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Sample records for galliya titana khroma

  1. Determination of P, Cu, Cr, Va and Ti in samples of welded joint No.4 of Kozloduy-1 reactor pressure vessel; Opredelenie soderzhanya fosfora, medi, nikelya, khroma, vanadya i titana v struzhkakh 4 shva 1 bloka AEhS `Kozloduy`

    Taskaev, E [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria); Penev, I; Taskaeva, M [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika; Aleksieva, L [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria); Tsokov, P [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    An analysis of reactor steel composition has been carried out in 1989 in order to determine metal embrittlement. The samples consist of shavings taken at 3-4 mm depth from the 4-th welded joint of Unit 1 of the Kozloduy NPP. The shavings have been gradually dissolved in a mixture of acids and the solution evaporated. Quantitative analysis has been carried out by spectrophotometry and by ICP emission spectroscopy. The following element concentrations have been found: P - from 0.0462 to 0.052% by weight; Ni - 0.25 - 0.26% (passport data 0.29%); Cr - 1.47 - 1.54 (passport 1.58%); V - 0.1% (passport 0.15%); Cu - 0.11-0.13% (passport 0.12); Ti - 0.002. The data have been used to calculate metal embrittlement. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  2. Distribution, densities, and ecology of Siberian cranes in the Khroma River region of northern Yakutia in northeastern Russia

    Bysykatova, Inga P.; Krapu, Gary L.; Germogenov, Nicolai I.; Buhl, Deborah A.; Aborn, David

    2014-01-01

    The Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus) is the third rarest crane species in the world with a breeding range now centered on 3 core areas and a buffer zone in the arctic of northern Yakutia in northeastern Russia. During 16 July-2 August 2009, we undertook ground surveys within the Khroma River core breeding area, surrounding buffer zone, and lands lying to the west of the known rbeeding range to estimate densities and determine habitat use and social status of Siberian cranes. A total of 142 Siberian cranes were sighted (including 55 pairs) at 54 locations with 32 cranes (including 13 pairs) sighted outside the currently known breeding range in the lower drainages of the Syalakh and Syuryuktyakh Rivers. After adjusting for a probability of detection of 0.484 (95% CI = 0.281-0.833), Siberian crane densities in the Khroma core area and the buffer zone averaged 0.0921 cranes/km2 and 0.0363 cranes/km2, respectively. A majority of cranes (n = 93 [65%]) occurred in complexes of large basin wetlands, with use centered in those having extensive beds of pendant grass (Arctophila fulva). Of the 142 cranes seen, 110 (77%) were paired, 21 (15%) were singles, and 11 (8%) were in groups of 3-5. The Khroma core supports 1 of 2 large concentrations of breeding Siberian cranes remaining in the wild; therefore, we recommend that consideration be given to designating a nature reserve that would encompass the Khroma core, adjacent buffer zone, and lands to the west (including coastal tundra areas along the lower drainages of the Syalah and Syuryuktyah Rivers). Further research is needed to gain additional insight into Siberian crane distribution and numbers on lands beyond the currently delineated western boundary of the Siberian crane breeding range in the Ust-Yana District of northern Yakutia. Important gaps remain in information needed to effectively guide conservation efforts for the Eastern Population, and recent advances in remote tracking technology offer potential

  3. Changes of vitamin C content in celery and parsley herb after processing

    Magdaléna Valšíková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans and other primates have lost the ability to synthesize vitamin C and therefore the only source is diet. Vitamin C or ascorbic acid has labile nature, it is removed or destroyed in specific degree immediately after harvest, but storage and post - harvest processing also contribute to its degradation. The aim of work was to determine the vitamin C content in the herb of selected celery and parsley varieties in dependence on chosen postharvest processing and to compare it with fresh herb. There were chosen five bulb forms varieties of celery (Apium graveolens - Makara, Ilonaa, Hegy Köi, Talar and Diamant. In case of parsley (Petroselinum crispum there were evaluated one variety of curly parsley, one variety of herb parsley - Petra, and five varieties of root parsley - Lenka, Eagle, Ginate D´Italia, Titana and Arat. Every variety was harvested in three terms, followed by vitamin C content estimation in fresh herb, after drying and after freezing. The content of vitamin C was estimated by HPLC method by the help of liquid chromatograph with UV detector. There was found the significant difference in content of vitamin C in parsley as well as in celery when comparing the fresh herb with herbs after post - harvest processes - drying (by air circulation in laboratory hall and freezing. After processing of herbs in both observed species the vitamin C content decreased, in case of freezing it was about 65% (celery and 61% (parsley, after drying about 86% (celery and 82% (parsley in comparison with fresh herb. The effect of processing played more important role in influencing of vitamin C content than variety in case of both selected species. For using of celery and parsley not only as culinary herb, but as a notable source of ascorbic acid it is the most important fresh herb intake.  Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  4. Radio-tracer techniques in the study of corrosion by molten fluorides; Etude, a l'aide d'indicateurs radioactifs, de la corrosion provoquee par les fluorures fondus; Primenenie metodov radioaktivnykh indikatorov nrn izuchenii korrozii, prichinyaemoj rasplavlennymi ftoristymi soedineniyami; Estudio con indicadores radiactivos de la corrosion ocasionada por fluoruros fundidos

    Grimes, W R; Watson, G M; DeVan, J H; Evans, R B [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-03-15

    segundo se utilizo para hacer circular una mezcla fundida quo contenia FeF{sub 2} y medir la eliminacion del cromo de la aleacion. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan satisfactoriamente con los que se calculan con ayuda de los coeficientes de difusion determinados experimentalmente; esta concordancia indica que el coeficiente de autodifusion del Cr no es afectado por las variaciones de la concentracion de cromo en la aleacion Inor-8. (author) [Russian] Kogda ''inkonel'' ili ''inor-8'' podvergayutsya dejstviyu rasplavlennykh ftoristykh smesej, soderzhashchikh vosstanavlivayushchie veshchestva, khrom izbiratel'no okislyaetsya i udalyaetsya iz splava. S pomoshch'yu radioaktivnogo indikatora Cr{sup 51} byli ustanovleny koehffitsienty samodiffuzii khroma v ''inkonsle'' i ''inore-8'', a takzhe byla izuchena primenimost' znachenij ehtikh koehffitsientov k splavam v korrozijnykh usloviyakh. Summarnye koehffitsienty byli polucheny putem sleduyushchikh zamerov: 1) obedneniya v Cr{sup 51} (zagruzhennogo v vide CrF{sub 2}) nekorrozijnykh ftoristykh rasplavov v legirovannykh kapsulakh i 2) sootnosheniya mezhdu izmerimoj obshchej radioaktivnost'yu obrabotannykh sol'yu obraztsov splava i radioaktivnost'yu soli, dejstviyu kotoroj obraztsy byli podvergnuty. Pomimo ehtogo, koehffitsienty byli polucheny putem zamera grafika kontsentratsii indikatora pri posledovatel'noj ehlektropolirovke obraztsov. Summarnye koehffitsienty, a takzhe koehffitsienty, poluchennye opytami ehlektropolirovki, ochen' blizko sovpadayut dlya ''inkonelya'' pri vysokikh temperaturakh i dlya ''inora-8'' pri vsekh temperaturakh. Dlya temperatur nizhe 750{sup o} C koehffitsienty, poluchetshe pri pomoshchi ehlektropolirovki obraztsov ''sinkonelya'' prevyshayut znacheniya summarnykh koehffitsientov; v ehtom sluchae protsess diffuzii v masse ne odnoobrazen. Vo vsekh sluchayakh nablyudalos' khoroshee sovladenie mezhdu summarnymi koehffitsientami diffuzii i koehffitsientami, poluchennymi putem ehkstrapolyatsii dannykh

  5. Low temperature grown ZnO@TiO{sub 2} core shell nanorod arrays for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Goh, Gregory Kia Liang [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology, and Research), 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore); Le, Hong Quang, E-mail: lehq@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology, and Research), 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore); Huang, Tang Jiao; Hui, Benjamin Tan Tiong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering (DMSE), Faculty of Engineering National University of Singapore (NUS) BLK E3A, #04-10, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117574 (Singapore)

    2014-06-01

    High aspect ratio ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide glasses via a low temperature solution method. By adjusting the growth condition and adding polyethylenimine, ZnO nanorod arrays with tunable length were successfully achieved. The ZnO@TiO{sub 2} core shells structures were realized by a fast growth method of immersion into a (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}·TiF{sub 6} solution. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray measurements all confirmed the existence of a titania shell uniformly covering the ZnO nanorod's surface. Results of solar cell testing showed that addition of a TiO{sub 2} shell to the ZnO nanorod significantly increased short circuit current (from 4.2 to 5.2 mA/cm{sup 2}), open circuit voltage (from 0.6 V to 0.8 V) and fill factor (from 42.8% to 73.02%). The overall cell efficiency jumped from 1.1% for bare ZnO nanorod to 3.03% for a ZnO@TiO{sub 2} core shell structured solar cell with a 18–22 nm shell thickness, a nearly threefold increase. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis process of coating TiO{sub 2} shell onto ZnO nanorod core is shown schematically. A thin, uniform, and conformal shell had been grown on the surface of the ZnO core after immersing in the (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}·TiF{sub 6} solution for 5–15 min. - Highlights: • ZnO@TiO{sub 2} core shell nanorod has been grown on FTO substrate using low temperature solution method. • TEM, XRD, EDX results confirmed the existing of titana shell, uniformly covered rod's surface. • TiO{sub 2} shell suppressed recombination, demonstrated significant enhancement in cell's efficiency. • Core shell DSSC's efficiency achieved as high as 3.03%, 3 times higher than that of ZnO nanorods.

  6. Diffusion, recrystallization and phase transformations; Diffusion, recristallisation et changements de phase; Diffuziya, rekristallizatsiya i fazovye prevrashcheniya; Difusion, recristalizacion y cambios de fase

    Bokshtejn, S Z; Gubareva, M A; Kishkin, S T; Moroz, L M

    1962-01-15

    rekristallizatsii, a takzhe posle polimorfnogo {alpha} {r_reversible} {gamma} prevrascheniya, atomy granits iskhodnykh zeren ne smeshchayutsya na znachitel'nye rasstoyaniya. Analogichno, atomy primesi (radioaktivnyj uglerod), raspolozhennye na granitsakh iskhodnogo zerna, ne perekhodyat na granitsy novykh zeren rekristallizovannogo metalla. V otlichie ot ehtogo plasticheskaya deformatsiya soprovozhdaetsya znachitel'nym peremeshcheniem atomov, raspolozhennykh na granitse zerna. Poluchennye dannye pokazyvayut, chto peremeshchenie granits zeren pri rekristallizatsii i pri posleduyushchem roste zeren svyazano s nekotorym spetsificheskim mekhanizmom, otlichnym ot obychnogo diffuzionnogo. Pokazano, chto strukturnye izmeneniya, protekayushchie v splavakh pri vysokikh temperaturakh, mogut izmenyat' skorost' protsessov samodiffuzii i geterodiffuzii. V rezul'tate issledovaniya diffuzionnykh protsessov v titane i ego splavakh v zavisimosti ot polimorfnogo sostoyaniya ustanovleno, chto skorost' protsessa v razlichnykh kristallicheskikh modifikatsiyakh titana sil'no otlichaetsya. EHtim snimaetsya sushchestvovavshee protivorechie mezhdu vysokoj temperaturoj plavleniya titana i otnositel'no nizkoj ehnergiej aktivatsii protsessa diffuzii v titane. (author)

  7. The Separation of Hydrogen Tritium and Tritium Hydride by Gas Chromatography; Separation de l'hydrogene, du tritium et de l'hydrure de tritium par chromatographic en phase gazeuse; Razdelenie vodoroda, tritiya i gidrida tritiya posredstvom gazovoj khromatografii; Separacion del hidrogeno, tritio e hidruro de tritio por cromatografia de gases

    Smith, H A; Carter, Jr, E H [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1962-01-15

    gas portador, la columna de silice permitio obtener una separacion satisfactoria, pero no fue posible eluir los isotopos con ayuda de helio. Las columnas de oxido de aluminio recubierto de oxido de cromo o de oxido ferrico, parcialmente desactivado, dieron buenos resultados cuando se empleo helio o neon como gas portador, pero la mejor separacion se obtuvo mediante alumina activada sin recubrimiento. Para determinar cuantitativamente el tritio y el hidruro de tritio, es preciso calibrar el dispositivo con mezclas de helio y tritio de actividad conocida y, ademas, con mezclas de hidrogeno y tritio en equilibrio, de actividad tambien conocida. (author) [Russian] V nastoyashchee vremya, kogda uzhe dostignuty znachitel'nye uspekhi v razdelenii vodoroda, dejteriya i vodorodnogo dejterida pri pomoshchi gazovoj khromatografii, provoditsya analogichnoe izuchenie smesi vodoroda, tritiya i gidrida tritiya. Poskol'ku tritij primenyaetsya v kachestve indikatora v nichtozhno malykh kolichestvakh, ispol'zovanie obychnogo katatermometra dlya ego obnaruzheniya ne predstavlyaetsya vozmozhnym. Vykhod iz ehtogo zatrudneniya byl najden pri pomoshchi togo, chto neposredstvenno za katatermometrom ustanavlivaets ya vibratsionnyj ehlektrometr, snabzhennyj otvodom utechki vysokogo soprotivleniya, chto pozvolyaet nepreryvno sledit' pri pomoshchi sinkhronizovannykh zapisyvayushchikh mekhanizmov za aktivnost'yu tritiya i gidrida tritiya pri vykhode ikh khz kolonny. Razdelenie takikh smesej proveryalos' na kolonnakh, zapolnennykh palladiem na kremnezeme, kremnezemom, glinozemom i glinozemom, pokrytym okis'yu khroma ili okis'yu zheleza. Na kolonne, zapolnennoj palladiem na kremnezeme, ne bylo dostignuto ehffektivnogo razdeleniya. KHoroshee razdelenie bylo dostignuto na prostoj kremnezemnoj kolonne, kogda vodorod ispol'zovals ya v kachestve gaza-nositelya, no gelij ne smog ehlyuirovat' izotopy. Udovletvoritel'nye rezul'taty byli polucheny na kolonne, zapolnennoj pokrytym i chastichno

  8. The Use of Ionizing Radiation in the Vulcanization of Silicon Rubber; Utilisation des radiations ionisantes pour la vulcanisation du caoutchouc au silicone; Ispol'zovanie ioniziruyushchikh izluchenij dlya vulkanizatsii silikonovogo kauchuka; Empleo de las radiaciones ionizantes en la vulcanizacion del caucho de siliconas

    Kuzminsky, A S; Nikitina, T S; Oksentevich, L A [Rubber Research Institute, Moscow, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1960-07-15

    temperaturas (150{sup o}, 200{sup o} y 250{sup o}). La irradiacion permite disminuir la temperatura de vulcanizacion y prescindir de un almacenamiento prolongado a temperatura regulada, que de otro modo es necesario despues de la vulcanizacion. El negro de humo puede utilizarse como material de carga para el caucho vulcanizado con arreglo al nuevo metodo. Los autores llegan a la conclusion de que el empleo de las radiaciones ionizantes se traduce en una simplificacion de la tecnologia de la vulcanizacion del caucho de siliconas y en un mejoramiento de las propiedades de los productos obtenidos. (author) [Russian] Osnovnaya tsel' raboty - podrobnoe izuchenie svojstv materialov, poluchaemykh v rezul'tate oblucheniya smesej polidimetil-siloksanovogo kauchuka s razlichnymi napolnitelyami (spetsial'naya kremnekislota, dvuokis' titana, kanal'naya, pechnaya i lampovaya sazha). Obluchenie provodilos' na moshchnoj rentgenovskoj ustanovke i na istochnike {gamma}-izlucheniya So{sup 60} aktivnost'yu 20 000 g-ehkv. radiya. Otsenena otnositel'naya skorost' obrazovaniya prostranstvennoj setki vulkanizatov (po velichine ravnovesnogo modulya i maksimal'noj stepeni nabukhaniya v benzole). Rassmotreno izmenenie soprotivleniya razryvu i otnositel'nogo udlineniya v protsesse oblucheniya. Vybrany optimal'nye rezhimy vulkanizatsii i opredeleny osnovnye fiziko-mekhanicheskie pokazateli vulkanizatov. Issledovano izmenenie svojstv radiatsionnykh vulkanizatov v protsesse teplovogo stareniya pri razlichnykh temperaturakh (150, 200 i 250{sup o}). Radiatsionnaya vulkanizatsiya isklyuchaet neobkhodimost ' provedeniya protsessa pri vysokikh temperaturakh i dlitel'noe termostatirovanie posle vulkanizatsii . Novyj sposob vulkanizatsii pozvolyaet primenyat' v kachestve napolnitelej uglerodnye sazhi. Ispol'zovanie ioniziruyushchikh izluchenij pozvolyaet uprostit' tekhnologiyu vulkanizatsii silikonovogo kauchuka i uluchshit' svojstva vulkanizatov. (author)

  9. Radioisotopes in the physical chemistry of corrosion processes and their inhibition; Les radioisotopes dans la chimie physique des processus de corrosion et de leur inhibition; Primenenie radioizotopov v fizicheskoj khimii protsessov korrozii i ikh tormozheniya; Los radioisotopos en la quimica fisica de los procesos de corrosion y de inhibicion

    Cartledge, G H [Chemistry Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-03-15

    sootvetstvuyushchikh soedinenij khroma-51, molibdena i vol'frama, obychno ispol'zuyushchikhsya pri izuchenii protsessov tormozheniya. Dalee avtor opisyvaet nekotorye ehksperimental'nye issledovaniya v kachestve primerov ispol'zovaniya tekhnetsiya v rabotakh podobnogo roda. V chastnosti, on upominaet nekotorye ehmpiricheskie issledovaniya dejstviya tekhnetsiya kak ves'ma ehffektivnogo sredstva tormozheniya korrozii zheleza, a takzhe rezul'taty mnogochislennykh nablyudenij nad aktivnost'yu poverkhnosti. Drugie issledovaniya pri pomoshchi kak tskhnstsiya-99, tak i joda-131 pokazali vazhnost' sravnitel'noj adsorbtsii ionov v kineticheskom izuchenii protsessov korrozii i tormozheniya. Nakonets, avtor pokazyvaet, kak osobye svojstva tekhnetsiya pozvolili provesti chetkoe razgranichenie mezhdu dolej kisloroda i dolej zamedlitelya okisleniya pri sokhranenii passivnosti. (author)

  10. On the Behaviour of Radioisotopes Incorporated in Glass Blocks; Le Comportement des Radioisotopes Vitrifies; O Povedenii Radioaktivnyh Izotopov, Lokalizovannyh v Steklovidnyh Blokah; Comportamiento de los Radioisotopos Vitrificados

    Zimakov, P. V.; Kulichenko, V. V.; Duhovich, F. S.; Salamatmn, B. A.

    1963-02-15

    steklovidnyh blokov, kak pravilo, vozrastaet posle ih progreva svyshe 400 Degree-Sign C. Otsjuda nezhelatel'no dopuskat' obrazovanija slishkom vysokih temperatur v mogil'nikah. Vysokaja plotnost' radiacii vysokoradioaktivnyh blokov takzhe-sil'no vlijaet na izmenenie struktury blokov, a sledovatel'no i prochnosti lokalizacii v nih oskolochnyh izotopov. Izmenenija takzhe idut v pervuju ochered' s poverhnosti pri kontakte s vneshnej sredoj (vozduh, voda). Vyshela- chivaemost' izotopov iz obluchaemyh blokov, kak pravilo, uvelichivaetsja. Jeksperimental'no ustanovlen povyshennyj vyhod radioaktivnyh izotopov s poverhnosti v gazovuju fazu dlja radioaktivnyh blokov. - Uchityvaja sovokupnost faktorov, dejstvujushhih na steklovidnye bloki v techenie dlitel'nogo vremeni, nuzhno putem special'nogo podbora ih himicheskogo sostava (fljusa) i''uslovij prigotovlenija,' obespechit' nadezhnuju lokalizaciju radioaktivnyh izotopov v zahoronennyh blokah; Osobyj interes v jetom otnoshenii predstavljaet primenenie dlja fljusovanija soedinenij titana. (author)

  11. Use of Short-Lived Radioisotopes to Determine Impurities in Aluminium, Iron and Zirconium of Very High Purity; Dosages d'Elements par leurs Radioisotopes de Periodes Courtes Dans l'Analyse de Valuminium, du Fer et du Zirconium de Tres Hautes Puretes; ДОЗИРОВКА ЭЛЕМЕНТОВ С ПОМОЩЬЮ КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ РАДИОИЗОТОПОВ ПРИ АНАЛИЗЕ АЛХМИНИЯ, ЖЕЛЕЗА И ЦИРКОНИЯ ОЧЕНЬ ВЫСОКОЙ ЧИСТОТЫ; Determinacion Cuantitativa de Radioisotopos de Periodo Corto en los Analisis de Aluminio, Hierro y Circonio de Alta Pureza

    Albert, Ph.; Deyris, M.; Deschamps, N.; Fournet, L. [Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique, Vitry (France)

    1963-03-15

    sechenie zahvata i tol'ko {beta}-ijeluchenie). Odnako znanie koncentracii jetih jelementov v nashih metallah neobhodimo, tak kak v opredelennyh sluchajah oni predstavljajut soboj osnovnye primesi v metalle promyshlennogo naznachenija, kotoryj napravlen dlja ochishhenija. V inyh sluchajah mozhno stolknut'sja s bolee vysokim soderzhaniem primesej otdel'nyh iz jetih jelementov v ochishhennom metalle, nezheli v ishodnom. My otmetim, naprimer, znachenie dozirovki vanadija v aljuminii. Soderzhanie metalla v oblasti 'rasplavlennoj zony' byvaet poroj bolee vysokim, chem v metalle promyshlennogo naznachenija, i mozhet dostigat' do 30% obshej koncentracii dozirovannyh primesej. My opishem metody, issledovannye dlja provedenija kolichestvennyh analizov v razlichnyh sluchajah, s kotorymi my stolknulis'. Nashe izlozhenie kosnetsja v osnovnom opisanija analiza kremnija, hlora, broma i joda, provedennogo po obychnomu metodu radiohimicheskogo vydelenija posle obluchenija nejtronami. Kremnij byl podvergnut distilljacii v Si F{sub e}H{sub 2}. Hlor, brom i jod byli dozirovany na odnu probu dlja analiza. Pri obrabotke smesi galoidnyh solej azotnoj kislotoj jod i brom zameshhajutsja, i oba jelementa propuskajutsja s pomoshh'ju sil'noj vozdushnoj strui cherez neskol'ko poglotitelej: brom fiksiruetsja v rastvore sul'fita natrija, a jod poglashhaetsja v rastvore natrija. Hlor, kotoryj ne vytesnjaetsja iz azotnokislogo rastvora, vypadaet v sostave hloristogo serebra. Takim putem nami byla provedena dozimetrija hlora v jelektrolitnom zheleze i joda - v cirkonii 'Van Arkel'. S drugoj storony, my opishem takzhe metody, kotorye my izuchili dlja provedenija kolichestvennyh analizov na prisutstvie aljuminija, vanadija, magnija i titana v aljuminii, zheleze i cirkonii. jetih analizah sledy izyskivaemogo jelementa vydelilis' do obluchenija 'na neizotopnom nositele'; v nekotoryh sluchajah bystroe radiohimicheskoe ochishhenie proizvodilos' posle obluchenija. Predstavljaetsja vozmozhnym dozirovat' vanadij