Nelson, Sarah; Josefsen, Line Gebauer; LaBrie, Richard
Few studies investigate gambling problems at the symptom level; even fewer investigate how symptom patterns change throughout the course of a gambling disorder. The current study utilized the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Grant et al., 2004) to investi...
Nelson, Sarah; Josefsen, Line Gebauer; LaBrie, Richard
Few studies investigate gambling problems at the symptom level; even fewer investigate how symptom patterns change throughout the course of a gambling disorder. The current study utilized the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Grant et al., 2004) to investi...... of progression to PG among participants at-risk for PG. The differential diagnostic value of various reported symptoms, as well as their lack of stability, has implications for both researchers and clinicians. 2009 APA, all rights reserved....
McCormick, Amanda V; Cohen, Irwin M; Davies, Garth
Voluntary self-exclusion (VSE) programs enable problem gamblers to engage in a break from casino-based gambling. The current study analyzed the effects of a VSE program in British Columbia, Canada on problem gambling symptoms and the comparative reductions in problem gambling symptoms when participants abstained from gambling, continued to participate in non-casino based gambling, or attempted to violate their exclusion contract. 269 participants completed two telephone interviews over a 6-month period. Participants were administered the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). Substantial reductions in PGSI scores were observed after 6 months. Program violators had significantly smaller PGSI Difference Scores by Time 2 compared to those who continued to gamble outside of the casino and those who completely abstained from all gambling. There were no significant differences between those who gambled informally and those who abstained. A multiple regression identified that while access to counselling and length of enrollment also contributed to the reduction in PGSI scores, violation attempts were most strongly associated with smaller reductions in symptoms of problem gambling. These results imply that some gamblers can successfully engage in non-casino based forms of gambling and still experience reductions in symptoms of problem gambling. Future analyses will explore characteristics associated with group membership that may help to identify which participants can successfully engage in non-casino based gambling without re-triggering symptoms of problem gambling.
Hellström, Charlotta; Wagner, Philippe; Nilsson, Kent W; Leppert, Jerzy; Åslund, Cecilia
To investigate the associations between gambling frequency, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and problem gambling among adolescent boys and girls. One hypothesis was that adolescents with increased ADHD symptoms have a higher frequency of gambling compared to adolescents with fewer ADHD symptoms. A population-based sample of adolescents (aged 15-18 years) completed a questionnaire on demographics, gambling habits, ADHD symptoms, and problematic gambling; 1412 adolescents (from 4440 sampled) with gambling experience were included in the final sample. A zero-inflated negative binomial regression analysis revealed that increased ADHD symptoms, higher gambling frequency, and higher age were associated with lower odds for being non-susceptible to gambling problems. Moreover, gambling frequency interacted with ADHD symptoms in predicting probability of being non-susceptible to gambling problems. However, when analysing those already susceptible to problem gambling, ADHD symptoms did not modify the effect of gambling frequency on the expected magnitude of gambling problems. In susceptible individuals, problem gambling increased with both increased ADHD symptoms and increased gambling frequency, but the level of problems due to gambling frequency did not change depending on the ADHD symptom level. There was an interaction effect between sex and gambling frequency in relation to gambling problems. Adolescents with ADHD symptoms seem to be more sensitive to gambling, in terms of being susceptible to developing gambling problems. However, once susceptible, adolescents with ADHD symptoms are affected by gambling frequency similarly to other susceptible participants.
Keough, Matthew T; Penniston, Trinda L; Vilhena-Churchill, Natalie; Michael Bagby, R; Quilty, Lena C
One of the central pathways to problem gambling (PG) is gambling to cope with negative moods, which is a cardinal feature of depression. Insecure attachment styles are also etiologically related to depression; and, therefore, by extension, those who are insecurely attached may engage in excessive gambling behaviors to cope with depression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate this and to this end predicted that depression severity and coping motives for gambling would conjointly mediate the relations between insecure attachment styles and PG. Data came from a larger investigation of PG within mood disorders. Participants exhibited a lifetime depressive or bipolar disorder and endorsed a mood episode within the past ten years. Participants (N=275) completed self-report measures during a two-day assessment. Path analysis supported two main indirect effects. First, anxious attachment predicted elevated depression, which in turn predicted increased coping motives for gambling, which subsequently predicted greater PG severity. Second, this double mediational pathway was also observed for avoidant attachment. Results suggest that insecure attachment relates to PG via depressive symptoms and coping-related gambling motives. Mood symptoms and associated gambling motives are malleable and are promising targets of gambling interventions for insecurely attached individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This research examined similarities and differences between gambling activities, with a particular focus on differences in gambling frequency and rates of problem gambling. The data were from population-based surveys conducted in Canada between 2001 and 2005. Adult respondents completed various versions of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI), including the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). A factor analysis of the frequency with which different gambling activities were played documented the existence of two clear underlying factors. One factor was comprised of Internet gambling and betting on sports and horse races, and the other factor was comprised of lotteries, raffles, slots/Video Lottery Terminals (VLTs), and bingo. Factor one respondents were largely men; factor two respondents were more likely to be women and scored significantly lower on a measure of problem gambling. Additional analyses indicated that (1) frequency of play was significantly and positively related to problem gambling scores for all activities except raffles, (2) the relationship between problem gambling scores and frequency of play was particularly pronounced for slots/VLTs, (3) problem gambling scores were associated with playing a larger number of games, and (4) Internet and sports gambling had the highest conversion rates (proportion who have tried an activity who frequently play that activity). Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Goudriaan, Anna E.
To provide an overview of gambling in the Netherlands, focusing on historical background, policy, legislation, prevalence of problem gambling, availability of treatment options and research base. Literature review. Contradictions between gambling policy and practice have been present in the past
Goudriaan, Anna E
To provide an overview of gambling in the Netherlands, focusing on historical background, policy, legislation, prevalence of problem gambling, availability of treatment options and research base. Literature review. Contradictions between gambling policy and practice have been present in the past 15-20 years, and have led to an increasingly stricter gambling regulation to retain the government policy to restrict gambling within a national monopoly. Conversely, political efforts have been made to legalize internet gambling, but have not yet been approved. Compared to other European countries, slot machine gambling and casino gambling are relatively popular, whereas betting is relatively unpopular. Last-year problem gambling prevalence (South Oaks Gambling Screen score > 5) is estimated at 0.22-0.15% (2005, 2011). Treatment for problem gambling is covered by health insurance under the same conditions as substance dependence, but only a small proportion of Dutch problem gamblers seeks help at addiction treatment centres. Gambling policy in the Netherlands has become stricter during recent last years in order to maintain the Dutch gambling monopoly. Problem gambling in the Netherlands is relatively stable. Dutch research on problem gambling has a lack of longitudinal studies. Most of the epidemiological gambling studies are reported in non-peer-reviewed research reports, which diminishes control by independent peers on the methodology and interpretation of results. Recent efforts to enhance consistency in research methods between gambling studies over time could enhance knowledge on changes in (problem) gambling in the Netherlands. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Edgerton, Jason D; Keough, Matthew T; Roberts, Lance W
This study examines whether there are multiple joint trajectories of depression and problem gambling co-development in a sample of emerging adults. Data were from the Manitoba Longitudinal Study of Young Adults (n = 679), which was collected in 4 waves across 5 years (age 18-20 at baseline). Parallel process latent class growth modeling was used to identified 5 joint trajectory classes: low decreasing gambling, low increasing depression (81%); low stable gambling, moderate decreasing depression (9%); low stable gambling, high decreasing depression (5%); low stable gambling, moderate stable depression (3%); moderate stable problem gambling, no depression (2%). There was no evidence of reciprocal growth in problem gambling and depression in any of the joint classes. Multinomial logistic regression analyses of baseline risk and protective factors found that only neuroticism, escape-avoidance coping, and perceived level of family social support were significant predictors of joint trajectory class membership. Consistent with the pathways model framework, we observed that individuals in the problem gambling only class were more likely using gambling as a stable way to cope with negative emotions. Similarly, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of family support were associated with increased odds of being in a class with moderate to high levels of depressive symptoms (but low gambling problems). The results suggest that interventions for problem gambling and/or depression need to focus on promoting more adaptive coping skills among more "at-risk" young adults, and such interventions should be tailored in relation to specific subtypes of comorbid mental illness.
Welte, John W.; Barnes, Grace M.; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O.; Hoffman, Joseph H.
A random telephone survey was conducted with 2274 U.S. residents aged 14-21. Analyses were performed to assess the relationship between the specific gambling games played and the extent of problem gambling symptoms. The forms of gambling that were most associated with gambling problems were card games, casino gambling, “other” gambling on routine activities, and betting on games of skill such as basketball, pool, or golf. The form of gambling which made the largest contribution to gambling pr...
Kotter, Roxana; Kräplin, Anja; Pittig, Andre; Bühringer, Gerhard
Systematic and quantitative reviews on the effects of land-based self-exclusion are scarce. Therefore, the current review aimed to provide a comprehensive summary of (1) the demographic characteristics of land-based self-excluders and changes after exclusion, including (2) gambling behavior, (3) gambling problems, (4) mental symptoms, and (5) mental health. A systematic database and literature search was performed following PRISMA guidelines. Nineteen naturalistic studies met the eligibility criteria. The quality of all included records was rated via adaption of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results from higher-quality records were more heavily weighted. Self-excluders were predominantly men in their early or middle forties. Changes after exclusion revealed wide ranges in the rates of abstinence (13-81%), rates of gambling reduction (29-92%), and rates of exclusion breaches (8-59%). The records consistently demonstrated significant changes in pathological gambling from before exclusion (61-95%) to after exclusion (13-26%). Up to 73% of self-excluders exhibited symptoms of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders at program enrollment. Several aspects of mental health improved after exclusion, e.g., quality of life. Problem and pathological gambling are most prevalent in young men, but self-exclusion was most prominent in middle-aged men. The magnitude of effects widely differed between studies despite overall benefits of self-exclusion, and many individuals continued gambling after exclusion. This shortcoming could be minimized using improved access controls and the extension of exclusion to other gambling segments. High rates of pathological gambling and other mental disorders in self-excluders highlight the need for improved early detection and treatment accessibility.
McComb, Jennifer L.; Hanson, William E.
The vast majority of college students gamble, with some doing so problematically. This article discusses gambling and problem gambling among college students, framing it as an emerging health issue on college campuses nationwide. Given that 4 out of 5 college students admit to gambling, and that approximately 8% gamble problematically, it is…
Welte, John W; Barnes, Grace M; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O; Wieczorek, William F
In this article we examine data from a national U.S. adult survey of gambling to determine correlates of problem gambling and discuss them in light of theories of the etiology of problem gambling. These include theories that focus on personality traits, irrational beliefs, anti-social tendencies, neighborhood influences and availability of gambling. Results show that males, persons in the 31-40 age range, blacks, and the least educated had the highest average problem gambling symptoms. Adults who lived in disadvantaged neighborhoods also had the most problem gambling symptoms. Those who attended religious services most often had the fewest problem gambling symptoms, regardless of religious denomination. Respondents who reported that it was most convenient for them to gamble had the highest average problem gambling symptoms, compared to those for whom gambling was less convenient. Likewise, adults with the personality traits of impulsiveness and depression had more problem gambling symptoms than those less impulsive or depressed. Respondents who had friends who approve of gambling had more problem gambling symptoms than those whose friends did not approve of gambling. The results for the demographic variables as well as for impulsiveness and religious attendance are consistent with an anti-social/impulsivist pathway to problem gambling. The results for depression are consistent with an emotionally vulnerable pathway to problem gambling.
Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally
The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…
Billieux, Joël; Achab, Sophia; Savary, Jean-Félix; Simon, Olivier; Richter, Frédéric; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser
To provide an overview of gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland, including historical aspects, past and current legislation and policies, treatment options and the research base. A literature search was conducted on two databases (PubMed and PsycINFO), and official government and statistical reports selected from the official websites of four sources (Federal Office of Justice; Federal Gambling Board; Federal Office of Statistics; Swiss Lottery and Betting Board). After a history of banning or partial banning, Swiss gambling became regulated at the beginning of the 20th century through successive laws. The current system is characterized by important differences in the law and policies for casinos and lotteries, and contradictions in the regulation of these two areas are still under debate in order to develop new legislation. Gambling is widespread in Switzerland, and the prevalence of problem gambling in this country was comparable to that in other European countries in 2014. Most gambling treatment facilities are integrated into mental health treatment services that have out-patient programmes, and treatment for problem gambling is covered by a universal compulsory Swiss health insurance system. The availability of public funding for gambling research is still limited. Switzerland needs to develop a more coherent regulatory and prevention policy approach to gambling, overcoming conflicts in the current dual system of federal and cantonal regulation. Recent efforts to enhance funding for gambling research are promising, and could lead to a more systematic analysis of the efficacy of prevention and treatment programmes. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Cowlishaw, Sean; Merkouris, Stephanie; Dowling, Nicki; Anderson, Christopher; Jackson, Alun; Thomas, Shane
Various psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling have been evaluated in randomised trials. A synthesis of best-quality evidence is required. The objective was to synthesise evidence from randomised trials of psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling (cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT), motivational interviewing therapy, integrative therapy, other psychological therapy), in order to indicate the efficacy of therapies and durability of therapy effects, relative to control conditions. We conducted a search of the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR), which includes relevant randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: CENTRAL (The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) (all years), EMBASE (1974 -), MEDLINE (1950 -) and PsycINFO (1967 -). We also carried out complementary searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, LILACS and CENTRAL for studies published between January 1980 and October 2011. We examined the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov and also conducted manual searches of selected journals and reference lists of included studies. Included studies were clinical trials using random allocation to groups, considering pathological or problem gamblers, and evaluating a psychological therapy for pathological or problem gambling. Control conditions included 'no treatment' controls, referral to Gamblers Anonymous and non-specific treatment component controls. We systematically extracted data on the characteristics and results of studies. Primary outcomes were measures of gambling symptom severity, financial loss from gambling and frequency of gambling. Secondary outcomes were occurrence of pathological gambling diagnoses and depression and anxiety symptoms. Treatment effects were defined by comparisons between therapy and control conditions at post-treatment assessments (conducted from 0 to 3 months
Jaisoorya, T S; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; Thennarassu, K; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Benegal, Vivek; George, Sanju
Studies from the West suggest that significant numbers of high school students gamble, despite it being illegal in this age group. To date, there have been no studies on the prevalence of gambling among senior high school and higher secondary school students in India. This study reports point prevalence of gambling and its psychosocial correlates among high school students in the State of Kerala, India. 5043 high school students in the age group 15-19 years, from 73 schools, were selected by cluster random sampling from the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, South India. They completed questionnaires that assessed gambling, substance use, psychological distress, suicidality, and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Of a total of 4989 completed questionnaires, 1400 (27.9 %) high school students reported to have ever gambled and 353 (7.1 %) were problem gamblers. Of those who had ever gambled, 25.2 % were problem gamblers. Sports betting (betting on cricket and football) was the most popular form of gambling followed by the lottery. Problem gamblers when compared with non-problem gamblers and non-gamblers were significantly more likely to be male, have academic failures, have higher rates of lifetime alcohol and tobacco use, psychological distress, suicidality, history of sexual abuse and higher ADHD symptom scores. Gambling among adolescents in India deserves greater attention, as one in four students who ever gambled was a problem gambler and because of its association with a range of psychosocial variables.
Full Text Available AIM - This qualitative study expands on female problem gambling by examining short online narratives written by Finnish women. Problem gambling is analysed within the familial context in order to discover gendered roles and practices, and in relation to substance use and abuse in women’s lives. DESIGN - Two sets of qualitative data were used in this study. The first set was collected from two online discussion forums, and the second set was extracted from an online counselling service data in 2008. Chosen messages formed short narratives of women’s problem gambling trajectory (51 cases. The data were analysed in accordance with the content analysis method. RESULTS - Women had started gambling either in adolescence or in adulthood. Most of the women played on slot machines or gambled online. The lack of coping skills, stressful events in life and troubled relationships made the women more vulnerable to gambling harms and other addictions. In some couples, partners were either drinking or gambling. This made the women’s lives even more complicated, because they could not count on their partners’ help and support. The women tried to hide the consequences of their problem gambling for fear of losing their significant others. CONCLUSIONS - Female gambling and female problem gambling are complex concepts influenced by social, cultural and political factors. This study has shown in its limited framework that female problem gambling is related to the gambling environment, the social acceptance of gambling and the regulation of gambling operations within the place of jurisdiction.
Dixon, Ramsay Wright
Problem gambling among adolescents has emerged as a significant area of research interest. Youth gambling problems are associated with a range of interpersonal, familial, economic, psychological and legal problems. However, because not all adolescents who gamble will develop gambling problems, the research literature has begun to emphasise potential factors that may increase or ameliorate the risk of developing such difficulties. Those characteristics associated with higher levels of severity...
Zhai, Zu Wei; Yip, Sarah W; Steinberg, Marvin A; Wampler, Jeremy; Hoff, Rani A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N
The study systematically examined the relative relationships between perceived family and peer gambling and adolescent at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking. It also determined the likelihood of at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking as a function of the number of different social groups with perceived gambling. A multi-site high-school survey assessed gambling, alcohol use, presence of perceived excessive peer gambling (peer excess-PE), and family gambling prompting concern (family concern-FC) in 2750 high-school students. Adolescents were separately stratified into: (1) low-risk, at-risk, and problem/pathological gambling groups; and, (2) non-binge-drinking, low-frequency-binge-drinking, and high-frequency-binge-drinking groups. Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to each other, FC and PE were associated with greater likelihoods of at-risk and problem/pathological gambling. However, only FC was associated with binge-drinking. Logistic regression revealed that adolescents who endorsed either FC or PE alone, compared to no endorsement, were more likely to have at-risk and problem/pathological gambling, relative to low-risk gambling. Adolescents who endorsed both FC and PE, compared to PE alone, were more likely to have problem/pathological gambling relative to low-risk and at-risk gambling. Relative to non-binge-drinking adolescents, those who endorsed both FC and PE were more likely to have low- and high-frequency-binge-drinking compared to FC alone or PE alone, respectively. Family and peer gambling individually contribute to adolescent at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking. Strategies that target adolescents as well as their closely affiliated family and peer members may be an important step towards prevention of harm-associated levels of gambling and alcohol use in youths.
Flack, M; Morris, M
Recent research indicates a diverse range of motivations may help explain problem gambling. However, the role of specific motivations in gambling behaviour is not well understood. The primary objective of the current study was to investigate the role of gambling motivations by comparing two competing models. Namely, the efficacy of monetary motivation model was compared to a model where the emotion focused motivations of excitement, escape, and ego were constrained as the only predictors of problem gambling scores. A sample of 2,033 respondents were drawn from the general community and completed a questionnaire concerning their gambling behaviours and beliefs about gambling as an escape, a social occasion, a way to win money, an exciting activity, and as a means to enhance self-importance. Comparison of the competing models revealed that gambling for the chance to win money was not the most prominent motivation in the prediction of problem gambling scores. Instead, the model that allowed the emotion focussed motivation to predict gambling problems was shown to provide a superior fit to the data. These findings underscore the importance of considering a range of motivational influences on gambling behaviour. Moreover, it appears the emotional aspects associated with gambling play a prominent role in sustained gambling behaviour.
Dixon, Ramsay W; Youssef, George J; Hasking, Penelope; Yücel, Murat; Jackson, Alun C; Dowling, Nicki A
Several factors are associated with an increased risk of adolescent problem gambling, including positive gambling attitudes, higher levels of gambling involvement, ineffective coping strategies and unhelpful parenting practices. It is less clear, however, how these factors interact or influence each other in the development of problem gambling behavior during adolescence. The aim of the current study was to simultaneously explore these predictors, with a particular focus on the extent to which coping skills and parenting styles may moderate the expected association between gambling involvement and gambling problems. Participants were 612 high school students. The data were analyzed using a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression model, controlling for gender. Although several variables predicted the number of symptoms associated with problem gambling, none of them predicted the probability of displaying any problem gambling. Gambling involvement fully mediated the relationship between positive gambling attitudes and gambling problem severity. There was a significant relationship between gambling involvement and problems at any level of problem focused coping, reference to others and inconsistent discipline. However, adaptive coping styles employed by adolescents and consistent disciplinary practices by parents were buffers of gambling problems at low levels of adolescent gambling involvement, but failed to protect adolescents when their gambling involvement was high. These findings indicate that research exploring the development of gambling problems is required and imply that coping and parenting interventions may have particular utility for adolescents who are at risk of development gambling problems but who are not gambling frequently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McCormack, Abby; Shorter, Gillian W; Griffiths, Mark D
Background and aims Online gambling participation is increasing rapidly, with relatively little research about the possible effects of different gambling activities on problem gambling behaviour. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the participation in online gambling activities and the relationship with problem gambling among an international sample of online gamblers. Methods An online gambling survey was posted on 32 international gambling websites and resulted in 1,119 respondents over a four-month period. Results Poker was the most popular gambling activity online. A number of online activities were associated with problem gambling, including: roulette, poker, horse race betting, sports betting, spread betting and fruit (slot) machines. Not surprisingly, those that gambled on these activities regularly (except poker) were more likely to be a problem gambler, however, what is interesting is that the reverse is true for poker players; those that gambled regularly on poker were less likely to be a problem gambler compared to the non-regular poker players. The majority of the players also gambled offline, but there was no relationship between problem gambling and whether or not a person also gambled offline. Discussion Problem gambling is associated more with certain online gambling activities than others, and those gambling on two or more activities online were more likely to be a problem gambler. Conclusion This paper can help explain the impact different online gambling activities may have on gambling behaviour. Consideration needs to be given to the gambling activity when developing and implementing treatment programmes.
Dowling, N A; Oldenhof, E; Shandley, K; Youssef, G J; Vasiliadis, S; Thomas, S A; Frydenberg, E; Jackson, A C
The risk for developing a gambling problem is greater among offspring who have a problem gambling parent, yet little research has directly examined the mechanisms by which this transmission of problem gambling occurs. For this reason, the present study sought to examine the degree to which children's expectancies and motives relating to gambling explain, at least in part, the intergenerational transmission of problem gambling. Participants (N=524; 56.5% male) were recruited from educational institutions, and retrospectively reported on parental problem gambling. Problem gambling was measured using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and a range of positive and negative expectancies and gambling motives were explored as potential mediators of the relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling. The relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling was significant, and remained so after controlling for sociodemographic factors and administration method. Significant mediators of this relationship included self-enhancement expectancies (feeling in control), money expectancies (financial gain), over-involvement (preoccupation with gambling) and emotional impact expectancies (guilt, shame, and loss), as well as enhancement motives (gambling to increase positive feelings) and coping motives (gambling to reduce or avoid negative emotions). All mediators remained significant when entered into the same model. The findings highlight that gambling expectancies and motives present unique pathways to the development of problem gambling in the offspring of problem gambling parents, and suggest that gambling cognitions may be potential candidates for targeted interventions for the offspring of problem gamblers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gambling is illegal in Hawai'i, but it is accessible through technology (eg, the internet), inexpensive trips to Las Vegas, and illegal gaming such as lottery sales, internet gambling, and sports betting. Where there are opportunities to gamble, there is a probability that problem gambling exists. The social costs of gambling are estimated to be as high as $26,300,000 for Hawai'i. Because no peer-reviewed research on this topic exists, this paper has gathered together anecdotal accounts and media reports of illegal gambling in Hawai'i, the existence of Gamblers Anonymous meetings operating on some of the islands, and an account of workshops on problem gambling that were provided by the author on three Hawaiian Islands. Through these lenses of gambling in Hawai'i, it is suggested that there are residents in Hawai'i who do experience problem gambling, yet it is unknown to what extent. Nonetheless, this paper argues that research and perhaps a public health initiative are warranted.
Gambling is illegal in Hawai‘i, but it is accessible through technology (eg, the internet), inexpensive trips to Las Vegas, and illegal gaming such as lottery sales, internet gambling, and sports betting. Where there are opportunities to gamble, there is a probability that problem gambling exists. The social costs of gambling are estimated to be as high as $26,300,000 for Hawai‘i. Because no peer-reviewed research on this topic exists, this paper has gathered together anecdotal accounts and media reports of illegal gambling in Hawai‘i, the existence of Gamblers Anonymous meetings operating on some of the islands, and an account of workshops on problem gambling that were provided by the author on three Hawaiian Islands. Through these lenses of gambling in Hawai‘i, it is suggested that there are residents in Hawai‘i who do experience problem gambling, yet it is unknown to what extent. Nonetheless, this paper argues that research and perhaps a public health initiative are warranted. PMID:27011888
Williams, Robert J; Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki Joon
To establish the current prevalence of gambling and problem gambling in South Korea and to determine the associated demographic and game play patterns. Administration of a gambling survey over the phone to 4,000 randomly selected South Korean adults (19+), supplemented by an online survey of 4,330 members of a South Korean online panel. The past year prevalence of gambling among South Korean adults was 41.8 %. The past year engagement in individual forms of gambling was 36.2 % for lotteries and instant lotteries; 12.0 % for social gambling; 2.3 % for sports betting; 1.5 % for casino gambling; 1.5 % for internet gambling; and 1.1 % for horse, bicycle, or motor boat betting. The past year prevalence of problem gambling was 0.5 %. Logistic regression identified the best predictors of problem gambling to be: having a greater number of gambling fallacies; gambling on the internet; betting on horses, bicycling, or motor boat racing; social gambling; male gender; mental health problems; sports betting; motivation for gambling (gambling to escape); casino gambling; and lower income. The past year prevalence of gambling (41.8 %) and problem gambling (0.5 %) in South Korea is low compared to other countries, especially relative to other Asian jurisdictions. This relatively low prevalence of gambling is likely related to the very strong negative attitudes toward it, the low participation by females, and restricted access. The low prevalence of problem gambling is likely related to the relatively low prevalence of gambling and restricted access to continuous forms of gambling. The variables that are predictive of problem gambling in South Korea are quite similar to those found in other countries with a couple of important differences.
Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten
We compare several popular survey instruments for measuring gambling behavior and gambling propensity to assess if they differ in their classification of individuals in the general adult Danish population. We also examine correlations with standard survey instruments for alcohol use, anxiety......, depression and impulsivity. A feature of our design is that nobody was excluded on the basis of their response to a “trigger,” “gateway” or “diagnostic item” question about previous gambling history. Our sample consists of 8,405 adult Danes. We administered the Focal Adult Gambling Screen to all subjects...... and estimate prevalence of gambling problems using sample weights and controlling for sample selection. We find that 95.4% of the population has no detectable risk, 2.9% has an early risk, 0.8% has an intermediate risk, 0.7% has an advanced risk, and 0.2% can be classified as problem gamblers...
Starling, Randall; Blankenship, Jason; May, Philip; Woodall, Gill
Included in both the 1996 and 1998 Survey of Gambling Behavior in New Mexico was a scale of individual problem gambling. To assess problems related to gambling behavior, questions were developed using the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. The purpose of this paper is to describe problem gamblers in New Mexico. Descriptive data indicate…
Olason, Daniel Thor; Kristjansdottir, Elsa; Einarsdottir, Hafdis; Haraldsson, Haukur; Bjarnason, Geir; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.
This study reports findings on Internet gambling and problem gambling among Icelandic youth. Participants were 1.537 13-18 year-old students, 786 boys and 747 girls. Results revealed that 56.6% had gambled at least once in the past 12 months and 24.3% on the Internet. Gender and developmental differences were found for Internet gambling, as boys…
Revheim, Tevje; Buvik, Kristin
Working conditions for employees in the transport sector might present an opportunity structure for gambling by providing access to gambling during the workday. This study investigates connections between opportunity structure, gambling during the workday, and gambling problems among employees in the transport sector. Data has been collected from…
Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex; Hing, Nerilee
Background: Concerns that Internet gambling has elevated the prevalence of problem gambling have not been substantiated; however, evidence suggests a subgroup of Internet gamblers do experience higher rates of gambling harms. Greater overall involvement in gambling appears to be predictive of harms. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between Internet gamblers with a single or multiple online gambling accounts, including their gambling behaviours, factors influencing their online gambling and risk of experiencing gambling problems. Methods: Internet gamblers (3178) responding to an online survey that assessed their gambling behaviour, and use of single or multiple online gambling accounts. Results: Results revealed that multiple account holders were more involved gamblers, gambling on more activities and more frequently, and had higher rates of gambling problems than single account holders. Multiple account holders selected gambling sites based on price, betting options, payout rates and game experience, whereas single account holders prioritized legality and consumer protection features. Conclusion: Results suggest two different types of Internet gamblers: one motivated to move between sites to optimize preferred experiences with a tendency to gamble in a more volatile manner; and a smaller, but more stable group less influenced by promotions and experiences, and seeking a reputable and safe gambling experience. As the majority of Internet gamblers use multiple accounts, more universal responsible gambling strategies are needed to assist gamblers to track and control their expenditure to reduce risks of harm. PMID:25745873
Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex; Hing, Nerilee
Concerns that Internet gambling has elevated the prevalence of problem gambling have not been substantiated; however, evidence suggests a subgroup of Internet gamblers do experience higher rates of gambling harms. Greater overall involvement in gambling appears to be predictive of harms. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between Internet gamblers with a single or multiple online gambling accounts, including their gambling behaviours, factors influencing their online gambling and risk of experiencing gambling problems. Internet gamblers (3178) responding to an online survey that assessed their gambling behaviour, and use of single or multiple online gambling accounts. Results revealed that multiple account holders were more involved gamblers, gambling on more activities and more frequently, and had higher rates of gambling problems than single account holders. Multiple account holders selected gambling sites based on price, betting options, payout rates and game experience, whereas single account holders prioritized legality and consumer protection features. Results suggest two different types of Internet gamblers: one motivated to move between sites to optimize preferred experiences with a tendency to gamble in a more volatile manner; and a smaller, but more stable group less influenced by promotions and experiences, and seeking a reputable and safe gambling experience. As the majority of Internet gamblers use multiple accounts, more universal responsible gambling strategies are needed to assist gamblers to track and control their expenditure to reduce risks of harm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Hodgins, David C; Schopflocher, Don P; el-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Wood, Robert T
The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems was examined in a community sample of men and women (N = 1,372). As hypothesized, individuals with gambling problems reported greater childhood maltreatment than individuals without gambling problems. Childhood maltreatment predicted severity of gambling problems and frequency of gambling even when other individual and social factors were controlled including symptoms of alcohol and other drug use disorders, family environment, psychological distress, and symptoms of antisocial disorder. In contrast to findings in treatment-seeking samples, women with gambling problems did not report greater maltreatment than men with gambling problems. These results underscore the need for both increased prevention of childhood maltreatment and increased sensitivity towards trauma issues in gambling treatment programs for men and women.
Zaranek, Rochelle R; Lichtenberg, Peter A
This study examined gambling among older adults and explored the critical predictors of problem gambling behaviors. Relatively unknown and understudied is the extent, or prevalence, of problem gambling behaviors among urban elders and the factors associated with problem gambling. The sample consisted of 1410 randomly selected participants, aged 60 and older, who reside in the City of Detroit. Mental health, health, demographics, social activities, senior optimism, social support network, and frequency of casino visits were examined in order to predict problem gambling behaviors among elders. The survey implemented the Lie/Bet Questionnaire for Screening Probable pathological Gamblers. The results showed that the prevalence of problem gambling behaviors was 10.4% overall, and 18% of persons reporting any casino visitation. Predictors accounted for 16% of problem gambling behaviors. The findings from this study confirmed that gambling has the potential to become a serious health problem among elders. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Conclusions: For the majority of older adults, gambling remains a recreational activity that is entertaining and a way of socialization. However, one must remain cognizant of the possible risks for some to develop disordered gambling.
Hounslow, Vanessa; Smith, David; Battersby, Malcolm; Morefield, Kate
Problem gambling has become a widespread problem following the rapid expansion of electronic gaming machines into hotels and clubs over the last 10 years. Recent literature indicates that certain factors can influence problem gambling severity, such as psychiatric co-morbidity and personality traits, gambling related cognitions, substance use and…
Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina
Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…
Effertz, Tobias; Bischof, Anja; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich
Problematic and pathological gambling have emerged as substantial problems in many countries. One potential accelerating factor for this phenomenon during recent years is the Internet, which offers different kinds of games and online applications for gambling that are faster, more attractive due to a variety of design and marketing options, less costly and potentially more addictive than terrestrial gambling opportunities. However, the contributing role of the Internet for problematic gambling has not been analyzed sufficiently so far and remains inconclusive. The current study is based on a representative sample with 15,023 individuals from Germany. With a new concept of assessing online gambling with its relative fraction of total gambling activities and a control-function approach to account for possible endogeneity of online gambling, we estimate the impact of online gambling on gambling behavior while additionally controlling for a rich set of important covariates, like education, employment situation and family status. The results show that, on average, replacing 10% of offline gambling with online gambling increases the likelihood of being a problematic gambler by 8.8-12.6%. This increase is equivalent to 139,322 problematic gamblers and 27.24 million € per year of additional expenditures in the German health sector. Our findings underpin the necessity to keep online gambling restricted to prevent further developments of problematic and pathological gambling in Germany.
Weinberger, Andrea H; Franco, Christine A; Hoff, Rani A; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N
Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Analyses utilized survey data from 1591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weinberger, Andrea H.; Franco, Christine A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.
Background and Aims Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Methods Analyses utilized survey data from 1,591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. Results For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Discussion Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Conclusion Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. PMID:25959617
Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E
Despite the well-established association between problem gambling and ADHD core categories of impulsivity-hyperactivity and inattention, the link between parents' problem gambling and impulsivity-hyperactivity/inattention (IH/I) behaviors in children has not been investigated. This study investigated the association between parents' problem gambling and children's IH/I behaviors while controlling for potential confounding variables. A population-based prospective cohort followed-up from kindergarten to age 30, the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC), provided data over three generations. Among 1358 participants at age 30, parents with a child aged 1 year or older (N = 468; Mean age = 4.65 years; SD = 2.70) were selected. Generalized Linear Models included measures of grandparents' and parents' problem gambling, parents' IH/I behaviors in childhood, and a host of risk factors and comorbidities to predict IH/I in children. Intergenerational bivariate associations were observed between grandparents' problem gambling, parents' IH/I in childhood and problem gambling at age 30, and between parents' IH/I, problem gambling, and children's IH/I behaviors. Parents' problem gambling predicted children's IH/I behaviors above and beyond the effects of covariates such as family and socioeconomic characteristics, alcohol and drug use, depression symptoms and parents' gambling involvement. Parents' IH/I behaviors in childhood also predicted children's IH/I and had a moderating, enhancing effect on parents' problem gambling association with their offspring's IH/I behaviors. Problem gambling is a characteristic of parents' mental health that is distinctively associated with children's IH/I behaviors, above and beyond parents' own history of IH/I and of typically related addictive, psychopathological or socioeconomic risk factors and comorbidities.
Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Krieger, Heather; Tackett, Jennifer L; Neighbors, Clayton
The college years are a formative period where the risk for development of problematic gambling is high. Research examining racial and ethnic differences in gambling behaviors has been limited and inconsistent. The aims of this study were to examine racial and ethnic differences in problem gambling among a large sample of college students. Undergraduates (N = 3058) from a large southern university completed an online screening questionnaire which included demographics, gambling frequency, gambling expenditure (i.e. money lost) in the previous 6 months, and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Negative binomial regression results indicated that Asian participants gambled less frequently than participants who were Caucasian or Hispanic/Latino(a), but spent more money than participants who were African-American (AA)/Black or Hispanic/Latino(a). A significantly larger proportion of Asian students met probable pathological gambling criteria (SOGS 5+; 7.8 %) and at-risk gambling criteria (SOGS 3+; 16.3 %)) than Caucasian (5.2; 10.1 %), AA/Black (3.9; 10.2 %), or Hispanic/Latino(a) (3.6; 9.4 %) students. Additionally, a significantly larger proportion of Asian students endorsed problematic gambling indicators such as lying about losses, feeling guilty about gambling, feeling like they had a gambling problem, being criticized for their gambling, feeling like they couldn't stop gambling, losing time from school or work due to gambling, having a family history of problem gambling, and arguing with close others about their gambling than Caucasian, AA/Black or Hispanic/Latino(a) students. Results suggest that Asian students may be a high-risk sub-group of college gamblers, and that there is a critical need for targeted interventions for this population.
Wong, Gloria; Zane, Nolan; Saw, Anne; Chan, Alan Ka Ki
Gambling is fast becoming a public health problem in the United States, especially among emerging adults (18-25 year olds). Since 1995, rates have recently doubled with around 7-11 % of the emerging adult population having problems with gambling (Shaffer et al. in Am J Public Health 89(9):1369-1376, 1999; Cyders and Smith in Pers Individ Diff 45(6):503-508, 2008). Some states have lowered their gambling age to 18 years old; in turn, the gambling industry has recently oriented their market to target this younger population. However, little is known about the gender variation and the factors placing emerging adults at risk for getting engaged and developing problems with gambling. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors accounting for gender differences at the two levels of gambling involvement: engagement and problems. Mediation analyses revealed that impulsive coping and risk-taking were significant partial mediators for gender differences on engagement in gambling. Men took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping than women, and those who took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping were more likely to engage in gambling. Risk-taking and social anxiety were the significant mediators for gender differences in problems with gambling. Men took more risks and were more socially anxious than women, and greater risk-taking and more socially anxious individuals tended to have more problems with gambling. Implications for counseling preventions and intervention strategies are discussed.
Kyle R. Caler
Full Text Available Abstract A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341 to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394, Black (n = 261, or Asian/other (n = 177. Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Kushnir, Vladyslav; Godinho, Alexandra; Hodgins, David C; Hendershot, Christian S; Cunningham, John A
Most problem gamblers do not seek formal treatment, recovering on their own through cognitive re-appraisal or self-help strategies. Although barriers to treatment have been extensively studied, there is a paucity of research on self-directed changes in problem gambling and very few studies have examined these changes prospectively. The aim of this study was to examine the trajectory of gambling severity and behavior change over an 18-month period, among a sample of non-treatment seeking/attending problem gamblers recruited from the community (N = 204) interested in quitting or reducing gambling. Separate mixed effects models revealed that in absence of formal treatment, significant reductions in gambling severity, frequency, and amount gambled could be observed over the course of a 6 to 9-month period and that changes experienced within the first 12 months were maintained for an extended 6 months. Problem gambling severity at baseline was significantly associated with changes in severity over time, such that participants with more severe gambling problems demonstrated greater reductions in their gambling severity over time. A total of 11.1% of participants gambled within a low-risk threshold at 18 months, although 28.7% of the sample reported consecutive gambling severity scores below problem levels for the duration of 1 year or longer. The findings suggest that among problem gamblers motivated to quit or reduce their gambling, significant self-directed changes in gambling severity can occur over a relatively short time. Additional prospective studies are needed to document the role of specific self-help tools or thought processes in exacting gambling changes.
Tammi, Tuukka; Castrén, Sari; Lintonen, Tomi
To describe and analyse the Finnish gambling market, regulatory system and the state of gambling research as well as the treatment system in operation for problem gamblers. A review of the literature and official documents relating to gambling in Finland, focusing primarily on the 1990s and 2000s. Only in recent years have gambling problems become a major issue for public debate in Finland. One reason for the increase in activity to address gambling problems is that, after Finland became a member of the European Union in 1995, the Finnish state gambling monopoly and its compatibility with European Union (EU) regulations have been questioned repeatedly. Since 2000, the Finnish government has put significant new resources into the research as well as the prevention and treatment of gambling problems. The resources grew from almost nothing to several million Euros in less than 10 years. This could be seen as an attempt to protect the national gambling monopoly system by showing that the Finnish monopoly system meets EU requirements. Since joining the European Union in 1995, the Finnish government has been able to maintain its gambling monopoly by providing substantial resources to signal a commitment to minimizing problem gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Lee, Tae Kyung; Labrie, Richard A; Rhee, Hak Seung; Shaffer, Howard J
Casino employees are exposed to disproportionately high levels of gambling, drinking and smoking compared to other occupations. Because of their occupation, they have the opportunity to detect and prevent pathological gambling (PG). To identify differences in the mental health status and social attitudes towards PG among casino workers in South Korea depending upon whether they report any gambling problems. Data were collected from 388 full-time casino employees. This data provided information about the prevalence of gambling problems, alcohol and tobacco use and depression. Employees were grouped according to their scores on the Korean version of South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and those employees who gambled without experiencing any gambling problems (Group NP: SOGS = 0) and those who reported any gambling problems (Group P: SOGS > 0) were compared. An exploratory factor analyses identified the domains of casino employee social attitudes towards gambling. Employees who reported gambling problems (Group P) reported a higher prevalence of smoking, alcohol problems and depression (P casino employees with gambling problems.
Derrick Ssewanyana; Derrick Ssewanyana; Byron Bitanihirwe
Gambling is a cross-cultural and global activity which typically involves the wagering of money or an item of monetary value on an outcome that is governed by chance. Although gambling is positioned as a legitimate recreational and leisure activity within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), there is widespread recognition among healthcare professionals and policy-makers that gambling has the capacity to become dysfunctional in a minority. Emerging knowledge suggests that problem gambling is rapidly evo...
Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter
gambling behavior and problem gambling among Greenland Inuit in relation to the ongoing social transition and traumatic events during childhood. A large representative cross-sectional study was conducted among Greenland Inuit (n = 2,189). Data was collected among adults (18+) in 9 towns and 13 villages...... in Greenland from 2005 to 2010. Problem gambling, gambling behavior and traumatic childhood events were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. The lie/bet screen was used to identify past year and lifetime problem gambling. Social transition was measured as place of residence and a combination...... of residence, education and occupation. The lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 16 % among men and 10 % among women (p ...
Fong, Timothy W.; Campos, Michael D.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Davis, Alice; Marco, Adrienne; Pecanha, Viviane; Rosenthal, Richard J.
Relatively few studies have examined gambling problems among individuals in a casino setting. The current study sought to examine the prevalence of gambling problems among a sample of casino patrons and examine alcohol and tobacco use, health status, and quality of life by gambling problem status. To these ends, 176 casino patrons were recruited by going to a Southern California casino and requesting that they complete an anonymous survey. Results indicated the following lifetime rates for at...
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T
Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, -0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling.
This paper seeks to provide a historical overview of gambling and contemporary anti-gambling legislation in India. Based on a review of available literature, including historical sources, publications in the lay press and internet sources, this paper draws together evidence to present a synopsis of gambling and anti-gambling measures from antiquity to present times. Gambling is a popular pastime and has been a ubiquitous part of daily life from antiquity until the present. Archaic laws, framed in the 19th century, still regulate gambling in India, with a formal ban on most forms of gambling. This has created a huge illegal gambling market, with its attendant problems. Recent developments, including an explosion of sports betting operations (especially in cricket) and internet betting sites, are challenging the status quo and leading to calls for legalizing gambling. Concern for the consequences of pathological/ problem gambling is conspicuous by its absence in popular discourse and academic research. Despite the importance and longevity of the practice of gambling in the daily life of India, and the opposition to it, due to the potential for individual and societal harm there is a surprising lack of contemporary curiosity and scholarly literature on pathological gambling from the region. The prohibitions against gambling are being increasingly challenged to change to a system of legalized gambling. To inform and guide public policy and future legislation, there is a serious need to initiate rational, scientific enquiries into the nature and impact of gambling in India. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.
LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; Gray, Heather M
The "involvement effect" refers to the finding that controlling for gambling involvement often reduces or eliminates frequently observed game-specific associations with problem gambling. In other words, broader patterns of gambling behavior, particularly the number of types of games played over a defined period, contribute more to problem gambling than playing specific games (e.g., lottery, casino, Internet gambling). This study extends this burgeoning area of inquiry in three primary ways. First, it tests independently and simultaneously the predictive power of two gambling patterns: breadth involvement (i.e., the number of games an individual plays) and depth involvement (i.e., the number of days an individual plays). Second, it includes the first involvement analyses of actual betting activity records that are associated with clinical screening information. Third, it evaluates and compares the linearity of breadth and depth effects. We conducted analyses of the actual gambling activity of 1,440 subscribers to the bwin.party gambling service who completed an online gambling disorder screen. In all, 11 of the 16 games we examined had a significant univariate association with a positive screen for gambling disorder. However, after controlling for breadth involvement, only Live Action Internet sports betting retained a significant relationship with potential gambling-related problems. Depth involvement, though significantly related to potential problems, did not impact game-based gambling disorder associations as much as breadth involvement. Finally, breadth effects appeared steeply linear, with a slight quadratic component manifesting beyond four games played, but depth effects appeared to have a strong linear component and a slight cubic component.
Sullivan, Sean; McCormick, Ross; Lamont, Michael; Penfold, Alison
To identify the health effects, including depression, on problem gambling patients and family members, and their perception of their GP as a help provider for problem gambling. 1580 patients from practices in Auckland, Taranaki, and Rotorua completed an anonymous questionnaire containing brief screens for problem gambling, effects on family of gambling, and depression. Patients were asked to assess their GP as a help provider for problem gambling. 7.5% of patients were positive for problem gambling, ranging from 3% of NZ European patients to 24% of Pacific patients; 18% of patients were affected by another's gambling. Less than one in four problem gambling patients, and one in three family positives, did not perceive their GP as a suitable help provider for problem gambling issues. Problem gambling patients were more likely than other patients to approve their GP as a help-provider. Patients affected by problem gambling were more depressed than other patients. No other disease indicators were found. Patients over 54 years are less likely than others to be problem gamblers. Problem gambling is associated with depression in patients. GPs are an important complementary resource for brief interventions for gambling problems, and for some possibly a more acceptable alternative than attending specialist problem gambling treatment providers.
Koić, Elvira; Filaković, Pavo; Djordjević, Veljko; Nadj, Sanea
Gambling or gaming is a common term for a group of various games, activities and behavior that involve wagering money on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning additional money, i.e., a player risks and hopes to get back what he/she had gambled, or to win more. When the player is unable to resist impulses to gamble, and gambling behavior harmfully affects him or the others, then he/she is suffering from the so called "pathological gambling", which is one of six categories of the "Impulse control disorders" in the International Classification of Diseases. Since, at present, there is no standardized program and approach to the problem of gambling in Croatia, and having in mind the arising accessibility and popularity of the "games of chance", the authors are presenting seven cases of problem and pathological gambling and call for broad public discussion on the problem from medical-psychiatric and forensic-point of view. The first patient was treated on an outpatient basis with cognitive-behavioral and family therapy for problem gambling; for the second patient was treated for impulse control disorders; for the third patient gambling was a symptom of psychotic form of depressive disorder; the fourth had primary diagnosis of personality disorder; and the fifth patient was prosecuted for armed robbery and evaluated by a psychiatric expert. The sixth and the seventh patients were women suffering from primary bipolar affective and major depressive disorder, respectively. The authors conclude that, due to the size of the problem and its consequences, the prevention of pathological gambling is very important. The prevention can be carried out primarily through screening at the school level and primary health care services, whereas secondary screening may be conducted through the system of psychiatric care. It is recommended to invest into research, education of a wider population, and development of preventive programs.
McKeith, Charles F A; Rock, Adam J; Clark, Gavin I
In Australia, poker-machine gamblers represent a disproportionate number of problem gamblers. To cultivate a greater understanding of the psychological mechanisms involved in poker-machine gambling, a repeated measures cue-reactivity protocol was administered. A community sample of 38 poker-machine gamblers was assessed for problem-gambling severity and trait mindfulness. Participants were also assessed regarding altered state of awareness (ASA) and urge to gamble at baseline, following a neutral cue, and following a gambling cue. Results indicated that: (a) urge to gamble significantly increased from neutral cue to gambling cue, while controlling for baseline urge; (b) cue-reactive ASA did not significantly mediate the relationship between problem-gambling severity and cue-reactive urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue); (c) trait mindfulness was significantly negatively associated with both problem-gambling severity and cue-reactive urge (i.e., from neutral cue to gambling cue, while controlling for baseline urge); and (d) trait mindfulness did not significantly moderate the effect of problem-gambling severity on cue-reactive urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue). This is the first study to demonstrate a negative association between trait mindfulness and cue-reactive urge to gamble in a population of poker-machine gamblers. Thus, this association merits further evaluation both in relation to poker-machine gambling and other gambling modalities.
Fong, Timothy W; Campos, Michael D; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Davis, Alice; Marco, Adrienne; Pecanha, Viviane; Rosenthal, Richard J
Relatively few studies have examined gambling problems among individuals in a casino setting. The current study sought to examine the prevalence of gambling problems among a sample of casino patrons and examine alcohol and tobacco use, health status, and quality of life by gambling problem status. To these ends, 176 casino patrons were recruited by going to a Southern California casino and requesting that they complete an anonymous survey. Results indicated the following lifetime rates for at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling: 29.2, 10.7, and 29.8%. Differences were found with regards to gambling behavior, and results indicated higher rates of smoking among individuals with gambling problems, but not higher rates of alcohol use. Self-rated quality of life was lower among pathological gamblers relative to non-problem gamblers, but did not differ from at-risk or problem gamblers. Although subject to some limitations, our data support the notion of higher frequency of gambling problems among casino patrons and may suggest the need for increased interventions for gambling problems on-site at casinos.
Parke, Adrian; Griffiths, Mark; Pattinson, Julie; Keatley, David
Background To inform clinical treatment and preventative efforts, there is an important need to understand the pathways to late-life gambling disorder. Aims This study assesses the association between age-related physical health, social networks, and problem gambling in adults aged over 65 years and assesses the mediating role of affective disorders in this association. Methods The sample comprised 595 older adults (mean age: 74.4 years, range: 65-94 years; 77.1% female) who were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to assess physical frailty, geriatric pain, loneliness, geriatric depression, geriatric anxiety, and problem gambling. Results Pathway analysis demonstrated associations between these variables and gambling problems, providing a good fit for the data, but that critically these relationships were mediated by both anxiety and depression symptoms. Conclusions This study indicates that late-life problem gambling may develop as vulnerable individuals gamble to escape anxiety and depression consequent to deteriorating physical well-being and social support. When individuals develop late-life problem gambling, it is recommended that the treatment primarily focuses upon targeting and replacing avoidant coping approaches.
Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.
According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study…
Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter
Aims: An increase in social pathologies is a key feature in indigenous populations undergoing transition. The Greenland Inuit are a large indigenous population constituting a majority in their own country, which makes it possible to investigate differences within the population. This led us to st...... of social pathologies in Greenland. A significant association between lifetime problem gambling, social transition and traumatic childhood events suggests people caught between tradition and modern ways of life are more vulnerable to gambling problems....... was measured as place of residence and a combination of residence, education and occupation. Findings: The lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 16% among men and 10% among women (p
Kryszajtys, David T; Hahmann, Tara E; Schuler, Andrée; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Ziegler, Carolyn P; Matheson, Flora I
Despite many studies indicating an association between problem gambling and delinquent behaviours among adolescents, there has been no effort to systematically analyze the state of the literature on this relationship. To fill this gap, we conducted a scoping review of the literature published between 2000 and 2016 on problem gambling and delinquent behaviours among adolescents. We searched twelve databases and reviewed reference lists to identify eligible studies. Search terms included a combination of medical subject headings and keywords for gambling, youth, and delinquency, which were combined with the Boolean operator "AND". 1795 studies were identified through the literature search. Nine studies were eligible for inclusion. All of the studies were conducted in North America, with primarily male participants, and most of the data were cross-sectional. No qualitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Screening tools used to measure problem gambling were inconsistent, making comparisons across studies difficult. We found a consistent moderate to strong association between problem gambling and delinquent behaviour. Only one study presented associations by socio-economic status and none considered gender, sex or ethnic differences. Studies in the review showed that problem gambling is associated with both violent and non-violent behaviours among adolescents. These associations may suggest that problem gambling and delinquent behaviours have common risk factors and reflect a syndrome of risky behaviours best targeted through prevention and treatment that is holistic and considers the context in which the youth is situated. Further research is warranted to better understand the relationship between problem gambling and delinquent behaviours.
van der Maas, Mark; Mann, Robert E; McCready, John; Matheson, Flora I; Turner, Nigel E; Hamilton, Hayley A; Schrans, Tracy; Ialomiteanu, Anca
As older adults continue to make up a greater proportion of the Canadian population, it becomes more important to understand the implications that their leisure activities have for their physical and mental health. Gambling, in particular, is a form of leisure that is becoming more widely available and has important implications for the mental health and financial well-being of older adults. This study examines a large sample (2103) of casino-going Ontarian adults over the age of 55 and identifies those features of their gambling participation that are associated with problem gambling. Logistic regression analysis is used to analyze the data. Focusing on types of gambling participated in and motivations for visiting the casino, this study finds that several forms of gambling and motivations to gamble are associated with greater risk of problem gambling. It also finds that some motivations are associated with lower risk of problem gambling. The findings of this study have implications related to gambling availability within an aging population.
This study qualitatively explored the impact of gambling advertising on problem gambling by interviewing twenty-five people with current or past gambling problems. Interviews were relatively long and involved the participants' viewing numerous examples of gambling advertising. A quarter of the participants reported that gambling advertising had no…
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Harry Yi-Jui
This study provides a systematic review of existing research that has evaluated unique gambling experiences in Taiwan. A comprehensive review of electronic databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Chinese Electronic Periodical Services and the Index to Taiwan Periodical Literature System, was conducted to identify evaluations of gambling experiences in Taiwan. Studies that met inclusion criteria were synthesized and assessed. Various types of gambling are prevalent in Taiwan, even though the laws of Taiwan forbid illegal gambling. Both traditional and novel types of gambling have brought adverse impacts to Taiwanese people in multiple aspects of everyday life. The strategies and attitudes of the government towards gambling have been forced to change as gambling has flourished. Various types of gambling have developed in Taiwan in response to social, economic and cultural changes over time. The psychological aspects of gambling, however, need further study to provide fundamental information for developing intervention models for pathological gambling. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Nower, Lia; Caler, Kyle R; Pickering, Dylan; Blaszczynski, Alex
Studies point to a relationship between fantasy sports/daily fantasy sports (DFS) play and gambling behavior. However, little is known about the nature of those relationships, particularly regarding the development of gambling problems. This study investigates the nature, frequency, and preferences of gambling behavior as well as problem gambling severity and comorbid conditions among DFS players. Data were collected from an epidemiologic survey of 3634 New Jersey residents on gambling and leisure activities. Participants were contacted by phone (land-line and cell) and online to obtain a representative, cross-sectional sample of non-institutionalized adults, aged 18 years or older. Excluding non-gamblers, the remaining 2146 participants, included in these analyses, indicated they had either played DFS (n = 299) or had gambled but not played DFS (1847) in the past year. Univariate comparisons and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the most significant characteristics and predictors of DFS players. Overall, a higher number of gambling activities, high frequency gambling, male gender, and reports of suicidal thoughts in the past year were most predictive of DFS players. Being Hispanic (vs. Caucasian) and/or single (vs. married or living with a partner) also doubled the odds of DFS play. Findings suggest that DFS players are characterized by high gambling frequency and problem severity and comorbid problems, notably suicidal ideation. Future research should examine the motivations and possible etiological sub-types of DFS players and the nature and course of DFS play, particularly in relation to gambling behavior and the development of gambling and other problems.
Zhang, Wenli; Everts, Hans
Ethnic Chinese migrants in a country like New Zealand face a range of well-documented challenges. A proportion of such migrants find that recreational gambling turns into a pernicious gambling problem. This issue is addressed through illustrated case studies of Interactive Drawing Therapy, a drawing-based modality of therapy that facilitates…
Chiu, Eddie Yu-Wai; Woo, Kent
This preliminary study examined the characteristics and risk factors of problem gambling among Chinese American adolescents. A total of 192 Chinese American students (aged 13-19) from 9th to 12th grades were recruited from three high schools in San Francisco, California. Students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for…
Phillips, James G.; Ogeil, Rowan P.; Blaszczynski, Alex
Multiple computing devices continue to develop capabilities that support online gambling, resulting in the need to evaluate the extent that this trend will contribute to gambling problems. A sample of 1,141 participants completed an online survey assessing interest in and difficulties limiting use of digital services. Questionnaire items measured…
Jamieson, John; Mazmanian, Dwight; Penney, Alexander; Black, Nancy; Nguyen, An
An existing database was used to compare problem gamblers (N = 138) who presented for treatment of their gambling problem to two other groups: alcohol and/or drug addiction clients who also had a gambling problem (N = 280) or who did not have a gambling problem (N = 2178). Clients with gambling as their primary problem were more likely to be…
Ellis, Jennifer D; Lister, Jamey J; Struble, Cara A; Cairncross, Molly; Carr, Meagan M; Ledgerwood, David M
Individuals with gambling disorder are at an elevated risk for engaging in gambling-related illegal behaviors. The present study examined client (N = 88) and clinician ratings (N = 30) of client characteristics associated with a history of gambling-related illegal behaviors. We also examined client characteristics associated with history of arrest for a gambling-related crime. Gambling-related illegal behaviors and arrest were common (57.3% and 23.9%, respectively) in the present sample. Clients of younger age, and those with greater gambling-related financial consequences, lifetime alcohol problems, impulsivity, mood symptoms, and daily living role difficulties were more likely to report gambling-related illegal behaviors. Clients who had been arrested for a gambling-related crime were more likely to report daily living and role functioning difficulties and lifetime alcohol problems. Clinicians rated clients with a history of gambling-related illegal behaviors and/or gambling-related arrests as more impulsive, and clinicians also endorsed higher rates of treatment failure among these clients. Both client and clinician report suggested that clients with a history of illegal behaviors may have a variety of comorbid problems that may be a focus of clinical intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ssewanyana, Derrick; Bitanihirwe, Byron
Gambling is a cross-cultural and global activity which typically involves the wagering of money or an item of monetary value on an outcome that is governed by chance. Although gambling is positioned as a legitimate recreational and leisure activity within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), there is widespread recognition among healthcare professionals and policy-makers that gambling has the capacity to become dysfunctional in a minority. Emerging knowledge suggests that problem gambling is rapidly evolving in to a public health concern in SSA, especially among youth. This article focuses on problem gambling among young people in SSA with an emphasis on three key themes: (1) gambling behavior and patterns in SSA; (2) public health and socioeconomic implications of gambling in SSA; and (3) public health policies and interventions for addressing this issue. We believe that collaborative efforts between government, prevention specialists, legislators, researchers, treatment providers, and other stake holders can influence the uptake of research findings necessary to implement social policies and design effective public health intervention options to combat problem gambling and its associated implications among young people in SSA.
Full Text Available Gambling is a cross-cultural and global activity which typically involves the wagering of money or an item of monetary value on an outcome that is governed by chance. Although gambling is positioned as a legitimate recreational and leisure activity within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, there is widespread recognition among healthcare professionals and policy-makers that gambling has the capacity to become dysfunctional in a minority. Emerging knowledge suggests that problem gambling is rapidly evolving in to a public health concern in SSA, especially among youth. This article focuses on problem gambling among young people in SSA with an emphasis on three key themes: (1 gambling behavior and patterns in SSA; (2 public health and socioeconomic implications of gambling in SSA; and (3 public health policies and interventions for addressing this issue. We believe that collaborative efforts between government, prevention specialists, legislators, researchers, treatment providers, and other stake holders can influence the uptake of research findings necessary to implement social policies and design effective public health intervention options to combat problem gambling and its associated implications among young people in SSA.
González-Roz, Alba; Fernández-Hermida, José R; Weidberg, Sara; Martínez-Loredo, Victor; Secades-Villa, Roberto
The high availability and accessibility of online gambling have recently caused public concern regarding the potential increase of gambling-related problems among young people. Nonetheless, few studies among adults and none among adolescents have explored specific characteristics of gamblers as a function of gambling venues to date. This study sought to analyze the prevalence of gambling among a sample of adolescents in the last year, as well as sociodemographic and gambling-related characteristics as possible predictors of at-risk and problem gambling. The sample comprised 1313 adolescents aged 14-18 years. Participants were asked to respond to several questions regarding their gambling behavior. Chi square and ANOVA tests were performed in order to explore differences between groups, and a set of multinomial regressions established significant severity predictors. The prevalence of at-risk and problem gambling was 4 and 1.2 %, respectively. Regression analyses showed that having a relative with gambling problems predicted at-risk gambling. Both living with only one parent or not living with parents at all, and the prevalence of Electronic Gambling Machines in the last year were associated with problem gambling. Mixed-mode gambling was a predictor of both at-risk and problem gambling. Our findings extend previous research on gambling among adolescents by exploring gambling behavior according to different modes of access. Although the prevalence of exclusive online gambling among the total sample was low, these results support the need to consider specific subgroups of gamblers and their concrete related features when conducting both indicated prevention and treatment protocols for adolescents.
Salonen, Anne H; Alho, Hannu; Castrén, Sari
This study compares past-year gambling frequency, gambling problems and concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers in Finland by age, from 2007 and 2011. We used random sample data collected in 2007 (n = 4722) and 2011 (n = 4484). The data were weighted, based on gender, age and region of residence. We measured the past-year gambling frequency using a categorical variable, while gambling severity was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen. We identified CSOs by a single question including seven response options. Chi-Squared and Fisher's exact tests were used. Overall, the past-year gambling frequency change was statistically significant between 2007 and 2011. Among 18-64-year-old Finnish people, the proportion of non-gamblers decreased. Yet, among 15-17-year-old respondents, non-gambling increased and gambling problems decreased. Among 18-24 year olds, the proportion of close ones with gambling problems also decreased. On the other hand, the proportion of family members with gambling problems increased among the 50-64 year olds. The increase in adult gambling participation was mainly explained by infrequent gambling. The proportion of gambling problems from the gamblers' and CSOs' perspective remained unchanged, yet significant changes were observed within age groups. The short-term changes in under-age gambling problems were desirable. Future studies should explore the adaptation and access hypotheses alongside gambling problems. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Lane, Wendy; Sacco, Paul; Downton, Katherine; Ludeman, Emilie; Levy, Lauren; Tracy, J Kathleen
This study systematically reviews research on child maltreatment and risk of gambling problems in adulthood. It also reviews adult problem gamblers' risk of abusing or neglecting their own children. Multiple database searches were conducted using pre-defined search terms related to gambling and child abuse and neglect. We identified 601 unique references and excluded studies if they did not report original research, or did not specifically measure child maltreatment or gambling. Twelve studies that included multivariable analysis of childhood maltreatment exposure and problem gambling were identified. Six of seven studies examining childhood sexual abuse and four of five examining physical abuse showed a significant positive association between abuse and later gambling problems (odds ratios for sexual abuse 2.01-3.65; physical abuse 2.3-2.8). Both studies examining psychological maltreatment and two of three examining neglect identified positive associations with problem gambling. In most studies, risks were reduced or eliminated when controlling for other mental health disorders. The three studies measuring risk of child abuse and neglect among current problem gamblers suggest an increased risk for child physical abuse and medical conditions indicative of neglect although there is a considerable amount of variation among studies. Child abuse is associated with increased risk of gambling problems - gambling treatment providers should ask about maltreatment history as part of their clinical assessment. Problem gamblers may be more likely to physically abuse or neglect their children, but data here are more limited. Child welfare professionals should consider asking questions about parental gambling when assessing family risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yip, Sarah W.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.
In adults, different levels of gambling problem severity are differentially associated with measures of health and general functioning, gambling behaviors and gambling-related motivations. Here we present data from a survey of 2,484 Connecticut high school students, and investigate the data stratifying by gambling problem severity based on DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Problem/pathological gambling was associated with a range of negative functions; e.g., poor academic performance, substance use, dysphoria/depression, and aggression. These findings suggest a need for improved interventions related to adolescent gambling and a need for additional research into the relationship (e.g., mediating factors) between gambling and risk and protective behaviors. PMID:21999494
Farstad, Sarah M; von Ranson, Kristin M; Hodgins, David C; El-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Schopflocher, Don P
This study investigated the degree to which facets of impulsiveness predicted future binge eating and problem gambling, 2 theorized forms of behavioral addiction. Participants were 596 women and 406 men from 4 age cohorts randomly recruited from a Canadian province. Participants completed self-report measures of 3 facets of impulsiveness (negative urgency, sensation seeking, lack of persistence), binge-eating frequency, and problem-gambling symptoms. Impulsiveness was assessed at baseline, and assessments of binge eating and problem gambling were followed up after 3 years. Weighted data were analyzed using zero-inflated negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found evidence of transdiagnostic and disorder-specific predictors of binge eating and problem gambling. Negative urgency emerged as a common predictor of binge eating and problem gambling among women and men. There were disorder-specific personality traits identified among men only: High lack-of-persistence scores predicted binge eating and high sensation-seeking scores predicted problem gambling. Among women, younger age predicted binge eating and older age predicted problem gambling. Thus, there are gender differences in facets of impulsiveness that longitudinally predict binge eating and problem gambling, suggesting that treatments for these behaviors should consider gender-specific personality and demographic traits in addition to the common personality trait of negative urgency. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Costes, Jean-Michel; Kairouz, Sylvia; Monson, Eva; Eroukmanoff, Vincent
Lotteries are one of the most prevalent forms of gambling and generate substantial state revenues. They are also argued to be one of the least harmful forms of gambling. This paper is one of the first to examine exclusive lottery gamblers and compares their gambling patterns and problems as well other associated risky behaviours to those who are not exclusive lottery gamblers. Data were derived from two large surveys conducted with representative adult samples in France (n = 15,635) and Québec (n = 23,896). Participants were separated into two groups: exclusive lottery gamblers (ELGs) and non-exclusive lottery gamblers. Using multivariate analysis, study results reveal that ELGs, who represent two thirds of gamblers, generally exhibit less intensive gambling patterns and are less likely to report other risky behaviours. However, harms associated with moderate risk and problem gambling are found to be concentrated in specific subpopulations for both groups, primarily males, older individuals, and those who report lower income and education level. Given widespread participation in lotteries and concentration of harm within specific subgroups, these findings point to the need for prevention efforts despite the lower levels of harm associated with lottery gambling.
Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne
. This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...... in individuals with exacerbated pathological gambling symptoms. These findings may have important implications for detecting behaviors underlying pathological gambling....
Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Hing, Nerilee; Wood, Robert; Blaszczynski, Alex
Numerous studies have reported higher rates of gambling problems among Internet compared with non-Internet gamblers. However, little research has examined those at risk of developing gambling problems or overall gambling involvement. This study aimed to examine differences between problem and moderate-risk gamblers among Internet and non-Internet gamblers to determine the mechanisms for how Internet gambling may contribute to gambling problems. Australian gamblers (N = 6,682) completed an online survey that included measures of gambling participation, problem gambling severity, and help seeking. Compared with non-Internet gamblers, Internet gamblers were younger, engaged in a greater number of gambling activities, and were more likely to bet on sports. These differences were significantly greater for problem than moderate-risk gamblers. Non-Internet gamblers were more likely to gamble on electronic gaming machines, and a significantly higher proportion of problem gamblers participated in this gambling activity. Non-Internet gamblers were more likely to report health and psychological impacts of problem gambling and having sought help for gambling problems. Internet gamblers who experience gambling-related harms appear to represent a somewhat different group from non-Internet problem and moderate-risk gamblers. This has implications for the development of treatment and prevention programs, which are often based on research that does not cater for differences between subgroups of gamblers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex; Tolchard, Barry; Nower, Lia
Differences in problem gambling rates between males and females suggest that associated risk factors vary by gender. Previous combined analyses of male and female gambling may have obscured these distinctions. This study aimed to develop separate risk factor models for gambling problems for males and for females, and identify gender-based similarities and differences. It analysed data from the largest prevalence study in Victoria Australia (N = 15,000). Analyses determined factors differentiating non-problem from at-risk gamblers separately for women and men, then compared genders using interaction terms. Separate multivariate analyses determined significant results when controlling for all others. Variables included demographics, gambling behaviour, gambling motivations, money management, and mental and physical health. Significant predictors of at-risk status amongst female gamblers included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on private betting, electronic gaming machines (EGMs), scratch tickets or bingo, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. For males, risk factors included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, low education, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on EGMs, table games, races, sports or lotteries, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. High risk groups requiring appropriate interventions comprise young adults, especially males; middle-aged female EGM gamblers; non-English speaking populations; frequent EGM, table games, race and sports gamblers; and gamblers motivated by escape.
Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda
Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events.
Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Oei, Tian Po
This study aimed to delineate various pathways whereby cognitive and emotional vulnerabilities triggered by stress would lead to disruptive gambling. A multiple mediation framework was proposed to specify that gambling cognition and subjective well-being would mediate the influence of perceived stress on problem gambling. The cross-cultural validity of the proposed framework was examined with 132 White gamblers in Australia and 154 Chinese gamblers in China. They completed psychological scales on perceived stress, gambling expectancy bias, gambling refusal efficacy, negative affect, life satisfaction, and problem gambling. Compared to Chinese gamblers, White gamblers reported higher levels of perceived stress, gambling expectancy bias, and problem gambling as well as more pervasive negative affect and lower levels of life satisfaction. Results showed that the proposed multiple mediation framework fit the data better than two alternative plausible models. Life satisfaction and gambling refusal efficacy were two consistent mediators across White and Chinese gamblers. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Abbott, Max; Hodgins, David C; Bellringer, Maria; Vandal, Alain C; Palmer Du Preez, Katie; Landon, Jason; Sullivan, Sean; Rodda, Simone; Feigin, Valery
Problem gambling is a significant public health issue world-wide. There is substantial investment in publicly funded intervention services, but limited evaluation of effectiveness. This study investigated three brief telephone interventions to determine whether they were more effective than standard helpline treatment in helping people to reduce gambling. Randomized clinical trial. National gambling helpline in New Zealand. A total of 462 adults with problem gambling. INTERVENTIONS AND COMPARATOR: (1) Single motivational interview (MI), (2) single motivational interview plus cognitive-behavioural self-help workbook (MI + W) and (3) single motivational interview plus workbook plus four booster follow-up telephone interviews (MI + W + B). Comparator was helpline standard care [treatment as usual (TAU)]. Blinded follow-up was at 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes were days gambled, dollars lost per day and treatment goal success. There were no differences across treatment arms, although participants showed large reductions in gambling during the 12-month follow-up period [mean reduction of 5.5 days, confidence interval (CI) = 4.8, 6.2; NZ$38 lost ($32, $44; 80.6%), improved (77.2%, 84.0%)]. Subgroup analysis revealed improved days gambled and dollars lost for MI + W + B over MI or MI + W for a goal of reduction of gambling (versus quitting) and improvement in dollars lost by ethnicity, gambling severity and psychological distress (all P gambling severity than TAU or MI at 12 months and also better for those with higher psychological distress and lower self-efficacy to MI (all P gambling in New Zealand, brief telephone interventions are associated with changes in days gambling and dollars lost similar to more intensive interventions, suggesting that more treatment is not necessarily better than less. Some client subgroups, in particular those with greater problem severity and greater distress, achieve better outcomes when they receive more
Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.
School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and…
Elda Mei Lo Chan
Full Text Available Abstract Despite substantial evidence that problem gambling is associated with a wide range of family difficulties, limited effort has been devoted to studying the negative impacts on family members as a result of problem gambling and how they cope and function under the impacts of problem gambling in Chinese communities. Among the very few Chinese-specific gambling-related family impact studies, none have examined how gambling-related family coping responses are related to gambling-related family impacts. Based on a sample of treatment-seeking Chinese family members of problem gamblers, this study aimed to explore: (1 the demographic characteristics and health and psychological well-being of the family members; (2 the gambling-related family member impacts (active disturbance, worrying behavior; (3 the family coping strategies (engaged, tolerant-inactive and withdrawal coping; (4 the relationship between gambling-related family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. It was hypothesized that positive significant relationships would be found between family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. From March 2011 to February 2012, a total of 103 family members of problem gamblers who sought help from Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Even Centre in Hong Kong were interviewed. Results showed that a majority of family members were partners or ex-partners of the gambler with low or no income. A large proportion of participants reported moderate to high psychological distress (72.6 %, poor to fair general health (60.2 %, and poor to neither good nor bad quality of life (61.1 %. Family member impacts were positively significantly correlated to all family coping strategies and psychological distress. Tolerant-inactive coping had the strongest relationships with family member impacts and psychological distress. Strong relationships between family member impacts and psychological distress were also
Megan E. Cowie
Full Text Available Gamblers’ cognitive distortions are thought to be an important mechanism involved in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. The Gambling Cognitions Inventory (GCI evaluates two categories of distortions: beliefs that one is lucky (i.e., “Luck/Chance” and beliefs that one has special gambling-related skills (i.e., “Skill/Attitude”. Prior psychometric evaluations of the GCI demonstrated the utility of both subscales as measures of distortions and their concurrent relations to gambling problems among Canadian gamblers. However, these associations have not yet been studied in gamblers from other cultures nor have relationships between the GCI and indices of gambling behavior been investigated. In addition, the predictive validity of the GCI scales have not been evaluated in studies to date. The present study investigated the validity of the GCI as a measure of cognitive distortions in a sample of 49 Dutch gamblers by examining its concurrent and prospective relationships to both gambling problems (as measured through a standardized nine-item questionnaire assessing gambling-related problems and behaviors (as measured through two variables: days spent gambling and time spent gambling in minutes at baseline and over 1-month and 6-month intervals. The GCI subscales were internally consistent at all timepoints, and moderately to strongly inter-correlated at all timepoints. Each subscale correlated with an independent dimension of gambling both concurrently and prospectively: Luck/Chance was related to greater gambling problems and Skill/Attitude was related to greater gambling behavior. Thus, the two GCI subscales, while inter-correlated, appear to be related to different gambling outcomes, at least among Dutch gamblers. Moreover, the first evidence of the predictive validity of the GCI scales was demonstrated over a 1-month and 6-month interval. It is recommended that both types of cognitive distortions be considered in research
Cowie, Megan E; Stewart, Sherry H; Salmon, Joshua; Collins, Pam; Al-Hamdani, Mohammed; Boffo, Marilisa; Salemink, Elske; de Jong, David; Smits, Ruby; Wiers, Reinout W
Gamblers' cognitive distortions are thought to be an important mechanism involved in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. The Gambling Cognitions Inventory (GCI) evaluates two categories of distortions: beliefs that one is lucky (i.e., "Luck/Chance") and beliefs that one has special gambling-related skills (i.e., "Skill/Attitude"). Prior psychometric evaluations of the GCI demonstrated the utility of both subscales as measures of distortions and their concurrent relations to gambling problems among Canadian gamblers. However, these associations have not yet been studied in gamblers from other cultures nor have relationships between the GCI and indices of gambling behavior been investigated. In addition, the predictive validity of the GCI scales have not been evaluated in studies to date. The present study investigated the validity of the GCI as a measure of cognitive distortions in a sample of 49 Dutch gamblers by examining its concurrent and prospective relationships to both gambling problems (as measured through a standardized nine-item questionnaire assessing gambling-related problems) and behaviors (as measured through two variables: days spent gambling and time spent gambling in minutes) at baseline and over 1-month and 6-month intervals. The GCI subscales were internally consistent at all timepoints, and moderately to strongly inter-correlated at all timepoints. Each subscale correlated with an independent dimension of gambling both concurrently and prospectively: Luck/Chance was related to greater gambling problems and Skill/Attitude was related to greater gambling behavior . Thus, the two GCI subscales, while inter-correlated, appear to be related to different gambling outcomes, at least among Dutch gamblers. Moreover, the first evidence of the predictive validity of the GCI scales was demonstrated over a 1-month and 6-month interval. It is recommended that both types of cognitive distortions be considered in research and clinical practice
Laursen, Bjarne; Plauborg, Rikke; Ekholm, Ola
This study compares the number of criminal charges among problem gamblers (N = 384) and non-problem gamblers including non-gamblers (N = 18,241) and examines whether problem gambling is more strongly associated with income-generating crimes like theft, fraud and forgery than other types of crimes...
Clarke, Dave; Clarkson, Joanne
Little is known about the relative importance of older problem gamblers' motives for gambling. A questionnaire consisting of demographic items, questions about gambling behavior, the past year Revised South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS-R), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Gambling Motivation Scale (GMS), was completed by a…
Thomas, Anna Christina; Sullivan, Gavin Brent; Allen, Felicity Catherine Louise
Although electronic gaming machine (EGM) gambling is established as a particularly risky form of gambling (Dowling, Smith and Thomas, "Addiction" 100:33-45, 2005), models of problem gambling continue to be generalist so factors and processes specific to EGM gambling can be overlooked. This study conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 EGM…
Dowling, Nicki A; Shandley, Kerrie A; Oldenhof, Erin; Affleck, Julia M; Youssef, George J; Frydenberg, Erica; Thomas, Shane A; Jackson, Alun C
Although parenting practices are articulated as underlying mechanisms or protective factors in several theoretical models, their role in the intergenerational transmission of gambling problems has received limited research attention. This study therefore examined the degree to which parenting practices (positive parenting, parental involvement, and inconsistent discipline) moderated the intergenerational transmission of paternal and maternal problem gambling. Students aged 12-18 years (N = 612) recruited from 17 Australian secondary schools completed a survey measuring parental problem gambling, problem gambling severity, and parenting practices. Participants endorsing paternal problem gambling (23.3%) were 4.3 times more likely to be classified as at-risk/problem gamblers than their peers (5.4%). Participants endorsing maternal problem gambling (6.9%) were no more likely than their peers (4.0%) to be classified as at-risk/problem gamblers. Paternal problem gambling was a significant predictor of offspring at-risk/problem gambling after controlling for maternal problem gambling and participant demographic characteristics. The relationship between maternal problem gambling and offspring at-risk/problem gambling was buffered by parental involvement. Paternal problem gambling may be important in the development of adolescent at-risk/problem gambling behaviours and higher levels of parental involvement buffers the influence of maternal problem gambling in the development of offspring gambling problems. Further research is therefore required to identify factors that attenuate the seemingly greater risk of transmission associated with paternal gambling problems. Parental involvement is a potential candidate for prevention and intervention efforts designed to reduce the intergenerational transmission of gambling problems. (Am J Addict 2017;26:707-712). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Li, Hai; Mao, Luke Lunhua; Zhang, James J; Wu, Yin; Li, Anmin; Chen, Jing
The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the dimensions of problem gambling behaviors associated with purchasing sports lottery in China. This was accomplished through the development and validation of the Scale of Assessing Problem Gambling (SAPG). The SAPG was initially developed through a comprehensive qualitative research process. Research participants (N = 4,982) were Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets, who responded to a survey packet, representing a response rate of 91.4%. Data were split into two halves, one for conducting an EFA and the other for a CFA. A five-factor model with 19 items (Social Consequence, Financial Consequence, Harmful Behavior, Compulsive Disorder, and Depression Sign) showed good measurement properties to assess problem gambling of sports lottery consumers in China, including good fit to the data (RMSEA = 0.050, TLI = 0.978, and CFI = 0.922), convergent and discriminate validity, and reliability. Regression analyses revealed that except for Depression Sign, the SAPG factors were significantly (P gambling associated with Chinese sports lottery. The developed scale may be adopted by researchers and practitioners to examine problem gambling behaviors and develop effective prevention and intervention procedures based on tangible evidence.
Quilty, Lena C; Avila Murati, Daniela; Bagby, R Michael
Many gamblers would prefer to reduce gambling on their own rather than to adopt an abstinence approach within the context of a gambling treatment program. Yet responsible gambling guidelines lack quantifiable markers to guide gamblers in wagering safely. To address these issues, the current investigation implemented receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify behavioral indicators of harmful and problem gambling. Gambling involvement was assessed in 503 participants (275 psychiatric outpatients and 228 community gamblers) with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Overall gambling frequency, duration, and expenditure were able to distinguish harmful and problematic gambling at a moderate level. Indicators of harmful gambling were generated for engagement in specific gambling activities: frequency of tickets and casino; duration of bingo, casino, and investments; and expenditures on bingo, casino, sports betting, games of skill, and investments. Indicators of problem gambling were similarly produced for frequency of tickets and casino, and expenditures on bingo, casino, games of skill, and investments. Logistic regression analyses revealed that overall gambling frequency uniquely predicted the presence of harmful and problem gambling. Furthermore, frequency indicators for tickets and casino uniquely predicted the presence of both harmful and problem gambling. Together, these findings contribute to the development of an empirically based method enabling the minimization of harmful or problem gambling through self-control rather than abstinence.
Full Text Available Gambling is defined as staking something on a contingency. Many traders are gambling without even knowing it. Health professionals need to consider the harmful effects of gambling considering that gambling can destroy families and has medical consequences. A 40-year-old bank manager diagnosed initially with mood disorder with two attempts of self-harm in the past 3 years was eventually diagnosed as a case of gambling addiction using both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria and Problem Gambling Severity Index. The participant's gambling urges were not caused by any “trigger” incident, were independent of mood disorder, and were so severe to lead him to deliberate self-harm. Even after adequate trial of two mood stabilizers from different classes including lithium, the patient neither showed improvement in mood symptoms nor his gambling behavior; however, patient's gambling behavior and mood symptoms both showed marked improvement following start of naltrexone up to a dose of 100 mg/day and were maintained at 6-month follow-up with gradual decline in craving for gambling as monitored on Problem Gambling Severity Index. Gambling addiction appears to be a very serious problem and can cause significant problems in the lives of people it affects and their family members.
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Nuske, Elaine
Problem gambling attracts considerable public stigma, with deleterious effects on mental health and use of healthcare services amongst those affected. However, no research has examined the extent of stigma towards problem gambling within the general population. This study aimed to examine the stigma-related dimensions of problem gambling as perceived by the general public compared to other health conditions, and determine whether the publicly perceived dimensions of problem gambling predict its stigmatisation. A sample of 2000 Australian adults was surveyed, weighted to be representative of the state population by gender, age and location. Based on vignettes, the online survey measured perceived origin, peril, concealability, course and disruptiveness of problem gambling and four other health conditions, and desired social distance from each. Problem gambling was perceived as caused mainly by stressful life circumstances, and highly disruptive, recoverable and noticeable, but not particularly perilous. Respondents stigmatised problem gambling more than sub-clinical distress and recreational gambling, but less than alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia. Predictors of stronger stigma towards problem gambling were perceptions it is caused by bad character, is perilous, non-recoverable, disruptive and noticeable, but not due to stressful life circumstances, genetic/inherited problem, or chemical imbalance in the brain. This new foundational knowledge can advance understanding and reduction of problem gambling stigma through countering inaccurate perceptions that problem gambling is caused by bad character, that people with gambling problems are likely to be violent to other people, and that people cannot recover from problem gambling.
Lupu, Viorel; Todirita, Izabela Ramona
The aim of this study was to find out what is the prevalence of pathological in Romanian teenagers. We questioned one thousand thirty-two teenagers in Cluj-Napoca and Harghita counties. Participants completed a questionnaire with 40 items including gamblers anonymous twenty questions. The sample included teenagers aged 11-19 years; 65.57% were male and 34.43% were female. The subjects were divided into three groups: non-gambling/recreational gambling or occasional gambling (0-1 positive answers -Level 1)-753 subjects (72.96%) [316 females and 437 males]; problem gambling (2-6 points-Level 2)-243 subjects (23.54%) [43 females and 200 males]; pathological gambling (above 7 points-Level 3)-36 subjects (3.48%) [3 females and 33 males]. The mean age of pathological gamblers was 16.48 years. Gender differences were as expected, males engaging in pathological gambling (91.66% from pathological gamblers) more than females did (8.33% from pathological gamblers). Data revealed that the most encountered games practiced weekly were sport bets and slot machines in the case of 36.11% of the pathological gamblers; lotto, internet casino and pool bets each with 25%, followed by roulette and black-jack with 22.22%.From those who reported practicing gambling at a pathological level 66.66% engaged in alcohol consumption, 13.88% illicit drug use and 19.44% licit drugs. Just 16.66% smoke cigarettes. Data revealed higher rates of prevalence in Romanian teenagers than in other Central and Eastern European countries. A prevalence study at a national level should be designed.
Holdsworth, Louise; Tiyce, Margaret
People with gambling problems are now recognised among those at increased risk of homelessness, and the link between housing and gambling problems has been identified as an area requiring further research. This paper discusses the findings of a qualitative study that explored the relationship between gambling problems and homelessness. Interviews…
Tse, Samson; Hong, Song-Iee; Wang, Chong-Wen; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M
With the rapid aging of the population and the increased availability of gambling facilities over the past three decades, older adults may gamble more and may be increasingly at risk for problem gambling (PG) or pathological gambling disorder (PGD). To facilitate a better understanding of gambling behavior among older adults that will inform preventive strategies, this article systematically examined empirical studies on issues related to older adults' gambling. This article reviewed 75 empirical studies including data on the distribution and determinants of PG and PGD and the outcomes of gambling. This review used the broad term of "disordered gambling" as a means to explain a continuum of problems caused by PG and PGD. The analyses covered seven topics concerning older adults' gambling behaviors: Participation rates for gambling, prevalence rates of disordered gambling, motivation for initially beginning to gamble, risk and protective factors for disordered gambling, and negative and positive health outcomes from gambling. Based on research gaps identified in the review, this article proposes six recommendations for future studies focusing on well-being of older adults who gamble, research method issues, and taking into account older adults' inspirations and adjustment to the aging process in the 21st century.
Hudson, Amanda; Jacques, Sophie; Stewart, Sherry H
Problem gambling may reflect a maladaptive means of fulfilling specific affect-regulation motives, such as enhancing positive affect or coping with negative affect. Research with clinical populations indicates that disorders with prominent affective symptoms are characterized by attentional biases for symptom-congruent information. Thus, we assessed whether problem gamblers with enhancement motives for gambling would demonstrate attentional biases for positive emotional information, relative to other types of emotional information, and problem gamblers with coping motives for gambling would demonstrate attentional biases for negative emotional information, compared with other types of emotional information. In addition, we expected motive-congruent biases to be stronger in problem gamblers than nonproblem gamblers. To test these hypotheses, problem and nonproblem gamblers received an emotional orienting task in which neutral, negative, and positive pictorial cues appeared to one side of the computer screen, followed by target words in cued or uncued locations. In a look-away condition, participants had to shift attention away from pictures to respond to predominantly uncued targets, whereas in a look-toward condition, they had to orient to pictures to categorize predominantly cued targets. The results revealed motive-congruent orienting biases and disengagement lags for emotional pictures in problem gamblers. The link between motives and affective biases was less apparent in nonproblem gamblers. Results suggest that attentional measures may provide a useful complement to the subjective methodologies that are typically employed in studying problem gamblers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Young, Martin; Stevens, Matthew
To explore the structure of gambling participation and its association with problem gambling, we draw upon Caillois's distinction between games based on competition (i.e. "agon") and those based on chance (i.e. "alea"). The idea that "alea" and "agon" are socially patterned and associated with differing…
Rehm, Matthias; Wissner, Michael
In this article, we present Gamble, a small game of dice that is played by two users and an embodied conversational agent (ECA). By its abilities to communicate and collaborate, an ECA is well suited for engaging users in entertaining social interactions. Gamble is used as a test bed for such mul......In this article, we present Gamble, a small game of dice that is played by two users and an embodied conversational agent (ECA). By its abilities to communicate and collaborate, an ECA is well suited for engaging users in entertaining social interactions. Gamble is used as a test bed...
... who gamble compulsively often have substance abuse problems, personality disorders, depression or anxiety. Compulsive gambling may also be ... gambling problem, educational programs that target individuals and groups at increased risk may be helpful. If you ...
Desai, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.
Background Community data suggest frequent co-occurrence between schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and problem gambling. However, gambling behaviors in large samples of patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder have not been systematically examined to date. Methods A sample of outpatient subjects (n=337) diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder or schizoaffective disorder and treated in either a VA hospital or a local state mental health center was interviewed in order to examine the prevalence estimates and clinical correlates of problem and pathological gambling. Multinomial logistic regression models investigated clinically relevant measures in recreational or problem/pathological gamblers, as compared to non-gamblers. Results Sixty-five participants (19%) met criteria for past-year problem/pathological gambling, with 10% meeting criteria for pathological gambling. Significant correlates of problem and pathological gambling from multivariable models included greater alcohol use severity (p=0.007), higher depression scores (p=0.04), and more outpatient mental health care utilization (p=0.03). Participants with problem/pathological gambling were more likely than recreational gamblers to gamble for excitement, gamble more frequently and heavily, and report either sports or card gambling as favorite. Conclusions A substantial proportion of individuals in treatment for psychotic disorders report past-year gambling problems. Patients with co-occurring alcohol use problems and depression may be at particularly high risk. These findings suggest the need for improved prevention and treatment efforts related to problem/pathological gambling in individuals with psychotic disorders. PMID:19538900
Clarke, Dave; Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max; Hodgins, David C.
Electronic gaming machines (EGMs) have been frequently associated with problem gambling. Little research has compared the relative contribution of casino EGMs versus non-casino EGMs on current problem gambling, after controlling for demographic factors and gambling behaviour. Our exploratory study obtained data from questionnaires administered to…
Husky, Mathilde M; Michel, Grégory; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François
The objectives of the present study are to describe gender differences in factors associated with moderate risk and problem gambling. Data were extracted from the 2010 Health Barometer, a large survey on a representative sample of the general population aged 15-85 years living in France (n=27,653), carried out by the National Institute for Health Promotion and Health Education. Data were collected between October 2009 and July 2010. A computer-assisted telephone interview system was used. The findings indicate that men are three times more likely to experience problems with gambling. Men and women have different patterns of gambling activities. Men were more involved with Rapido, internet gambling, sports and racetrack betting, poker, and casino tables, whereas women gambled more often on scratch games. Both men and women engaging in immediate reward games were significantly more likely to experience difficulties with gambling. This association, however, was stronger in women. Furthermore, suicidal ideation and behaviors were more likely to be associated with gambling problems in women as compared to men. The study underscores the importance of considering gender-related differences in the study of gambling behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maria Anna Donati
Full Text Available Although a number of gambling preventive initiatives have been realized with adolescents, many of them have been developed in absence of a clear and explicitly described theoretical model. The present work was aimed to analyze the adequacy of a model to explain gambling behavior referring to gambling-related cognitive distortions (Study 1, and to verify the effectiveness of a preventive intervention developed on the basis of this model (Study 2. Following dual-process theories on cognitive functioning, in Study 1 we tested a model in which mindware gap, i.e., susceptibility to the gambler’s fallacy, and contaminated mindware, i.e., superstitious thinking, were the antecedents of gambling-related cognitive distortions that, in turn, affect gambling frequency and problem gambling. Participants were 306 male adolescents (Mage = 17.2 years. A path analysis indicated that cognitive distortions have a mediating role in the relationship that links probabilistic reasoning fallacy and superstitious thinking with problem gambling. Following these findings, in Study 2 we developed a school-based intervention aimed to reduce gambling-related cognitive distortions acting on the above cited mindware problems. A pre- and post-test design – with a 6 months follow-up – was performed with 34 male adolescents (Mage = 16.8, randomly assigned to two groups (Training and No Training, and their baseline equivalence was verified. A Mixed 2 × 2 ANOVA attested a significant Time X Group interaction, indicating a significant reduction of the cognitive distortions from pre-test to post-test only in the Training group. The follow-up attested to the stability of the training effects and the reduction of gambling frequency over time. These findings suggest that prevention strategies should address mindware problems, which can be considered as predictors of gambling-related cognitive distortions.
Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Iozzi, Adriana; Manfredi, Antonella; Fagni, Fabrizio; Primi, Caterina
Although a number of gambling preventive initiatives have been realized with adolescents, many of them have been developed in absence of a clear and explicitly described theoretical model. The present work was aimed to analyze the adequacy of a model to explain gambling behavior referring to gambling-related cognitive distortions (Study 1), and to verify the effectiveness of a preventive intervention developed on the basis of this model (Study 2). Following dual-process theories on cognitive functioning, in Study 1 we tested a model in which mindware gap, i.e., susceptibility to the gambler’s fallacy, and contaminated mindware, i.e., superstitious thinking, were the antecedents of gambling-related cognitive distortions that, in turn, affect gambling frequency and problem gambling. Participants were 306 male adolescents (Mage = 17.2 years). A path analysis indicated that cognitive distortions have a mediating role in the relationship that links probabilistic reasoning fallacy and superstitious thinking with problem gambling. Following these findings, in Study 2 we developed a school-based intervention aimed to reduce gambling-related cognitive distortions acting on the above cited mindware problems. A pre- and post-test design – with a 6 months follow-up – was performed with 34 male adolescents (Mage = 16.8), randomly assigned to two groups (Training and No Training), and their baseline equivalence was verified. A Mixed 2 × 2 ANOVA attested a significant Time X Group interaction, indicating a significant reduction of the cognitive distortions from pre-test to post-test only in the Training group. The follow-up attested to the stability of the training effects and the reduction of gambling frequency over time. These findings suggest that prevention strategies should address mindware problems, which can be considered as predictors of gambling-related cognitive distortions. PMID:29354081
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M; Browne, Matthew
Growth of Internet gambling has fuelled concerns about its contribution to gambling problems. However, most online gamblers also gamble on land-based forms, which may be the source of problems for some. Studies therefore need to identify the problematic mode of gambling (online or offline) to identify those with an online gambling problem. Identifying most problematic form of online gambling (e.g., EGMs, race betting, sports betting) would also enable a more accurate examination of gambling problems attributable to a specific online gambling form. This study pursued this approach, aiming to: (1) determine demographic, behavioral and psychological risk factors for gambling problems on online EGMs, online sports betting and online race betting; (2) compare the characteristics of problematic online gamblers on each of these online forms. An online survey of 4,594 Australian gamblers measured gambling behavior, most problematic mode and form of gambling, gambling attitudes, psychological distress, substance use, help-seeking, demographics and problem gambling status. Problem/moderate risk gamblers nominating an online mode of gambling as their most problematic, and identifying EGMs ( n = 98), race betting ( n = 291) or sports betting ( n = 181) as their most problematic gambling form, were compared to non-problem/low risk gamblers who had gambled online on these forms in the previous 12 months ( n = 64, 1145 and 1213 respectively), using bivariate analyses and then logistic regressions. Problem/moderate risk gamblers on each of these online forms were then compared. Risk factors for online EGM gambling were: more frequent play on online EGMs, substance use when gambling, and higher psychological distress. Risk factors for online sports betting were being male, younger, lower income, born outside of Australia, speaking a language other than English, more frequent sports betting, higher psychological distress, and more negative attitudes toward gambling. Risk factors for
Full Text Available Growth of Internet gambling has fuelled concerns about its contribution to gambling problems. However, most online gamblers also gamble on land-based forms, which may be the source of problems for some. Studies therefore need to identify the problematic mode of gambling (online or offline to identify those with an online gambling problem. Identifying most problematic form of online gambling (e.g., EGMs, race betting, sports betting would also enable a more accurate examination of gambling problems attributable to a specific online gambling form. This study pursued this approach, aiming to: (1 determine demographic, behavioral and psychological risk factors for gambling problems on online EGMs, online sports betting and online race betting; (2 compare the characteristics of problematic online gamblers on each of these online forms. An online survey of 4,594 Australian gamblers measured gambling behavior, most problematic mode and form of gambling, gambling attitudes, psychological distress, substance use, help-seeking, demographics and problem gambling status. Problem/moderate risk gamblers nominating an online mode of gambling as their most problematic, and identifying EGMs (n = 98, race betting (n = 291 or sports betting (n = 181 as their most problematic gambling form, were compared to non-problem/low risk gamblers who had gambled online on these forms in the previous 12 months (n = 64, 1145 and 1213 respectively, using bivariate analyses and then logistic regressions. Problem/moderate risk gamblers on each of these online forms were then compared. Risk factors for online EGM gambling were: more frequent play on online EGMs, substance use when gambling, and higher psychological distress. Risk factors for online sports betting were being male, younger, lower income, born outside of Australia, speaking a language other than English, more frequent sports betting, higher psychological distress, and more negative attitudes toward gambling. Risk
Full Text Available Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instruments that are not specifically developed for use on adolescents. In order to contribute to a better understanding of adolescent gambling this study focuses on problem gambling among girls. We consider different social, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors as predictors of girl problem gambling. A total of 1,372 high-school girls from 7 Croatian cities participated in the study. They provided data on their gambling activities, peer gambling, cognitive distortions related to gambling, motivation for gambling, and levels of general risky behavior. As the only instrument developed specifically for use on adolescents, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory was used to examine adverse gambling consequences. Results show 7.4% of girls can be considered regular gamblers, and out of those who gambled at least once in their lifetime (n = 862, 11.2% already experience mild adverse consequences because of their gambling (at risk gamblers, with 3.2% experiencing serious consequences (problem gamblers. In general, girls seem to prefer lotto and scratch cards, but sports betting seems to be the preferred game of choice among regular girl gamblers. A hierarchical regression model confirmed the importance of much the same factors identified as risky for the development of problem gambling among adolescent boys—cognitive distortions, motives to earn money, to be better at gambling and to relax, the experiences of winning large and the drive to continue gambling
Huic, Aleksandra; Dodig Hundric, Dora; Kranzelic, Valentina; Ricijas, Neven
Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instruments that are not specifically developed for use on adolescents. In order to contribute to a better understanding of adolescent gambling this study focuses on problem gambling among girls. We consider different social, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors as predictors of girl problem gambling. A total of 1,372 high-school girls from 7 Croatian cities participated in the study. They provided data on their gambling activities, peer gambling, cognitive distortions related to gambling, motivation for gambling, and levels of general risky behavior. As the only instrument developed specifically for use on adolescents, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory was used to examine adverse gambling consequences. Results show 7.4% of girls can be considered regular gamblers, and out of those who gambled at least once in their lifetime ( n = 862), 11.2% already experience mild adverse consequences because of their gambling (at risk gamblers), with 3.2% experiencing serious consequences (problem gamblers). In general, girls seem to prefer lotto and scratch cards, but sports betting seems to be the preferred game of choice among regular girl gamblers. A hierarchical regression model confirmed the importance of much the same factors identified as risky for the development of problem gambling among adolescent boys-cognitive distortions, motives to earn money, to be better at gambling and to relax, the experiences of winning large and the drive to continue gambling, together with
Huic, Aleksandra; Dodig Hundric, Dora; Kranzelic, Valentina; Ricijas, Neven
Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instruments that are not specifically developed for use on adolescents. In order to contribute to a better understanding of adolescent gambling this study focuses on problem gambling among girls. We consider different social, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors as predictors of girl problem gambling. A total of 1,372 high-school girls from 7 Croatian cities participated in the study. They provided data on their gambling activities, peer gambling, cognitive distortions related to gambling, motivation for gambling, and levels of general risky behavior. As the only instrument developed specifically for use on adolescents, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory was used to examine adverse gambling consequences. Results show 7.4% of girls can be considered regular gamblers, and out of those who gambled at least once in their lifetime (n = 862), 11.2% already experience mild adverse consequences because of their gambling (at risk gamblers), with 3.2% experiencing serious consequences (problem gamblers). In general, girls seem to prefer lotto and scratch cards, but sports betting seems to be the preferred game of choice among regular girl gamblers. A hierarchical regression model confirmed the importance of much the same factors identified as risky for the development of problem gambling among adolescent boys—cognitive distortions, motives to earn money, to be better at gambling and to relax, the experiences of winning large and the drive to continue gambling, together with
Ronzitti, Silvia; Kraus, Shane W; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which stress moderated the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychopathologies. We analyzed Wave-1 data from 41,869 participants of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Logistic regression showed that as compared to a non-gambling (NG) group, individuals at-risk gambling (ARG) and problem gambling (PPG) demonstrated higher odds of multiple Axis-I and Axis-II disorders in both high- and low-stress groups. Interactions odds ratios were statistically significant for stress moderating the relationships between at-risk gambling (versus non-gambling) and Any Axis-I and Any Axis-II disorder, with substance-use and Cluster-A and Cluster-B disorders contributing significantly. Some similar patterns were observed for pathological gambling (versus non-gambling), with stress moderating relationships with Cluster-B disorders. In all cases, a stronger relationship was observed between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology in the low-stress versus high-stress groups. The findings suggest that perceived stress accounts for some of the variance in the relationship between problem-gambling severity and specific forms of psychopathology, particularly with respect to lower intensity, subsyndromal levels of gambling. Findings suggest that stress may be particularly important to consider in the relationships between problem-gambling severity and substance use and Cluster-B disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Rotter, Joseph C.
This review of literature on problem and pathological gambling provides the reader with some historical perspectives on gambling and its growth as an industry. The causes and effects of the identified disorders related to gambling are discussed with indications for therapeutic intervention.
Park, Hyangjin; Kim, Suk Sun
The purpose of the study was to develop and test a model for predicting problem gambling in speculative game users based on Blaszczynski and Nower's pathways model of problem and pathological gambling. The participants were 262 speculative game users recruited from seven speculative gambling places located in Seoul, Gangwon, and Gyeonggi, Korea. They completed a structured self-report questionnaire comprising measures of problem gambling, negative emotions, attentional impulsivity, motor impulsivity, non-planning impulsivity, gambler's fallacy, and gambling self-efficacy. Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the hypothesized model and to examine the direct and indirect effects on problem gambling in speculative game users using SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 20.0 programs. The hypothetical research model provided a reasonable fit to the data. Negative emotions, motor impulsivity, gambler's fallacy, and gambling self-efficacy had direct effects on problem gambling in speculative game users, while indirect effects were reported for negative emotions, motor impulsivity, and gambler's fallacy. These predictors explained 75.2% problem gambling in speculative game users. The findings suggest that developing intervention programs to reduce negative emotions, motor impulsivity, and gambler's fallacy, and to increase gambling self-efficacy in speculative game users are needed to prevent their problem gambling. © 2018 Korean Society of Nursing Science.
Taylor, Robyn N; Parker, James D A; Keefer, Kateryna V; Kloosterman, Patricia H; Summerfeldt, Laura J
The present study examined the link between problematic gambling and gambling related cognitions (GRCs) in a large sample of adolescents with (N = 266) and without (N = 1,738) special education needs (SEN) between the ages of 14 and 18 years attending several high schools in eastern central Ontario. The adolescents with SENs were identified as having various learning disorders and/or internalizing and externalizing problems [e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)]. All adolescents completed a self-report questionnaire package that included the GRC Scale (GRCS; Raylu and Oei in Addiction 99:757-769, 2004), as well as measures of problem gambling, negative affect, and ADHD symptomatology. Results showed that adolescents with SEN hold more erroneous beliefs about gambling and had a higher risk of developing problematic patterns of gambling behaviour than their typically developing peers. Moreover, the GRCS subscales were found to be strong predictors of problem gambling among adolescents both with and without SEN, accounting for a substantial amount of the variance even when controlling for the effects of age, gender, ADHD, and negative affect. It is suggested that intervention and prevention programs aimed at adolescent gambling need to give particular attention to those with SEN.
Full Text Available Background: The risk of developing a problem gambling behavior is distributed unequally among the population. For example, individuals who report stressful life events, show impairments of mental health or belong to a socio-economically deprived group are affected more frequently by gambling problems. The aim of our study is to investigate whether these risk factors are equally relevant for all gambling groups (social = 0 DSM-5 criteria, at risk = 1 DSM-5 criterion, problem = 2–3 DSM-5 criteria, disordered = 4–9 DSM-5 criteria.Methods: Of a total of 10,000 participants in the representative gambling survey in Austria in 2015, 4,082 individuals reported gambling during the last 12 months and were allocated to the four gambling groups according to DSM-5. With social gamblers as the reference group, relevant risk factors for the other three groups were identified by means of bi- and multivariate multinomial logistic regression.Results: Significant risk factors for gambling disorder are at-risk alcohol use (OR = 4.9, poor mental health (OR = 5.9, young age (≤26 years, OR = 2.1, a low level of formal education (OR = 2.4, having grown up with a single parent (OR = 2.5, parents with addiction problems (OR = 2.3 and belonging to the working class (OR = 2.9. Risk factors for problem gambling are parents with addiction problems (OR = 3.8, poor mental health (OR = 2.6 and a young age (OR = 2.2. With regard to at-risk gambling, only growing up with a single parent was relevant (OR = 2.4.Conclusion: Overall, the results of this study suggest, that the number and the influence of the included risk factors differ between gambling problem groups. Apparently, the development of severe gambling problems is to a lesser extent facilitated by specific risk factors than by their cumulative presence. Therefore, future prevention and treatment measures should place a particular focus on individuals who have experienced growing up in a difficult family situation
Buth, Sven; Wurst, Friedrich M; Thon, Natasha; Lahusen, Harald; Kalke, Jens
Background: The risk of developing a problem gambling behavior is distributed unequally among the population. For example, individuals who report stressful life events, show impairments of mental health or belong to a socio-economically deprived group are affected more frequently by gambling problems. The aim of our study is to investigate whether these risk factors are equally relevant for all gambling groups (social = 0 DSM-5 criteria, at risk = 1 DSM-5 criterion, problem = 2-3 DSM-5 criteria, disordered = 4-9 DSM-5 criteria). Methods: Of a total of 10,000 participants in the representative gambling survey in Austria in 2015, 4,082 individuals reported gambling during the last 12 months and were allocated to the four gambling groups according to DSM-5. With social gamblers as the reference group, relevant risk factors for the other three groups were identified by means of bi- and multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Results: Significant risk factors for gambling disorder are at-risk alcohol use (OR = 4.9), poor mental health (OR = 5.9), young age (≤26 years, OR = 2.1), a low level of formal education (OR = 2.4), having grown up with a single parent (OR = 2.5), parents with addiction problems (OR = 2.3) and belonging to the working class (OR = 2.9). Risk factors for problem gambling are parents with addiction problems (OR = 3.8), poor mental health (OR = 2.6) and a young age (OR = 2.2). With regard to at-risk gambling, only growing up with a single parent was relevant (OR = 2.4). Conclusion: Overall, the results of this study suggest, that the number and the influence of the included risk factors differ between gambling problem groups. Apparently, the development of severe gambling problems is to a lesser extent facilitated by specific risk factors than by their cumulative presence. Therefore, future prevention and treatment measures should place a particular focus on individuals who have experienced growing up in a difficult family situation, have poor
Weinstock, Jeremiah; Burton, Steve; Rash, Carla J; Moran, Sheila; Biller, Warren; Krudelbach, Norman; Phoenix, Natalie; Morasco, Benjamin J
Gambling help-lines are an essential access point, or frontline resource, for treatment seeking. This study investigated treatment engagement after calling a gambling help-line. From 2000-2007 over 2,900 unique callers were offered an in-person assessment appointment. Logistic regression analyses assessed predictors of (a) accepting the referral to the in-person assessment appointment and (b) attending the in-person assessment appointment. Over 76% of callers accepted the referral and 55% of all callers attended the in-person assessment appointment. This treatment engagement rate is higher than typically found for other help-lines. Demographic factors and clinical factors such as gender, severity of gambling problems, amount of gambling debt, and coercion by legal and social networks predicted engagement in treatment. Programmatic factors such as offering an appointment within 72 hr also aided treatment engagement. Results suggest gambling help-lines can be a convenient and confidential way for many individuals with gambling problems to access gambling-specific treatment. Alternative services such as telephone counseling may be beneficial for those who do not engage in treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
Psychiatric disorders frequently co-occur with pathological gambling. The extent to which co-occurence extends to subsyndromal levels of gambling or differs between women and men is incompletely understood. To examine whether the association between psychiatric disorders and past-year gambling problems is stronger in women than men. Data from the national epidemiological survey of alcoholism and related disorders (NESARC) (n = 43,093) were analyzed. Increasing severity of past-year gambling problems was associated with increasing odds of most past-year Axis I and lifetime Axis II disorders, regardless of gender. Associations between gambling problems and major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder, and nicotine dependence were statistically stronger in women than in men. A severity-related association exists between past-year gambling problems and psychiatric disorders. The stronger associations in women suggest that gambling research, prevention and treatment efforts consider gender differences.
Marchica, Loredana; Zhao, Yaxi; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Ivoska, William
Fantasy sports is a growing industry with a reported 56.8 million individuals participating in the United States and Canada alone in 2015. Whereas this activity has attracted considerable public attention, little research has examined its impact on adolescents in spite of their high rates of gambling. The current study examined the relationship between regular participation (more than once a month) in sport-relevant gambling activities among adolescents and those identified as being at-risk for a gambling problem. Questionnaire responses were collected from high school students (N = 6818; 49 % male) in Wood County, Ohio, United States. Statistical analyses revealed that regular involvement in sports betting, fantasy sports betting, and daily fantasy sports betting among adolescents was associated with a higher risk of gambling problems. Further, although males participate more frequently in these activities, females who participate have a stronger likelihood of being at-risk. Students aged 16-19 years old are at a higher risk for developing a gambling problem compared to younger adolescents when regularly engaging in sports-related gambling. Moreover, regularly participating in daily fantasy sports is the strongest predictor of at-risk gambling behavior in 13-15 year old students. A hierarchical logistic regression supports that controlling for gender and age, all forms of sport-relevant gambling activities are significant predictors of at-risk gambling. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of sports betting and fantasy sports on adolescents and establishes an initial step for future studies to further investigate these relationships.
Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.
Introduction: Gambling disorder (GD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition whose severity is typically defined by the number of DSM-5 criteria met out of a maximum of nine. The relationships between the levels of gambling severity, thus defined, and other measures of psychopathology and everyday...
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.
The degree to which anticipated and experienced public stigma contribute to self-stigma remains open to debate, and little research has been conducted into the self-stigma of problem gambling. This study aimed to examine which aspects of anticipated and experienced stigma (if any) predict the anticipated level of public stigma associated with problem gambling and the degree of self-stigma felt by people experiencing problem gambling. An online survey of 177 Australians experiencing problem ga...
Petry, Nancy M; Mallya, Sarita
This study evaluated the frequency and intensity of gambling behaviors among employees at an academic health center. Employees were sent an anonymous questionnaire assessing demographic characteristics, participation in gambling activities, and gambling-related problems. Of the 904 respondents, 96% reported gambling in their lifetimes, with 69% gambling in the past year, 40% in the past two months, and 21% in the past week. The most common forms of gambling were lottery and scratch tickets, slot machines, card playing, sports betting, bingo, and track. Only 1.2% of the sample reported gambling on the internet. Using scores on the South Oaks Gambling Screen, 3.0% of the respondents were classified as Level 2 (or problem) gamblers, and an additional 1.8% were Level 3 (or pathological) gamblers. Compared to Level 1 (non-problem) gamblers, Level 2 and Level 3 gamblers were more likely to be male, single, and employed full-time, and to have lower income and education. About half of the Level 2 and Level 3 gamblers reported interest in an evaluation of their gambling behaviors and treatment interventions. These data suggest the need to screen for gambling problems in health care professionals and to provide gambling-specific treatments.
Calado, Filipa; Alexandre, Joana; Griffiths, Mark D
Previous research has shown that gambling is a popular activity among adolescents. Following a rapid expansion of legalized gambling opportunities and the emergence of new forms of gambling, many researchers have carried out studies on adolescent gambling and problem gambling. The present paper reviews studies that have been conducted worldwide since 2000, and then presents a more detailed picture of adolescent gambling research in Europe, by providing a country-by country analysis. After an extensive search on academic databases and following an exclusion process, 44 studies were identified. The findings showed that 0.2-12.3 % of youth meet criteria for problem gambling, notwithstanding differences among assessment instruments, cut-offs, and timeframes. However, despite this variability, several demographic characteristics were associated with adolescent gambling involvement and problem gambling. It is concluded that a small but significant minority of adolescents have gambling-related problems. Such findings will hopefully encourage more research into youth gambling to further understand the determinants of this phenomenon.
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex Myles Thomas; Lamont, Matthew; Vitartas, Peter
Promotions for online sports betting during televised sports broadcasts are regularly viewed by millions of Australians, raising concerns about their impacts on vulnerable groups including at-risk and problem gamblers. This study examined whether responses to these promotions varied with problem gambling severity amongst 455 Australian Internet sports bettors participating in an online survey. Results indicated that young male Internet sports bettors are especially vulnerable to gambling problems, particularly if they hold positive attitudes to gambling sponsors who embed promotions into sports broadcasts and to the promotional techniques they use and this heightens the risk that alluring messages contribute to excessive gambling. As problem gambling severity increased, so too did recognition that these promotions have impacted negatively on their sports betting behaviour. Because a plethora of sports betting brands and promotions are now heavily integrated into sports coverage, social marketing efforts are needed to offset their persuasive appeal and counter the positive attitudes towards them that appear linked to excessive gambling amongst Internet sports bettors.
Delfabbro, Paul; Thomas, Anna; Armstrong, Andrew
In many countries where gambling is legalised, there has been a strong public policy focus on the need for strategies to reduce gambling related harm. These have often included policies requiring staff in gambling venues to identify and/or assist people who might be experiencing gambling-related harm. To facilitate this process, researchers have developed visible behavioural indicators that might be used to profile potentially problematic gambling. Few of these studies have, however, examined whether such indicators or 'warning signs' might differ between men and women. In this study, we describe the results of an analysis of data drawn from 1185 fortnightly gamblers that included 338 problem gamblers as classified by the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Indicators of problem gambling were similar between males and females with a few key exceptions. Indicators reflecting emotional distress were more commonly reported by females with gambling problems, whereas problem gambling males were more likely to display aggressive behaviour towards gambling devices and others in the venue. Amongst males, signs of emotional distress as well as attempts to conceal their presence in venues from others most strongly differentiated between problem and non-problem gamblers. Amongst females, signs of anger, a decline in grooming and those attempts to access credit were the most distinguishing indicators. These findings have implications for the refinement of identification policies and practices.
Moore, Susan M; Thomas, Anna C; Kalé, Sudhir; Spence, Mark; Zlatevska, Natalina; Staiger, Petra K; Graffam, Joseph; Kyrios, Michael
Young people are a high risk group for gambling problems and university (college) students fall into that category. Given the high accessibility of gambling in Australia and its association with entertainment, students from overseas countries, particularly those where gambling is restricted or illegal, may be particularly vulnerable. This study examines problem gambling and its correlates among international and domestic university students using a sample of 836 domestic students (286 males; 546 females); and 764 international students (369 males; 396 females) at three Australian universities. Our findings indicate that although most students gamble infrequently, around 5 % of students are problem gamblers, a proportion higher than that in the general adult population. Popular gambling choices include games known to be associated with risk (cards, horse races, sports betting, casino games, and gaming machines) as well as lotto/scratch tickets. Males are more likely to be problem gamblers than females, and almost 10 % of male international students could be classified as problem gamblers. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that male gender, international student status, financial stress, negative affect and frequency of gambling on sports, horses/dogs, table games, casino gaming machines, internet casino games and bingo all significantly predicted problem gambling. Results from this study could inform gambling-education programs in universities as they indicate which groups are more vulnerable and specify which games pose more risk of problem gambling.
Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Stinchfield, Randy; Golberstein, Ezra
This study sought to examine the impact of tobacco use on gambling treatment. Pathological gambling (PG) is a psychiatric condition associated with significant financial, emotional, and psychosocial consequences. Elevated rates of nicotine dependence have been associated with increased gambling s....... (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)....
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.
Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, ps...
French, Michael T; Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Ettner, Susan L
Regulated gambling is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States with greater than 100% increases in revenue over the past decade. Along with this rise in gambling popularity and gaming options comes an increased risk of addiction and the associated social costs. This paper focuses on the effect of alcohol use on gambling-related problems. Variables correlated with both alcohol use and gambling may be difficult to observe, and the inability to include these items in empirical models may bias coefficient estimates. After addressing the endogeneity of alcohol use when appropriate, we find strong evidence that problematic gambling and alcohol consumption are complementary activities.
Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E.; Tan, Hwee Sim; Hoff, Rani A.; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.
Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1,659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adolescents significantly differed on problem-gambling severity, with Asian-American adolescents more often reporting not gambling (24.8% vs. 16.4%), but when they did report gambling, they showed higher levels of at-risk/problem gambling (30.6% vs. 26.4%). Parental approval or disapproval of adolescent gambling also significantly differed between races, with Asian-American adolescents more likely to perceive both parental disapproval (50.0% vs. 38.2%) and approval (19.3% vs. 9.6%) of gambling. Asian-American adolescents were also more likely to express concern about gambling among close family members (25.2% vs. 11.6%). Among Asian-American adolescents, stronger associations were observed between at-risk/problem gambling and smoking cigarettes (interaction odds ratio=12.6). In summary, differences in problem-gambling severity and gambling perceptions indicate possible cultural differences in familial attitudes towards gambling. Stronger links between cigarette smoking and risky/problematic gambling amongst Asian-American adolescents suggest that prevention and treatment efforts targeting youth addictions consider cultural differences. PMID:24183532
Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E; Tan, Hwee Sim; Hoff, Rani A; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N
Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adolescents significantly differed on problem-gambling severity, with Asian-American adolescents more often reporting not gambling (24.8% vs. 16.4%), but when they did report gambling, they showed higher levels of at-risk/problem gambling (30.6% vs. 26.4%). Parental approval or disapproval of adolescent gambling also significantly differed between races, with Asian-American adolescents more likely to perceive both parental disapproval (50.0% vs. 38.2%) and approval (19.3% vs. 9.6%) of gambling. Asian-American adolescents were also more likely to express concern about gambling among close family members (25.2% vs. 11.6%). Among Asian-American adolescents, stronger associations were observed between at-risk/problem gambling and smoking cigarettes (interaction odds ratio=12.6). In summary, differences in problem-gambling severity and gambling perceptions indicate possible cultural differences in familial attitudes towards gambling. Stronger links between cigarette smoking and risky/problematic gambling amongst Asian-American adolescents suggest that prevention and treatment efforts targeting youth addictions consider cultural differences. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Calado, Filipa; Alexandre, Joana; Griffiths, Mark D
Background and aims Recent research suggests that youth problem gambling is associated with several factors, but little is known how these factors might influence or interact each other in predicting this behavior. Consequently, this is the first study to examine the mediation effect of coping styles in the relationship between attachment to parental figures and problem gambling. Methods A total of 988 adolescents and emerging adults were recruited to participate. The first set of analyses tested the adequacy of a model comprising biological, cognitive, and family variables in predicting youth problem gambling. The second set of analyses explored the relationship between family and individual variables in problem gambling behavior. Results The results of the first set of analyses demonstrated that the individual factors of gender, cognitive distortions, and coping styles showed a significant predictive effect on youth problematic gambling, and the family factors of attachment and family structure did not reveal a significant influence on this behavior. The results of the second set of analyses demonstrated that the attachment dimension of angry distress exerted a more indirect influence on problematic gambling, through emotion-focused coping style. Discussion This study revealed that some family variables can have a more indirect effect on youth gambling behavior and provided some insights in how some factors interact in predicting problem gambling. Conclusion These findings suggest that youth gambling is a multifaceted phenomenon, and that the indirect effects of family variables are important in estimating the complex social forces that might inﬂuence adolescent decisions to gamble.
Many people enjoy gambling, whether it's betting on a horse or playing poker on the Internet. Most people who gamble don't have a problem, but some lose control of their gambling. Signs of problem gambling include Always thinking about ...
Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E.; Tan, Hwee Sim; Hoff, Rani A.; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.
Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1,659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adoles...
Dighton, Glen; Roberts, Elystan; Hoon, Alice E; Dymond, Simon
Background and aims International evidence indicates elevated problem gambling rates in armed forces veterans compared with the general population. Gambling problems adversely impact one's family, and family-related variables may increase vulnerability to gambling-related harm. Little is known, however, about gambling problems in the United Kingdom (UK) veterans or to what extent family variables, such as parenting history and experience of domestic violence, influence veterans' gambling. Methods We compared veterans (n = 257) and sex- and age-matched controls (n = 514) drawn from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey on gambling, financial management, domestic violence, childhood parental presence, and experience of stressful life events. Veterans who left the military before or after 4 years of service were compared. Results Problem gambling was significantly more prevalent in veterans (1.4%) than non-veterans (0.2%), and the impact of gambling problems on the family was specific to male veterans, particularly those who had experienced a traumatic event after the age of 16, and those who were more likely to have been physically attacked by their partner. Overall, this study revealed that the UK armed forces veterans report a higher prevalence rate of problem gambling compared with non-veterans, with potential negative impact on family life.
Manning, Victoria; Dowling, Nicki A; Lee, Stuart; Rodda, Simone; Garfield, Joshua Benjamin Bernard; Volberg, Rachel; Kulkarni, Jayashri; Lubman, Dan Ian
Background and aims Relatively little is known about co-occurring gambling problems and their overlap with other addictive behaviors among individuals attending mental health services. We aimed to determine rates of gambling and substance use problems in patients accessing mental health services in Victoria, Australia. Methods A total of 837 adult patients were surveyed about their gambling and administered standardized screening tools for problem gambling and harmful tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. Prevalence of gambling problems was estimated and regression models used to determine predictors of problem gambling. Results The gambling participation rate was 41.6% [95% CI = 38.2-44.9]. The Problem Gambling Severity Index identified 19.7% [CI = 17.0-22.4] as "non-problem gamblers," 7.2% [CI = 5.4-8.9] as "low-risk" gamblers, 8.4% [CI = 6.5-10.2] as "moderate-risk" gamblers, and 6.3% [CI = 4.7-8.0] as "problem gamblers." One-fifth (21.9%) of the sample and 52.6% of all gamblers were identified as either low-risk, moderate-risk, or problem gamblers (PGs). Patients classified as problem and moderate-risk gamblers had significantly elevated rates of nicotine and illicit drug dependence (p gambling. Discussion and conclusions Patients were less likely to gamble, but eight times as likely to be classified as PG, relative to Victoria's adult general population. Elevated rates of harmful substance use among moderate-risk and PG suggest overlapping vulnerability to addictive behaviors. These findings suggest mental health services should embed routine screening into clinical practice, and train clinicians in the management of problem gambling.
Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie
Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schlagintweit, Hera E; Thompson, Kara; Goldstein, Abby L; Stewart, Sherry H
Despite often being considered equivalent affective states, shame and guilt have differential associations with problem gambling with only shame showing a strong positive association with problem gambling. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the shame-problem gambling association. Further, shame and guilt are associated with distinct coping strategies, with shame motivating maladaptive coping (e.g., avoidance, escape) and guilt motivating adaptive coping (e.g., taking corrective action). This study aimed to examine whether maladaptive coping motives for gambling mediate the relationship between shame, but not guilt, and gambling problems. Participants were 196 (126 male) regular gamblers who completed a same and guilt scale, the Problem Gambling Severity Index, and a modified Gambling Motives Questionnaire, which assessed individual motives to engage in gambling for coping, enhancement, or social reasons. Results indicated that coping motives for gambling fully mediated the relationship between shame and problem gambling severity, but did not mediate the association between guilt and problem gambling severity. Experiencing shame contributes to problem gambling as a result of gambling to cope with negative affect. Cultivating more adaptive strategies to cope with shame may be effective in preventing and treating problem gambling.
Dhillon, Jasmin; Horch, Jenny D; Hodgins, David C
Cultural influences on problem gambling stigma were examined using a between subject vignette study design. Students of East Asian (n = 64) and Caucasian (n = 50) ancestry recruited from a Canadian University rated a vignette describing either an East Asian problem gambler or a Caucasian problem gambler on a measure of attitudinal social distance. In accordance with the hypothesis, a factorial ANOVA revealed that East Asian Canadians stigmatize problem gambling more than Caucasian Canadians. Moreover, East Asian participants stigmatized the East Asian individual described in the vignette more than they did the Caucasian individual. Individuals with gambling problems were generally not perceived as being dangerous. However, participants who perceived problem gambling as a dangerous condition wanted more social distance than those who did not perceive individuals with a gambling problem as dangerous.
... your family and friends. Second, you can join Gamblers Anonymous, a self-help group for problem gamblers. Your ... people who have a gambling problem? Other Organizations Gamblers Anonymous National Council on Problem Gambling Last Updated: March ...
Morvannou, Adèle; Dufour, Magali; Brunelle, Natacha; Berbiche, Djamal; Roy, Élise
The concept of passion is relevant to understanding gambling behaviours and gambling problems. Longitudinal studies are useful to better understand the absence and development of gambling problems; however, only one study has specifically considered poker players. Using a longitudinal design, this study aims to determine the influence, 1 year later, of two forms of passion-harmonious and obsessive-on gambling problems in poker players. A total of 116 poker players was recruited from across Quebec, Canada. The outcome variable of interest was participants' category on the Canadian Pathological Gambling Index, and the predictive variable was the Gambling Passion Scale. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify independent risk factors of at-risk poker players 1 year later. Obsessive passion at baseline doubled the risk of gambling problems 1 year later (p passion, there was no association. Number of gambling activities, drug problems, and impulsivity were also associated with at-risk gambling. This study highlights the links between obsessive passion and at-risk behaviours among poker players. It is therefore important to prevent the development of obsessive passion among poker players.
Cook, Steven; Turner, Nigel E; Ballon, Bruce; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Murray, Robert; Adlaf, Edward M; Ilie, Gabriela; den Dunnen, Wendy; Mann, Robert E
This paper describes gambling problems among Ontario students in 2009 and examines the relationship between gambling problems and substance use problems, mental health problem indicators, and delinquent behaviors. Data were derived from the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12. Gambling problems were measured as 2 or more of 6 indicators of problem gambling. In total 2.8% of the students surveyed endorsed two or more of the problem gambling items. The odds of problem gamblers reporting mental distress was 4.2 times higher than the rest of the sample and the odds of problem gamblers reporting a suicide attempt were 17.8 times greater than the rest of the sample. In addition compared to the rest of the students, delinquent behaviors were also more common among problem gamblers, including theft (OR = 14.5), selling marijuana (OR = 19.6), gang fights (OR = 11.3) and carrying a handgun (OR = 11.2). In a multivariate analysis, substance-use problems, mental health problems, and the participation in a variety of delinquent behaviors remained significantly associated with youth problem gambling behavior. Students who report problem gambling behaviors show increased substance abuse, mental health, and delinquency/criminal problems that are similar to those seen among adult problem gamblers. The association between these problems suggests that these problems could be addressed in a unified manner.
Ekholm, Ola; Eiberg, Stig; Davidsen, Michael
Gambling is a worldwide phenomenon. For most persons this causes only small or no problems, but for some, pathological gambling can be the result of entering the gambling environment. The objectives were to estimate the past year and lifetime prevalence of problem gambling in the adult Danish...... population (16 years or older) in 2010 and trends since 2005 and, furthermore, to investigate whether problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. Data were derived from two national representative Danish health surveys. The survey in 2005...... was based on region-stratified random sample of 10,916 Danish citizens (response rate: 52.1 %) and the survey in 2010 was based on a random sample of 23,405 Danish citizens (response rate: 62.7 %). Problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. The past year prevalence of problem gamblers...
Hardoon, Karen; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina
A comparison of empirical measures and perceived gambling severity among youth was conducted. Participants (N=980), mean age of 18.6 years, completed several widely accepted measures of pathological gambling [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Juveniles (DSM-IV-J), South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), and Gambler's Anonymous 20 Questions (GA 20)] and a questionnaire assessing gambling behavior. Findings revealed that while the DSM-IV-J, SOGS-RA, and GA 20 identified between 3.4% and 5.8% of participants as probable pathological gamblers, only 1.1% of individuals classified themselves as such. Further, 3.3% of the population reported that they considered themselves problem gamblers and 66% reported being social gamblers. It appears as though either youth are grossly underestimating the severity of their gambling problems or the gambling screens are overestimating prevalence rates. The clinical implications and future directions for research are considered.
Goudriaan, Anna E.; Yücel, Murat; van Holst, Ruth J.
In problem gamblers, diminished cognitive control and increased impulsivity is present compared to healthy controls. Moreover, impulsivity has been found to be a vulnerability marker for the development of pathological gambling (PG) and problem gambling (PrG) and to be a predictor of relapse. In
Cormier, Abigail; McBride, Dawn Lorraine
This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on problem gambling in adults and includes a detailed mindfulness-based psychoeducational group manual for problem gambling, complete with an extensive group counselling consent form, assessment and screening protocols, 10 user-friendly lesson plans, templates for a…
Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne
Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time......) on slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder....... This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...
Turner, Nigel E; Macdonald, John; Somerset, Matthew
Previous studies have shown that youth are two to three times more likely than adults to report gambling related problems. This paper reports on the development and pilot evaluation of a school-based problem gambling prevention curriculum. The prevention program focused on problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring skills, coping skills, and knowledge of the nature of random events. The results of a controlled experiment evaluating the students learning from the program are reported. We found significant improvement in the students' knowledge of random events, knowledge of problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring, and knowledge of coping skills. The results suggest that knowledge based material on random events, problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring skills, and coping skills can be taught. Future development of the curriculum will focus on content to expand the students' coping skill options.
Lévesque, David; Sévigny, Serge; Giroux, Isabelle; Jacques, Christian
Despite numerous studies demonstrating the influence of cognitive distortions on gambling problem severity, empirical data regarding the role of psychological vulnerability on the latter is limited. Hence, this study assesses the mediating effect of cognitive distortions between psychological vulnerability (personality and mood), and gambling problem severity. It also verifies whether the relationships between these variables differs according to the preferred gambling activity. The sample is composed of 272 male gamblers [191 poker players; 81 video lottery terminal (VLT) players] aged between 18 and 82 years (M = 35.2). Bootstrap analysis results revealed that cognitive distortions mediate the effect of narcissism on gambling problem severity for both groups. The level of depression for VLT players significantly predicted gambling problem severity, both directly and indirectly via the mediating effect of cognitive distortions. Mediation analyses also indicated that narcissism had an indirect impact on problem gambling through cognitive distortions for both groups. These findings suggest that certain vulnerabilities related to personality and mood may influence cognitive distortion intensity and gambling problem severity. In addition, psychological vulnerabilities could differ based on preferred gambling activity. These results may be useful for prevention policies, identifying high risk gamblers and planning psychological interventions.
Li, Wendy Wen; Tse, Samson
This article uses examples of problem gambling and help seeking among Chinese international students in New Zealand to demonstrate place identity transformation. Two-wave narrative interviews were conducted with 15 Chinese international students. Place identity among participants is shown to be a process that features the transformation of participants' identity. While the casinos in which the Chinese international students gambled gave rise to negative place identities, positive place identities facilitated the participants to change their problematic gambling. Through the investigation of place identity transformation, this article promotes a strength-based, non-labelling approach to intervention for people who are concerned about their gambling behaviours. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Vitartas, Peter; Lamont, Matthew
Sports betting is growing exponentially, is heavily marketed and successfully targets young adult males. Associated gambling problems are increasing. Therefore, understanding risk factors for problem gambling amongst sports bettors is an increasingly important area of research to inform the appropriate design and targeting of public health and treatment interventions. This study aimed to identify demographic, behavioural and normative risk factors for gambling problems amongst sports bettors. An online survey of 639 Australian sports bettors using online, telephone and retail betting channels was conducted. Results indicated that vulnerable sports bettors for higher risk gambling are those who are young, male, single, educated, and employed full-time or a full-time student. Risk of problem gambling was also found to increase with greater frequency and expenditure on sports betting, greater diversity of gambling involvement, and with more impulsive responses to betting opportunities, including in-play live action betting. Normative influences from media advertising and from significant others were also associated with greater problem gambling risk. The results of this study can inform a suite of intervention, protection and treatment initiatives targeted especially at young male adults and adolescents that can help to limit the harm from this gambling form.
Lim, Matthew S M; Rogers, Robert D
Problematic patterns of gambling and their harms are known to have culturally specific expressions. For ethnic Chinese people, patterns of superstitious belief in this community appear to be linked to the elevated rates of gambling-related harms; however, little is known about the mediating psychological mechanisms. To address this issue, we surveyed 333 Chinese gamblers residing internationally and used a mediation analysis to explore how gambling-related cognitive biases, gambling frequency and variety of gambling forms ('scope') mediate the association between beliefs in luck and gambling problems. We found that cognitive biases and scope were significant mediators of this link but that the former is a stronger mediator than the latter. The mediating erroneous beliefs were not specific to any particular type of cognitive bias. These results suggest that Chinese beliefs in luck are expressed as gambling cognitive biases that increase the likelihood of gambling problems, and that biases that promote gambling (and its harms) are best understood within their socio-cultural context.
Miller, Helen E; Thomas, Samantha L; Robinson, Priscilla
Previous research has shown that government and industry discussions of gambling may focus on personal responsibility for gambling harm. In Australia, these discussions have largely excluded people with lived experience of problem gambling, including those involved in peer support and advocacy. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with people with current or previous problem gambling on electronic gaming machines (EGMs) involved in peer support and advocacy activities, using an approach informed by Interpretive Policy Analysis and Constructivist Grounded Theory. Participants perceived that government and industry discussed gambling as safe and entertaining with a focus on personal responsibility for problem gambling. This focus on personal responsibility was perceived to increase stigma associated with problem gambling. In contrast, they described gambling as risky, addictive and harmful, with problem gambling resulting from the design of EGMs. As a result of their different perspectives, participants proposed different interventions to reduce gambling harm, including reducing accessibility and making products safer. Challenging the discourses used by governments and industry to describe gambling, using the lived experience of people with experience of gambling harm, may result in reduced stigma associated with problem gambling, and more effective public policy approaches to reducing harm.
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T
The degree to which anticipated and experienced public stigma contribute to self-stigma remains open to debate, and little research has been conducted into the self-stigma of problem gambling. This study aimed to examine which aspects of anticipated and experienced stigma (if any) predict the anticipated level of public stigma associated with problem gambling and the degree of self-stigma felt by people experiencing problem gambling. An online survey of 177 Australians experiencing problem gambling examined whether aspects of the public characterization of problem gambling, anticipated reactions to problem gamblers, and experiences of devaluation and discrimination predicted anticipated level of public stigma and self-stigma. The study found that self-stigma increases with expectations that the public applies a range of negative stereotypes to people with gambling problems, holds demeaning and discriminatory attitudes toward them, and considers them to lead highly disrupted lives. These variables directly predicted anticipated level of public stigma and indirectly predicted self-stigma. These findings lend weight to conceptualizations of self-stigma as an internalization of actual or anticipated public stigma. They also highlight the need for stigma reduction efforts, particularly those that lower negative stereotyping and prejudicial attitudes, to improve currently low rates of help-seeking amongst people with gambling problems.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study represents an initial attempt to assess the role of apathy in motivated decision making on the Iowa Gambling Task. Clinical descriptions of patients with apathy highlight deficits in the cognitive, emotional and behavioural aspects of goal directed activity, yet standard neurocognitive tests of these measures fail to demonstrate reliable sensitivity to the disorder. Available research suggests the Iowa Gambling Task is a robust test of complex emotional socio-executive processes involved in motivational decision making, which can analogue real-world goal-directed behaviour. Methods We ask whether performance on the Iowa Gambling Task can distinguish brain damaged patients with apathy symptoms from 1 brain damaged patients without apathy and 2 neurologically intact controls. Overall, 22 healthy adults and 29 brain damaged patients took part in this study. Results Brain damaged patients with apathy were distinctively impaired on the Iowa Gambling Task compared to both non-apathetic brain damaged patients and neurologically intact healthy controls. On the other hand, standard measures for the cognitive control of behaviour failed to show this sensitivity. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the Iowa Gambling Task is sensitive to the presence of apathy symptoms. We discuss these findings in terms of neurocognition deficits in apathy and the related implications for rehabilitation and clinical intervention.
Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
Community data suggest frequent co-occurrence between schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and problem gambling. However, gambling behaviors in large samples of patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder have not been systematically examined to date. A sample of outpatient subjects (N = 337) diagnosed with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and who were treated in either the VA Connecticut Healthcare System or the Connecticut Mental Health Center was interviewed in order to examine the prevalence estimates and clinical correlates of problem and pathological gambling. Multinomial logistic regression models investigated clinically relevant measures in recreational or problem/pathological gamblers, as compared to nongamblers. Data were collected between June 2002 and November 2003. Sixty-five participants (19%) met criteria for past-year problem/pathological gambling, with 10% meeting criteria for pathological gambling. Significant correlates of problem and pathological gambling from multivariable models included greater alcohol use severity (P = .007), higher depression scores (P = .04), and more outpatient mental health care utilization (P = .03). Participants with problem/pathological gambling were more likely than recreational gamblers to gamble for excitement, gamble more frequently and heavily, and report either sports or card gambling as favorite. A substantial proportion of individuals in treatment for psychotic disorders report past-year gambling problems. Patients with co-occurring alcohol use problems and depression may be at particularly high risk. These findings suggest the need for improved prevention and treatment efforts related to problem/pathological gambling in individuals with psychotic disorders. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Luquiens, Amandine; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Benyamina, Amine; Lagadec, Marthylle; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Reynaud, Michel
The aim was to develop and validate an instrument to track online problem poker gamblers with player account-based gambling data (PABGD). We emailed an invitation to all active poker gamblers on the online gambling service provider Winamax. The 14,261 participants completed the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). PGSI served as a gold standard to track problem gamblers (i.e., PGSI ≥ 5). We used a stepwise logistic regression to build a predictive model of problem gambling with PABGD, and validated it. Of the sample 18% was composed of online poker problem gamblers. The risk factors of problem gambling included in the predictive model were being male, compulsive, younger than 28 years, making a total deposit > 0 euros, having a mean loss per gambling session > 1.7 euros, losing a total of > 45 euros in the last 30 days, having a total stake > 298 euros, having > 60 gambling sessions in the last 30 days, and multi-tabling. The tracking instrument had a sensitivity of 80%, and a specificity of 50%. The quality of the instrument was good. This study illustrates the feasibility of a method to develop and validate instruments to track online problem gamblers with PABGD only. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cheung, Nicole W T
Knowledge of the influence of couple dynamics on gender differences in gambling behavior remains meager. Building on general strain theory from the sociology of deviance and stress crossover theory from social psychology, we argue that the strain encountered by one partner in a social setting may affect his or her spouse. For instance, the wife of a man under more social strain may experience more strain in turn and thus be at a higher risk of developing disordered gambling than the wife of a man under less social strain. Using community survey data of 1620 Chinese married couples, we performed multilevel dyad analyses to address social strain and couple dynamics, in addition to their roles as predictors of gambling behavior in both spouses. This was a community survey of Hong Kong and therefore was not representative of China. Based on the DSM-IV screen, the rates of probable problem gambling and pathological gambling among male partners (12.8% vs. 2.5%) were twice those among female partners (5.2% vs. 0.3%). We also found that the social strain experienced by a male partner significantly predicted both his and his wife's likelihood of developing gambling problems. Although a female partner's exposure to social strain was a significant correlate of her gambling problem, it had no significant association with her husband's gambling behavior. These results suggest that the cross-spouse transference of social strain may be a gendered process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gutierrez, Ian; Grubbs, Joshua; Bradley, David; Chapman, Heather; Milner, Lauren
Problem gambling and gambling disorder are associated with a range of mental health concerns that extend beyond gambling behaviors alone. Prior works have consistently linked gambling disorder with symptoms of post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder, both cross-sectionally and over time. However, very little work has examined the specific relationships between these two disorders. The present work postulated that post-traumatic stress is likely associated with unique beliefs ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior studies on the impact of problem gambling in the family mainly include help-seeking populations with small numbers of participants. The objective of the present stratified probability sample study was to explore the epidemiology of problem gambling in the family in the general population. Methods Men and women 16–74 years-old randomly selected from the Norwegian national population database received an invitation to participate in this postal questionnaire study. The response rate was 36.1% (3,483/9,638. Given the lack of validated criteria, two survey questions ("Have you ever noticed that a close relative spent more and more money on gambling?" and "Have you ever experienced that a close relative lied to you about how much he/she gambles?" were extrapolated from the Lie/Bet Screen for pathological gambling. Respondents answering "yes" to both questions were defined as Concerned Significant Others (CSOs. Results Overall, 2.0% of the study population was defined as CSOs. Young age, female gender, and divorced marital status were factors positively associated with being a CSO. CSOs often reported to have experienced conflicts in the family related to gambling, worsening of the family's financial situation, and impaired mental and physical health. Conclusion Problematic gambling behaviour not only affects the gambling individual but also has a strong impact on the quality of life of family members.
Ledgerwood, David M; Arfken, Cynthia L
Most treatment for gambling disorder is provided on an outpatient basis. Only a small number of jurisdictions in North America provide higher levels of gambling treatment, such as residential or intensive outpatient (IOP) care, despite the potential need for these services. Further, there appear to be few guidelines for determining appropriate level of gambling treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess the appropriateness of higher levels of problem gambling care among clients receiving outpatient treatment. Problem gamblers and their therapists independently completed questionnaires that assessed the need and desire for residential and IOP treatment. About 42% of problem gambling outpatients noted that they would be "probably" or "definitely" willing to attend residential treatment, and about half indicated they would be equally likely to attend IOP. Therapists recommended about a third of their clients as appropriate for higher levels of care. For both client and therapist assessments, there was a significant association between desire or recommendation for level of treatment and severity of gambling and co-occurring problems. Further, therapist recommendations for level of care were significantly associated with client willingness to attend higher levels of treatment. Our data reveal the potential need for higher levels of care for problem gambling, as evaluated by clients and their therapists. Policy implications for the funding of residential and IOP treatment are discussed.
Ronzitti, Silvia; Soldini, Emiliano; Smith, Neil; Potenza, Marc N; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta
Studies show higher lifetime prevalence of suicidality in individuals with pathological gambling. However, less is known about the relationship between pathological gambling and current suicidal ideation. We investigated socio-demographic, clinical and gambling-related variables associated with suicidality in treatment-seeking individuals. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models were generated on data from 903 individuals to identify measures associated with aspects of suicidality. Forty-six percent of patients reported current suicidal ideation. People with current suicidal thoughts were more likely to report greater problem-gambling severity (psuicidality. Logistic regression models suggested that past suicidal ideation (psuicidality. Our findings suggest that the severity of anxiety disorder, along with a lifetime history of suicidal ideation, may help to identify treatment-seeking individuals with pathological gambling with a higher risk of suicidality, highlighting the importance of assessing suicidal ideation in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Versini, Audrey; LeGauffre, Cindy; Romo, Lucia; Adès, Jean; Gorwood, Philip
Familial and twin studies suggest the implication of a genetic factor in pathological gambling, but mainly assess probands through treatment settings or advertisements. The question raised here is: are parents of casino pathological gamblers using slot machines more affected with pathological gambling than nonpathological gamblers, all interviewed on site at the same casino? Three hundred and fifty-five casino gamblers on slot machines, which included 96 pathological gamblers, 116 problem gamblers, and 143 nonproblem gamblers, were recruited in situ at the largest casino in the Paris suburbs. We evaluated pathological gambling and two addictive disorders (alcohol dependence and tobacco consumption) in the gamblers and their 690 parents (through the proband). Familial aggregation of pathological gambling was confirmed, with a risk of 3.3 for being a pathological gambler when at least one of the parents has problematic gambling. No familial co-aggregation of pathological gambling with alcohol or tobacco dependence was observed. Pathological gambling is found in excess in the parents of pathological casino gamblers, in accordance with previous aggregation studies devoted to other types of gambling, and with studies recruiting gamblers in different settings. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Dieter Egerer Michael
Full Text Available AIMS - Problem gambling is normally identified by fixed criteria of harm adapted from those of substance abuse and by focusing on the individual gambler. However, rigid definitions neglect institutional variations of gambling practices within different legislative configurations. This study proposes analysing the line between recreational and problem gambling by focusing on gambling behaviour and looking at the corruption of the defining factors of play (Cail-lois, 1958 in three different institutional contexts. DESIGN - A stimulated focus-group method (Reception Analytical Group Interview was applied to seven groups of Finnish and French general practitioners each and three groups of German ones to study the variations of conceptualising the defining factors of play as introduced by Caillois. RESULTS - Corruption of play was distinguished by participants from all three countries as the dividing line between recreational and problem gambling, but cultural variations were found: the French and German GPs emphasised the loss of the exceptionality of gambling, whereas the Finnish GPs highlighted the invasion of the home by online gambling. Furthermore, the Finnish and German participants were more concerned about the use of gambling as an emotional regulator, while French GPs echoed the French medical model in discussing the adrenaline rush of problem gamblers. CONCLUSIONS - Caillois' defining factors of play can be used to distinguish recreational from problem gambling and to offer a more encompassing definition of problem gambling. The perception of the line between recreational and problem gambling also seems to depend on the institutional and cultural context.
There are many factors that could be incorporated within a gaming company’s framework of social responsibility and that while the industry should be proactive in the prevention of problem gambling, the treatment of problem gambling should be done by those outside of the gaming industry and that one of the ways forward may be online rather than offline help. This is reinforced by the gaming industry having formal relationships with numerous organisations that address training, compliance, accr...
Mutti-Packer, Seema; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna
Little research has examined the potential protective influence of religiosity against problem gambling; a common addictive behavior, and one with a host of associated negative health and social outcomes. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the potential longitudinal association between religiosity and problem gambling among adults and (2) the potential moderating role of gender on this association. Data were from five waves of the Quinte Longitudinal Study (QLS), between 2006 and 2010. Participants were Canadian adults from Belleville, Ontario, Canada (n = 4121). A multiple group (based on gender) latent growth curve analysis was conducted to examine the overall trajectory of problem gambling severity. Two models were tested; the first examined the influence of past-year religious service attendance, and the second examined an overall measure of personal religiosity on the trajectory of problem gambling. The Problem and Pathological Gambling Measure (PPGM) was used as a continuous measure. The Rohrbaugh-Jessor Religiosity Scale (RJRS) was used to assess past-year frequency of religious service attendance and personal religiosity. Religious affiliation (Protestant, Catholic, Atheist/Agnostic, Other, Prefer not to say) was also included in the models. At baseline, higher frequency of past-year religious service attendance (males: β= -0.54, females: β= -0.68, p religious service attendance was greater among females (χ 2 diff (44) = 336.8, p religious affiliation. No measures of religiosity or religious affiliation were associated with the overall decline in problem gambling severity. These findings suggest that religiosity may act as a static protective factor against problem gambling severity but may play a less significant role in predicting change in problem gambling severity over time.
... New York State Psychiatric Institute. “There is no stereotype. The main predictor of outcome is really motivation.” ... t stop. Links Compulsive Gambling NIH Office of Communications and Public Liaison Building 31, Room 5B52 Bethesda, ...
Hum, Sandra; Carr, Sherilene M
Loneliness and adapting to an unfamiliar environment can increase emotional vulnerability in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) university students. According to Blaszczynski and Nower's pathways model of problem and pathological gambling, this emotional vulnerability could increase the risk of problem gambling. The current study examined whether loneliness was associated with problem gambling risk in CALD students relative to their Australian peers. Additionally, differences in coping strategies were examined to determine their buffering effect on the relationship. A total of 463 female and 165 male university students (aged 18-38) from Australian (38%), mixed Australian and CALD (23%) and CALD (28%) backgrounds responded to an online survey of problem gambling behaviour, loneliness, and coping strategies. The results supported the hypothesis that loneliness would be related to problem gambling in CALD students. There was no evidence of a moderating effect of coping strategies. Future research could test whether the introduction of programs designed to alleviate loneliness in culturally diverse university students reduces their risk of developing problem gambling.
Dowling, N A; Brown, M
The most commonly applied conceptual approach for excessive Internet use has been as a behavioral addiction, similar to pathological or problem gambling. In order to contribute to the understanding of Internet dependence as a disorder resembling problem gambling, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between problem gambling and Internet dependence and the degree to which psychological factors associated with problem gambling are relevant to the study of Internet dependence. The factors of depression, anxiety, student stressors, loneliness, and social support were examined in a sample of university students from several Australian universities. The findings revealed that there is no overlap between the populations reporting problem gambling and Internet dependence, but that individuals with these disorders report similar psychological profiles. Although requiring replication with larger community samples and longitudinal designs, these preliminary findings suggest that problem gambling and Internet dependence may be separate disorders with common underlying etiologies or consequences. The implications of the findings in relation to the conceptualization and management of these disorders are briefly discussed.
Dowling, N A; Jackson, A C; Suomi, A; Lavis, T; Thomas, S A; Patford, J; Harvey, P; Battersby, M; Koziol-McLain, J; Abbott, M; Bellringer, M E
The primary aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and patterns of family violence in treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Secondary aims were to identify the prevalence of problem gambling in a family violence victimisation treatment sample and to explore the relationship between problem gambling and family violence in other treatment-seeking samples. Clients from 15 Australian treatment services were systematically screened for problem gambling using the Brief Bio-Social Gambling Screen and for family violence using single victimisation and perpetration items adapted from the Hurt-Insulted-Threatened-Screamed (HITS): gambling services (n=463), family violence services (n=95), alcohol and drug services (n=47), mental health services (n=51), and financial counselling services (n=48). The prevalence of family violence in the gambling sample was 33.9% (11.0% victimisation only, 6.9% perpetration only, and 16.0% both victimisation and perpetration). Female gamblers were significantly more likely to report victimisation only (16.5% cf. 7.8%) and both victimisation and perpetration (21.2% cf. 13.0%) than male gamblers. There were no other demographic differences in family violence prevalence estimates. Gamblers most commonly endorsed their parents as both the perpetrators and victims of family violence, followed by current and former partners. The prevalence of problem gambling in the family violence sample was 2.2%. The alcohol and drug (84.0%) and mental health (61.6%) samples reported significantly higher rates of any family violence than the gambling sample, while the financial counselling sample (10.6%) reported significantly higher rates of problem gambling than the family violence sample. The findings of this study support substantial comorbidity between problem gambling and family violence, although this may be accounted for by a high comorbidity with alcohol and drug use problems and other psychiatric disorders. They highlight the need for routine
Boffo, Marilisa; Willemen, Ronny; Pronk, Thomas; Wiers, Reinout W; Dom, Geert
Disordered gamblers have phenotypical and pathological similarities to those with substance use disorders (SUD), including exaggerated automatic cognitive processing of motivationally salient gambling cues in the environment (i.e., attentional and approach bias). Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a family of computerised interventions that have proved effective in successfully re-training these automatic cognitive biases in SUD. CBM interventions can, in principle, be administered online, thus showing potential of being a low-cost, low-threshold addition to conventional treatments. This paper presents the design of a pilot randomised controlled trial exploring the effectiveness of two web-based CBM interventions targeting attentional and approach bias towards gambling cues in a sample of Dutch and Belgian problematic and pathological gamblers. Participants (N = 182) are community-recruited adults experiencing gambling problems, who have gambled at least twice in the past 6 months and are motivated to change their gambling behaviour. After a baseline assessment session, participants are randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions (attentional or approach bias training, or the placebo version of the two trainings) and complete six sessions of training. At baseline and before each training session, participants receive automated personalised feedback on their gambling motives and reasons to quit or reduce gambling. The post-intervention, 1-month, and 3-month follow-up assessments will examine changes in gambling behaviour, with frequency and expenditure as primary outcomes, and depressive symptoms and gambling-related attentional and approach biases as secondary outcomes. Secondary analyses will explore possible moderators (interference control capacity and trait impulsivity) and mediators (change in cognitive bias) of training effects on the primary outcomes. This study is the first to explore the effectiveness of an online CBM intervention for
Full Text Available AIMS - The aim of this study is to investigate the medicalising of gambling problems by comparing the political discussions on gambling in the Swedish Parliament in the early 1970s and the early 2010s. DESIGN - Against a theoretical background on medicalising processes in general, and medicalisation of gambling problems in particular, we have analysed discussion protocols and parliamentary bills in the Swedish Parliament from the years 1970-1975 and 2012-2013. RESULTS - The problem descriptions of the 1970s and 2010s are, in certain respects, strikingly similar, identifying proactive operators such as the gambling companies and highlighting an inadequate legal framework. But where the MPs of the 1970s put some effort into describing the drab society which fed the need for gambling, the elected representatives of the 2010s shortcut to individual dependence. CONCLUSIONS - EU membership and the development of the Internet have made effective control and regulation impossible in the early 2010s and the political handling of the Swedish gambling problem is therefore a clear example of how market liberalisation can pave the way for individualisation, medicalisation and depoliticisation of social problems.
Full Text Available Mobile phone use and its potential addiction has become a point of interest within the research community. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Test of Mobile Dependence (TMD, and to investigate if there are any associations between mobile phone use and problem gambling. This was a cross-sectional study on a Swedish general population. A questionnaire consisting of a translated version of the TMD, three problem gambling questions (NODS-CLiP together with two questions concerning previous addiction treatment was published online. Exploratory factor analysis based on polychoric correlations was performed on the TMD. Independent samples T-tests, Mann-Whitney test, logistic regression analyses and ANOVA were performed to examine mean differences between subjects based on TMD test score, gambling and previous addiction treatment. A total of 1,515 people (38.3% men answered the questionnaire. The TMD showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.905, and significant correlation with subjective dependence on one's mobile phone. Women scored higher on the TMD and 15-18 year olds had the highest mean test score. The TMD test score was significantly associated with problem gambling, but only when controlling for age and sex. Various separated items related to mobile phone use were associated with problem gambling. The TMD had acceptable internal consistency and correlates with subjective dependence, while future confirmatory factor analysis is recommended. An association between mobile phone use and problem gambling may be possible, but requires further research.
Fransson, Andreas; Chóliz, Mariano; Håkansson, Anders
Mobile phone use and its potential addiction has become a point of interest within the research community. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Test of Mobile Dependence (TMD), and to investigate if there are any associations between mobile phone use and problem gambling. This was a cross-sectional study on a Swedish general population. A questionnaire consisting of a translated version of the TMD, three problem gambling questions (NODS-CLiP) together with two questions concerning previous addiction treatment was published online. Exploratory factor analysis based on polychoric correlations was performed on the TMD. Independent samples T-tests, Mann-Whitney test, logistic regression analyses and ANOVA were performed to examine mean differences between subjects based on TMD test score, gambling and previous addiction treatment. A total of 1,515 people (38.3% men) answered the questionnaire. The TMD showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.905), and significant correlation with subjective dependence on one's mobile phone. Women scored higher on the TMD and 15-18 year olds had the highest mean test score. The TMD test score was significantly associated with problem gambling, but only when controlling for age and sex. Various separated items related to mobile phone use were associated with problem gambling. The TMD had acceptable internal consistency and correlates with subjective dependence, while future confirmatory factor analysis is recommended. An association between mobile phone use and problem gambling may be possible, but requires further research. PMID:29780345
Fransson, Andreas; Chóliz, Mariano; Håkansson, Anders
Mobile phone use and its potential addiction has become a point of interest within the research community. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Test of Mobile Dependence (TMD), and to investigate if there are any associations between mobile phone use and problem gambling. This was a cross-sectional study on a Swedish general population. A questionnaire consisting of a translated version of the TMD, three problem gambling questions (NODS-CLiP) together with two questions concerning previous addiction treatment was published online. Exploratory factor analysis based on polychoric correlations was performed on the TMD. Independent samples T -tests, Mann-Whitney test, logistic regression analyses and ANOVA were performed to examine mean differences between subjects based on TMD test score, gambling and previous addiction treatment. A total of 1,515 people (38.3% men) answered the questionnaire. The TMD showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.905), and significant correlation with subjective dependence on one's mobile phone. Women scored higher on the TMD and 15-18 year olds had the highest mean test score. The TMD test score was significantly associated with problem gambling, but only when controlling for age and sex. Various separated items related to mobile phone use were associated with problem gambling. The TMD had acceptable internal consistency and correlates with subjective dependence, while future confirmatory factor analysis is recommended. An association between mobile phone use and problem gambling may be possible, but requires further research.
Bond, Kathy S; Dart, Katrina M; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Reavley, Nicola J
Gambling problems appear to be more prevalent in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population than in the non-Indigenous population. Although gambling harms can be significant, treatment-seeking rates are low. The Delphi expert consensus method was used to develop a set of guidelines on how a family or community member can assist an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems. Building on a previous systematic review of websites, books and journal articles a questionnaire was developed that contained items about the knowledge, skills and actions needed for supporting an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems. These items were rated over three rounds by an expert panel comprising professionals who provide treatment to or conduct research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with gambling problems. A total of 22 experts rated 407 helping statements according to whether they thought the statements should be included in these guidelines. There were 225 helping statements that were endorsed by at least 90% of participants. These endorsed statements were used to develop the guidelines. Experts were able to reach substantial consensus on how someone can recognise the signs of gambling problems and support an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person to change.
Slutske, Wendy S; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Poulton, Richie
Individual differences in dimensions of personality may play an important role in explaining risk for disordered gambling behavior as well as the comorbidity between disordered gambling behavior and other substance-related addictive disorders. To identify the personality correlates of problem gambling in a representative non-treatment-seeking sample, as well as to determine whether these are similar to the personality correlates of other substance-related addictive disorders and whether individual differences in personality might account for the comorbidity between disordered gambling behavior and other substance-related addictive disorders. Longitudinal population-based study. A complete birth cohort of young adults born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1, 1972, and March 31, 1973 (N = 939; 475 men, 464 women). Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire assessments of personality were obtained at age 18 years; structured interview-based diagnoses of past-year problem gambling and alcohol, cannabis, and nicotine dependence were obtained at age 21 years. Problem gambling at age 21 years was associated with higher scores on the higher-order personality dimension of negative emotionality (d = 0.90) and with lower scores on the personality dimension of constraint (d = -0.72) measured at age 18 years compared with control subjects who did not have a past-year addictive disorder at age 21 years. Problem gambling was also associated with Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire indicators of risk-taking (d = 0.50) and impulsivity (d = 0.56). The personality profile associated with problem gambling was similar to the profiles associated with alcohol, cannabis, and nicotine dependence. The relations between problem gambling and the substance-related addictive disorders (odds ratios = 3.32-3.61) were reduced after controlling for individual differences in personality (odds ratios = 1.90-2.32). From the perspective of personality, problem gambling has much in common
Fortgang, Rebecca G; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
High rates of both problem and pathological gambling (PPG) and substance-use disorders (SUDs) have been reported in schizophrenia, and yet PPG frequently goes undetected in clinical practice and unexamined in research. Here, we aimed to examine the relationship between PPG and SUDs in a large sample of patients across several factors related to both gambling and substance use, including poly-substance use. Additionally, delay discounting is a form of impulsivity known to positively associate with both PPG and SUDs and thought to underlie mechanisms of addiction in both contexts. We aimed to investigate the relationship between PPG and delay discounting in schizophrenia. 337 individuals with schizophrenia completed structured face-to-face interviews regarding gambling behaviors, substance use, and delay discounting. PPG in schizophrenia was associated with substance use, in particular with poly-substance use, and with delay discounting among males. Factors related to substance use were strongly linked with gambling in this sample, but not always with PPG more than recreational gambling. Our findings overall support the notions that multiple forms of gambling in schizophrenia are clinically relevant, that gambling may share common substrates with substance use, and that delay discounting represents a potential mechanism of this association in males.
Keough, Matthew T; Wardell, Jeffrey D; Hendershot, Christian S; Bagby, R Michael; Quilty, Lena C
Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) predicts that the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) may relate to coping-motivated problem gambling, given its central role in anxiety. Studies examining the BIS-problem gambling association, however, are mixed. The revised RST posits that the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) may moderate the effect of the BIS on coping-motivated problem gambling. A concurrently strong BAS may highlight the negatively reinforcing effects of gambling, which may strengthen coping motives and increase gambling-related harms. We examined these interactive effects to clarify the moderators and mediators of the negative reinforcement pathway to problem gambling. Data came from a larger investigation of problem gambling among individuals with mood disorders. All participants (N = 275) met criteria for a lifetime depressive or bipolar disorder. During a two-day assessment, participants completed a diagnostic assessment and self-reports. Mediated moderation path analysis showed positive indirect effects from the BIS to problem gambling via coping motives at high, but not at low, levels of BAS-Reward Responsiveness and BAS-Fun Seeking. Enhancement motives were also found to mediate the associations of BAS-Fun Seeking and BAS-Drive with problem gambling. Reward Responsiveness and Fun Seeking facets of the BAS may strengthen coping gambling motives within the mood disorders.
Jasmine M Y Loo
Full Text Available The majority of prevention and intervention research in problem gambling (PG has focused on identifying negative risk factors. However, not all at-risk individuals go on to develop anticipated disorders and many thrive in spite of them. In healthcare settings, PG and other disorders are typically conceptualized from the biomedical perspective that frame disorders as something negative residing within the individual and reduction in negativity is seen as success. Indeed, this problem-focused conceptualization may be adequate in many cases as reducing PG behaviour is undoubtedly an important outcome, but the focus on negativity alone is too narrow to capture the complexity of human behaviour. Hence, this study attempts to bridge the gap in literature by providing an evaluation of the predictive ability of the positive dispositions on problem gambling severity, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. The positive psychological dispositions examined were curiosity, gratitude, hope, personal growth initiative, and mindfulness. Participants consisted of 801 Taiwanese Chinese students and community individuals (Mean age = 25.36 years. Higher levels of gratitude and hope have been found to predict lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, or gambling urges. Meanwhile, higher mindfulness predicted lower PG, but only among Chinese males. However, lower personal growth initiative predicted lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. These analyses have small to medium effect sizes with significant predictions. Findings of this study have essential implications in understanding and treating Chinese problem gamblers. These positive dispositions should be addressed by mental health professionals in preventative and treatment programs among Chinese individuals. Further implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Parke, A; Griffiths, M; Pattinson, J; Keatley, D
Background: To inform clinical treatment and preventative efforts, there is an important need to understand the pathways to late-life gambling disorder. Aims: This study assesses the association between age-related physical health, social networks, and problem gambling in adults aged over 65 years and assesses the mediating role of affective disorders in this association. Methods: The sample comprised 595 older adults (mean age: 74.4 years, range: 65–94 years; 77.1% female) who were interview...
St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina
Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.
Salonen, Anne H; Castrén, Sari; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli
Problem gambling not only impacts those directly involved, but also the concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers. The aims of this study were to investigate the proportion of male and female CSOs at the population level; to investigate who the CSOs were concerned about; and to investigate sociodemographic factors, gender differences, gambling behaviour, and health and well-being among CSOs and non-CSOs. The data (n = 4484) were based on a cross-sectional population study. Structured telephone interviews were conducted in 2011-2012. The data were weighted based on age, gender and residency. The respondents were defined as CSOs if they reported that at least one of their significant others (father, mother, sister/brother, grandparent, spouse, own child/children, close friend) had had gambling problems. Statistical significance was determined by chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression analysis. Altogether, 19.3% of the respondents were identified as CSOs. Most commonly, the problem gambler was a close friend (12.4%) of the CSO. The percentage of close friends having a gambling problem was larger among male CSOs (14.4%) compared with female CSOs (10.3%; p ≤ 0.001), while the percentage of partners with gambling problem was larger among females (2.6%) than among males (0.8%; p ≤ 0.001). In the best fitting model, the odds ratio (95% CI) of being a male CSO was 2.03 (1.24-3.31) for past-year gambling problems, 1.46 (1.08-1.97) for loneliness and 1.78 (1.38-2.29) for risky alcohol consumption. The odds ratio (95% CI) of being a female CSO was 1.51 (1.09-2.08) for past-year gambling involvement, 3.05 (1.18-7.90) for past-year gambling problems, 2.21 (1.24-3.93) for mental health problems, 1.39 (1.03-1.89) for loneliness and 1.97 (1.43-2.71) for daily smoking. CSOs of problem gamblers often experience cumulating problems such as their own risky gambling behaviour, health problems and other addictive disorders. The
Full Text Available The present study explored some common thematic domains which characterised problem gambling experiences of adult Italian participants with the aim of understanding motivations and expectations of problem gamblers and thus promoting better psychological interventions. Emotional Text Analysis was performed on 24 problem gambling stories collected via online forum in order to detect the main themes (cluster analysis and latent factors (correspondence analysis emerging in gamblers’ narratives. Five themes emerged which respectively refer to guilt (16.15%, obsession (27.60%, disease (30.77%, risk taking (15.89% and emotion regulation (4.17%. In addition, four synthetic dimensions were detected which consent to account the variability of problem gambling experience based on: struggle against compulsion (F1, ambivalent acceptance of gambling (F2, interpersonal detachment (F3 and illusion of control (F4. From the emotional experience shaping the problem gamblers’ narratives, this research study allows the identification of some factors which can contribute to quality research on problem gambling and which can provide some useful suggestion for treatment.
Rockloff, Matthew J; Dyer, Victoria
A focus group of Reno area Gamblers Anonymous members identified four psychological traits contributing to risk for problem gambling, including: Escape, Esteem, Excess and Excitement. A panel of four experts authored 240 Likert-type items to measure these traits. By design, none of the items explicitly referred to gambling activities. Study 1 narrowed the field of useful items by employing a quasi-experimental design which compared the answers of Reno area Gamblers Anonymous members (N = 39) to a control sample (N = 34). Study 2 submitted successful items, plus new items authored with the knowledge gained from Study 1, to validation in a random sample telephone survey across Queensland, Australia (N=2577). The final 40 item Four Es scale (4Es) was reliable (alpha=.90); predicted gambling problems as measured by the Canadian Problem Gambling Index of Severity (PGSI, Ferris & Wynne (2001). The Canadian Problem Gambling Index: Final Report: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse); and distinguished problem gamblers from persons with alcohol abuse problems. The new scale can provide a basis for further study in harm minimization, treatment, and theory development.
Bibby, Peter A; Ross, Katherine E
Background and aims The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between alexithymia and loss-chasing behavior in people at risk and not at risk for problem gambling. Methods An opportunity sample of 58 (50 males and 8 females) participants completed the Problem Gambling Severity Index and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). They then completed the Cambridge Gambling Task from which a measure of loss-chasing behavior was derived. Results Alexithymia and problem gambling risk were significantly positively correlated. Subgroups of non-alexithymic and at or near caseness for alexithymia by low risk and at risk for problem gambling were identified. The results show a clear difference for loss-chasing behavior for the two alexithymia conditions, but there was no evidence that low and at-risk problem gamblers were more likely to loss chase. The emotion-processing components of the TAS-20 were shown to correlate with loss chasing. Discussion and conclusion These findings suggest that loss-chasing behavior may be particularly prevalent in a subgroup of problem gamblers those who are high in alexithymia.
Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Simon, Olivier; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard
The study aimed to identify different patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) and to investigate how PGAs differed in gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. A representative sample of 4989 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing seven distinct gambling activities, gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. PGAs were identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Differences between PGAs in gambling and substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies were tested. LCA identified six different PGAs. With regard to gambling and substance use outcomes, the three most problematic PGAs were extensive gamblers, followed by private gamblers, and electronic lottery and casino gamblers, respectively. By contrast, the three least detrimental PGAs were rare or non-gamblers, lottery only gamblers and casino gamblers. With regard to personality traits, compared with rare or non-gamblers, private and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sensation seeking. Electronic lottery and casino gamblers, private gamblers and extensive gamblers had higher levels of aggression-hostility. Extensive and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sociability, whereas casino gamblers reported lower levels of anxiety-neuroticism. Extensive gamblers used more maladaptive and less adaptive coping strategies than other groups. Results suggest that gambling is not a homogeneous activity since different types of gamblers exist according to the PGA they are engaged in. Extensive gamblers, electronic and casino gamblers and private gamblers may have the most problematic PGAs. Personality traits and coping skills may predispose individuals to PGAs associated with more or less negative outcomes.
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M
Background and aims Public stigma diminishes the health of stigmatized populations, so it is critical to understand how and why stigma occurs to inform stigma reduction measures. This study aimed to examine stigmatizing attitudes held toward people experiencing problem gambling, to examine whether specific elements co-occur to create this public stigma, and to model explanatory variables of this public stigma. Methods An online panel of adults from Victoria, Australia (N = 2,000) was surveyed. Measures were based on a vignette for problem gambling and included demographics, gambling behavior, perceived dimensions of problem gambling, stereotyping, social distancing, emotional reactions, and perceived devaluation and discrimination. A hierarchical linear regression was conducted. Results People with gambling problems attracted substantial negative stereotypes, social distancing, emotional reactions, and status loss/discrimination. These elements were associated with desired social distance, as was perceived that problem gambling is caused by bad character, and is perilous, non-recoverable, and disruptive. Level of contact with problem gambling, gambling involvement, and some demographic variables was significantly associated with social distance, but they explained little additional variance. Discussion and conclusions This study contributes to the understanding of how and why people experiencing gambling problems are stigmatized. Results suggest the need to increase public contact with such people, avoid perpetuation of stereotypes in media and public health communications, and reduce devaluing and discriminating attitudes and behaviors.
Fogarty, Marisa; Coalter, Nicola; Gordon, Ashley; Breen, Helen
Gambling impacts affect Australian Indigenous families and communities in diverse and complex ways. Indigenous people throughout Australia engage in a broad range of regulated and unregulated gambling activities. Challenges in this area include the complexities that come with delivering services and programmes between the most remote regions, to highly populated towns and cities of Australia. There is little knowledge transfer between states and territories in Australia and no conceptual understanding or analysis of what constitutes 'best practice' in gambling service delivery for Indigenous people, families and communities. This article reviews health promotion approaches used in Australia, with a particular focus on Indigenous and gambling-based initiatives. Contributing to this review is an examination of health promotion strategies used in Indigenous gambling service delivery in the Northern Territory, New South Wales and Western Australia, demonstrating diversity and innovation in approaches. The article concludes by emphasizing the potential value of adopting health promotion strategies to underpin programme and service delivery for addressing gambling problems in Australian Indigenous communities. However, success is contingent on robust, evidence-based programme design, implementation and evaluation that adhere to health promotion principles. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Rodda, S N; Manning, V; Dowling, N A; Lee, S J; Lubman, D I
Despite high rates of comorbidity between problem gambling and mental health disorders, few studies have examined barriers or facilitators to the implementation of screening for problem gambling in mental health services. This exploratory qualitative study identified key themes associated with screening in mental health services. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 30 clinicians and managers from 11 mental health services in Victoria, Australia. Major themes and subthemes were identified using qualitative content analysis. Six themes emerged including competing priorities, importance of routine screening, access to appropriate screening tools, resources, patient responsiveness and workforce development. Barriers to screening included a focus on immediate risk as well as gambling being often considered as a longer-term concern. Clinicians perceived problem gambling as a relatively rare condition, but did acknowledge the need for brief screening. Facilitators to screening were changes to system processes, such as identification of an appropriate brief screening instrument, mandating its use as part of routine screening, as well as funded workforce development activities in the identification and management of problem gambling.
Rosendal, Marianne; Carlsen, Anders Helles; Rask, Mette Troellund
Dette studie undersøger tilfredsheden hos patienter, der blev afsluttet i almen praksis uden specifik diagnose, dvs. hvor lægen efter afsluttet konsultation kun kunne anføre "symptom" eller "problem" som slutdiagnose. Det drejer sig om ca. 1/3 af alle helbredsrelaterede konsultationer i almen...
Turksen, U.; Holder, R.
This article focuses on the issue of enforcement of the WTO rules on international cross-border trade in services. It is argued that the examination of the GATS jurisprudence and state practice reveal that the GATS does not address the needs of the developing countries in general and the prospects of internet gambling services in the Caribbean Community in particular. First, the article discusses the extent of service-producing activities within the GATS provisions and outlines the main princ...
Bonnaire, C; Kovess-Masfety, V; Guignard, R; Richard, J B; du Roscoät, E; Beck, F
Many studies carried out on treatment-seeking problem gamblers (PG) have reported high levels of comorbid substance use disorders, and mental and physical health problems. Nevertheless, general population studies are still sparse, most of them have been carried out in the United States or Canada, and gender differences have not always been considered. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the type of games, and psychological and physical correlates in male and female PG in a nationally representative French sample. The total sample studied involved 25,647 subjects aged 15-85 years, including 333 PG and 25,314 non-problem gamblers (NPG). Data were extracted from a large survey of a representative sample of the French general population. They were evaluated for sociodemographic variables, gambling behavior, type of gambling activity, substance use, psychological distress, body mass index, chronic disease, and lack of sleep. Overall, there were significant differences between PG and NPG in gender, age, education, employment and marital status, substance use disorders (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine and heroin), psychological distress, obesity, lack of sleep and type of gambling activity. Although male and female PG had different profiles, the gambling type, especially strategic games, appeared as an important variable in the relationship between gender and problem gambling. This research underlines the importance of considering gender differences and gambling type in the study of gambling disorders. Identifying specific factors in the relationship between gender, gambling type and gambling problems may help improve clinical interventions and health promotion strategies.
Back, Ki-Joon; Williams, Robert J; Lee, Choong-Ki
Most research on the assessment, epidemiology, and treatment of problem gambling has occurred in Western jurisdictions. This potentially limits the cross-cultural validity of problem gambling assessment instruments as well as etiological models of problem gambling. The primary objective of the present research was to investigate the reliability and validity of three problem gambling assessment instruments within a South Korean context. A total of 4,330 South Korean adults participated in a comprehensive assessment of their gambling behavior that included the administration of the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling (NODS), the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI), and the Problem and Pathological Gambling Measure (PPGM). Cronbach alpha showed that all three instruments had good internal consistency. Concurrent validity was established by the significant associations observed between scores on the instruments and measures of gambling involvement (number of gambling formats engaged in; frequency of gambling; and gambling expenditure). Most importantly, kappa statistics showed that all instruments have satisfactory classification accuracy against clinical assessment of problem gambling conducted by South Korean clinicians (NODS κ = .66; PPGM κ = .62; CPGI κ = .51). These results confirm that Western-derived operationalizations of problem gambling have applicability in a South Korean setting.
Hodgins, David C; Stea, Jonathan N; Grant, Jon E
Gambling disorders, including pathological gambling and problem gambling, have received increased attention from clinicians and researchers over the past three decades since gambling opportunities have expanded around the world. This Seminar reviews prevalence, causes and associated features, screening and diagnosis, and treatment approaches. Gambling disorders affect 0·2-5·3% of adults worldwide, although measurement and prevalence varies according to the screening instruments and methods used, and availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities. Several distinct treatment approaches have been favourably evaluated, such as cognitive behavioural and brief treatment models and pharmacological interventions. Although promising, family therapy and support from Gamblers Anonymous are less well empirically supported. Gambling disorders are highly comorbid with other mental health and substance use disorders, and a further understanding is needed of both the causes and treatment implications of this disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abbott, Max; Romild, Ulla; Volberg, Rachel
To estimate the prevalence, incidence and gender and age-specific incidence of problem gambling in the Swedish adult population. Longitudinal cohort study with linkage to register data. Sweden. Stratified random sample aged 16-84 years at baseline (n = 8165) re-assessed a year later (n = 6021). Problem gambling (life-time and past 12 months) was measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised (SOGS-R). Past 12-month (current) problem gambling was also measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). The SOGS-R combined current pathological and problem gambling prevalence rate (PR) was 2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8-2.4] at baseline and 1.7 (1.4-2.0) at follow-up, approximately half the corresponding life-time estimates.[Correction added on 22 Dec 2017, after first online publication: In the preceding sentence, the SOGS-R combined current pathological and problem gambling prevalence rate (PR) was incorrectly reported as being double the corresponding life-time rate. It has been corrected in this version.] PGSI combined current problem and moderate-risk gambling PRs were 2.2 (1.9-2.5) at baseline and 1.9 (1.6-2.2) at follow-up. Combined incidence rates (IRs) were 1.0 (0.8-1.3) (SOGS-R) and 1.4 (1.1-1.7) (PGSI), with more than three-quarters being new cases. While first-time IRs did not vary by gender, males had a higher relapse IR and proportionately more females were new cases. The young adult IR was more than double the older adult IR; similar proportions were new cases. The actual incidence of problem gambling relapse in Sweden is likely to be higher than estimated. The profile of problem gambling in Sweden is likely to change over time, with increased proportions of women and older adults. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Powell, Jane E.; Tapp, Alan J.
In this paper the authors present and debate the theoretical case for the use of social marketing to help reduce problem gambling in the public health context of the UK. Is triangulated between the key theories and principles of social marketing, the key literature and its theoretical application to the debate about reducing problem gambling in…
Kong, Grace; Smith, Philip H; Pilver, Corey; Hoff, Rani; Potenza, Marc N
Little is known about the association between problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders among American-Indian/Alaska-Native (AI/AN) individuals. Thus, we examined these factors among a nationally representative sample of AI/AN and other American adults in the USA. Using the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data, we conducted separate Wald tests and multinomial logistic regression analyses comparing AI/AN to black/African American, white/Caucasian, and all other racial/ethnic groups, respectively. Relative to other American adults, AI/AN adults were least likely to report non-/low-frequency gambling (NG: AI/AN 66.5%, white/Caucasian 70.5%, black/African American 72.8%, other racial/ethnic group 72.3%) and most likely to report low-risk gambling (LRG: AI/AN 30.1%, white/Caucasian 26.5%, black/African American 23.4%, other racial/ethnic group 24.7%). The association between at-risk/problem-gambling (ARPG) and any past-year Axis-I disorder was stronger among AI/AN versus other American adults. Although ARPG and LRG were associated with multiple past-year Axis-I and lifetime Axis-II psychiatric disorders in both AI/AN and other American adults, LRG was more strongly associated with both Axis-I disorders (particularly major depression, generalized anxiety disorder and nicotine dependence) and Cluster-B Axis-II (particularly antisocial personality disorder) disorders in AI/AN versus other American adults. A stronger association between problem-gambling severity and past-year psychiatric disorders among AI/AN relative to other American adults suggests the importance of enhancing mental health and problem-gambling prevention and treatment strategies that may help AI/AN individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gainsbury, Sally M; King, Daniel L; Russell, Alex M T; Delfabbro, Paul; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Hing, Nerilee
Digital advertising for gambling and specifically marketing via social media have increased in recent years, and the impact on vulnerable consumers, including moderate-risk and problem gamblers, is unknown. Social media promotions often fall outside of advertising restrictions and codes of conduct and may have an inequitable effect on susceptible gamblers. This study aimed to investigate recall of exposure to, and reported impact on gamblers of, gambling promotions and marketing content on social media, with a focus on vulnerable users currently experiencing gambling problems. Gamblers who use social media (N = 964) completed an online survey assessing their exposure to and engagement with gambling operators on social media, their problem gambling severity, and the impact of social media promotions on their gambling. Gamblers at moderate risk and problem gamblers were significantly more likely to report having been exposed to social media gambling promotions and indicated actively engaging with gambling operators via these platforms. They were more likely to self-report that they had increased gambling as a result of these promotions, and over one third reported that the promotions had increased their problems. This research suggests that gamblers at moderate risk or those experiencing gambling problems are more likely to be impacted by social media promotions, and these may play a role in exacerbating disordered gambling. Future research should verify these self-reported results with behavioral data. However, the potential influence of advertisements via these new platforms should be considered by clinicians and policymakers, given their potential role in the formation of this behavioral addiction. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Brosowski, Tim; Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian
Consumption measures in gambling research may help to establish thresholds of low-risk gambling as 1 part of evidence-based responsible gambling strategies. The aim of this study is to replicate existing Canadian thresholds of probable low-risk gambling (Currie et al., 2006) in a representative dataset of German gambling behavior (Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology [PAGE]; N = 15,023). Receiver-operating characteristic curves applied in a training dataset (60%) extracted robust thresholds of low-risk gambling across 4 nonexclusive definitions of gambling problems (1 + to 4 + Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition [DSM-5] Composite International Diagnostic Interview [CIDI] symptoms), different indicators of gambling involvement (across all game types; form-specific) and different timeframes (lifetime; last year). Logistic regressions applied in a test dataset (40%) to cross-validate the heuristics of probable low-risk gambling incorporated confounding covariates (age, gender, education, migration, and unemployment) and confirmed the strong concurrent validity of the thresholds. Moreover, it was possible to establish robust form-specific thresholds of low-risk gambling (only for gaming machines and poker). Possible implications for early detection of problem gamblers in offline or online environments are discussed. Results substantiate international knowledge about problem gambling prevention and contribute to a German discussion about empirically based guidelines of low-risk gambling. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available There is a severe lack of instruments to assess problem gambling in Chinese people. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Maroondah Assessment Profile for Problem Gambling (Chinese G-MAP, based on the responses of eight problem gamblers and 125 pathological gamblers seeking help from a problem gambling treatment center. Reliability analyses showed that the G-MAP and its related domains and scales were generally internally consistent. There are also several lines of evidence suggesting that the Chinese G-MAP and the various domains are valid: (a the various G-MAP domain and scale measures were significantly correlated among themselves, (b the G-MAP measures were significantly correlated with pathological gambling behavior assessed by the 4th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, and (c the G-MAP total scale and domain measures were able to discriminate problem gamblers and pathological gamblers. The present study suggests that the Chinese G-MAP possesses acceptable psychometric properties that can be used in research and practice settings.
Schiavella, Mauro; Pelagatti, Matteo; Westin, Jerker; Lepore, Gabriele; Cherubini, Paolo
Poker playing and responsible gambling both entail the use of the executive functions (EF), which are higher-level cognitive abilities. This study investigated if online poker players of different ability showed different performances in their EF and if so, which functions were the most discriminating for their playing ability. Furthermore, it assessed if the EF performance was correlated to the quality of gambling, according to self-reported questionnaires (PGSI, SOGS, GRCS). Three poker experts evaluated anonymized poker hand history files and, then, a trained professional administered an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Data analysis determined which variables of the tests correlated with poker ability and gambling quality scores. The highest correlations between EF test results and poker ability and between EF test results and gambling quality assessment showed that mostly different clusters of executive functions characterize the profile of the strong(er) poker player and those ones of the problem gamblers (PGSI and SOGS) and the one of the cognitions related to gambling (GRCS). Taking into consideration only the variables overlapping between PGSI and SOGS, we found some key predictive factors for a more risky and harmful online poker playing: a lower performance in the emotional intelligence competences (Emotional Quotient inventory Short) and, in particular, those grouped in the Intrapersonal scale (emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, self-regard, independence and self-actualization).
John A. Cunningham
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity between problem gambling and depression or anxiety is common. Further, the treatment needs of people with co-occurring gambling and mental health symptoms may be different from those of problem gamblers who do not have a co-occurring mental health concern. The current randomized controlled trial (RCT will evaluate whether there is a benefit to providing access to mental health Internet interventions (G + MH intervention in addition to an Internet intervention for problem gambling (G-only intervention in participants with gambling problems who do or do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms. Methods Potential participants will be screened using an online survey to identify participants meeting criteria for problem gambling. As part of the baseline screening process, measures of current depression and anxiety will be assessed. Eligible participants agreeing (N = 280 to take part in the study will be randomized to one of two versions of an online intervention for gamblers – an intervention that just targets gambling issues (G-only versus a website that contains interventions for depression and anxiety in addition to an intervention for gamblers (G + MH. It is predicted that problem gamblers who do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms will display no significant difference between intervention conditions at a six-month follow-up. However, for those with co-occurring mental health symptoms, it is predicted that participants receiving access to the G + MH website will display significantly reduced gambling outcomes at six-month follow-up as compared to those provided with G-only website. Discussion The trial will produce information on the best means of providing online help to gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02800096 ; Registration date: June 14, 2016.
Yau, Yvonne H.C.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen J.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.
With the popularity of Internet use among adolescents, there is concern that some youth may display problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. Although excessive patterns of Internet use was considered for inclusion in the DSM-5 with pathological gambling and substance-use disorders in a category of addictive disorders, it was determined that more research was needed on Internet-use behaviors before such actions be further considered and possibly undertaken. The present study is the first to investigate whether at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) may moderate the strength of association between problem-gambling severity and gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures in adolescents. Survey data from 1884 Connecticut high-school student stratified by Internet use (ARPIU vs. non-ARPIU) were examined in bivariate analyses and logistic regression models. Gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures were mostly positively associated with problem-gambling severity in both Internet use groups. Interaction odds ratio revealed that the strength of the associations between problem-gambling severity and marijuana, alcohol and caffeine use were stronger amongst the non-ARPIU compared to the ARPIU group, suggesting that the relationships between these substance use behaviors and problem gambling may be partially accounted for by ARPIU. Future studies should examine the extent to which preventative interventions targeting both problematic Internet use and problem gambling may synergistically benefit measures of health and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescence. PMID:24140304
Grant, Jon E; Leppink, Eric W; Redden, Sarah A
adjustment and delay aversion) and the Spatial Working Memory task (total errors). This study adds to the growing literature on the role of COMT in impulsive behaviors by showing that the Val/Val genotype was associated with specific clinical and cognitive elements among young adults who gamble......Neuropsychological studies of adults with problem gambling indicate impairments across multiple cognitive domains. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays a unique role in the regulation of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, and has been implicated in the cognitive dysfunction evident in problem...... gambling. This study examined adults with varying levels of gambling behavior to determine whether COMT genotype was associated with differences in gambling symptoms and cognitive functioning. 260 non-treatment-seeking adults aged 18-29 years with varying degrees of gambling behavior provided saliva...
Edgren, Robert; Castrén, Sari; Mäkelä, Marjukka
This review aims to clarify which instruments measuring at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG) among youth are reliable and valid in light of reported estimates of internal consistency, classification accuracy, and psychometric properties. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, and Psyc......Info covering the years 2009–2015. In total, 50 original research articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria: target age under 29 years, using an instrument designed for youth, and reporting a reliability estimate. Articles were evaluated with the revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool....... Reliability estimates were reported for five ARPG instruments. Most studies (66%) evaluated the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents. The Gambling Addictive Behavior Scale for Adolescents was the only novel instrument. In general, the evaluation of instrument reliability was superficial. Despite...
van der Maas, Mark; Mann, Robert E; Matheson, Flora I; Turner, Nigel E; Hamilton, Hayley A; McCready, John
Little research has examined the relationship between incentives used by gambling venues to attract customers and the experience of gambling-related harm. Organized and subsidized bus tours are a common example of such incentives. The aim of this study was to examine whether bus-tour patronage was associated with increased odds of problem gambling among older adults. This study also compared rates of bus-tour use by socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behaviours. Pearson's χ 2 tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests were applied for bivariate analyses. Multivariate generalized mixed-effects regression modelling was used to examine the relationship between bus-tour patronage and problem gambling while controlling for possible confounding factors. Seven gambling venues located in Central and Southwestern Ontario, Canada. A total of 1978 gambling venue patrons over the age of 55 years. Problem gambling as indicated by the Problem Gambling Severity Index, bus-tour patronage in the 12 months prior to the survey, spending per gambling visit and past-month slot machine participation. Regression analyses showed that bus-tour patronage was associated with higher odds of problem gambling [odds ratio (OR) = 1.71, confidence interval (CI) = 1.06, 2.76] after controlling for several demographic characteristics, type of gambling and gambling expenditures. Bivariate analyses showed past-year bus-tour patronage was associated with more frequent slot machine play (χ 2 = 48.16, P casino visit (P < 0.001). Compared with non-patrons, bus tour patrons were more likely to be female (χ 2 = 21.92, P < 0.001), born outside Canada (χ 2 = 113.18, P < 0.001), above the age of 75 (χ 2 = 24.02, P < 0.001) and retired (χ 2 = 16.60, P < 0.001). When adjusting for potential confounders among older adults, using bus tours to access Canadian gambling venues is associated with increased risk of problem gambling. Bus-tour patrons are more likely to be female, born outside
Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Bechara, Antoine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier
The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between problem gambling severity and decision-making situations that vary in two degrees of uncertainty (probability of outcome is known: decision-making under risk; probability of outcome is unknown: decision-making under ambiguity). For
Suurvali, Helen; Hodgins, David C; Toneatto, Tony; Cunningham, John A
A random digit dialing telephone survey was used to interview 8,467 adults in Ontario, Canada. The NODS-CLiP was used to identify a representative sample of 730 gamblers (54.3% male, mean age 45.3 years) with possible past year gambling problems in order to explore factors that might affect disordered gamblers' motivators for seeking gambling-related help. A final sample of 526 gamblers provided useable data on possible reasons for and barriers to seeking help, awareness of services, self-perception of gambling problems and experience with help-seeking. Financial and relationship issues were the most frequently volunteered motivators. However, over two-thirds of the respondents could not think of a reason for seeking help. Gamblers who had self-admitted or more severe problems, who knew how to get help, who were employed and had more education, and who identified possible barriers to seeking help were more likely to suggest motivators, especially financial ones. More research is recommended on gamblers' trajectory towards recognition of a gambling problem, the process of overcoming specific barriers to treatment, and the role of social advantage (e.g., education and employment), in order to devise educational campaigns that will encourage earlier help-seeking among disordered gamblers.
Böning, J; Meyer, G; Hayer, T
Extensive coherent clinical, psychopathological, neurobiological and genetic similarities with substance-related addictions justify the forthcoming classification of gambling addiction under the new category "Substance Use and Addictive Disorders" in the DSM-5. Thus, gambling addiction can be regarded as the prototype of behavioral addiction. In general it should be kept in mind that isolated gambling forms are associated with varying addictive potential due to specific situational and structural game characteristics. High rates of indebtedness, suicidality, social isolation and gambling-related crime often accompany pathological gambling. As a consequence gambling addiction represents a mental disorder with a significant economic burden. In Germany 12-month prevalence rates for problem gambling in adulthood range from 0.24 % to 0.64 % and for pathological gambling from 0.20 % to 0.56 %. Because gambling products rank among the so-called demeriting (i.e. potentially harmful) social activities, player and youth protection measures to prevent gambling disorders and associated crime should be best regulated as a state monopoly.
Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Iozzi, Adriana; Manfredi, Antonella; Fagni, Fabrizio; Primi, Caterina
Although a number of gambling preventive initiatives have been realized with adolescents, many of them have been developed in absence of a clear and explicitly described theoretical model. The present work was aimed to analyze the adequacy of a model to explain gambling behavior referring to gambling-related cognitive distortions (Study 1), and to verify the effectiveness of a preventive intervention developed on the basis of this model (Study 2). Following dual-process theories on cognitive ...
Marcantonio M. Spada
Full Text Available The present study explored the relationship between metacognitions, attentional control, and the severity of gambling in problem gamblers. One hundred and twenty six problem gamblers completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21, the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire 30, the Attentional Control Scale, and the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Results revealed that negative affect, four out of five metacognitions factors (positive beliefs about worry, negative beliefs about thoughts concerning danger and uncontrollability, cognitive confidence and beliefs about the need to control thoughts, and all attentional control factors (focusing, shifting and flexible control of thought were correlated, in the predicted directions, with the severity of gambling. The same metacognitions were also found to be correlated, in the predicted directions, with attention focusing, however only negative beliefs about thoughts concerning danger and uncontrollability and cognitive confidence were found to be correlated with attention shifting and flexible control of thought. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that beliefs about the need to control thoughts were the only predictor of the severity of gambling controlling for negative affect. Overall these findings support the hypotheses and are consistent with the metacognitive model of psychological dysfunction. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Miller, Helen E; Thomas, Samantha L; Robinson, Priscilla; Daube, Mike
To inform public health approaches to problem gambling by examining how the news media covers problem gambling, with a particular focus on the causes, consequences and solutions to problem gambling, and the 'actors' and sources who influence media coverage. A qualitative content analysis guided by framing theory analysed coverage of problem gambling in Australian newspapers in the period 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012. Solutions to problem gambling were more frequently discussed than causes and consequences. A focus on the responsibility of individuals was preferred to reporting that focused on broader social, ecological, and industry determinants of problem gambling. Reporting was highly politicised, with politicians frequently quoted and political issues frequently discussed. In contrast, the community sector, health professionals and problem gamblers were rarely quoted. This analysis has revealed the need for a more proactive, coordinated approach to the media by both public health researchers and health groups. The establishment of a gambling-specific coalition to push for evidence-based reform is recommended. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.
... pathological gambling can do very well with the right treatment. ... Complications may include: Alcohol and drug abuse problems Anxiety ... the right treatment can help prevent many of these problems.
Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle
Although there is a general lack of empirical evidence that advertising influences gambling participation, the regulation of gambling advertising is hotly debated among academic researchers, treatment specialists, lobby groups, regulators, and policymakers. This study contributes to the ongoing debate by investigating perceived impacts of gambling advertising in a sample of gamblers drawn from the general population in Norway (n = 6,034). Three dimensions of advertising impacts were identified, representing perceived impacts on (a) gambling-related attitudes, interest, and behavior ("involvement"); (b) knowledge about gambling options and providers ("knowledge"); and (c) the degree to which people are aware of gambling advertising ("awareness"). Overall, impacts were strongest for the knowledge dimension, and, for all 3 dimensions, the impact increased with level of advertising exposure. Those identified as problem gamblers in the sample (n = 57) reported advertising impacts concerning involvement more than recreational gamblers, and this finding was not attributable to differences in advertising exposure. Additionally, younger gamblers reported stronger impacts on involvement and knowledge but were less likely to agree that they were aware of gambling advertising than older gamblers. Male gamblers were more likely than female gamblers to report stronger impacts on both involvement and knowledge. These findings are discussed with regard to existing research on gambling advertising as well as their implications for future research and policy-making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
McCormick, Jessica; Delfabbro, Paul; Denson, Linley A
The aim of this study was to conduct an empirical investigation of the validity of Jacobs' (in J Gambl Behav 2:15-31, 1986) general theory of addictions in relation to gambling problems associated with electronic gaming machines (EGM). Regular EGM gamblers (n = 190) completed a series of standardised measures relating to psychological and physiological vulnerability, substance use, dissociative experiences, early childhood trauma and abuse and problem gambling (the Problem Gambling Severity Index). Statistical analysis using structural equation modelling revealed clear relationships between childhood trauma and life stressors and psychological vulnerability, dissociative-like experiences and problem gambling. These findings confirm and extend a previous model validated by Gupta and Derevensky (in J Gambl Stud 14: 17-49, 1998) using an adolescent population. The significance of these findings are discussed for existing pathway models of problem gambling, for Jacobs' theory, and for clinicians engaged in assessment and intervention.
Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Wu, Anise M S
A multiple mediation model was proposed to integrate core concepts of the social axioms framework and the social cognitive theory in order to understand gambling behavior. It was hypothesized that the influence of general fate control belief on problem gambling and negative mood would be mediated by gambling-specific beliefs. Data from 773 Chinese college recreational gamblers were collected. The bootstrapping procedure was used to test the multiple mediation hypotheses. Significant indirect effects of fate control belief on problem gambling and negative mood through two gambling-specific mediators were found. Gambling expectancy bias was a more salient mediator than gambling self-efficacy. Fate control belief was also found to have a significant direct effect on negative mood. In general, a high level of general fate control belief was related to greater gambling expectancy bias and lower self-efficacy in resisting gambling, which were in turn related to problem gambling and negative mood. Limitations and implications of the study were discussed.
Full Text Available AIMS – This study aims to explore associations between structural and functional aspects of social networks and relationships (here labelled social ties among individuals exhibiting problematic alcohol use and problem gambling, respectively.
Full Text Available Gambling has seen a significant increase in Italy in the last 10 years and has rapidly become a public health issue, and for these reasons the first National Helpline for Problem Gambling (GR-Helpline has been established. The aims of this study are to describe the GR-Helpline users’ characteristics and to compare the prevalence rates of the users with those of moderate-risk/problematic gamblers obtained from the national survey (IPSAD 2010-2011. Statistical analysis was performed on data obtained from the counselling sessions (phone/e-mail/chat carried out on 5,805 users (57.5% gamblers; 42.5% families/friends. This confirms that the problems related to gambling concern not only the gamblers but also their families and friends. Significant differences were found between gamblers and families/friends involving gender (74% of gamblers were male; 76.9% of families/friends were female, as well as age-classes and geographical area. Female gamblers had a higher mean age (47.3 versus 40.2 years and preferred nonstrategy-based games. Prevalence rates of GR-Helpline users and of moderate risk/problematic gamblers were correlated (Rho = 0.58; p=0.0113. The results highlight the fact that remote access to counselling can be an effective means of promoting treatment for problem gamblers who do not otherwise appeal directly for services.
Suurvali, Helen; Hodgins, David C; Cunningham, John A
This literature review summarizes recent empirical research on the reasons disordered gamblers try, through treatment or otherwise, to resolve or reduce their gambling problems. Relevant databases and bibliographies were searched for English-language studies, published since 1998, that asked gamblers themselves about motivators for action. Found were ten studies addressing reasons for trying to resolve or reduce gambling problems, five addressing reasons for seeking help and four addressing reasons for requesting self-exclusion from casinos. Help-seeking occurred largely in response to gambling-related harms (especially financial problems, relationship issues and negative emotions) that had already happened or that were imminent. Resolution was often motivated by the same kinds of harms but evaluation/decision-making and changes in lifestyle or environment played a more prominent role. Self-exclusion was motivated by harms, evaluation/decision-making and a wish to regain control. Awareness and educational materials could incorporate messages that might encourage heavy gamblers to make changes before harms became too great. Intervention development could also benefit from more research on the motivators leading to successful (vs. failed) resolution, as well as on the ways in which disordered gamblers are able to overcome specific barriers to seeking help or reaching resolution.
Full Text Available AIMS – Problem gambling, even if it occurs in leisure time, can cause harm in the workplace. Problem gamblers are preoccupied with gambling and often suffer from psychiatric and psychosomatic symptoms caused by their excessive gambling. This may lead to inefficiency at work and absenteeism. Severe gambling problems typically lead to a constant need for money, which may result in theft of money or goods from the workplace and in embezzlement. This paper outlines measures to prevent and respond to gambling-related harm and crime in the workplace.
Markham, Francis; Young, Martin; Doran, Bruce; Sugden, Mark
Many jurisdictions regularly conduct surveys to estimate the prevalence of problem gambling in their adult populations. However, the comparison of such estimates is problematic due to methodological variations between studies. Total consumption theory suggests that an association between mean electronic gaming machine (EGM) and casino gambling losses and problem gambling prevalence estimates may exist. If this is the case, then changes in EGM losses may be used as a proxy indicator for changes in problem gambling prevalence. To test for this association this study examines the relationship between aggregated losses on electronic gaming machines (EGMs) and problem gambling prevalence estimates for Australian states and territories between 1994 and 2016. A Bayesian meta-regression analysis of 41 cross-sectional problem gambling prevalence estimates was undertaken using EGM gambling losses, year of survey and methodological variations as predictor variables. General population studies of adults in Australian states and territory published before 1 July 2016 were considered in scope. 41 studies were identified, with a total of 267,367 participants. Problem gambling prevalence, moderate-risk problem gambling prevalence, problem gambling screen, administration mode and frequency threshold were extracted from surveys. Administrative data on EGM and casino gambling loss data were extracted from government reports and expressed as the proportion of household disposable income lost. Money lost on EGMs is correlated with problem gambling prevalence. An increase of 1% of household disposable income lost on EGMs and in casinos was associated with problem gambling prevalence estimates that were 1.33 times higher [95% credible interval 1.04, 1.71]. There was no clear association between EGM losses and moderate-risk problem gambling prevalence estimates. Moderate-risk problem gambling prevalence estimates were not explained by the models (I 2 ≥ 0.97; R 2 ≤ 0.01). The
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many jurisdictions regularly conduct surveys to estimate the prevalence of problem gambling in their adult populations. However, the comparison of such estimates is problematic due to methodological variations between studies. Total consumption theory suggests that an association between mean electronic gaming machine (EGM and casino gambling losses and problem gambling prevalence estimates may exist. If this is the case, then changes in EGM losses may be used as a proxy indicator for changes in problem gambling prevalence. To test for this association this study examines the relationship between aggregated losses on electronic gaming machines (EGMs and problem gambling prevalence estimates for Australian states and territories between 1994 and 2016. Methods A Bayesian meta-regression analysis of 41 cross-sectional problem gambling prevalence estimates was undertaken using EGM gambling losses, year of survey and methodological variations as predictor variables. General population studies of adults in Australian states and territory published before 1 July 2016 were considered in scope. 41 studies were identified, with a total of 267,367 participants. Problem gambling prevalence, moderate-risk problem gambling prevalence, problem gambling screen, administration mode and frequency threshold were extracted from surveys. Administrative data on EGM and casino gambling loss data were extracted from government reports and expressed as the proportion of household disposable income lost. Results Money lost on EGMs is correlated with problem gambling prevalence. An increase of 1% of household disposable income lost on EGMs and in casinos was associated with problem gambling prevalence estimates that were 1.33 times higher [95% credible interval 1.04, 1.71]. There was no clear association between EGM losses and moderate-risk problem gambling prevalence estimates. Moderate-risk problem gambling prevalence estimates were not explained by
Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W
The aims of this study were to investigate the long-term stability of problematic gaming among adolescents and whether problematic gaming at wave 1 (W1) was associated with problem gambling at wave 2 (W2), three years later. Data from the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Västmanland born in 1997 and 1999, were accessed and analyzed in two waves W2, N = 1576; 914 (58%) girls). At W1, the adolescents were 13 and 15 years old, and at W2, they were 16 and 18 years old. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), and gambling frequencies. Stability of gaming was determined using Gamma correlation, Spearman's rho, and McNemar. Logistic regression analysis and general linear model (GLM) analysis were performed and adjusted for sex, age, and ethnicity, frequency of gambling activities and gaming time at W1, with PGSI as the dependent variable, and GAIT as the independent variable, to investigate associations between problematic gaming and problem gambling. Problematic gaming was relative stable over time, γ = 0.739, p ≤ .001, ρ = 0.555, p ≤ .001, and McNemar p ≤ .001. Furthermore, problematic gaming at W1 increased the probability of having problem gambling three years later, logistic regression OR = 1.886 (95% CI 1.125-3.161), p = .016, GLM F = 10.588, η 2 = 0.007, p = .001. Problematic gaming seems to be relatively stable over time. Although associations between problematic gaming and later problem gambling were found, the low explained variance indicates that problematic gaming in an unlikely predictor for problem gambling within this sample.
Anna E Goudriaan
Full Text Available In problem gamblers, diminished cognitive control and increased impulsivity is present compared to healthy controls. Moreover, impulsivity has been found to be a vulnerability marker for the development of pathological gambling (PG and problem gambling (PrG and to be a predictor of relapse. In this review, the most recent findings on functioning of the brain circuitry relating to impulsivity and cognitive control in PG and PrG are discussed. Diminished functioning of several prefrontal areas and of the anterior cingulate cortex indicate that cognitive-control related brain circuitry functions are diminished in PG and PrG compared to healthy controls. From the available cue reactivity studies on PG and PrG, increased responsiveness towards gambling stimuli in fronto-striatal reward circuitry and brain areas related to attentional processing is present compared to healthy controls. At this point it is unresolved whether PG is associated with hyper- or hypo-activity in the reward circuitry in response to monetary cues. More research is needed to elucidate the complex interactions for reward responsivity in different stages of gambling and across different types of reward. Conflicting findings from basic neuroscience studies are integrated in the context of recent neurobiological addiction models. Neuroscience studies on the interface between cognitive control and motivational processing are discussed in light of current addiction theories.Clinical implications: we suggest that innovation in PG therapy should focus on improvement of dysfunctional cognitive control and/or motivational functions. The implementation of novel treatment methods like neuromodulation, cognitive training and pharmacological interventions as add-on therapies to standard treatment in PG and PrG, in combination with the study of their effects on brain-behavior mechanisms could prove an important clinical step forward towards personalizing and improving treatment results in PG.
Full Text Available Online interventions for gambling, alcohol, and illegal drug related problems have been developing at a fast pace over the past decade. Yet, little is known about the content and efficacy of interventions provided entirely online for reducing drug/alcohol use and gambling, or about the characteristics of those who use these interventions. This systematic review aims to describe the characteristics of online interventions, their efficacy, and the profile of their clientele. Documentation was mainly obtained through four scientific databases in psychology, technology, and medical research (PsychINFO, MedLine, Francis, and INSPEC using three keywords (substances or gambling, intervention, Internet. Of the 4,708 documents initially identified, 18 studies meeting admissibility criteria were retained and analyzed after exclusion of duplicates and non-relevant documents. No study in the review related to problem gambling. The majority of interventions were based upon motivational or cognitive-behavioral theoretical approaches and called upon well-established therapeutic components in the field of addictions. The participants in these studies were generally adults between 30 and 46 years old with a high school education and presenting a high risk or problematic use. More than three quarters of the studies showed a short-term decrease in use that was maintained 6 months later, but only two studies included a 12 months follow-up. Online interventions seem promising and appear to meet the needs of participants who are in the workforce and seeking help for the first time. Long-term efficacy studies should nonetheless be conducted.
Giroux, Isabelle; Goulet, Annie; Mercier, Jonathan; Jacques, Christian; Bouchard, Stéphane
Online interventions for gambling, alcohol, and illegal drug related problems have been developing at a fast pace over the past decade. Yet, little is known about the content and efficacy of interventions provided entirely online for reducing drug/alcohol use and gambling, or about the characteristics of those who use these interventions. This systematic review aims to describe the characteristics of online interventions, their efficacy, and the profile of their clientele. Documentation was mainly obtained through four scientific databases in psychology, technology, and medical research (PsychINFO, MedLine, Francis, and INSPEC) using three keywords (substances or gambling, intervention, Internet). Of the 4,708 documents initially identified, 18 studies meeting admissibility criteria were retained and analyzed after exclusion of duplicates and non-relevant documents. No study in the review related to problem gambling. The majority of interventions were based upon motivational or cognitive-behavioral theoretical approaches and called upon well-established therapeutic components in the field of addictions. The participants in these studies were generally adults between 30 and 46 years old with a high school education and presenting a high risk or problematic use. More than three quarters of the studies showed a short-term decrease in use that was maintained 6 months later, but only two studies included a 12 months follow-up. Online interventions seem promising and appear to meet the needs of participants who are in the workforce and seeking help for the first time. Long-term efficacy studies should nonetheless be conducted.
Full Text Available Gambling activities are popular as a form of recreation and have been a source of income for many people worldwide. Although gambling has been common across continents and time, and a subset of individuals experience problems with gambling. This review attempts to provide an overview of problem gambling for clinicians who are likely to encounter such patients in their practice. The review discusses the relevance, nosology, and epidemiology of gambling. We also discuss the associated comorbidities and principles of management of pathological gambling.
Allami, Youssef; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Carbonneau, René; Lacourse, Éric; Tremblay, Richard E
The pathways model of problem gambling suggests the existence of three developmental pathways to problem gambling, each differentiated by a set of predisposing biopsychosocial characteristics: behaviorally conditioned (BC), emotionally vulnerable (EV), and biologically vulnerable (BV) gamblers. This study examined the empirical validity of the Pathways Model among adolescents followed up to early adulthood. A prospective-longitudinal design was used, thus overcoming limitations of past studies that used concurrent or retrospective designs. Two samples were used: (1) a population sample of French-speaking adolescents (N = 1033) living in low socio-economic status (SES) neighborhoods from the Greater Region of Montreal (Quebec, Canada), and (2) a population sample of adolescents (N = 3017), representative of French-speaking students in Quebec. Only participants with at-risk or problem gambling by mid-adolescence or early adulthood were included in the main analysis (n = 180). Latent Profile Analyses were conducted to identify the optimal number of profiles, in accordance with participants' scores on a set of variables prescribed by the Pathways Model and measured during early adolescence: depression, anxiety, impulsivity, hyperactivity, antisocial/aggressive behavior, and drug problems. A four-profile model fit the data best. Three profiles differed from each other in ways consistent with the Pathways Model (i.e., BC, EV, and BV gamblers). A fourth profile emerged, resembling a combination of EV and BV gamblers. Four profiles of at-risk and problem gamblers were identified. Three of these profiles closely resemble those suggested by the Pathways Model.
Sirola, Anu; Kaakinen, Markus; Oksanen, Atte
The Internet provides an accessible context for online gambling and gambling-related online communities, such as discussion forums for gamblers. These communities may be particularly attractive to young gamblers who are active Internet users. The aim of this study was to examine the use of gambling-related online communities and their relevance to excessive gambling among 15-25-year-old Finnish Internet users (N = 1200). Excessive gambling was assessed by using the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Respondents were asked in a survey about their use of various kinds of gambling-related online communities, and sociodemographic and behavioral factors were adjusted. The results of the study revealed that over half (54.33%) of respondents who had visited gambling-related online communities were either at-risk gamblers or probable pathological gamblers. Discussion in these communities was mainly based on sharing gambling tips and experiences, and very few respondents said that they related to gambling problems and recovery. In three different regression models, visiting gambling-related online communities was a significant predictor for excessive gambling (with 95% confidence level) even after adjusting confounding factors. The association of visiting such sites was even stronger among probable pathological gamblers than among at-risk gamblers. Health professionals working with young people should be aware of the role of online communities in terms of development and persistence of excessive gambling. Monitoring the use of online gambling communities as well as utilizing recovery-oriented support both offline and online would be important in preventing further problems. Gambling platforms should also include warnings about excessive gambling and provide links to helpful sources.
Full Text Available The aim of this review is to highlight emerging trends about Chinese people and gambling addiction over the last 15 years, and to provide a discourse on the potential link between gambling and Chinese culture and history. The authors reported on the phenomenon of gambling among Chinese people using relevant research studies and reports and traditional Chinese literature. Chinese people have elevated levels of gambling addiction compared to their Western counterparts. These elevated rates are coupled with the rapid expansion of gambling venues within the Pan-Pacific region. While there is an accumulated body of research on Chinese and gambling, a systematic cultural analysis of Chinese gambling is still under development. We undertook a brief comparison between two ancient civilizations, China and Rome, in order to gain better understanding about gambling among Chinese people. To effectively deal with gambling addictions among Chinese people, it is imperative to develop culturally responsive interventions.
Full Text Available Aims: People with gambling as well as substance use problems who are exposed to public stigmatization may internalize and apply it to themselves through a mechanism known as self-stigma. This study implemented the Progressive Model for Self-Stigma which consists four sequential interrelated stages: awareness, agreement, application and harm on three groups of individuals with gambling, alcohol and other substance use problems. It explored whether the two guiding assumptions of this model (each stage is precondition for the following stage which are trickle-down in nature, and correlations between proximal stages should be larger than correlations between more distant stages would differentiate people with gambling problems from those with alcohol and other substance use problems in terms of their patterns of self-stigma and in terms of the stages in the model.Method: 37 individuals with gambling problems, 60 with alcohol problems and 51 with drug problems who applied for treatment in rehabilitation centers in Israel in 2015–2016 were recruited. They completed the Self-stigma of Mental Illness Scale-Short Form which was adapted by changing the term “mental health” to gambling, alcohol or drugs, and the DSM-5-diagnostic criteria for gambling, alcohol or drug disorder.Results: The assumptions of the model were broadly confirmed: a repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that in all three groups there was a difference between first two stages (aware and agree and the latter stages (apply and harm. In addition, the gambling group differed from the drug use and alcohol groups on the awareness stage: individuals with gambling problems were less likely to be aware of stigma than people with substance use or alcohol problems.Conclusion: The internalization of stigma among individuals with gambling problems tends to work in a similar way as for those with alcohol or drug problems. The differences between the gambling group and the alcohol and other
Differences in the Associations between Gambling Problem Severity and Psychiatric Disorders among Black and White Adults: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions
Barry, Declan T.; Stefanovics, Elina A.; Desai, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.
We examined differences in the associations of gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among a nationally representative sample of 32,316 black and white adults. Black respondents were more likely than white ones to exhibit problem or pathological gambling and a stronger relationship between subsyndromal gambling and any mood disorder, hypomania, and any substance use disorder. Differences in the patterns of co-occurring disorders between syndromal and particularly subsyndromal le...
Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier; He, Qinghua; Melrose, James A; Bechara, Antoine
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of different neural systems on monetary decision making in frequent poker gamblers, who vary in their degree of problem gambling. Fifteen frequent poker players, ranging from non-problem to high-problem gambling, and 15 non-gambler controls were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). During IGT deck selection, between-group fMRI analyses showed that frequent poker gamblers exhibited higher ventral-striatal but lower dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal activations as compared with controls. Moreover, using functional connectivity analyses, we observed higher ventral-striatal connectivity in poker players, and in regions involved in attentional/motor control (posterior cingulate), visual (occipital gyrus) and auditory (temporal gyrus) processing. In poker gamblers, scores of problem gambling severity were positively associated with ventral-striatal activations and with the connectivity between the ventral-striatum seed and the occipital fusiform gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus. Present results are consistent with findings from recent brain imaging studies showing that gambling disorder is associated with heightened motivational-reward processes during monetary decision making, which may hamper one's ability to moderate his level of monetary risk taking. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
German-style slot machines and related legal issues are described. On the basis of a survey on 437 members of self-help groups (Gamblers Anonymous) in Germany, slot machine gamblers were compared with casino gamblers on such variables as sociodemographic data, gambling behaviour, financial expenditure, emotional experience while gambling, symptoms of pathological gambling, psychosocial consequences and gambling related delinquency. The casino gamblers' gambling behaviour is financially more extensive. There were similarities regarding the emotional intensity of the gambling experience. However the casino gamblers show more pronounced symptoms of pathological gambling and the psychosocial consequences of their gambling behaviour are more severe. In spite of these differences, the data show that for young people slot machines can be as stimulating and therefore as dangerous as casino gambling. The young slot machine gambler runs a similar risk of acquiring a pathological gambling habit as the casino gambler.
Martin, Ryan J; Nelson, Sarah
Participation in fantasy sports increases annually. Wagering on fantasy sports is a form of gambling and researchers have found that fantasy sports participants are more likely to engage in other forms of sports betting than non-fantasy players; however, no published studies have examined whether there is a relationship between fantasy sports participation and gambling-related problems. Our study examined whether fantasy sports participation is associated with gambling-related problems among college students. We assessed fantasy sports participation and endorsement of DSM-5 gambling disorder (GD) criteria among a large convenience sample (N=1556) of college students via an online health survey. We found that 11.5% of respondents participated in fantasy sports in the past year, the majority of which were males. Logistic regression analyses indicated that males who play fantasy sports for money and females who play fantasy sports (for money or not) were more likely to experience gambling-related problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
King, Daniel L; Russell, Alex; Gainsbury, Sally; Delfabbro, Paul H; Hing, Nerilee
Background and aims Social casino games (SCGs) are not technically considered a form of gambling but they do enable players to spend money in a game that is gambling themed or structurally approximate to gambling. It has been theorized that SCGs could be a gateway to gambling activities or otherwise normalize the experience of gambling for young people, particularly when money becomes involved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescents' financial expenditure in SCGs was associated with broader gambling activity, including level of participation, expenditure, and problem gambling symptoms. Methods An online survey was administered to 555 adolescents, including 130 SCG players (78 non-paying and 52 paying users). Results Paying SCG users tended to be employed males who play more frequently and engage in more SCG activities, who report more symptoms of problem gambling and higher psychological distress than non-paying SCG users. Paying SCG users reported more frequent engagement and spending in monetary gambling activities, and two-thirds of SCG payers recalled that their SCG use had preceded involvement in financial gambling. Discussion and conclusions Spending in simulated gambling activities by adolescents may be a risk factor for problem gambling. Although SCGs may currently defy classification as a form of gambling, these activities will likely continue to be scrutinized by regulators for the use of dubious or exploitative payment features offered in a gambling-themed format that is available to persons of all ages.
Differences in the associations between gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among black and white adults: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.
Barry, Declan T; Stefanovics, Elina A; Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
We examined differences in the associations of gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among a nationally representative sample of 32,316 black and white adults. Black respondents were more likely than white ones to exhibit problem or pathological gambling (PPG) and a stronger relationship between subsyndromal gambling and any mood disorder, hypomania, and any substance use disorder. Differences in the patterns of co-occurring disorders between syndromal and particularly subsyndromal levels of gambling in black and white respondents indicate the importance of considering race-related factors in mental health prevention and treatment strategies. American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Abouzari, Mehdi; Oberg, Scott; Gruber, Aaron; Tata, Matthew
Problem gambling is thought to be highly comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We propose that the neurobiological pathologies underlying problem gambling overlap with those in ADHD. In this study, we used a simplified computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess differences in reinforcement-driven choice adaptation among participants with pathological gambling and/or ADHD. The task contained two choice options with different net payouts over the session; a good bet that resulted in a win of +50 points on 60% of trials (and -50 points on 40%), and a bad bet that resulted in +100 points on 40% of the trials (and -100 points on 60%). We quantified participants' preference for the good bet over the session and their sensitivity to reinforcement. Both the control subjects and medicated ADHD nongamblers significantly increased the proportion of good bets over the 400-trial session. Subjects with problem gambling performed worse than controls and ADHD nongamblers, but better than our limited sample of unmedicated ADHD gamblers. Control subjects, medicated ADHD nongamblers, and unmedicated ADHD nongamblers tended to tolerate losses following good bets, whereas unmedicated ADHD gamblers tended to tolerate losses following bad bets. These data reveal that ADHD, particularly when treated with medication, is not associated with poor choices on the IGT, but may exacerbate pathological choices in problem gamblers. It seems that stabilization of dopamine signaling that occurs when ADHD is treated is itself also a treatment for certain forms of problem gambling. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen
We assessed the occurrence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., problem drinking, anxiety, and depression) among college students who met the threshold for disordered gambling. The participants included a large sample of undergraduate students (n = 1,430) who were enrolled in an introductory health course at a large, southeastern university in Spring 2011 and completed an online assessment that included scales to assess disordered gambling, problem drinking, anxiety, and depression. We calculated screening scores, computed prevalence rates for each disorder, and calculated Pearson correlations and Chi square tests to examine correlations and co-morbid relationships between the four disorders. Analyses indicated that all disorders were significantly associated (p students who experience disordered gambling (and other psychiatric disorders) are at increased risk of experiencing co-occurring disorders, it might be useful for college health professionals to concurrently screen and intervene for co-occurring disorders.
Petry, Nancy M.
Pathological gambling is an increasing concern with the growth of legalized gambling opportunities, and clinicians who provide general psychotherapy, as well as those specializing in some disorders, are likely to encounter patients with gambling problems. This review article describes the diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling and screening…
Purpose: This paper seeks to overview the issues, concerns and challenges relating to gambling--and more specifically internet gambling--in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Using psychological literature, this paper outlines a number of important and inter-related areas including brief overviews of gambling and problem gambling,…
Nam T. Tran
Full Text Available Abstract Although a large number of studies have examined the association between young adult’s alcohol consumption and their problem gambling behaviours, none of these studies address the prospective association between mother’s alcohol consumption and their young adult offspring’s problem gambling behaviours. Using data from a 30 year prospective pre-birth cohort study in Brisbane, Australia (n = 1691, our study examines whether different maternal alcohol consumption trajectories predict offspring’s risk of problem gambling behaviours and whether these associations differ by the young adults’ gender. Offspring’s level of problem gambling behaviours was assessed by the short version of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, with about 10.6 % of young adults having some risk of problem gambling behaviours. Trajectories of maternal alcohol consumption were determined by group-based trajectory modelling over five time points. Our study found that mother’s alcohol consumption pattern fits into three drinking trajectory groups, namely abstainers (17.2 %, a low-stable drinkers group (64.6 % and a moderate-escalating drinkers group (18.2 %. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the moderate-escalating alcohol trajectory group is independently associated with a risk of their male young adult offspring having problem gambling behaviours at 30 years—even after adjustment for a range of potential confounding variables. Mothers who exhibit a persistent life course pattern of moderate-escalating drinking have male children who have a high risk of engaging in problem gambling behaviours. Offspring’s alcohol consumption partially mediated the association between maternal drinking trajectories and young adult’s risk of problem behaviours. High levels of maternal alcohol consumption may lead to male offspring antisocial behaviours. Programs intended to address problem gambling behaviours by young adults may need to
Lole, Lisa; Gonsalvez, Craig J; Barry, Robert J; Blaszczynski, Alex
Physiological arousal is purportedly a key determinant in the development and maintenance of gambling behaviors, with problem gambling conceptualized in terms of abnormal autonomic responses. Theoretical conceptualizations of problem gambling are discordant regarding the nature of deficit in this disorder; some accounts posit that problem gamblers are hypersensitive to reward, and others that they are hyposensitive to reward and/or punishment. Previous research examining phasic electrodermal responses in gamblers has been limited to laboratory settings, and reactions to real gaming situations need to be examined. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) to losses, wins, and losses disguised as wins (LDWs) were recorded from 15 problem gamblers (PGs) and 15 nonproblem gamblers (NPGs) while they wagered their own money during electronic gaming machine play. PGs demonstrated significantly reduced SCRs to reward. SCRs to losses and LDWs did not differ for either PGs or NPGs. This hyposensitivity to wins may reflect abnormalities in incentive processing, and may represent a potential biological marker for problem gambling. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
There is evidence supporting the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of problem gambling. Despite this, little is known about how CBT works and which particular approach is most effective. This paper aims to synthesize the evidence for current CBT and propose a more unified approach to treatment. A literature review and narrative synthesis of the current research evidence of CBT for the treatment of problem gambling was conducted, focusing on the underlying mechanisms within the treatment approach. Several CBT approaches were critiqued. These can be divided into forms of exposure therapy (including aversion techniques, systematic desensitization and other behavioral experiments) those focusing on cognitive restructuring techniques (such as reinforcement of nongambling activity, use of diaries, motivational enhancement and audio-playback techniques and third wave techniques including mindfulness. Findings, in relation to the treatment actions, from this synthesis are reported. The debate surrounding the treatment of problem gambling has been conducted as an either/or rather than a both/and discourse. This paper proposes a new, unified approach to the treatment of problem gambling that incorporates the best elements of both exposure and cognitive restructuring techniques, alongside the use of techniques borrowed from mindfulness and other CBT approaches.
Allami, Youssef; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Carbonneau, René; Tremblay, Richard E
Past studies have identified various risk and protective factors for problem gambling (PG). However, no study has examined the interplay between these factors using a combination of person-centered and variable-centered approaches embedded within a longitudinal design. The present study aimed to (a) identify distinct profiles in early adolescence based on a set of risk factors commonly associated with PG (impulsivity, depression, anxiety, drug-alcohol use, aggressiveness, and antisociality), (b) explore the difference in reported gambling problems between these profiles during midadolescence and early adulthood, and (c) identify family- and peer-related variables that could operate as protective or compensatory factors in this context. Two samples were used: (a) a population sample (N = 1,033) living in low socioeconomic-status neighborhoods and (b) a population sample (N = 3,017) representative of students attending Quebec schools. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify at-risk profiles based on individual risk factors measured at age 12 years. Negative binomial regression models were estimated to compare profiles in terms of their reported gambling problems at ages 16 and 23. Finally, family- and peer-related variables measured at age 14 were included to test their protective or compensatory role with respect to the link between at-risk profiles and gambling problems. Four profiles were identified: well-adjusted, internalizing, externalizing, and comorbid. Compared to the well-adjusted profile, the externalizing and comorbid profiles reported more gambling problems at ages 16 and 23, but the internalizing profile did not differ significantly. Various protective and compensatory factors emerged for each profile at both time points. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
The author presents a review on pathological gambling. Similarly as in other addictive diseases, early therapeutic intervention is important. The latter may include: 1: Evaluation of the problem 2. Recommendation that the subject should avoid places where the gambling is pursued. He should not have larger financial sums on him. 3. Recommendations pertaining to lifestyle and prevention of excessive stress. 4. Handling of printed material (the author mentions the text issued to his patients). In the paper therapeutic procedures are described, incl. the author's experience such as the foundation of the group of Gamblers anonymous. Prevention is also considered. It is important that gambling should be less readily available and the demand for it should be smaller.
Nigro, Giovanna; Ciccarelli, Maria; Cosenza, Marina
Chasing losses is a behavioral marker and a diagnostic criterion for gambling disorder. It consists in continuing gambling to recoup previous losses. Although chasing has been recognized playing a central role in gambling disorder, research on this topic is relatively scarce, and it remains unclear whether chasing affects decision-making in behavioral tasks in which participants gain or loss some money. Even if several studies found that the more the gambling involvement, the poorer the decision-making, to date no research investigated the role of chasing in decision-making. The study aimed to first investigate the relation between chasing and decision-making in adult gamblers. One hundred and four VLT players were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), a computerized task measuring chasing, and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Correlation analysis showed that the higher the SOGS scores, the higher the propensity to chase, and the poorer the decision-making performance. Regression analysis revealed that chasing propensity and gambling severity predicted IGT performance. Mediation analysis indicated that the association between gambling severity and poor decision-making is mediated by chasing. Gambling severity was assessed by means of a self-report measure. The generalizability of findings is limited, since the study focused only on VLT players. This study provides the first evidence that chasing, along with gambling severity, affects decision-making, at least in behavioral tasks involving money. Since chasers and non-chasers could be two different sub-types of gamblers, treatment protocols should take into account the additive role of chasing in gambling disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Magnusson, Kristoffer; Nilsson, Anders; Hellner Gumpert, Clara; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per
About 2.3% of the adult population in Sweden are considered to suffer from problem gambling, and it is estimated that only 5% of those seek treatment. Problem gambling can have devastating effects on the economy, health and relationship, both for the individual who gambles and their concerned significant other (CSO). No empirically supported treatment exists for the CSOs of people with problem gambling. Consequently, the aim of this study is to develop and evaluate a programme aimed at CSOs of treatment-refusing problem gamblers. The programme will be based on principles from cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing. To benefit as many CSOs as possible, the programme will be delivered via the internet with therapist support via encrypted email and short weekly conversations via telephone. This will be a randomised wait-list controlled internet-delivered treatment trial. A CBT programme for the CSOs of people with problem gambling will be developed and evaluated. The participants will work through nine modules over 10 weeks in a secure online environment, and receive support via secure emails and over the telephone. A total of 150 CSOs over 18 years of age will be included. Measures will be taken at baseline and at 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes concern gambling-related harm. Secondary outcomes include the treatment entry of the individual who gambles, the CSO's levels of depression, anxiety, as well as relationship satisfaction and quality of life. The protocol has been approved by the regional ethics board of Stockholm, Sweden. This study will add to the body of knowledge on how to protect CSOs from gambling-related harm, and how to motivate treatment-refusing individuals to seek professional help for problem gambling. NCT02250586. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Pilver, Corey E; Libby, Daniel J; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated gender-related differences in the associations between problem-gambling severity and substance-use disorders; however, these associations have not been examined longitudinally. We aimed to examine the prospective associations between problem-gambling severity and incident substance-use disorders in women versus men. Analyses were conducted using Wave-1 and Wave-2 NESARC data focusing on psychiatric diagnoses from 34,006 non-institutionalized US adults. Inclusionary criteria for pathological gambling were used to categorize Wave-1 participants as at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG) and non-ARPG (i.e. non-gambling/low-frequency gambling/low-risk gambling). Dependent variables included the three-year incidence of any substance-use disorder, alcohol-use disorders, nicotine dependence, drug-use disorders, prescription drug-use disorders, and illicit drug-use disorders. Significant gender-by-ARPG status interactions were observed with respect to the three-year incidence of nicotine dependence and prescription drug-use disorders, and approached significance with respect to incident alcohol-use disorders. ARPG (relative to non-ARPG) was positively associated with nicotine dependence among women (OR=2.00; 95% CI=1.24-3.00). ARPG was negatively associated with incident prescription drug-use disorders among men (OR=0.30; 95% CI=0.10-0.88)). Finally, ARPG was positively associated with incident alcohol-use disorders among men (OR=2.20; 95% CI=1.39-3.48). Gambling problems were associated with an increased 3-year incidence of nicotine dependence in women and alcohol dependence in men. These findings highlight the importance of considering gender in prevention and treatment initiatives for adults who are experiencing gambling problems. Moreover, the specific factors underlying the differential progressions of specific substance-use disorders in women and men with ARPG warrant identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights
Van Patten, Ryan; Weinstock, Jeremiah; McGrath, Andrew B
Problem and pathological gambling refers to subclinical and clinical levels of maladaptive gambling, respectively, and is associated with specific sociodemographic characteristics as well as a number of poor health outcomes. We examined such demographic, physical health, mental health, and health-related behaviors in a sample of 7045 low-risk gamblers and 244 problem/pathological gamblers. Participants completed the 2014 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System telephone survey. Using the National Opinion Research Center's Diagnostic Screen for Gambling Disorders-CLiP, participants were categorized as either "problem/pathological gamblers" or "low-risk gamblers." Problem/pathological gamblers were younger, more likely to be male, of ethnic minority status, unmarried, and of lower education than low-risk gamblers. No physical health variables differentiated the groups but problem/pathological gamblers reported experiencing significantly more adverse childhood experiences and engaging in significantly more tobacco and alcohol use compared to low-risk gamblers. Moreover, gender moderated relationships between gambling group and several of the alcohol use variables such that male problem/pathological gamblers exhibited greater alcohol use behavior than male low-risk gamblers but no such relationship was present in females. Overall, this study expands the current knowledgebase on disordered gambling and highlights the need to assess disordered gambling in public health samples. Clinical implications are discussed.
Callesen, Mette Buhl; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Linnet, Jakob
The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine - Preliminary results Mette Buhl Callesen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Jakob Linnet and Arne Møller The PET Centre, Aarhus University Hospital and Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus, Denmark Slot machines are among the most addictive forms...... and willingness to continue gambling. The results may have important implications for understanding how to reduce gambling behavior in pathological gamblers.  Griffiths, M. 1999. Gambling Technologies: Prospects for Problem Gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, vol. 15(3), pp. 265-283. ...
Fioritti, Angelo; Marani, Silvia; Gambini, Daniele; Turino, Elsa; Piazza, Antonella
Background: This study analyzes data related to Hospital (HOS), Public Treatment Service Dedicated to Drug Addicts (SERD), or Community Mental Health Center (CMHC) clients with a first diagnosis of Pathological Gambling (PG) in the period 2000/2016 in Northern Italy. The aims were to describe trends and characteristics of pathological gamblers (PGs) and to estimate the prevalence of other diagnoses before or after the diagnosis of PG. Methods: Participants aged over 17 years with an ICD-9 or ICD-10 PG diagnosis were selected. Results: 680 PGs were identified, mean age 47.4 years, 20% female, 13% non-natives, 30% had other mental disorders diagnoses, 9% had alcohol dependence syndrome, and 11% had drug dependence. Most participants with comorbid disorders were diagnosed before PG, with a more elevated prevalence regarding mental disorders. Almost seven years had elapsed on average between the first admission and the diagnosis of PG. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight a growing demand for PG treatment addressed not only to SERD, but also to psychiatric and hospital services, based on the increase in SERD attendance from 2013. Many of them had already been treated for mental health problems before, but their percentage remained costant over time. PMID:29652821
Calderwood, Kimberly A; Wellington, William J
Based on the stimulus-response model of advertising, this study sought to increase admission rates to a local problem gambling service (PGS) in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, by adding a series of locally based 10 foot by 20 foot roadside billboard posters to PGS's existing communications tools for a 24-week period. Using proof of performance reports, a pre-post survey of new callers to PGS, a website visit counter, and a media awareness survey, the findings showed that at least some individuals were influenced by billboard exposure, but admission rates continued to decline during the billboard campaign period. While one possible explanation for the communications failure was that the whole PGS communications campaign was below the minimal threshold for communications perception, another possible explanation is that the stimulus-response model of advertising used may not have been appropriate for such advertising that targets behavior change. Reflections on using an information-processing model instead of a stimulus-response model, and considerations of a two-step flow of communication, are provided. Recommendations are made regarding matching communications messages to stages of behavior change, use of online promotion, and strategies for future research. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Raimondo Maria Pavarin
Full Text Available Background: This study analyzes data related to Hospital (HOS, Public Treatment Service Dedicated to Drug Addicts (SERD, or Community Mental Health Center (CMHC clients with a first diagnosis of Pathological Gambling (PG in the period 2000/2016 in Northern Italy. The aims were to describe trends and characteristics of pathological gamblers (PGs and to estimate the prevalence of other diagnoses before or after the diagnosis of PG. Methods: Participants aged over 17 years with an ICD-9 or ICD-10 PG diagnosis were selected. Results: 680 PGs were identified, mean age 47.4 years, 20% female, 13% non-natives, 30% had other mental disorders diagnoses, 9% had alcohol dependence syndrome, and 11% had drug dependence. Most participants with comorbid disorders were diagnosed before PG, with a more elevated prevalence regarding mental disorders. Almost seven years had elapsed on average between the first admission and the diagnosis of PG. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight a growing demand for PG treatment addressed not only to SERD, but also to psychiatric and hospital services, based on the increase in SERD attendance from 2013. Many of them had already been treated for mental health problems before, but their percentage remained costant over time.
Steinberg, Lindsay; Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Zack, Martin; Busto, Usoa E; Zawertailo, Laurie A
Relapse is a serious challenge in problem gambling (PG), as it is in substance addiction. Stress and cues are implicated in relapse in both conditions. However, experimental research on motivational effects of stress in PG subjects is scant. This study examined subjective-motivational, cognitive and physiological effects of stress and alcohol cues in subjects with PG, alcohol use disorder (AD), co-occurring PG and AD (CO), and healthy controls (HC). Fifty-two (12/clinical group; 16 HC) physically healthy men received stress in the form of 10-min uncontrollable noise (U-Noise vs. controllable noise; C-Noise) and cues (355 ml non-alcoholic 'placebo' beer; P-Beer vs. soft drink) under Separate or Combined conditions on two test sessions. Visual analogue scales assessed subjective effects. Emotional Stroop and Go/No-Go 'Shift' tasks assessed inhibitory control. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) indexed physiological reactivity. U-Noise and C-Noise increased desire for alcohol in all groups. U-Noise selectively inhibited desire to gamble in PG subjects. Both U-Noise and C-Noise inhibited desire to gamble in CO subjects. Neither manipulation reliably altered cognitive performance. Compared to Neutral words, Alcohol words impaired Stroop color-naming in all groups except PG, which displayed relatively faster color-naming of Alcohol words (facilitation). U-Noise increased SBP relative to C-Noise in AD and HC groups. U-Noise plus P-Beer and U-Noise per se decreased SBP in PG and CO groups, respectively. Noise stress has opposite motivational and physiological effects in men with problem gambling vs. alcohol use disorder. A homeostatic process may explain the impact of stress in problem gamblers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Gambling Addiction KidsHealth / For Teens / Gambling Addiction What's in this ... worth my time?" "What are the risks?" Gambling Addiction Some people have a higher chance of becoming ...
Rossow, Ingeborg; Bang Hansen, Marianne
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the development and current status of gambling and gambling policy in Norway. An overview of the research literature and official documents and websites. Gambling on electronic gaming machines (EGMs) increased dramatically in the 1990s in response to technological development and liberalization of gambling policy. Restrictions on availability of EGM gambling occurred from 2006 to 2009 and included a ban on note acceptors, a temporary ban on EGMs and re-introduction of fewer and less aggressive machines under a state monopoly. The restrictions led to significant decreases in total gambling turnover, and several studies suggest that they led to fewer gambling and gambling problems. Various factors may explain why the restrictions were politically feasible. These include media coverage of gambling concerns and economic compensation for revenue losses under the monopoly. In an international context of deregulation of gambling markets, the Norwegian policy restrictions on gambling availability have represented an exceptional case and provide a rare opportunity to explore the outcomes of such regulations. Overall, studies suggest that the policy restrictions have led to reductions in gambling expenditures and problem gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Gambling is now big business in Australia and public expenditure on gambling is high. Some individuals gamble to excess with adverse consequences for themselves and their partner. The present study targeted women who had concerns about a current or previous partner's gambling and employed a qualitative methodology to explore their experiences,…
Anne H. Salonen
Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about public gambling attitudes and gambling participation is crucial for the effective prevention of gambling-related harm. This study investigates female and male attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm in the Finnish population aged 15–74. Methods Cross-sectional random sample data were collected in 2011 (n = 4484 and 2015 (n = 4515. The data were weighted based on gender, age and region of residence. Attitudes were measured using the Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8. Gambling-related harms were studied using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Results Attitudes towards gambling became more positive from 2011 to 2015. Female attitudes were generally negative, but nonetheless moved in a positive direction except in age groups under 25. Occasional gambling increased among women aged 18–24. Women aged 18–24 and 45–54 experienced more harms in 2015 than in 2011. Both land and online gambling increased among women aged 65–74. Male attitudes towards gambling were generally positive, and became more positive from 2011 to 2015 in all age groups except 15–17. Weekly gambling decreased among males aged 15–17. Gambling overall increased among males aged 18–24. Gambling several times a week decreased among men aged 35–44 and 45–54, and gambling 1–3 times a month increased in the latter age group. Online gambling increased only among men aged 55–64. Conclusions Attitudes towards gambling became more positive in all except the youngest age groups. Under-age male gambling continued to decrease. We need to make decision-makers better aware of the continuing growth of online gambling among older people and women’s increasing experiences of gambling-related harm. This is vital to ensure more effective prevention.
Toneatto, Tony; Dragonetti, Rosa
With the increasing availability of gambling throughout North America, there is interest in developing more effective treatments. This study compares the effectiveness of two brief outpatient treatments for problem gambling: eight sessions of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (n = 65) and eight sessions of a twelve-step treatment-oriented approach based on the first five steps of Gamblers Anonymous (n = 61). There were no baseline group differences on gambling-relevant variables. Twelve months post-treatment showed no group differences on key gambling variables (eg, frequency, abstinence rates, money wagered) in an analysis of completers. Participants who attended more sessions and chose an initial abstinent treatment goal appeared to achieve better outcomes.
Dunsmuir, Phoebe; Smith, David; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Riley, Ben; Battersby, Malcolm
Many gambling-specific CBT programs seek to target either gambling-related urge or cognitions or both. However, little is known of the influence of one symptom type on another across time and whether these differ for men and women help-seeking problem gamblers. The aim of this study was threefold: to determine presence of measurement invariance for urge and cognition measures over time; to investigate the effect of baseline urge on end-of-treatment gambling-related cognitions - and the reciprocal relationship; and, identify whether these pathways differ across gender. Self-reported gambling urge (GUS), and gambling-related cognitions (GRCS) data from treatment-seeking problem gamblers prior to and post treatment (N = 223; 62% men) were analyzed with cross-lagged panel models, moderated by gender. Conceptualization of urge and cognitions were found to be temporally stable. There was no significant association between baseline GUS scores and post-treatment GRCS scores, nor the reverse relationship. Putatively, this infers that coexisting urge and gambling-related cognition components of problem gambling operate independently over time. Analyses revealed gambling urge had a significantly stronger tracking correlation across time for men than women when adjusting for cognition paths. This investigation provides early evidence for tailoring CBT in response to sub-population gambling-related characteristics, demonstrated across men and women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shirk, Steven D; Kelly, Megan M; Kraus, Shane W; Potenza, Marc N; Pugh, Kendra; Waltrous, Christopher; Federman, Edward; Krebs, Christopher; Drebing, Charles E
Gambling Disorder (GD) is characterized by recurrent gambling behavior that is associated with significant impairment and distress, high psychiatric comorbidities, and high functional disability. The military veteran population appears particularly susceptible to developing the disorder, but relatively little has been studied among this population. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the clinical psychopathologies and comorbidities of veterans seeking treatment for problem gambling and how problem gambling may impact functioning. Treatment-seeking veterans meeting criteria for GD (N = 61) underwent a structured clinical interview and completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale (G-SAS), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale for Gambling Disorder (PG-YBOCS), the Gambling Belief Questionnaire (GBQ), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Veterans seeking treatment for GD had high rates of psychiatric and addiction disorder comorbidities. Few veterans had previously sought treatment and most reported substantive challenges in social and occupational functioning. When determining how gambling-related characteristics (ie, severity and cognitive distortions) impact function, severity of cognitive distortions was the strongest statistical predictor of overall functional disability. The findings from this study indicate that there is high comorbidity between GD and other psychiatric and addictive disorders, as well as social and occupational functioning. In addition, cognitive distortions related to gambling relate importantly to overall functioning and should be considered in the development of interventions for veterans with GD. (Am J Addict 2018;27:108-115). © 2018 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Granero, Roser; Tárrega, Salomé; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Moragas, Laura; Custal, Núria; Orekhova, Lisa; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana
Stock market investment (SMI) is one of the most socially acceptable types of gambling, which, however, can turn into a gambling problem. Because it is barely examined, we compared a series of clinical, psychopathologic, and personality variables in SMI gambling patients (both as primary and secondary problem) with a group of traditional pathologic gamblers (PGs). A total sample of 1470 PGs (1376 patients without SMIs [PG-SMI], 76 patients with SMI as a secondary gambling problem [PG+SMI], and 18 patients with SMI as a primary gambling problem [SMI+PG]) participated in this study. All participants were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria. The following instruments were used: the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom Check List-90 Items-Revised, the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised, and other clinical and psychopathologic indices. The 3 patient groups' profiles were statistically similar in psychometrical measures. The risk of having SMI increased for patients with higher education, and the presence of SMI as a primary problem in PGs increased with university study level and higher scores on the personality trait of cooperativeness. The results of this study indicate comparability of SMI gamblers with PGs in their general clinical profile and in psychopathology and personality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Armstrong, Tess; Rockloff, Matthew; Browne, Matthew; Li, En
Portable media devices, such as smartphones, have allowed gambling related content to infiltrate into a new market of potential consumers. Simulated gambling products are now readily available through multiple online platforms, and are becoming a popular form of entertainment for many young media users. Despite widespread use of these products, very little is known about how continued exposure to and involvement with simulated gambling may impact on real-money gambling attitudes and behaviours, particularly for young consumers. This paper reviews the literature exploring simulated gambling products and how consumption may promote monetary gambling, as well as fostering pro-gambling attitudes among youth and adolescents. Findings suggest that youth are highly exposed to simulated gambling games, and those who engage with these products are also more likely to be prone to monetary gambling and gambling problems. Virtual currency, in-game events and gambling themed content are also likely to promote biases about gambling or desensitise consumers to monetary losses. Simulated gambling products may therefore pose a risk to consumers, and particularly young consumers, rather than serve as a benign substitute for monetary gambling. To date, research has largely focused on correlational relationships between simulated and monetary gambling using cross-sectional methodologies. Future research should focus on determining the causal pathway between simulated gambling involvement and monetary gambling in order to identify and manage any risk associated simulated gambling participation.
Lopez-Gonzalez, H; Estévez, A; Griffiths, MD
With the adoption and popularization of internet-based platforms, sports betting has introduced new functionalities that transform the design of its products and therefore the way bettors interact with them. This study aims to explore the association between the use of new structural characteristics of online betting and gambling severity. Five characteristics are examined here: (i) live in-play betting; (ii) cash out feature use (as example of in-play betting in-built features); (iii) fantas...
Lai Florence DM
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study tested 37 Chinese male pathological gamblers and 40 controls to understand the relationship between pathological gambling and impulsivity as a long-term trait or a short-term state in the cognitive and affective domain. Results Trait impulsivity was measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11. State impulsivity in the cognitive and affective domains were measured by the Stroop Color Word Test and the Emotional Conflict Task, respectively. The pathological gamblers scored significantly higher than the controls on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11. However, there were no significant group differences in performance on the Stroop Color Word Test or the Emotional Conflict Task. Conclusions Findings clearly show that pathological gambling is associated with trait but not state impulsivity. In other words, pathological gambling is associated with an impulsivity stemming from enduring personality characteristics that lead gamblers to focus on short-term gains (trait impulsivity rather than momentary cognitive or affective disinhibition (state impulsivity. Interventions should aim to change pathological gamblers' habitual functioning style by cultivating healthy reflection habits and focusing on long-term rewards.
To provide an overview, with respect to Sweden, of the cultural history of gambling, the commercialization of gambling, problem gambling research, the prevalence of problem gambling and its prevention and treatment. A review of the literature and official documents relating to gambling in Sweden; involvement in gambling research and regulation. Gambling has long been part of Swedish culture. Since about 1980 the gambling market, although still largely monopolistic, has been commercialized. At the same time, problem gambling has emerged as a concept in the public health paradigm. Debate regarding whether or not Sweden's national restrictions on the gambling market are compliant with European Community legislation has helped to put problem gambling on the political agenda. Despite expanded gambling services, the extent of problem gambling on the population level has not changed significantly over the past decade. The stability of problem gambling in Sweden at the population level suggests a homeostatic system involving the gambling market, regulation, prevention and treatment and adaption to risk and harm by gamblers. We have relatively good knowledge of the extent and characteristics of problem gambling in Sweden and of how to treat it, but little is known of how to prevent it effectively. Knowledge is needed of the effectiveness of regulatory actions and approaches, and of responsible gambling measures implemented by gambling companies. © 2013 The Author, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L
In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be
Sumitra, Leena M; Miller, Shannon C
Pathologic gambling disorder and problem gambling are becoming increasingly common in the United States as more states legalize gambling. Although gambling-related disorders can cause devastating consequences, well-studied treatments are few. Fortunately, clinical experience suggests that pathologic gambling disorder is highly treatable. In this article, Drs Sumitra and Miller briefly summarize gambling-related disorders and discuss available, effective treatments.
May-Chahal, Corinne; Humphreys, Leslie; Clifton, Alison; Francis, Brian; Reith, Gerda
Incarcerated populations across the world have been found to be consistently and significantly more vulnerable to problem gambling than general populations in the same countries. In an effort to gain a more specific understanding of this vulnerability the present study applied latent class analysis and criminal career theory to gambling data collected from a sample of English and Scottish, male and female prisoners (N = 1057). Theoretical links between gambling and crime were tested through three hypotheses: (1) that prisoners in the UK would have higher rates of problem gambling behaviour than the national population; (2) that if the link between gambling and crime is coincidental, gambling behaviour would be highly prevalent in an offending population, and (3) if connections between gambling behaviour and offending are co-symptomatic a mediating factor would show a strong association. The first of these was supported, the second was not supported and the third was partially supported. Latent class analysis found six gambling behaviour clusters measured by responses to the Problem Gambling Severity Index, primarily distinguished by loss chasing behaviour. Longitudinal offending data drawn from the Police National Computer database found four criminal career types, distinguished by frequency and persistence over time. A significant association was found between higher level loss chasing and high rate offending in criminal careers suggesting that impulse control may be a mediating factor for both gambling harm and criminal careers.
Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Pilver, Corey E.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.
The aim of this study was to characterize the association between problem gambling severity and multiple health, functioning and gambling variables in adolescents aged 13–18 stratified by age of gambling onset. Survey data in 1624 Connecticut high school students stratified by age of gambling onset (≤11 years vs. ≥ 12 years) were analyzed in descriptive analyses and in logistic regression models. Earlier age of onset was associated with problem gambling severity as indexed by a higher frequency of at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG). Most health, functioning and gambling measures were similarly associated with problem gambling severity in the earlier- and later-age-of-gambling-onset groups with the exception of participation in non-strategic forms of gambling, which was more strongly associated with ARPG in the earlier-onset (OR=1.74, 95%CI=[1.26, 2.39]) as compared to later-onset (OR=0.94, 95%CI=[0.60, 1.48]) group (Interaction OR=1.91, 95%CI=[1.18, 3.26]). Post-hoc analysis revealed that earlier-onset ARPG was more strongly associated with multiple forms of non-strategic gambling including lottery (instant, traditional) and slot-machine gambling. The finding that problem gambling severity is more closely associated with multiple non-strategic forms of gambling amongst youth with earlier onset of gambling highlights the relevance of these types of youth gambling. The extent to which non-strategic forms of gambling may serve as a gateway to other forms of gambling or risk behaviors warrants additional study, and efforts targeting youth gambling should consider how best to address non-strategic gambling through education, prevention, treatment and policy efforts. PMID:22410208
Petit, A; Karila, L; Lejoyeux, M
Although experts have long thought that the problems of gambling involved only adults, recent studies tend to show that teenagers are also affected. The objective of this paper is to show the characteristics of pathological gambling in adolescents. This review focuses on the clinical features, prevalence, psychopathology, prevention and treatment of this disorder. A review of the medical literature was conducted, using PubMed, using the following keywords alone or combined: pathological gambling, dependence, addiction and adolescents. We selected 12 English articles from 1997 to 2014. Recent work estimate that between 4 and 8% of adolescents suffer from problem gambling, and the prevalence of pathological gambling is 2-4 times higher in adolescents than in adults. The term adolescent pathological gambler starts early around the age of 10-12 years, with a quick change of status from casual to that of problem gambler and player. Complications appear quickly and comorbidities are common. There is no curative pharmacological treatment approved by health authorities. Pathological gambling among adolescents has grown significantly in recent years and should be promptly taken care of. Further studies must be performed to improve our understanding of this problem among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ladouceur, R; Boisvert, J M; Pépin, M; Loranger, M; Sylvain, C
Pathological gambling creates enormous problems for the afflicted individuals, their families, employers, and society, and has numerous disastrous financial consequences. The present study evaluates the financial burdens of pathological gambling by questioning pathological gamblers in treatment in Gamblers Anonymous (n=60; 56 males, 4 females; mean age = 40 years old) about personal debts, loss of productivity at work, illegal activities, medical costs and the presence of other dependencies. Results show that important debts, loss of productivity at work and legal problems are associated with pathological gambling. Discussion is formulated in terms of the social cost of adopting a liberal attitude toward the legalization of various gambling activities.
Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.
A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…
Carla Elisabeth Kalkhoven
Full Text Available Huntington’s Disease (HD is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder, which specifically affects striatal neurons of the indirect pathway, resulting in a progressive decline in muscle coordination and loss of emotional and cognitive control. Interestingly, predisposition to pathological gambling and other addictions involves disturbances in the same cortico-striatal circuits that are affected in HD, and display similar disinhibition-related symptoms, including changed sensitivity to punishments and rewards, impulsivity, and inability to consider long-term advantages over short-term rewards. Both HD patients and pathological gamblers also show similar performance deficits on risky decision-making tasks, such as the Iowa Gambling Task. These similarities suggest that HD patients are a likely risk group for gambling problems. However, such problems have only incidentally been observed in HD patients. In this review, we aim to characterize the risk of pathological gambling in HD, as well as the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Especially with the current rise of easily accessible internet gambling opportunities, it is important to understand these risks and provide appropriate patient support accordingly. Based on neuropathological and behavioral findings, we propose that HD patients may not have an increased tendency to seek risks and start gambling, but that they do have an increased chance of developing an addiction once they engage in gambling activities. Therefore, current and future developments of internet gambling possibilities and related addictions should be regarded with care, especially for vulnerable groups like HD patients.
LaPlante, Debi A; Afifi, Tracie O; Shaffer, Howard J
A growing literature is addressing the nature of the relationships among gambling activity, gambling involvement, and gambling-related problems. This research suggests that among the general population, compared to playing any specific game, gambling involvement is a better predictor of gambling-related problems. To date, researchers have not examined these relationships among casino patrons, a population that differs from the general population in a variety of important ways. A survey of 1160 casino patrons at two Las Vegas resort casinos allowed us to determine relationships between the games that patrons played during the 12 months before their casino visit, the games that patrons played during their casino visit, and patrons' self-perceived history of gambling-related problems. Results indicate that playing specific gambling games onsite predicted (i.e., statistically significant odds ratios ranging from .5 to 4.51) self-perceived gambling-related problems. However, after controlling for involvement, operationally defined as the number of games played during the current casino visit and self-reported gambling frequency during the past 12 months, the relationships between games and gambling-related problems disappeared or were attenuated (i.e., odds ratios no longer statistically significant). These results extend the burgeoning literature related to gambling involvement and its relationship to gambling-related problems.
Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L
Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment.
Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.
Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…
Chamberlain, Samuel R; Stochl, Jan; Redden, Sarah A; Odlaug, Brian L; Grant, Jon E
Gambling disorder has been associated with cognitive dysfunction and impaired quality of life. The current definition of non-pathological, problem, and pathological types of gambling is based on total symptom scores, which may overlook nuanced underlying presentations of gambling symptoms. The aims of the current study were (i) to identify subtypes of gambling in young adults, using latent class analysis, based on individual responses from the Structured Clinical Interview for Gambling Disorder (SCI-GD); and (ii) to explore relationships between these gambling subtypes, and clinical/cognitive measures. Total 582 non-treatment seeking young adults were recruited from two US cities, on the basis of gambling five or more times per year. Participants undertook clinical and neurocognitive assessment, including stop-signal, decision-making, and set-shifting tasks. Data from individual items of the Structured Clinical Interview for Gambling Disorder (SCI-GD) were entered into latent class analysis. Optimal number of classes representing gambling subtypes was identified using Bayesian Information Criterion and differences between them were explored using multivariate analysis of variance. Three subtypes of gambling were identified, termed recreational gamblers (60.2% of the sample; reference group), problem gamblers (29.2%), and pathological gamblers (10.5%). Common quality of life impairment, elevated Barratt Impulsivity scores, occurrence of mainstream mental disorders, having a first degree relative with an addiction, and impaired decision-making were evident in both problem and pathological gambling groups. The diagnostic item 'chasing losses' most discriminated recreational from problem gamblers, while endorsement of 'social, financial, or occupational losses due to gambling' most discriminated pathological gambling from both other groups. Significantly higher rates of impulse control disorders occurred in the pathological group, versus the problem group, who in turn
Sanscartier, Matthew D; Edgerton, Jason D; Roberts, Lance W
This analysis of gambling habits of Canadian university students (ages 18-25) dovetails two recent developments in the field of gambling studies. First, the popularity of latent class analysis to identify heterogeneous classes of gambling patterns in different populations; second, the validation of the Gambling Motives Questionnaire (with financial motives) among university students-specifically to understand both how and why emerging adults gamble. Our results support a four-class model of gambling activity patterns, consisting of female-preponderant casual and chance-based gambling groups, and male-preponderant skill-based and extensive gambling groups. Each class shows a specific combination of motives, underscoring the necessity for nuanced responses to problem gambling among emerging adults. More specifically, gambling for the skill-based group appears primarily to be a source of thrill and a way to cope; for the chance-based group, gambling appears but one symptom of a set of wider issues involving depression, anxiety, substance use, and low self-esteem; while extensive gamblers seem to seek excitement, sociality, and coping, in that order. Only the chance-based group was significantly more likely than casual gamblers to be motivated by financial reasons. Situating our analysis in the literature, we suggest that interventions for the predominantly male subtypes should address gambling directly (e.g. re-focusing excitement seeking into other activities, instilling more productive coping mechanisms) while interventions for predominantly female subtypes should address low self-esteem in conjunction with depression, substance abuse, and problematic levels of gambling. We conclude future research should focus on links between self-esteem, depression, substance abuse, and financial motives for gambling among female emerging adults.
Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.
Samuelsson, Eva; Sundqvist, Kristina; Binde, Per
Background: Gambling participation and problems change over time and are influenced by a variety of individual and contextual factors. However, gambling research has only to a small extent studied gamblers’ own perceptions of transitions in and out of problem gambling. Method: Qualitative telephone interviews were made with 40 gamblers who had repeatedly participated in the Swelogs Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study. The framework approach was used for analyses, resulting in a multiple-linka...
Dembinsky, Yael; Iancu, Iulian; Dannon, Pinhas
Gambling behaviour is well-known for many centuries and is growing in popularity and frequency. Its etiology is multi-factorial and in this paper we review new developments in the field of pathological gambling, both regarding etiology and treatment progress. The aim of this review is to increase the physicians' awareness towards this entity.
Svensson, Jessika; Romild, Ulla; Shepherdson, Emma
Research into the impact of problem gambling on close social networks is scarce with the majority of studies only including help-seeking populations. To date only one study has examined concerned significant others (CSOs) from an epidemiological perspective and it did not consider gender. The aim of this study is to examine the health, social support, and financial situations of CSOs in a Swedish representative sample and to examine gender differences. A population study was conducted in Sweden in 2008/09 (n = 15,000, response rate 63%). Respondents were defined as CSOs if they reported that someone close to them currently or previously had problems with gambling. The group of CSOs was further examined in a 1-year follow up (weighted response rate 74% from the 8,165 respondents in the original sample). Comparisons were also made between those defined as CSOs only at baseline (47.7%, n = 554) and those defined as CSOs at both time points. In total, 18.2% of the population were considered CSOs, with no difference between women and men. Male and female CSOs experienced, to a large extent, similar problems including poor mental health, risky alcohol consumption, economic hardship, and arguments with those closest to them. Female CSOs reported less social support than other women and male CSOs had more legal problems and were more afraid of losing their jobs than other men. One year on, several problems remained even if some improvements were found. Both male and female CSOs reported more negative life events in the 1 year follow-up. Although some relationships are unknown, including between the CSOs and the individuals with gambling problems and the causal relationships between being a CSO and the range of associated problems, the results of this study indicate that gambling problems not only affect the gambling individual and their immediate close family but also the wider social network. A large proportion of the population can be defined as a CSO, half of whom are
Tudor, Megan E.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.
Relationships between the specific sleep problems and specific behavioral problems of children with autism were evaluated. Mothers' reports of sleep habits and autism symptoms were collected for 109 children with autism. Unlike previous research in this area, only children diagnosed with autism without any commonly comorbid diagnoses (e.g.,…
Harris, Nicholas; Newby, Jennifer; Klein, Rupert G
Understanding the factors that contribute to problem gambling (PG) is imperative. Individual differences in sensation seeking (SS), as measured by the Sensation Seeking Scale Form (SSS-V), have been found to be predictive of PG among university student samples. However, what is less clear, is if the four SSS-V subscales capture unique facets of SS that are particularly predictive of PG. Much less studied than SS, competitiveness has also been found to be predictive of PG. The Competitiveness Orientation Measure (COM) is a newly developed measure of competitiveness, comprising of four facets. The main purpose of the current study was to examine if these four facets of competitiveness predicted variance in PG over and above the variance predicted by the four SSS-V subscales. Participants included 158 university student gamblers. Sequential regression analysis showed that after accounting for gender, age, and the four SSS-V subscales the only facet of the COM found to be a significant predictor of PG severity was Dominant Competitiveness. Dominant Competitiveness predicted an additional 11% of PG severity. These results provide support for the Dominant Competitiveness subscale of the COM as having utility in predicting PG over and above the predictive utility of the SSS-V subscales. Practical implications for the current findings are discussed.
Mathieu, Sasha; Barrault, Servane; Brunault, Paul; Varescon, Isabelle
Gambling behavior is partly the result of varied motivations leading individuals to participate in gambling activities. Specific motivational profiles are found in gamblers, and gambling motives are closely linked to the development of cognitive distortions. This cross-sectional study aimed to predict cognitive distortions from gambling motives in poker players. The population was recruited in online gambling forums. Participants reported gambling at least once a week. Data included sociodemographic characteristics, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Financial and the Gambling-Related Cognition Scale. This study was conducted on 259 male poker gamblers (aged 18-69 years, 14.3% probable pathological gamblers). Univariate analyses showed that cognitive distortions were independently predicted by overall gambling motives (34.8%) and problem gambling (22.4%) (p gambling problems, showing a close inter-relationship between gambling motives, cognitive distortions and the severity of gambling. These data are consistent with the following theoretical process model: gambling motives lead individuals to practice and repeat the gambling experience, which may lead them to develop cognitive distortions, which in turn favor problem gambling. This study opens up new research perspectives to understand better the mechanisms underlying gambling practice and has clinical implications in terms of prevention and treatment. For example, a coupled motivational and cognitive intervention focused on gambling motives/cognitive distortions could be beneficial for individuals with gambling problems.
Kang, Kyonghwa; Kim, Hyeongsu; Park, Ae Ran; Kim, Hee Young; Lee, Kunsei
The aim of this study is to identify the types of gambling among adolescents and provide basic prevention information regarding adolescents' gambling problems. Secondary data from representative national survey on 2015 Youth Gambling Problems of Korea Center on Gambling Problems were used. Using latent class analysis (LCA), 13 gambling types such as offline and online games of 14,011 adolescents were classified, and gambling experiences and characteristics were analyzed. The subgroups of adolescent gambling were identified as four latent classes: a rare group (84.5% of the sample), a risk group (1.0%), an offline group (11.9%), and an expanded group (2.6%). The types and characteristics of gambling among the latent classes differed. In the risk group, adolescents participated in online illegal sports betting and internet casino, and gambling time, gambling expenses, and the number of gambling types were higher than other groups. Gambling frequently occur among adolescent, and the subtypes of gambling did not reveal homogeneous characteristics. In order to prevent adolescent gambling problems, it is a necessary to develop tailored prevention intervention in the nursing field, which is appropriate to the characteristics of adolescent gambling group and can help with early identification. © 2018 Korean Society of Nursing Science.
Feitosa, Caroline A; Santos, Darci N; Barreto do Carmo, Maria B; Santos, Letícia M; Teles, Carlos A S; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L
Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood and has been designated a public health problem due to the increase in its prevalence in recent decades, the amount of health service expenditure it absorbs and an absence of consensus about its etiology. The relationships among psychosocial factors and the occurrence, symptomatology, and severity of asthma have recently been considered. There is still controversy about the association between asthma and a child's mental health, since the pathways through which this relationship is established are complex and not well researched. This study aims to investigate whether behavior problems are associated with the prevalence of asthma symptoms in a large urban center in Latin America. It is a cross-section study of 869 children between 6 and 12 years old, residents of Salvador, Brazil. The International Study of Allergy and Asthma in Childhood (ISAAC) instrument was used to evaluate prevalence of asthma symptoms. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was employed to evaluate behavioral problems. 19.26% (n=212) of the children presented symptoms of asthma. 35% were classified as having clinical behavioral problems. Poisson's robust regression model demonstrated a statistically significant association between the presence of behavioral problems and asthma symptoms occurrence (PR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.10-1.85). These results suggest an association between behavioral problems and pediatric asthma, and support the inclusion of mental health care in the provision of services for asthma morbidity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Temcheff, Caroline E; Paskus, Thomas S; Potenza, Marc N; Derevensky, Jeffrey L
The current study sought to identify which diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder have the greatest ability to differentiate between social and problem gamblers. This study was conducted on a sample of male and female college student athletes across the U.S. (n = 8674). Classification and regression tree analysis represents an appropriate technique when addressing the question of an item's diagnostic value, as it sequentially selects variables to isolate sets of observations with similar outcomes. The current results suggest that the item related to preoccupation ("Have there been periods in the past year where you spent a lot of time thinking about gambling?") was the DSM-5 item best able to differentiate between male and female social and problem gamblers in this sample. When considering only the nine criteria retained in the DSM-5, three criteria were identified as key for distinguishing between social and disordered gamblers among men, and one criterion was identified for distinguishing between groups of women. In addition, these results do not support the notion that the illegal acts criterion has a particularly low base rate and found that it can be an important indicator of disordered gambling in a college-aged sample.
Langham, Erika; Russell, Alex M T; Hing, Nerilee; Gainsbury, Sally M
Understanding why some people experience problems with gambling whilst others are able to restrict gambling to recreational levels is still largely unexplained. One potential explanation is through salutogenesis, which is a health promotion approach of understanding factors which move people towards health rather than disease. An important aspect of salutogenesis is sense of coherence. Individuals with stronger sense of coherence perceive their environment as comprehensible, manageable and meaningful. The present study examined the relationship of individuals' sense of coherence on their gambling behaviour and experience of gambling related harm. This exploratory study utilised an archival dataset (n = 1236) from an online, cross sectional survey of people who had experienced negative consequences from gambling. In general, a stronger sense of coherence was related to lower problem gambling severity. When gambling behaviour was controlled for, sense of coherence was significantly related to the experience of individual gambling harms. A strong sense of coherence can be seen as a protective factor against problematic gambling behaviour, and subsequent gambling related harms. These findings support the value of both primary and tertiary prevention strategies that strengthen sense of coherence as a harm minimisation strategy. The present study demonstrates the potential value of, and provides clear direction for, considering sense of coherence in order to understand gambling-related issues.
... children. Take a close look at your own attitudes and habits. Do you spend your last dollar ... your community who can help, including pediatricians, counselors, teachers, and elders or clergy. Compulsive gambling is like ...
Foster, Dawn W.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Wampler, Jeremy; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.
Objective This study examined adolescent gambling on school grounds (GS+) and how such behavior was associated with gambling-related attitudes. Further, we examined whether GS+ moderated associations between at-risk problem-gambling (ARPG) and gambling behaviors related to gambling partners. Method Participants were 1988 high-school students who completed survey materials. Demographic, perceptions, attitudes, and gambling variables were stratified by problem-gambling severity (ARPG versus recreational gambling) and GS+ status. Chi-square and adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine relationships among study variables. Results Nearly 40% (39.58%) of students reported past-year GS+, with 12.91% of GS+ students, relative to 2.63% of those who did not report gambling on school grounds (GS), meeting DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling (pgambling behaviors. Weaker links in GS+ students, in comparison with GS-, students, were observed between problem-gambling severity and gambling with family members (interaction odds ratio (IOR)=0.60; 95%CI=0.39–0.92) and gambling with friends (IOR=0.21; 95%CI=0.11–0.39). Conclusions GS+ is common and associated with pathological gambling and more permissive attitudes towards gambling. The finding that GS+ (relative to GS-) youth show differences in how problem-gambling is related to gambling partners (friends and family) warrants further investigation regarding whether and how peer and familial interactions might be improved to diminish youth problem-gambling severity. The high frequency of GS+ and its relationship with ARPG highlight a need for school administrators and personnel to consider interventions that target school-based gambling. PMID:26232102
Kerber, Cindy; Adelman-Mullally, Theresa; Kim, MyoungJin; Astroth, Kim Schafer
The current study is a secondary analysis that describes the mental, social, and economic health impacts of disordered gambling in older adults recovering from pathological gambling. The study sought to answer the following research questions: (a) What are the problem behaviors in the mental, social, and economic health dimensions?; and (b) What is the association between mental, social, and economic health impact dimensions and the South Oaks Gambling Screen score? The study population comprised a convenience sample of 40 older adults recovering from pathological gambling in the Midwestern United States. Participants were originally recruited from Gamblers Anonymous(®) meetings and gambling treatment centers. Significant findings for the current study population were: gambling causing depression, being fired from a job due to gambling, and still paying off gambling debt. Nurses should evaluate effects of disordered gambling, assess for disordered gambling, and include a financial assessment in routine care of this patient population. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Melvyn Zhang; Yi Yang; Song Guo; Chris Cheok; Kim Eng Wong; Gomathinayagam Kandasami
Given that technology has greatly facilitated easier access to gambling in previous years, it is timely to look in-depth into online gambling activities and behaviors. There have been several studies that examined online gambling. However, most of the current studies to date have focused on determining the prevalence and the epidemiology of problem gambling arising from online gambling in Western cohorts. There remains a paucity of research looking at the problem of online gambling among Asia...
King, Daniel; Delfabbro, Paul; Griffiths, Mark
Adolescents' use of the Internet and other digital media for the purpose of gambling represents a serious concern in modern society. This paper overviews some of the available monetary and non-monetary forms of gambling within new digital and online media and monetary forms of games with gambling-like experiences. With reference to current psychological knowledge on the risk factors that promote adolescent gambling, it is suggested that new gambling technologies may: (a) make gambling more accessible and attractive to young people, (b) may promote factually incorrect information about gambling, (c) provide an easy escape from real world problems such as depression and social isolation, (d) create a gambling environment that easily facilitates peer pressures to gamble, (e) ease parental transmission of gambling attitudes and beliefs, and (f) make gambling more ubiquitous and socially acceptable. The unique risks of Internet gambling for young people are critically discussed, as well as the lack of restricted classification for video games and other media that feature interactive, non-monetary forms of gambling.
Actually, there are many different and varied new ways to take part in gambling activities such as gambling via the Internet, mobile phone and interactive television. Among these media, the rise in Internet gambling activity has been very rapid. Nevertheless, few empirical studies have been carried out on the psychosocial effects of Internet gambling. While there is no conclusive evidence that Internet gambling is more likely than other gambling media to cause problem gambling, there are a number of factors that make online activities like Internet gambling potentially seductive and/or addictive. Such factors include anonymity, convenience, escape, dissociation/immersion, accessibility, event frequency, interactivity, disinhibition, simulation, and asociability. It would also appear that virtual environments have the potential to provide short-term comfort, excitement and/or distraction. The introduction of the Internet to gambling activities changes some of the fundamental situational and structural characteristics. The major change is that gambling activities are bought into the home and workplace environment. Thus, Internet gambling can become an in-house or work activity. One of the major concerns relating to those changes and the increase in gambling opportunities is the potential rise in the number of problem and pathological gamblers. Addictions always result from an interaction and interplay between many factors but in the case of gambling, it could be argued that technology and technological advance can themselves be an important contributory factor as we saw in examining the salient factors in Internet gambling. It is difficult to determine the prevalence of online (problem or not) gamblers, as it is obviously a figure that changes and has changed relatively quickly over the past decade. Nevertheless, the rate of Internet gambling is increasing and some recent studies using self-selected samples suggest, for example, that the prevalence of problem
Chamberlain, Samuel R; Leppink, Eric; Redden, Sarah A; Odlaug, Brian L; Grant, Jon E
Recent epidemiological data suggest that the lifetime prevalence of gambling problems differs depending on race-ethnicity. Understanding variations in disease presentation in blacks and whites, and relationships with biological and sociocultural factors, may have implications for selecting appropriate prevention strategies. 62 non-treatment seeking volunteers (18-29 years, n=18 [29.0%] female) with gambling disorder were recruited from the general community. Black (n=36) and White (n=26) participants were compared on demographic, clinical and cognitive measures. Young black adults with gambling disorder reported more symptoms of gambling disorder and greater scores on a measure of compulsivity. In addition they exhibited significantly higher total errors on a set-shifting task, less risk adjustment on a gambling task, greater delay aversion on a gambling task, and more total errors on a working memory task. These findings suggest that the clinical and neurocognitive presentation of gambling disorder different between racial-ethnic groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF are significantly decreased in patients with schizophrenia and correlate with impairments in cognitive function. However, no study has investigated the relationship between the serum BDNF levels and decision-making. We compared patients with schizophrenia to healthy controls with respect to their decision-making ability and serum BDNF levels. Eighty-six chronic schizophrenia patients and 51 healthy controls participated in this study. We controlled for gender, age, and estimated intelligence quotient (IQ, and we investigated the differences in decision-making performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT between the schizophrenia patient and control groups. We also compared the IGT scores, the serum BDNF levels, and the clinical symptoms between the groups. The IGT scores of the schizophrenia patients were lower than those of the controls. A negative correlation was detected between the mean net scores on the trials in the final two blocks and the serum BDNF levels（p<0.05）. Multiple regression analysis revealed that depressive symptoms and the serum BDNF levels were significantly associated with the mean net scores on the trials in the final two blocks. Based on these results, impaired sensitivity to both reward and punishment is associated with depressive symptoms and reduced serum BDNF levels in chronic schizophrenia patients and may be related to their poor performance on the IGT.
Full Text Available the article deals with the problems of modern gambling business in the Russian Federation, political and legal, civil and economic aspects of state politics development in the field of activities regulation. The Federal Law regulating the activity of gambling business has been analyzed. The author has offered some developments of gambling business in the Russian Federation in order to increase the revenues to the budgets of the regions; to increase the attractiveness of the Russian resorts; to create more job opportunities and to eradicate unemployment.
Jagadeesan M. S
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gambling has been a part of human behaviour since prehistory. Past global studies show that rates of pathologic gambling are 4 to 10 times higher for substance abusers than for the general population. Alcohol dependence is also more common among parents of pathologic gamblers. Studies from India have been very few on this subject. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to analyse the prevalence of gambling behaviour in alcohol dependent individuals, to assess whether alcohol influence had effect on gambling behaviour, to analyse if gambling behaviour was associated with personality traits, to explore the possibility whether alcohol use & gambling behaviour in parents had influence on the gamblers. METHODS A sample of 100 consecutive male patients attending de-addiction OPD of a Government Tertiary Care Hospital in Chennai was selected. Those who had a diagnosis of alcohol dependence were screened for gambling and assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS and Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire. History of gambling behaviour and alcohol use in parents were correlated. RESULTS A high incidence of gambling related problems in alcohol dependent individuals was found. Among them, 24% had gambling related problems, of which 11% amounted to pathologic gambling. Age, Marital status, Residential locality, Economic status, Educational levels, or being under the influence of alcohol did not correlate with the gambling behaviour. Extrovert personality, alcohol dependence in father, and family history of gambling were more common in problem/pathologic gamblers.
Nelson, Sarah E; LaPlante, Debi A; Gray, Heather M; Tom, Matthew A; Kleschinsky, John H; Shaffer, Howard J
During 2011, the Governor of Massachusetts signed a bill to allow casino gambling in the state (Commonwealth of Massachusetts 2011). As a result, two resort casinos will begin operations during 2018 and 2019; a smaller slots parlor began operations during June 2015. Prior to this expansion, gambling was widely available in Massachusetts, through the state lottery, off-track betting, and gambling opportunities available in neighboring states. Within this context, it is important to understand the patterns of gambling involvement in the population prior to gambling expansion. The current study examined gambling involvement, patterns of play, and gambling-related problems prior to gambling expansion among a sample of 511 Massachusetts residents who were members of a statewide Internet panel. To measure patterns of play, we asked questions about past-year games played and frequency of play. To measure breadth of involvement, we assessed the number of different games played. To measure depth of involvement, we measured time spent gambling, amount wagered, and amount won or lost. Principal component analysis revealed four play pattern components accounting for more than 50% of the variance in game play frequency. Multiple regression analyses revealed that component scores composed of casino gambling and skill-based gambling (e.g., poker, sports) variables uniquely contributed to the prediction of gambling-related problems, even when depth of involvement was controlled. However, the addition of breadth of involvement to the model resulted in a model where no set of variables contributed significantly, suggesting a complex relationship among play patterns, depth, and breadth of involvement. The study established discrete and distinguishable gambling play patterns associated with gambling-related problems and identified groups of individuals potentially vulnerable to the effects of gambling expansion.
Cicolini, Giancarlo; Della Pelle, Carlo; Simonetti, Valentina; Comparcini, Dania; Sepede, Gianna; Cipollone, Francesco
To investigate the role of psychiatric dimensions, behavioral or substance addictions and demographical variables as determinants of pathological gambling among nursing students. Multicenter cross-sectional study. From June to October 2015 a survey was carried out among Italian Nursing students. Data were collected using a six-section tool. Nursing students who completed the survey numbered 1083, 902 (83.3%) had some problems with gambling and 29 (2.7%) showed pathological gambling. Percentage of pathological gambling was significantly associate with illicit drug/alcohol use (65.5%; p=0.001) and with male gender (58.6%) comparing to student nurse with non-pathological gambling (20%) and those with some problem (24.2%). Significant main effect was observed for IAT score (Beta=0.119, t=3.28, p=0.001): higher IAT scores were associated with higher SOGS scores. Italian nursing students have some problems with gambling and pathological gambling problem, and males are those who have more problems. Results might be useful for faculties of health professionals to identify students at risk in an early stage, to direct prevention tailored interventions. Nursing faculties should be aware of the prevalence of Gambling among students. Prevention interventions should be planned to minimize the risk of gambling behavior in the future nurses' health care workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Potenza, Marc N; Fiellin, David A; Heninger, George R; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Mazure, Carolyn M
Over the past several decades, and particularly during the last 10 to 15 years, there has been a rapid increase in the accessibility of legalized gambling in the United States and other parts of the world. Few studies have systematically explored the relationships between patterns of gambling and health status. Existing data support the notion that some gambling behaviors, particularly problem and pathological gambling, are associated with nongambling health problems. The purpose of this arti...
Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Caillon, Julie; Humeau, Elise; Perrot, Bastien; Remaud, Manon; Guilleux, Alice; Rocher, Bruno; Sauvaget, Anne; Bouju, Gaelle
In Europe, the prevalence of gambling disorders in the general population ranges from 0.15 to 6.6%. Professional athletes are known for having risk factors for addictive behaviors, such as young age or sensation seeking, though no study has yet tried to evaluate the prevalence of gambling and gambling disorders among this specific population. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of gambling, problematic or not, among European professional athletes and to explore the factors that are associated with gambling practice and gambling problems in professional athletes. A self-completion questionnaire was specifically designed for this study. The questionnaires were distributed by European Union athletes to professional ice hockey, rugby, handball, basketball, football, indoor football, volleyball, and cricket teams in Spain, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Socio-demographic variables (age, sex, education, marital and parental status, sport, country of birth, and country of practice), variables linked to gambling (gambling habits, screening of gambling problems with the Lie/Bet questionnaire, and gambling related cognitions), and impulsive behavior data (urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking [UPPS]-Short Form questionnaire) were gathered. There were 1,236 questionnaires filled out. The percentage of professional athletes that had gambled at least once during the previous year was 56.6%. The prevalence of problem gambling, current or past, was 8.2%. A certain number of variables were associated with the gambling status. In particular, betting on one's own team (OR = 4.1, CI 95% [1.5-11.5]), betting online (OR = 2.9, CI 95% [1.6-5.4]), gambling regularly (OR = 4.0, CI 95% [2.1-7.6]), and having a high positive urgency score (OR = 1.5, CI 95% [1.3-1.7]) were associated with gambling problems, current or past, among professional athletes. Professional athletes are particularly exposed to both gambling
Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Bronstein, Israel; Sherpsky, Idit
This study examines the association between physical activities and gambling, making a distinction between two characteristics of the former: intensity level and type (competitive/non-competitive). 316 adolescents from four high schools in Israel completed questionnaires. For males, participation in competitive athletic sports was associated with gambling frequency and problem gambling. For females, participation in competitive athletic sports was associated only with gambling frequency. Both types of physical activity and gender are important when analyzing the association between gambling and sporting activities. Youths involved in competitive sports are at greater risk for gambling involvement. (Am J Addict 2015;24:200-202). © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Tsurumi, Kosuke; Takahashi, Hidehiko
Pathological gambling (PG) is a chronic mental disorder, and patients cannot stop gambling despite severe negative consequences, such as huge debts, job loss, family break-up, and so on. It is said that PG is more prevalent in Japan than in Western countries. However, PG has not received much attention and has even been thought of as a lack of will to stop gambling rather than a mental disorder. PG has been classified under "Impulse-Control Disorders Not Elsewhere Classified," along with compulsive stealing (kleptomania), starting fires (pyromania) and hair-pulling (trichotillomania), but accumulative evidence suggests that PG has many similarities with substance use disorders. Therefore, PG is being proposed to be classified under "Addiction and Related Disorders" in the DSM-5 draft. In this article, we review neuroimaging studies on PG on the basis of 4 dimensions - sensitivity to monetary reward and loss, craving and cue reactivity, impulsivity, and decision-making. In general, PG patients show reduced sensitivity to both monetary reward and loss, increased gamble-related cue reactivity, and increased impulsivity. In contrast, decision-making contains many elements, and hence, future neuroimaging studies on PG should focus on these individual elements. Some efforts have been made to combine molecular neuroimaging (positron emission tomography) with neuroeconomics to investigate the roles of neurotransmitters in altered decision-making in neuropsychiatric disorders. Understanding the molecular mechanism of extreme or impaired decision-making could contribute to the assessment and prevention of drug and gambling addictions and to the development of novel pharmacological therapies for these addictions.
Arthur, Jennifer N; Williams, Robert J; Delfabbro, Paul H
Background and aims To review the conceptual and empirical relationship between gambling, investing, and speculation. Methods An analysis of the attributes differentiating these constructs as well as identification of all articles speaking to their empirical relationship. Results Gambling differs from investment on many different attributes and should be seen as conceptually distinct. On the other hand, speculation is conceptually intermediate between gambling and investment, with a few of its attributes being investment-like, some of its attributes being gambling-like, and several of its attributes being neither clearly gambling or investment-like. Empirically, gamblers, investors, and speculators have similar cognitive, motivational, and personality attributes, with this relationship being particularly strong for gambling and speculation. Population levels of gambling activity also tend to be correlated with population level of financial speculation. At an individual level, speculation has a particularly strong empirical relationship to gambling, as speculators appear to be heavily involved in traditional forms of gambling and problematic speculation is strongly correlated with problematic gambling. Discussion and conclusions Investment is distinct from gambling, but speculation and gambling have conceptual overlap and a strong empirical relationship. It is recommended that financial speculation be routinely included when assessing gambling involvement, and there needs to be greater recognition and study of financial speculation as both a contributor to problem gambling as well as an additional form of behavioral addiction in its own right.
Elgar, Frank J; Canale, Natale; Wohl, Michael J A; Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio
Previous research has found that area-level income inequality and individual-level relative deprivation both contribute to disordered gambling in adults. However, the socioeconomic factors that contribute to disordered gambling in youths and protective factors in their social environment have not been fully explored. This study examined the association between relative deprivation and youth disordered gambling and the potential moderating role of social support in this association. We used data on family material assets and self-reported symptoms of disordered gambling symptoms in 19 321 participants of the 2013/2014 Italian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Relative deprivation was measured using the Yitzhaki index and classmates as a social reference group. Its association with disordered gambling was tested using multilevel negative binomial regression analyses. We also tested moderated effects of relative deprivation on disordered gambling by four sources of social support: families, peers, teachers and classmates. Relative deprivation related to a fourfold increase in the rate of disordered gambling symptoms (incidence rate ratio=4.18) after differences in absolute family wealth and other variables were statistically controlled. Symptoms were also more prevalent in males, first-generation immigrants and less supported youth. Peer support moderated the association between relative deprivation and symptoms, suggesting that high deprivation and low peer support have interactive links to disordered gambling. Relative deprivation among classmates relate to youth symptoms of disordered gambling. Youth who live in economically unequal settings and perceive a lack of social support may be at greatest risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Kim, Hyoun S; Shifrin, Alexandra; Sztainert, Travis; Wohl, Michael J A
Background and aims We examined the potential role religious beliefs may play in disordered gambling. Specifically, we tested the idea that religiosity primes people to place their faith in good fortune or a higher power. In the context of gambling, however, this may lead to gambling fallacies (e.g., erroneous beliefs that one has control over a random outcome). People who are high in religiosity may be more at risk of developing gambling fallacies, as they may believe that a higher power can influence a game of chance. Thus, this research investigated the relationship between religiosity and gambling problems and whether gambling fallacies mediated this relationship. Methods In Study 1, we recruited an online sample from Amazon's Mechanical Turk to complete measures that assessed the central constructs (religiosity, disordered gambling, and gambling fallacies). In Study 2, we conducted a secondary analysis of a large data set of representative adults (N = 4,121) from a Canadian province, which contained measures that assessed the constructs of interest. Results In Study 1, religiosity significantly predicted gambling problem. Conversely, there was no direct relationship between religiosity and gambling in Study 2. Importantly, a significant indirect effect of religiosity on disordered gambling severity through gambling fallacies was found in both studies, thus establishing mediation. The results remained the same when controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status for both studies. Discussion and conclusion These findings suggest religiosity and its propensity to be associated with gambling fallacies, which should be considered in the progression (and possibly treatment) of gambling.
Pearce, J; Mason, K; Hiscock, R; Day, P
To investigate associations between neighbourhood accessibility to gambling outlets (non-casino gaming machine locations, sports betting venues and casinos) and individual gambling behaviour in New Zealand. A Geographical Information Systems (GIS) measure of neighbourhood access to gambling venues. Two-level logistic regression models were fitted to examine the effects of neighbourhood access on individual gambling behaviour after controlling for potential individual- and neighbourhood-level confounding factors. 38,350 neighbourhoods across New Zealand. 12,529 respondents of the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey. Compared with those living in the quartile of neighbourhoods with the furthest access to a gambling venue, residents living in the quartile of neighbourhoods with the closest access were more likely (adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic status at the individual-level and deprivation, urban/rural status at the neighbourhood-level) to be a gambler (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.15) or problem gambler (OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.03 to 7.05). When examined independently, neighbourhood access to venues with non-casino gaming machines (gambling: OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.18; problem gambling: OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.45 to 5.07) and sports betting venues (gambling: OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.18; problem gambling: OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.45 to 5.07) were similarly related. Neighbourhood access to opportunities for gambling is related to gambling and problem gambling behaviour, and contributes substantially to neighbourhood inequalities in gambling over and above-individual level characteristics.
Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Kamei, Yuichi; Usami, Masahide; Ushijima, Hirokage; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Kyota; Kodaira, Masaki; Saito, Kazuhiko
Sleep disorders are frequently associated with childhood behavioral problems and mental illnesses such as anxiety disorder. To identify promising behavioral targets for pediatric anxiety disorder therapy, we investigated the associations between specific sleep and behavioral problems. We conducted retrospective reviews of 105 patients aged 4-12 years who met the DSM-IV criteria for primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (n = 33), separation anxiety disorder (n = 23), social phobia (n = 21), or obsessive compulsive disorder (n = 28). Sleep problems were evaluated using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and behavioral problems by the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI), and Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children. Depressive behavior was weakly correlated with CSHQ subscores for sleep onset delay and night waking but not with total sleep disturbance. Anxiety was correlated with bedtime resistance, night waking, and total sleep disturbance score. Oppositional defiance was correlated with bedtime resistance, daytime sleepiness, sleep onset delay, and most strongly with total sleep disturbance. On multiple regression analysis ODBI score had the strongest positive association with total sleep disturbance and the strongest negative association with total sleep duration. Sleep problems in children with anxiety disorders are closely related to anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
Sakaguchi, Katsuyoshi; Yagi, Takakazu; Maeda, Aya; Nagayama, Kunihiro; Uehara, Sawako; Saito-Sakoguchi, Yoko; Kanematsu, Kyoko; Miyawaki, Shouichi
There are few large-scale epidemiologic studies examining the associations between sleep problems, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, lifestyle and food habits and problem behaviors (PB) in adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations among these factors in Japanese adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 1840 junior high school students was carried out using questionnaires. The subjects were classified into PB or normal behavior (NB) groups using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC). The scores of the sleep-related factors, sleep bruxism, lifestyle and food habits, and GERD symptoms were compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors related to PB. Mean subject age was 13.3 ± 1.8 years. The PB group had significantly longer sleep latency and higher GERD symptom score (P sleep bruxism, difficulty falling asleep within 30 min, nightmares, feeling of low sleep quality, daytime somnolence, and daytime lack of motivation. Feelings of low sleep quality had the strongest association with PB, with an adjusted odds ratio of 12.88 (95% confidence interval: 8.99-18.46). PB in adolescents are associated with sleep problems, including sleep bruxism, as well as lifestyle and food habits and GERD symptoms. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.
Bonke, Jens; Borregaard, Karen
For the first time a large scale screening for gambling problems within the adult Danish population has been performed. By applying different tools, i.e. SOGS-R and NODS, it has become possible to compare with the prevalence of problematic gambling behaviour in Norway and Sweden. The result...... in preferences for gambling, access to plays, public policies concerning gambling, etc., which calls for further comparative research....
This work goes into roulette gambling. Its pivotal intension is to design and implement this game. The application provides two playing modes: "training game" working o -line and "real game" that performs multi-player game on-line. The work takes a focus on speed and reliability of network communication and on user-friendly 3D casino environment. Furthermore, the program provides playing and simulation of game systems implemented in the program and allows importing own system. The application...
Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…
Full Text Available AIMS - The aims were to compare past-year at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG and other at-risk behaviours (computer gaming, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking by age and gender, and to explore how ARPG is associated with risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, poor mental health and loneliness in males and females. DESIGN - Data from respondents aged 15-28 (n = 822 were derived from a cross-sectional random sample of population-based data (n = 4484. The data were collected in 2011-2012 by telephone interviews. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, score≥2 was used to evaluate ARPG. Prevalence rates for risk behaviours were compared for within gender-specific age groups. Regression models were gender-specific. RESULTS - The proportion of at-risk and problem gamblers was higher among males than females in all age groups except among 18-21-year-olds, while frequent computer gaming was higher among males in all age groups. The odds ratio (95% CI of being a male ARPGer was 2.57 (1.40-4.74 for risky alcohol consumption; 1.95 (1.07-3.56 for tobacco smoking; 2.63 (0.96-7.26 for poor mental health; and 4.41 (1.20-16.23 for feeling lonely. Likewise, the odds ratio (95% CI of being a female ARPGer was 1.19 (0.45-3.12 for risky alcohol consumption; 4.01 (1.43-11.24 for tobacco smoking; 0.99 (0.18-5.39 for poor mental health; and 6.46 (1.42-29.34 for feeling lonely. All 95% CIs of ARPG correlates overlapped among males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Overall, past-year at-risk and problem gambling and computer gaming seem to be more common among males than females; however, for risky alcohol consumption similar gender differences were evident only for the older half of the sample. No clear gender differences were seen in correlates associated with ARPG.
Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer
Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University. The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many...... aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain . One type of treatment of PD symptoms...
Gill, Kathryn J; Heath, Laura M; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Torrie, Jill
A detailed survey of gambling, addiction and mental health was conducted with randomly selected respondents (n = 506) from four Cree communities of Northern Quebec. The study examined the current patterns of gambling in relation to demographic, social, and psychological factors. Instruments included the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, Addiction Severity Index, Beck Depression Inventory and the computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for psychiatric diagnoses. Overall, 69.2 % of the total sample participated in any gambling/gaming activities over the past year; 20.6 % of this group were classified as moderate/high risk gamblers, and 3.2 % were classified in the highest "problem gambling" category. Considering the entire sample, the overall prevalence of problem gambling was 2.2 %. Women were significantly more likely to play bingo (56.6 %) compared to men (35.1 %) and they played more frequently; 20.8 % of women versus 3.8 % of men played once/week or more often. Compared to the no/low risk gamblers, a greater proportion of moderate/high risk gamblers were cigarette smokers (44.8 vs. 56.3 %), they were more likely to meet DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence (21.2 vs. 46.2 %), and they were more likely to report moderate to severe depressive symptoms in the past month. Risk factors for problem gambling included traumatic life events (physical and emotional abuse), anxiety and depression, as well as drug/alcohol abuse. The high rates of comorbidity between problem gambling, tobacco dependence, substance abuse and other psychological problems demonstrate that gambling among some Cree adults is part of a pattern of high-risk factors for negative long-term health consequences. The results also have implications for treatment, suggesting that interventions for gambling disorders should not focus on gambling alone but rather the constellation of high-risk behaviours that pose a risk to recovery and well-being.
Potenza, Marc N; Fiellin, David A; Heninger, George R; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Mazure, Carolyn M
Over the past several decades, and particularly during the last 10 to 15 years, there has been a rapid increase in the accessibility of legalized gambling in the United States and other parts of the world. Few studies have systematically explored the relationships between patterns of gambling and health status. Existing data support the notion that some gambling behaviors, particularly problem and pathological gambling, are associated with nongambling health problems. The purpose of this article is to provide a perspective on the relationship between gambling behaviors and substance use disorders, review the data regarding health associations and screening and treatment options for problem and pathological gambling, and suggest a role for generalist physicians in assessing problem and pathological gambling. A rationale for conceptualization of pathological gambling as an addictive disorder and a model proposing stress as a possible mediating factor in the relationship between gambling and health status are presented. More research is needed to investigate directly the biological and health correlates associated with specific types of gambling behaviors and to define the role for generalist physicians in the prevention and treatment of problem and pathological gambling.
Critselis, Elena; Janikian, Mari; Paleomilitou, Noni; Oikonomou, Despoina; Kassinopoulos, Marios; Kormas, George; Tsitsika, Artemis
Adolescent Internet gambling is associated with concomitant addictive behaviors. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of Internet gambling practices, its impact upon psychosocial development and to evaluate the association between gambling practices and Internet addictive behavior among Cypriot adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample (n = 805) of adolescents attending selected public schools (9th and 10th grades) in Cyprus. Anonymous self-completed questionnaires were used including the Internet Addiction Test and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Among the study population (n = 805), approximately one third (n = 28; 34.9%) reported Internet gambling. Internet gamblers were twice as likely to utilize Internet café portals (adjusted odds ratio for gender and age, AOR: 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.56-2.91) for interactive game-playing (AOR: 6.84; 95% CI: 4.23-11.07), chat-rooms (AOR: 2.57; 95% CI: 1.31-4.85), and retrieval of sexual information (AOR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.42-2.81). Among Internet gamblers 26.0% (n = 73) reported borderline addictive Internet use and 4.3% (n = 12) addictive behavior. Internet gamblers more often had comprehensive psychosocial and emotional maladjustment (AOR: 4.00; 95% CI: 1.97-8.13), including Abnormal Conduct Problems (AOR: 3.26; 95% CI: 2.00-5.32), Emotional Symptoms (AOR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.02-3.11), and Peer Problems (AOR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.08-5.48) scores. The multivariate regression analyses indicated that the single independent predictor associated with Internet addictive behavior was Internet gambling (AOR: 5.66; 95% CI: 1.45-22.15). Internet gambling is associated with addictive Internet use, as well as emotional maladjustment and behavioral problems, among Cypriot adolescents. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate whether Internet gambling constitutes a risk factor for the development of Internet addictive behavior among adolescents.
Murch, W Spencer; Clark, Luke
As a popular form of recreational risk taking, gambling games offer a paradigm for decision neuroscience research. As an individual behavior, gambling becomes dysfunctional in a subset of the population, with debilitating consequences. Gambling disorder has been recently reconceptualized as a "behavioral addiction" in the DSM-5, based on emerging parallels with substance use disorders. Why do some individuals undergo this transition from recreational to disordered gambling? The biomedical model of problem gambling is a "brain disorder" account that posits an underlying neurobiological abnormality. This article first delineates the neural circuitry that underpins gambling-related decision making, comprising ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dopaminergic midbrain, and insula, and presents evidence for pathophysiology in this circuitry in gambling disorder. These biological dispositions become translated into clinical disorder through the effects of gambling games. This influence is better articulated in a public health approach that describes the interplay between the player and the (gambling) product. Certain forms of gambling, including electronic gambling machines, appear to be overrepresented in problem gamblers. These games harness psychological features, including variable ratio schedules, near-misses, "losses disguised as wins," and the illusion of control, which modulate the core decision-making circuitry that is perturbed in gambling disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.
Objectives To identify subtypes of adolescent gamblers based on the 10 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria for pathological gambling and the 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition criteria for gambling disorder and to examine associations between identified subtypes with gambling, other risk behaviors, and health/functioning characteristics. Methods Using cross-sectional survey data from 10 high schools in Connecticut (N = 3901), we conducted latent class analysis to classify adolescents who reported past-year gambling into gambling groups on the basis of items from the Massachusetts Gambling Screen. Adolescents also completed questions assessing demographic information, substance use (cigarette, marijuana, alcohol, and other drugs), gambling behaviors (relating to gambling formats, locations, motivations, and urges), and health/functioning characteristics (eg, extracurricular activities, mood, aggression, and body mass index). Results The optimal solution consisted of 4 classes that we termed low-risk gambling (86.4%), at-risk chasing gambling (7.6%), at-risk negative consequences gambling (3.7%), and problem gambling (PrG) (2.3%). At-risk and PrG classes were associated with greater negative functioning and more gambling behaviors. Different patterns of associations between at-risk and PrG classes were also identified. Conclusions Adolescent gambling classifies into 4 classes, which are differentially associated with demographic, gambling patterns, risk behaviors, and health/functioning characteristics. Early identification and interventions for adolescent gamblers should be sensitive to the heterogeneity of gambling subtypes. PMID:25275877
Shivangi Mehta; Ajeet Sidana; Krunali Ukey
Gambling is defined as staking something on a contingency. Many traders are gambling without even knowing it. Health professionals need to consider the harmful effects of gambling considering that gambling can destroy families and has medical consequences. A 40-year-old bank manager diagnosed initially with mood disorder with two attempts of self-harm in the past 3 years was eventually diagnosed as a case of gambling addiction using both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorde...
Full Text Available Carla J Rash, Nancy M Petry Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA Abstract: This review discusses the research evidence for psychological treatment of gambling disorder. Several treatment options for gamblers have been explored, ranging from self-help and peer support, to brief and motivational interventions, to more intensive therapy approaches. Involvement in peer support programs seems to be optimal when combined with professional treatment; however, engagement and retention in peer support is limited. Self-directed interventions appear to benefit some gamblers; however, the involvement of therapist support, either in person or by telephone, may bolster these effects and such support need not be extensive. These self-directed options reduce the barriers associated with treatment-seeking, and may reach a wider range of gamblers than professionally delivered treatments alone. Brief and motivational approaches similarly may extend treatment options to more gamblers, namely at-risk and problem gamblers and those not seeking treatment. Of more extensive therapies, no consistent benefit of one approach emerges, although cognitive–behavioral interventions have been most often applied. Overall, several treatments have been developed for gambling disorder and results are promising, but variability in findings suggests a need for further systematic evaluation. Keywords: gambling treatment, cognitive behavioral treatment, brief interventions, pathological gambling, problem gambling, behavioral addictions
Perese, Lana; Gao, Wanzhen; Erick, Stephanie; Macpherson, Cluny; Cowley-Malcolm, Esther; Sundborn, Gerhard
Cultural variables are implicated in gambling literature as playing an important role in the initiation and maintenance of gambling activity, however there remains a paucity of research that defines and investigates the association between cultural factors, gambling and problem gambling amongst different cultural groups. The first data collection point for a cohort of mothers within the longitudinal Pacific Islands Families study identified that the Pacific cultural practice of traditional gift-giving was associated with gambling activity and expenditure. In this paper, data about traditional gift-giving and gambling are presented from the third collection point within this study. The results support an association between gambling (rather than problem gambling) and traditional gift-giving. This paper contends the need to contextualise Pacific peoples gambling within Pacific cultures. Also a need is identified to examine and address the psycho-social and cultural impacts of gambling for Pacific peoples.
Ernest Moon Tong So
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The study examined Macau parents’ perceptions of underage children’s gambling involvement, and parents’ attitudes towards help seeking if their children had a gambling problem. The parents’ gambling behavior in the past year was also investigated. Methods This is a parent survey using a self-administered questionnaire. A convenience sample of 311 Macau parents (106 fathers and 205 mothers with underage children aged 3–17 years was recruited. The response rate is 77.8%. The participants were asked if they had ever approved or taught their underage children to gamble, and how did they award their children when they won in gambling games. The parents were also asked if they had gambled in the previous 12 months, and their gambling behavior was assessed by the Chinese Problem Gambling Severity Index (CPGSI. Results Half of the parents surveyed (52% did not approve underage gambling but 81% taught their underage children to play different gambling games. Children were awarded with money (55%, praises (17.5%, toys (15% and food (12.5% when they won in games. One-fifth (20.6% were distressed with their children’s gambling problem. Many (68.8% were willing to seek help to cope with children’s gambling problems. Only 21.2% (n = 66 of the parents reported gambling in the past year. Using the CPGSI, 4.5% of these gamblers could be identified as problem gamblers, and 16.7% were moderate-risk gamblers. Conclusion The study results indicate parent education should be included in prevention of underage gambling.
So, Ernest Moon Tong; Lao, Yorky Mei Po; Wong, Irene Lai Kuen
The study examined Macau parents' perceptions of underage children's gambling involvement, and parents' attitudes towards help seeking if their children had a gambling problem. The parents' gambling behavior in the past year was also investigated. This is a parent survey using a self-administered questionnaire. A convenience sample of 311 Macau parents (106 fathers and 205 mothers) with underage children aged 3-17 years was recruited. The response rate is 77.8%. The participants were asked if they had ever approved or taught their underage children to gamble, and how did they award their children when they won in gambling games. The parents were also asked if they had gambled in the previous 12 months, and their gambling behavior was assessed by the Chinese Problem Gambling Severity Index (CPGSI). Half of the parents surveyed (52%) did not approve underage gambling but 81% taught their underage children to play different gambling games. Children were awarded with money (55%), praises (17.5%), toys (15%) and food (12.5%) when they won in games. One-fifth (20.6%) were distressed with their children's gambling problem. Many (68.8%) were willing to seek help to cope with children's gambling problems. Only 21.2% (n = 66) of the parents reported gambling in the past year. Using the CPGSI, 4.5% of these gamblers could be identified as problem gamblers, and 16.7% were moderate-risk gamblers. The study results indicate parent education should be included in prevention of underage gambling.
Gainsbury, Sally M.; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna
Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of
Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna
Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of
Cowlishaw, S; Nespoli, E; Jebadurai, J K; Smith, N; Bowden-Jones, H
The DSM-5 includes provisions for episodic forms of gambling disorder, with such changes aligned with earlier accounts of potential binge gambling behaviours. However, there is little research that indicates the utility of these classifications of episodic or binge gambling, and this study considered their characteristics in a clinical sample. It involved administration of a new binge gambling screening tool, along with routine measures, to n = 214 patients entering a specialist treatment clinic for gambling problems. Results indicated that episodic gambling was common in this clinical context, with 28 and 32% of patients reporting gambling episodes that were (a) regular and alternating, and (b) irregular and intermittent, respectively. These patterns were distinguished by factors including associations with covariates that indicated differences from continuous gamblers. For example, the irregular episodic gamblers, but not the regular pattern, demonstrated lower levels of problem gambling severity and comorbidity. Rates of potential binge gambling, which was defined in terms of additional criteria, were around 4% and numbers were insufficient for comparable analyses. The findings support inclusion of episodic forms of gambling disorder in the DSM-5, but highlight the need for improved recognition and research on heterogeneous forms of episodic gambling.
Echeburua, Enrique; de Corral, Paz
This paper deals with the new development of controlled gambling embedded in a harm-reduction context as a viable solution both for primary prevention at school and for treatment of some kinds of problematic gamblers. Pathological gambling significantly improves with psychological therapies, such as stimulus control and in vivo exposure with response prevention or cognitive interventions. In some cases psychopharmacological therapy may complement the benefits of treatment for pathological gambling when patients have comorbid depression or high impulsivity. However, in this mental disorder the goal of treatment (total abstinence or controlled gambling) is currently a controversial issue. Controlled gambling may be a therapeutic option for young gamblers or patients without severe dependence. Furthermore, controlled gambling may be a relevant issue for health education in schools, with a view to teaching teenagers how to cope with actual and virtual exposure to gambling. Likewise, the gambling industry and governments are involved in harm minimization initiatives. Thus, it is necessary to coordinate a program of research that includes the industry, science, and public representatives, based on cooperative research that will permit the introduction of controlled gambling within a global strategic framework. We discuss the relevance of this review for clinical practice and for future research, as well as the unsolved problems in this field.
Barmaki, Reza; Zangeneh, Masood
Adolescent gambling is a major social problem in North America. Over the years this problem has given rise to a number of theoretical explanations. This paper argues that the existing explanations of youth gambling underestimate the influence of broader structural forces conducive to youth gambling problem and, instead, provide micro analyses that…
Toorn, S.L.M. van der; Huizink, A.C.; Utens, E.M.W.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Ferdinand, R.F.
Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample
S.L.M. van der Toorn; A.C. Huizink (Anja); E.M.W.J. Utens (Elisabeth); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert)
textabstractMaternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study
van der Toorn, Sonja L. M.; Huizink, Anja C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Ferdinand, Robert F.
Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample
van der Toorn, Sonja L. M.; Huizink, Anja C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Ferdinand, Robert F.
Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample
Raylu, Namrata; Oei, Tian Po S; Loo, Jasmine M Y; Tsai, Jung-Shun
Currently, cognitive behavioral therapies appear to be one of the most studied treatments for gambling problems and studies show it is effective in treating gambling problems. However, cognitive behavior models have not been widely tested using statistical means. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the validity of the pathways postulated in the cognitive behavioral theory of gambling behavior using structural equation modeling (AMOS 20). Several questionnaires assessing a range of gambling specific variables (e.g., gambling urges, cognitions and behaviors) and gambling correlates (e.g., psychological states, and coping styles) were distributed to 969 participants from the community. Results showed that negative psychological states (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress) only directly predicted gambling behavior, whereas gambling urges predicted gambling behavior directly as well as indirectly via gambling cognitions. Avoidance coping predicted gambling behavior only indirectly via gambling cognitions. Negative psychological states were significantly related to gambling cognitions as well as avoidance coping. In addition, significant gender differences were also found. The results provided confirmation for the validity of the pathways postulated in the cognitive behavioral theory of gambling behavior. It also highlighted the importance of gender differences in conceptualizing gambling behavior.
Jazaeri, Seyed Amir; Habil, Mohammad Hussain Bin
Gambling, including pathological gambling and problem gambling, has received increased attention from clinicians and researchers over the past three decades since gambling opportunities have expanded around the world. Gambling disorders affect 0.2-5.3% of adults worldwide, although measurement and prevalence varies according to the screening instruments and methods used, and availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities. Several distinct treatment approaches have been favorably evaluated, such as cognitive behavioral and brief treatment models and pharmacological interventions. Although promising, family therapy and support from Gamblers Anonymous are less well empirically supported. Gambling disorders are highly comorbid with other mental health and substance use disorders, and a further understanding is needed of both the causes and treatment implications of this disorder. This article reviews definition, causes and associated features with substance abuse, screening and diagnosis, and treatment approaches.
This paper examines the relationship between gambling behavior and subjective wellbeing. It is often asserted that populations consist of different types of gamblers: those for whom gambling is a harmless leisure activity and those (pathological/problem gamblers) for whom the activity has harmful effects. One might, therefore, assume that subjective wellbeing will be negativity associated with an individual's level of gambling addiction. Alternatively, gamblers may choose to gamble because they derive utility from participating in this activity and so the relationship between happiness and gambling might be positively correlated. In this paper we test this association, empirically, using data from the 2010 British Gambling Prevalence Survey. The statistically significant findings from this analysis support the hypothesis that individual wellbeing falls as gambling disorder increases.
Blum, Austin W; Leppink, Eric W; Grant, Jon E
Problem gamblers with symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may represent a distinct problem gambling subtype, but the neurocognitive profile of individuals affected by both disorders is poorly characterized. Non-treatment-seeking young adults (18-29years) who gambled ≥5 times in the preceding year were recruited from the general community. Problem gamblers (defined as those meeting ≥1 DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder) with a lifetime history of ASPD (N=26) were identified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and compared with controls (N=266) using questionnaire-based impulsivity scales and objective computerized neuropsychological tasks. Findings were uncorrected for multiple comparisons. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen's d. Problem gambling with ASPD was associated with significantly elevated gambling disorder symptoms, lower quality of life, greater psychiatric comorbidity, higher impulsivity questionnaire scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (d=0.4) and Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire (d=0.5), and impaired cognitive flexibility (d=0.4), executive planning (d=0.4), and an aspect of decision-making (d=0.6). Performance on measures of response inhibition, risk adjustment, and quality of decision making did not differ significantly between groups. These preliminary findings, though in need of replication, support the characterization of problem gambling with ASPD as a subtype of problem gambling associated with higher rates of impulsivity and executive function deficits. Taken together, these results may have treatment implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sleczka, Pawel; Braun, Barbara; Grüne, Bettina; Bühringer, Gerhard; Kraus, Ludwig
Objectives Male sex, young age, and frequent gambling are considered as risk factors for gambling disorder (GD) and stress might be one of the triggers of gambling behavior among problem gamblers. Conversely, well-developed coping with stress might counteract gambling problems. The Proactive Coping Theory provides a promising approach for the further development of preventive and treatment measures. The objective of the study was to investigate different facets of proactive coping (PC) in young male gamblers. Methods Young men from Bavaria were recruited via the Munich citizens' registry (n = 2,588) and Facebook invitations (n = 105). In total, 173 out of 398 individuals were positively screened for frequent gambling and/or signs of related problems and completed the baseline questionnaire of the Munich Leisure-time Study. Factors investigated include gambling problems, PC, impulsiveness, social support, and psychological distress. Results Gambling problems were associated with lower levels of preventive coping as well as of adaptive reaction delay. The associations were also significant when controlled for impulsiveness and general psychological distress. Preventive coping moderated the association between social support and gambling problems. Discussion and conclusions Young men with gambling problems less frequently prevent the occurrence of stressors and more often react hasty when these occur. While the investigated group reported good social support, this factor was negatively associated with GD only among individuals with good preventive coping. Preventive coping poses a useful construct for selective prevention and treatment as it can be modified in professional interventions.
Stinchfield, R; Winters, K C
This study measured the outcome of four state-supported outpatient gambling treatment programs in Minnesota. The programs were developed specifically for the treatment of pathological gamblers and offered multiple modalities of treatment including individual, group, education, twelve-step work, family groups, and financial counseling. The therapeutic orientation was eclectic with an emphasis on the twelve steps of Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and a treatment goal of abstinence. The sample included 348 men and 220 women treated between January 1992 and January 1995. A pretest-posttest design was utilized with multidimensional assessments obtained at intake, discharge, six-months, and twelve-months post-discharge. Variables assessed included a range of clinical and outcome variables. At six month follow-up, 28% reported that they had abstained from gambling during the six months following discharge and an additional 20% had gambled less than once per month. Almost half of the sample (48%) showed clinically significant improvement in gambling frequency at six month follow-up. Outcome variables of gambling frequency, SOGS scores, amount of money gambled, number of friends who gamble, psychosocial problems, and number of financial problems, all showed statistically significant improvements from pretreatment to follow-up. The treatment programs yielded outcome results similar to those reported for alcohol and drug abuse treatment programs.
LaPlante, Debi A.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Shaffer, Howard J.
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between types of gambling and disordered gambling, with and without controlling for gambling involvement (i.e. the number of types of games with which respondents were involved during the past 12 months). Methods: We completed a secondary data analysis of the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (BGPS), which collected data in England, Scotland and Wales between September 2006 and March 2007. The sample included 9003 re...
Kundu, Priya V.; Pilver, Corey E.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.
Objective Instant (scratch) lottery ticket gambling is popular among adolescents. Prior research has not determined whether adolescents’ gambling behavior and attitudes toward gambling are influenced by the receipt of scratch lottery tickets as gifts. Method Cross-sectional survey data from 2,002 Connecticut high school students with past-year gambling were analyzed using bivariate approaches and logistic regression analyses. Interactions between gambling-problem severity and lottery-gift status were examined in relation to multiple outcomes. Results Adolescents who received a scratch lottery ticket as a gift compared with those who did not were more likely to report features of problem gambling, buy scratch lottery tickets for themselves, and buy and receive other types of lottery tickets; they were also less likely to report parental disapproval of gambling and to see gambling prevention efforts as important. Later (≥15 years) age-at-gambling-onset was inversely linked to gambling-problem severity in the lottery gift group (odds ratio [OR] = .38) but not in the nongift group (OR = .91), yielding a significant severity by gift status interaction. Other academic, health, and gambling-related correlates of gambling-problem severity were similar in the gift and nongift groups. Conclusions For adolescents, the receipt of scratch lottery tickets as gifts during childhood or adolescence was associated with risky/problematic gambling and with gambling-related attitudes, behaviors, and views suggesting greater gambling acceptability. The extent to which the receipt of scratch lottery tickets may promote gambling behaviors and the development of gambling problems warrants consideration. Education, prevention, and treatment strategies should incorporate findings relating to receipt of gambling products by underage individuals. PMID:23299004
Quantum Game Theory provides us with new tools for practising games and some other risk related enterprices like, for example, gambling. The two party gambling protocol presented by Goldenberg et al. is one of the simplest yet still hard to implementapplications of Quantum Game Theory. We propose potential physical realisation of the quantum gambling protocol with use of three mesoscopic ring qubits. We point out problems in implementation of such game. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Pakula, Ireneusz [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)
Quantum Game Theory provides us with new tools for practising games and some other risk related enterprices like, for example, gambling. The two party gambling protocol presented by Goldenberg et al. is one of the simplest yet still hard to implementapplications of Quantum Game Theory. We propose potential physical realisation of the quantum gambling protocol with use of three mesoscopic ring qubits. We point out problems in implementation of such game. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Grant, Jon E.; Donahue, Christopher B.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Kim, Suck Won; Miller, Michael J.; Petry, Nancy M.
Sixty-eight individuals were randomised to either six sessions of imaginal desensitisation plus motivational interviewing (IDMI) or Gamblers Anonymous. Individuals assigned to IDMI had significantly greater reductions in Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling total scores, gambling urges and gambling behaviour. People who failed to respond to Gamblers Anonymous reported significantly greater reduction in pathological gambling symptoms following later as...
Grant, Jon E; Donahue, Christopher B; Odlaug, Brian L; Kim, Suck Won; Miller, Michael J; Petry, Nancy M
Sixty-eight individuals were randomised to either six sessions of imaginal desensitisation plus motivational interviewing (IDMI) or Gamblers Anonymous. Individuals assigned to IDMI had significantly greater reductions in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling total scores, gambling urges and gambling behaviour. People who failed to respond to Gamblers Anonymous reported significantly greater reduction in pathological gambling symptoms following later assignment to IDMI. Abstinence was achieved by 63.6% during the acute IDMI treatment period.
Perales, José C; Navas, Juan F; Ruiz de Lara, Cristian M; Maldonado, Antonio; Catena, Andrés
Causal learning is the ability to progressively incorporate raw information about dependencies between events, or between one's behavior and its outcomes, into beliefs of the causal structure of the world. In spite of the fact that some cognitive biases in gambling disorder can be described as alterations of causal learning involving gambling-relevant cues, behaviors, and outcomes, general causal learning mechanisms in gamblers have not been systematically investigated. In the present study, we compared gambling disorder patients against controls in an instrumental causal learning task. Evidence of illusion of control, namely, overestimation of the relationship between one's behavior and an uncorrelated outcome, showed up only in gamblers with strong current symptoms. Interestingly, this effect was part of a more complex pattern, in which gambling disorder patients manifested a poorer ability to discriminate between null and positive contingencies. Additionally, anomalies were related to gambling severity and current gambling disorder symptoms. Gambling-related biases, as measured by a standard psychometric tool, correlated with performance in the causal learning task, but not in the expected direction. Indeed, performance of gamblers with stronger biases tended to resemble the one of controls, which could imply that anomalies of causal learning processes play a role in gambling disorder, but do not seem to underlie gambling-specific biases, at least in a simple, direct way.
Moore, Susan M; Thomas, Anna C; Kyrios, Michael; Bates, Glen; Meredyth, Denise
Geographic closeness of gambling venues is not the only aspect of accessibility likely to affect gambling frequency. Perceived accessibility of gambling venues may include other features such as convenience (e.g., opening hours) or "atmosphere". The aim of the current study was to develop a multidimensional measure of gamblers' perceptions of accessibility, and present evidence for its reliability and validity. We surveyed 303 gamblers with 43 items developed to measure different dimensions of accessibility. Factor analysis of the items produced a two factor solution. The first, Social Accessibility related to the level at which gambling venues were enjoyed because they were social places, provided varying entertainment options and had a pleasant atmosphere. The second factor, Accessible Retreat related to the degree to which venues were enjoyed because they were geographically and temporally available and provided a familiar and anonymous retreat with few interruptions or distractions. Both factors, developed as reliable subscales of the new Gambling Access Scale, demonstrated construct validity through their correlations with other gambling-related measures. Social Accessibility was moderately related to gambling frequency and amount spent, but not to problem gambling, while, as hypothesised, Accessible Retreat was associated with stronger urges to gamble and gambling problems.
Hing, Nerilee; Haw, John
The aim of the current study was to develop a scale of gambling accessibility that would have theoretical significance to exposure theory and also serve to highlight the accessibility risk factors for problem gambling. Scale items were generated from the Productivity Commission's (Australia's Gambling Industries: Report No. 10. AusInfo, Canberra, 1999) recommendations and tested on a group with high exposure to the gambling environment. In total, 533 gaming venue employees (aged 18-70 years; 67% women) completed a questionnaire that included six 13-item scales measuring accessibility across a range of gambling forms (gaming machines, keno, casino table games, lotteries, horse and dog racing, sports betting). Also included in the questionnaire was the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) along with measures of gambling frequency and expenditure. Principal components analysis indicated that a common three factor structure existed across all forms of gambling and these were labelled social accessibility, physical accessibility and cognitive accessibility. However, convergent validity was not demonstrated with inconsistent correlations between each subscale and measures of gambling behaviour. These results are discussed in light of exposure theory and the further development of a multi-dimensional measure of gambling accessibility.
Pietrzak, Robert H; Ladd, George T; Petry, Nancy M
Rapid expansion of legalized gambling has been associated with increased rates of gambling disorders among adults and adolescents worldwide. Epidemiologic studies suggest that, in North America, up to 6% of adults and 20% of adolescents have a gambling problem. Despite increasing prevalence rates of gambling disorders, little research is available on how to treat such disorders in adolescents. Much of what is known about how to treat adolescent problem and pathological gambling comes from research on psychosocial and psychopharmacologic treatments for adult pathological gambling. Risk factors for adolescent gambling disorders include male gender, alcohol and drug use, deviant peers, family history of gambling, and impulsive behavior. While several risk factors characterize disordered gambling among adolescents, the extent to which these characteristics are related remains to be determined. In terms of screening for adolescent problem and pathological gambling, several instruments designed to reflect the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling are available. Psychosocial approaches used to treat adult pathological gambling include Gamblers Anonymous, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and motivational enhancement therapy (MET). Among adolescents, CBT as well as an eclectic therapy have been helpful in reducing problematic gambling behavior. In terms of pharmacotherapy, three classes of psychotropic drugs have been used to treat adult pathological gambling - serotonin reuptake inhibitors, opioid antagonists, and mood stabilizers. While some of these pharmacotherapies have been efficacious in treating adult pathological gambling, additional double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are needed to determine the long-term effectiveness of these treatments. No known study has evaluated the use of psychopharmacologic agents in treating adolescent pathological gambling. Possible reasons for the lack of research on
Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan; Strong, David; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Andersen, Shawna M; Bucossi, Meggan; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L
Little work has examined the interrelations among intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and gambling behavior, and no studies have examined these relationships among males court-ordered to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). The aim of the current investigation was to explore the associations between IPV, alcohol use, and gambling behavior among 341 males court-mandated to attend BIPs utilizing self-report measures. Voluntary, anonymous questionnaires were administered and completed during regularly scheduled BIP sessions. Compared to the general population, a higher percentage of the sample met criteria for pathological gambling (9%), and problem gambling (17%). Further, males exhibiting pathological gambling were more likely to be hazardous drinkers, and hazardous drinkers were more likely to exhibit pathological gambling. Additionally, pathological gamblers were at an increased risk for the perpetration of both physical and sexual aggression. Finally, gambling behavior uniquely predicted the perpetration of sexual aggression above and beyond alcohol use, impulsivity, and relationship satisfaction. The implications of these results for future research and intervention are discussed.
Meisel, Matthew K.; Clifton, Allan D.; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Goodie, Adam S.
Aims To apply social network analysis (SNA) to investigate whether frequency and severity of gambling problems were associated with different network characteristics among friends, family, and co-workers. is an innovative way to look at relationships among individuals; the current study was the first to our knowledge to apply SNA to gambling behaviors. Design Egocentric social network analysis was used to formally characterize the relationships between social network characteristics and gambling pathology. Setting Laboratory-based questionnaire and interview administration. Participants Forty frequent gamblers (22 non-pathological gamblers, 18 pathological gamblers) were recruited from the community. Findings The SNA revealed significant social network compositional differences between the two groups: pathological gamblers (PGs) had more gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks than did nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). PGs had more individuals in their network with whom they personally gambled, smoked, and drank with than those with who were NPG. Network ties were closer to individuals in their networks who gambled, smoked, and drank more frequently. Associations between gambling severity and structural network characteristics were not significant. Conclusions Pathological gambling is associated with compositional but not structural differences in social networks. Pathological gamblers differ from non-pathological gamblers in the number of gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks. Homophily within the networks also indicates that gamblers tend to be closer with other gamblers. This homophily may serve to reinforce addictive behaviors, and may suggest avenues for future study or intervention. PMID:23072641
Meisel, Matthew K; Clifton, Allan D; Mackillop, James; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Goodie, Adam S
To apply social network analysis (SNA) to investigate whether frequency and severity of gambling problems were associated with different network characteristics among friends, family and co-workers is an innovative way to look at relationships among individuals; the current study was the first, to our knowledge, to apply SNA to gambling behaviors. Egocentric social network analysis was used to characterize formally the relationships between social network characteristics and gambling pathology. Laboratory-based questionnaire and interview administration. Forty frequent gamblers (22 non-pathological gamblers, 18 pathological gamblers) were recruited from the community. The SNA revealed significant social network compositional differences between the two groups: pathological gamblers (PGs) had more gamblers, smokers and drinkers in their social networks than did non-pathological gamblers (NPGs). PGs had more individuals in their network with whom they personally gambled, smoked and drank than those with who were NPG. Network ties were closer to individuals in their networks who gambled, smoked and drank more frequently. Associations between gambling severity and structural network characteristics were not significant. Pathological gambling is associated with compositional but not structural differences in social networks. Pathological gamblers differ from non-pathological gamblers in the number of gamblers, smokers and drinkers in their social networks. Homophily within the networks also indicates that gamblers tend to be closer with other gamblers. This homophily may serve to reinforce addictive behaviors, and may suggest avenues for future study or intervention. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling.
Yip, Sarah W; Mei, Songli; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen J; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
Elevated levels of both pathological gambling (PG) and problem shopping (PS) have been reported among adolescents, and each is associated with a range of other negative health/functioning measures. However, relationships between PS and PG, particularly during adolescence, are not well understood. In this study, we explored the relationship between different levels of problem-gambling severity and health/functioning characteristics, gambling-related social experiences, gambling behaviors and motivations among adolescents with and without at-risk/problematic shopping (ARPS). Survey data from Connecticut high school students (n = 2,100) were analyzed using bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling. Although at-risk/problematic gambling (ARPG) was not increased among adolescents with ARPS, adolescents with ARPG (vs non-gamblers) were more likely to report having experienced a growing tension or anxiety that could only be relieved by shopping and missing other obligations due to shopping. In comparison to the non-ARPS group, a smaller proportion of respondents in the ARPS group reported paid part-time employment, whereas a greater proportion of respondents reported excessive gambling by peers and feeling concerned over the gambling of a close family member. In general, similar associations between problem-gambling severity and measures of health/functioning and gambling-related behaviors and motivations were observed across ARPS and non-ARPS adolescents. However, associations were weaker among ARPS adolescents for several variables: engagement in extracurricular activities, alcohol and caffeine use and gambling for financial reasons. These findings suggest a complex relationship between problem-gambling severity and ARPS. They highlight the importance of considering co-occurring risk behaviors such as ARPS when treating adolescents with at-risk/problem gambling.
Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T; Turner, Nigel E
With the rapid proliferation of new gambling technology and online gambling opportunities, there is a concern that online gambling could have a significant impact on public health, particularly for adolescents. The aim of this study is to examine online and land-based gambling behaviour among adolescents in 3 Canadian provinces (Ontario, Newfoundland and Labrador, Saskatchewan) prior to the implementation of legalized online gambling. Data are from 10,035 students in grades 9 to 12 who responded to the 2012-2013 Youth Gambling Survey (YGS) supplement, a questionnaire administered as part of the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS, 2012) in 3 provinces: Newfoundland and Labrador (n = 2,588), Ontario (n = 3,892), and Saskatchewan (n = 3,555). Overall, 41.6% of adolescents (35.9% of females and 47.4% of males) had gambled in the past 3 months. 9.4% of adolescents had gambled online in the past 3 months alone (3.7% of females and 15.3% of males). The most popular form of online gambling was online sports betting. Adolescents also engaged in online simulated gambling including internet poker (9.1%) and simulated gambling on Facebook (9.0%). Few adolescents participated in online gambling exclusively and online gamblers were more likely than land-based gamblers to engage in multiple forms of gambling. A higher proportion of adolescent online gamblers scored "high" or "low to moderate" in problem gambling severity compared to land-based only gamblers. Despite restrictions on online gambling at the time of the study, adolescents were engaging in online gambling at a significantly higher rate than has been previously found. Adolescents were also using technology such as video games to gamble and free online gambling simulations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid proliferation of new gambling technology and online gambling opportunities, there is a concern that online gambling could have a significant impact on public health, particularly for adolescents. The aim of this study is to examine online and land-based gambling behaviour among adolescents in 3 Canadian provinces (Ontario, Newfoundland and Labrador, Saskatchewan prior to the implementation of legalized online gambling. Methods Data are from 10,035 students in grades 9 to 12 who responded to the 2012–2013 Youth Gambling Survey (YGS supplement, a questionnaire administered as part of the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS, 2012 in 3 provinces: Newfoundland and Labrador (n = 2,588, Ontario (n = 3,892, and Saskatchewan (n = 3,555. Results Overall, 41.6 % of adolescents (35.9 % of females and 47.4 % of males had gambled in the past 3 months. 9.4 % of adolescents had gambled online in the past 3 months alone (3.7 % of females and 15.3 % of males. The most popular form of online gambling was online sports betting. Adolescents also engaged in online simulated gambling including internet poker (9.1 % and simulated gambling on Facebook (9.0 %. Few adolescents participated in online gambling exclusively and online gamblers were more likely than land-based gamblers to engage in multiple forms of gambling. A higher proportion of adolescent online gamblers scored “high” or “low to moderate” in problem gambling severity compared to land-based only gamblers. Conclusions Despite restrictions on online gambling at the time of the study, adolescents were engaging in online gambling at a significantly higher rate than has been previously found. Adolescents were also using technology such as video games to gamble and free online gambling simulations.
King, Daniel L; Ejova, Anastasia; Delfabbro, Paul H
There is a paucity of empirical research examining the possible association between gambling and video game play. In two studies, we examined the association between video game playing, erroneous gambling cognitions, and risky gambling behaviour. One hundred and fifteen participants, including 65 electronic gambling machine (EGM) players and 50 regular video game players, were administered a questionnaire that examined video game play, gambling involvement, problem gambling, and beliefs about gambling. We then assessed each groups' performance on a computerised gambling task that involved real money. A post-game survey examined perceptions of the skill and chance involved in the gambling task. The results showed that video game playing itself was not significantly associated with gambling involvement or problem gambling status. However, among those persons who both gambled and played video games, video game playing was uniquely and significantly positively associated with the perception of direct control over chance-based gambling events. Further research is needed to better understand the nature of this association, as it may assist in understanding the impact of emerging digital gambling technologies.
Lutri, Vittorio; Soldini, Emiliano; Ronzitti, Silvia; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Blaszczynski, Alex; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta
Several studies have found that certain traits of impulsivity are associated with gambling disorder, and influence its severity. Furthermore, it has been suggested that some forms of gambling, particularly electronic gambling machines, are particularly widespread among pathological gamblers. In the present, exploratory study, we aim to clarify the role played by impulsivity in influencing the choice of specific gambling activities, by examining the relation between individual dimensions of impulsivity, and the choice of specific gambling activities in a clinical population. 100 consecutively admitted pathological gamblers at the National Problem Gambling Clinic in London (UK) in 2014 were administered the UPPS-P and BIS-11 impulsivity questionnaires, the Problem Gambling Severity Index, and underwent a structured interview concerning their gambling activities in the month and year prior to assessment. The correlation between individual gambling activities and impulsivity dimensions was analyzed both at a bivariate level, and using logistic regression. We found a significant correlation between Negative Urgency, Motor impulsivity and low-stakes machine gambling on multivariate analysis. Negative urgency (i.e. the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative affect), and Motor impulsivity (a tendency to rash action and restlessness) might be mediating factors in the choice of electronic gambling machines, particularly among patients whose gambling is escape-oriented. Structural and situational characteristics of gambling machines, particularly the widespread availability of low-stakes-rather than high-stakes-gaming machines, might concur to the choice of this form of gambling among individuals who present higher negative urgency and restlessness.
Fong, Timothy W.
Pathological gambling is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has medical, psychiatric, and social consequences. Recently, research has been focusing on identifying which portions of the population are most vulnerable to developing problems related to ongoing gambling. Specific populations of interest have included adolescents, elderly, minorities, those with comorbid psychiatric or substance use disorders, and gender differences. Each group possesses unique biological, psychological, and/or...
Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max; Clarke, Dave; Hodgins, David; Williams, Jeremy
This paper presents barriers to help-seeking data as reported by users of a national gambling helpline (help-seekers, HS, N = 125) as well as data pertaining to perceived barriers to seeking help as reported by gamblers recruited from the general population (non-help-seekers, NHS, N = 104). All data were collected via a structured, multi-modal survey. When asked to identify actual or perceived barriers to seeking help, responses indicative of pride (78% of HS participants, 84% of NHS participants), shame (73% of HS participants, 84% of NHS participants) or denial (87% of NHS participants) were most frequently reported. These three factors were also most often identified as the real or perceived primary barrier to help-seeking (collectively accounting for 55% of HS, and 60% of NHS, responses to this question) and were the only barriers to be identified by more than 10% of either HS and NHS participants without prompting. It was of note, however, that participants in both groups identified multiple barriers to help-seeking (mean of 6.7 and 12.2, respectively) and that, when presented with a list of 21 possible barrier items, NHS participants endorsed 19 of the listed items significantly more often than their HS counterparts. The implications of these findings, with respect to promoting greater or earlier help-seeking activity amongst problem gamblers, are discussed.
Piscitelli, Anthony; Harrison, Jay; Doherty, Sean; Carmichael, Barbara A
Research on new casinos typically focuses upon their impact on the community, rather than on specific at-risk groups. This research study explores the impact of the opening of a new casino on attitudes of older adult casino patrons, especially those at particular risk of having gambling problems. Results demonstrate that over 80% of older adult casino patrons would not change their attitudes toward gambling or expect to increase their gambling as a result of the opening of a new casino. However, older adults with problem gambling issues are more likely to indicate they would visit a casino more, spend more time at a casino, and gamble more as a result of the opening of a new casino. In addition, older adults with signs of a gambling problem are more likely to say the opening of a new casino would change their opinions of gambling in general or casino gambling.
Morrison, Eleshia J; Novotny, Paul J; Sloan, Jeff A; Yang, Ping; Patten, Christi A; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Clark, Matthew M
Lung cancer is associated with a greater symptom burden than other cancers, yet little is known about the prevalence of emotional problems and how emotional problems may be related to the physical symptom burden and quality of life in newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer. This study aimed to identify the patient and disease characteristics of patients with lung cancer experiencing emotional problems and to examine how emotional problems relate to quality of life and symptom burden. A total of 2205 newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer completed questionnaires on emotional problems, quality of life, and symptom burden. Emotional problems at diagnosis were associated with younger age, female gender, current cigarette smoking, current employment, advanced lung cancer disease, surgical or chemotherapy treatment, and a lower Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score. Additionally, strong associations were found between greater severity of emotional problems, lower quality of life, and greater symptom burden. Certain characteristics place patients with lung cancer at greater risk for emotional problems, which are associated with a reduced quality of life and greater symptom burden. Assessment of the presence of emotional problems at the time of lung cancer diagnosis provides the opportunity to offer tailored strategies for managing negative mood, and for improving the quality of life and symptom burden management of patients with lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Xiao-Lei; Liang, Shuang; Zou, Ming-Yang; Sun, Cai-Hong; Han, Pan-Pan; Jiang, Xi-Tao; Xia, Wei; Wu, Li-Jie
Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suffer from concurrent medical symptoms, including gastrointestinal (GI) and sleeping problems. However, there is limited information on the correlation between co-morbidities and autistic behavioral symptoms. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of GI and sleep problems in Chinese ASD children, examined the impacts of GI and sleep problems on autistic behavioral symptoms, and investigated the factors associated with GI and sleep problems. The survey included 169 ASD and 172 healthy children. Data regarding demographic characteristics, GI symptoms, sleep disturbances and behavioral symptoms were collected through questionnaires. GI and sleep problems were prevalent in Chinese ASD children. Moreover, ASD children with GI symptoms reported more severe ASD core symptoms than others. Autistic children's GI symptoms were associated with maternal sleep problems during pregnancy, child's 0-6 month food sources and picky eating. ASD children with sleep disturbances had lower performance in daily living skills, social cognition, social communication and intellectual development than ASD children without sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances were associated with extra nutrient supply during lactation and feeding, and child's picky eating. Autistic children with GI or/and sleep problems may represent clinically relevant subtypes of ASD, for which targeted treatments may be needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Melvyn; Yang, Yi; Guo, Song; Cheok, Chris; Wong, Kim Eng; Kandasami, Gomathinayagam
Given that technology has greatly facilitated easier access to gambling in previous years, it is timely to look in-depth into online gambling activities and behaviors. There have been several studies that examined online gambling. However, most of the current studies to date have focused on determining the prevalence and the epidemiology of problem gambling arising from online gambling in Western cohorts. There remains a paucity of research looking at the problem of online gambling among Asian individuals. The objectives of the current study are to elucidate the characteristics of online gambling among an Asian cohort and to explore the harm associated with online gambling and the potential mechanisms by which harm associated with online gambling could be minimized. It is hoped that the findings of the current paper will bridge the existing gaps in the research literature. A cross-sectional study design was utilized to recruit 100 participants who were attending outpatient services at the National Addictions Management Service (NAMS) from March 2014 to October 2015. The majority of the participants were male, of Chinese ethnicity and under the age of 30 years old (48%). Mobile phones and smartphones were the most commonly utilized platforms for gambling online. The median largest ever debt incurred as a result of online gambling ($20,000) was significantly more than that due to offline gambling ($500) ( Z = −4.17, p gambling ($7000) ( Z = −2.73, p gambling ($2000). A total of 18.4% of participants had waited between 1 to 2 years from their first online gambling experience to seek treatment and 17.3% had waited for more than 10 years. This is perhaps one of the first Asian studies to investigate the serious harm involved in online gambling. The findings from our study are intended to guide further interventions in the treatment of online gambling related disorders; and would be of interest to governmental organizations in their planning of regulations for online
Full Text Available In this paper I argue that football plays a questionable role in promoting two potentially problematic activities, namely drinking alcohol and gambling. Gambling and alcohol companies sponsor clubs and competitions and also pay to advertise their products at the stadia and during television coverage. Consequently millions of fans, including children, are exposed to the marketing of these restricted products. The latter are exposed despite regulations that prohibit such advertising and promotion in other contexts. The promotion of these activities to children and to adults increases levels of consumption which in turn increases the number of problem drinkers and gamblers in society. High-profile footballers play a further role in normalising drinking and gambling. They are role models whose actions influence others. Their excessive drinking and gambling activities provide poor examples for football fans, young and old.
Zhu, Yan; Leung, Kai Man; Liu, Po-zi; Zhou, Ming; Su, Lin-yan
We studied the comorbid behavioural and mood problems in children with non-psychiatric Tourette's syndrome (TS) and their relationship with severity of tic disorder. Sixty-nine TS children and 69 healthy controls were assessed by Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). The relationships between behavioural problems and severity of tic symptoms were analysed statistically by comparison, correlation and multiple linear regression. Tourette's syndrome patients scored significantly lower (ptic symptoms is positively correlated with the severity of overall impairment in school and social competence. When the behavioural and mood problems commonly associated with TS were studied in detail, we found that delinquent behaviour, thought problems, attention problems, aggressive behaviour and externalizing are positively correlated with severity of tic symptoms. The findings indicated that children with TS-only also had a broad range of behavioural problems, and some of these were related to the severity of tic symptoms.
Ventura, Joseph; Tom, Shelley R; Jetton, Chris; Kern, Robert S
Neurocognition in general, and memory functioning in particular, as well as symptoms have all been shown to be related to social problem solving (SPS) in schizophrenia. However, few studies have directly compared the relative contribution of neurocognition vs. psychiatric symptoms to the components of SPS. Sixty outpatients (aged 21-65) who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered a broad battery of memory tests and assessed for severity of positive and negative symptoms as part of a baseline assessment of a study of psychiatric rehabilitation. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the contribution of memory functioning vs. symptoms on receiving, processing, and sending skill areas of social problem solving ability. An index of verbal learning was the strongest predictor of processing skills whereas negative symptoms were the strongest predictor of sending skills. Positive symptoms were not related to any of the three skill areas of social problem solving. Memory functioning and psychiatric symptoms differentially predict selected areas of social problem solving ability in persons with schizophrenia. Consistent with other reports, positive symptoms were not related to social problem solving. Consideration of both neurocognition and negative symptoms may be important to the development of rehabilitation interventions in this area of functioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Castrén, Sari; Kontto, Jukka; Alho, Hannu; Salonen, Anne H
To investigate gambling expenditure and its relationship with socio-demographics, health-related correlates and past-year gambling behaviour. Cross-sectional population survey. Population-based survey in Finland. Finnish people aged 15-74 years drawn randomly from the Population Information System. The participants in this study were past-year gamblers with gambling expenditure data available (n = 3251, 1418 women and 1833 men). Expenditure shares, means of weekly gambling expenditure (WGE, €) and monthly gambling expenditure as a percentage of net income (MGE/NI, %) were calculated. The correlates used were perceived health, smoking, mental health [Mental Health Inventory (MHI)-5], alcohol use [Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C], game types, gambling frequency, gambling mode and gambling severity [South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS)]. Gender (men versus women) was found to be associated significantly with gambling expenditure, with exp(β) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.29, 1.52 and P gambling behaviour correlates were associated significantly with WGE and MGE/NI: gambling frequency (several times a week versus once a month/less than monthly, exp(β) = 30.75, 95% CI = 26.89, 35.17 and P gambling severity (probable pathological gamblers versus non-problem gamblers, exp(β) = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.12, 3.77 and P gambling (on-line and land-based versus land-based only, exp(β) = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.24, 1.47 and P gambling expenditure and monthly gambling expenditure related to net income. People in Finland with lower incomes contribute proportionally more of their income to gambling compared with middle- and high-income groups. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.
This thesis is studying the current global as well as Czech gambling industry with the focus on internet gambling activities. The work begins with the description of various gambling activities. The focus is taken on the internet gambling activities with description of the specifics and the current European as well as US legal frame. Next part is dedicated to the psychology of gambling together with the pathological gambling addiction. In next part the thesis studies the current situation on ...
Full Text Available Carla J Rash,1 Jeremiah Weinstock,2 Ryan Van Patten2 1Calhoun Cardiology Center – Behavioral Health, UConn Health, Farmington, CT, USA; 2Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, gambling disorder was recategorized from the “Impulse Control Disorder” section to the newly expanded “Substance-related and Addictive Disorders” section. With this move, gambling disorder has become the first recognized nonsubstance behavioral addiction, implying many shared features between gambling disorder and substance use disorders. This review examines these similarities, as well as differences, between gambling and substance-related disorders. Diagnostic criteria, comorbidity, genetic and physiological underpinnings, and treatment approaches are discussed. Keywords: pathological gambling, problem gambling, behavioral addiction, transdiagnostic factors, addiction syndrome
Roberts, Amanda; Landon, Jason; Sharman, Stephen; Hakes, Jahn; Suomi, Aino; Cowlishaw, Sean
Links between intimate partner violence (IPV) and gambling problems are under researched in general population samples. Understanding these relationships will allow for improved identification and intervention. We investigated these relationships and sought to determine whether links were attenuated by axis I and II disorders. This study examined data from waves 1 and 2 (N = 25,631) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC); a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults. Gambling symptoms and other psychiatric disorders were measured at wave 1 by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disability Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV). Physical IPV victimization and perpetration in the last 12 months were assessed 3 years later at wave 2 using items from the Conflict Tactics Scale-R. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine associations separately for males and females. Problem gambling was associated with increased odds of both IPV perpetration for males (OR = 2.62, 95%CI = 1.22-5.60) and females (OR = 2.87, 95%CI = 1.29-6.42), and with IPV victimization for females only (OR = 2.97, 95%CI = 1.31-6.74). Results were attenuated with inclusion of axis I and axis II disorders; links between gambling and IPV were weaker than those involving other mental health conditions. There are prospective associations with gambling problems and physical IPV which have implications for identification, spontaneous disclosure, and treatment seeking. The links between gambling problems and violence are complex and should not be considered independently of co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. (Am J Addict 2018;27:7-14). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
The techniques used for treating compulsive gamblers are reviewed. They include psychoanalytic psychotherapy, aversion therapy, marital therapy, and self-help groups (Gamblers Anonymous). The problems especially important in treating compulsive gamblers include lack of motivation for change and the role of the significant others in maintaining the gambler as the scapegoat of the family. Although therapists report good success in treating gamblers, the sporadic nature of gambling probably inflates "success' rates.
Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Chamberlain, Samuel
, which has further catalyzed a debate over the contribution of personality traits (rather than just personality disorders) to the manifestation and maintenance of psychiatric conditions such as Gambling Disorder. This selective review considers relationships between gambling and personality traits....... The possible existence of distinct subtypes of Gambling Disorder, defined via personality traits, is highlighted, along with consideration of whether objective neurocognitive markers could serve as proxy markers of ‘personality’ more amenable to scientific dissection rather than relying on questionnaire...
Betancourt, Laura M; Brodsky, Nancy L; Brown, Caitlin A; McKenna, Kathleen A; Giannetta, Joan M; Yang, Wei; Romer, Daniel; Hurt, Hallam
Our objectives for this report were to identify trajectories of youth gambling behavior, and to examine their relation to executive cognitive function (ECF) and associated problem behaviors. Philadelphia school children, enrolled at ages 10-12 years (n = 387; 49% male), completed three annual assessments of risk behaviors, ECF, impulsivity, problem behaviors and demographics. Across ages 10-15 years, using methods from Nagin et al., two groups were identified: Early Gamblers (n = 111) initiated early and continued in later assessments, and Later Gamblers (n = 276) initiated at later ages and gambled less. Betting money on cards and sports were the most frequently reported gambling behaviors. Using gambling group as outcome, final backward selection logistic regression model showed Early Gamblers are more likely male (P = 0.001), report more active coping (P = 0.042), impulsive behaviors (P ≤ 0.008), and have friends who gamble (P = 0.001). Groups were similar in ECF, parental monitoring, marital status, SES, and race. Early Gamblers had higher incidence of problem behaviors and drug use (all P ≤ 0.006). Two gambling groups were identified in early adolescence with Early Gamblers showing higher levels of impulsivity and comorbid problems but similar levels of ECF compared to Late Gamblers. As more gambling groups are identified through later adolescence, ECF may emerge as a relevant precursor of problem gambling at this later time.
Winkler, Petr; Bejdová, Markéta; Csémy, Ladislav; Weissová, Aneta
Evidence about social costs of gambling is scarce and the methodology for their calculation has been a subject to strong criticism. We aimed to estimate social costs of gambling in the Czech Republic 2012. This retrospective, prevalence based cost of illness study builds on the revised methodology of Australian Productivity Commission. Social costs of gambling were estimated by combining epidemiological and economic data. Prevalence data on negative consequences of gambling were taken from existing national epidemiological studies. Economic data were taken from various national and international sources. Consequences of problem and pathological gambling only were taken into account. In 2012, the social costs of gambling in the Czech Republic were estimated to range between 541,619 and 619,608 thousands EUR. While personal and family costs accounted for 63% of all social costs, direct medical costs were estimated to range from 0.25 to 0.28% of all social costs only. This is the first study which estimates social costs of gambling in any of the Central and East European countries. It builds upon the solid evidence about prevalence of gambling related problems in the Czech Republic and satisfactorily reliable economic data. However, there is a number of limitations stemming from assumptions that were made, which suggest that the methodology for the calculation of the social costs of gambling needs further development.
James, Richard J E; O'Malley, Claire; Tunney, Richard J
This manuscript reviews the extant literature on key issues related to mobile gambling and considers whether the potential risks of harm emerging from this platform are driven by pre-existing comorbidities or by psychological processes unique to mobile gambling. We propose an account based on associative learning that suggests this form of gambling is likely to show distinctive features compared with other gambling technologies. Smartphones are a rapidly growing platform on which individuals can gamble using specifically designed applications, adapted websites or text messaging. This review considers how mobile phone use interacts with psychological processes relevant to gambling, the games users are likely to play on smartphones, and the interactions afforded by smartphones. Our interpretation of the evidence is that the schedules of reinforcement found in gambling interact with the ways in which people tend to use smartphones that may expedite the acquisition of maladaptive learned behaviours such as problem gambling. This account is consistent with existing theories and frameworks of problem gambling and has relevance to other forms of mobile phone use. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the British Psychological Society.
Stea, Jonathan N; Hodgins, David C; Fung, Tak
The present study examined the nature and impact of participant goal selection (abstinence versus moderation) in brief motivational treatment for pathological gambling via secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial. The results demonstrated that the pattern of goal selection over time could be characterized by both fluidity and stability, whereby almost half of participants switched their goal at least one time, over 25% of participants selected an unchanging goal of 'quit most problematic type of gambling', almost 20% selected an unchanging goal of 'quit all types of gambling', and approximately 10% selected an unchanging goal of 'gamble in a controlled manner.' The results also demonstrated that pretreatment goal selection was uniquely associated with three variables, whereby compared to participants who selected the goal to 'cut back on problem gambling', those who selected the goal to 'quit problem gambling' were more likely to have greater gambling problem severity, to have identified video lottery terminal play as problematic, and to have greater motivation to overcome their gambling problem. Finally, the results demonstrated that goal selection over time had an impact on the average number of days gambled over the course of treatment, whereby those with abstinence-based goals gambled significantly fewer days than those with moderation-based goals. Nevertheless, goal selection over time was not related to dollars gambled, dollars per day gambled, or perceived goal achievement. The findings do not support the contention that abstinence-based goals are more advantageous than moderation goals and are discussed in relation to the broader alcohol treatment literature.
Etel, C; Tabchi, S; Bou Khalil, R; Hlais, S; Richa, S
Pathological gambling is a behavioral dependency on hazard games that is classified, in the DSM-IV, among impulse control disorders. According to many studies, the international prevalence of pathological ranges between 2 and 6%. This disorder is often accompanied by a considerable impact on patients' life as well as on the life of people surrounding them. Adolescents and young adults are considered to be a population at risk to develop this kind of behavioral dependency. The problem of pathological gambling is one of the major problems from which the Lebanese population of university students in Lebanese society suffers. The prevalence of pathological gambling in the Lebanese population of university students is lacking from the contemporary medical literature. In our study, five of the biggest private universities in Lebanon (Notre-Dame University of Louaizé [NDU], Lebanese American University [LAU], American University of Beirut [AUB], Saint-Joseph University [USJ] and Holy Spirit University of Kaslik [USEK]) were surveyed. Each questionnaire was based essentially on the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Four hundred and seventy-seven questionnaires were completed in these universities. Among the 477 students that completed the questionnaire, 5.87% appeared to be suffering from pathological gambling; 25.15% of responding students presented some problems related to gambling while the rest of them, corresponding to 68.92%, had no problems related to gambling. This is the first study of its kind conducted in the Lebanon. Its interest lies in that it offers an important evaluation of the prevalence of pathological gambling in the Lebanese population of university students. According to this study, the prevalence of pathological gambling in Lebanese university students is high. Prevention programs and sensitization strategies are needed in order to prevent the occurrence of this disorder in the Lebanese young. More studies are needed in this domain in order to
Feitosa, Caroline Alves; Santos, Darci N.; Carmo, Maria Beatriz Barreto do; Santos, Letícia Marques dos; Teles, Carlos A. S.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Barreto, Mauricio Lima
Acesso ao resumo: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21843751 Objective: Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood and has been designated a public health problem due to the increase in its prevalence in recent decades, the amount of health service expenditure it absorbs and an absence of consensus about its etiology. The relationships among psychosocial factors and the occurrence, symptomatology, and severity of asthma have recently been considered. There is still controversy...
Luo, Xiaochen; Nuttall, Amy K; Locke, Kenneth D; Hopwood, Christopher J
Despite wide recognition of the importance of interpersonal problems in binge eating disorder (BED), the nature of this association remains unclear. Examining the direction of this longitudinal relationship is necessary to clarify the role that interpersonal problems play in the course of binge eating problems, and thus to specify treatment targets and mechanisms. This study aimed to articulate the bidirectional, longitudinal associations between BED and both the general severity of interpersonal problems as well as warm and dominant interpersonal styles. Severity and styles of interpersonal problems and BED symptoms were measured at baseline, 12 weeks, 24 weeks, and 36 weeks in a sample of 107 women in treatment for BED. Results from bivariate latent change score models indicated that interpersonal problem severity and BED symptoms are associated longitudinally but do not directly influence each other. The results indicated a bidirectional interrelation between binge eating symptoms and dominance such that less dominance predicted greater decreases in binge eating problems, and less binge eating symptoms predicted greater increases in dominance. We also found that binge eating symptoms positively predicted changes in warmth (i.e., less binge eating symptoms predicted less increases or more decreases in warmth). These findings highlight the importance of using dynamic models to examine directionality and delineate the distinct roles of interpersonal severity and styles in BED trajectories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Choe, Daniel Ewon; Sameroff, Arnold J.; McDonough, Susan C.
This longitudinal study of 251 families examined bidirectional associations between maternal depressive symptoms and toddler behavioral problems. Functional regulatory problems in infancy and gender were examined as moderators. Mothers rated children’s regulatory problems of crying, feeding, and sleeping in infancy, toddler-age externalizing behavior, and their own depressive symptoms when children were ages 7, 15, and 33 months. Using a structural equation model we found that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms at 7 months predicted high levels of child externalizing behavior at 15 and 33 months. Gender moderated the effect, such that maternal depressive symptoms only predicted boys’ externalizing behavior at 33 months. Toddler-age externalizing behavior predicted high levels of maternal depressive symptoms at 33 months, only among those who had relatively few regulatory problems as infants. Infancy seems to be a period of heightened vulnerability to effects of maternal depression and boys are more likely than girls to develop resulting externalizing problems. Mothers of infants with few regulatory problems may develop worse depressive symptoms in response to their children’s preschool-age behavioral problems. PMID:23545078
Clark, L.; Averbeck, B.; Payer, D.; Sescousse, G.T.; Winstanley, C.A.; Xue, G.
Gambling is pertinent to neuroscience research for at least two reasons. First, gambling is a naturalistic and pervasive example of risky decision making, and thus gambling games can provide a paradigm for the investigation of human choice behavior and "irrationality." Second, excessive gambling
Johnsen, Anna Thit; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Pedersen, Lise
Little is known about the need for palliative care among advanced cancer patients who are not in specialist palliative care. The purpose was to identify prevalence and predictors of symptoms and problems in a nationally representative sample of Danish advanced cancer patients. Patients with cancer...... or not were associated with several symptoms and problems. This is probably the first nationally representative study of its kind. It shows that advanced cancer patients in Denmark have symptoms and problems that deserve attention and that some patient groups are especially at risk....... predictors. In total, 977 (60%) patients participated. The most frequent symptoms/problems were fatigue (57%; severe 22%) followed by reduced role function, insomnia and pain. Age, cancer stage, primary tumour, type of department, marital status and whether the patient had recently been hospitalized...
Ronzitti, Silvia; Soldini, Emiliano; Smith, Neil; Bayston, Andrew; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta
One of the main difficulties faced in treating gambling disorder is compliance with psychological treatment. Gambling takes many forms and can differ greatly in its features such as speed of play and skill requirements. The type of gambling a pathological gambler opts for may play a key role in treatment compliance. The aim of the present study was to determine whether within treatment seeking sample of gambling disorder clients, gambling activity has any correlation with their resultant treatment outcomes. The study incorporated 524 treatment-seeking individuals who are clients of the National Problem Gambling Clinic in London. All of the clients were assessed prior to treatment and fulfilled the Problem Gambling Severity Index criteria for problem gambling. Data concerning clients' gambling behavior over the previous year was gathered using self-reports. Subsequently, the data was fitted to a multinomial logistic regression model, with the treatment outcome (i.e. pre-treatment dropouts, during treatment dropouts, and completed treatment) as the dependent variable and gambling behavior as the independent variable, whilst controlling for socio-demographic factors. The use of gaming machines was a significant predictor of dropping out pre-treatment (p gambling activities. Further research into the salient features of these gambling activities may help to further explain pre-treatment and during treatment dropouts within this population.
Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna
Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basing policy on empirical evidence, international conventions exist for policy on alcohol, tobacco, and illegal substances. This paper examines the evidence of best practice policies to provide recommendations for international guidelines for harm-minimisation policy for gambling, including specific consideration of the specific requirements for policies on Internet gambling. Evidence indicates that many of the public health policies implemented for addictive substances can be adapted to address gambling-related harms. Specifically, a minimum legal age of at least 18 for gambling participation, licensing of gambling venues and activities with responsible gambling and consumer protection strategies mandated, and brief interventions should be available for those at-risk for and experiencing gambling-related problems. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of limits on opening hours and gambling venue density and increased taxation to minimise harms. Given increases in trade globalisation and particularly the global nature of Internet gambling, it is recommended that jurisdictions take actions to harmonise gambling public health policies.
Boffo, Marilisa; Smits, Ruby; Salmon, Joshua P; Cowie, Megan E; de Jong, David T H A; Salemink, Elske; Collins, Pam; Stewart, Sherry H; Wiers, Reinout W
Similar to substance addictions, reward-related cognitive motivational processes, such as selective attention and positive memory biases, have been found in disordered gambling. Despite findings that individuals with substance use problems are biased to approach substance-related cues automatically, no study has yet focused on automatic approach tendencies for motivationally salient gambling cues in problem gamblers. We tested if moderate- to high-risk gamblers show a gambling approach bias and whether this bias was related prospectively to gambling behaviour and problems. Cross-sectional assessment study evaluating the concurrent and longitudinal correlates of gambling approach bias in moderate- to high-risk gamblers compared with non-problem gamblers. Online study throughout the Netherlands. Twenty-six non-treatment-seeking moderate- to high-risk gamblers and 26 non-problem gamblers community-recruited via the internet. Two online assessment sessions 6 months apart, including self-report measures of gambling problems and behaviour (frequency, duration and expenditure) and the gambling approach avoidance task, with stimuli tailored to individual gambling habits. Relative to non-problem gamblers, moderate- to high-risk gamblers revealed a stronger approach bias towards gambling-related stimuli than neutral stimuli (P = 0.03). Gambling approach bias was correlated positively with past-month gambling expenditure at baseline (P = 0.03) and with monthly frequency of gambling at follow-up (P = 0.02). In multiple hierarchical regressions, baseline gambling approach bias predicted monthly frequency positively (P = 0.03) and total duration of gambling episodes (P = 0.01) 6 months later, but not gambling problems or expenditure. In the Netherlands, relative to non-problem gamblers, moderate- to high-risk gamblers appear to have a stronger tendency to approach rather than to avoid gambling-related pictures compared with neutral ones. This gambling approach bias is
Fang-Ju Tsai; Shu-Tsen Liu; Chi-Mei Lee; Wang-Tso Lee; Pi-Chuan Fan; Wei-Sheng Lin; Yen-Nan Chiu; Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Little is known about whether Asian children with epilepsy have more attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, emotional/ behavioral problems, and physical conditions compared with those described in Western studies. The authors investigated the rates of ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions among pediatric patients with epilepsy. Methods: We recruited 61 patients with epilepsy, aged 6–16 years, and 122 age-, sex-, and parenta...
McCarthy, Simone; Thomas, Samantha L; Randle, Melanie; Bestman, Amy; Pitt, Hannah; Cowlishaw, Sean; Daube, Mike
Women's participation in, and harm from gambling, is steadily increasing. There has been very limited research to investigate how gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of gambling harm may vary across subgroups of women. This study surveyed a convenience sample of 509 women from Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. Women were asked a range of questions about their socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behaviour. Focusing on four gambling products in Australia-casino gambling, electronic gambling machines (EGMs), horse betting, and sports betting-women were asked about their frequency of participation, their product preferences, and perceptions of product harms. The sample was segmented a priori according to age and gambling risk status, and differences between groups were identified using Chi-square tests and ANOVAs. Thematic analysis was used to interpret qualitative data. Almost two thirds (n = 324, 63.7%) of women had engaged with one of the four products in the previous 12 months. Compared to other age groups, younger women aged 16-34 years exhibited a higher proportion of problem gambling, gambled more frequently, and across more products. While EGMs were the product gambled on most frequently by women overall, younger women were significantly more likely to bet on sports and gamble at casinos relative to older women. Qualitative data indicated that younger women engaged with gambling products as part of a "night out", "with friends", due to their "ease of access" and perceived "chance of winning big". There were significant differences in the perceptions of the harms associated with horse and sports betting according to age and gambling risk status, with younger women and gamblers perceiving these products as less harmful. This study highlights that there are clear differences in the gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of product harms between subgroups of women. A gendered approach will enable public
Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten
to all subjects and estimate prospective risk for disordered gambling. We find that 87.6% of the population is indicated for no detectable risk, 5.4% is indicated for early risk, 1.7% is indicated for intermediate risk, 2.6% is indicated for advanced risk, and 2.6% is indicated for disordered gambling...
Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A
This review deals with the published literature to date while examining the relationship between online gambling, mental health problems, and substance use. Online gambling, particularly problematic gambling online, was found to be associated with poor mental health and use of various substances. Recent preliminary evidence also suggests that online gamblers may be at a greater risk of some substance use and mental health problems, relative to nononline gamblers. However, many of the reviewed studies were limited by investigation of online gambling behaviors only; these samples may have inadvertently comprised individuals who engage in both online and nononline gambling. Future research is required to address these limitations.
Griffiths, M; Wood, R T
It has been noted that adolescents may be more susceptible to pathological gambling. Not only is it usually illegal, but it appears to be related to high levels of problem gambling and other delinquent activities such as illicit drug taking and alcohol abuse. This paper examines risk factors not only in adolescent gambling but also in videogame playing (which shares many similarities with gambling). There appear to be three main forms of adolescent gambling that have been widely researched. Adolescent gambling activities and general risk factors in adolescent gambling are provided. As well, the influence of technology on adolescents in the form of both videogames and the Internet are examined. It is argued that technologically advanced forms of gambling may be highly appealing to adolescents.
Background Previous studies of problem Internet gamblers have failed to distinguish whether their problem gambling relates to Internet or land-based gambling modes. Therefore, characteristics and help-seeking behaviors of people whose gambling problems relate specifically to Internet gambling are unknown, but could inform the optimal alignment of treatment and support services with the needs and preferences of problem gamblers. Objective This study aimed to compare (1) characteristics of problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers and (2) uptake of different types and modes of help between problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers. Hypothesis 1 was that problem Internet gamblers are less likely to seek help. Hypothesis 2 was that problem Internet gamblers are more likely to use online modes of help. Methods A sample of 620 respondents meeting criteria for problem gambling was drawn from an online survey of 4594 Australian gamblers. Respondents were recruited through advertisements on gambling and gambling help websites, Facebook, and Google. Measures consisted of gambling participation; proportion of gambling on the Internet; most problematic mode of gambling; help seeking from 11 different sources of formal help, informal help, and self-help for gambling problems; psychological distress (Kessler 6); problem gambling severity (Problem Gambling Severity Index, PGSI); and demographics. Results Problem Internet gamblers were significantly more likely than problem land-based gamblers to be male (χ2 1=28.3, Pgambling helplines, online groups, self-exclusion from land-based venues, family or friends, and self-help strategies. Both problem Internet and problem land-based gamblers had similarly low use of online help. However, problem land-based gamblers (37.6%, 126/335) were significantly more likely to have sought land-based formal help compared to problem Internet gamblers (23.5%, 67/285; χ2 1=14.3, Pgambling help by problem Internet
Pickering, Dylan; Keen, Brittany; Entwistle, Gavin; Blaszczynski, Alex
Considerable variation of outcome variables used to measure recovery in the gambling treatment literature has precluded effective cross-study evaluations and hindered the development of best-practice treatment methodologies. The aim of this systematic review was to describe current diffuse concepts of recovery in the gambling field by mapping the range of outcomes and measurement strategies used to evaluate treatments, and to identify more commonly accepted indices of recovery. A systematic search of six academic databases for studies evaluating treatments (psychological and pharmacological) for gambling disorders with a minimum 6-month follow-up. Data from eligible studies were tabulated and analysis conducted using a narrative approach. Guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were adhered to. Thirty-four studies were reviewed systematically (RCTs = 17, comparative designs = 17). Sixty-three different outcome measures were identified: 25 (39.7%) assessed gambling-specific constructs, 36 (57.1%) assessed non-gambling specific constructs, and two instruments were used across both categories (3.2%). Self-report instruments ranged from psychometrically validated to ad-hoc author-designed questionnaires. Units of measurement were inconsistent, particularly in the assessment of gambling behaviour. All studies assessed indices of gambling behaviour and/or symptoms of gambling disorder. Almost all studies (n = 30; 88.2%) included secondary measures relating to psychiatric comorbidities, psychological processes linked to treatment approach, or global functioning and wellbeing. In research on gambling disorders, the incorporation of broader outcome domains that extend beyond disorder-specific symptoms and behaviours suggests a multi-dimensional conceptualization of recovery. Development of a single comprehensive scale to measure all aspects of gambling recovery could help to facilitate uniform reporting practices
Timmons, Adela C.; Margolin, Gayla
Using daily diary data, this study examined cross-day associations between family conflict and school problems and tested mediating effects of daily negative mood and moderating effects of psychological symptoms. For 2 weeks, parents and adolescents (N = 106; mean age = 15.4) reported daily conflict; adolescents reported daily negative mood and school problems. Results indicated bidirectional, multi-day spillover between parent-adolescent conflict and school problems with daily negative mood statistically accounting for spillover both within and across days. Externalizing symptoms strengthened links between father-adolescent conflict and school problems, whereas depressive and anxious symptoms strengthened links between parent-adolescent conflict and daily negative mood. By demonstrating cross-domain transmission of daily problems, these findings highlight the salience of everyday events as possible intervention targets. PMID:25346538
Timmons, Adela C; Margolin, Gayla
Using daily diary data, this study examined cross-day associations between family conflict and school problems and tested mediating effects of daily negative mood and moderating effects of psychological symptoms. For 2 weeks, parents and adolescents (N = 106; Mage = 15.4) reported daily conflict; adolescents reported daily negative mood and school problems. Results indicated bidirectional, multiday spillover between parent-adolescent conflict and school problems with daily negative mood statistically accounting for spillover both within and across days. Externalizing symptoms strengthened links between father-adolescent conflict and school problems, whereas depressive and anxious symptoms strengthened links between parent-adolescent conflict and daily negative mood. By demonstrating cross-domain transmission of daily problems, these findings highlight the salience of everyday events as possible intervention targets. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
van der Toorn, S.L.M.; Huizink, A.C.; Utens, E.M.W.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Ferdinand, R.F.
Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child’s problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child’s internalizing problems. The study sample
Koyanagi, Ai; Stickley, Andrew
To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and their association with psychotic symptoms using a global database. Community-based cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (WHS), a population-based survey conducted in 70 countries between 2002 and 2004. 261,547 individuals aged ≥ 18 years from 56 countries. N/A. The presence of psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months was established using 4 questions pertaining to positive symptoms from the psychosis screening module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Sleep problems referred to severe or extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. The overall prevalence of sleep problems was 7.6% and ranged from 1.6% (China) to 18.6% (Morocco). Sleep problems were associated with significantly higher odds for at least one psychotic symptom in the vast majority of countries. In the pooled sample, after adjusting for demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, and chronic medical conditions, having sleep problems resulted in an odds ratio (OR) for at least one psychotic symptom of 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-2.65). This OR was 1.59 (1.40-1.81) when further adjusted for anxiety and depression. A strong association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms was observed globally. These results have clinical implications and serve as a basis for future studies to elucidate the causal association between psychotic symptoms and sleep problems. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Barrault, Servane; Varescon, Isabelle
Background and aims Online gambling appears to have special features, such as anonymity, speed of play and permanent availability, which may contribute to the facilitation and increase in gambling practice, potentially leading to problem gambling. The aims of this study were to assess sociodemographic characteristics, gambling practice and impulsive sensation seeking among a population of regular poker players with different levels of gambling intensity and to compare online and live players. Methods 245 regular poker players (180 online players and 65 live players) completed online self-report scales assessing sociodemographic data, pathological gambling (SOGS), gambling practice (poker questionnaire) and impulsive sensation seeking (ImpSS). We used SOGS scores to rank players according to the intensity of their gambling practice (non-pathological gamblers, problem gamblers and pathological gamblers). Results All poker players displayed a particular sociodemographic profile: they were more likely to be young men, executives or students, mostly single and working full-time. Online players played significantly more often whereas live players reported significantly longer gambling sessions. Sensation seeking was high across all groups, whereas impulsivity significantly distinguished players according to the intensity of gambling. Discussion Our results show the specific profile of poker players. Both impulsivity and sensation seeking seem to be involved in pathological gambling, but playing different roles. Sensation seeking may determine interest in poker whereas impulsivity may be involved in pathological gambling development and maintenance. Conclusions This study opens up new research perspectives and insights into preventive and treatment actions for pathological poker players. PMID:28092187
Caldeira, Kimberly M; Arria, Amelia M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Vincent, Kathryn B; Robertson, Carl; Welsh, Christopher J
While it is well known that substance use and gambling overlap, the degree to which this overlap can be explained by shared risk factors has not been fully explored. This study aimed to identify common and unique risk factors for gambling and substance use among young adults. Young adults (n=1,019) in a longitudinal study since college entry were interviewed annually. Past-year frequency of seven gambling activities was assessed once (Year 5). Structural equation models evaluated suspected risk factors in two models, one for gambling with substance use as an intermediary variable, and one for substance use with gambling as the intermediary variable. Sixty percent gambled; 6% gambled weekly or more. Examination of the two structural models supported the existence of significant paths (a) from two of the five substance use variables (alcohol, drugs) to gambling frequency, and (b) from gambling frequency to all five substance use variables. Every risk factor associated with gambling was also associated with one or more substance use variables. Risk factors common to gambling and substance use were sex, race/ethnicity, extracurricular involvement (fraternity/sorority, athletics), impulsive sensation-seeking, and behavioral dysregulation. Risk factors unique to substance use were conduct problems, anxiety, and parent's history of alcohol and mental health problems. Gambling and substance use are interrelated, but with incomplete overlap in their respective risk factors. Results underscore the need for longitudinal research to elucidate their distinct etiologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jonkman, Jeffrey; Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Worthy, Sheri Lokken
Background and aims The relationship between college student gambling, parenting styles, and family environments is a neglected area of gambling research. Do parenting styles indirectly influence problem gambling behaviors via family environments? Do poor family environments, characterized by high levels of conflict and low levels of cohesion, increase the likelihood of problem gambling among youth? This study explored the interrelationships among college students' current gambling behaviors and a) having an emotionally close and supportive family environment, b) having nagging and critical parents, c) having an authoritative mother, and d) frequency of alcohol consumption. Methods and results Survey data were collected from 450 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory psychology classes at two state universities in a southern state. Feeling that one has nagging and critical parents was associated with gambling in more venues, while the opposite was true for having emotionally close and supportive families. However, perceptions of having authoritative mothers were not related to gambling. The results also showed that more frequent alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of gambling in casinos, playing cards for money, betting on sports, gambling on the Internet, higher gambling losses, and a larger number of gambling venues. Conclusions As with any exploratory research, there are several unique lines of inquiry that can, and should, follow from these findings, including more research on how college students' attitudes toward gambling activities may have begun prior to college and been influenced by their feelings about their homes and parents.
Branche, Brandee L; Howard, Lauren E; Moreira, Daniel M; Roehrborn, Claus; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Andriole, Gerald L; Hopp, Martin L; Freedland, Stephen J
Although lower urinary tract symptoms and sleep problems often develop together, to our knowledge it is unknown whether sleep disturbances are linked to lower urinary tract symptoms development and progression. As measured by the 6-item MOS-Sleep (Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale) survey we examined the relationship between sleep problems, and the development and progression of lower urinary tract symptoms in the REDUCE (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) study. REDUCE was a randomized trial testing prostate cancer chemoprevention with dutasteride in men with prostate specific antigen 2.5 to 10 ng/ml and a negative biopsy. At baseline men completed MOS-Sleep and a scaled average was used to calculate the sleep score. Men were followed for 4 years and I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) was completed at baseline and every 6 months. Asymptomatic men had I-PSS less than 8 while symptomatic men had I-PSS 8 or greater. In the placebo arm of 2,588 men not receiving α-blockers or 5α-reductase inhibitors at baseline we tested the association between sleep problems and lower urinary tract symptom development and progression using Cox models. During followup lower urinary tract symptoms developed in 209 of 1,452 asymptomatic men (14%) and 580 of 1,136 (51%) with lower urinary tract symptoms demonstrated progression. On multivariable analysis higher sleep scores were suggestively associated with increased lower urinary tract symptoms in asymptomatic men (quartile 4 vs 1 HR 1.41, 95% CI 0.92-2.17, p = 0.12) and with lower urinary tract symptom progression in symptomatic men (per 10 points of sleep score HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.12, p = 0.029). Among men with lower urinary tract symptoms worse sleep scores were associated with the progression of lower urinary tract symptoms and among asymptomatic men worse sleep scores were suggestively associated with the development of lower urinary tract symptoms. If confirmed, these data suggest that sleep
Full Text Available Since its introduction in 1977, self-efficacy has proven to be a fundamental predictor of positive adjustment and achievement in many domains. In problem gambling studies, self-efficacy has been defined mainly as an individual's ability to avoid gambling in risky situations. The interest in this construct developed mainly with regard to treatment approaches, where abstinence from gambling is required. Very little is known, however, regarding self-efficacy as a protective factor for problem gambling. This study aims to fill this gap, proposing a new self-efficacy scale which measures not only the ability to restrain oneself from gambling but also the ability to self-regulate one's gambling behavior. Two studies were conducted in which the data from two Italian prevalence surveys on problem gambling were considered. A total of about 6,000 participants were involved. In the first study, the psychometric characteristics of this new self-efficacy scale were investigated through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The results indicated the presence of two different factors: self-efficacy in self-regulating gambling behavior and self-efficacy in avoiding risky gambling behavior. The second study confirmed the replicability of the two-factor solution and displayed high correlations among these two self-efficacy dimensions and different measures of gambling activities as well as other psychological variables related to gambling (gambling beliefs, gambling motivation, risk propensity, and impulsiveness. The results of logistic regression analyses showed the particular importance of self-regulating gaming behavior in explaining problem gambling as measured by Problem Gambling Severity Index and South Oaks Gambling Screen, thus proving the role of self-efficacy as a pivotal protective factor for problem gambling.
Wu, Anise M S; Lau, Joseph T F
This paper provides an overview of gambling issues in China, including historical development, governmental responses and social consequences. Based on materials written in Chinese or English available at academic databases and other online resources, historical, cultural and policy analyses were conducted. The focus is on mainland China, but reference is made to Hong Kong and Macao to illustrate differences. Throughout Chinese history, gambling was strictly prohibited by law. In contrast, small-stakes betting for entertainment instead of monetary gain, defined as 'gaming' in this paper, has been culturally acceptable and tolerated by governments. After banning gambling for three decades, the Chinese government attempts to meet public demand for 'gaming' and to confine gambling to 'gaming' by issuing national lotteries. In response to increased economic wealth, gambling opportunities were allowed to develop, but were restricted to Macao. Social problems such as illegal and youth gambling are, however, emerging. The 'gaming' perception may predispose Chinese individuals to wagering activities and increase the risk of gambling disorder, which has been widely seen as misconduct rather than a mental disorder. Currently, the country has a dearth of gambling research and limited prevention and rehabilitation services, almost none at national level. A distinction between small-stakes 'gaming' and large-stakes 'gambling', which has cultural roots, plays an important role in relevant governmental policies and social responses in mainland China. Gambling disorder prevention and treatment is not yet on the national agenda. The country's knowledge and services gaps on gambling problems need to be filled out. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Romirowsky, Abigail Mintz; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea
Background Maternal psychopathology robustly predicts poor developmental and treatment outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the high heritability of ADHD, few studies have examined associations between paternal ADHD symptoms and child adjustment, and none have also considered degree of paternal involvement in childrearing. Identification of modifiable risk factors for child conduct problems is particularly important in this population given the serious adverse outcomes resulting from this comorbidity. Methods This cross-sectional study examined the extent to which paternal involvement in childrearing moderated the association between paternal ADHD symptoms and child conduct problems among 37 children with ADHD and their biological fathers. Results Neither paternal ADHD symptoms nor involvement was independently associated with child conduct problems. However, the interaction between paternal ADHD symptoms and involvement was significant, such that paternal ADHD symptoms were positively associated with child conduct problems only when fathers were highly involved in childrearing. Conclusions The presence of adult ADHD symptoms may determine whether father involvement in childrearing has a positive or detrimental influence on comorbid child conduct problems. PMID:25250402
Romirowsky, A M; Chronis-Tuscano, A
Maternal psychopathology robustly predicts poor developmental and treatment outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the high heritability of ADHD, few studies have examined associations between paternal ADHD symptoms and child adjustment, and none have also considered degree of paternal involvement in childrearing. Identification of modifiable risk factors for child conduct problems is particularly important in this population given the serious adverse outcomes resulting from this comorbidity. This cross-sectional study examined the extent to which paternal involvement in childrearing moderated the association between paternal ADHD symptoms and child conduct problems among 37 children with ADHD and their biological fathers. Neither paternal ADHD symptoms nor involvement was independently associated with child conduct problems. However, the interaction between paternal ADHD symptoms and involvement was significant, such that paternal ADHD symptoms were positively associated with child conduct problems only when fathers were highly involved in childrearing. The presence of adult ADHD symptoms may determine whether father involvement in childrearing has a positive or detrimental influence on comorbid child conduct problems.
Seyed Mehdi Saberi
Full Text Available Objective: In many jurisdictions, psychiatric problems are intended for commutation. Therefore, a forensic psychiatrist has an important role in detection of malingering. While several studies evaluate diagnostic tests, it is less known what symptoms are more likely to be imitated by malingerers.Method: In a prospective study [t1] 45 [t2] malingerers, who were diagnosed according to interviews by two forensic psychiatrists, from defendants [t3] with a judicial order for evaluation of mental status and criminal responsibility during a period of eighteen months were examined in legal medicine center of Tehran.[t4] [t5] Participants were assessed in another interview to determine symptoms. Dichotomous symptoms in felony and misdemeanor groups were analyzed using fisher’s exact test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. [t6] Results: Thirty-eight malingerers were charged with misdemeanors and seven with felonies. Behavioral symptoms were most frequently faked by 35 participants (77.8%. Participants charged with criminal accusation had a significantly lower mean age (P=0.032 and a higher level of education (P=0.008 than other non-criminal defendants. A statistically significant increase in memory function problems was demonstrated in the misdemeanor group (P=0.040. With regard to dual symptom imitation, statistically significant correlations were observed between thought content and perceptual symptoms (P=0.048 for felonies and mood & affect and thought process symptoms (P=0.034, mood & affect and behavioral symptoms (P=0.000 and cognitive function and behavioral symptoms (P=0.039 for misdemeanors. In general, many simulators attempted to mimic simple symptoms of behavioral disorders. Probably felony offenses need less accurate programming; therefore, their rates are higher in older, less educated participants.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that differences between presenting symptoms among different offenses may not be
Ku, J H; Jeon, Y S; Kim, M E; Lee, N K; Park, Y H
To take a different perspective in assessing young men with chronic prostatitis-like symptoms, this study was designed since few prospective studies are available to survey a population of young men. One hundred and fifty men aged 20 years dwelling in the community were randomly selected. Chronic prostatitis-like symptoms were measured by the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and the selfreported scores for pain and urinary symptoms were used to identify chronic prostatitis-like symptoms. The psychological methods used were the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Bem Sex Role Inventory. A total of 87 men (a response rate 58%) completed self-administered questionnaires. As the scores for pain and urinary symptoms increased, those for depression increased (p masculinity scores were not different according to the scores for pain but those were significantly different according to the scores of urinary symptoms (p = 0.042). The mean femininity scores were not different according to the scores of pain and urinary symptoms. Our findings suggest that psychological factors, especially depression and weak masculine identity may be associated with an early stage of chronic prostatitis-like symptoms. Young men with chronic prostatitis-like symptoms also have psychological problems.
Chamberlain, Samuel R; A Redden, Sarah; Grant, Jon E
Excessive calorie intake constitutes a global public health concern, due to its associated range of untoward outcomes. Gambling is commonplace and gambling disorder is now considered a behavioral addiction in DSM-5. The relationships between calorie intake, gambling, and other types of putatively addictive and impulsive behaviors have received virtually no research attention. Two-hundred twenty-five young adults who gamble were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements. Dietary intake over the preceding year was quantified using the Dietary Fat and Free Sugar Short questionnaire (DFS). Clinician rating scales, questionnaires, and cognitive tests germane to impulsivity were completed. Relationships between dietary fat/sugar intake and gambling behaviors, as well as other measures of psychopathology and cognition germane to addiction, were evaluated using correlational analyses controlling for multiple comparisons. Greater dietary fat and sugar intake were associated with lower educational levels and with male gender. Controlling for these variables, higher dietary fat and sugar intake were correlated significantly with worse gambling pathology and anxiety scores. Dietary sugar intake was also significantly associated with higher depressive scores, more alcohol intake, lower self-esteem, and with greater risk of having one or more mental disorders in general. Dietary intake did not correlate significantly with ADHD symptoms, presence of one or more impulse control disorders, Barratt impulsiveness, or cognitive functioning. These data suggest a particularly strong relationship between fat/sugar intake and symptoms of gambling pathology, but not most other forms of impulsivity and behavioral addiction (excepting alcohol intake). Providing education about healthy diet may be especially valuable in gamblers and in community settings where gambling advertisements feature prominently. Future work should explore
Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Lee, Jaerim; August, Gerald J.
This study examined the relationships among financial stress encountered by families, parents' social support, parental depressive symptoms, parenting practices, and children's externalizing problem behaviors to advance our understanding of the processes by which family financial stress is associated with children's problem behaviors. We also…
Forslund, Tommie; Brocki, Karin; Bohlin, Gunilla; Granqvist, Pehr; Eninger, Lilianne
This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachm...
Fite, Paula J.; Rathert, Jamie L.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani
The current study examined whether social problems accounted for the relation between reactive aggression and withdrawn/depressed symptoms in a sample of 147 children (54.4% male) ranging from 5 to 13 years of age (M = 8.22 years) who attended a community based after-school program. Findings suggested that indeed social problems mediated the link…
Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Bromet, Evelyn J.
Potential risk factors for conduct problems and depressive symptoms were tested in a cohort of 10- to 12-year-old Ukrainian children (N = 544, 47.6% male). Risk factors examined were child emotional lability, child attention problems, poor mother-child communication, coercive maternal discipline, maternal depression, and low marital satisfaction.…
Sévigny, Serge; Ladouceur, Robert; Jacques, Christian; Cantinotti, Michael
Two studies investigated the relationship between casino proximity and gambling participation, expenditure, and pathology. In Study 1, 8,842 participants were categorized into 1 of 4 driving distances from their home to the nearest casino in the province of Quebec: 0-100 km, 100.01-200 km, 200.01-300 km, or 300.01-981 km. In Study 2, 5,158 participants, who lived within a 100-km driving distance from the Montreal casino, were classified into 1 of 5 equidistant, 20-km driving distances. A survey company interviewed participants regarding their gambling habits. Results indicated a positive link between casino proximity and gambling participation (at the provincial and Montreal levels) and expenditure (at the provincial level only) but no link with the current prevalence rate of probable pathological gambling or of problem gambling. In a setting in which many types of gambling activities are available, casino proximity in itself does not appear to explain the rate of gambling-related problems. It is necessary to continue prospective research on exposure and adaptation theories as potential explanations for the development of pathological gambling. 2008 APA
Folino, Jorge Oscar; Abait, Patricia Estela
To review research results on the relationship between pathological gambling and criminality, published in 2007 and 2008, in English and in Spanish. An important association between pathological gambling and criminality was confirmed in populations of anonymous gamblers, helpline callers and substance abusers. Helplines provide a timely service to gamblers who have not reached the maximum stages in the development of a pathological gambling pattern. Pathological gambling is associated with violence in couples and dysfunctional families. Inversely, violence is also an antecedent promoting vulnerability toward pathological gambling. Impulsiveness shows diverse relationships with pathological gambling and violence as well. A pathological gambler's involvement in crime is exceptionally considered without responsibility by justice, but it may be an indicator of the disorder severity and the need for special therapeutic tactics. While reviewing the present study, research work was published that contributed to a better understanding of the association between pathological gambling and criminality and went further into their complex relationship and the formulation of explanatory models related to impulsiveness.
Acuff, Samuel F; Luciano, Matthew T; Soltis, Kathryn E; Joyner, Keanan J; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan; Murphy, James G
Symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) show significant comorbidity with alcohol use, but little is known about the mechanisms that might account for this comorbidity. Deficits in reward functioning have long been implicated in alcohol misuse and more recently in PTS reactions, but no study has examined whether reward deprivation may serve as a transdiagnostic risk factor for comorbid PTS-alcohol misuse. The current cross-sectional study sought to test the behavioral economic hypothesis that reward deprivation would be related to both PTS symptoms and alcohol problems, and would mediate the relation between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems in college students. We recruited a diverse sample of urban college students (N = 203, M age = 21.5 years, SD = 5.5; 79.5% female; 56.8% White, 28.1% Black, .9% Asian, 9.8% Multiracial) who endorsed both alcohol use and PTS symptoms. Reward deprivation (lack of access to, and ability to, experience reward) was related to alcohol problems, and a lack of access to reward was related to PTS symptoms. Furthermore, reward access mediated the relation between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems and craving, after controlling for alcohol use, age, gender, and race. These data provide preliminary support for behavioral economic models of alcohol comorbidity and suggest that treatments for combined PTS and alcohol misuse should attempt to reduce barriers to accessing natural rewards. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Alberghetti, Alessandra; Collins, Patricia A
The proliferation of gambling opportunities in Canada, coupled with an aging population, has led to an increased prevalence of gambling among older adults. Encouraged by this trend, gambling industries have modified their activities to attract and market to this group. Yet, older adults are not a homogeneous group. The life experiences, values, and attitudes shared by generations make a cohort-specific analysis of gambling among older adults a worthwhile pursuit. Drawing from the Dualistic Model of Passion (Vallerand et al. in J Pers Soc Psychol 85(4):756-767, 2003), we discuss the role of passion in shaping gambling behaviours, and the implications of a harmonious or obsessive passion on the benefits and risks to two distinct generations of older adults. Based on their generational attributes, we posit that members of the Silent Generation (those born between 1925 and 1942) stand to gain more from the benefits of recreational gambling, but also stand lose more from problem gambling, than their children's generation, the Baby Boomers (those born between 1942 and 1964). Preventative strategies to assist problem gambling seniors, along with recommendations for further research, are discussed.
Chan, Alan Ka Ki; Zane, Nolan; Wong, Gloria; Song, Anna
Many college students are involved in gambling behavior as a recreational activity. Their involvement could potentially develop into problem gambling, an issue of increasing concern to student health. At the same time, evidence suggests that Asian Americans are overrepresented amongst problem gamblers in this age period. Research on factors related to initiation and development of problem gambling in college students is necessary to inform the development of effective and culturally-sensitive prevention efforts against gambling. The relationships between personal gambling expectancies at two levels of specificity (two general and six specific types of expectancies) and college student gambling at two levels of behavior (initiation and problems) were examined in a sample of 813 Asian American and White American college students. The study aimed to address (a) whether expectancies explained ethnic differences in gambling, (b) ethnic similarities and differences in the pattern of relationships between expectancies and gambling, and (c) whether expectancies that emerged in both ethnic groups have a greater risk or protective effect for one group than another. Results showed that Asian American students reported more problem gambling than White American students, but expectancies did not account for this group difference. Risk and protective factors for initiation were relatively similar between groups, but different patterns of risk emerged for each group for problem gambling. Implications for college primary prevention and harm reduction programs are discussed. PMID:23832755
Chan, Alan Ka Ki; Zane, Nolan; Wong, Gloria M; Song, Anna V
Many college students are involved in gambling behavior as a recreational activity. Their involvement could potentially develop into problem gambling, an issue of increasing concern to student health. At the same time, evidence suggests that Asian Americans are overrepresented amongst problem gamblers in this age period. Research on factors related to initiation and development of problem gambling in college students is necessary to inform the development of effective and culturally-sensitive prevention efforts against gambling. The relationships between personal gambling expectancies at two levels of specificity (two general and six specific types of expectancies) and college student gambling at two levels of behavior (initiation and problems) were examined in a sample of 813 Asian American and White American college students. The study aimed to address (a) whether expectancies explained ethnic differences in gambling, (b) ethnic similarities and differences in the pattern of relationships between expectancies and gambling, and (c) whether expectancies that emerged in both ethnic groups have a greater risk or protective effect for one group than another. Results showed that Asian American students reported more problem gambling than White American students, but expectancies did not account for this group difference. Risk and protective factors for initiation were relatively similar between groups, but different patterns of risk emerged for each group for problem gambling. Implications for college primary prevention and harm reduction programs are discussed.
Lee, Choong-Ki; Chung, Namho; Bernhard, Bo J
The rise in popularity of Internet gambling has led to new gambling controversies among researchers and policymakers alike. Opponents frequently point to the negative impacts of problem gambling, while advocates tend to view this form of gambling as relatively harmless and convenient entertainment for the vast majority of participants. Interestingly, in making their points, both sides cite empirical arguments about passion for the gambling act-with opponents arguing that Internet gambling enables unhealthy obsessions, and advocates pointing to the apparent intensive interest of large numbers of Internet players. As it turns out, both sides may have a point. In this paper, we examine whether types of passion were related to types of motivation and consequences. The data were collected through a sample from an online gambling website in South Korea. We rely upon Rousseau et al.'s (J Gambl Stud 18(1):45-66, 2002) seminal work on positive and negative aspects of passion, and in the process we develop a framework for understanding positive and negative consequences of this form of gambling. The results reveal that intrinsic gambling motivations (e.g., gambling for excitement) is related to harmonious passion, which in turn results in positive consequences. Meanwhile, extrinsic gambling motivations (e.g., money) is related to obsessive passion, which in turn results in negative consequences.
Poole, Julia C; Kim, Hyoun S; Dobson, Keith S; Hodgins, David C
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as sexual and physical abuse, have been established as risk factors for the development of disordered gambling. The underlying mechanism by which ACEs influence disordered gambling, however, remains unknown. The aims of the present research were to comprehensively investigate ten types of childhood adversity and their relationships to disordered gambling in adulthood, and to test whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between ACEs and disordered gambling. A sample of community gamblers (N = 414) completed self-report measures of ACEs, emotion dysregulation, and gambling severity. Results revealed a significant association between all but one type (physical abuse) of ACEs and disordered gambling. Further, the results highlighted the cumulative impact of ACEs on gambling. Specifically, individuals who experienced three or more types of ACEs were more than three times as likely to report disordered gambling as compared to individuals with no history of childhood adversity. Importantly, as hypothesized, emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between ACEs and disordered gambling. Findings from this research describe the association between ACEs and gambling and indicate a causal link between childhood adversity and disordered gambling. Results suggest that treatment initiatives may do well to address both ACEs and emotion dysregulation in the treatment of problem gambling.
Full Text Available During the rapid development of gambling business, the number of pathological gamblers is increasing as well. The problem of pathological gambling is just as important as alcoholism or drug addiction. However, there is a lack of information and research of this topicin Lithuania. The aim of work: to investigate and analyse the factors that increase or reduce involvement in gambling. Research questions: 1 What factors increase involvement in gambling? 2 What factors reduce involvement in gambling? Critical case sampling was used for selection of the participants. Subjects were required to a have experience of involvement in gambling for at least one year; b have experience of negative impact of gambling on quality of life; c have at least 6 months of gambling abstinence. Five individuals participated in the research; all of them were males who live in Vilnius. Age of the participants varied from 19 to 45. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The matic analysis of the data led to the identification of four major the matic categories: psychological factors; social relations; material well being; quality of life. There search results show that negatyve childhood experience, gambling friends, escaping from various troubles, disputes in family and high financial needs can increase involvement in gambling. Factors that reduce involvement in gambling are: feeling support of social environment, proper evaluation of financial position, awareness of one‘s own addiction to gambling and desire to change life.
Homman, Lina E; Edwards, Alexis C; Cho, Seung Bin; Dick, Danielle M; Kendler, Kenneth S
Alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms are consistently found to be associated but how they relate to each other is unclear. The present study aimed to address limitations in the literature of comorbidity of alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms by investigating the direction of effect between the phenotypes and possible gender differences in college students. We utilized data from a large longitudinal study of college students from the United States (N = 2607). Three waves of questionnaire-based data were collected over the first two years of college (in 2011-2013). Cross-lagged models were applied to examine the possible direction of effect of internalizing symptoms and alcohol problems. Possible effects of gender were investigated using multigroup modeling. There were significant correlations between alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms. A direction of effect was found between alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms but differed between genders. A unidirectional relationship varying with age was identified for males where alcohol problems initially predicted internalizing symptoms followed by internalizing symptoms predicting alcohol problems. For females, a unidirectional relationship existed wherein alcohol problems predicted internalizing symptoms. Conclusions/Importance: We conclude that the relationship between alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms is complex and differ between genders. In males, both phenotypes are predictive of each other, while in females the relationship is driven by alcohol problems. Importantly, our study examines a population-based sample, revealing that the observed relationships between alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms are not limited to individuals with clinically diagnosed mental health or substance use problems.
Peterson, Robin L.; Kirkwood, Michael W.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Brown, Tanya M.; Wade, Shari L.
Background A small body of previous research has demonstrated that pediatric traumatic brain injury increases risk for internalizing problems, but findings have varied regarding their predictors and correlates. Methods We examined the level and correlates of internalizing symptoms in 130 teens who had sustained a complicated mild to severe TBI within the past 1 to 6 months. Internalizing problems were measured via both maternal and paternal report Child Behavior Checklist. We also measured family functioning, parent psychiatric symptoms, and post-injury teen neurocognitive function. Results Mean parental ratings of internalizing problems were within the normal range. Depending on informant, 22–26% of the sample demonstrated clinically elevated internalizing problems. In multiple and binary logistic regression models, only parent psychiatric symptoms consistently provided unique prediction of teen internalizing symptoms. For maternal but not paternal report, female gender was associated with greater internalizing problems. Conclusion Parent and teen emotional problems are associated following adolescent TBI. Possible reasons for this relationship, including the effects of TBI on the family unit, are discussed. PMID:22935574
Yoon, Susan; Steigerwald, Stacey; Holmes, Megan R; Perzynski, Adam T
In this study we investigated whether witnessing violence and violence victimization were associated with children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in these relationships. Secondary data analysis was conducted using 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Path analyses were conducted to test direct and indirect effects of violence exposure on behavior problems, using 2,064 children (ages 8-15 years) reported to Child Protective Services for maltreatment. Being a victim of violence in the home was directly associated with more internalizing (β = .06, p = .007) and externalizing behavior problems (β = .07, p = .002), whereas witnessing violence was not directly related to either internalizing (β = .04, p = .056) or externalizing behavior problems (β = .03, p = .130). PTS symptoms mediated the effects of witnessing violence and violence victimization on internalizing behavior problems (β = .02, p = .002). Our findings suggest that PTS symptoms may be a mechanism underlying the association between violence exposure and internalizing behavior problems (R(2) = .23), underscoring the potential importance of assessing PTS symptoms and providing targeted trauma-focused interventions for children exposed to violence at home. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah
This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline at age 13 predicted an increase in adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms between ages 13 and 14. A child effect was also present, with adolescent misconduct at age 13 predicting increases in mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline between ages 13 and 14. Furthermore, maternal and paternal warmth did not moderate the longitudinal associations between mothers' and fathers' use of harsh verbal discipline and adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. PMID:24001259
Shaffer, Howard J; Martin, Ryan
Gambling-related research has advanced rapidly during the past 20 years. As a result of expanding interest in pathological gambling (PG), stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, regulators, and policy makers) have a better understanding of excessive gambling, including its etiology (e.g., neurobiological/neurogenetic, psychological, and sociological factors) and trajectory (e.g., initiation, course, and adaptation to gambling exposure). In this article, we examine these advances in PG-related research and then consider some of the clinical implications of these advances. We consider criteria changes for PG recently proposed by the DSM-V Impulse Control Work Group for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V). We also review how clinicians can more accurately and efficiently diagnose clients seeking help for gambling-related problems by utilizing brief screens. Finally, we consider the importance of future research that can identify behavioral markers for PG. We suggest that identifying these markers will allow clinicians to make earlier diagnoses, recommend targeted treatments, and advance secondary prevention efforts. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Gamble II produces a high-voltage (2 MV), high-current (1 MA), short (100 ns) pulse of energy of either positive or negative polarity. This terawatt power...
Sundqvist, Kristina; Wennberg, Peter
The association between personality and gambling has been explored previously. However, few studies are based on representative populations. This study aimed at examining the association between risk gambling and personality in a representative Swedish population. A random Swedish sample (N = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (N = 257) consisted of those screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and personality (measured with the NODS-PERC and the HP5i respectively). Risk gambling was positively correlated with Negative Affectivity (a facet of Neuroticism) and Impulsivity (an inversely related facet of Conscientiousness), but all associations were weak. When taking age and gender into account, there were no differences in personality across game preference groups, though preferred game correlated with level of risk gambling. Risk gamblers scored lower than the population norm data with respect to Negative Affectivity, but risk gambling men scored higher on Impulsivity. The association between risk gambling and personality found in previous studies was corroborated in this study using a representative sample. We conclude that risk and problem gamblers should not be treated as a homogeneous group, and prevention and treatment interventions should be adapted according to differences in personality, preferred type of game and the risk potential of the games.
Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Jermann, Françoise; Osiek, Christian; Bondolfi, Guido; Zullino, Daniele
The present study aims to evaluate the quality of web-based information on gambling and to investigate potential content quality indicators. The following key words: gambling, pathological gambling, excessive gambling, gambling problem and gambling addiction were entered into two popular search engines: Google and Yahoo. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed to rate sites on the basis of "accountability", "presentation", "interactivity", "readability" and "content quality". "Health on the Net" (HON) quality label, and DISCERN scale scores aiding people without content expertise to assess quality of written health publication were used to verify their efficiency as quality indicators. Of the 200 links identified, 75 websites were included. The results of the study indicate low scores on each of the measures. A composite global score appeared as a good content quality indicator. While gambling-related education websites for patients are common, their global quality is poor. There is a need for useful evidence-based information about gambling on the web. As the phenomenon has greatly increased, it could be relevant for Internet sites to improve their content by using global score as a quality indicator.
Clemens, Franziska; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Morgenstern, Matthis
A cross-sectional survey of 4617 adolescents and young adults from 38 schools in two German states was conducted in 2014 to assess the association between gambling advertisements and gambling behavior. Exposure to ten gambling advertisements was measured with masked ad images; students indicated contact frequency and brand recall. Main outcomes were several gambling behaviors including probable pathological gambling assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS ≥ 5). A total of 65.4 % of the students reported gambling at least once in their life; 42.2 % gambled in the last 12 months; 6.9 % gambled in the last week, and 2.8 % reported probable pathological gambling. The average frequency that one of the selected ads had been seen at least once was 29.5 %, the average brand recall rate was 9.4 %. After adjustment for confounding, multilevel mixed-effects logistic regressions revealed that high gambling ad exposure was positively related to all assessed gambling outcomes, with the strongest association for weekly gambling. Future studies need to clarify the temporal sequence and specificity of these associations.
Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang
There is a general view that electronic gaming is the most 'addictive' form of gambling, in that it contributes more to causing problem gambling than any other gambling activity. As such, electronic gaming machines have been referred to as the 'crack-cocaine' of gambling. While this analogy has popular appeal, it is only recently that the scientific community has begun to investigate its validity. In line with the belief that electronic gambling has a higher 'addictive' potential than other forms of gambling, research has also begun to focus on identifying the characteristics of gaming machines that may be associated with problem gambling behaviour. This paper will review the different types of modern electronic gaming machines, and will use the introduction of gaming machines to Australia to examine the association between electronic gaming and problem gambling, with particular reference to the characteristics of modern electronic gaming machines. Despite overwhelming acceptance that gaming machines are associated with the highest level of problem gambling, the empirical literature provides inconclusive evidence to support the analogy linking electronic gaming to 'crack-cocaine'. Rigorous and systematic evaluation is required to establish definitively the absolute 'addictive' potential of gaming machines and the degree to which machine characteristics influence the development and maintenance of problem gambling behaviour.
Jonathan Guryan; Melissa S. Kearney
We present an empirical test for the addictiveness of lottery gambling. To distinguish state dependence from serial correlation, we exploit an exogenous shock to local market consumption of lottery gambling. We use the sale of a winning ticket in the zip code, the location of which is random conditional on sales, as an instrument for present consumption and test for a causal relationship between present and future consumption. This test of addiction is based on the definition of addiction com...
Smith, Mara; Hategan, Ana; Bourgeois, James A
To the Editor: The gaming industry is growing rapidly, as is the proportion of older adults aged 65 years or older who participate in gambling (Tse et al., 2012). With casinos tailoring their venues and providing incentives to attract older adults, and with the increasing popularity of "pleasure trips" to casinos organized by retirement homes, plus active promotion of government-operated lotteries in many countries, this trend is likely to continue. Gambling disorder (GD) or "pathological" or "problem" gambling presents a public health concern in the geriatric population. However, ascertainment of its prevalence and diagnostic accuracy have proven challenging. This is largely due to the absence of diagnostic criteria specific to the geriatric age and rating scales validated for use in this population.
Rakow, Aaron; Forehand, Rex; Haker, Kelly; McKee, Laura G.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Potts, Jennifer; Hardcastle, Emily; Roberts, Lorinda; Compas, Bruce E.
This study builds on prior research by Rakow et al. (2009) by examining the role of parental guilt induction in the association between parent depressive symptoms and child internalizing problems in a sample of parents with a history of major depressive disorder. One hundred and two families with 129 children (66 males; Mage = 11.42 years) were studied. The association of parental depressive symptoms with child internalizing problems was accounted for by parental guilt induction, which was assessed by behavioral observations and child report. Implications of the findings for parenting programs are discussed and future research directions are considered. PMID:21355654
Tsai, Fang-Ju; Liu, Shu-Tsen; Lee, Chi-Mei; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Lin, Wei-Sheng; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Little is known about whether Asian children with epilepsy have more attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, emotional/ behavioral problems, and physical conditions compared with those described in Western studies. The authors investigated the rates of ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions among pediatric patients with epilepsy. We recruited 61 patients with epilepsy, aged 6-16 years, and 122 age-, sex-, and parental education-matched school controls. Data on demographics, parental reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV), and medical records were collected. The average full-scale intelligence quotient of the case group was 95.8. There were 11 (18.0%), 7 (11.5%), 26 (42.6%), and 26 (42.6%) of children with epilepsy ever clinically diagnosed with developmental delay, overt ADHD symptoms, allergies reported by physicians, and behavior problems measured by the CBCL, respectively. Those children with epilepsy had more severe ADHD-related symptoms and a wider range of emotional/behavioral problems than controls (Cohen's d 0.36-0.80). The rate of potential cases of ADHD among children with epilepsy was 24.6%. A history of developmental delay predicted ADHD- related symptoms and internalizing and externalizing problems. Among children with epilepsy, a longer duration of treatment with antiepileptic drugs predicted externalizing problems, and an earlier onset of epilepsy predicted inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our findings imply that clinicians should assess physical and emotional/behavioral problems among children with epilepsy in order to provide interventions to offset possible adverse psychiatric outcomes. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Broda, Anja; LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; LaBrie, Richard A; Bosworth, Leslie B; Shaffer, Howard J
In an attempt to reduce harm related to gambling problems, an Internet sports betting service provider, bwin Interactive Entertainment, AG (bwin), imposes limits on the amount of money that users can deposit into their online gambling accounts. We examined the effects of these limits on gambling behavior. We compared (1) gambling behavior of those who exceeded deposit limits with those who did not, and (2) gambling behavior before and after exceeding deposit limits. We analyzed 2 years of the actual sports gambling behavior records of 47000 subscribers to bwin. Only 160 (0.3%) exceeded deposit limits at least once. Gamblers who exceeded deposit limits evidenced higher average number of bets per active betting day and higher average size of bets than gamblers who did not exceed deposit limits. Comparing the gambling behavior before and after exceeding deposit limits revealed slightly more unfavorable gambling behavior after exceeding deposit limits. Our findings indicate that Internet gamblers who exceed deposit limits constitute a group of bettors willing to take high risks; yet, surprisingly, they appear to do this rather successfully because their percentage of losses is lower than others in the sample. However, some of these gamblers exhibit some poor outcomes. Deposit limits might be necessary harm reduction measures to prevent the loss of extremely large amounts of money and cases of bankruptcy. We discuss how these limits might be modified based on our findings.
Nelson Sarah E
Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to reduce harm related to gambling problems, an Internet sports betting service provider, bwin Interactive Entertainment, AG (bwin, imposes limits on the amount of money that users can deposit into their online gambling accounts. We examined the effects of these limits on gambling behavior. Methods We compared (1 gambling behavior of those who exceeded deposit limits with those who did not, and (2 gambling behavior before and after exceeding deposit limits. We analyzed 2 years of the actual sports gambling behavior records of 47000 subscribers to bwin. Results Only 160 (0.3% exceeded deposit limits at least once. Gamblers who exceeded deposit limits evidenced higher average number of bets per active betting day and higher average size of bets than gamblers who did not exceed deposit limits. Comparing the gambling behavior before and after exceeding deposit limits revealed slightly more unfavorable gambling behavior after exceeding deposit limits. Conclusion Our findings indicate that Internet gamblers who exceed deposit limits constitute a group of bettors willing to take high risks; yet, surprisingly, they appear to do this rather successfully because their percentage of losses is lower than others in the sample. However, some of these gamblers exhibit some poor outcomes. Deposit limits might be necessary harm reduction measures to prevent the loss of extremely large amounts of money and cases of bankruptcy. We discuss how these limits might be modified based on our findings.
Kolandai-Matchett, Komathi; Langham, Erika; Bellringer, Maria; Siitia, Pesio Ah-Honi
Pacific people in New Zealand are a minority ethnic population identified in national prevalence studies as having the highest risk of developing gambling problems. As earlier studies identified some links between culture and gambling for this population, our study aimed to deepen understanding of these links and their role in explaining the disproportionate gambling harms experienced by Pacific people. To achieve this aim we employed intersectionality as a theoretical framework to explore the culture-gambling intersection for this population group. We analysed data from a subset of focus groups conducted for a broad study of gambling harms in New Zealand. The subset was selected based on the presence of individuals knowledgeable about Pacific people's gambling behaviours, including staff from Pacific problem gambling treatment services who provided examples from a cultural perspective. We identified themes at a latent level via an interpretive process to identify underlying cultural contexts of gambling harms. Findings indicated that whilst harms experienced by Pacific people were similar to those identified amongst the general population, the cultural contexts in which some harms manifested were complex. This paper contributes to the existing knowledge base about gambling harms for Pacific people in relation to six culture-gambling intersecting themes that emerged from the data: collectivism, gift-giving, gambling-based fundraising, patriarchy, beliefs about blessings, and sports celebrities. Findings are discussed in relation to the current knowledge of gambling and conceptualisations of gambling harm within Pacific communities. Implications for culturally appropriate harm minimisation strategies and prevention interventions for this population are suggested.
Benson, Luke A.; Norman, Christine; Griffiths, Mark D.
Students are among the most prevalent gamblers with the highest incidence of problem gambling. Furthermore, research into gambling has noted certain personality traits and coping mechanisms to be highly predictive of gambling in student populations. The present study examined the role of impulsivity, sensation seeking, coping strategies, and year…
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Blaszczynski, Alex
Professional gamblers are more likely than amateur gamblers to meet criteria for problem gambling but minimal research has examined their gambling behavior and its c