemographic and behavioral factors were adjusted. The results of the study revealed that over half (54.33%) of respondents who had visited gambling-related online communities were either at-risk gamblers or probable pathological gamblers. Discussion in these communities was mainly based on sharing gambling tips and experiences, and very few respondents said that they related to gambling problems and recovery. In three different regression models, visiting gambling-related online communities was a significant predictor for excessive gambling (with 95% confidence level) even after adjusting confounding factors. The association of visiting such sites was even stronger among probable pathological gamblers than among at-risk gamblers. Health professionals working with young people should be aware of the role of online communities in terms of development and persistence of excessive gambling. Monitoring the use of online gambling communities as well as utilizing recovery-oriented support both offline and online would be important in preventing further problems. Gambling platforms should also include warnings about excessive gambling and provide links to helpful sources.

  10. A Meta-analytical Synthesis and Examination of Pathological and Problem Gambling Rates and Associated Moderators Among College Students, 1987-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Donald E

    2017-10-20

    The problem of gambling addiction is especially noteworthy among college students, many of whom have the resources, proximity, free time, and desire to become involved in the myriad options of gambling now available. Although limited attention has been paid specifically to college student gambling in the body of literature, there have been three published meta-analyses estimating the prevalence of probable pathological gambling among college students. The research presented is the largest and most comprehensive, presenting an up-to-date proportion of those students worldwide exhibiting gambling pathology as assessed by the South Oaks Gambling Screen, and is the first to include estimates of sub-clinical problem gambling. A thorough literature review and coding procedure resulted in 124 independent data estimates retrieved from 72 studies conducted between 1987 and the present, surveying 41,989 university students worldwide. The estimated proportion of probable pathological gamblers among students was computed at 6.13%, while the rate of problem gambling was computed at 10.23%. Statistical significance was found in the influence of the percentage of non-white students on pathological gambling rates. The implications of this and other moderator analyses such as age and year of studies, as well as recommendations for future practice in dealing with college students and gambling disorder on campus are outlined and described in detail. Suggestions and rationales for future avenues of research in the area are also described.

  11. Increased ventral-striatal activity during monetary decision making is a marker of problem poker gambling severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier; He, Qinghua; Melrose, James A; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of different neural systems on monetary decision making in frequent poker gamblers, who vary in their degree of problem gambling. Fifteen frequent poker players, ranging from non-problem to high-problem gambling, and 15 non-gambler controls were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). During IGT deck selection, between-group fMRI analyses showed that frequent poker gamblers exhibited higher ventral-striatal but lower dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal activations as compared with controls. Moreover, using functional connectivity analyses, we observed higher ventral-striatal connectivity in poker players, and in regions involved in attentional/motor control (posterior cingulate), visual (occipital gyrus) and auditory (temporal gyrus) processing. In poker gamblers, scores of problem gambling severity were positively associated with ventral-striatal activations and with the connectivity between the ventral-striatum seed and the occipital fusiform gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus. Present results are consistent with findings from recent brain imaging studies showing that gambling disorder is associated with heightened motivational-reward processes during monetary decision making, which may hamper one's ability to moderate his level of monetary risk taking. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. The cost of virtual wins: An examination of gambling-related risks in youth who spend money on social casino games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Russell, Alex; Gainsbury, Sally; Delfabbro, Paul H; Hing, Nerilee

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims Social casino games (SCGs) are not technically considered a form of gambling but they do enable players to spend money in a game that is gambling themed or structurally approximate to gambling. It has been theorized that SCGs could be a gateway to gambling activities or otherwise normalize the experience of gambling for young people, particularly when money becomes involved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescents' financial expenditure in SCGs was associated with broader gambling activity, including level of participation, expenditure, and problem gambling symptoms. Methods An online survey was administered to 555 adolescents, including 130 SCG players (78 non-paying and 52 paying users). Results Paying SCG users tended to be employed males who play more frequently and engage in more SCG activities, who report more symptoms of problem gambling and higher psychological distress than non-paying SCG users. Paying SCG users reported more frequent engagement and spending in monetary gambling activities, and two-thirds of SCG payers recalled that their SCG use had preceded involvement in financial gambling. Discussion and conclusions Spending in simulated gambling activities by adolescents may be a risk factor for problem gambling. Although SCGs may currently defy classification as a form of gambling, these activities will likely continue to be scrutinized by regulators for the use of dubious or exploitative payment features offered in a gambling-themed format that is available to persons of all ages.

  13. Fantasy sports, real money: exploration of the relationship between fantasy sports participation and gambling-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Nelson, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    Participation in fantasy sports increases annually. Wagering on fantasy sports is a form of gambling and researchers have found that fantasy sports participants are more likely to engage in other forms of sports betting than non-fantasy players; however, no published studies have examined whether there is a relationship between fantasy sports participation and gambling-related problems. Our study examined whether fantasy sports participation is associated with gambling-related problems among college students. We assessed fantasy sports participation and endorsement of DSM-5 gambling disorder (GD) criteria among a large convenience sample (N=1556) of college students via an online health survey. We found that 11.5% of respondents participated in fantasy sports in the past year, the majority of which were males. Logistic regression analyses indicated that males who play fantasy sports for money and females who play fantasy sports (for money or not) were more likely to experience gambling-related problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Gambling and pathological gambling in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2008-01-01

    Gambling and pathological gambling are typically out of focus research area in Hungary. Besides the little evidence available in this field, it can be stated that both society and policy decision makers ignore the problems regarding this phenomenon. Gambling is rather considered to be a segment of the market than a behavior with possible harmful consequences or a mental and behavior disorder . The author reviews current knowledge on gambling and pathological gambling, including market data, research results and treatment options and highlights the most important steps which would be necessary in order to develop this research area.

  15. Differences in the associations between gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among black and white adults: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Stefanovics, Elina A; Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2011-01-01

    We examined differences in the associations of gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among a nationally representative sample of 32,316 black and white adults. Black respondents were more likely than white ones to exhibit problem or pathological gambling (PPG) and a stronger relationship between subsyndromal gambling and any mood disorder, hypomania, and any substance use disorder. Differences in the patterns of co-occurring disorders between syndromal and particularly subsyndromal levels of gambling in black and white respondents indicate the importance of considering race-related factors in mental health prevention and treatment strategies.  American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  16. Gambling Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Gambling Addiction KidsHealth / For Teens / Gambling Addiction What's in ... So what's the story with gambling? What Is Gambling? Gambling means taking part in any activity or ...

  17. All Mixed up Together: Women's Experiences of Problem Gambling, Comorbidity and Co-Occurring Complex Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Louise; Nuske, Elaine; Breen, Helen

    2013-01-01

    While there has been minimal recent gendered gambling research conducted in Australia and elsewhere, there is some evidence to suggest that gender differences do exist in various ways including gambling motivations such as gambling used as a coping strategy to alleviate or "escape" from stress and anxiety, help-seeking and prevalence of…

  18. Interactions among attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and problem gambling in a probabilistic reward-learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzari, Mehdi; Oberg, Scott; Gruber, Aaron; Tata, Matthew

    2015-09-15

    Problem gambling is thought to be highly comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We propose that the neurobiological pathologies underlying problem gambling overlap with those in ADHD. In this study, we used a simplified computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess differences in reinforcement-driven choice adaptation among participants with pathological gambling and/or ADHD. The task contained two choice options with different net payouts over the session; a good bet that resulted in a win of +50 points on 60% of trials (and -50 points on 40%), and a bad bet that resulted in +100 points on 40% of the trials (and -100 points on 60%). We quantified participants' preference for the good bet over the session and their sensitivity to reinforcement. Both the control subjects and medicated ADHD nongamblers significantly increased the proportion of good bets over the 400-trial session. Subjects with problem gambling performed worse than controls and ADHD nongamblers, but better than our limited sample of unmedicated ADHD gamblers. Control subjects, medicated ADHD nongamblers, and unmedicated ADHD nongamblers tended to tolerate losses following good bets, whereas unmedicated ADHD gamblers tended to tolerate losses following bad bets. These data reveal that ADHD, particularly when treated with medication, is not associated with poor choices on the IGT, but may exacerbate pathological choices in problem gamblers. It seems that stabilization of dopamine signaling that occurs when ADHD is treated is itself also a treatment for certain forms of problem gambling. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pathological gambling: A comparison of gambling at German-style slot machines and "Classical" gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, T

    1995-09-01

    German-style slot machines and related legal issues are described. On the basis of a survey on 437 members of self-help groups (Gamblers Anonymous) in Germany, slot machine gamblers were compared with casino gamblers on such variables as sociodemographic data, gambling behaviour, financial expenditure, emotional experience while gambling, symptoms of pathological gambling, psychosocial consequences and gambling related delinquency. The casino gamblers' gambling behaviour is financially more extensive. There were similarities regarding the emotional intensity of the gambling experience. However the casino gamblers show more pronounced symptoms of pathological gambling and the psychosocial consequences of their gambling behaviour are more severe. In spite of these differences, the data show that for young people slot machines can be as stimulating and therefore as dangerous as casino gambling. The young slot machine gambler runs a similar risk of acquiring a pathological gambling habit as the casino gambler.

  20. Disordered gambling and co-morbidity of psychiatric disorders among college students: an examination of problem drinking, anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the occurrence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., problem drinking, anxiety, and depression) among college students who met the threshold for disordered gambling. The participants included a large sample of undergraduate students (n = 1,430) who were enrolled in an introductory health course at a large, southeastern university in Spring 2011 and completed an online assessment that included scales to assess disordered gambling, problem drinking, anxiety, and depression. We calculated screening scores, computed prevalence rates for each disorder, and calculated Pearson correlations and Chi square tests to examine correlations and co-morbid relationships between the four disorders. Analyses indicated that all disorders were significantly associated (p college students who experience disordered gambling (and other psychiatric disorders) are at increased risk of experiencing co-occurring disorders, it might be useful for college health professionals to concurrently screen and intervene for co-occurring disorders.

  1. Problem Gambling Among Australian Male Prisoners: Lifetime Prevalence, Help-Seeking, and Association With Incarceration and Aboriginality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Ben J; Larsen, Amii; Battersby, Malcolm; Harvey, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Prisoners represent a group containing the highest problem gambling (PG) rate found in any population. PG is of particular concern among Indigenous Australians. Little data exist concerning PG rates among Indigenous Australian prisoners. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by examining the lifetime prevalence of PG among male prisoners, whilst identifying prisoners of Aboriginal background. The EIGHT Gambling Screen (Early Intervention Gambling Health Test) was administered to 296 prisoners across three male prisons in South Australia. Previous help-seeking behaviour and forms of gambling were also examined. Sixty percent of prisoners indicated a lifetime prevalence of PG with 18% reporting they were incarcerated due to offending relating to their gambling problem. Indigenous Australian prisoners indicated a significantly higher prevalence of PG (75%) than non-Indigenous prisoners (57%) and reported less than half the rate of help-seeking. Given the high levels of PG and overall low rates of help-seeking among prisoners, prisons may provide an important opportunity to engage this high-risk population with effective treatment programs, in particular culturally appropriate targeted interventions for Australian Indigenous prisoners.

  2. The Incidence of Problem Gambling in a Representative Cohort of Swedish Female and Male 16-24 Year-Olds by Socio-demographic Characteristics, in Comparison with 25-44 Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröberg, Frida; Rosendahl, Ingvar K; Abbott, Max; Romild, Ulla; Tengström, Anders; Hallqvist, Johan

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to estimate the incidence of a first episode of problem gambling among Swedish 16-24 year-olds by demographic and socio-economic characteristics, and to compare the incidence between 16-24 and 25-44 year-olds, and between young women and men. Other aims were to estimate the proportions of recovery and incidence in recurrent problem gambling, and prevalence of problem gambling among 16-44 year-olds in Sweden. We selected 4,358 participants aged 16-44 from the nationally representative Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study in 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The primary outcome measure was a first episode of problem gambling during 12 months before the follow-up as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index among participants without a history of problem gambling at baseline. The incidence proportion of a first episode of problem gambling among 16-24 year-olds was 2.26% (95% confidence interval 1.52-3.36); three times lower among females (1.14; 0.42-3.07%) than males (3.32; 2.19-5.01%). Young age and household financial problems were associated with first episode problem gambling among young women. Among 25-44 year-olds, the incidence proportion of a first episode of problem gambling was 0.81% (0.41-1.56). Recovery from problem gambling was high, in particular among females. Individual transitions from problem gambling to recovery and to recurrent problem gambling, between baseline and follow-up, were common regardless of age. This study adds further evidence to research suggesting that there is a high mobility in and out of problem gambling over time on an individual level. The high incidence of first episode problem gambling among youth in Sweden stresses the importance of prevention of problem gambling at an early age.

  3. Gender differences in the prospective association between maternal alcohol consumption trajectories and young adult offspring’s problem gambling at 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam T. Tran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although a large number of studies have examined the association between young adult’s alcohol consumption and their problem gambling behaviours, none of these studies address the prospective association between mother’s alcohol consumption and their young adult offspring’s problem gambling behaviours. Using data from a 30 year prospective pre-birth cohort study in Brisbane, Australia (n = 1691, our study examines whether different maternal alcohol consumption trajectories predict offspring’s risk of problem gambling behaviours and whether these associations differ by the young adults’ gender. Offspring’s level of problem gambling behaviours was assessed by the short version of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, with about 10.6 % of young adults having some risk of problem gambling behaviours. Trajectories of maternal alcohol consumption were determined by group-based trajectory modelling over five time points. Our study found that mother’s alcohol consumption pattern fits into three drinking trajectory groups, namely abstainers (17.2 %, a low-stable drinkers group (64.6 % and a moderate-escalating drinkers group (18.2 %. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the moderate-escalating alcohol trajectory group is independently associated with a risk of their male young adult offspring having problem gambling behaviours at 30 years—even after adjustment for a range of potential confounding variables. Mothers who exhibit a persistent life course pattern of moderate-escalating drinking have male children who have a high risk of engaging in problem gambling behaviours. Offspring’s alcohol consumption partially mediated the association between maternal drinking trajectories and young adult’s risk of problem behaviours. High levels of maternal alcohol consumption may lead to male offspring antisocial behaviours. Programs intended to address problem gambling behaviours by young adults may need to

  4. Practical Treatments Considering the Role of Sociocultural Factors on Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Kevin; Baghurst, Timothy; Faragher, J Michael; Stotts, Erin

    2017-03-01

    Reviews of problem gambling (PG) literature increasingly recognize the ways in which different ethnic groups are affected by gambling behaviors, yet discourse, which considers sociocultural factors within PG, remains limited. Literature on this topic is influenced by large inconsistencies amongst research studies, overlapping terminology, and variability in the validity of research studies, making conclusions difficult to draw. Despite these discrepancies, this paper explores how sociocultural factors influence PG among diverse cultural groups and provides specific practical implications for treating PG disorders in culturally diverse populations. Notable factors that exacerbate PG behavior cross-culturally include substance abuse, low socioeconomic status, lack of social activities, and geographic location. Culturally sensitive treatment options such as Motivational Interviewing and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy have been identified as effective treatments for PG with culturally diverse populations. This paper extends current thought by providing practical treatment recommendations that consider the subtle nuances of diverse populations. It explains how treatment providers and behavioral addiction professionals can increase their understanding and skills when conceptualizing PG clients from a diverse background.

  5. Disordered Gambling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Pathological gambling is an increasing concern with the growth of legalized gambling opportunities, and clinicians who provide general psychotherapy, as well as those specializing in some disorders, are likely to encounter patients with gambling problems. This review article describes the diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling and screening…

  6. Internet Gambling in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to overview the issues, concerns and challenges relating to gambling--and more specifically internet gambling--in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Using psychological literature, this paper outlines a number of important and inter-related areas including brief overviews of gambling and problem gambling,…

  7. Problem gamblers are hyposensitive to wins: an analysis of skin conductance responses during actual gambling on electronic gaming machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lole, Lisa; Gonsalvez, Craig J; Barry, Robert J; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2014-06-01

    Physiological arousal is purportedly a key determinant in the development and maintenance of gambling behaviors, with problem gambling conceptualized in terms of abnormal autonomic responses. Theoretical conceptualizations of problem gambling are discordant regarding the nature of deficit in this disorder; some accounts posit that problem gamblers are hypersensitive to reward, and others that they are hyposensitive to reward and/or punishment. Previous research examining phasic electrodermal responses in gamblers has been limited to laboratory settings, and reactions to real gaming situations need to be examined. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) to losses, wins, and losses disguised as wins (LDWs) were recorded from 15 problem gamblers (PGs) and 15 nonproblem gamblers (NPGs) while they wagered their own money during electronic gaming machine play. PGs demonstrated significantly reduced SCRs to reward. SCRs to losses and LDWs did not differ for either PGs or NPGs. This hyposensitivity to wins may reflect abnormalities in incentive processing, and may represent a potential biological marker for problem gambling. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Cognitive-behavior therapy for problem gambling: a critique of current treatments and proposed new unified approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolchard, Barry

    2017-06-01

    There is evidence supporting the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of problem gambling. Despite this, little is known about how CBT works and which particular approach is most effective. This paper aims to synthesize the evidence for current CBT and propose a more unified approach to treatment. A literature review and narrative synthesis of the current research evidence of CBT for the treatment of problem gambling was conducted, focusing on the underlying mechanisms within the treatment approach. Several CBT approaches were critiqued. These can be divided into forms of exposure therapy (including aversion techniques, systematic desensitization and other behavioral experiments) those focusing on cognitive restructuring techniques (such as reinforcement of nongambling activity, use of diaries, motivational enhancement and audio-playback techniques and third wave techniques including mindfulness. Findings, in relation to the treatment actions, from this synthesis are reported. The debate surrounding the treatment of problem gambling has been conducted as an either/or rather than a both/and discourse. This paper proposes a new, unified approach to the treatment of problem gambling that incorporates the best elements of both exposure and cognitive restructuring techniques, alongside the use of techniques borrowed from mindfulness and other CBT approaches.

  9. Early risk and protective factors for problem gambling: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Merkouris, S S; Greenwood, C J; Oldenhof, E; Toumbourou, J W; Youssef, G J

    2017-02-01

    This systematic review aimed to identify early risk and protective factors (in childhood, adolescence or young adulthood) longitudinally associated with the subsequent development of gambling problems. A systematic search of peer-reviewed and grey literature from 1990 to 2015 identified 15 studies published in 23 articles. Meta-analyses quantified the effect size of 13 individual risk factors (alcohol use frequency, antisocial behaviours, depression, male gender, cannabis use, illicit drug use, impulsivity, number of gambling activities, problem gambling severity, sensation seeking, tobacco use, violence, undercontrolled temperament), one relationship risk factor (peer antisocial behaviours), one community risk factor (poor academic performance), one individual protective factor (socio-economic status) and two relationship protective factors (parent supervision, social problems). Effect sizes were on average small to medium and sensitivity analyses revealed that the results were generally robust to the quality of methodological approaches of the included articles. These findings highlight the need for global prevention efforts that reduce risk factors and screen young people with high-risk profiles. There is insufficient investigation of protective factors to adequately guide prevention initiatives. Future longitudinal research is required to identify additional risk and protective factors associated with problem gambling, particularly within the relationship, community, and societal levels of the socio-ecological model. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Harm Reduction for the Prevention of Youth Gambling Problems: Lessons Learned From Adolescent High-Risk Behavior Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Laurie M.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2004-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of the harm reduction approach in the field of adolescent alcohol and substance abuse, a harm reduction approach to prevention and treatment of youth problem gambling remains largely unexplored. This article poses the question of whether the harm reduction paradigm is a promising approach to the prevention of…

  11. Negative Mood States or Dysfunctional Cognitions: Their Independent and Interactional Effects in Influencing Severity of Gambling Among Chinese Problem Gamblers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Zhuang, Xiao Yu; Jackson, Alun; Dowling, Nicki; Lo, Herman Hay Ming

    2017-09-04

    Gambling-related cognitions and negative psychological states have been proposed as major factors in the initiation and maintenance of problem gambling (PG). While there are a substantial number of studies supporting the role of cognitive dysfunctions in the initiation and maintenance of PG, very few empirical studies have explored the specific role of negative psychological states in influencing PG behaviours. In addition, very few studies have examined the interaction effects of cognitive dysfunctions and negative psychological states in exerting influence on PG behaviours. Therefore, the present study aims to examine the main and interaction effects of gambling-related cognitions and psychological states on the gambling severity among a group of problem gamblers in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional research design was adopted. A purposive sample of 177 problem gamblers who sought treatment from a social service organization in Hong Kong completed a battery of standardised questionnaires. While gambling-related cognitions were found to exert significant effects on gambling severity, negative psychological states (i.e. stress) significantly moderated the relationship between gambling cognitions and gambling severity. In essence, those participants who reported a higher level of stress had more stable and serious gambling problems than those who reported a lower level of stress irrespective of the level of gambling-related cognitions. The findings of the moderating role of negative emotions in the relationship between cognitive distortions and severity of gambling provide insight towards developing an integrated intervention model which includes both cognitive-behavioural and emotion regulation strategies in helping people with PG.

  12. Gambling addiction in primary care: a survey of general practitioners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    and fruit/slot machines (14%). However, 0.9% of those, gamble problematically – i.e. problem gambling, defined as gambling that disrupts or damages personal, family or recreational pursuits2. A further 7.3% of those who gamble are 'at risk' of developing problem gambling in the future. Gambling addiction, long shrouded ...

  13. Identifying at-risk profiles and protective factors for problem gambling: A longitudinal study across adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allami, Youssef; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Carbonneau, René; Tremblay, Richard E

    2018-03-19

    Past studies have identified various risk and protective factors for problem gambling (PG). However, no study has examined the interplay between these factors using a combination of person-centered and variable-centered approaches embedded within a longitudinal design. The present study aimed to (a) identify distinct profiles in early adolescence based on a set of risk factors commonly associated with PG (impulsivity, depression, anxiety, drug-alcohol use, aggressiveness, and antisociality), (b) explore the difference in reported gambling problems between these profiles during midadolescence and early adulthood, and (c) identify family- and peer-related variables that could operate as protective or compensatory factors in this context. Two samples were used: (a) a population sample (N = 1,033) living in low socioeconomic-status neighborhoods and (b) a population sample (N = 3,017) representative of students attending Quebec schools. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify at-risk profiles based on individual risk factors measured at age 12 years. Negative binomial regression models were estimated to compare profiles in terms of their reported gambling problems at ages 16 and 23. Finally, family- and peer-related variables measured at age 14 were included to test their protective or compensatory role with respect to the link between at-risk profiles and gambling problems. Four profiles were identified: well-adjusted, internalizing, externalizing, and comorbid. Compared to the well-adjusted profile, the externalizing and comorbid profiles reported more gambling problems at ages 16 and 23, but the internalizing profile did not differ significantly. Various protective and compensatory factors emerged for each profile at both time points. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. [Neurobiology of pathological gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasinen, Valtteri; Halme, Jukka; Alho, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    Approximately one third of problem gamblers in Finland suffer from pathological gambling. An essential factor affecting the genesis of pathological gambling is a dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system. It may be associated with the pleasure arising from gambling along with the reward and expectance of reward. In Parkinsons's disease patients receiving dopaminergic medication, pathological gambling and disturbances of impulse control are more common than in the average population. Various psychosocial modes of treatment and medications have been developed for the treatment of pathological gambling, but based on current knowledge, none of them displays particular efficacy.

  15. The illusion of handy wins: Problem gambling, chasing, and affective decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Giovanna; Ciccarelli, Maria; Cosenza, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Chasing losses is a behavioral marker and a diagnostic criterion for gambling disorder. It consists in continuing gambling to recoup previous losses. Although chasing has been recognized playing a central role in gambling disorder, research on this topic is relatively scarce, and it remains unclear whether chasing affects decision-making in behavioral tasks in which participants gain or loss some money. Even if several studies found that the more the gambling involvement, the poorer the decision-making, to date no research investigated the role of chasing in decision-making. The study aimed to first investigate the relation between chasing and decision-making in adult gamblers. One hundred and four VLT players were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), a computerized task measuring chasing, and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Correlation analysis showed that the higher the SOGS scores, the higher the propensity to chase, and the poorer the decision-making performance. Regression analysis revealed that chasing propensity and gambling severity predicted IGT performance. Mediation analysis indicated that the association between gambling severity and poor decision-making is mediated by chasing. Gambling severity was assessed by means of a self-report measure. The generalizability of findings is limited, since the study focused only on VLT players. This study provides the first evidence that chasing, along with gambling severity, affects decision-making, at least in behavioral tasks involving money. Since chasers and non-chasers could be two different sub-types of gamblers, treatment protocols should take into account the additive role of chasing in gambling disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Problem Gambling Associated with Violent and Criminal Behaviour: A Danish Population-Based Survey and Register Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Plauborg, Rikke; Ekholm, Ola; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Juel, Knud

    2016-03-01

    This study compares the number of criminal charges among problem gamblers (N = 384) and non-problem gamblers including non-gamblers (N = 18,241) and examines whether problem gambling is more strongly associated with income-generating crimes like theft, fraud and forgery than other types of crimes such as violent crimes. A cohort study was carried out, based on data from the Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010, which were linked at the individual level with data from The Danish National Criminal Register. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between problem gambling and charges for different categories of crime. We found that problem gamblers had significantly higher odds of being charged than non-problem gamblers (adjusted odds ratio 1.5; 95 % confidence interval 1.1-1.9). The odds ratio for economic crime charges was 2.6 (1.5-4.5), for violence charges 2.2 (1.1-4.5), and for drug charges 3.7 (1.7-8.0). For road traffic charges the odds ratio was 1.3 (1.0-1.8). Hence, there was a strong association between problem gambling and being charged except for road traffic charges; however the association was not stronger for economic charges than for violence and drug charges.

  17. Racial-ethnic Related Clinical and Neurocognitive Differences in Adults with Gambling Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Leppink, Eric; Redden, Sarah A.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Grant, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggest that the lifetime prevalence of gambling problems differs depending on race-ethnicity. Understanding variations in disease presentation in blacks and whites, and relationships with biological and sociocultural factors, may have implications for selecting appropriate prevention strategies. 62 non-treatment seeking volunteers (18-29 years, n=18 [29.0%] female) with gambling disorder were recruited from the general community. Black (n=36) and White (n=26) participants were compared on demographic, clinical and cognitive measures. Young black adults with gambling disorder reported more symptoms of gambling disorder and greater scores on a measure of compulsivity. In addition they exhibited significantly higher total errors on a set-shifting task, less risk adjustment on a gambling task, greater delay aversion on a gambling task, and more total errors on a working memory task. These findings suggest that the clinical and neurocognitive presentation of gambling disorder different between racial-ethnic groups. PMID:27262266

  18. Effectiveness of problem gambling interventions in a service setting: a protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M; Bellringer, M; Vandal, A C; Hodgins, D C; Battersby, M; Rodda, S N

    2017-03-02

    The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the relative effectiveness of 2 of the best developed and most promising forms of therapy for problem gambling, namely face-to-face motivational interviewing (MI) combined with a self-instruction booklet (W) and follow-up telephone booster sessions (B; MI+W+B) and face-to-face cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). This project is a single-blind pragmatic randomised clinical trial of 2 interventions, with and without the addition of relapse-prevention text messages. Trial assessments take place pretreatment, at 3 and 12 months. A total of 300 participants will be recruited through a community treatment agency that provides services across New Zealand and randomised to up to 10 face-to-face sessions of CBT or 1 face-to-face session of MI+W+up to 5 B. Participants will also be randomised to 9 months of postcare text messaging. Eligibility criteria include a self-perception of having a current gambling problem and a willingness to participate in all components of the study (eg, read workbook). The statistical analysis will use an intent-to-treat approach. Primary outcome measures are days spent gambling and amount of money spent per day gambling in the prior month. Secondary outcome measures include problem gambling severity, gambling urges, gambling cognitions, mood, alcohol, drug use, tobacco, psychological distress, quality of life, health status and direct and indirect costs associated with treatment. The research methods to be used in this study have been approved by the Ministry of Health, Health and Disability Ethics Committees (HDEC) 15/CEN/99. The investigators will provide annual reports to the HDEC and report any adverse events to this committee. Amendments will also be submitted to this committee. The results of this trial will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and as a report to the funding body. Additionally, the results will be presented at national and international conferences

  19. [Pathologic gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespor, K

    1996-01-31

    The author presents a review on pathological gambling. Similarly as in other addictive diseases, early therapeutic intervention is important. The latter may include: 1: Evaluation of the problem 2. Recommendation that the subject should avoid places where the gambling is pursued. He should not have larger financial sums on him. 3. Recommendations pertaining to lifestyle and prevention of excessive stress. 4. Handling of printed material (the author mentions the text issued to his patients). In the paper therapeutic procedures are described, incl. the author's experience such as the foundation of the group of Gamblers anonymous. Prevention is also considered. It is important that gambling should be less readily available and the demand for it should be smaller.

  20. Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy for concerned significant others of people with problem gambling: study protocol for a randomised wait-list controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Kristoffer; Nilsson, Anders; Hellner Gumpert, Clara; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2015-12-09

    About 2.3% of the adult population in Sweden are considered to suffer from problem gambling, and it is estimated that only 5% of those seek treatment. Problem gambling can have devastating effects on the economy, health and relationship, both for the individual who gambles and their concerned significant other (CSO). No empirically supported treatment exists for the CSOs of people with problem gambling. Consequently, the aim of this study is to develop and evaluate a programme aimed at CSOs of treatment-refusing problem gamblers. The programme will be based on principles from cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing. To benefit as many CSOs as possible, the programme will be delivered via the internet with therapist support via encrypted email and short weekly conversations via telephone. This will be a randomised wait-list controlled internet-delivered treatment trial. A CBT programme for the CSOs of people with problem gambling will be developed and evaluated. The participants will work through nine modules over 10 weeks in a secure online environment, and receive support via secure emails and over the telephone. A total of 150 CSOs over 18 years of age will be included. Measures will be taken at baseline and at 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes concern gambling-related harm. Secondary outcomes include the treatment entry of the individual who gambles, the CSO's levels of depression, anxiety, as well as relationship satisfaction and quality of life. The protocol has been approved by the regional ethics board of Stockholm, Sweden. This study will add to the body of knowledge on how to protect CSOs from gambling-related harm, and how to motivate treatment-refusing individuals to seek professional help for problem gambling. NCT02250586. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Gender differences in the relationship between gambling problems and the incidence of substance-use disorders in a nationally representative population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilver, Corey E; Libby, Daniel J; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-11-01

    Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated gender-related differences in the associations between problem-gambling severity and substance-use disorders; however, these associations have not been examined longitudinally. We aimed to examine the prospective associations between problem-gambling severity and incident substance-use disorders in women versus men. Analyses were conducted using Wave-1 and Wave-2 NESARC data focusing on psychiatric diagnoses from 34,006 non-institutionalized US adults. Inclusionary criteria for pathological gambling were used to categorize Wave-1 participants as at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG) and non-ARPG (i.e. non-gambling/low-frequency gambling/low-risk gambling). Dependent variables included the three-year incidence of any substance-use disorder, alcohol-use disorders, nicotine dependence, drug-use disorders, prescription drug-use disorders, and illicit drug-use disorders. Significant gender-by-ARPG status interactions were observed with respect to the three-year incidence of nicotine dependence and prescription drug-use disorders, and approached significance with respect to incident alcohol-use disorders. ARPG (relative to non-ARPG) was positively associated with nicotine dependence among women (OR=2.00; 95% CI=1.24-3.00). ARPG was negatively associated with incident prescription drug-use disorders among men (OR=0.30; 95% CI=0.10-0.88)). Finally, ARPG was positively associated with incident alcohol-use disorders among men (OR=2.20; 95% CI=1.39-3.48). Gambling problems were associated with an increased 3-year incidence of nicotine dependence in women and alcohol dependence in men. These findings highlight the importance of considering gender in prevention and treatment initiatives for adults who are experiencing gambling problems. Moreover, the specific factors underlying the differential progressions of specific substance-use disorders in women and men with ARPG warrant identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  2. Health problems and medical utilization associated with gambling disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasco, Benjamin J; Pietrzak, Robert H; Blanco, Carlos; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah; Petry, Nancy M

    2006-01-01

    Pathologic gambling is believed to be associated with adverse health consequences, but no prior studies have rigorously evaluated these relationships. We sought to examine medical disorders and health service utilization associated with problem and pathologic gambling. A total of 43,093 adults aged 18 years and older were evaluated in the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Self-reported medical diagnoses and past-year medical services used were assessed. Pathologic gamblers were more likely than low-risk individuals to have been diagnosed with tachycardia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-2.97), angina (OR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.33-4.15), cirrhosis (OR = 3.90; 95% CI = 1.11-13.72), and other liver disease (OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.07-8.26). Gambling severity was also associated with higher rates of medical utilization with pathologic gamblers more likely than low-risk individuals to have been treated in the emergency room in the year before the survey (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.27-3.09). Significant effects of gambling severity remained even after controlling for demographic characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, income, and region of the country) and behavioral risk factors such as body mass index, alcohol abuse and dependence, nicotine dependence, and mood and anxiety disorders. A lifetime diagnosis of pathologic gambling is associated with several medical disorders and increased medical utilization, perhaps leading to a burden on healthcare costs in the United States.

  3. Health Outcomes in Individuals with Problem and Pathological Gambling: An Analysis of the 2014 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Survey System (BRFSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Patten, Ryan; Weinstock, Jeremiah; McGrath, Andrew B

    2018-03-01

    Problem and pathological gambling refers to subclinical and clinical levels of maladaptive gambling, respectively, and is associated with specific sociodemographic characteristics as well as a number of poor health outcomes. We examined such demographic, physical health, mental health, and health-related behaviors in a sample of 7045 low-risk gamblers and 244 problem/pathological gamblers. Participants completed the 2014 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System telephone survey. Using the National Opinion Research Center's Diagnostic Screen for Gambling Disorders-CLiP, participants were categorized as either "problem/pathological gamblers" or "low-risk gamblers." Problem/pathological gamblers were younger, more likely to be male, of ethnic minority status, unmarried, and of lower education than low-risk gamblers. No physical health variables differentiated the groups but problem/pathological gamblers reported experiencing significantly more adverse childhood experiences and engaging in significantly more tobacco and alcohol use compared to low-risk gamblers. Moreover, gender moderated relationships between gambling group and several of the alcohol use variables such that male problem/pathological gamblers exhibited greater alcohol use behavior than male low-risk gamblers but no such relationship was present in females. Overall, this study expands the current knowledgebase on disordered gambling and highlights the need to assess disordered gambling in public health samples. Clinical implications are discussed.

  4. Profiling Metacognition in Gambling Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Giustina, Lucia; Rolandi, Silvia; Fernie, Bruce A; Caselli, Gabriele

    2015-09-01

    Preliminary research has indicated that general facets of metacognition are associated with problem gambling. In the present study we aimed to investigate whether specific facets of metacognition play a role in explaining gambling initiation and perseveration in individuals presenting with gambling disorder. To investigate: (1) the presence of metacognitive beliefs about gambling; (2) the goal of gambling, and its start and stop signals; and (3) the perceived impact of gambling on self-consciousness. Ten individuals with a diagnosis of gambling disorder were assessed using metacognitive profiling, a semi-structured interview. Findings indicated that all participants endorsed both positive and negative metacognitive beliefs about gambling. The primary goal of gambling was to relieve economic hardship and improve cognitive-emotional state. All participants reported that they did not know when this goal was achieved. Start signals for gambling included the ideas and feelings that gambling could solve problems and sensations that it might be the right time to win. The stop signal for gambling, for all participants, was running out of money. All participants also reported a perceived reduction in self-consciousness during a gambling episode. These findings provide preliminary evidence that specific facets of metacognition play a role in gambling disorder.

  5. A focus group study of predictors of relapse in electronic gaming machine problem gambling, part 2: factors that 'pull' the gambler away from relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, J; Pols, R; Battersby, M; Lawn, S; Pulvirenti, M; Smith, D

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to develop an empirically based description of relapse in Electronic Gaming Machine (EGM) problem gambling (PG) by describing the processes and factors that 'pull' the problem gambler away from relapse contrasted with the 'push' towards relapse. These conceptualisations describe two opposing, interacting emotional processes occurring within the problem gambler during any relapse episode. Each relapse episode comprises a complex set of psychological and social behaviours where many factors interact sequentially and simultaneously within the problem gambler to produce a series of mental and behaviour events that end (1) with relapse where 'push' overcomes 'pull' or (2) continued abstinence where 'pull' overcomes 'push'. Four focus groups comprising thirty participants who were EGM problem gamblers, gamblers' significant others, therapists and counsellors described their experiences and understanding of relapse. The groups were recorded, recordings were then transcribed and analysed using thematic textual analysis. It was established that vigilance, motivation to commit to change, positive social support, cognitive strategies such as remembering past gambling harms or distraction techniques to avoid thinking about gambling to enable gamblers to manage the urge to gamble and urge extinction were key factors that protected against relapse. Three complementary theories emerged from the analysis. Firstly, a process of reappraisal of personal gambling behaviour pulls the gambler away from relapse. This results in a commitment to change that develops over time and affects but is independent of each episode of relapse. Secondly, relapse may be halted by interacting factors that 'pull' the problem gambler away from the sequence of mental and behavioural events, which follow the triggering of the urge and cognitions to gamble. Thirdly, urge extinction and apparent 'cure' is possible for EGM gambling. This study provides a qualitative, empirical model for

  6. Who Are the Subjects with Gambling-Related Problems Requiring Treatment? A Study in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioritti, Angelo; Marani, Silvia; Gambini, Daniele; Turino, Elsa; Piazza, Antonella

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study analyzes data related to Hospital (HOS), Public Treatment Service Dedicated to Drug Addicts (SERD), or Community Mental Health Center (CMHC) clients with a first diagnosis of Pathological Gambling (PG) in the period 2000/2016 in Northern Italy. The aims were to describe trends and characteristics of pathological gamblers (PGs) and to estimate the prevalence of other diagnoses before or after the diagnosis of PG. Methods: Participants aged over 17 years with an ICD-9 or ICD-10 PG diagnosis were selected. Results: 680 PGs were identified, mean age 47.4 years, 20% female, 13% non-natives, 30% had other mental disorders diagnoses, 9% had alcohol dependence syndrome, and 11% had drug dependence. Most participants with comorbid disorders were diagnosed before PG, with a more elevated prevalence regarding mental disorders. Almost seven years had elapsed on average between the first admission and the diagnosis of PG. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight a growing demand for PG treatment addressed not only to SERD, but also to psychiatric and hospital services, based on the increase in SERD attendance from 2013. Many of them had already been treated for mental health problems before, but their percentage remained costant over time. PMID:29652821

  7. Who Are the Subjects with Gambling-Related Problems Requiring Treatment? A Study in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimondo Maria Pavarin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study analyzes data related to Hospital (HOS, Public Treatment Service Dedicated to Drug Addicts (SERD, or Community Mental Health Center (CMHC clients with a first diagnosis of Pathological Gambling (PG in the period 2000/2016 in Northern Italy. The aims were to describe trends and characteristics of pathological gamblers (PGs and to estimate the prevalence of other diagnoses before or after the diagnosis of PG. Methods: Participants aged over 17 years with an ICD-9 or ICD-10 PG diagnosis were selected. Results: 680 PGs were identified, mean age 47.4 years, 20% female, 13% non-natives, 30% had other mental disorders diagnoses, 9% had alcohol dependence syndrome, and 11% had drug dependence. Most participants with comorbid disorders were diagnosed before PG, with a more elevated prevalence regarding mental disorders. Almost seven years had elapsed on average between the first admission and the diagnosis of PG. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight a growing demand for PG treatment addressed not only to SERD, but also to psychiatric and hospital services, based on the increase in SERD attendance from 2013. Many of them had already been treated for mental health problems before, but their percentage remained costant over time.

  8. Using Roadside Billboard Posters to Increase Admission Rates to Problem Gambling Services: Reflections on Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Kimberly A; Wellington, William J

    2015-07-01

    Based on the stimulus-response model of advertising, this study sought to increase admission rates to a local problem gambling service (PGS) in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, by adding a series of locally based 10 foot by 20 foot roadside billboard posters to PGS's existing communications tools for a 24-week period. Using proof of performance reports, a pre-post survey of new callers to PGS, a website visit counter, and a media awareness survey, the findings showed that at least some individuals were influenced by billboard exposure, but admission rates continued to decline during the billboard campaign period. While one possible explanation for the communications failure was that the whole PGS communications campaign was below the minimal threshold for communications perception, another possible explanation is that the stimulus-response model of advertising used may not have been appropriate for such advertising that targets behavior change. Reflections on using an information-processing model instead of a stimulus-response model, and considerations of a two-step flow of communication, are provided. Recommendations are made regarding matching communications messages to stages of behavior change, use of online promotion, and strategies for future research. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  9. The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Linnet, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    and willingness to continue gambling. The results may have important implications for understanding how to reduce gambling behavior in pathological gamblers.   [1] Griffiths, M. 1999. Gambling Technologies: Prospects for Problem Gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, vol. 15(3), pp. 265-283.    ......  The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine - Preliminary results Mette Buhl Callesen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Jakob Linnet and Arne Møller The PET Centre, Aarhus University Hospital and Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus, Denmark   Slot machines are among the most addictive forms...... of gambling due to their specific structural characteristics. These include a high event frequency (number of games per minute), a high frequency of small wins and near misses, and auditory as well as visual feedback that reinforce extended gambling behavior [1].   This study focused on gambling behavior...

  10. A hierarchy of gambling disorders in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toce-Gerstein, Marianna; Gerstein, Dean R; Volberg, Rachel A

    2003-12-01

    To help refine the definition and diagnosis of gambling disorders, we investigated the distribution among US gamblers of the 10 DSM-IV criteria for Pathological Gambling. We drew data from two stratified random surveys (n = 2417, n= 530) of gambling behavior and consequences among community-based samples of US adults. A fully structured questionnaire, administered by trained lay interviewers, screened for the life-time prevalence of problem and Pathological Gambling. Per DSM-IV definitions, anyone meeting five or more of 10 itemized criteria was considered a pathological gambler. We analyzed these criteria among all gamblers who met one or more criteria (n = 399). Most gamblers who met only one or two criteria reported 'chasing their losses'. At subclinical levels (three to four criteria), gamblers also reported elevated rates of gambling-related fantasy: lying, gambling to escape and preoccupation. Pathological gamblers with five to seven criteria reported marked elevations of loss of control, withdrawal symptoms and tolerance (internalizing dimensions of dependence); risking their social relationships and needing to be bailed out financially (externalizing dimensions). Most of the highest-level pathological gamblers (eight to 10 criteria) reported committing illegal acts to support gambling. Dependence in a biobehavioral sense appears to be a hallmark of Pathological Gambling, but it marks only one threshold in a qualitative hierarchy of disorders beginning with a common subclinical behavior, 'chasing'. Epidemiological assessments and future DSM revisions might consider explicit recognition of a problem gambling disorder, identifying people presenting some cognitive symptoms of Pathological Gambling but not clear signs of dependence. Pathological gamblers in turn appear to have two distinct levels of severity.

  11. Factors associated with pathological gambling at 10-year follow-up in a national sample of middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Slutske, Wendy S; Xian, Hong; Waterman, Brian; Shah, Kamini R; Volberg, Rachel; Eisen, Seth A

    2007-06-01

    The present analyses will expand on previous reports by considering the impact of eight psychiatric disorders and genetic vulnerability to problem (P) and pathological gambling gambling (PG). methods: Diagnoses of DSM-III-R life-time P and PG were derived in 1992 and past-year P and PG in 2002 from 1675 individual twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Logistic regression was used to predict past-year P and PG as a function of socio-demographics and life-time co-occurring psychiatric disorders including gambling problems measured in 1992. Co-twin analyses accounted for familial contributions to past-year gambling problems. High school or greater educational attainment was associated with less likelihood of current P and PG. With the exception of alcohol dependence and generalized anxiety/panic, all disorders studied remained associated significantly with an increase risk of past-year P and PG after adjusting for 1992 gambling symptoms. Past-year P and PG was associated significantly with the number of pathological gambling symptoms reported in 1992. After controlling for genetic and family environmental factors, one or more 1992 symptoms were associated with 2002 symptoms. Education and substance dependence, mood and antisocial personality disorders were associated with current gambling. A history of PG symptoms is the strongest predictor of past-year problem gambling.

  12. Gambling and gambling policy in Norway--an exceptional case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Bang Hansen, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the development and current status of gambling and gambling policy in Norway. An overview of the research literature and official documents and websites. Gambling on electronic gaming machines (EGMs) increased dramatically in the 1990s in response to technological development and liberalization of gambling policy. Restrictions on availability of EGM gambling occurred from 2006 to 2009 and included a ban on note acceptors, a temporary ban on EGMs and re-introduction of fewer and less aggressive machines under a state monopoly. The restrictions led to significant decreases in total gambling turnover, and several studies suggest that they led to fewer gambling and gambling problems. Various factors may explain why the restrictions were politically feasible. These include media coverage of gambling concerns and economic compensation for revenue losses under the monopoly. In an international context of deregulation of gambling markets, the Norwegian policy restrictions on gambling availability have represented an exceptional case and provide a rare opportunity to explore the outcomes of such regulations. Overall, studies suggest that the policy restrictions have led to reductions in gambling expenditures and problem gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. For Worse, for Poorer and in Ill Health: How Women Experience, Understand and Respond to a Partner's Gambling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patford, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Gambling is now big business in Australia and public expenditure on gambling is high. Some individuals gamble to excess with adverse consequences for themselves and their partner. The present study targeted women who had concerns about a current or previous partner's gambling and employed a qualitative methodology to explore their experiences,…

  14. At-risk and problem gambling among adolescents: a convenience sample of first-year junior high school students in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrén, Sari; Grainger, Marjut; Lahti, Tuuli; Alho, Hannu; Salonen, Anne H

    2015-03-08

    Adolescent gambling and substance use are viewed as a public health concern internationally. The early onset age of gambling is a known risk factor for developing gambling problems later in life. The aims of this study are: to evaluate the internal consistency reliability, factorial validity and classification accuracy of the Finnish version of DSM-IV-Multiple Response-Juvenile (DSM-IV-MR-J) criteria measuring at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG); to examine gender differences in gambling participation, ARPG and substance use among first-year junior high school students; and to investigate the association of gambling and gaming (video game playing) participation, substance use and social variables with ARPG. This study examined 988 adolescents (mean age 13.4 years) at 11 public schools in Finland between October-December 2013. The response rate was 91.6%. Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression analysis were used. 'Illegal acts' was the most endorsed and sensitive, but the least specific criteria identifying ARPG. During the past year, 51.6% of the respondents had gambled, 7.9% were identified as at-risk/problem gamblers (DSM-IV-MR-J score ≥ 2), 8.0% had smoked and 8.9% had been drinking for intoxication, and the first three were significantly more common among boys than girls. The odds ratio of being a male past-year at-risk/problem gambler was 2.27, 5.78 for gambling often or sometimes, 2.42 for video game playing weekly or more often and 6.23 for having peer gamblers. Overall, the Finnish version of the DSM-IV-MR-J had acceptable internal consistency reliability and factorial validity. None of the DSM-IV-MR-J criteria were accurate enough to screen ARPG per se. ARPG past-year prevalence was relatively high with males gambling more than females. ARPG was as common as drinking alcohol for intoxication and smoking. Peer gambling was strongly associated with ARPG. Efficient strategies to minimise the risks of gambling problems, tools for prevention and

  15. Disordered Gambling Prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten

    2018-01-01

    of detectable risk with these corrections, since gambling behavior is positively correlated with the decision to participate in gambling surveys. We also find that imposing a threshold gambling history leads to underestimation of the prevalence of gambling problems.......We study Danish adult gambling behavior with an emphasis on discovering patterns relevant to public health forecasting and economic welfare assessment of policy. Methodological innovations include measurement of formative in addition to reflective constructs, estimation of prospective risk...... for developing gambling disorder rather than risk of being falsely negatively diagnosed, analysis with attention to sample weights and correction for sample selection bias, estimation of the impact of trigger questions on prevalence estimates and sample characteristics, and distinguishing between total...

  16. The Role of Metacognition in Pathological Gambling: A Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansueto, Giovanni; Pennelli, Michele; De Palo, Valeria; Monacis, Lucia; Sinatra, Maria; De Caro, Maria Fara

    2016-03-01

    Pathological gambling involves multitudinous costs related to financial, legal, and public health care aspects, as well as to specific psychological disorders. Despite the overall evidence suggesting that comorbid disorders represent a risk factor for pathological gambling, there is scant evidence on the appropriate treatments for gamblers with such disorders. In this context, metacognitive therapy is an interesting approach because it considers psychological disorders as a result of the activation of perseverative cognitive processes and attentional strategies in response to inner events. Several studies report that metacognition is associated with different psychological problems. This study investigated the relationship among comorbid disorders, metacognition, and pathological gambling. 69 pathological gamblers at the first hospital admission and 58 controls drawn from general population (matched for age, gender, education) completed a battery of self report instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-R, Metacognition Questionnaire 30, South Oaks Gambling Scale. Compared to controls, pathological gamblers showed higher level of comorbid symptomatology and metacognition. Correlation analyses showed that: comorbid symptomatology and metacognition were positively and significantly correlated with pathological gambling; metacognition was positively and significantly associated with comorbid symptomatology. Mediation analysis indicated that dysfunctional metacognitive strategies could have an indirect effect on pathological gambling mediated by concurrent psychological disorders. These findings provide some implications for gambling treatment programs: pathological gamblers should be screened for psychiatric disorders, and metacognitive therapy could be considered a correct treatment of pathological gamblers. Metacognitive therapy might lead to the reduction of the pathological gambling by the diminishing of the concurrent psychological disorders.

  17. Latent class analysis of gambling subtypes and impulsive/compulsive associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Stochl, Jan; Redden, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gambling disorder has been associated with cognitive dysfunction and impaired quality of life. The current definition of non-pathological, problem, and pathological types of gambling is based on total symptom scores, which may overlook nuanced underlying presentations of gambling...... analysis of variance. Results: Three subtypes of gambling were identified, termed recreational gamblers (60.2% of the sample; reference group), problem gamblers (29.2%), and pathological gamblers (10.5%). Common quality of life impairment, elevated Barratt Impulsivity scores, occurrence of mainstream...... mental disorders, having a first degree relative with an addiction, and impaired decision-making were evident in both problem and pathological gambling groups. The diagnostic item ‘chasing losses’ most discriminated recreational from problem gamblers, while endorsement of ‘social, financial...

  18. Racial-ethnic related clinical and neurocognitive differences in adults with gambling disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Leppink, Eric; Redden, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggest that the lifetime prevalence of gambling problems differs depending on race-ethnicity. Understanding variations in disease presentation in blacks and whites, and relationships with biological and sociocultural factors, may have implications for selecting...... appropriate prevention strategies. 62 non-treatment seeking volunteers (18-29 years, n=18 [29.0%] female) with gambling disorder were recruited from the general community. Black (n=36) and White (n=26) participants were compared on demographic, clinical and cognitive measures. Young black adults with gambling...... disorder reported more symptoms of gambling disorder and greater scores on a measure of compulsivity. In addition they exhibited significantly higher total errors on a set-shifting task, less risk adjustment on a gambling task, greater delay aversion on a gambling task, and more total errors on a working...

  19. The Temporal Relationship Between Faulty Gambling Cognitions and Gambling Severity in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Ryan; Graves, Chad; Ellery, Michael; Afifi, Tracie O

    2016-12-01

    Disordered gambling in young adults is hypothesized as being related to mistaken gambling-related cognitions. Few studies have examined the temporal order of this relationship using longitudinal data. The purpose of this study is to understand the directionality of the relationship between gambling cognitions and gambling severity in a longitudinal sample of young adults. Young adults (N = 578), initially aged 18-21 years, completed the Manitoba Longitudinal Survey of Young Adults at two time points approximately 2-3 years apart. Measures of beliefs about randomness related to gambling and gambling severity, as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index, were utilized. A cross-sectional relationship between gambling severity and gambling-related cognitions was observed with greater gambling severity being associated with increased endorsement of mistaken cognitions. Evidence for a bidirectional longitudinal relationship was observed with faulty gambling cognitions leading to later problematic gambling behaviors and vice versa when examining a total beliefs scale. When examining specific beliefs about randomness, initial gambling group membership predicted later endorsement of certain beliefs about randomness while initial belief ratings did not impact later gambling group membership. The results of this study suggest a bidirectional relationship between gambling severity and erroneous gambling-related cognitions. However, when examining specific beliefs about randomness, evidence was found for problem gambling behaviors leading to erroneous gambling beliefs. These findings suggest that prevention efforts targeting cognitions may not be as effective in impacting those not yet demonstrating disordered gambling behaviors.

  20. Effectiveness of community-based treatment for problem gambling: a quasi-experimental evaluation of cognitive-behavioral vs. twelve-step therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toneatto, Tony; Dragonetti, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing availability of gambling throughout North America, there is interest in developing more effective treatments. This study compares the effectiveness of two brief outpatient treatments for problem gambling: eight sessions of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (n = 65) and eight sessions of a twelve-step treatment-oriented approach based on the first five steps of Gamblers Anonymous (n = 61). There were no baseline group differences on gambling-relevant variables. Twelve months post-treatment showed no group differences on key gambling variables (eg, frequency, abstinence rates, money wagered) in an analysis of completers. Participants who attended more sessions and chose an initial abstinent treatment goal appeared to achieve better outcomes.

  1. Attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm: cross-sectional Finnish population studies in 2011 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H. Salonen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about public gambling attitudes and gambling participation is crucial for the effective prevention of gambling-related harm. This study investigates female and male attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm in the Finnish population aged 15–74. Methods Cross-sectional random sample data were collected in 2011 (n = 4484 and 2015 (n = 4515. The data were weighted based on gender, age and region of residence. Attitudes were measured using the Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8. Gambling-related harms were studied using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Results Attitudes towards gambling became more positive from 2011 to 2015. Female attitudes were generally negative, but nonetheless moved in a positive direction except in age groups under 25. Occasional gambling increased among women aged 18–24. Women aged 18–24 and 45–54 experienced more harms in 2015 than in 2011. Both land and online gambling increased among women aged 65–74. Male attitudes towards gambling were generally positive, and became more positive from 2011 to 2015 in all age groups except 15–17. Weekly gambling decreased among males aged 15–17. Gambling overall increased among males aged 18–24. Gambling several times a week decreased among men aged 35–44 and 45–54, and gambling 1–3 times a month increased in the latter age group. Online gambling increased only among men aged 55–64. Conclusions Attitudes towards gambling became more positive in all except the youngest age groups. Under-age male gambling continued to decrease. We need to make decision-makers better aware of the continuing growth of online gambling among older people and women’s increasing experiences of gambling-related harm. This is vital to ensure more effective prevention.

  2. Attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm: cross-sectional Finnish population studies in 2011 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Anne H; Alho, Hannu; Castrén, Sari

    2017-01-26

    Information about public gambling attitudes and gambling participation is crucial for the effective prevention of gambling-related harm. This study investigates female and male attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm in the Finnish population aged 15-74. Cross-sectional random sample data were collected in 2011 (n = 4484) and 2015 (n = 4515). The data were weighted based on gender, age and region of residence. Attitudes were measured using the Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8). Gambling-related harms were studied using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Attitudes towards gambling became more positive from 2011 to 2015. Female attitudes were generally negative, but nonetheless moved in a positive direction except in age groups under 25. Occasional gambling increased among women aged 18-24. Women aged 18-24 and 45-54 experienced more harms in 2015 than in 2011. Both land and online gambling increased among women aged 65-74. Male attitudes towards gambling were generally positive, and became more positive from 2011 to 2015 in all age groups except 15-17. Weekly gambling decreased among males aged 15-17. Gambling overall increased among males aged 18-24. Gambling several times a week decreased among men aged 35-44 and 45-54, and gambling 1-3 times a month increased in the latter age group. Online gambling increased only among men aged 55-64. Attitudes towards gambling became more positive in all except the youngest age groups. Under-age male gambling continued to decrease. We need to make decision-makers better aware of the continuing growth of online gambling among older people and women's increasing experiences of gambling-related harm. This is vital to ensure more effective prevention.

  3. Gender differences in temporal relationships between gambling urge and cognitions in treatment-seeking adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmuir, Phoebe; Smith, David; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Riley, Ben; Battersby, Malcolm

    2018-04-01

    Many gambling-specific CBT programs seek to target either gambling-related urge or cognitions or both. However, little is known of the influence of one symptom type on another across time and whether these differ for men and women help-seeking problem gamblers. The aim of this study was threefold: to determine presence of measurement invariance for urge and cognition measures over time; to investigate the effect of baseline urge on end-of-treatment gambling-related cognitions - and the reciprocal relationship; and, identify whether these pathways differ across gender. Self-reported gambling urge (GUS), and gambling-related cognitions (GRCS) data from treatment-seeking problem gamblers prior to and post treatment (N = 223; 62% men) were analyzed with cross-lagged panel models, moderated by gender. Conceptualization of urge and cognitions were found to be temporally stable. There was no significant association between baseline GUS scores and post-treatment GRCS scores, nor the reverse relationship. Putatively, this infers that coexisting urge and gambling-related cognition components of problem gambling operate independently over time. Analyses revealed gambling urge had a significantly stronger tracking correlation across time for men than women when adjusting for cognition paths. This investigation provides early evidence for tailoring CBT in response to sub-population gambling-related characteristics, demonstrated across men and women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gambling-related cognitive distortions predict level of function among US veterans seeking treatment for gambling disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirk, Steven D; Kelly, Megan M; Kraus, Shane W; Potenza, Marc N; Pugh, Kendra; Waltrous, Christopher; Federman, Edward; Krebs, Christopher; Drebing, Charles E

    2018-03-01

    Gambling Disorder (GD) is characterized by recurrent gambling behavior that is associated with significant impairment and distress, high psychiatric comorbidities, and high functional disability. The military veteran population appears particularly susceptible to developing the disorder, but relatively little has been studied among this population. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the clinical psychopathologies and comorbidities of veterans seeking treatment for problem gambling and how problem gambling may impact functioning. Treatment-seeking veterans meeting criteria for GD (N = 61) underwent a structured clinical interview and completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale (G-SAS), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale for Gambling Disorder (PG-YBOCS), the Gambling Belief Questionnaire (GBQ), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Veterans seeking treatment for GD had high rates of psychiatric and addiction disorder comorbidities. Few veterans had previously sought treatment and most reported substantive challenges in social and occupational functioning. When determining how gambling-related characteristics (ie, severity and cognitive distortions) impact function, severity of cognitive distortions was the strongest statistical predictor of overall functional disability. The findings from this study indicate that there is high comorbidity between GD and other psychiatric and addictive disorders, as well as social and occupational functioning. In addition, cognitive distortions related to gambling relate importantly to overall functioning and should be considered in the development of interventions for veterans with GD. (Am J Addict 2018;27:108-115). © 2018 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  5. Internet-Based Delivery of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Compared to Monitoring, Feedback and Support for Problem Gambling: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Leanne M; Oei, Tian P S; Raylu, Namrata; Horrigan, Katherine; Day, Jamin; Ireland, Michael; Clough, Bonnie A

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy program (I-CBT) for the treatment of problem gambling, when compared to a waitlist control and an active comparison condition consisting of monitoring, feedback, and support (I-MFS). Participants (N = 174) were randomly allocated to the three conditions. Variables of interest were gambling outcome and related mental health measures. Participants in the active conditions (I-CBT and I-MFS) completed six online modules. Both I-CBT and I-MFS conditions resulted in significant treatment gains on gambling severity. However, I-CBT was also associated with reductions in a range of other gambling-related and mental health outcomes. Compared with I-MFS, I-CBT produced greater effects across seven outcomes measures, relating to gambling urges, cognitions, stress, and life satisfaction. I-CBT participants also rated the program as significantly more satisfactory. Treatment gains observed for both active conditions were found to be stable through to 12 month follow up. The results indicate that the benefits of I-CBT were more than simply the non-specific effects of engaging in online treatment or receiving motivation, feedback, and support. Online treatments for gambling may be a valuable tool in increasing help-seeking and treatment engagement in this population, and be integrated as part of stepped care approaches to treatment.

  6. Gambling on the stock market: an unexplored issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Tárrega, Salomé; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Moragas, Laura; Custal, Núria; Orekhova, Lisa; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2012-08-01

    Stock market investment (SMI) is one of the most socially acceptable types of gambling, which, however, can turn into a gambling problem. Because it is barely examined, we compared a series of clinical, psychopathologic, and personality variables in SMI gambling patients (both as primary and secondary problem) with a group of traditional pathologic gamblers (PGs). A total sample of 1470 PGs (1376 patients without SMIs [PG-SMI], 76 patients with SMI as a secondary gambling problem [PG+SMI], and 18 patients with SMI as a primary gambling problem [SMI+PG]) participated in this study. All participants were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria. The following instruments were used: the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom Check List-90 Items-Revised, the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised, and other clinical and psychopathologic indices. The 3 patient groups' profiles were statistically similar in psychometrical measures. The risk of having SMI increased for patients with higher education, and the presence of SMI as a primary problem in PGs increased with university study level and higher scores on the personality trait of cooperativeness. The results of this study indicate comparability of SMI gamblers with PGs in their general clinical profile and in psychopathology and personality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gambling goals predict chasing behavior during slot machine play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Jamey J; Nower, Lia; Wohl, Michael J A

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of gambling goals (i.e., gambling achievement-orientation) on chasing behavior (i.e., decision to chase, chasing spins) over and above known antecedents (e.g., problem gambling severity, winning money motivations, approach/avoidance motivation). Young adult gamblers (N=121) were provided $20 and invited to use those funds on a slot machine situated in an immersive virtual reality casino. Unbeknownst to participants, outcomes were manipulated such that a nominal amount of money was either won or lost (depending on experimental condition) after 30 spins. Before the 31st spin, participants were asked if they wished to continue play. If they agreed, all successive spin outcomes were a loss. This permitted an assessment of what factors influence a player's: (1) decision to chase and (2) the number of chasing spins played in the face of loss. Almost all participants (n=95, 78.5%) screened positive for problem gambling symptoms. The majority of gamblers decided to chase (n=67, 55.4%). In bivariate analyses, higher gambling goal and problem gambling severity scores (but not approach/avoidance nor 'loss/win' condition) were positively related to both forms of chasing. Gamblers 'motivated to win money' were more likely to decide to chase. In multivariate analyses, higher gambling goals best accounted for both forms of chasing independent of known antecedents. This study provides the first evidence that gambling goals can influence chasing. Implications for shaping responsible gambling approaches to be more consistent with motivations for play are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social support as a mediator between problem behaviour and gambling: a cross-sectional study among 14-16-year-old Finnish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Tiina; Lintonen, Tomi; Tolvanen, Asko; Konu, Anne

    2016-12-22

    During the adolescent period, risk-taking behaviour increases. These behaviours can compromise the successful transition from adolescence to adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine social support as a mediator of the relation between problem behaviour and gambling frequency among Finnish adolescents. Data were obtained from the national School Health Promotion Study (SHPS) from the years 2010 and 2011 (N=102 545). Adolescents were classified in the most homogeneous groups based on their problem behaviour via latent class analysis. Path analysis indicated that social support was negatively associated with problem behaviour, and problem behaviour and social support were negatively related (except for social support from friends among boys) to gambling. Social support from parents and school mediated, albeit weakly, the relations between problem behaviour and gambling among girls and boys. Problem behaviour may affect gambling through social support from school and parents. Thus prevention and intervention strategies should focus on strengthening adolescents' social support. In addition, because of the clustering of different problem behaviours instead of concentrating on a single form of problem behaviour multiple-behaviour interventions may have a much greater impact on public health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Psychiatric symptoms in children with gross motor problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emck, C.; Bosscher, R.J.; van Wieringen, P.C.W.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Beek, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    dren with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial

  10. Internet-based structural characteristics of sports betting and problem gambling severity: is there a relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Gonzalez, H; Estévez, A; Griffiths, MD

    2018-01-01

    With the adoption and popularization of internet-based platforms, sports betting has introduced new functionalities that transform the design of its products and therefore the way bettors interact with them. This study aims to explore the association between the use of new structural characteristics of online betting and gambling severity. Five characteristics are examined here: (i) live in-play betting; (ii) cash out feature use (as example of in-play betting in-built features); (iii) fantas...

  11. An Exploration of How Simulated Gambling Games May Promote Gambling with Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Tess; Rockloff, Matthew; Browne, Matthew; Li, En

    2018-01-10

    Portable media devices, such as smartphones, have allowed gambling related content to infiltrate into a new market of potential consumers. Simulated gambling products are now readily available through multiple online platforms, and are becoming a popular form of entertainment for many young media users. Despite widespread use of these products, very little is known about how continued exposure to and involvement with simulated gambling may impact on real-money gambling attitudes and behaviours, particularly for young consumers. This paper reviews the literature exploring simulated gambling products and how consumption may promote monetary gambling, as well as fostering pro-gambling attitudes among youth and adolescents. Findings suggest that youth are highly exposed to simulated gambling games, and those who engage with these products are also more likely to be prone to monetary gambling and gambling problems. Virtual currency, in-game events and gambling themed content are also likely to promote biases about gambling or desensitise consumers to monetary losses. Simulated gambling products may therefore pose a risk to consumers, and particularly young consumers, rather than serve as a benign substitute for monetary gambling. To date, research has largely focused on correlational relationships between simulated and monetary gambling using cross-sectional methodologies. Future research should focus on determining the causal pathway between simulated gambling involvement and monetary gambling in order to identify and manage any risk associated simulated gambling participation.

  12. Impulsivity and pathological gambling: Is it a state or a trait problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Florence DM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study tested 37 Chinese male pathological gamblers and 40 controls to understand the relationship between pathological gambling and impulsivity as a long-term trait or a short-term state in the cognitive and affective domain. Results Trait impulsivity was measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11. State impulsivity in the cognitive and affective domains were measured by the Stroop Color Word Test and the Emotional Conflict Task, respectively. The pathological gamblers scored significantly higher than the controls on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11. However, there were no significant group differences in performance on the Stroop Color Word Test or the Emotional Conflict Task. Conclusions Findings clearly show that pathological gambling is associated with trait but not state impulsivity. In other words, pathological gambling is associated with an impulsivity stemming from enduring personality characteristics that lead gamblers to focus on short-term gains (trait impulsivity rather than momentary cognitive or affective disinhibition (state impulsivity. Interventions should aim to change pathological gamblers' habitual functioning style by cultivating healthy reflection habits and focusing on long-term rewards.

  13. The Relationship Between Age of Gambling Onset and Adolescent Problematic Gambling Severity

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Pilver, Corey E.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the association between problem gambling severity and multiple health, functioning and gambling variables in adolescents aged 13–18 stratified by age of gambling onset. Survey data in 1624 Connecticut high school students stratified by age of gambling onset (≤11 years vs. ≥ 12 years) were analyzed in descriptive analyses and in logistic regression models. Earlier age of onset was associated with problem gambling severity as indexed by a higher frequen...

  14. Gambling in Sweden: the cultural and socio-political context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2014-02-01

    To provide an overview, with respect to Sweden, of the cultural history of gambling, the commercialization of gambling, problem gambling research, the prevalence of problem gambling and its prevention and treatment. A review of the literature and official documents relating to gambling in Sweden; involvement in gambling research and regulation. Gambling has long been part of Swedish culture. Since about 1980 the gambling market, although still largely monopolistic, has been commercialized. At the same time, problem gambling has emerged as a concept in the public health paradigm. Debate regarding whether or not Sweden's national restrictions on the gambling market are compliant with European Community legislation has helped to put problem gambling on the political agenda. Despite expanded gambling services, the extent of problem gambling on the population level has not changed significantly over the past decade. The stability of problem gambling in Sweden at the population level suggests a homeostatic system involving the gambling market, regulation, prevention and treatment and adaption to risk and harm by gamblers. We have relatively good knowledge of the extent and characteristics of problem gambling in Sweden and of how to treat it, but little is known of how to prevent it effectively. Knowledge is needed of the effectiveness of regulatory actions and approaches, and of responsible gambling measures implemented by gambling companies. © 2013 The Author, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Alexithymia and pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, M A; Roby, K J

    1995-01-01

    Alexithymia is increased in addictive disorders such as alcoholism, cocaine abuse, and binge eating. Pathological gambling is a form of addictive disorder and may be influenced by alexithymia. We examined the association of alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale) and pathological gambling (South Oaks Gambling Screen) in 1,147 young adults; 3.1% were classified as pathological gamblers. Alexithymia was found in 31.4% of pathological gamblers, compared to 11.1% of controls; both affective and cognitive aspects of alexithymia were associated with gambling problems. The relationship was independent of depression and physical illness, and was found for both sexes, but only for Caucasians. Alexithymia may be a risk factor for pathological gambling in some populations.

  16. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  17. Environmental factors selectively impact co-occurrence of problem/pathological gambling with specific drug-use disorders in male twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Hong; Giddens, Justine L; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Eisen, Seth A; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-04-01

    Multiple forms of drug abuse/dependence frequently co-occur with problem/pathological gambling (PPG). The current study examines the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to their co-occurrence. Bivariate models investigated the magnitude and correlation of genetic and environmental contributions to problem/pathological gambling and its co-occurrence with nicotine dependence, cannabis abuse/dependence and stimulant abuse/dependence. Computer-assisted telephone interviews in the community. Participants were 7869 male twins in the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, a USA-based national twin registry. Life-time DSM-III-R diagnoses for problem/pathological gambling, nicotine dependence, cannabis abuse/dependence and stimulant abuse/dependence were determined using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. All drug-use disorders displayed additive genetic and non-shared environmental contributions, with cannabis abuse/dependence also displaying shared environmental contributions. Both genetic [genetic correlation rA  = 0.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.10-0.34] and non-shared environmental components (environmental correlation rE  = 0.24; 95% CI = 0.10-0.37) contributed to the co-occurrence of problem/pathological gambling and nicotine dependence. This pattern was shared by cannabis abuse/dependence (rA  = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.05-1.0; rE  = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.16-0.55) but not stimulant abuse/dependence (SAD), which showed only genetic contributions to the co-occurrence with problem/pathological gambling (rA  = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.45-0.73). Strong links between gambling and stimulant-use disorders may relate to the neurochemical properties of stimulants or the illicit nature of using 'hard' drugs such as cocaine. The greater contribution of environmental factors to the co-occurrence between problem/pathological gambling and 'softer' forms of drug abuse/dependence (cannabis, tobacco) suggest that environmental interventions

  18. Youth Unemployment: Part Problem, Part Symptom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartin, Robert

    1977-01-01

    After examing the data on employment and unemployment in the United States and briefly describing the reasons why youth unemployment is a problem, several personal and societal factors are cited as contributors to the current youth unemployment problem and implications for vocational education are given. (BM)

  19. Predictors of outcomes of psychological treatments for disordered gambling: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkouris, S S; Thomas, S A; Browning, C J; Dowling, N A

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review aimed to synthesise the evidence relating to pre-treatment predictors of gambling outcomes following psychological treatment for disordered gambling across multiple time-points (i.e., post-treatment, short-term, medium-term, and long-term). A systematic search from 1990 to 2016 identified 50 articles, from which 11 socio-demographic, 16 gambling-related, 21 psychological/psychosocial, 12 treatment, and no therapist-related variables, were identified. Male gender and low depression levels were the most consistent predictors of successful treatment outcomes across multiple time-points. Likely predictors of successful treatment outcomes also included older age, lower gambling symptom severity, lower levels of gambling behaviours and alcohol use, and higher treatment session attendance. Significant associations, at a minimum of one time-point, were identified between successful treatment outcomes and being employed, ethnicity, no gambling debt, personality traits and being in the action stage of change. Mixed results were identified for treatment goal, while education, income, preferred gambling activity, problem gambling duration, anxiety, any psychiatric comorbidity, psychological distress, substance use, prior gambling treatment and medication use were not significantly associated with treatment outcomes at any time-point. Further research involving consistent treatment outcome frameworks, examination of