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Sample records for gallicum nodulate common

  1. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mamadou Gueye

    Nodulation and nitrogen fixation of field grown common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as influenced by fungicide seed treatment. Ndeye Fatou Diaw GUENE, Adama DIOUF and Mamadou GUEYE*. MIRCEN/ Laboratoire commun de microbiologie IRD-ISRA-UCAD, BP 1386, DAKAR, Senegal. Accepted 23 June 2003.

  2. Cowpea and peanut in southern Africa are nodulated by diverse Bradyrhizobium strains harboring nodulation genes that belong to the large pantropical clade common in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Emma T; Stepkowski, Tomasz; Przymusiak, Anna; Botha, Wilhelm J; Law, Ian J

    2008-09-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in southern Africa are nodulated by a genetically diverse group of Bradyrhizobium strains. To determine the identity of these bacteria, a collection of 22 isolates originating from the root nodules of both hosts in Botswana and South Africa was investigated using the combined sequences for the core genome genes rrs, recA, and glnII. These data separated the majority of the isolates into one of three unique lineages that most likely represent novel Bradyrhizobium species. Some isolates were also conspecific with B. yuanmingense and with B. elkanii, although none grouped with B. japonicum, B. canariense or B. liaoningense. To study the evolution of nodulation genes in these bacteria, the common nodulation gene, nodA, and host-specific nodulation genes, nodZ, noeE, and noeI, were analyzed. The nodA phylogeny showed that the cowpea and peanut Bradyrhizobium isolates represent various locally adapted groups or ecotypes that form part of Clade III of the seven known BradyrhizobiumnodA clades. This large and highly diverse clade comprises all strains from sub-Saharan Africa, as well as some originating from the Americas, Australia, Indonesia, China and Japan. Some similar groupings were supported by the other nodulation genes, although the overall phylogenies for the nodulation genes were incongruent with that inferred from the core genome genes, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer significantly influences the evolution of cowpea and peanut root-nodule bacteria. Furthermore, identification of the nodZ, noeI, and noeE genes in the isolates tested indicates that African Bradyrhizobium species may produce highly decorated nodulation factors, which potentially represent an important adaptation enabling nodulation of a great variety of legumes inhabiting the African continent.

  3. Ontogenetic variability in old and new collections of Dicranophyllum gallicum Grand’Eury from the late Palaeozoic of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorik Van der Pas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dicranophyllum gallicum Grand’Eury is described by means of a morphometric analysis of eighty two samples from various old and new localities in western and central Europe. Stem, leaf cushions, leaf scars, leaves, axillary structures and potential seeds are described in detail, and discussed in comparison to earlier studies. The encountered variability in size and structure is shown to be higher than what was described earlier. The organisation of the leaf cushion and scar density vary gradually with the stem width, while stratigraphic position and ecology do not relate to it. It is concluded that the described variability represents an ontogenetic feature rather than a phylogenetic or ecologic one. The juvenile plants are characterised by small stems, a high leaf scar density and elongated leaf cushions with a dominant apical field, while mature specimens are characterized by a wide stem, a relatively low leaf scar density and relatively wide leaf cushions with a pronounced basal field. Axillary shoots and potential seeds of D. gallicum are described and illustrated in detail for the first time. A reconstruction based on the studied material is presented.

  4. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgars have characteristics in common with Sinorhizobium meliloti isolates from mainland Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean and Medicago rhizobia isolated from five locations on the island of Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, by partial analysis of 10 chromosomal genes were shown to exhibit close similarity to Sinorhizobium meliloti. Several bean isolates from Lanzarote, mainland Spain and Tunisia nodulated Leu...

  5. A differential nursery for testing nodulation effectiveness of rhizobium strains in common beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Central America are produced on soils having low nitrogen (N) and phosphorous content. The small-scale farmers do not have resources to use fertilizers or implement soil management practices. Strategies to improve the adaptation of beans to low N soils in...

  6. Burkholderia Species Are the Most Common and Preferred Nodulating Symbionts of the Piptadenia Group (Tribe Mimoseae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bournaud, Caroline; de Faria, Sergio Miana; dos Santos, José Miguel Ferreira; Tisseyre, Pierre; Silva, Michele; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Gross, Eduardo; James, Euan K.; Prin, Yves; Moulin, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia legume symbionts (also called α-rhizobia) are ancient in origin and are the main nitrogen-fixing symbionts of species belonging to the large genus Mimosa in Brazil. We investigated the extent of the affinity between Burkholderia and species in the tribe Mimoseae by studying symbionts of the genera Piptadenia (P.), Parapiptadenia (Pp.), Pseudopiptadenia (Ps.), Pityrocarpa (Py.), Anadenanthera (A.) and Microlobius (Mi.), all of which are native to Brazil and are phylogenetically close to Mimosa, and which together with Mimosa comprise the “Piptadenia group”. We characterized 196 strains sampled from 18 species from 17 locations in Brazil using two neutral markers and two symbiotic genes in order to assess their species affiliations and the evolution of their symbiosis genes. We found that Burkholderia are common and highly diversified symbionts of species in the Piptadenia group, comprising nine Burkholderia species, of which three are new ones and one was never reported as symbiotic (B. phenoliruptrix). However, α-rhizobia were also detected and were occasionally dominant on a few species. A strong sampling site effect on the rhizobial nature of symbionts was detected, with the symbiont pattern of the same legume species changing drastically from location to location, even switching from β to α-rhizobia. Coinoculation assays showed a strong affinity of all the Piptadenia group species towards Burkholderia genotypes, with the exception of Mi. foetidus. Phylogenetic analyses of neutral and symbiotic markers showed that symbiosis genes in Burkholderia from the Piptadenia group have evolved mainly through vertical transfer, but also by horizontal transfer in two species. PMID:23691052

  7. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, That Nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris Have Characteristics in Common with Sinorhizobium meliloti Isolates from Mainland Spain▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, Raúl; Peix, Alvaro; León-Barrios, Milagros; Willems, Anne; Mateos, Pedro Francisco; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna; van Berkum, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The stable, low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA fractions of several rhizobial isolates of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canary Islands, were identical to a less-common pattern found within Sinorhizobium meliloti (assigned to group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northern Spain. The P. vulgaris isolates and the group II LMW RNA S. meliloti isolates also were distinguishable in that both had two conserved inserts of 20 and 46 bp in the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region that were not present in other strains of S. meliloti. The isolates from P. vulgaris nodulated bean but not Medicago sativa, while those recovered from Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. nodulated both host legumes. The bean isolates also were distinguished from those of Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. by nodC sequence analysis. The nodC sequences of the bean isolates were most similar to those reported for S. meliloti bv. mediterranense and Sinorhizobium fredii bv. mediterranense (GenBank accession numbers DQ333891 and AF217267, respectively). None of the evidence placed the bean isolates from Lanzarote in the genus Rhizobium, which perhaps is inconsistent with seed-borne transmission of Rhizobium etli from the Americas to the Canaries as an explanation for the presence of bean-nodulating rhizobia in soils of Lanzarote. PMID:19218416

  8. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris have characteristics in common with Sinorhizobium meliloti isolates from mainland Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, Raúl; Peix, Alvaro; León-Barrios, Milagros; Willems, Anne; Mateos, Pedro Francisco; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna; van Berkum, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The stable, low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA fractions of several rhizobial isolates of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canary Islands, were identical to a less-common pattern found within Sinorhizobium meliloti (assigned to group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northern Spain. The P. vulgaris isolates and the group II LMW RNA S. meliloti isolates also were distinguishable in that both had two conserved inserts of 20 and 46 bp in the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region that were not present in other strains of S. meliloti. The isolates from P. vulgaris nodulated bean but not Medicago sativa, while those recovered from Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. nodulated both host legumes. The bean isolates also were distinguished from those of Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. by nodC sequence analysis. The nodC sequences of the bean isolates were most similar to those reported for S. meliloti bv. mediterranense and Sinorhizobium fredii bv. mediterranense (GenBank accession numbers DQ333891 and AF217267, respectively). None of the evidence placed the bean isolates from Lanzarote in the genus Rhizobium, which perhaps is inconsistent with seed-borne transmission of Rhizobium etli from the Americas to the Canaries as an explanation for the presence of bean-nodulating rhizobia in soils of Lanzarote.

  9. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris have characteristics in common with LMW RNA group II Sinorhizobium meliloti of Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella from soils of mainland Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several isolates from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canaries, had electrophoretic LMW RNA patterns identical with a less common pattern within S. meliloti (assigned as group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northe...

  10. Thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    A palpable mass or nodule may represent any one of a large and diverse group of conditions that involve the thyroid. Whether the patient is euthyroid, hypothyroid, or hyperthyroid can be assessed, and the cause of hypofunction or hyperfunction can usually be determined. Scintiscanning provides important information on the anatomic structure of thyroid nodules. A hot nodule should be ablated by either radioiodine or surgery. A warm nodule usually responds to suppression therapy; if regression does not occur, the problem should be reevaluated. A cold nodule should be surgically excised, as microscopic study of such a lesion is mandatory

  11. [Thyroid nodule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Jérôme

    2005-01-31

    The thyroid nodule is a frequent, most often benign, chronic, multifocal and slowly progressive disease. The first line strategy is to diagnose cancerous nodules (thyroid nodules is controversial since the prognosis of thyroid cancer is excellent for lesions measuring less than 20 mm. Though imaging accuracy is quite limited in assessing the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, both ultrasounds (US) and thyroid scan are helpful to enhance nodular identification (>30%), to sort the nodules relevant for cytological sampling and to optimize the follow-up, the major source of health costs. Suspicious and non contributive FNAs must have a control FNA within 6 months. Nodules with a non suspicious FNA (>85%) require long term follow-up. This follow-up is mainly morphological. New or evolutive nodules, as assessed by palpation or US, will require iterative FNAs or should be considered for surgery. In patients with hyperfunctioning nodules on the scan (10 to 20%), a yearly evaluation of the TSH level is sufficient. These nodules account either for autonomously functioning ones, which slowly develop towards thyrotoxicosis, or for hyperplastic nodules frequently disclosing a lymphocytic thyroiditis. Morbidity due to thyroid autonomy is still underestimated especially in aging patients with TSH levels thyroid nodule is suggested.

  12. Common symbiosis genes CERBERUS and NSP1 provide additional insight into the establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal and root nodule symbioses in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagae, Miwa; Takeda, Naoya; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AMS) and root nodule symbiosis (RNS) share several common symbiotic components, and many of the common symbiosis mutants block the entry of symbionts into the roots. We recently reported that CERBERUS (an E3 ubiquitin ligase) and NSP1 (a GRAS family transcription factor), required for RNS, also modulate AMS development in Lotus japonicus. The novel common symbiosis mutants, cerberus and nsp1, have low colonization of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi, caused by a defect in internal hyphal elongation and by a decreased fungal entry into the roots, respectively. Here, we showed that CERBERUS was induced at the sites of symbiotic fungal or bacterial infection. NSP1 has been implicated in a strigolactone biosynthesis gene DWARF27 expression. Nevertheless, in nsp1, DWARF27 was induced by inoculation with AM fungi, implying the existence of a NSP1-independent regulatory mechanism of strigolactone biosynthesis during AMS establishment. These results support functional analysis of CERBERUS and NSP1, and also contribute to elucidation of common mechanisms in AMS and RNS.

  13. Thyroid Nodule Imaging. Status and Limitations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durre Sabih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules are common, occurring in almost two-thirds of some populations; among these only about 7% are malignant. The most important question with any new discovered thyroid nodule is, “is this malignant?” The main arbiter of malignancy or benignity remains fine needle aspiration and the mainstay of treatment surgery. But given the resources involved, doing an FNAC or surgery in every discovered nodule would be prohibitive to impossible. The clinician must decide which nodule to investigate and which to watch in the hope that this will never turn out to be malignant. FNACs are used basically to decide which nodule to operate upon (or more importantly which to not operate upon and clinical and imaging features are used to decide which nodule to investigate by FNAC and which to leave alone. This paper describes the various imaging options for looking at thyroid nodules and briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages with each.

  14. Solitary pulmonary nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray Pulmonary nodule - front view chest x-ray Pulmonary nodule, solitary - CT scan Respiratory system References Gotway MB, Panse PM, Gruden JF, Elicker BM. Thoracic radiology: noninvasive diagnostic imaging. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, ...

  15. Predictive factors for malignancy in incidental pulmonary nodules detected in breast cancer patients at baseline CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Mark M.; Mortani Barbosa, Eduardo J. [University of Pennsylvania, Division of Cardiothoracic Imaging, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Pulmonary nodules are commonly encountered at staging CTs in patients with extrathoracic malignancies, but their significance on a per-patient basis remains uncertain. We undertook a retrospective analysis of pulmonary nodules identified in patients with a diagnosis of breast cancer from 2010 - 2015, evaluating nodules present at a baseline CT (i.e. prevalent nodules). We reviewed 211 patients with 248 individual nodules. The rate of malignancy in prevalent nodules is low, approximately 13 %. Variables associated with metastasis include pleural studding, hilar lymphadenopathy and the presence of extrapulmonary metastasis, as well as number of nodules, nodule size and nodule shape. Using a combination of these factors, we have developed an evidence-based multivariate decision tree to predict which nodules are malignant in these patients, which is 91 % accurate and 100 % sensitive for metastasis. We propose a simplified clinical prediction algorithm to guide radiologists and oncologists in managing patients with breast cancer and incidental pulmonary nodules. (orig.)

  16. Management of a solitary thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    Solitary nodule in the thyroid is a common clinical entity. A careful clinical assessment is the crucial first step in deciding the modality of treatment. The only worthwhile investigation is FNAC. Other investigations are done merely for the sake of a complete academic work up and can usually be dispensed with in most of the cases. Not every solitary nodule requires surgery. The optimum surgery for a solitary nodule is a total lobectomy. The specimen should be subjected to histological examination before recommending further treatment

  17. Promise and pitfalls of molecular markers of thyroid nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Jadhav, S.; Lila, Anurag; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are common in the general population with a prevalence of 5-7% The initial evaluation of thyroid nodules commonly involves thyroid function tests, an ultrasound (USG) and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). The optimal management of patients with thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology is plagued by the lack of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic modalities In this article we attempt to review the available literature on the molecular markers which are increasingly ...

  18. Management of Pulmonary Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Arvin Aryan

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary nodule characterization is currently being redefined as new clinical, radiological and pathological data are reported, necessitating a reevaluation of the clinical management."nIn approach to an incidentally detected pulmonary nodule, we should consider that there are different risk situations, different lesion morphologies, and different sizes with various management options."nIn this session we will review the different risk situations for patients with pulmonary nodules...

  19. Micromonospora is a normal occupant of actinorhizal nodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary table 1. Number of isolates per nodule. Nodule Colonies Average Nodule Colonies Average. AV1 Nodule 1 2 13 EEM Nodule 1 17 9.4. Nodule 2 O Nodule 2 13. Nodule 3 2 Nodule 3 9. AV2 Nodule 1 19 16.1 Nodule 4 7. Nodule 2 25 Nodule 5 18. Nodule 3 38 Nodule 6 4. AV4 Nodule 1 8 14.0 Nodule 7 12.

  20. Can Lung Nodules Be Cancerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung nodules be cancerous? Answers from Eric J. Olson, M.D. Yes, lung nodules can be cancerous, ... to determine if it's cancerous. With Eric J. Olson, M.D. AskMayoExpert. Pulmonary nodules. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo ...

  1. Multimodal imaging of choroidal nodules in neurofibromatosis type-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal nodules in neurofibromatosis type-1 are common and are best imaged with near-infrared reflectance (NIR imaging. The authors describe swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SSOCTA of choroidal nodules. These nodules are seen as hyperflow areas on SSOCTA and correlate well to bright patches on NIR imaging. The utility of multicolor scanning laser imaging in detecting these abnormalities is also described.

  2. Fusariosis as solitary pulmonary nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Nelson; Saavedra R, Alfredo; Sanchez Edgar A

    2008-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are common cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Of these the most frequents are: aspergillosis and Fusariosis, both grouped under the term Hyalohyphomycosis. One of the organs most commonly affected is the lung.Unfortunately the clinical manifestations as cough, pain and bleeding pleuritic such are none specific. The chest Rx may show since alveolar infiltration, or nodular lesions until cavitaciones. This is the first report on Colombia of a single pulmonary nodule by Fusarium fungi in an immunocompetent patient.

  3. Detection of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanzulli, A.; Zanello, A.; DelMaschio, M.; Paesano, P.; Panizza, P.; DelMaschio, A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have prospectively studied 203 pulmonary nodules in 91 patients, selected by CT (gold standard), with both subtraction digital radiography (SDR) and conventional plain film. Subtracted images were obtained by using copper filter inserted between two photostimulable imaging plates. Five radiologists randomly analyzed all conventional and subtracted images. The authors calculated sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for both conventional radiography and SDR. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were calculated by plotting the number of nodules detected with different degrees of confidence. SDR detected 12% more nodules than conventional radiography. ROC curves demonstrated that the level of confidence was better for SDR (P <.05)

  4. Hyper-functioning Thyroid Nodule with Scintigraphic Owl's Eye Appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kordi, R.S.; Elgazzar, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Hyper-functioning thyroid nodules may produce various scintigraphic appearances on thyroid scans. Autonomously hyper functioning thyroid nodules invariably demonstrate degenerative changes. These changes may give rise to central or less commonly peripheral photopenic areas on a thyroid scan within otherwise a hot nodule. In this report we present a case of hyper functioning autonomous nodule with peripheral degeneration and residual central functioning tissue giving the appearance of an owl's eye. Although rare, this pattern can be seen in a variety of benign and malignant thyroid conditions. (author)

  5. Internal microfeatures of manganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.

    are more common in abyssal hill nodules. Compositional studies of layers within the nodules show that Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn increase from the nucleus to the outer layer, while Fe and Co are inclined to decrease. The innermost layer adjacent to the nucleus...

  6. Comparison of the nodule vs. root transcriptome of the actinorhizal plant Datisca glomerata: actinorhizal nodules contain a specific class of defensins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Demina

    Full Text Available Actinorhizal root nodule symbioses are very diverse, and the symbiosis of Datisca glomerata has previously been shown to have many unusual aspects. In order to gain molecular information on the infection mechanism, nodule development and nodule metabolism, we compared the transcriptomes of D. glomerata roots and nodules. Root and nodule libraries representing the 3'-ends of cDNAs were subjected to high-throughput parallel 454 sequencing. To identify the corresponding genes and to improve the assembly, Illumina sequencing of the nodule transcriptome was performed as well. The evaluation revealed 406 differentially regulated genes, 295 of which (72.7% could be assigned a function based on homology. Analysis of the nodule transcriptome showed that genes encoding components of the common symbiosis signaling pathway were present in nodules of D. glomerata, which in combination with the previously established function of SymRK in D. glomerata nodulation suggests that this pathway is also active in actinorhizal Cucurbitales. Furthermore, comparison of the D. glomerata nodule transcriptome with nodule transcriptomes from actinorhizal Fagales revealed a new subgroup of nodule-specific defensins that might play a role specific to actinorhizal symbioses. The D. glomerata members of this defensin subgroup contain an acidic C-terminal domain that was never found in plant defensins before.

  7. Nodules size: An important factor in nodule mining?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    A study of about 850 different sized nodules from 234 sites in the Central Indian Basin (CIB) showed a clear inverse relationship between size and grade of nodules. Among the different sized nodules, only the small (less than 2 cm) and medium (2...

  8. Computed tomography of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hajime; Honda, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Chikashi; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Nakayama, Takashi

    1983-01-01

    We have evaluated the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing benign and malignant pulmonary nodules. CT was performed on 30 cases of solitary pulmonary nodules consisting of 17 primary lung cancers, 3 metastatic tumors and 10 benign nodules. The CT number was calculated for each lesion. Three benign nodules showed CT numbers well above the range of malignant nodules, and only in one of them was calcification visible on conventional tomography. In 6 benign nodules, the CT numbers overlapped those of malignant lesion and could not be differentiated. Thus the measurement of CT number can be useful to confirm the benign nature of certain nodules when calcification is unclear or not visible on conventional tomography. As for the morphological observation of the nodule, CT was not superior to conventional tomography and its value seems to be limited. (author)

  9. Proteome reference maps of the Lotus japonicus nodule and root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend Secher; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Ussatjuk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    formation mutant (snf1) was determined. From nodules and roots, 780 and 790 protein spots from 2D gels were identified and approximately 45% of the corresponding unique gene accessions were common. Including a previous proteomics set from Lotus pod and seed, the common gene accessions were decreased to 7...... stress level at this developmental stage. In contrast, protein spots corresponding to nodulins such as leghemoglobin, asparagine synthetase, sucrose synthase, and glutamine synthetase were prevalent in red nodules. The distinct biochemical state of nodules was further highlighted by the conspicuous...

  10. Cold thyroid nodules show a marked increase in proliferation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Knut; Stricker, Ingo; Emmrich, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    Thyroid follicular adenomas and adenomatous thyroid nodules are a frequent finding in geographical areas with iodine deficiency. They occur as hypofunctioning (scintigraphically cold) or hyperfunctioning (scintigraphically hot) nodules. Their predominant clonal origin suggests that they result from clonal expansion of a single cell, which is very likely the result of a prolonged increase in proliferation compared with non-affected surrounding cells. To test whether increased cell proliferation is detectable in cold thyroid nodules, we studied paraffin-embedded tissue from 40 cold thyroid nodules and their surrounding normal thyroid tissue for the occurrence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 (MIB-1 antibody) epitopes as markers for cell proliferation. All 40 thyroid nodules were histologically well characterized and have been studied for molecular characteristics before. The labeling index (number of labeled cells versus total cell number) for nodular and surrounding tissue was calculated. In 33 cold thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid epithelial cell proliferation is a uniform feature common to most cold nodules. However, the increase of proliferation markers shows a heterogeneity that is not correlated with histopathologic, molecular, or clinical characteristics.

  11. Lung Nodule Detection via Deep Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Ali

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death globally. As a preventive measure, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recommends annual screening of high risk individuals with low-dose computed tomography (CT. The resulting volume of CT scans from millions of people will pose a significant challenge for radiologists to interpret. To fill this gap, computer-aided detection (CAD algorithms may prove to be the most promising solution. A crucial first step in the analysis of lung cancer screening results using CAD is the detection of pulmonary nodules, which may represent early-stage lung cancer. The objective of this work is to develop and validate a reinforcement learning model based on deep artificial neural networks for early detection of lung nodules in thoracic CT images. Inspired by the AlphaGo system, our deep learning algorithm takes a raw CT image as input and views it as a collection of states, and output a classification of whether a nodule is present or not. The dataset used to train our model is the LIDC/IDRI database hosted by the lung nodule analysis (LUNA challenge. In total, there are 888 CT scans with annotations based on agreement from at least three out of four radiologists. As a result, there are 590 individuals having one or more nodules, and 298 having none. Our training results yielded an overall accuracy of 99.1% [sensitivity 99.2%, specificity 99.1%, positive predictive value (PPV 99.1%, negative predictive value (NPV 99.2%]. In our test, the results yielded an overall accuracy of 64.4% (sensitivity 58.9%, specificity 55.3%, PPV 54.2%, and NPV 60.0%. These early results show promise in solving the major issue of false positives in CT screening of lung nodules, and may help to save unnecessary follow-up tests and expenditures.

  12. Frequency of Thyroid Nodules among Patients with Colonic Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Duran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Colonic polyps and thyroid nodules are common diseases and their frequency increases with age. In the literature, there is no study investigating the coexistence of colonic polyps and thyroid nodules. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate thyroid nodule prevalence in patients with colonic polyps. Material and Methods. Sixty-six patients with colonic polyps and 146 patients without colonic polyps enrolled into the study. Age and sex matched control group was composed from patients without colonic polyps. Colonoscopic examinations, thyroid ultrasonographies were performed in all patients, and TSH were measured. Results. Male/female ratio in polyp and control groups were 40/26 versus 68/78, respectively (P=0.058. Mean ages were similar in both groups (53.3±11.4 versus, 51.8±11.4, P=0.373. Thyroid nodule was detected in 44 (66.7% patients with polyps and in 61 (41.8% controls (P=0.001. Patients with adenomatous polyps had 5 or more thyroid nodules compared to patients with hyperplastic polyps (P=0.03. Thyroid nodules were more prevalent among patients aged 50 or older compared to 50 years or less (P=0.023. Conclusion. Thyroid nodules were detected more common in patients with colonic polyps. Further studies are needed to clarify this coexistence.

  13. Promise and pitfalls of molecular markers of thyroid nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, S.; Lila, Anurag; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are common in the general population with a prevalence of 5-7% The initial evaluation of thyroid nodules commonly involves thyroid function tests, an ultrasound (USG) and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). The optimal management of patients with thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology is plagued by the lack of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic modalities In this article we attempt to review the available literature on the molecular markers which are increasingly being studied for their diagnostic utility in assessing thyroid nodules. The various molecular markers consist of gene mutations, gene re arrangements, RNA based assays and immunohistochemical markers. The molecular markers definitely would help to optimise the management of such patients. PMID:23565369

  14. Promise and pitfalls of molecular markers of thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jadhav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules are common in the general population with a prevalence of 5-7% The initial evaluation of thyroid nodules commonly involves thyroid function tests, an ultrasound (USG and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB. The optimal management of patients with thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology is plagued by the lack of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic modalities In this article we attempt to review the available literature on the molecular markers which are increasingly being studied for their diagnostic utility in assessing thyroid nodules. The various molecular markers consist of gene mutations, gene re arrangements, RNA based assays and immunohistochemical markers. The molecular markers definitely would help to optimise the management of such patients.

  15. Pulmonary nodule characterization, including computer analysis and quantitative features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholmai, Brian J; Koo, Chi Wan; Johnson, Geoffrey B; White, Darin B; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Moynagh, Michael R; Lindell, Rebecca M; Hartman, Thomas E

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary nodules are commonly detected in computed tomography (CT) chest screening of a high-risk population. The specific visual or quantitative features on CT or other modalities can be used to characterize the likelihood that a nodule is benign or malignant. Visual features on CT such as size, attenuation, location, morphology, edge characteristics, and other distinctive "signs" can be highly suggestive of a specific diagnosis and, in general, be used to determine the probability that a specific nodule is benign or malignant. Change in size, attenuation, and morphology on serial follow-up CT, or features on other modalities such as nuclear medicine studies or MRI, can also contribute to the characterization of lung nodules. Imaging analytics can objectively and reproducibly quantify nodule features on CT, nuclear medicine, and magnetic resonance imaging. Some quantitative techniques show great promise in helping to differentiate benign from malignant lesions or to stratify the risk of aggressive versus indolent neoplasm. In this article, we (1) summarize the visual characteristics, descriptors, and signs that may be helpful in management of nodules identified on screening CT, (2) discuss current quantitative and multimodality techniques that aid in the differentiation of nodules, and (3) highlight the power, pitfalls, and limitations of these various techniques.

  16. Development of a clinical decision model for thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhardt John

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid nodules represent a common problem brought to medical attention. Four to seven percent of the United States adult population (10–18 million people has a palpable thyroid nodule, however the majority (>95% of thyroid nodules are benign. While, fine needle aspiration remains the most cost effective and accurate diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules in current practice, over 20% of patients undergoing FNA of a thyroid nodule have indeterminate cytology (follicular neoplasm with associated malignancy risk prevalence of 20–30%. These patients require thyroid lobectomy/isthmusectomy purely for the purpose of attaining a definitive diagnosis. Given that the majority (70–80% of these patients have benign surgical pathology, thyroidectomy in these patients is conducted principally with diagnostic intent. Clinical models predictive of malignancy risk are needed to support treatment decisions in patients with thyroid nodules in order to reduce morbidity associated with unnecessary diagnostic surgery. Methods Data were analyzed from a completed prospective cohort trial conducted over a 4-year period involving 216 patients with thyroid nodules undergoing ultrasound (US, electrical impedance scanning (EIS and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA prior to thyroidectomy. A Bayesian model was designed to predict malignancy in thyroid nodules based on multivariate dependence relationships between independent covariates. Ten-fold cross-validation was performed to estimate classifier error wherein the data set was randomized into ten separate and unique train and test sets consisting of a training set (90% of records and a test set (10% of records. A receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC curve of these predictions and area under the curve (AUC were calculated to determine model robustness for predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules. Results Thyroid nodule size, FNA cytology, US and EIS characteristics were highly predictive of

  17. Manganese nodule morphology as indicators for oceanic processes in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vineesh, T.C; Nath, B.N.; Banerjee, R.; Jaisankar, S.; Lekshmi, V.

    are found in the CIB with spheroidal, oblong, triangular, rounded, sub-rounded or irregular shapes, with irregular nodules being most common. The most common nucleus is altered basalt, while pumice, shark teeth, clay and older nodule nuclei are also present...

  18. Biosynthesis of compatible solutes in rhizobial strains isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris nodules in Tunisian fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto Joaquín J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associated with appropriate crop and soil management, inoculation of legumes with microbial biofertilizers can improve food legume yield and soil fertility and reduce pollution by inorganic fertilizers. Rhizospheric bacteria are subjected to osmotic stress imposed by drought and/or NaCl, two abiotic constraints frequently found in semi-arid lands. Osmostress response in bacteria involves the accumulation of small organic compounds called compatible solutes. Whereas most studies on rhizobial osmoadaptation have focussed on the model species Sinorhizobium meliloti, little is known on the osmoadaptive mechanisms used by native rhizobia, which are good sources of inoculants. In this work, we investigated the synthesis and accumulations of compatible solutes by four rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in Tunisia, as well as by the reference strain Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Results The most NaCl-tolerant strain was A. tumefaciens 10c2, followed (in decreasing order by R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3, R. etli 12a3 and R. gallicum bv. phaseoli 8a3. 13C- and 1H-NMR analyses showed that all Rhizobium strains synthesized trehalose whereas A. tumefaciens 10c2 synthesized mannosucrose. Glutamate synthesis was also observed in R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3 and A. tumefaciens 10c2. When added as a carbon source, mannitol was also accumulated by all strains. Accumulation of trehalose in R. tropici CIAT 899 and of mannosucrose in A. tumefaciens 10c2 was osmoregulated, suggesting their involvement in osmotolerance. The phylogenetic analysis of the otsA gene, encoding the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, suggested the existence of lateral transfer events. In vivo 13C labeling experiments together with genomic analysis led us to propose the uptake and conversion pathways of different carbon sources into trehalose. Collaterally, the β-1,2-cyclic glucan from R

  19. Utilization of (15)NO3 (-) by nodulated soybean plants under conditions of root hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Menolli Lanza, Luciana; Ferreira Lanza, Daniel Carlos; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2014-07-01

    Waterlogging of soils is common in nature. The low availability of oxygen under these conditions leads to hypoxia of the root system impairing the development and productivity of the plant. The presence of nitrate under flooding conditions is regarded as being beneficial towards tolerance to this stress. However, it is not known how nodulated soybean plants, cultivated in the absence of nitrate and therefore not metabolically adapted to this compound, would respond to nitrate under root hypoxia in comparison with non-nodulated plants grown on nitrate. A study was conducted with (15)N labelled nitrate supplied on waterlogging for a period of 48 h using both nodulated and non-nodulated plants of different physiological ages. Enrichment of N was found in roots and leaves with incorporation of the isotope in amino acids, although to a much smaller degree under hypoxia than normoxia. This demonstrates that nitrate is taken up under hypoxic conditions and assimilated into amino acids, although to a much lesser extent than for normoxia. The similar response obtained with nodulated and non-nodulated plants indicates the rapid metabolic adaptation of nodulated plants to the presence of nitrate under hypoxia. Enrichment of N in nodules was very much weaker with a distinct enrichment pattern of amino acids (especially asparagine) suggesting that labelling arose from a tissue source external to the nodule rather than through assimilation in the nodule itself.

  20. [Nodulation competitiveness of nodule bacteria: Genetic control and adaptive significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchuk, O P; Vorobyov, N I; Provorov, N A

    2017-01-01

    The most recent data on the system of cmp (competitiveness) genes that determine the nodulation competitiveness of rhizobial strains, i.e., the ability to compete for nodule formation in leguminous plants, is analyzed. Three genetic approaches for the construction of economically valuable strains of rhizobia are proposed: the amplification of positive regulators of competitiveness, the inactivation of the negative regulators of this trait, and the introduction of efficient competitiveness factors into strains capable of active nitrogen fixation.

  1. Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Konno, M; Sato, T; Matsuura, N

    1980-10-01

    We studied two cases of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in children. A 9-year-old girl and an 11-year-old girl had thyroid masses in otherwise nonpalpable thyroid glands. Scintiscan showed hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. The former patient had elevated values for T4 and T3, and plasma thyrotropin (TSH) level failed to respond to stimulation with thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), whereas the latter patient had normal values for T4, and T3 and plasma TSH response to TRH was normal. After the surgical removal of nodules, scintiscan exhibited radioactivity in the contralateral lobe of the thyroid gland in the former and in the ectopic thyroid tissue in the latter. Results of microscopic examinations of thyroid nodules were consistent with adenomatous goiter.

  2. Relation between nodule size and 18F-FDG-PET SUV for malignant and benign pulmonary nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Yiping

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The most common semiquantitative method of evaluation of pulmonary lesions using 18F-FDG PET is FDG standardized uptake value (SUV. An SUV cutoff of 2.5 or greater has been used to differentiate between benign and malignant nodules. The goal of our study was to investigate the correlation between the size of pulmonary nodules and the SUV for benign as well as for malignant nodules. Methods Retrospectively, 173 patients were selected from 420 referrals for evaluation of pulmonary lesions. All patients selected had a positive CT and PET scans and histopathology biopsy. A linear regression equation was fitted to a scatter plot of size and SUVmax for malignant and benign nodules together. A dot diagram was created to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5. Results The linear regression equations and (R2s as well as the trendlines for malignant and benign nodules demonstrated that the slope of the regression line is greater for malignant than for benign nodules. Twenty-eight nodules of group one (≤ 1.0 cm are plotted in a dot diagram using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated to be 85%, 36% and 54% respectively. Similarly, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 and found to be 91%, 47%, and 79% respectively for group 2 (1.1–2.0 cm; 94%, 23%, and 76%, respectively for group 3 (2.1–3.0 cm; and 100%, 17%, and 82%,, respectively for group 4 (> 3.0 cm. The previous results of the dot diagram indicating that the sensitivity and the accuracy of the test using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 are increased with an increase in the diameter of pulmonary nodules. Conclusion The slope of the regression line is greater for malignant than for benign nodules. Although, the SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 is a useful tool in the evaluation of large pulmonary nodules (> 1.0 cm, it has no or minimal value in the evaluation of small

  3. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in an autonomous hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Hala M; Teot, Lisa A; Indyk, Justin A; Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2010-09-01

    Whereas thyroid nodules are less common among children than among adults, the anxiety generated by the finding of a thyroid nodule is high because 20% of nodules found in children contain thyroid cancer. Discovery of a nodule in the context of hyperthyroidism is usually comforting due to the presumption that the nodule represents a benign toxic adenoma. An 11-year-old girl presented with heavy menses, fatigue, and a right thyroid mass. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated triiodothyronine and undetectable thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroid ultrasonography revealed a 3.5 cm nonhomogenous nodule, and scintigraphy was consistent with an autonomous hyper-functioning nodule. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy could not rule out malignancy, and patient underwent right hemithyroidectomy and isthmusectomy. Pathology was consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma. We report the discovery of papillary thyroid carcinoma in an autonomously hyperfunctioning nodule in an 11-year-old girl. Detection of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule in children and adolescents does not exclude the possibility of thyroid carcinoma and warrants careful evaluation and appropriate therapy.

  4. Comparison of digital tomosynthesis and computed tomography for lung nodule detection in SOS screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Maurizio; Priotto, Roberto; Ghirardo, Donatella; Talenti, Alberto; Roberto, Emanuele; Bertolaccini, Luca; Terzi, Alberto; Chauvie, Stéphane

    2017-08-01

    To compare the lung nodules' detection of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) and computed tomography (CT) in the context of the SOS (Studio OSservazionale) prospective screening program for lung cancer detection. One hundred and thirty-two of the 1843 subjects enrolled in the SOS study underwent CT because non-calcified nodules with diameters larger than 5 mm and/or multiple nodules were present in DTS. Two expert radiologists reviewed the exams classifying the nodules based on their radiological appearance and their dimension. LUNG-RADS classification was applied to compare receiver operator characteristics curve between CT and DTS with respect to final diagnosis. CT was used as gold standard. DTS and CT detected 208 and 179 nodules in the 132 subjects, respectively. Of these 208 nodules, 189 (91%) were solid, partially solid, and ground glass opacity. CT confirmed 140/189 (74%) of these nodules but found 4 nodules that were not detected by DTS. DTS and CT were concordant in 62% of the cases applying the 5-point LUNG-RADS scale. The concordance rose to 86% on a suspicious/non-suspicious binary scale. The areas under the curve in receiver operator characteristics were 0.89 (95% CI 0.83-0.94) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.72-0.89) for CT and DTS, respectively. The mean effective dose was 0.09 ± 0.04 mSv for DTS and 4.90 ± 1.20 mSv for CT. The use of a common classification for nodule detection in DTS and CT helps in comparing the two technologies. DTS detected and correctly classified 74% of the nodules seen by CT but lost 4 nodules identified by CT. Concordance between DTS and CT rose to 86% of the nodules when considering LUNG-RADS on a binary scale.

  5. Cystic change in thyroid nodules: A confounding factor for real-time qualitative thyroid ultrasound elastography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, K.S.S.; Rasalkar, D.P.; Lee, Y.P.; Wong, K.T.; King, A.D.; Yuen, H.Y. [Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin N.T, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ahuja, A.T., E-mail: aniltahuja@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin N.T, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate real-time qualitative ultrasound elastography for focal thyroid masses undergoing fine-needle aspiration in a routine thyroid ultrasound clinic. Materials and methods: Ninety-four thyroid nodules scheduled for fine-needle aspiration cytology in a thyroid ultrasound clinic also underwent real-time freehand elastography. Colour-scaled elastograms were graded visually on the stiffness of the solid component of nodules relative to thyroid parenchyma using an elastography score (ES) scale from 1 (soft) to 4 (stiff). The ES for benign and malignant nodules and the influence of cystic change on ES were analysed using Chi-square with trend and Fishers exact tests, with a p < 0.05 used to indicate statistical significance. Results: There were 19 papillary carcinomas, five metastases, 57 hyperplastic nodules, and four follicular adenomas based on definitive cytology (n = 54) or histology (n = 31). Nine nodules were excluded due to indeterminate cytology and no histology. Of malignancies (all solid), two were ES = 1, four were ES = 2, eight were ES = 3, and 10 were ES = 4. Of benign nodules, 17 were ES = 1, 17 were ES = 2, 16 were ES = 3, and 11 were ES = 4. An ES > 2 was more common in benign nodules with predominant cystic components (17/18) than mildly cystic (3/12) or completely solid (7/31) benign nodules (p = 0.0004, p < 0.0001). The ES was not significantly different between benign and malignant nodules (p = 0.09) unless partially cystic nodules were excluded (p = 0.005). For solid nodules, an ES > 2 optimally predicted malignancy, achieving 74% sensitivity, 77% specificity, and 76% accuracy. Conclusion: Qualitative real-time thyroid elastography predicts malignancy only if predominantly cystic nodules are excluded, which may limit its utility in routine clinical practice.

  6. CT SCAN EVALUATION OF PULMONARY NODULE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ravi Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lung carcinomas are quite commonly diagnosed. Thanks to the ever increasing smokers’ population. Majority of the city dwellers are at a higher risk of having this disease when compared to the village counterparts. The stigma through which the person and the family have to undergo before confirming the diagnosis is enormous. So the radiographic methods of diagnosing the malignancies have to improve. Before confirming the diagnosis, the radiologists, the treating physicians should be somewhat confident about the diagnosis so as to prepare the patients and their relatives for the most probable diagnosis before the confirmatory report. The confirmatory procedures include the PET scan and the Histopathology. Both are time consuming procedures and in an economy like ours, finding a PET scanning centre is rather difficult. So the most probable diagnosis has to be thought of using minimal resource. This study puts in a sincere effort to understand and evaluate the pulmonary nodule when identified by a CT scan. This paper is intended to help the practicing radiologists and also make life easy for a practicing physician to identify correctly the lesions and also help the patients to prevent further progression of the disease. METHODS The study was a cross-sectional study. The sample size of the study consisted of thirty patients. CT scan was done in thirty patients who were identified to have lung nodules either by other mode of radiological studies or first time identified in a CT scan itself. The study was conducted in Fathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa. The study was conducted from 2014 to 2015. RESULT Non-solid nodules were more in number when compared to the solid nodules. All the non-solid nodules were confirmed to be adenomas. Eighty percent of the nodules which were more than 8 mm in size were confirmed to be malignant. One hundred percent of the spiculated border on CT was confirmed to be malignant. In the present study

  7. Cervical Paraganglioma Mimicking Thyroid Nodule: A Rare Clinical Case

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    Berna İmge Aydoğan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor. When it is located in the neck, it is commonly misdiagnosed as other thyroid neoplasms. Case Report. We report a case of cervical paraganglioma in a 55-year-old female. Patient was admitted to our clinic with goiter and neck pain. Thyroid ultrasonography revealed a 20 mm solitary, heterogeneous nodule located in the upper pole of left thyroid lobe. Fine needle aspiration cytology was nondiagnostic. She underwent left lobectomy and histopathology showed paraganglioma. Discussion. Cervical paragangliomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules.

  8. Mucoid impaction presenting as multiple pulmonary nodules in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, L.D.; Lambie, N.K.; Wilsher, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    Mucoid impaction has been described as a complication of asthma and more commonly in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. In such cases, the impacted pools of mucus may present as discrete nodules on chest X-ray and hence simulate the appearance of metastatic malignancy. A case of mucoid impaction presenting as multiple pulmonary nodules in a patient with cystic fibrosis is described. The chest X-ray showed hyperinfiltration and scattered changes consistent with bronchiectasis. Computed tomography scan confirmed these and additional intra-pulmonary nodular densities. This report illustrates that mucus impaction as a cause of pulmonary nodules should be considered in any patient with chronic lung disease characterised by excess mucus production. 6 refs., 3 figs

  9. Management of an incidentally discovered pulmonary nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beigelman-Aubry, Catherine; Hill, Catherine; Grenier, Philippe A.

    2007-01-01

    The incidental finding of a pulmonary nodule on computed tomography (CT) is becoming an increasingly frequent event. The discovery of such a nodule should evoke the possibility of a small bronchogenic carcinoma, for which excision is indicated without delay. However, invasive diagnostic procedures should be avoided in the case of a benign lesion. The objectives of this review article are: (1) to analyze the CT criteria defining benign nodules, nodules of high suspicion of malignancy and indeterminate nodules, (2) to analyze the diagnostic performances and limitations of complementary investigations requested to characterize indeterminate lung nodules, (3) to review the criteria permitting to assess the probability of malignancy of indeterminate nodules and (4) to report on the new guidelines provided by the Fleischner Society for the management of small indeterminate pulmonary nodules, according to their prior probability of malignancy. (orig.)

  10. Chinese herbal medicines for benign thyroid nodules in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenxun; Yin, Detao; Yang, Weimin; Kan, Quancheng; Liu, Zhangsuo; Ren, Xiaoyan; Zhai, Chenguang; Zhang, Shengjun

    2014-03-04

    A thyroid nodule is a discrete lesion within the thyroid gland that might be palpable and is ultrasonographically distinct from the surrounding thyroid parenchyma. Thyroid nodules are more common as age increases and occur more frequently in women. Benign thyroid nodules often cause pressure symptoms and cosmetic complaints. In China and many other countries, doctors use Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) to treat thyroid nodules. To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules in adults. Review authors searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP information (a Chinese database), WANFANG Data (a Chinese database), the Chinese Conference Papers Database and the Chinese Dissertation Database (all searched up to April 2013). Randomised controlled trials comparing CHM or CHM plus levothyroxine versus levothyroxine, placebo or no treatment in adults with benign thyroid nodules. Two review authors independently extracted data, assessed studies for risk of bias and evaluated overall study quality according to GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation), with differences resolved by consensus. We included one randomised trial involving 152 participants with a randomisation ratio of 2:1 (CHM vs no treatment). The trial applied adequate sequence generation; however, allocation concealment was unclear. Duration of treatment was three months, and follow-up six months. Our a priori defined outcomes of interest (i.e. nodule volume reduction ≥ 50%; pressure symptoms, cosmetic complaints or both; health-related quality of life; all-cause mortality; cancer occurrence; changes in number and size of thyroid nodules; changes in thyroid volume; and socioeconomic effects) were not investigated in the included study. Thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and tri

  11. Host range, symbiotic effectiveness and nodulation competitiveness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ERIC-PCR DNA fingerprinting patterns were used to identify the isolates occupying nodules. All the isolates nodulated cowpea, groundnut (Arachis hypogeae) and mungbean (Vigna radiata), but only AII-2-1, AII-3-4 and BIII-2-2 nodulated soybean (Glycine max). Apart from cowpea where all the isolates were effective, there ...

  12. Preoperative Molecular Markers in Thyroid Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Zeyad T; Smith, Philip W; Umbricht, Christopher B; Zeiger, Martha A

    2018-01-01

    The need for distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules has led to the pursuit of differentiating molecular markers. The most common molecular tests in clinical use are Afirma ® Gene Expression Classifier (GEC) and Thyroseq ® V2. Despite the rapidly developing field of molecular markers, several limitations exist. These challenges include the recent introduction of the histopathological diagnosis "Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid neoplasm with Papillary-like nuclear features", the correlation of genetic mutations within both benign and malignant pathologic diagnoses, the lack of follow-up of molecular marker negative nodules, and the cost-effectiveness of molecular markers. In this manuscript, we review the current published literature surrounding the diagnostic value of Afirma ® GEC and Thyroseq ® V2. Among Afirma ® GEC studies, sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) ranged from 75 to 100%, 5 to 53%, 13 to 100%, and 20 to 100%, respectively. Among Thyroseq ® V2 studies, Se, Sp, PPV, and NPV ranged from 40 to 100%, 56 to 93%, 13 to 90%, and 48 to 97%, respectively. We also discuss current challenges to Afirma ® GEC and Thyroseq ® V2 utility and clinical application, and preview the future directions of these rapidly developing technologies.

  13. Diagnosis and management of solitary pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeon Joo; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kwon, O Jung

    2008-12-01

    The advent of computed tomography (CT) screening with or without the help of computer-aided detection systems has increased the detection rate of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs), including that of early peripheral lung cancer. Helical dynamic (HD)CT, providing the information on morphologic and hemodynamic characteristics with high specificity and reasonably high accuracy, can be used for the initial assessment of SPNs. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT is more sensitive at detecting malignancy than HDCT. Therefore, PET/CT may be selectively performed to characterize SPNs when HDCT gives an inconclusive diagnosis. Serial volume measurements are currently the most reliable methods for the tissue characterization of subcentimeter nodules. When malignant nodule is highly suspected for subcentimeter nodules, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery nodule removal after nodule localization using the pulmonary nodule-marker system may be performed for diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Surveillance of the remaining nodules after resection of the dominant lung adenocarcinoma is an appropriate follow-up strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo eCastiglioni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAdenocarcinomas, commonly present as a dominant lesion (DL with additional nodules in the ipsilateral or contralateral lung. We sought to determine the fate and management of the secondary nodules and to assess the risk of these nodules using the Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS criteria and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN guidelines to determine if surveillance is an appropriate strategy.MethodsWe retrospectively evaluated patients with lepidic growth pattern adenocarcinoma and secondary nodules from 2000 to 2013. Risk assessment of the additional lesions was completed with a simplified model of Lung-RADS and NCCN-Guidelines. ResultsEighty-seven patients underwent resection of 87 DLs (Group 1 concurrently with 60 additional pulmonary nodules (Group 2 while 157 non-DLs were radiologically surveyed over a median follow-up time of 3.2 years (Group 3. Malignancy was found in 29/60 (48% nodules in Group 2. Whereas, only 9/157 (6% of the lesions in Group 3 enlarged, 4 of which (2.5% of total were found to be malignant, and then treated, while the remaining nodules continued surveillance. After applying the Lung-RADS and NCCN simplified models, nodules in Group 2 were at higher risk for lung cancer than those in Group 3. ConclusionsIn patients with lepidic growth pattern adenocarcinoma associated with multiple secondary nodules, surveillance of the remaining nodules, after resection of the DL, is a reasonable strategy since these nodules exhibited a slow rate of growth and minimal malignancy. In contrast, nodules resected from the ipsilateral lung at the time of the DL, harbor malignancy in 48%. Risk assessment models may provide a useful and standardized tool for clinical assessment of pulmonary nodules.

  15. Automated lung nodule classification following automated nodule detection on CT: A serial approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armato, Samuel G. III; Altman, Michael B.; Wilkie, Joel; Sone, Shusuke; Li, Feng; Doi, Kunio; Roy, Arunabha S.

    2003-01-01

    We have evaluated the performance of an automated classifier applied to the task of differentiating malignant and benign lung nodules in low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) scans acquired as part of a lung cancer screening program. The nodules classified in this manner were initially identified by our automated lung nodule detection method, so that the output of automated lung nodule detection was used as input to automated lung nodule classification. This study begins to narrow the distinction between the 'detection task' and the 'classification task'. Automated lung nodule detection is based on two- and three-dimensional analyses of the CT image data. Gray-level-thresholding techniques are used to identify initial lung nodule candidates, for which morphological and gray-level features are computed. A rule-based approach is applied to reduce the number of nodule candidates that correspond to non-nodules, and the features of remaining candidates are merged through linear discriminant analysis to obtain final detection results. Automated lung nodule classification merges the features of the lung nodule candidates identified by the detection algorithm that correspond to actual nodules through another linear discriminant classifier to distinguish between malignant and benign nodules. The automated classification method was applied to the computerized detection results obtained from a database of 393 low-dose thoracic CT scans containing 470 confirmed lung nodules (69 malignant and 401 benign nodules). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the ability of the classifier to differentiate between nodule candidates that correspond to malignant nodules and nodule candidates that correspond to benign lesions. The area under the ROC curve for this classification task attained a value of 0.79 during a leave-one-out evaluation

  16. Symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria: nodulation and phylogenetic data across legume genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, Michelle E; Luke Mahler, D; Burns, Jean H; Weber, Marjorie G; Wojciechowski, Martin F; Sprent, Janet; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2018-02-01

    , data exploration revealed that nodulating legume genera are ~3 × more species-rich than non-nodulating genera, but we did not find evidence that this difference in diversity was due to differences in net diversification rate. Our metadata file describes in more detail the structure of these data that provide a foundational resource for future work as more nodulation data become available, and as greater phylogenetic resolution of this ca. 19,500-species family comes into focus. We release this data set under the Creative Commons 4.0 Attribution-ShareAlike License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/). The data may be used, distributed, and reproduced with proper citation of this article. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Prevalence of incidental thyroid nodules in ultrasound studies of dogs with hypercalcemia (2008-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Rachel E; Bohannon, Laurie K; Feldman, Edward C

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is commonly used to evaluate the cervical region in dogs with hypercalcemia due to suspected hyperparathyroidism. Incidental thyroid nodules may be detected during these studies, however little information has been published to guide clinical decision-making when this occurs. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of incidental thyroid nodules in hypercalcemic dogs undergoing cervical ultrasound at our hospital during the period of 2008-2013. Dogs with a palpable neck mass were excluded. Cervical ultrasound images for each dog were retrieved and reviewed by a board certified veterinary radiologist who was unaware of patient outcome. Presence, number, and dimensions of thyroid nodules were recorded. Results of thyroid nodule aspirate, biopsy or necropsy were recorded from medical records when available. Ninety-one dogs met inclusion criteria. Of these, 14/91 (15%) dogs had at least one thyroid nodule. Mean (± standard deviation) thyroid gland nodule length, width, and height were 1.51 ± 0.74, 0.96 ± 0.73, and 0.75 ± 0.36 cm, respectively. A histologic diagnosis was available for the incidental thyroid lesions in eight dogs, including one dog with two nodules. Confirmed diagnoses for these nodules were thyroid cyst (3/9, 33%), thyroid adenoma (3/9, 33%), thyroid adenocarcinoma (2/9, 22%) and nodular hyperplasia (1/9, 11%). Findings indicated that incidental thyroid nodules may be present in hypercalcemic dogs with no palpable neck mass and no clinical signs of thyroid disease. Some of these nodules may be malignant and therefore a recommendation for cytology or biopsy may be justified. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  18. Evaluation of proliferation potential in thyroid normo-/hypofunctioning and hyperfunctioning nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornianu, Marioara; Stan, V; Lazăr, Elena; Dema, Alis; Golu, Ioana; Tăban, Sorina; Vlad, Mihaela; Faur, Alexandra; Vărcuş, F; Babău, F

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid follicular adenomas (FA) and adenomatous thyroid nodules (AN) - lesions that are frequently found in areas with iodine deficiency, can be normo-/hypofunctioning (scintigraphically cold - SCN) or hyperfunctioning (scintigraphically hot - SHN) nodules. Evaluation of proliferation potential in thyroid nodules on tissue samples obtained at surgery from euthyroid patients clinically diagnosed with SCN and from patients with thyroid hyperfunction and SHN. We investigated the proliferation activity estimated by assessing PCNA and Ki-67 proliferation markers in 20 SCN (eight FA and 12 AN) and 16 toxic nodules (six hyperfunctioning FA and 10 toxic multinodular goiters), on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples, 4-5 μm thick; we used the immunohistochemical technique in LSAB system (DAB visualization) with anti-PCNA (PC10) and anti-Ki-67 (MIB-1) monoclonal antibodies. For each case, we calculated the proliferation index PI-PCNA and PI-Ki-67. The dates were statistically evaluated using the t-unpaired test. We observed a higher PI-PCNA in thyroid nodules than in the normal surrounding thyroid tissue, with statistically significant values for FA (14.3% vs. 3.8%; pnodules vs. surrounding thyroid tissue was 1.64% vs. 1.10% in FA (p0.05). We also noted: (1) significantly higher PI-PCNA values (p 0.05); (2) increased proliferation rate (pthyroid nodules with aspects of lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) (PI-Ki-67 was 1.21%) as compared to nodules without LT (PI-Ki-67 was 0.12%); (3) a mean PI-PCNA of 8.5% and PI-Ki-67 of 4.61% in toxic thyroid nodules (TTN) vs. 3.01% and 1.5% in normal surrounding thyroid, respectively. The clinical expression of SCN is the consequence of increased thyrocyte proliferation in the nodules; the increased proliferative potential of TTN thyrocytes is a common feature of nodules, independent of their histopathological characteristics.

  19. High resolution computed tomography(HRCT) findings of a solitary pulmonary nodule : differential diagnosis of cancer and tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Soo; Choe, Kyu Ok

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the role of HRCT in the differentiation of Pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer, where the manifestation of disease is a solitary pulmonary nodule(SPN). Forty eight SPNs including 29 cancers proven by surgery(n=10), by bronchoscopic biopsy(n=7) and by fine needle aspiration biopsy(n=12), and 19 tuberculous nodules proven by surgery(n=4), by bronchoscopic biopsy(n=4), by fine needle aspiration biopsy(n=5), by a positive result in AFB culture without evidence of malignant cells(n=3), and by a decrease in size on serial plain chests despite negative AFB culture(n=3) were included. Scanning parameters for HRCT were 140 KVp, 170 mA, 1.5 mm collimation, 3 sec scanning time, and a high spatial frequency algorithm was used. With regard to the marginal features of nodules, the findings more commonly observed in malignant nodules were greater average length of the longest spicule(5.35 ± 3.19 mm versus 2.75 ± 1.56 mm), and more commonspiculated nodules greater than 3 cm in diameter, 16(55%) versus 2(10.5%)(p<0.05). Regarding the internal characteristics of nodules and perinodular parenchymal changes, the findings more commonly observed in cases of cancer were air-bronchograms within nodules(14 ; 48.3%) and interlobar fissure puckering (6 ; 20.7%), whereas in tuberculosis cases the most common findings were low density of nodule(16 ; 84.2%), cavitation(12 ; 63.1%), and perinodular focal lung hypodensity(5 ; 26.3%), (p<0.05). no statstically significant difference was observed between the incidence of satellite lesion of tuberculous(73.7%) and of malignant nodules(34.5%). However, perilobular nodules or bronchovascular bundle thickening s were more commonly observed in the satellite lesions of malignant nodules(9 ; 90%), whereas centrilobular nodules or lobular consolidation were more commonly observed in those of tuberculous nodules(12 ; 85.7%), (p<0.05). HRCT provides detailed information concerning perinodular parenchymal changes and characteristics of

  20. Rheumatoid nodule of the foot: MRI appearances mimicking an indeterminate soft tissue mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.G.; Linares, R.; Su, A.

    1998-01-01

    Subcutaneous rheumatoid nodules occur commonly in advanced cases of rheumatoid arthritis, but only rarely appear in the feet. We present a case of a subcutaneous rheumatoid nodule arising in the heel pad of a 68-year-old man with a long history of rheumatoid arthritis, along with a review of the literature. The appearance of the mass on MRI is illustrated and correlated with the histologic findings. The MRI appearance of a subcutaneous rheumatoid nodule is that of a nonspecific ill-defined mass with long T1- and long T2-relaxation times. A differential diagnosis for similar appearing masses is offered. (orig.)

  1. 10Be in manganese nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.; Parker, P.; Mangini, A.; Cochran, K.; Turekian, K.; Krishnaswami, S.; Sharma, P.

    1981-01-01

    10 Be (t/sub 1/2) = 1.5 MY) is(formed in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation on nitrogen and oxygen. It is transported to the earth's surface via precipitation. In the oceans it is eventually associated with solid phases depositing on the ocean floor such as manganese nodules and deep-sea sediments. One of the assumptions that is normally made in analysis of such processes is that 10 Be has been produced at a relatively uniform rate over the pat several million years. If we assume, in addition, that the initial specific concentration of 10 Be as it precipitates with a solid phase is invariant with time, then we would expect that the decrease of the 10 Be concentration as a function of depth in a deep-sea core or in a manganese nodule would provide a record of sediment accumulation rate in the former and of growth rate in the latter. The possibility of using cosmic-ray produced 10 Be for the dating of marine deposits had been proposed 25 years ago by Arnold and Goel et al. The method of analysis used by these investigators, and those subsequently pursuing the problem, was low-level β counting. Though the potential of using 10 Be for dating manganese nodules was explored more than a decade ago, only a few measurements of 10 Be in nodules exist in date. This is largely because of the 10 Be measurements in environmental samples have gained considerable momentum during the past 3 to 4 years, after the development of accelerator mass spectrometry for its determination

  2. Strategy for polymetallic nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    in industrializing their economies. Of the known mineral reselVcs these countries have nearly 50% of the nickel resclVcs, over 50% ofcopper reselVcs, 75% ofcobalt reserves, and aboul 25% of manganese reserves, and are major suppliers to the world markets... of these minerals. These counlries face the comhined effect oflosl markets and reduced price levels broughlabout by deep seabed nodule production. They depend on revenue earned from mineral exports more than do developed nations and have less flexibility...

  3. Fusobacterium necrophorum presenting as isolated lung nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sonti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium necrophorum causes Lemierre's syndrome - a dramatic and distinct condition beginning with pharyngitis before proceeding to internal jugular vein septic thrombophlebitis and respiratory tract infection in otherwise healthy individuals. It is rare, but by far the most common pathway to parenchymal lung disease with this organism. Here we describe we a 34 year old healthy lady who was nontoxic without any antecedent illness who presented with lung nodules due to fusobacterium necrophorum as the sole manifestation of disease. Leading diagnostic consideration prior to culture data was pulmonary vasculitis. Identifying her disease process was a somewhat chance occurrence, and it began to resolve prior to antibiotic therapy. Though it would be difficult to recommend keen awareness of this organism given its rarity, it is important to consider that its scope may be broader than traditionally considered.

  4. [Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: Brazilian consensus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa M Zanini; Rosário, Pedro W; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common manifestation of thyroid diseases. It is estimated that approximately 10% of adults have palpable thyroid nodules with the frequency increasing throughout life. The major concern on nodule evaluation is the risk of malignancy (5-10%). Differentiated thyroid carcinoma accounts for 90% of all thyroid malignant neoplasias. Although most patients with cancer have a favorable outcome, some individuals present an aggressive form of the disease and poor prognostic despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Here, a set of clinical guidelines for the evaluation and management of patients with thyroid nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer was developed through consensus by 8 member of the Department of Thyroid, Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia. The participants are from different reference medical centers within Brazil, to reflect different practice patterns. Each committee participant was initially assigned to write a section of the document and to submit it to the chairperson, who revised and assembled the sections into a complete draft document, which was then circulated among all committee members for further revision. All committee members further revised and refined the document. The guidelines were developed based on the expert opinion of the committee participants, as well as on previously published information.

  5. Effect of water stress on nitrogen fixation and nodule structure of common bean Efeito do estresse hídrico na fixação biológica de nitrogênio e estrutura de nódulos de feijão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucrecia Gerosa Ramos

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of water stress on N2 fixation and nodule structure of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars Carioca and EMGOPA-201. Plants were harvested after five and eight days of water stress. Carioca had lower nodule dry weight on both water stress periods; shoot dry weight was lower at five days water stress and did not differ from control after eight days stress. Both cultivars had lower nitrogenase activity than control after five and eight days water stress. For both cultivars, after eight days stress bacteroid membranes were damaged. Carioca presented more pronounced damage to infected tissue, with host cell vacuolation and loss of the peribacteroid membrane at five days after stress; at eight days after stress, there was degradation of cytoplasm host cells and senescence of bacteroids, with their release into intercellular spaces. Intensity of immunogold-labeling of intercellular cortical glycoprotein with the monoclonal antibodies MAC 236/265 was different for both cultivars.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito do estresse hídrico na fixação biológica do N2 e na estrutura dos nódulos de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., nas cultivares Carioca e EMGOPA-201. As plantas foram colhidas após cinco e oito dias de estresse hídrico. A cultivar Carioca apresentou menor peso seco de nódulos que o controle (plantas irrigadas. O peso da parte aérea seca da cultivar Carioca foi menor aos cinco dias de estresse hídrico e não diferiu do controle, após oito dias de estresse. As duas cultivares tiveram menor atividade da nitrogenase após cinco e oito dias de estresse hídrico e apresentaram danos na membrana peribacteróide após oito dias de estresse. A cultivar Carioca foi mais afetada do que a EMGOPA-201, com vacuolação das células e perda da membrana peribacteróide após cinco dias de estresse; aos oito dias, houve degradação das células do citoplasma, senescência e

  6. Root nodule structure in Chamaecytisus podolicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skawińska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available By means of microscopic analyses, it was shown that root nodules formed by Chamaecytisus podolicus exhibited all structural features typical for indeterminate nodules of temperate genistean shrubs: (i apical nodule meristem composed of infected and non-infected domains, (ii parenchymatous bacteroid-containing tissue with infected cells only resulting from mitotic activity of infected meristematic cells, (iii absence of infection threads, and (iv convoluted bacteroids singly enclosed in a symbiosome membrane. For the first time, it was shown that the nodule meristem is organized into longitudinal files of sister cells.

  7. Accuracy of lung nodule density on HRCT: analysis by PSF-based image simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Ken; Ohkubo, Masaki; Marasinghe, Janaka C; Murao, Kohei; Matsumoto, Toru; Wada, Shinichi

    2012-11-08

    A computed tomography (CT) image simulation technique based on the point spread function (PSF) was applied to analyze the accuracy of CT-based clinical evaluations of lung nodule density. The PSF of the CT system was measured and used to perform the lung nodule image simulation. Then, the simulated image was resampled at intervals equal to the pixel size and the slice interval found in clinical high-resolution CT (HRCT) images. On those images, the nodule density was measured by placing a region of interest (ROI) commonly used for routine clinical practice, and comparing the measured value with the true value (a known density of object function used in the image simulation). It was quantitatively determined that the measured nodule density depended on the nodule diameter and the image reconstruction parameters (kernel and slice thickness). In addition, the measured density fluctuated, depending on the offset between the nodule center and the image voxel center. This fluctuation was reduced by decreasing the slice interval (i.e., with the use of overlapping reconstruction), leading to a stable density evaluation. Our proposed method of PSF-based image simulation accompanied with resampling enables a quantitative analysis of the accuracy of CT-based evaluations of lung nodule density. These results could potentially reveal clinical misreadings in diagnosis, and lead to more accurate and precise density evaluations. They would also be of value for determining the optimum scan and reconstruction parameters, such as image reconstruction kernels and slice thicknesses/intervals.

  8. Radiofrequency thermal ablation of a metastatic lung nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Highland, Adrian M. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom); Mack, Paul [Diana Princess of Wales Hospital, Scartho Road, Grimsby, DN33 2BA (United Kingdom); Breen, David J. [Department of Radiology, Southampton University Hospitals, Tremona Road, Southampton, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    Pulmonary metastases are a common finding in patients with colonic adenocarcinoma. We report the treatment of a metastatic lung nodule with radiofrequency (RF) ablation under CT guidance. This case illustrates the use of RF ablation in a patient in whom surgical resection was no longer possible and where chemotherapy was unlikely to produce benefit. This technique may offer a viable method of cytoreduction when other treatments have not succeeded. (orig.)

  9. Radiofrequency thermal ablation of a metastatic lung nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highland, Adrian M.; Mack, Paul; Breen, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Pulmonary metastases are a common finding in patients with colonic adenocarcinoma. We report the treatment of a metastatic lung nodule with radiofrequency (RF) ablation under CT guidance. This case illustrates the use of RF ablation in a patient in whom surgical resection was no longer possible and where chemotherapy was unlikely to produce benefit. This technique may offer a viable method of cytoreduction when other treatments have not succeeded. (orig.)

  10. Auxin transport, metabolism, and signalling during nodule initiation: indeterminate and determinate nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohlen, W.; Ng, Jason Liang Pin; Deinum, E.E.; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    Most legumes can form a unique type of lateral organ on their roots: root nodules. These structures host symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia. Several different types of nodules can be found in nature, but the two best-studied types are called indeterminate and determinate nodules.

  11. Correlation study of multislice spiral CT and pathology in relationship between solitary pulmonary nodule and bronchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Jinwei; Ye Xuanguang; Zhou Kangrong; Jiang Yaping; Wang Qun; Xu Songtao; Tan Lijie

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) and bronchus and its value in predicting the nature of nodule. Methods: Continuous volume targeted scans of 0.5 mm collimation were prospectively performed with multislice spiral CT (MSCT) and reconstructed images of MPR, CPR, and SSD in workstation in 75 patients of SPN with ≤3 cm in diameter were acquired. The emphasis was paid on the manifestation of the shapes and patterns of SPN with related bronchi. The results were correlated with macroscopic and microscopic specimens. Results: (1) The SPN-bronchus relationship was shown very clearly in all patients by the designed protocol. CT demonstrated the relations between SPN and bronchus in 44 (86.3%) malignant and 16 (66.7%) benign nodules. There was no statistically significant difference (P=0.065). (2) Five types of SPN-bronchus relationship were identified with MSCT. Type I: bronchus was obstructed abruptly by the SPN, type II: bronchus penetrated into SPN with tapered narrow and interruption, type III: bronchus lumen shown within SPN was patent and intact, type IV: bronchus ran at the periphery of SPN with intact lumen, and type V: bronchus was displaced, compressed, and narrowed by SPN. (3) With respect to the nature of SPN, malignant nodule most commonly showed type I, secondly type IV, and rarely type V. Benign nodule most often showed type V, secondly type I, and no type II. With respect to the pattern, type I, II, and IV patterns were more commonly seen in malignant nodule, whereas type V pattern was seen frequently in benign nodule. Type III pattern was slightly more common in benign cases. Conclusion: Spiral targeted scan of ultra-thin section with MSCT and followed by MPR, CPR, and SSD reconstruction can greatly improve the manifestation of the bronchioles and accurately demonstrate the patterns of SPN-bronchus relationship. Varied patterns are corresponding to certain nodule and reflect definite pathologic changes

  12. Management of solid pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poschenrieder, F.; Beyer, L.; Stroszczynski, C.; Hamer, O.W.; Rehbock, B.; Diederich, S.; Wormanns, D.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of computed tomography has meant that the number of incidentally detected solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) has greatly increased in recent years. A reasonable management of these SPN is necessary in order to firstly be able to detect malignant lesions early on and secondly to avoid upsetting the patient unnecessarily or carrying out further stressful diagnostic procedures. This review article shows how the dignity of SPNs can be estimated and based on this how the management can be accomplished taking established guidelines into consideration. (orig.) [de

  13. Frequency and characteristics of pulmonary nodules in children at computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samim, Atia; Littooij, Annemieke S.; Wessels, Frank J.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M. van den [Princess Maxima Centre for Pediatric Oncology, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-12-15

    Normative data on pulmonary nodules in children without malignancy are limited. Knowledge of the frequency and characteristics of pulmonary nodules in healthy children can influence care decisions in children with malignant disease. To provide normative data concerning the frequency and characteristics of pulmonary nodules on computed tomography (CT) in young children. All children ages 1 year-12 years who underwent chest CT after high-energy trauma were retrospectively investigated. Exclusion criteria were a history of malignancy, thick image slices, motion artefacts and extensive post-traumatic pulmonary changes. Two radiologists were asked to independently identify all nodules and to characterize each nodule with respect to location, size, perifissural location and calcification. Discrepancies were adjudicated by a third reader, who set the reference standard in this study. Interobserver agreement in detection and characterization was assessed using the kappa coefficient (κ). Identified were 120 patients, of whom 72 (75% male; median age: 8.0 years [interquartile range: 4-11]) were included. A total of 59 pulmonary nodules were present in 27 patients (38%; 95% confidence interval: 26-49%; range: 1-5 nodules per patient, with a mean diameter of 3.2 mm [standard deviation: 0.9 mm]). For nodule detection, the per-patient interobserver agreement was substantial (κ=0.78) and per-lobe agreement was moderate (κ=0.40). For characterization, there was fair to substantial agreement (κ=0.36-0.74). Small pulmonary nodules on chest CT are a common finding in otherwise healthy children, but detection and characterization have only moderate interobserver agreement. (orig.)

  14. Cancer risk and clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid nodules harboring thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, Sann Y; Riedlinger, Gregory; Abbott, Collette E; Seethala, Raja; Ohori, N Paul; Nikiforova, Marina N; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Hodak, Steven P

    2018-05-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene mutations play a critical role in thyroid cell proliferation and function. They are found in 20%-82% of hyperfunctioning nodules, hyperfunctioning follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), and papillary thyroid cancers (PTC). The diagnostic importance of TSHR mutation testing in fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens remains unstudied. To examine the association of TSHR mutations with the functional status and surgical outcomes of thyroid nodules, we evaluated 703 consecutive thyroid FNA samples with indeterminate cytology for TSHR mutations using next-generation sequencing. Testing for EZH1 mutations was performed in selected cases. The molecular diagnostic testing was done as part of standard of care treatment, and did not require informed consent. TSHR mutations were detected in 31 (4.4%) nodules and were located in exons 281-640, with codon 486 being the most common. Allelic frequency ranged from 3% to 45%. Of 16 cases (12 benign, 3 FTC, 1 PTC) with surgical correlation, 15 had solitary TSHR mutations and 1 PTC had comutation with BRAF V600E. Hyperthyroidism was confirmed in all 3 FTC (2 overt, 1 subclinical). Of 5 nodules with solitary TSHR mutations detected at high allelic frequency, 3 (60%) were FTC. Those at low allelic frequency (3%-22%) were benign. EZH1 mutations were detected in 2 of 4 TSHR-mutant malignant nodules and neither of 2 benign nodules. We report that TSHR mutations occur in ∼5% thyroid nodules in a large consecutive series with indeterminate cytology. TSHR mutations may be associated with an increased cancer risk when present at high allelic frequency, even when the nodule is hyperfunctioning. Benign nodules were however most strongly correlated with TSHR mutations at low allelic frequency. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Frequency and characteristics of pulmonary nodules in children at computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samim, Atia; Littooij, Annemieke S.; Wessels, Frank J.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Jong, Pim A. de; Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M. van den

    2017-01-01

    Normative data on pulmonary nodules in children without malignancy are limited. Knowledge of the frequency and characteristics of pulmonary nodules in healthy children can influence care decisions in children with malignant disease. To provide normative data concerning the frequency and characteristics of pulmonary nodules on computed tomography (CT) in young children. All children ages 1 year-12 years who underwent chest CT after high-energy trauma were retrospectively investigated. Exclusion criteria were a history of malignancy, thick image slices, motion artefacts and extensive post-traumatic pulmonary changes. Two radiologists were asked to independently identify all nodules and to characterize each nodule with respect to location, size, perifissural location and calcification. Discrepancies were adjudicated by a third reader, who set the reference standard in this study. Interobserver agreement in detection and characterization was assessed using the kappa coefficient (κ). Identified were 120 patients, of whom 72 (75% male; median age: 8.0 years [interquartile range: 4-11]) were included. A total of 59 pulmonary nodules were present in 27 patients (38%; 95% confidence interval: 26-49%; range: 1-5 nodules per patient, with a mean diameter of 3.2 mm [standard deviation: 0.9 mm]). For nodule detection, the per-patient interobserver agreement was substantial (κ=0.78) and per-lobe agreement was moderate (κ=0.40). For characterization, there was fair to substantial agreement (κ=0.36-0.74). Small pulmonary nodules on chest CT are a common finding in otherwise healthy children, but detection and characterization have only moderate interobserver agreement. (orig.)

  16. Correlation between the Quantifiable Parameters of Whole Solitary Pulmonary Nodules Perfusion Imaging Derived with Dynamic CT and Nodules Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyuan LIU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs is one of the most common findings on chest radiographs. The blood flow patterns of the biggest single SPNs level has been studied. This assessment may be only a limited sample of the entire region of interest (ROI and is unrepresentative of the SPNs as a volume. Ideally, SPNs volume perfusion should be measured. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the quantifiableparameters of SPNs volume perfusion imaging derived with 16-slice spiral CT and 64-slice spiral CT and nodules size. Methods Sixty-five patients with SPNs (diameter≤3 cm; 42 malignant; 12 active inflammatory; 11 benign underwent multi-location dynamic contrast material-enhanced serial CT scanning mode with stable table were performed; The mean values of valid sections were calculated, as the quantifiable parameters of volume SPNs perfusion imaging derived with16-slice spiral CT and 64-slice spiral CT. The correlation between the quantifiable parameters of SPNs volume perfusion imaging derived with 16-slice spiral CT and 64-slice spiral CT and nodules size were assessed by means of linear regression analysis. Results No significant correlations were found between the nodules size and each of the peak height (PHSPN (32.15 Hu±14.55 Hu,ratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (SPN-to-A ratio(13.20±6.18%, perfusion(PSPN (29.79±19.12 mLmin-1100 g-1 and mean transit time (12.95±6.53 s (r =0.081, P =0.419; r =0.089, P =0.487; r =0.167, P =0.077; r =0.023, P =0.880. Conclusion No significant correlations were found between the quantifiable parameters of SPNs volume perfusion imaging derived with 16-slice spiral CT and 64-slice spiral CT and nodules size.

  17. Role of baseline nodule density and changes in density and nodule features in the discrimination between benign and malignant solid indeterminate pulmonary nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, D.M.; van Klaveren, R.J.; de Bock, G.H.; Leusveld, A.L.M.; Dorrius, M.D.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, Y.; de Koning, H.J.; Scholten, E.T.; Verschakelen, J.; Prokop, M.; Oudkerk, M.

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate whether baseline nodule density or changes in density or nodule features could be used to discriminate between benign and malignant solid indeterminate nodules. Materials and methods: Solid indeterminate nodules between 50 and 500 mm(3) (4.6-9.8 mm) were assessed

  18. Umbilical metastasis (Sister Mary Joseph's nodule diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatomirović Željka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sister Mary Joseph’s nodule is the eponym for metastatic involvement of the umbilicus. This less common entity is the sign of disseminated malignant disease, mainly of digestive and gynecologic origin, and is associated with a poor prognosis. A case of Sister Mary Joseph’s nodule in a 76-year-old woman in whom the umbilical metastasis was the first sign of malignant disease in presented. The diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma was established by fine needle aspiration cytology of the umbilical nodule. Radiological and ultrasonographic investigation disclosed carcinoma of the gallbladder with pancreas, stomach, and colon invasion as well as peritoneal dissemination. The diagnosis was confirmed by exploratory laparatomy and histological examination of the excised umbilical nodule.

  19. Intramural hypoattenuated nodules in thickened wall of the gallbladder; CT features according to their primary causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Hyung; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Jean Hwa; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu; Kim, Myung-Jin

    2001-01-01

    According to published reports, a common feature of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is the presence of intramural hypoattenuated nodules in thickened gallbladder wall. These nodules can, however, also be seen in pathological conditions such as acute cholecystitis, hyperplastic cholecystoses (cholesterolosis and adenomyomatosis), gallbladder cancer, and other inflammatory diseases such as tuberculosis. Retrospective review of the abdominal CT findings in 622 patients who for various reasons underwent cholecystectomy during a one-year period showed that intramural nodules were present in 60. In this pictorial essay we illustrate the imaging features of the many different pathological conditions which give rise to intramural hypoattenuated nodules in thickened wall of the gallbladder, correlating these features with the histopathological findings

  20. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules at Colorectal Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of indeterminate pulmonary nodules and specific radiological and clinical characteristics that predict malignancy of these at initial staging chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with colorectal cancer. A considerable number of indeterminate...... pulmonary nodules, which cannot readily be classified as either benign or malignant, are detected at initial staging chest CT in colorectal cancer patients....

  1. Position of solitary thyroid nodules by gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this work it is presented which it is the position more frequent of the solitary thyroid nodules. It was used the method of retrospective longitudinal observational investigation in 125 patients that went to the laboratory for realization of detection of thyroid nodules in the years 2004 and 2005 through gammagraphy. (Author)

  2. Computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules: influence of nodule characteristics on detection performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, K.; Engelke, C.; Seyfarth, T.; Grillhoesl, A.; Obenauer, S.; Rummeny, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate prospectively the influence of pulmonary nodule characteristics on detection performances of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool and experienced chest radiologists using multislice CT (MSCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MSCT scans of 20 consecutive patients were evaluated by a CAD system and two independent chest radiologists for presence of pulmonary nodules. Nodule size, position, margin, matrix characteristics, vascular and pleural attachments and reader confidence were recorded and data compared with an independent standard of reference. Statistical analysis for predictors influencing nodule detection or reader performance included chi-squared, retrograde stepwise conditional logistic regression with odds ratios and nodule detection proportion estimates (DPE), and ROC analysis. RESULTS: For 135 nodules, detection rates for CAD and readers were 76.3, 52.6 and 52.6%, respectively; false-positive rates were 0.55, 0.25 and 0.15 per examination, respectively. In consensus with CAD the reader detection rate increased to 93.3%, and the false-positive rate dropped to 0.1/scan. DPEs for nodules ≤5 mm were significantly higher for ICAD than for the readers (p<0.05). Absence of vascular attachment was the only significant predictor of nodule detection by CAD (p=0.0006-0.008). There were no predictors of nodule detection for reader consensus with CAD. In contrast, vascular attachment predicted nodule detection by the readers (p=0.0001-0.003). Reader sensitivity was higher for nodules with vascular attachment than for unattached nodules (sensitivities 0.768 and 0.369; 95% confidence intervals=0.651-0.861 and 0.253-0.498, respectively). CONCLUSION: CAD increases nodule detection rates, decreases false-positive rates and compensates for deficient reader performance in detection of smallest lesions and of nodules without vascular attachment

  3. Nonsurgical, image-guided, minimally invasive therapy for thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, Hossein; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Pacella, Claudio Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    evaluation. These techniques have also been applied to recurrent locoregional cervical thyroid cancer with encouraging initial results, although still limited data. Conclusions: Surgery and radioiodine remain as conventional and established treatments for nodular goiters. However, the new image......Context: Nodular thyroid disease is very common. Most nodules are asymptomatic, are benign by fine-needle aspiration, remain stable, and can be followed by observation alone in the majority of the patients. Occasionally, nodules grow or cause symptoms requiring treatment. So far, surgery has been...... our main option for treatment. Objective: In this review, we discuss nonsurgical, minimally invasive approaches for small thyroid masses, including indications, efficacy, side effects, and costs. Evidence Acquisition: We selected recent publications related to minimally invasive thyroid techniques...

  4. Digital tomosynthesis for evaluating metastatic lung nodules: nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Chang Min; Bahn, Young Eun; Kim, Hyungjin; Song, Yong Sub; Hwang, Eui Jin

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times for digital tomosynthesis (DT). We included 80 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and DT before pulmonary metastasectomy. One experienced chest radiologist annotated all visible nodules on thin-section CT scans using computer-aided detection software. Two radiologists used CT as the reference standard and retrospectively graded the visibility of nodules on DT. Nodule detection performance was evaluated in four sessions of 20 cases each by six readers. After each session, readers were unblinded to the DT images by revealing the true-positive markings and were instructed to self-analyze their own misreads. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were determined. Among 414 nodules on CT, 53.3% (221/414) were visible on DT. The main reason for not seeing a nodule on DT was small size (93.3%, ≤ 5 mm). DT revealed a substantial number of malignant nodules (84.1%, 143/170). The proportion of malignant nodules among visible nodules on DT was significantly higher (64.7%, 143/221) than that on CT (41.1%, 170/414) (p 0.8, and the average detection rate for malignant nodules was 85% (210/246). The inter-session analysis of the AUC showed no significant differences among the readers, and the detection rate for malignant nodules did not differ across sessions. A slight improvement in reading times was observed. Most malignant nodules > 5 mm were visible on DT. As nodule detection performance was high from the initial session, DT may be readily applicable for radiology residents and board-certified radiologists.

  5. Digital tomosynthesis for evaluating metastatic lung nodules: Nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Chang Min; Bahn, Young Eun; Kim, Hyung Jin; Song, Yong Sub; Hwang, Eui Jin

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times for digital tomosynthesis (DT). We included 80 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and DT before pulmonary metastasectomy. One experienced chest radiologist annotated all visible nodules on thin-section CT scans using computer-aided detection software. Two radiologists used CT as the reference standard and retrospectively graded the visibility of nodules on DT. Nodule detection performance was evaluated in four sessions of 20 cases each by six readers. After each session, readers were unblinded to the DT images by revealing the true-positive markings and were instructed to self-analyze their own misreads. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were determined. Among 414 nodules on CT, 53.3% (221/414) were visible on DT. The main reason for not seeing a nodule on DT was small size (93.3%, < or = 5 mm). DT revealed a substantial number of malignant nodules (84.1%, 143/170). The proportion of malignant nodules among visible nodules on DT was significantly higher (64.7%, 143/221) than that on CT (41.1%, 170/414) (p < 0.001). Area under the curve (AUC) values at the initial session were > 0.8, and the average detection rate for malignant nodules was 85% (210/246). The inter-session analysis of the AUC showed no significant differences among the readers, and the detection rate for malignant nodules did not differ across sessions. A slight improvement in reading times was observed. Most malignant nodules > 5 mm were visible on DT. As nodule detection performance was high from the initial session, DT may be readily applicable for radiology residents and board-certified radiologists.

  6. Digital tomosynthesis for evaluating metastatic lung nodules: Nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Chang Min; Bahn, Young Eun; Kim, Hyung Jin; Song, Yong Sub; Hwang, Eui Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To evaluate nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times for digital tomosynthesis (DT). We included 80 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and DT before pulmonary metastasectomy. One experienced chest radiologist annotated all visible nodules on thin-section CT scans using computer-aided detection software. Two radiologists used CT as the reference standard and retrospectively graded the visibility of nodules on DT. Nodule detection performance was evaluated in four sessions of 20 cases each by six readers. After each session, readers were unblinded to the DT images by revealing the true-positive markings and were instructed to self-analyze their own misreads. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were determined. Among 414 nodules on CT, 53.3% (221/414) were visible on DT. The main reason for not seeing a nodule on DT was small size (93.3%, < or = 5 mm). DT revealed a substantial number of malignant nodules (84.1%, 143/170). The proportion of malignant nodules among visible nodules on DT was significantly higher (64.7%, 143/221) than that on CT (41.1%, 170/414) (p < 0.001). Area under the curve (AUC) values at the initial session were > 0.8, and the average detection rate for malignant nodules was 85% (210/246). The inter-session analysis of the AUC showed no significant differences among the readers, and the detection rate for malignant nodules did not differ across sessions. A slight improvement in reading times was observed. Most malignant nodules > 5 mm were visible on DT. As nodule detection performance was high from the initial session, DT may be readily applicable for radiology residents and board-certified radiologists.

  7. The Class II trehalose 6-phosphate synthase gene PvTPS9 modulates trehalose metabolism in Phaseolus vulgaris nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Barraza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Legumes form symbioses with rhizobia, producing nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of the plant host. The network of plant signaling pathways affecting carbon metabolism may determine the final number of nodules. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway regulates carbon metabolism and plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development, as well as in plant-microbe interactions. The expression of genes for trehalose synthesis during nodule development suggests that this metabolite may play a role in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. In this work, PvTPS9, which encodes a Class II trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, was silenced by RNA interference in transgenic nodules. The silencing of PvTPS9 in root nodules resulted in a reduction of 85% (± 1% of its transcript, which correlated with a 30% decrease in trehalose contents of transgenic nodules and in untransformed leaves. Composite transgenic plants with PvTPS9 silenced in the roots showed no changes in nodule number and nitrogen fixation, but a severe reduction in plant biomass and altered transcript profiles of all Class II TPS genes. Our data suggest that PvTPS9 plays a key role in modulating trehalose metabolism in the symbiotic nodule and, therefore, in the whole plant.

  8. Nitrogen assimilation in soybean nodules, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuji; Kumazawa, Kikuo

    1980-01-01

    In order to elucidate the pathways to assimilate the ammonia produced by N 2 -fixation in soybean nodules, 15 N-labeled compounds were administered to intact nodules or nodule slices pretreated with various inhibitors of nitrogen assimilation. After exposure to 15 N 2 , 15 N-incorporation into various nitrogenous compounds was investigated in attached nodules injected with methionine sulfoximine (MSX) or azaserine (AS). MSX treatment increased the 15 N content of ammonia more than 6 times, however, depressed 15 N content of most of amides and amino acids. AS treatment enhanced 15 N content of amido-N of glutamine as well as ammonia, but decreased amino-N of glutamine and most of amino acids. Experiments with nodule slices pretreated with MSX or AS solution and then fed with 15 N-labeled ammonia or amido- 15 N of glutamine showed the same trends. Aminooxyacetate inhibited nitrogen flow from glutamic acid to other amino acids. These results strongly indicate that the ammonia produced by N 2 -fixation is assimilated by GS/GOGAT system to glutamic acid and then transaminated to various amino acids in situ. 15 N-incorporation patterns in nodule slices fed with 15 N-labeled ammonia, hydroxylamine, nitrite were similar, but nitrate seemed to be reduced in a definite compartment and assimilated similarly as in intact nodules fed with 15 N 2 (author)

  9. Hypervascular hyperplastic nodules appearing in chronic alcoholic liver disease: benign intrahepatic nodules mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won Kyu; Chang, Jay Chun; Kim, Jae Woon

    2006-01-01

    Hypervascular hyperplastic nodules in those patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease and who are hepatitis B and C negative have recently been reported on. The purpose of this study was to correlate the radiologic and pathologic findings with the clinical significance of these hypervascular hyperplastic nodules in chronic alcoholic liver disease. The study included eight hypervascular nodules of seven patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease, and these patients abused alcohol for more than 20 years. Eight hypervascular nodules were seen on the arterial phase of dynamic CT scans, but the possibility of HCC was excluded pathologically (n=4) or clinically. The radiologic and pathologic findings, and the changes of these nodules on follow up CT scans were retrospectively analyzed. All nodules showed good enhancement on the arterial phase. The tissue equilibrium phase of the dynamic CT scans showed isodensity in seven patients and low density in one patient. Ultrasound scans revealed hypoechoic findings for three nodules, isoechoic findings for two nodules, hyperechoic findings for one nodules, and two nodules were not detected. Angiograms (n=6) showed late incremental tumor staining, and all the nodules were well seen on the sinusoidal phase. CT during hepatic angiography (n=4) showed well stained tumor. CT during arterial portography (n=4) showed no defect in three nodules and nodular defect in on nodule. The MR images (n=3) showed low signal intensity in two nodules and iso-signal intensity in one nodule on T2WI. Five of six cases for which follow up CT scans were performed showed decrease in size and one was disappeared. Radiologically, it is often difficult to differentiate the hypervascular hyperplastic nodules seen in the chronic alcoholic liver disease from hepatocellular carcinoma, and histological confirmation is needed for excluded hepatocellular carcinoma. However, late tumor staining during the sinusoidal phase without any blood supply by feeding

  10. Hypervascular hyperplastic nodules appearing in chronic alcoholic liver disease: benign intrahepatic nodules mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Kyu; Chang, Jay Chun; Kim, Jae Woon [College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-02-15

    Hypervascular hyperplastic nodules in those patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease and who are hepatitis B and C negative have recently been reported on. The purpose of this study was to correlate the radiologic and pathologic findings with the clinical significance of these hypervascular hyperplastic nodules in chronic alcoholic liver disease. The study included eight hypervascular nodules of seven patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease, and these patients abused alcohol for more than 20 years. Eight hypervascular nodules were seen on the arterial phase of dynamic CT scans, but the possibility of HCC was excluded pathologically (n=4) or clinically. The radiologic and pathologic findings, and the changes of these nodules on follow up CT scans were retrospectively analyzed. All nodules showed good enhancement on the arterial phase. The tissue equilibrium phase of the dynamic CT scans showed isodensity in seven patients and low density in one patient. Ultrasound scans revealed hypoechoic findings for three nodules, isoechoic findings for two nodules, hyperechoic findings for one nodules, and two nodules were not detected. Angiograms (n=6) showed late incremental tumor staining, and all the nodules were well seen on the sinusoidal phase. CT during hepatic angiography (n=4) showed well stained tumor. CT during arterial portography (n=4) showed no defect in three nodules and nodular defect in on nodule. The MR images (n=3) showed low signal intensity in two nodules and iso-signal intensity in one nodule on T2WI. Five of six cases for which follow up CT scans were performed showed decrease in size and one was disappeared. Radiologically, it is often difficult to differentiate the hypervascular hyperplastic nodules seen in the chronic alcoholic liver disease from hepatocellular carcinoma, and histological confirmation is needed for excluded hepatocellular carcinoma. However, late tumor staining during the sinusoidal phase without any blood supply by feeding

  11. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLITARY NODULE OF THYROID- A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN A TERTIARY CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Haridas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Solitary Thyroid Nodules (STN occur in 4-7% of the adult population. Owing to increasing incidence of malignancy, it is necessary to differentiate patients with benign STN from malignant ones for early intervention and better patient management. The aim of the study is to study the clinicopathological characteristics of STN for better diagnosis, evaluation and management; evaluate the efficacy of FNAC in preoperative diagnostics of solitary thyroid nodules. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted over a period of one year at a tertiary healthcare institution in South India. One hundred patients with solitary nodule of thyroid were studied by taking detailed history and conducting clinical examination, thyroid hormone assay, ultrasonogram, FNAC and histopathological examination. The chances of malignancy and age, sex and site distribution were also analysed. RESULTS Solitary thyroid nodule cases showed female preponderance (81%, presented mostly as neck swelling followed by dysphagia (11%. Most common FNAC report was of colloid nodule (61%, followed by follicular neoplasm (20% and papillary carcinoma (9%. Final HPR showed 53% as colloid nodule and 27% as papillary carcinoma. CONCLUSION Differentiating between benign and malignant lesions and their comprehensive management are the challenges presented by STN. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC is the diagnostic tool of choice for the initial evaluation of STN.

  12. Treatment of benign cold thyroid nodule: efficacy and safety of US-guided percutaneous ethanol injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Lee, Ho Kyu; Lee, Myung Joon; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul; Ahn, Il Min

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of US-guided percutaneous ethanol injection for the treatent of benign cold thyroid nodules. Twenty-five patients with benign cold thyroid nodules (volume of each at least 2ml proven by PCNA to be adenomatous hyperplasia, and cold nodule by thyroid scan) underwent a total of one to three percutaneous ethanol injections (PEI) at intervals of one or two months. The mean amount of ethanol used was 6.2(range, 1.5-8)ml, depending on the volume of the nodule. Follow up ultrasonography was performed one to four months after the final session. The initial volume of nodules was 11.4±4.1(range, 2.5-41.4)ml, and in all cases this fell by 56.1±22.3%(range, 10.9-92.1%);in all cases, follow-up ultrasonography showed that echogeneity was lower and its pattern was heterogeneous. There were no important longstanding complications;the most common side effect was acute pain at the injection site(n=3D9), and in one case, transient vocal cord palsy occurred. Our results show that US-guided percutaneous injection of ethanol is an effective and a safe procedure for the treatment of benign cold thyroid nodules, and is thus an alternative to surgery or hormone therapy.=20

  13. A rheumatoid nodule mimicking soft tissue sarcoma on MR: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joon Il; Kong, Keun Young; Kang, Heung Sik

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of rheumatoid nodule of the right knee in a 55-year-old woman which on the basis of MR images was misdiagnosed as soft tissue sarcoma. Reumatoid nodules occur in up to 20% of adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis and most patients with rheumatoid nodules are rheumatoid factor positive. The nodules are most commonly located between the skin and an underlying bony prominence. In this case, the patient had a history of rheumatoid arthritis and a soft tissue mass was present in the lateral aspect of the right knee. T1-weighted images revealed a mass of similar signal intensity to that of muscle, and on T2-weighted images, a central portion of high signal intensity was noted. Enhanced T1-weighted images demonstrated peripheral rim enhancement. The mass extended to subcutaneous tissue, with penetration of lateral patellar retinaculum. Excisional biopsy was performed, and the pathologic diagnosis was rheumatoid nodule. Although its radiologic findings are non-specific, rheumatoid nodule should -in appropriate clinical setting- be included in the differential diagnosis of a predominantly solid or centrally necrotic periarticular soft tissue. (author)

  14. The prevalence of incidentaloma - asymptomatic thyroid nodules in the Tricity (Gdansk, Sopot, Gdynia) population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaszewski, B.; Wilkowski, M.; Tomasiuk, T.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The increased sensitivity of imaging devices raised number of incidentally discovered lesions in various organs of the human body. Thyroid gland is one of them. Reported prevalence of ultrasonographically detected thyroid nodules (incidentalomas) in general population ranges from 5.2 to 67.0%. Our study demonstrated occurrence of this clinical problem in the general population of the Tricity. Material and methods: 135 healthy adults (95 women and 40 men) were examined. Neck palpation, ultrasonographic examinations of thyroid gland and serum tyreotropin (TSH) level measurement were made. Results: In 8.9% of examine (12/135) persons nodules were palpable whereas in 14.8% (20/135) they were detectable only in ultrasonographic examination. Altogether thyroid ultrasound and palpation revealed nodules in 23.7% (32/135) of all cases. Multiple nodules were present in 12.0% of the cases. The pathology was more common in the elderly and in women. TSH serum level was within normal range in all cases of incidentaloma with otherwise normal thyroid gland. Conclusions: Prevalence of thyroid gland nodules (palpation - 8.9% plus ultrasonography - 14.8%) in healthy population of Gdansk, Gdynia and Sopot is close to data reported in southern Finland (27.0%) and Belgium (19.0%), where iodine deficiency is small, like in the Tricity area. The revealed lesions were over two times more frequent in the female population. Most of the nodules were not palpable. (author)

  15. Thyroid nodules, thyroid function and dietary iodine in the Marshall islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Fujimori, K; Simon, S L; Bechtner, G; Edwards, R; Trott, K R

    1999-08-01

    Thyroid nodules have been found to be common in the population of the Marshall Islands. This has been attributed to potential exposure of radioiodines from the nuclear weapons tests on Bikini and Eniwetok between 1946 and 1958. In order to get a full picture of thyroid pathology in the Marshallese population potentially exposed to radioactive fallout we performed a large thyroid screening programme using palpation, high resolution ultrasound and fine needle biopsies of palpable nodules. In addition, various parameters of thyroid function (free T3, free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]) and anti-thyroid antibodies were examined in large proportions of the total population at risk. Since dietary iodine deficiency is an established risk factor for thyroid nodules, iodine concentration in urine samples of 362 adults and 119 children was measured as well as the iodine content of selected staple food products. The expected high prevalence of thyroid nodules was confirmed. There was no indication of an increased rate of impaired thyroid function in the Marshallese population. A moderate degree of iodine deficiency was found which may be responsible for some of the increased prevalence of thyroid nodules in the Marshallese population. Studies on the relationship between exposure to radioiodines and thyroid nodules need to take dietary iodine deficiency into account in the interpretation of findings.

  16. Bean nodulation patterns in soils of different texture at Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, nodulation success by the inoculum was total in the clay but only dismal in the sandy soil. The unexpected discrepancy between inoculum success on the one hand and nodulation plus plant growth response on the other, is discussed. Keywords: Bean nodulation, ELISA typing of nodules, phaseolus vulgaris

  17. Management of thyroid nodules in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid nodules in childhood and adolescence are less prevalent but more often malignant than in adulthood. Malignant nodules are predominantly papillary cancers; benign nodules are mostly solid colloid nodules/adenomas, but can be cystic or due lymphocytic thyroiditis. Previous neck irradiation

  18. Activation of cell divisions in legume nodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadzieja, Marcin

    organogenesis. Coordination of these two interdependent processes results in formation of nodules - bacterial accommodating structures where fixation of atmospheric nitrogen takes place. Plant hormones such as auxin and cytokinin play important roles in nodulation. In some legumes the infection process...... of auxin transport inhibitors or cytokinin alone was shown to induce cortical cell divisions in the absence of rhizobia in certain legume species. While the roles of auxin and cytokinin in nodulation have been studied extensively, the precise timing, location and means of molecular crosstalk between...

  19. [Nodules on localized scleroderma or morphea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayle, P; Bazex, J; Marguery, M-C; Lamant, L

    2005-02-01

    Localized scleroderma or morphea usually appears as flat or depressed lesions. We report 3 cases of morphea with atypical appearance, alternating pigmented and depigmented patches with nodules or sclerous bands, occurring in adult men. The occurrence of nodular elements on generalized or localized scleroderma, although rare, was first reported in the literature by Addisson in 1884. These nodules usually appear during evolution. These scleroderma are then described as being keloidal or nodular. We report 3 cases of nodules on localized scleroderma which appeared at the beginning of the dermatosis and where the scleroderma had a similar unusual irregularly pigmented appearance.

  20. Treatment of Benign Thyroid Nodules: Comparison of Surgery with Radiofrequency Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Y; Jin, S; Shi, C; Wang, L; Zhang, X; Li, Y; Baek, J H

    2015-07-01

    Nodular goiter is one of the most common benign lesions in thyroid nodule. The main treatment of the disease is still the traditional surgical resection, however there are many problems such as general anesthesia, surgical scar, postoperative thyroid or parathyroid function abnormalities, and high nodules recurrence rate in residual gland. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of 2 treatment methods, surgery and radiofrequency ablation, for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. From May 2012 to September 2013, 200 patients with nodular goiters who underwent surgery (group A) and 200 patients treated by radiofrequency ablation (group B) were enrolled in this study. Inclusion criteria were the following: 1) cosmetic problem, 2) nodule-related symptoms, 3) hyperfunctioning nodules related to thyrotoxicosis, and 4) refusal of surgery (for group B). An internally cooled radiofrequency ablation system and an 18-ga internally cooled electrode were used. We compared the 2 groups in terms of efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness during a 1-year follow-up. After radiofrequency ablation, the nodule volume decreased significantly from 5.4 to 0.4 mL (P = .002) at the 12-month follow-up. The incidence of complications was significantly higher from surgery than from radiofrequency ablation (6.0% versus 1.0%, P = .002). Hypothyroidism was detected in 71.5% of patients after surgery but in none following radiofrequency ablation. The rate of residual nodules (11.9% versus 2.9%, P = .004) and hospitalization days was significantly greater after surgery (6.6 versus 2.1 days, P radiofrequency ablation are both effective treatments of nodular goiter. Compared with surgery, the advantages of radiofrequency ablation include fewer complications, preservation of thyroid function, and fewer hospitalization days. Therefore, radiofrequency ablation should be considered a first-line treatment for benign thyroid nodules. © 2015 by American

  1. Pulmonary nodules secondary to total parenteral alimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, B.A.; Melhem, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-year-old male, who had a retroperitoneal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and was on total parenteral alimentation (TPN) developed muliple pulmonary nodules, indistinguishable from metastases. These proved to be multiple lipid emboli on open biopsy. (orig.)

  2. Actinorhizal nitrogen fixing nodules: infection process, molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actinorhizal nitrogen fixing nodules: infection process, molecular biology and genomics. Mariana Obertello, Mame Oureye SY, Laurent Laplaze, Carole Santi, Sergio Svistoonoff, Florence Auguy, Didier Bogusz, Claudine Franche ...

  3. Nodule bottom backscattering study using multibeam echosounder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Raju, Y.S.N.; Nair, R.R.

    A study is carried out to observe the angular dependence of backscattering strength at nodule area where grab sample and photographic data is available. Theoretical study along with the experimentally observed data shows that the backscattering...

  4. Isolate pulmonary nodule. CT-guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, J.N.; Ettore, F.; Rogopoulos, A.; Geoffray, A.; Balu-Maestro, C.; Le Houcq, M.

    1989-01-01

    Transparietal CT-guided biopsy location can be successfully performed for isolate pulmonary nodules, defined as lesions with a maximal diameter of 3 cm, without any other parenchymal or mediastinal abnormality. A 21 G needle has been used according to an identical protocole in 64 cases (10 benign, 54 malignant). The biopsy was successful in 77.7% of the malignant cases. In relation to the diameter of the nodules, biopsy was successful in 66.7% of the nodules smaller than 2 cm and in 76% of the nodules ranging from 2 to 3 cm. The complications observed were rare (1 case of pneumothorax requiring drainage, 9 cases of pneumothorax without clinical signs and simply followed up, 4 cases of minor hemoptysis requiring no treatment and 5 cases of hematomas smaller than 5 cm on CT) [fr

  5. Early nodule senescence is activated in symbiotic mutants of pea (Pisum sativum L.) forming ineffective nodules blocked at different nodule developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serova, Tatiana A; Tsyganova, Anna V; Tsyganov, Viktor E

    2018-04-03

    Plant symbiotic mutants are useful tool to uncover the molecular-genetic mechanisms of nodule senescence. The pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants SGEFix - -1 (sym40), SGEFix - -3 (sym26), and SGEFix - -7 (sym27) display an early nodule senescence phenotype, whereas the mutant SGEFix - -2 (sym33) does not show premature degradation of symbiotic structures, but its nodules show an enhanced immune response. The nodules of these mutants were compared with each other and with those of the wild-type SGE line using seven marker genes that are known to be activated during nodule senescence. In wild-type SGE nodules, transcript levels of all of the senescence-associated genes were highest at 6 weeks after inoculation (WAI). The senescence-associated genes showed higher transcript abundance in mutant nodules than in wild-type nodules at 2 WAI and attained maximum levels in the mutant nodules at 4 WAI. Immunolocalization analyses showed that the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate accumulated earlier in the mutant nodules than in wild-type nodules. Together, these results showed that nodule senescence was activated in ineffective nodules blocked at different developmental stages in pea lines that harbor mutations in four symbiotic genes.

  6. Scintigraphy of the functioning thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of functioning thyroid nodules is achieved by use of several Iodine isotopes, while in clinical routine 99m Tc-Pertechnetate is dominating. For classification the terms hyperfunctional, isofunctional (normal) and hypofunctional are useful in comparison to the surrounding normally functioning thyroid tissue, which can be stimulated or suppressed. Therefore, autonomous functioning thyroid nodules can vary the scintigraphic appearance. For precise description the terms 'compensation' and 'decompensation' have to be used in relation to scintigraphy or thyroidal metabolism (regulation). (orig.)

  7. Atypical Localized Rheumatoid Nodule: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KORHAN BARIS BAYRAM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid nodules can be seen in about 30% of patiens with rheumatoid arthritis. They are occasionally localized subcutaneous, but they can rarely seen in visceral organs. Their appearance can be confused with many clinical conditions when they have atypical localizations. To exclude the presence of a malignancy, these lesions should always be investigated. We aimed to discuss a patient with rheumatoid nodule localized in close neighborhood of hyoid bone, presumed as malignancy.

  8. Solitary pulmonary nodule and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Part 1: epidemiology, morphological evaluation and cancer probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosmann, Marcos Pretto; Borba, Marcelle Alves; Macedo, Francisco Pires Negromonte; Liguori, Adriano de Araujo Lima; Villarim Neto, Arthur, E-mail: mosmann@gmail.com [Liga Norte Riograndense Contra o Cancer, Natal, RN (Brazil); Lima, Kenio Costa de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Saude Coletiva

    2016-01-15

    Solitary pulmonary nodule corresponds to a common radiographic finding, which is frequently detected incidentally. The investigation of this entity remains complex, since characteristics of benign and malignant processes overlap in the differential diagnosis. Currently, many strategies are available to evaluate solitary pulmonary nodules with the main objective of characterizing benign lesions as best as possible, while avoiding to expose patients to the risks inherent to invasive methods, besides correctly detecting cases of lung cancer so as the potential curative treatment is not delayed. This first part of the study focuses on the epidemiology, the morphological evaluation and the methods to determine the likelihood of cancer in cases of indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodule. (author)

  9. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Bryan R; Alexander, Erik K; Bible, Keith C; Doherty, Gerard M; Mandel, Susan J; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W; Sawka, Anna M; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G; Sherman, Steven I; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L; Tuttle, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and d...

  10. Analysis of nodule meristem persistence and ENOD40 functioning in Medicago truncatula nodule formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan Xi,

    2007-01-01

    Medicago root nodules are formed as a result of the interaction of the plant with the soil-borne bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. Several plant genes are induced during nodule formation and MtENOD40 is one of the earliest genes activated. The precise function as well as the molecule

  11. On the isotropic elastic constants of graphite nodules in ductile cast iron: Analytical and numerical micromechanical investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriollo, Tito; Hattel, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the mechanical behavior of nodules in ductile iron is still missing in the published literature. Nevertheless, experimental evidence exists for the importance of such graphite particles during macroscopic material deformation, especially under compressive loading...... mesoscopic moduli in agreement with Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio recorded for common ferritic ductile iron grades. This suggests that graphite nodules may not be considered isotropic at the microscopic scale, at least from a mechanical viewpoint....

  12. Laryngeal ultrasound and pediatric vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongkasuwan, Julina; Devore, Danielle; Hollas, Sarah; Jones, Jeremy; Tran, Brandon

    2017-03-01

    The term vocal fold nodules refers to bilateral thickening of the membranous folds with minimal impairment of the vibratory properties of the mucosa. Nodules are thought to be related to repetitive mechanical stress, associated with voice use patterns. Diagnosis is typically made in the office via either rigid or flexible laryngeal stroboscopy. Depending on the individual child, obtaining an optimal view of the larynx can be difficult if not impossible. Recent advances in high-frequency ultrasonography allows for transcervical examination of laryngeal structures. The goal of this project was to determine if laryngeal ultrasound (LUS) can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in dysphonic children. Prospective case-control study in which the patient acted as his or her own control. Forty-six pediatric patients were recruited for participation in this study; the mean age was 4.8 years. Twenty-three did not have any vocal fold lesions and 23 had a diagnosis of vocal fold nodules on laryngeal stroboscopy. Recorded LUSs were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists who were blinded to the nodule status. There was substantial inter-rater agreement (κ = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.89) between the two radiologists regarding the presence of nodules. There was also substantial agreement (κ = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.72-1) between LUS and laryngeal stroboscopy. Sensitivity of LUS was 100% (95% CI: 85%-100%) and specificity was 87% (95% CI: 66%-97%). LUS can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in children with substantial agreement with laryngeal stroboscopy. 3b Laryngoscope, 127:676-678, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Approach and management of thyroid nodule. A literature review = Nódulo tiroideo, enfoque y manejo. Revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román-González, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid nodules are commonly found, and their incidence is increasing. The main objective during the evaluation of these nodules is to determine if they are benign or malignant. Materials and methods: We made a narrative review of the literature by searching Ovid, Medline and Lilacs from 1950 to 2010. Results: Most thyroid nodules are benign, but in 4% to 8% of cases they may be malignant, hence the importance of appropriate study and management. Nodules larger than 1 cm should undergo fine needle aspirate; however, the clinical features of the patient and the characteristics of the nodule on ultrasound assessment should always be taken into account. The following are risk factors associated with the presence of thyroid nodules: age over 45 years, female gender and smoking. The measurement of tumor markers in the initial study of patients with thyroid nodule is not recommended.Conclusion: Ultrasound and thyroid fine needle aspirate are the most important diagnostic methods in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, because they enable to make changes in therapeutic decisions thus decreasing the number of unnecessary thyroidectomies. Treatment and prognosis of thyroid nodules will depend on the patient´s risk factors and the cytological and pathological findings.

  14. Ultrasound image-based thyroid nodule automatic segmentation using convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinlian; Wu, Fa; Jiang, Tian'an; Zhao, Qiyu; Kong, Dexing

    2017-11-01

    Delineation of thyroid nodule boundaries from ultrasound images plays an important role in calculation of clinical indices and diagnosis of thyroid diseases. However, it is challenging for accurate and automatic segmentation of thyroid nodules because of their heterogeneous appearance and components similar to the background. In this study, we employ a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to automatically segment thyroid nodules from ultrasound images. Our CNN-based method formulates a thyroid nodule segmentation problem as a patch classification task, where the relationship among patches is ignored. Specifically, the CNN used image patches from images of normal thyroids and thyroid nodules as inputs and then generated the segmentation probability maps as outputs. A multi-view strategy is used to improve the performance of the CNN-based model. Additionally, we compared the performance of our approach with that of the commonly used segmentation methods on the same dataset. The experimental results suggest that our proposed method outperforms prior methods on thyroid nodule segmentation. Moreover, the results show that the CNN-based model is able to delineate multiple nodules in thyroid ultrasound images accurately and effectively. In detail, our CNN-based model can achieve an average of the overlap metric, dice ratio, true positive rate, false positive rate, and modified Hausdorff distance as [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] on overall folds, respectively. Our proposed method is fully automatic without any user interaction. Quantitative results also indicate that our method is so efficient and accurate that it can be good enough to replace the time-consuming and tedious manual segmentation approach, demonstrating the potential clinical applications.

  15. Crowdsourcing the nodulation gene network discovery environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yupeng; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-26

    The Legumes (Fabaceae) are an economically and ecologically important group of plant species with the conspicuous capacity for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules, specialized plant organs containing symbiotic microbes. With the aim of understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to nodulation, many efforts are underway to identify nodulation-related genes and determine how these genes interact with each other. In order to accurately and efficiently reconstruct nodulation gene network, a crowdsourcing platform, CrowdNodNet, was created. The platform implements the jQuery and vis.js JavaScript libraries, so that users are able to interactively visualize and edit the gene network, and easily access the information about the network, e.g. gene lists, gene interactions and gene functional annotations. In addition, all the gene information is written on MediaWiki pages, enabling users to edit and contribute to the network curation. Utilizing the continuously updated, collaboratively written, and community-reviewed Wikipedia model, the platform could, in a short time, become a comprehensive knowledge base of nodulation-related pathways. The platform could also be used for other biological processes, and thus has great potential for integrating and advancing our understanding of the functional genomics and systems biology of any process for any species. The platform is available at http://crowd.bioops.info/ , and the source code can be openly accessed at https://github.com/bioops/crowdnodnet under MIT License.

  16. Nodulation studies with induced mutants of black gram (Vigna mungo L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahna, S.K.; Garg, Rekha; Parvateesam, M.

    1990-01-01

    Mutation breeding has been widely used to generate genetic variability in plants, but reports of mutations affecting the root system are less common. In the present work, black gram (Vigna mungo L. var T9), has been used for studies on the effect of induced mutations on nodulation patterns

  17. Update on the role of ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation for thyroid nodule treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radzina, Maija; Cantisani, Vito; Rauda, Madara

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid nodules can be frequently detected in general population, most of them are benign, however malignant cases are rising in the past decades. Ultrasound (US) is the most common imaging modality to assess thyroid nodular lesions, plan patient work-up and guide minimally invasive treatment...

  18. Inter- and intrascanner variability of pulmonary nodule volumetry on low-dose 64-row CT: an anthropomorphic phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, X; Willemink, M J; Zhao, Y; de Jong, P A; van Ooijen, P M A; Oudkerk, M; Greuter, M J W

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess inter- and intrascanner variability in volumetry of solid pulmonary nodules in an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom using low-dose CT. Methods: Five spherical solid artificial nodules [diameters 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 mm; CT density +100 Hounsfield units (HU)] were randomly placed inside an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom in different combinations. The phantom was examined on two 64-row multidetector CT (64-MDCT) systems (CT-A and CT-B) from different vendors with a low-dose protocol. Each CT examination was performed three times. The CT examinations were evaluated twice by independent blinded observers. Nodule volume was semi-automatically measured by dedicated software. Interscanner variability was evaluated by Bland–Altman analysis and expressed as 95% confidence interval (CI) of relative differences. Intrascanner variability was expressed as 95% CI of relative variation from the mean. Results: No significant difference in CT-derived volume was found between CT-A and CT-B, except for the 3-mm nodules (pvolumetry of artificial pulmonary nodules between 5 mm and 12 mm in diameter. Inter- and intrascanner variability decreases at a larger nodule size to a maximum of 4.9% for ≥8 mm nodules. Advances in knowledge: The commonly accepted cut-off of 25% to determine nodule growth has the potential to be reduced for ≥8 mm nodules. This offers the possibility of reducing the interval for repeated CT scans in lung cancer screenings. PMID:23884758

  19. Multiple infarcted regenerative nodules in liver cirrhosis after decompensation of cirrhosis: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müllhaupt Beat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Liver cirrhosis is a common disease with many known complications. Cirrhosis represents a clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic liver disease to hepatic decompensation. Manifestations of hepatic decompensation include variceal bleeding, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma. There are reports about infarcted regenerative nodules in cirrhotic livers after gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Case presentation We report three Caucasian patients (one female and two male patients; ages: 52, 54 and 60 years with decompensated liver cirrhosis, who showed newly infarcted regenerative nodules at necropsy. Two of them suffered from gastric variceal bleeding. Histopathology showed extensive infarction in all three cases. Hemorrhage and inflammatory changes were also observed around the infarcted regenerative nodules. Conclusion These patients showed focal liver lesions, to be considered in the differential diagnosis of cirrhotic livers. Infarcted regenerative nodules may be underdiagnosed in patients with decompensation of cirrhosis. In order to differentiate these lesions from malignant tumors, serial imaging seems to be helpful. However, the main differential diagnosis should be an abscess. It is important to know the wide spectrum of image appearances of these lesions. Hypotension can lead to a reduction of portal and arterial liver flow. Since variceal bleeding or septic shock can induce hypotension - as observed in our patients - we conclude that this leads to infarction of such nodules.

  20. Excavated pulmonary nodules: an unusual clinical presentation of lung metastasis in two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalya Issam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excavated pulmonary metastasis are rare. We present two cases of excavated pulmonary nodules proved to be metastases from osteosarcoma and gallblader lymphoma. Case presentation The first one is 39-year-old man in whom cholecystectomy made the diagnosis of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the gallbladder. He presented in chest CT scan excavated nodules that had been biopsied and confirmed the diagnosis of non hodgkin lymphoma. He underwent 8 courses of chemotherapy CHOP 21 with complete remission. The second one is an 21 years old man who presented a right leg osteoblastic osteosarcoma with only excavated pulmonary nodules in extension assessment. He had 3 courses of polychemotherapy API (doxorubicin, platinum, and ifosfamide with partial response. Unfortunately, he died following a septic shock. Review of the literature shows that excavated pulmonary nodules as metastasis are rare but we should consider this diagnosis every time we are in front of a cancer. Chest computed tomography is the best diagnosis imaging that could make this diagnosis. Differential diagnosis between benign and malignant bullous lesions is important because surgical excision affects survival in some malignancies. Conclusions Although pulmonary nodules are the most common cancer metastasis, a differential diagnosis of a concurrent primary malignancy should always be considered every time we have excavated lesions, even in patients with known malignant disease. Thorough chest evaluation is important, as multiple primary malignancies may occur concomitantly.

  1. Activating thyrotropin receptor mutations are present in nonadenomatous hyperfunctioning nodules of toxic or autonomous multinodular goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonacchera, M; Agretti, P; Chiovato, L; Rosellini, V; Ceccarini, G; Perri, A; Viacava, P; Naccarato, A G; Miccoli, P; Pinchera, A; Vitti, P

    2000-06-01

    Toxic multinodular goiter, a heterogeneous disease producing hyperthyroidism, is frequently found in iodine-deficient areas. The pathogenesis of this common clinical entity is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to search for activating TSH receptor (TSHr) or Gs alpha mutations in areas of toxic or functionally autonomous multinodular goiters that appeared hyperfunctioning at thyroid scintiscan but did not clearly correspond to definite nodules at physical or ultrasonographic examination. Surgical tissue specimens from nine patients were carefully dissected, matching thyroid scintiscan and thyroid ultrasonography, to isolate hyperfunctioning and nonfunctioning areas even if they did not correspond to well-defined nodules. TSHr and Gs alpha mutations were searched for by direct sequencing after PCR amplification of genomic DNA. Only 2 adenomas were identified at microscopic examination, whereas the remaining 18 hyperfunctioning areas corresponded to hyperplastic nodules containing multiple aggregates of micromacrofollicules not surrounded by a capsule. Activating TSHr mutations were detected in 14 of these 20 hyperfunctioning areas, whereas no mutation was identified in nonfunctioning nodules or areas contained in the same gland. No Gs alpha mutation was found. In conclusion, activating TSHr mutations are present in the majority of nonadenomatous hyperfunctioning nodules scattered throughout the gland in patients with toxic or functionally autonomous multinodular goiter.

  2. Inflammatory nodule mimicking a phrenic neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Jacopo; Scarnecchia, Elisa; Del Sordo, Rachele; Cagini, Lucio; Puma, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    Isolated phrenic nerve nodule is usually a primitive tumour. Surgery is diagnostic and therapeutic at the same time. We report the case of a completely serum-negative Caucasian male with a right diaphragmatic relaxation associated to an isolated small nodule of the phrenic nerve. The patient was referred to our unit complaining shortness of breath and progressive fatigue. A standard chest X-ray showed right diaphragmatic palsy; chest scanning revealed a nodular lesion belonging to the right phrenic nerve. Positron emission tomography was negative for glucose uptake. The preoperative diagnosis of primitive neurogenic tumour was thus supposed, and the patient treated by the lesion's surgical resection along with diaphragmatic plication. Histopathological examination revealed an idiopathic inflammatory nodule of the phrenic nerve. Such condition has not previously been reported in the literature among the possible aetiology of a diaphragmatic relaxation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Misdiagnosis of thyroid nodules by ultrasonography: report of a large series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Jianqiu; Xu Huixiong; Xie Xiaoyan; Lv Mingde

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the common factors of ultrasonographic misdiagnosis of thyroid nodules. Methods: From 2006 to 2009, the pre-operative ultrasonographic diagnosis on 1933 patients with pathologically confirmed thyroid nodules were reviewed. Results: Of 2011 sonograms, ultrasonic diagnosis was corxect in 1575. The 436 diagnostic errors included false negative malignancy (133), false positive malignancy (37), and misdiagnosis between benign lesions (266). Conclusion: There were three main reasons of misdiagnosis including insufficient understanding of the high morbidity of nodular goiter and the relatively low incidence of thyroid adenoma; low awareness of the ultrasonographic diversity of nodular goiter and the sonographic characteristics of the thyroid adenoma and thyroid carcinoma; coexistence of underlying thyroid disease and multifocal nodules. (authors)

  4. Interstitial laser photocoagulation for benign thyroid nodules: time to treat large nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Gerardo; Rotondi, Mario; Pirali, Barbara; Dionisio, Rosa; Agozzino, Lucio; Lanza, Michele; Buonanno, Luciano; Di Filippo, Bruno; Fonte, Rodolfo; Chiovato, Luca

    2011-09-01

    Interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) is a new therapeutic option for the ablation of non-functioning and hyper-functioning benign thyroid nodules. Amelioration of the ablation procedure currently allows treating large nodules. Aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of ILP, performed according to a modified protocol of ablation, in patients with large functioning and non-functioning thyroid nodules and to identify the best parameters for predicting successful outcome in hyperthyroid patients. Fifty-one patients with non-functioning thyroid nodules (group 1) and 26 patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (group 2) were enrolled. All patients had a nodular volume ≥40 ml. Patients were addressed to 1-3 cycles of ILP. A cycle consisted of three ILP sessions, each lasting 5-10 minutes repeated at an interval of 1 month. After each cycle of ILP patients underwent thyroid evaluation. A nodule volume reduction, expressed as percentage of the basal volume, significantly occurred in both groups (F = 190.4; P nodule volume; (iii) total amount of energy delivered expressed in Joule. ROC curves identified the percentage of volume reduction as the best parameter predicting a normalized serum TSH (area under the curve 0.962; P thyroid nodules, both in terms of nodule size reduction and cure of hyperthyroidism (87% of cured patients after the last ILP cycle). ILP should not be limited to patients refusing or being ineligible for surgery and/or radioiodine. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Evaluation of subjectively assessed nodule traits of ostrich skins as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schalk Cloete

    leather quality (Sales, 1999). No formal ... Both traits are clearly age-dependent, with nodule size increasing and nodule density decreasing with an increase in .... E stim ated ag e (m o n th s). Producers. Graders. Marketers. Agents. Managers.

  6. Relation between grade and abundance of manganese nodules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sudhakar, M.

    Data from more than 1000 locations in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) where both bulk nodule chemistry and abundance were determined and utilized to study the relationship between grade and abundance of manganese nodule deposits. Grade...

  7. Grade distributions in manganese nodules of Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sudhakar, M.

    Data concerning to geological setting physical characteristics and bulk chemical composition of the nodules sampled from CIOB were stored in the Computer Data Bank of this Institute. Bulk chemical composition of nodules, in which grade is expressed...

  8. Current status of fine needle aspiration for thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Jennifer B; Piatigorsky, Eli J; Clark, Orlo H

    2006-01-01

    When not to perform fine needle aspiration of a thyroid nodule In summary, FNA of thyroid nodules has become one of the most useful, safe, and accurate tools in the diagnosis of thyroid pathology. Thyroid nodules that should be considered for FNA include any firm, palpable, solitary nodule or nodule associated with worrisome clinical features (rapid growth, attachment to adjacent tissues, new hoarseness, or palpable lymphadenopathy). FNA should also be performed on nodules with suspicious ultrasonographic features (microcalcifications, rounded shape, predominantly solid composition); dominant or atypical nodules in multinodular goiter; complex or recurrent cystic nodules; or any nodule associated with palpable or ultrasonographically abnormal cervical lymph nodes. Finally, FNA should be performed on any abnormal-appearing or palpable cervical lymph nodes. The management of thyroid nodules based on FNA findings is summarized in Table 2. It can be argued that in certain circumstances the results of thyroid FNA do not change the surgical management of a thyroid nodule, and thus preoperative FNA may be unnecessary. These cases include solitary nodules in patients who have a strong family history of thyroid cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasia type II, or radiation to the head and neck. These patients when they have thyroid nodules have at least a 40% risk for thyroid cancer and frequent multifocal or bilateral disease and should undergo total thyroidectomy with or without central neck lymph node dissection. Patients who have multinodular goiter and compressive symptoms, patients who have Graves disease and a thyroid nodule, or patients who have large (greater than 4 cm) or symptomatic unilateral thyroid nodules could also be considered for total thyroidectomy or lobectomy as indicated without preoperative FNA. Finally, patients who have a solitary hyperfunctioning nodule on radioiodine scan and a suppressed TSH have an extremely low incidence of malignancy and may be

  9. Improved pulmonary nodule classification utilizing quantitative lung parenchyma features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Samantha K N; Uthoff, Johanna; Judisch, Alexandra; Hammond, Emily; Mott, Sarah L; Smith, Brian J; Newell, John D; Hoffman, Eric A; Sieren, Jessica C

    2015-10-01

    Current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) models for determining pulmonary nodule malignancy characterize nodule shape, density, and border in computed tomography (CT) data. Analyzing the lung parenchyma surrounding the nodule has been minimally explored. We hypothesize that improved nodule classification is achievable by including features quantified from the surrounding lung tissue. To explore this hypothesis, we have developed expanded quantitative CT feature extraction techniques, including volumetric Laws texture energy measures for the parenchyma and nodule, border descriptors using ray-casting and rubber-band straightening, histogram features characterizing densities, and global lung measurements. Using stepwise forward selection and leave-one-case-out cross-validation, a neural network was used for classification. When applied to 50 nodules (22 malignant and 28 benign) from high-resolution CT scans, 52 features (8 nodule, 39 parenchymal, and 5 global) were statistically significant. Nodule-only features yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.918 (including nodule size) and 0.872 (excluding nodule size). Performance was improved through inclusion of parenchymal (0.938) and global features (0.932). These results show a trend toward increased performance when the parenchyma is included, coupled with the large number of significant parenchymal features that support our hypothesis: the pulmonary parenchyma is influenced differentially by malignant versus benign nodules, assisting CAD-based nodule characterizations.

  10. A case of cyclist's nodule in a female patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    origin (Fig. 1). e nodule measured 12 mm × 7 mm × 15 mm and showed no flow on Doppler. A magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the pelvis was also performed and showed a poorly circumscribed nodule, isointense to muscle on all sequences, in the right perineum (Fig. 2). A diagnosis of a cyclist's nodule was made ...

  11. Compact-Morphology-based poly-metallic Nodule Delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoening, Timm; Jones, Daniel O B; Greinert, Jens

    2017-10-17

    Poly-metallic nodules are a marine resource considered for deep sea mining. Assessing nodule abundance is of interest for mining companies and to monitor potential environmental impact. Optical seafloor imaging allows quantifying poly-metallic nodule abundance at spatial scales from centimetres to square kilometres. Towed cameras and diving robots acquire high-resolution imagery that allow detecting individual nodules and measure their sizes. Spatial abundance statistics can be computed from these size measurements, providing e.g. seafloor coverage in percent and the nodule size distribution. Detecting nodules requires segmentation of nodule pixels from pixels showing sediment background. Semi-supervised pattern recognition has been proposed to automate this task. Existing nodule segmentation algorithms employ machine learning that trains a classifier to segment the nodules in a high-dimensional feature space. Here, a rapid nodule segmentation algorithm is presented. It omits computation-intense feature-based classification and employs image processing only. It exploits a nodule compactness heuristic to delineate individual nodules. Complex machine learning methods are avoided to keep the algorithm simple and fast. The algorithm has successfully been applied to different image datasets. These data sets were acquired by different cameras, camera platforms and in varying illumination conditions. Their successful analysis shows the broad applicability of the proposed method.

  12. Root developmental programs shape the Medicago truncatula nodule meristem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, H.; Xiao, T.T.; Kulikova, O.; Wan, X.; Bisseling, T.; Scheres, B.; Heidstra, R.

    2015-01-01

    Nodules on the roots of legume plants host nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria. Several lines of evidence indicate that nodules are evolutionarily related to roots. We determined whether developmental control of the Medicago truncatula nodule meristem bears resemblance to that in root meristems

  13. Use of Volumetry for Lung Nodule Management: Theory and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devaraj, A.; Ginneken, B. van; Nair, A.; Baldwin, D.

    2017-01-01

    A consistent feature of many lung nodule management guidelines is the recommendation to evaluate nodule size by using diameter measurements and electronic calipers. Traditionally, the use of nodule volumetry applications has primarily been reserved for certain lung cancer screening trials rather

  14. Assessing the utility of autofluorescence-based pulmonary optical endomicroscopy to predict the malignant potential of solitary pulmonary nodules in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Sohan; Akram, Ahsan R.; McCool, Paul; Westerfeld, Jody; Wilson, David; McLaughlin, Stephen; Dhaliwal, Kevin; Williams, Christopher K. I.

    2016-08-01

    Solitary pulmonary nodules are common, often incidental findings on chest CT scans. The investigation of pulmonary nodules is time-consuming and often leads to protracted follow-up with ongoing radiological surveillance, however, clinical calculators that assess the risk of the nodule being malignant exist to help in the stratification of patients. Furthermore recent advances in interventional pulmonology include the ability to both navigate to nodules and also to perform autofluorescence endomicroscopy. In this study we assessed the efficacy of incorporating additional information from label-free fibre-based optical endomicrosopy of the nodule on assessing risk of malignancy. Using image analysis and machine learning approaches, we find that this information does not yield any gain in predictive performance in a cohort of patients. Further advances with pulmonary endomicroscopy will require the addition of molecular tracers to improve information from this procedure.

  15. Nodules of the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Kodagali, V.N.

    of calcareous sediments within, and pelagic sediments south of 15 degrees S latitude Prior to the launching of the project, very little data was available on the Indian Ocean nodules compared to those of Pacific This chapter summaries the findings of the project...

  16. Histoplasmosis presenting with solitary pulmonary nodule: Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary histoplasmosis is a granulomatous disease, whose diagnosis is not always easy, as it may simulate metastatic lesions due to similar radiographic findings. We herein report two cases of histoplasmosis with solitary pulmonary nodule in asymptomatic patients with histories of cancer surgeries, whose diagnoses ...

  17. A rapid method of ferromanganese nodule mounting

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Banerjee, R.

    (Fig. 1). Then the mixture in the cast (5) with nodules inside, is kept undisturbed for 30 minutes in sunlight or at room temperature to cure and to allow it to get very hard. Once hardened, the sample can be sawed to the required size by any normal...

  18. Large philipsite crystal as ferromanganese nodule nucleus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    nodule accretion as approximately 2 mm/Ma and that of phillipsite growth as approximately 0.65 mm/Ka, the nucleus material appears to have been growing for approximately 4.5-5 Ma. Originally surfaced as a rock fragment from late Miocene volcanism...

  19. Early nodulins in root nodule development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.

    1990-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between bacteria of the genus Rhizobium and leguminous plants leads to the formation of root nodules, which are specific nitrogen-fixing organs on the roots of plants. Bacteria enter the root by infection threads, and concomitantly cell

  20. The hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.

    1975-01-01

    Iodine kinetic studies, using a double label ( 131 I - and T 4 -125 I), were performed on 8 patients with hot thyroid nodules, 3 diffuse toxic goiters and one normal control. This investigation was complemented by partial kinetic studies done on 62 other subjetcs, including normal controls and euthyroid or hyperthyroid patients with diffuse or nodular goiter [pt

  1. Diagnostic work-up of pulmonary nodules. Management of pulmonary nodules detected with low-dose CT screening; Abklaerung von Lungenrundherden. Management durch Frueherkennungsuntersuchungen detektierter pulmonaler Rundherde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wormanns, D. [Evangelische Lungenklinik Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    Pulmonary nodules are the most frequent pathological finding in low-dose computed tomography (CT) scanning for early detection of lung cancer. Early stages of lung cancer are often manifested as pulmonary nodules; however, the very commonly occurring small nodules are predominantly benign. These benign nodules are responsible for the high percentage of false positive test results in screening studies. Appropriate diagnostic algorithms are necessary to reduce false positive screening results and to improve the specificity of lung cancer screening. Such algorithms are based on some of the basic principles comprehensively described in this article. Firstly, the diameter of nodules allows a differentiation between large (>8 mm) probably malignant and small (<8 mm) probably benign nodules. Secondly, some morphological features of pulmonary nodules in CT can prove their benign nature. Thirdly, growth of small nodules is the best non-invasive predictor of malignancy and is utilized as a trigger for further diagnostic work-up. Non-invasive testing using positron emission tomography (PET) and contrast enhancement as well as invasive diagnostic tests (e.g. various procedures for cytological and histological diagnostics) are briefly described in this article. Different nodule morphology using CT (e.g. solid and semisolid nodules) is associated with different biological behavior and different algorithms for follow-up are required. Currently, no obligatory algorithm is available in German-speaking countries for the management of pulmonary nodules, which reflects the current state of knowledge. The main features of some international and American recommendations are briefly presented in this article from which conclusions for the daily clinical use are derived. (orig.) [German] Lungenrundherde sind die haeufigsten pathologischen Befunde bei Untersuchungen mit der Niedrigdosis-CT zur Lungenkrebsfrueherkennung. Fruehstadien des Lungenkarzinoms manifestieren sich meist als Rundherd

  2. Expression of nodule-specific genes in alfalfa root nodules blocked at an early stage of development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickstein, R.; Bisseling, T.; Reinhold, V.N.; Ausubel, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    To help dissect the molecular basis of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, we used in vitro translation and Northern blot analysis of nodule RNA to examine alfalfa-specific genes (nodulins) expressed in two types of developmentally defective root nodules elicited by Rhizobium meliloti. Fix- nodules were

  3. US Diagnosis for Thyroid Nodules with an Indeterminate Cytology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jong Geun; Kim, Dong Wook [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Woo [Saegyaero Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to assess the diagnostic efficacy of thyroid ultrasound (US) for evaluating thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology. Among 1865 nodules in 1278 patients who received a prospective US diagnosis of their thyroid nodule(s) and who subsequently underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration, 130 nodules with indeterminate cytology were enrolled in the study. Each thyroid nodule was prospectively classified by a single radiologist into 1 of 5 diagnostic categories: 'benign', 'probably benign', 'indeterminate', 'suspicious for malignancy' and 'malignant.' The solid nodules were classified using all 5 categories and the partially cystic nodules classified using 4 categories ('indeterminate' was omitted). We calculated the diagnostic efficacy of thyroid US by comparing the US diagnoses with the pathology results. Of 130 nodules with indeterminate cytology (130/1865, 7.0%), 62 nodules were surgically removed. Nineteen nodules were assigned to the indeterminate category on US. The malignantly rate of the US-indeterminate category was 56.5% (35/62). The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 81.0%, 81.8%, 81.0%, 81.8% and 81.4%, respectively, when US-indeterminate nodules were excluded. There was no significant difference of diagnostic efficacy when these nodules were reclassified as malignant, but there was a significant difference of diagnostic efficacy when these nodules were reclassified as benign. Our US classification may be a feasible method for managing thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology

  4. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules in Alagille syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, Jordan B.; Bellah, Richard D.; Anupindi, Sudha A.; Maya, Carolina; Pawel, Bruce R.

    2017-01-01

    Children with Alagille syndrome undergo surveillance radiologic examinations as they are at risk for developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is limited literature on the imaging of liver masses in Alagille syndrome. We report the ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of incidental benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules in this population. To describe the imaging findings of giant regenerative nodules in patients with Alagille syndrome. A retrospective search of the hospital database was performed to find all cases of hepatic masses in patients with Alagille syndrome during a 10-year period. Imaging, clinical charts, laboratory data and available pathology were reviewed and analyzed and summarized for each patient. Twenty of 45 patients with confirmed Alagille syndrome had imaging studies. Of those, we identified six with giant focal liver masses. All six patients had large central hepatic masses that were remarkably similar on US and MRI, in addition to having features of cirrhosis. In each case, the mass was located in hepatic segment VIII and imaging showed the mass splaying the main portal venous branches at the hepatic hilum, as well as smaller portal and hepatic venous branches coursing through them. On MRI, signal intensity of the mass was isointense to liver on T1-weighted sequences in four of six patients, but hyperintense on T1 in two of six patients. In all six cases, the mass was hypointense on T2- weighted sequences. The mass post-contrast was isointense to adjacent liver in all phases in five the cases. Five out of six patients had pathological correlation demonstrating preserved ductal architecture confirming the final diagnosis of a regenerative nodule. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules with characteristic US and MR features can occur in patients with Alagille syndrome with underlying cirrhosis. Recognizing these lesions as benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules should, thereby, mitigate any need for

  5. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules in Alagille syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jordan B. [Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Department of Radiology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bellah, Richard D.; Anupindi, Sudha A. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Maya, Carolina [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pawel, Bruce R. [University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Children with Alagille syndrome undergo surveillance radiologic examinations as they are at risk for developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is limited literature on the imaging of liver masses in Alagille syndrome. We report the ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of incidental benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules in this population. To describe the imaging findings of giant regenerative nodules in patients with Alagille syndrome. A retrospective search of the hospital database was performed to find all cases of hepatic masses in patients with Alagille syndrome during a 10-year period. Imaging, clinical charts, laboratory data and available pathology were reviewed and analyzed and summarized for each patient. Twenty of 45 patients with confirmed Alagille syndrome had imaging studies. Of those, we identified six with giant focal liver masses. All six patients had large central hepatic masses that were remarkably similar on US and MRI, in addition to having features of cirrhosis. In each case, the mass was located in hepatic segment VIII and imaging showed the mass splaying the main portal venous branches at the hepatic hilum, as well as smaller portal and hepatic venous branches coursing through them. On MRI, signal intensity of the mass was isointense to liver on T1-weighted sequences in four of six patients, but hyperintense on T1 in two of six patients. In all six cases, the mass was hypointense on T2- weighted sequences. The mass post-contrast was isointense to adjacent liver in all phases in five the cases. Five out of six patients had pathological correlation demonstrating preserved ductal architecture confirming the final diagnosis of a regenerative nodule. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules with characteristic US and MR features can occur in patients with Alagille syndrome with underlying cirrhosis. Recognizing these lesions as benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules should, thereby, mitigate any need for

  6. Pulmonary nodule: new concepts of an Old Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederich, S.; Wormanns, D.

    2003-01-01

    In the past, a pulmonary nodule was considered malignant until proven otherwise, usually histologically, which frequently required invasive diagnostic procedures. The nodule was mostly detected on conventional chest radiographs and usually larger than 10 mm. Recently, modern (multi-slice) helical CT detects an increasing number of very small (≤ 10 mm) nodules, which are benign in > 95%. Consequently, the exclusion of malignancy demands different diagnostic procedures, which should be predominantly non-invasive. This article presents the current data as well as imaging techniques for the determination of the nature of pulmonary nodules and suggests concepts for the diagnostic approach to small pulmonary nodules. (orig.) [de

  7. Pneumocystis Pneumonia Presenting as an Enlarging Solitary Pulmonary Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunal Bharat Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis pneumonia is a life threatening infection that usually presents with diffuse bilateral ground-glass infiltrates in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a single nodular granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia in a male with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after R-CHOP therapy. He presented with symptoms of productive cough, dyspnea, and right-sided pleuritic chest pain that failed to resolve despite treatment with multiple antibiotics. Chest X-ray revealed right lower lobe atelectasis and CT of chest showed development of 2 cm nodular opacity with ground-glass opacities. Patient underwent bronchoscopy and biopsy that revealed granulomatous inflammation in a background of organizing pneumonia pattern with negative cultures. Respiratory symptoms resolved but the solitary nodular opacity increased in size prompting a surgical wedge resection which revealed granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia infection. This case is the third documented report of Pneumocystis pneumonia infection within a solitary pulmonary nodule in an individual with hematologic neoplasm. Although Pneumocystis pneumonia most commonly occurs in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and with diffuse infiltrates, the diagnosis should not be overlooked when only a solitary nodule is present.

  8. Grain legume cultivars derived from induced mutations, and mutations affecting nodulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, C.R.; Maluszynski, M.; Nichterlein, K.; Zanten, L. van

    2001-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-five grain legume cultivars developed using induced mutations have been released in 32 countries. A maximum number of cultivars have been released in soybean (58), followed by common bean (50), groundnut (44), pea (32) and mungbean (14). Gamma or x-ray exposures of seeds led to the direct development of 111 cultivars, while neutron and chemical mutagen treatments resulted in 8 and 36 cultivars respectively. One hundred and three cultivars have been developed using mutants in cross breeding. Attempts have been made to estimate the successful dose range for gamma and x-rays, defined as the dose range, which led to the development, registration and release of a maximum number of mutant cultivars. Exposures to seeds ranging between 100-200 Gy in all grain legumes, except faba bean, resulted in 49 out of 111 cultivars being developed as direct mutants. Successful doses reported for faba bean are lower than 100 Gy. Modified crop plant characters are listed. Besides the development of new cultivars, a large number of induced mutants that show altered nodulation pattern have been isolated in grain legumes. Such mutants have made a significant contribution in basic studies on host-symbiont interactions and towards cloning of plant genes related to symbiosis and nitrogen fixation. Their exploitation in breeding programs for enhancing nitrogen fixation is just beginning. Available information on nodulation mutants in grain legume crops is summarised. Mainly, four types of nodulation mutants have been isolated. They show either: no nodulation (nod -), few nodules (nod +/-), ineffective nodulation (Fix-), hypernodulation (nod ++) or hypernodulation even in the presence of otherwise inhibitory nitrate levels (nts). Hypernodulating and nts mutants are of great interest. A soybean cultivar incorporating nts trait has been released in Australia. (author)

  9. Uranium in Pacific deep-sea sediments and manganese nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunzendorf, H.; Plueger, W.L.; Friedrich, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 1344 manganese nodules and 187 pelagic sediments from 9 areas in the North and the South Pacific were analyzed for U by the delayed-neutron counting technique. A strong positive correlation between U and Fe in nodules and sediments suggests a co-precipitative removal from sea water into the Fe-rich (ferromanganese mineral phase MnO 2 . Enrichment of U and Fe in nodules from the northwestern slopes of two submarine hills (U between 6 and 9 ppm) in the equatorial nodule belt is thought to be caused by directional bottom water flow creating elevated oxygenized conditions in areas opposed to the flow. Economically important nodule deposits from the nodule belt and the Peru Basin have generally low U contents, between 3 and 5 ppm. Insignificant resources of U of about 4 x 10 5 in the Pacific manganese nodules are estimated. (orig.)

  10. Use of Volumetry for Lung Nodule Management: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Anand; van Ginneken, Bram; Nair, Arjun; Baldwin, David

    2017-09-01

    A consistent feature of many lung nodule management guidelines is the recommendation to evaluate nodule size by using diameter measurements and electronic calipers. Traditionally, the use of nodule volumetry applications has primarily been reserved for certain lung cancer screening trials rather than clinical practice. However, even before the first nodule management guidelines were published more than a decade ago, research has been ongoing into the use of nodule volumetry as a means of measuring nodule size, and this research has accelerated in recent years. This article aims to provide radiologists with an up-to-date review of the most recent literature on volumetry and volume doubling times in lung nodule management, outlining their benefits and drawbacks. A brief technical review of typical volumetry applications is also provided. © RSNA, 2017.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Alfalfa-Nodulating Rhizobia Present in Acidic Soils of Central Argentina and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Papa, María F.; Balagué, Laura J.; Sowinski, Susana Castro; Wegener, Caren; Segundo, Eduardo; Abarca, Francisco Martínez; Toro, Nicolás; Niehaus, Karsten; Pühler, Alfred; Aguilar, O. Mario; Martínez-Drets, Gloria; Lagares, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia from acid soils of different locations in Central Argentina and Uruguay. A collection of 465 isolates was assembled, and the rhizobia were characterized for acid tolerance. Growth tests revealed the existence of 15 acid-tolerant (AT) isolates which were able to grow at pH 5.0 and formed nodules in alfalfa with a low rate of nitrogen fixation. Analysis of those isolates, including partial sequencing of the genes encoding 16S rRNA and genomic PCR-fingerprinting with MBOREP1 and BOXC1 primers, demonstrated that the new isolates share a genetic background closely related to that of the previously reported Rhizobium sp. Or191 recovered from an acid soil in Oregon (B. D. Eardly, J. P. Young, and R. K. Selander, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:1809–1815, 1992). Growth curves, melanin production, temperature tolerance, and megaplasmid profiles of the AT isolates were all coincident with these characteristics in strain Or191. In addition to the ability of all of these strains to nodulate alfalfa (Medicago sativa) inefficiently, the AT isolates also nodulated the common bean and Leucaena leucocephala, showing an extended host range for nodulation of legumes. In alfalfa, the time course of nodule formation by the AT isolate LPU 83 showed a continued nodulation restricted to the emerging secondary roots, which was probably related to the low rate of nitrogen fixation by the largely ineffective nodules. Results demonstrate the complexity of the rhizobial populations present in the acidic soils represented by a main group of N2-fixing rhizobia and a second group of ineffective and less-predominant isolates related to the AT strain Or191. PMID:10103231

  12. Search for Nodulation and Nodule Development-related cystatin genes in the genome of Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songli Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nodulation, nodule development and senescence directly affects nitrogen fixation efficiency, and previous studies have shown that inhibition of some cysteine proteases delay nodule senescence, so their nature inhibitors, cystatin genes, are very important in nodulation, nodule development and senescence. Although several cystatins are actively transcribed in soybean nodules, their exact roles and functional diversities in legume have not been well explored in genome-wide survey studies. In this report, we performed a genome-wide survey of cystatin family genes to explore their relationship to nodulation and nodule development in soybean and identified 20 cystatin genes that encode peptides with 97~245 amino acid residues, different isoelectric points (pI and structure characteristics, and various putative plant regulatory elements in 3000 bp putative promoter fragments upstream of the 20 soybean cystatins in response to different abiotic/biotic stresses, hormone signals and symbiosis signals. The expression profiles of these cystatin genes in soybean symbiosis with rhizobium strain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 113-2 revealed that 7 cystatin family genes play different roles in nodulation as well as nodule development and senescence. However, these genes were not root nodule symbiosis (RNS - specific and did not encode special clade cystatin protein with structures related to nodulation and nodule development. Besides, only two of these soybean cystatins were not upregulated in symbiosis after ABA treatment. The functional analysis showed that a candidate gene Glyma.15G227500 (GmCYS16 was likely to play a positive role in soybean nodulation. Besides, evolutionary relationships analysis divided the cystatin genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum, rice, barley and four legume plants into three groups. Interestingly, Group A cystatins are special in legume plants, but only include one of the above-mentioned 7 cystatin genes related to

  13. Pulmonary nodule registration in serial CT scans based on rib anatomy and nodule template matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jiazheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, H.-P.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Zhou, C.; Cascade, Philip N.; Bogot, Naama; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Wu, Y.-T.; Wei, J.

    2007-01-01

    An automated method is being developed in order to identify corresponding nodules in serial thoracic CT scans for interval change analysis. The method uses the rib centerlines as the reference for initial nodule registration. A spatially adaptive rib segmentation method first locates the regions where the ribs join the spine, which define the starting locations for rib tracking. Each rib is tracked and locally segmented by expectation-maximization. The ribs are automatically labeled, and the centerlines are estimated using skeletonization. For a given nodule in the source scan, the closest three ribs are identified. A three-dimensional (3D) rigid affine transformation guided by simplex optimization aligns the centerlines of each of the three rib pairs in the source and target CT volumes. Automatically defined control points along the centerlines of the three ribs in the source scan and the registered ribs in the target scan are used to guide an initial registration using a second 3D rigid affine transformation. A search volume of interest (VOI) is then located in the target scan. Nodule candidate locations within the search VOI are identified as regions with high Hessian responses. The initial registration is refined by searching for the maximum cross-correlation between the nodule template from the source scan and the candidate locations. The method was evaluated on 48 CT scans from 20 patients. Experienced radiologists identified 101 pairs of corresponding nodules. Three metrics were used for performance evaluation. The first metric was the Euclidean distance between the nodule centers identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, the second metric was a volume overlap measure between the nodule VOIs identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, and the third metric was the hit rate, which measures the fraction of nodules whose centroid computed by the computer registration in the target scan falls within the VOI identified by the

  14. Segmentation of nodules on chest computed tomography for growth assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullally, William; Betke, Margrit; Wang Jingbin; Ko, Jane P.

    2004-01-01

    Several segmentation methods to evaluate growth of small isolated pulmonary nodules on chest computed tomography (CT) are presented. The segmentation methods are based on adaptively thresholding attenuation levels and use measures of nodule shape. The segmentation methods were first tested on a realistic chest phantom to evaluate their performance with respect to specific nodule characteristics. The segmentation methods were also tested on sequential CT scans of patients. The methods' estimation of nodule growth were compared to the volume change calculated by a chest radiologist. The best method segmented nodules on average 43% smaller or larger than the actual nodule when errors were computed across all nodule variations on the phantom. Some methods achieved smaller errors when examined with respect to certain nodule properties. In particular, on the phantom individual methods segmented solid nodules to within 23% of their actual size and nodules with 60.7 mm3 volumes to within 14%. On the clinical data, none of the methods examined showed a statistically significant difference in growth estimation from the radiologist

  15. Proton MR spectroscopy in solitary pulmonary nodules: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunshan; Xiao Xiangsheng; Li Huimin; Liu Shiyuan; Li Chengzhou; Li Shenjiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics and the regularities of the metabolites in solitary pulmonary nodules with proton MR spectroscopy, and to investigate the clinical value of MR spectroscopy in differentiating benign from malignant pulmonary nodules. Methods: Sixty-nine patients with solitary pulmonary nodules underwent routine MRI and single-voxel MR spectroscopy using Siemens Vision 1.5 T MR system. MR spectroscopy characteristics and parameters of the metabolites were observed and recorded. Ten pathologic specimens were examined with single-voxel MR spectroscopy. The MR spectroscopy results of the pathologic specimens were compared with those of the solitary pulmonary nodules in vivo. Results: The Cho peak (2.86 ± 1.89) of the malignant nodules was higher than that of the inflammatory (0.87 ± 0.74), tuberculous nodules (0.97 ± 1.09), and hamartoma (0.42 ± 0.53) (P 0.05). Conclusion: MR spectroscopy is reliable in evaluating pulmonary nodules in vivo. The Cho peak, Cho/Cr, and Lac peak of the malignant nodules were higher than those of inflammatory, tuberculous nodules, and hamartoma. MR spectroscopy is helpful in differentiating benign from malignant pulmonary nodules. (authors)

  16. Thyroid nodule classification using ultrasound elastography via linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Si; Kim, Eung-Hun; Dighe, Manjiri; Kim, Yongmin

    2011-05-01

    The non-surgical diagnosis of thyroid nodules is currently made via a fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. It is estimated that somewhere between 250,000 and 300,000 thyroid FNA biopsies are performed in the United States annually. However, a large percentage (approximately 70%) of these biopsies turn out to be benign. Since the aggressive FNA management of thyroid nodules is costly, quantitative risk assessment and stratification of a nodule's malignancy is of value in triage and more appropriate healthcare resources utilization. In this paper, we introduce a new method for classifying the thyroid nodules based on the ultrasound (US) elastography features. Unlike approaches to assess the stiffness of a thyroid nodule by visually inspecting the pseudo-color pattern in the strain image, we use a classification algorithm to stratify the nodule by using the power spectrum of strain rate waveform extracted from the US elastography image sequence. Pulsation from the carotid artery was used to compress the thyroid nodules. Ultrasound data previously acquired from 98 thyroid nodules were used in this retrospective study to evaluate our classification algorithm. A classifier was developed based on the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and used to differentiate the thyroid nodules into two types: (I) no FNA (observation-only) and (II) FNA. Using our method, 62 nodules were classified as type I, all of which were benign, while 36 nodules were classified as Type-II, 16 malignant and 20 benign, resulting in a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 75.6% in detecting malignant thyroid nodules. This indicates that our triage method based on US elastography has the potential to substantially reduce the number of FNA biopsies (63.3%) by detecting benign nodules and managing them via follow-up observations rather than an FNA biopsy. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. TIRADS for sonographic assessment of hypofunctioning and indifferent thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenke, Simone; Rink, T; Zimny, M

    2015-01-01

    To test the feasibility of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting And Data System (TIRADS) according to Horvath and Kwak for the assessment of thyroid nodules. Retrospective analysis of patients with thyroid nodules applying the following inclusion criteria: B-mode-ultrasound, surgery and histological results. Thyroid nodules were classified as TIRADS 2, 3, 4A, 4B, 4C, 5 and 6. A total of 172 patients were included (133 women, 48 ± 13 years, 39 men, 49 ± 11 years) with 222 thyroid nodules (24.9 ± 11.5 mm). Final histological diagnosis revealed 203 benign nodules (91%) and 19 malignant nodules (9%; 18 papillary thyroid carcinoma, PTC, and one medullary thyroid carcinoma, MTC). One hundred and sixty thyroid nodules were hypofunctioning in 99mTc-pertechnetate-scintigraphy, 14 nodules were hyperfunctioning and 46 nodules were classified as indifferent. In two cases with small carcinoma nodules (39%) were not clearly classifiable, including 3 carcinoma (4.1%). According to Kwak, the prevalence of malignancy was 6.9% in TIRADS 2, 0% in 3, 2% in 4A, 4.1% in 4B, 23.1% in 4C, and 100% in 5 and 6, respectively. Notably, in the subgroup of hot nodules, 11 (79%) were graded as TIRADS 4A or higher, and thus advisable for fine-needle aspiration biopsy in both TIRADS. The TIRADS described by Horvath is not practicable due to numerous unclassifiable nodules. The revised TIRADS published by Kwak is feasible and suitable to assess the prevalence of malignancy, but it cannot replace scintigraphic imaging. Fine-needle-biopsy is not necessary in nodules categorized as (K)TIRADS 3, 4A and 5.

  18. Conjunctival Aspergilloma with Multiple Mulberry Nodules: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Liang Chen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old healthy female presented with a 1-year history of chronic mucous discharge, tearing, and irritation in the left eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed severe papillary and follicular reaction surrounding a movable subconjunctival mass on the left upper tarsal conjunctiva. Incision and curettage were performed to establish the diagnosis. Multiple peculiar black mulberry nodules were obtained. The clumps of septate hyphae seen with periodic acid-Schiff stain were characteristic of fungus ball (aspergilloma. The patient's symptoms improved significantly after surgery without any antifungal therapy. Although rarely reported, aspergillus is a common fungus in the conjunctiva that may seed into the subconjunctiva. We present this case to remind ophthalmologists of such a rare cause of recalcitrant conjunctival inflammation in immunocompetent patients.

  19. Pemphigus Vulgaris with Solitary Toxic Thyroid Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Alfishawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune vesiculobullous disease, affecting the skin and mucous membranes. It is reported to be associated with other autoimmune diseases including autoimmune thyroid diseases. However we report herein a case of pemphigus vulgaris associated with autonomous toxic nodule. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old woman was evaluated for blisters and erosions that develop on her trunk, face, and extremities, with a five-year history of progressively enlarging neck mass, and a past medical history of pemphigus vulgaris seven years ago. The condition was associated with palpitation, dyspnea, and heat intolerance. Thyroid function tests and thyroid scan were compatible with the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis due to autonomous toxic nodule. Exacerbation of pemphigus vulgaris was proved by skin biopsy from the patient which revealed histologic picture of pemphigus vulgaris. Conclusion. Autoimmune thyroid diseases are reported to associate pemphigus vulgaris. To our knowledge, this case is the first in the English literature to report association between pemphigus vulgaris and autonomous toxic nodule and highlights the possibility of occurrence of pemphigus vulgaris with a nonautoimmune thyroid disease raising the question: is it just a coincidence or is there an explanation for the occurrence of both conditions together?

  20. Lung nodule volumetry: segmentation algorithms within the same software package cannot be used interchangeably.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashraf, H.; Hoop, B.J. de; Shaker, S.B.; Dirksen, A.; Bach, K.S.; Hansen, H.; Prokop, M.; Pedersen, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the reproducibility of lung nodule volumetry software that offers three different volumetry algorithms. METHODS: In a lung cancer screening trial, 188 baseline nodules >5 mm were identified. Including follow-ups, these nodules formed a study-set of 545 nodules. Nodules were

  1. Botulinum toxin in the treatment of vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacqui E; Belafsky, Peter C

    2009-12-01

    Promising new techniques in the management of vocal fold nodules have been developed in the past 2 years. Simultaneously, the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin has rapidly expanded. This review explores the use of botulinum toxin in treatment of vocal nodules and summarizes current therapeutic concepts. New microsurgical instruments and techniques, refinements in laser technology, radiosurgical excision and steroid intralesional injections are all promising new techniques in the management of vocal nodules. Botulinum toxin-induced 'voice rest' is a new technique we have employed in patients with recalcitrant nodules. Successful resolution of nodules is possible with this technique, without the risk of vocal fold scarring inherent in dissection/excision techniques. Botulinum toxin usage is exponentially increasing, and large-scale, long-term studies demonstrate its safety profile. Targeted vocal fold temporary paralysis induced by botulinum toxin injection is a new, well tolerated and efficacious treatment in patients with persistent vocal fold nodules.

  2. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jung Hwan; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Yoon Suk; Kwak, Min Sook; Chang, Sun Hee; Rhim, Hyun Chul

    2005-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ultrasound guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for the benign nodules of the thyroid gland. We studied 148 patients with benign thyroid nodules (200 total nodules) that were confirmed histopathologically, and we performed ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation. The radiofrequency ablation was done 1 to 5 times per one nodule, and follow-up ultrasonography was performed one to nineteen months after the ablation procedures. The physical changes and the decrease of volume of the nodules were evaluated, and the complications related to radiofrequency ablation were observed. The mean initial nodule volume was 0.01-95.61 ml (mean; 6.83 ± SD of 10.63 ml) and the nodule volume after radiofrequency ablation was decreased to 0.00-46.56 ml (mean; 1.83 ± SD of 4.69 ml). The mean volume reduction rate was 73.2%. Reduction of more than 50% was noted in 90% of all cases. For 180 nodules (90%), the decrease was 50% or more, in 20 nodules (10%), the decrease was 49% or less. On gray-scale ultrasonogram obtained after ablation, the echogenicity of the nodules changed to darker, and on the doppler-sonogram, the vascular flow within the nodules disappeared in all cases. Most patients complained pain during or right after the procedure, but the pain was transient and subsided after medication. Two patients developed hoarseness that was improved in 1 week and 2 months, respectively. Sonoguided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation can be one of the treatments for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

  3. Evaluation of diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kyoko; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Nakaji, Shunsuke; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Imanishi et al. have previously reported that the changes in CT values reveal not only the change in iodine concentration in thyroid follicles, but also represent secondary changes in follicular content and follicular cells and/or interstitial structures. Thus, we performed thyroid CT without contrast material in 138 controls, 417 cases with diffuse thyroid diseases, and 279 cases with thyroid nodules, and evaluated the CT images based on the relation between the change in CT values and pathological changes. In 89% of the controls and 43% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases, the thyroid CT revealed diffuse high density. In contrast, the 94% of thyroids that demonstrated diffuse low density were from patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. Eighty-four percent of malignant nodules and 64% of benign nodules had inhomogeneous densities, and only 26% of benign thyroid nodules had homogeneous density. However, 71% of nodules that showed high and low densities with regular and clear borders, and 82% of nodules that showed papillary proliferation in a cyst pattern were benign. Although only 58% of nodules with calcification were malignant, 66% of nodules with calcification in the central portion, and 86% of nodules with calcification of a disseminated and convergent pattern in distribution were malignant. Sixty-two percent of thyroids that surrounded nodules had chronic thyroiditis, hypoplasia and/or adenomatous goiter. Thus, unclear borders between a nodule and the surrounding thyroid tissue did not increase the possibility of malignancy. However, the unclear and/or lobulated border between a nodule and extra thyroid tissue increased the possibility of malignancy. We concluded that thyroid CT without contrast material is useful for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. (author)

  4. Treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection

    OpenAIRE

    Larijani, Bagher; Pajouhi, Mohammad; Ghanaati, Hossein; Bastanhagh, Mohammad-Hassan; Abbasvandi, Fereshteh; Firooznia, Kazem; Shirzad, Mahmood; Amini, Mohammad-Reza; Sarai, Maryam; Abbasvandi, Nasreen; Baradar-Jalili, Reza

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Autonomous thyroid nodules can be treated by a variety of methods. We assessed the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection in treating autonomous thyroid nodules. Methods 35 patients diagnosed by technetium-99 scanning with hyperfunctioning nodules and suppressed sensitive TSH (sTSH) were given sterile ethanol injections under ultrasound guidance. 29 patients had clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. The other 6 had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed sTSH ...

  5. Thermal Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: Radiofrequency and Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Valcavi, Roberto [Endocrinology Division and Thyroid Disease Center, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Pacella, Claudio M. [Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology Department, Ospedale Regina Apostolorum, Albano Laziale-Rome (IT); Rhim, Hyun Chul [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Dong Kyu [Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Although ethanol ablation has been successfully used to treat cystic thyroid nodules, this procedure is less effective when the thyroid nodules are solid. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation, a newer procedure used to treat malignant liver tumors, has been valuable in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. This article reviews the basic physics, techniques, applications, results, and complications of thyroid RF ablation, in comparison to laser ablation.

  6. Visualization of pulmonary nodules with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plathow, C.; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum; Meinzer, H.-P.; Kauczor, H.-U.

    2006-01-01

    Visualization of pulmonary nodules using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a minor role compared with computed tomography (CT). Technical developments made it possible to apply MRI more and more frequently in functional imaging. Imaging of the motion of pulmonary nodules during respiration, e.g., to optimize high precision therapy techniques, is a new field of research. This paper describes developments in analysis and visualization of pulmonary nodules during respiration using MRI. Besides actual 2D techniques new 3D techniques to quantify motion of pulmonary nodules during respiration are presented. (orig.) [de

  7. Automatic Solitary Lung Nodule Detection in Computed Tomography Images Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentana, I. W. B.; Jawas, N.; Asri, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Lung nodule is an early indicator of some lung diseases, including lung cancer. In Computed Tomography (CT) based image, nodule is known as a shape that appears brighter than lung surrounding. This research aim to develop an application that automatically detect lung nodule in CT images. There are some steps in algorithm such as image acquisition and conversion, image binarization, lung segmentation, blob detection, and classification. Data acquisition is a step to taking image slice by slice from the original *.dicom format and then each image slices is converted into *.tif image format. Binarization that tailoring Otsu algorithm, than separated the background and foreground part of each image slices. After removing the background part, the next step is to segment part of the lung only so the nodule can localized easier. Once again Otsu algorithm is use to detect nodule blob in localized lung area. The final step is tailoring Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify the nodule. The application has succeed detecting near round nodule with a certain threshold of size. Those detecting result shows drawback in part of thresholding size and shape of nodule that need to enhance in the next part of the research. The algorithm also cannot detect nodule that attached to wall and Lung Chanel, since it depend the searching only on colour differences.

  8. Initial application of digital tomosynthesis for detection of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhiyuan; Su Hong; Zhao Yane; Ju Bing; Chang Shuanghui; Hu Qiuju; Lu Guangming

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of digital tomosynthesis for detection of pulmonary nodules. Methods: Thirty patients suspected of having pulmonary nodules underwent chest radiography, digital tomosynthesis and CT examination. Above image data were transferred to postprocessing work station and were reviewed by 2 radiologists with 3 years of chest-radiology diagnosis experience in a double-blind method. The number, location and size of nodules were recorded. Then, 2 radiologists reviewed the all images once more, and discuss in consensus. The sensitivities of chest radiography and digital tomosynthesis for detection of pulmonary nodules were respectively calculated according to the CT results. Chi-square test was used for radiography, digital tomosynthesis and CT examination. Results: Of 30 patients, 21 were detected having pulmonary nodules by X-ray radiography and 9 were negative, the total number of 40 nodules was detected, while 89 nodules in 26 patients were detected by digital tomosynthesis, and only 4 patients were negative. CT demonstrated 102 nodules in 27 patients, and 3 patients were negative. Taking CT as 'gold standard', the sensitivities of X-ray radiography and digital tomosynthesis were 27.4%(28/102)and 87.2%(89/102), X 2 =4.35, P<0.05, respectively. Conclusion: Digital tomosynthesis has a high sensitivity for detection of pulmonary nodules compared with X-ray radiography, and could be an excellent and necessary supplementary technique of X-ray radiography. (authors)

  9. Subsolid pulmonary nodules: imaging evaluation and strategic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Myrna C B; Sabloff, Bradley; Naidich, David P

    2012-07-01

    Given the higher rate of malignancy of subsolid pulmonary nodules and the considerably lower growth rate of ground-glass nodules (GGNs), dedicated standardized guidelines for management of these nodules have been proposed, including long-term low-dose computed tomography (CT) follow-up (≥3 years). Physicians must be familiar with the strategic management of subsolid pulmonary nodules, and should be able to identify imaging features that suggest invasive adenocarcinoma requiring a more aggressive management. Low-dose CT screening studies for early detection of lung cancer have increased our knowledge of pulmonary nodules, and in particular our understanding of the strong although imperfect correlation of the subsolid pulmonary nodules, including pure GGNs and part-solid nodules, with the spectrum of preinvasive to invasive lung adenocarcinoma. Serial CT imaging has shown stepwise progression in a subset of these nodules, characterized by increase in size and density of pure GGNs and development of a solid component, the latter usually indicating invasive adenocarcinoma. There is close correlation between the CT features of subsolid nodules (SSNs) and the spectrum of lung adenocarcinoma. Standardized guidelines are suggested for management of SSNs.

  10. Taxonomically Different Co-Microsymbionts of a Relict Legume, Oxytropis popoviana, Have Complementary Sets of Symbiotic Genes and Together Increase the Efficiency of Plant Nodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, Vera I; Belimov, Andrey A; Sazanova, Anna L; Chirak, Elizaveta R; Verkhozina, Alla V; Kuznetsova, Irina G; Andronov, Evgeny E; Puhalsky, Jan V; Tikhonovich, Igor A

    2018-06-20

    Ten rhizobial strains were isolated from root nodules of a relict legume Oxytropis popoviana Peschkova. For identification of the isolates, sequencing of rrs, the internal transcribed spacer region, and housekeeping genes recA, glnII, and rpoB was used. Nine fast-growing isolates were Mesorhizobium-related; eight strains were identified as M. japonicum and one isolate belonged to M. kowhaii. The only slow-growing isolate was identified as a Bradyrhizobium sp. Two strains, M. japonicum Opo-242 and Bradyrhizobium sp. strain Opo-243, were isolated from the same nodule. Symbiotic genes of these isolates were searched throughout the whole-genome sequences. The common nodABC genes and other symbiotic genes required for plant nodulation and nitrogen fixation were present in the isolate Opo-242. Strain Opo-243 did not contain the principal nod, nif, and fix genes; however, five genes (nodP, nodQ, nifL, nolK, and noeL) affecting the specificity of plant-rhizobia interactions but absent in isolate Opo-242 were detected. Strain Opo-243 could not induce nodules but significantly accelerated the root nodule formation after coinoculation with isolate Opo-242. Thus, we demonstrated that taxonomically different strains of the archaic symbiotic system can be co-microsymbionts infecting the same nodule and promoting the nodulation process due to complementary sets of symbiotic genes.

  11. Utilization of 15NO3− by nodulated soybean plants under conditions of root hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes Menolli Lanza, Luciana; Ferreira Lanza, Daniel Carlos; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2014-01-01

    Waterlogging of soils is common in nature. The low availability of oxygen under these conditions leads to hypoxia of the root system impairing the development and productivity of the plant. The presence of nitrate under flooding conditions is regarded as being beneficial towards tolerance to this stress. However, it is not known how nodulated soybean plants, cultivated in the absence of nitrate and therefore not metabolically adapted to this compound, would respond to nitrate under root hypox...

  12. A novel symbiovar (aegeanense) of the genus Ensifer nodulates Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Fotiadis, Christos T; Ntatsi, Georgia; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2017-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) forms nitrogen-fixing root nodules with diverse symbiotic bacteria, mainly slow-growing rhizobial species belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium, although a few studies have reported the isolation of fast-growing rhizobia under laboratory and field conditions. Although much research has been done on cowpea-nodulating bacteria in various countries around the world, very limited information is available on cowpea rhizobia in European soils. The aim of this study was to study the genetic and phenotypic diversity of indigenous cowpea-nodulating rhizobia in Greece. The genetic diversity of indigenous rhizobia associated with cowpea was investigated through a polyphasic approach. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting analysis grouped the isolates into three groups. Based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, IGS and on the concatenation of six housekeeping genes (recA, glnII, gyrB, truA, thrA and SMc00019), rhizobial isolates were classified within the species Ensifer fredii. However, symbiotic gene phylogenies, based on nodC, nifH and rhcRST genes, showed that the Ensifer isolates are markedly diverged from type and reference strains of E. fredii and formed one clearly separate cluster. The E. fredii strains were able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in cowpea but not in soybean and common bean. The present study showed that cowpea is nodulated under field conditions by fast-growing rhizobia belonging to the species E. fredii. Based on the phylogenies, similarity levels of symbiotic genes and the host range, the Ensifer isolates may constitute a new symbiovar for which the name 'aegeanense' is proposed. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Outcomes of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of multiple synchronous and recurrent lung nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Dawn; Olivier, Kenneth R; Mayo, Charles S; Miller, Robert C; Nelson, Kathryn; Bauer, Heather; Brown, Paul D; Park, Sean S; Ma, Daniel J; Garces, Yolanda I

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is evolving into a standard of care for unresectable lung nodules. Local control has been shown to be in excess of 90% at 3 years. However, some patients present with synchronous lung nodules in the ipsilateral or contralateral lobe or metasynchronous disease. In these cases, patients may receive multiple courses of lung SBRT or a single course for synchronous nodules. The toxicity of such treatment is currently unknown. Between 2006 and 2012, 63 subjects with 128 metasynchronous and synchronous lung nodules were treated at the Mayo Clinic with SBRT. Demographic patient data and dosimetric data regarding SBRT treatments were collected. Acute toxicity (defined as toxicity < 90 days) and late toxicity (defined as toxicity > = 90 days) were reported and graded as per standardized CTCAE 4.0 criteria. Local control, progression free survival and overall survival were also described. The median age of patients treated was 73 years. Sixty five percent were primary or recurrent lung cancers with the remainder metastatic lung nodules of varying histologies. Of 63 patients, 18 had prior high dose external beam radiation to the mediastinum or chest. Dose and fractionation varied but the most common prescriptions were 48 Gy/4 fractions, 54 Gy/3 fractions, and 50 Gy/5 fractions. Only 6 patients demonstrated local recurrence. With a median follow up of 12.6 months, median SBRT specific overall survival and progression free survival were 35.7 months and 10.7 months respectively. Fifty one percent (32/63 patients) experienced acute toxicity, predominantly grade 1 and 2 fatigue. One patient developed acute grade 3 radiation pneumonitis at 75 days. Forty six percent (29/63 patients) developed late effects. Most were grade 1 dyspnea. There was one patient with grade 5 pneumonitis. Multiple courses of SBRT and SBRT delivery after external beam radiotherapy appear to be feasible and safe. Most toxicity was grade 1 and 2 but the risk was

  14. AUTOMATIC LUNG NODULE DETECTION BASED ON STATISTICAL REGION MERGING AND SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Aghabalaei Khordehchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common diseases in the world that can be treated if the lung nodules are detected in their early stages of growth. This study develops a new framework for computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules thorough a fully-automatic analysis of Computed Tomography (CT images. In the present work, the multi-layer CT data is fed into a pre-processing step that exploits an adaptive diffusion-based smoothing algorithm in which the parameters are automatically tuned using an adaptation technique. After multiple levels of morphological filtering, the Regions of Interest (ROIs are extracted from the smoothed images. The Statistical Region Merging (SRM algorithm is applied to the ROIs in order to segment each layer of the CT data. Extracted segments in consecutive layers are then analyzed in such a way that if they intersect at more than a predefined number of pixels, they are labeled with a similar index. The boundaries of the segments in adjacent layers which have the same indices are then connected together to form three-dimensional objects as the nodule candidates. After extracting four spectral, one morphological, and one textural feature from all candidates, they are finally classified into nodules and non-nodules using the Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier. The proposed framework has been applied to two sets of lung CT images and its performance has been compared to that of nine other competing state-of-the-art methods. The considerable efficiency of the proposed approach has been proved quantitatively and validated by clinical experts as well.

  15. A Legume TOR Protein Kinase Regulates Rhizobium Symbiosis and Is Essential for Infection and Nodule Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjareddy, Kalpana; Blanco, Lourdes; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Alvarado-Affantranger, Xóchitl; Quinto, Carmen; Sánchez, Federico; Lara, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase regulates metabolism, growth, and life span in yeast, animals, and plants in coordination with nutrient status and environmental conditions. The nutrient-dependent nature of TOR functionality makes this kinase a putative regulator of symbiotic associations involving nutrient acquisition. However, TOR's role in these processes remains to be understood. Here, we uncovered the role of TOR during the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)-Rhizobium tropici (Rhizobium) symbiotic interaction. TOR was expressed in all tested bean tissues, with higher transcript levels in the root meristems and senesced nodules. We showed TOR promoter expression along the progressing infection thread and in the infected cells of mature nodules. Posttranscriptional gene silencing of TOR using RNA interference (RNAi) showed that this gene is involved in lateral root elongation and root cell organization and also alters the density, size, and number of root hairs. The suppression of TOR transcripts also affected infection thread progression and associated cortical cell divisions, resulting in a drastic reduction of nodule numbers. TOR-RNAi resulted in reduced reactive oxygen species accumulation and altered CyclinD1 and CyclinD3 expression, which are crucial factors for infection thread progression and nodule organogenesis. Enhanced expression of TOR-regulated ATG genes in TOR-RNAi roots suggested that TOR plays a role in the recognition of Rhizobium as a symbiont. Together, these data suggest that TOR plays a vital role in the establishment of root nodule symbiosis in the common bean. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Graphite nodule count and size distribution in thin-walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Graphite nodule count and size distribution have been analysed in thin walled ductile cast iron. The 2D nodule counts have been converted into 3D nodule count by using Finite Difference Method (FDM). Particles having a diameter smaller than 5 µm should be neglected in the nodule count as these ar......Graphite nodule count and size distribution have been analysed in thin walled ductile cast iron. The 2D nodule counts have been converted into 3D nodule count by using Finite Difference Method (FDM). Particles having a diameter smaller than 5 µm should be neglected in the nodule count...... as these are inclusions and micro porosities that do not influence the solidification morphology. If there are many small graphite nodules as in thin walled castings only 3D nodule count calculated by FDM will give reliable results. 2D nodule count and 3D nodule count calculated by simple equations will give too low...

  17. Ultrasound stratification of the FDG-avid thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech, P.; Lavender, I.; Jong, I.; Soo, G.; Ramdave, S.; Chong, A.; Nandurkar, D.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the malignancy risk in an 2-["1"8F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-avid thyroid nodule can be stratified according to the presence or absence of suspicious ultrasound features and thereby identify which nodules require further cytological assessment. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of FDG-positron-emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) studies with FDG-avid thyroid nodules (defined as FDG uptake greater than blood pool) that were further assessed with ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration cytology or surgery was performed. FDG-avid thyroid nodules were classified as having either suspicious ultrasound features (marked hypo-echogenicity, irregular margins, microcalcifications, marked hypervascularity, or nodules that were taller than they were wide) or no suspicious ultrasound features and these findings were correlated with the subsequent cytological results. Results: Forty-eight FDG-avid thyroid nodules were assessed. On cytological assessment five nodules were malignant (10.4%), nine were indeterminate (18.75%), and 34 were benign (70.8%). On ultrasound, 24 (50%) had no suspicious features and 24 (50%) had one or more suspicious features. Of the nodules with no suspicious features, 22 (91.6%) were benign, two (8.3%) were indeterminate, and none were malignant. Of the nodules with suspicious features, five (20.8%) were malignant, seven (29.1%) were indeterminate, and 12 (50%) were benign. The absence of suspicious ultrasound features demonstrated a strong association with benign cytology (p=0.009). Out of the suspicious sonographic features, marked hypoechoic appearance (p=0.02), irregular margins (p=0.009), and taller than wide morphology (p=0.04) were statistically most significantly associated with malignancy. Conclusion: The rate of malignancy in FDG-avid thyroid nodules is low in the absence of specific suspicious ultrasound features. The SUV values are non-discriminatory to differentiate

  18. Vasculature surrounding a nodule: A novel lung cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Leader, Joseph K; Wang, Renwei; Wilson, David; Herman, James; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pu, Jiantao

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether the vessels surrounding a nodule depicted on non-contrast, low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can discriminate benign and malignant screen detected nodules. We collected a dataset consisting of LDCT scans acquired on 100 subjects from the Pittsburgh Lung Screening study (PLuSS). Fifty subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer and 50 subjects had suspicious nodules later proven benign. For the lung cancer cases, the location of the malignant nodule in the LDCT scans was known; while for the benign cases, the largest nodule in the LDCT scan was used in the analysis. A computer algorithm was developed to identify surrounding vessels and quantify the number and volume of vessels that were connected or near the nodule. A nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed based on a single nodule per subject to assess the discriminability of the surrounding vessels to provide a lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR) were computed to determine the probability of a nodule being lung cancer based on the vessel features. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for vessel count and vessel volume were 0.722 (95% CI=0.616-0.811, plung cancer group 9.7 (±9.6) compared to the non-lung cancer group 4.0 (±4.3) CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results showed that malignant nodules are often surrounded by more vessels compared to benign nodules, suggesting that the surrounding vessel characteristics could serve as lung cancer biomarker for indeterminate nodules detected during LDCT lung cancer screening using only the information collected during the initial visit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasound assistance in differentiating malignant thyroid nodules from benign ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahir, S.T.; Sefidrokh, S.; Heidari, F.; Vakili, M.; Ghaneei, A.

    2017-01-01

    The search is ongoing for simple, effective ways to identify and differentiate thyroid nodules in order to avoid invasive procedures. This study aims to perform an ultrasound assessment of clinically suspected patients with malignant nodules, to perform a fine needle biopsy on them, and to compare the results obtained. Methods: In total, 135 patients with thyroid nodules suspected to be malignant in the ultrasound underwent ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsies. The patients' gender, age, ultrasound views (echogenicity, shape, and calcification type), nodule size, number of nodules, and needle biopsy results were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Of the 135 patients, 117 (86.7 percent) were female and 18 (13.3 percent) were male. In terms of age, 67 (49.16 percent) were younger than 40 and the rest were older. According to the Chi-square test, a significant relationship was found between the type of nodule and calcification found in the ultrasound views (p=0.001). The nodule type was not significantly related to gender (p=0.563) or to the number of nodules (p=0.128); however, there was a significant relationship between nodule size and type (p=0.001). Ultrasound specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for differentiating benign from malignant nodules were 93.2 percent, 93.8 percent, 81.1 percent, 98 percent, and 93.3 percent, respectively. Conclusions: Ultrasound views (comet tail artefact and linear echogenic foci) were better predictors of benign nodules than of malignant ones, while round, echogenic foci, brighter and larger than typical micro-calcifications without any visible echoes and multiple punctuate round echogenic foci were better predicted malignancy. (author)

  20. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozgeyik, Zulkif; Coskun, Sonay; Ogur, Erkin; Dagli, A.F.; Ozkan, Yusuf; Sahpaz, Fatih

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the diagnostic role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the differentiating of malignant and benign thyroid nodules by using fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology criteria as a reference standard. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the normal-looking thyroid parenchyma were also evaluated both in normal patients and in patients with nodules. Between March 2007 and February 2008, 76 consecutive patients with ultrasound-diagnosed thyroid nodules and 20 healthy subjects underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging by using single-shot spin echo, echo planar imaging. A total of 93 nodules were included in the study using the following b factors 100, 200, and 300 mm 2 /s. ADC values of thyroid nodules and normal area in all subjects were calculated and compared using suitable statistical analysis. Mean ADC values for malignant and benign nodules were 0.96±0.65 x 10 -3 and 3.06±0.71 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. for b-300 factor, 0.56±0.43 x 10 -3 and 1.80±0.60 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s for b-200, and 0.30±0.20 x 10 -3 and 1.15±0.43 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, for b-300, respectively. Mean ADC values of malignant nodules were lower than benign nodules. There were significant differences in ADC values between benign and malignant nodules. ADC values among normal-appearing thyroid parenchyma of patients and normal-appearing thyroid parenchyma of healthy subjects were insignificant at all b factors. Benign nodules have higher ADC values than malignant ones. DWI may be helpful in differentiating malign and benign thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  1. VATS intraoperative tattooing to facilitate solitary pulmonary nodule resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutros Cherif

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS has become routine and widely accepted for the removal of solitary pulmonary nodules of unknown etiology. Thoracosopic techniques continue to evolve with better instruments, robotic applications, and increased patient acceptance and awareness. Several techniques have been described to localize peripheral pulmonary nodules, including pre-operative CT-guided tattooing with methylene blue, CT scan guided spiral/hook wire placement, and transthoracic ultrasound. As pulmonary surgeons well know, the lung and visceral pleura may appear featureless on top of a pulmonary nodule. Case description This paper presents a rapid, direct and inexpensive approach to peripheral lung lesion resection by marking the lung parenchyma on top of the nodule using direct methylene blue injection. Methods In two patients with peripherally located lung nodules (n = 3 scheduled for VATS, we used direct methylene blue injection for intraoperative localization of the pulmonary nodule. Our technique was the following: After finger palpation of the lung, a spinal 25 gauge needle was inserted through an existing port and 0.1 ml of methylene blue was used to tattoo the pleura perpendicular to the localized nodule. The methylene blue tattoo immediately marks the lung surface over the nodule. The surgeon avoids repeated finger palpation, while lining up stapler, graspers and camera, because of the visible tattoo. Our technique eliminates regrasping and repalpating the lung once again to identify a non marked lesion. Results Three lung nodules were resected in two patients. Once each lesion was palpated it was marked, and the area was resected with security of accurate localization. All lung nodules were resected in totality with normal lung parenchymal margins. Our technique added about one minute to the operative time. The two patients were discharged home on the second postoperative day, with no morbidity. Conclusion

  2. Comparison of muscle-to-nodule and parenchyma-to-nodule strain ratios in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules: Which one should we use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Ramazan, E-mail: raydin1984@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Samsun Education and Research Hospital, Samsun (Turkey); Elmali, Muzaffer, E-mail: muzafel@yahoo.com.tr [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Polat, Ahmet Veysel, E-mail: veyselp@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Danaci, Murat, E-mail: danacim55@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Akpolat, Ilkser, E-mail: ilkserakpolat@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of muscle-to-nodule strain ratio (MNSR) in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and to see if there was a difference between MNSR and parenchyma-to-nodule strain ratios (PNSR) in diagnosis. Methods: A total of 106 consecutive patients (88 women and 18 men; age range 19–79 years) with thyroid nodules were prospectively examined using ultrasound and sonoelastography before the fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The mean MNSR and PNSR were calculated for each nodule and the elasticity score was determined according to four-point scoring system. Results: According to the four-point scoring system, 44 of the 83 benign nodules had a score of one or two while 22 of the 23 malignant nodules had a score of three or four (p < 0.001). Using ROC analysis, the best cutoff point for MNSR 1.85 and for PNSR 3.14 was calculated. The sensitivity and specificity for the MNSR were 95.6%, 92.8%, respectively; for the PNSR were 95.6%, 93.4%, respectively, when the best cutoff points were used (p < 0.001). The κ value for the PNSR and MNSR methods was 0.87, which indicated an almost perfect agreement (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Sonoelastography has a high diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. There was no significant difference between MNSR and PNSR in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Therefore, we think that MNSR could safely be used in situations where PNSR could not be used.

  3. Vermiculite's strong buffer capacity renders it unsuitable for studies of acidity on soybean (Glycine max L.) nodulation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrasumunar, Arief; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2013-11-14

    Vermiculite is the most common soil-free growing substrate used for plants in horticultural and scientific studies due to its high water holding capacity. However, some studies are not suitable to be conducted in it. The described experiments aimed to test the suitability of vermiculite to study the effect of acidity on nodulation and growth of soybean (Glycine max L.). Two different nutrient solutions (Broughton & Dilworth, and modified Herridge nutrient solutions) with or without MES buffer addition were used to irrigate soybean grown on vermiculite growth substrates. The pH of nutrient solutions was adjusted to either pH 4.0 or 7.0 prior its use. The nodulation and vegetative growth of soybean plants were assessed at 3 and 4 weeks after inoculation. The unsuitability of presumably inert vermiculite as a physical plant growth substrate for studying the effects of acidity on soybean nodulation and plant growth was illustrated. Nodulation and growth of soybean grown in vermiculite were not affected by irrigation with pH-adjusted nutrient solution either at pH 4.0 or 7.0. This was reasonably caused by the ability of vermiculite to neutralise (buffer) the pH of the supplied nutrient solution (pH 2.0-7.0). Due to its buffering capacity, vermiculite cannot be used as growth support to study the effect of acidity on nodulation and plant growth.

  4. A Legume TOR Protein Kinase Regulates Rhizobium Symbiosis and Is Essential for Infection and Nodule Development1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Lourdes; Quinto, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase regulates metabolism, growth, and life span in yeast, animals, and plants in coordination with nutrient status and environmental conditions. The nutrient-dependent nature of TOR functionality makes this kinase a putative regulator of symbiotic associations involving nutrient acquisition. However, TOR’s role in these processes remains to be understood. Here, we uncovered the role of TOR during the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)-Rhizobium tropici (Rhizobium) symbiotic interaction. TOR was expressed in all tested bean tissues, with higher transcript levels in the root meristems and senesced nodules. We showed TOR promoter expression along the progressing infection thread and in the infected cells of mature nodules. Posttranscriptional gene silencing of TOR using RNA interference (RNAi) showed that this gene is involved in lateral root elongation and root cell organization and also alters the density, size, and number of root hairs. The suppression of TOR transcripts also affected infection thread progression and associated cortical cell divisions, resulting in a drastic reduction of nodule numbers. TOR-RNAi resulted in reduced reactive oxygen species accumulation and altered CyclinD1 and CyclinD3 expression, which are crucial factors for infection thread progression and nodule organogenesis. Enhanced expression of TOR-regulated ATG genes in TOR-RNAi roots suggested that TOR plays a role in the recognition of Rhizobium as a symbiont. Together, these data suggest that TOR plays a vital role in the establishment of root nodule symbiosis in the common bean. PMID:27698253

  5. Autonomous nodule of the thyroid: correlation of patient age, nodule size, and functional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, M.; Shenkman, L.; Hollander, C.S.

    1975-01-01

    In light of new techniques for measuring circulating thyroid hormones and for studying the thyroid gland, we present our experience with 35 patients with solitary autonomous nodules of the thyroid to define more precisely the clinical course of patients with this disorder. The patients ranged in age from 19 to 80 years and 31 of the 35 were female. Younger patients were generally euthyroid and sought attention because of a thyroid mass; virtually all older patients were hyperthyroid. Eighteen had obvious clinical features of hyperthyroidism and 5 over age 70 had apathetic hyperthyroidism; all 5 of the elderly and 13 of the 18 under age 70 had elevated thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) levels. Isolated elevation of T 3 and elevated basal metabolic rate were observed in 5 previously untreated clinically hyperthyroid young patients. In each of these, thyroid uptake of 131 I was not suppressible with exogenous T 3 and BMR was elevated in those tested. Two elderly patients, who had previously been treated for conventional hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine, had T 3 toxicosis when hyperthyroidism recurred. There was a strong positive correlation between the age of the patient, the size of the nodule and the thyroid functional state. The mean area of the nodules projected on 131 I rectilinear scan for euthyroid patients was 5.1 cm 2 . The mean area of the nodules in hyperthyroid subjects was significantly higher, 13.4 cm 2 in patients with T 3 toxicosis and 19.3 cm 2 in subjects with conventional hyperthyroidism. Progression from a euthyroid state to hyperthyroidism was observed in four patients. One of these became thyrotoxic within days after an injection of iodinated contrast medium. Spontaneous resolution of nodules occurred in two patients

  6. Solitary pulmonary nodule and 18F-FDG PET/CT. Part 1: epidemiology, morphological evaluation and cancer probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pretto Mosmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solitary pulmonary nodule corresponds to a common radiographic finding, which is frequently detected incidentally. The investigation of this entity remains complex, since characteristics of benign and malignant processes overlap in the differential diagnosis. Currently, many strategies are available to evaluate solitary pulmonary nodules with the main objective of characterizing benign lesions as best as possible, while avoiding to expose patients to the risks inherent to invasive methods, besides correctly detecting cases of lung cancer so as the potential curative treatment is not delayed. This first part of the study focuses on the epidemiology, the morfological evaluation and the methods to determine the likelihood of cancer in cases of indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodule.

  7. Bilateral cervical ectopic thymic nodules with accessory thyroid tissue and an ectopic parathyroid in the neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wea-Lung Lin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Some remnants of thymic tissue may be deposited along the pathway of the descent of the neck during embryologic development of the thymus. Ectopic thymic tissue is usually deposited along the pathway from the mandibular angle to the manubrium of the sternum. Most reported cases of an ectopic thymus occurred in children, and cases are less common in adults. We report a 26-year-old woman, who was incidentally found to have 2 neck nodules on the posterior side of the bilateral upper pole of the thyroid gland while undergoing a subtotal thyroidectomy. The left-side neck nodule showed accessory thyroid follicles intermixed with ectopic thymic tissue, and the right-side neck nodule was ectopic parathyroid tissue together with ectopic thymic tissue.

  8. The evaluation of functioning thyroid nodules using sodium pertechnetate TC-99m scan in comparison with iodine-131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghari M

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid scintigraphy has been helpful in detecting and evaluation of thyroid nodules. Sodium pertechnetate Tc-99m is the most commonly used radionuclide for thyroid imaging because of its general availability, favorable dosimetric characteristics and low cost. But, there are reports of occasional disparity in isotope uptake in lesions compared with radioiodide. In order to determine percentage and clinical significance of this disparity, we screened 101 patients with solitary functioning nodules using sodium pertechnetate TC-99m in comparison with subsequent Iodine-131 scan in research institute for nuclear medicine. We conclude that sodium pertechnetate TC-99m is a reliable radiotracer for the detection and evaluation of thyroid nodules and there is no need for the subsequent Iodine-131 scan.

  9. Solitary pulmonary nodule and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Part 2: accuracy, cost-effectiveness, and current recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosmann, Marcos Pretto; Borba, Marcelle Alves; Macedo, Francisco Pires Negromonte de; Liguori, Adriano de Araujo Lima; Villarim Neto, Arthur [Liga Norte-Riograndense Contra o Cancer, Natal, RN (Brazil); Lima, Kenio Costa de, E-mail: mosmann@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Saude Coletiva

    2016-03-15

    A solitary pulmonary nodule is a common, often incidental, radiographic finding. The investigation and differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules remain complex, because there are overlaps between the characteristics of benign and malignant processes. There are currently many strategies for evaluating solitary pulmonary nodules. The main objective is to identify benign lesions, in order to avoid exposing patients to the risks of invasive methods, and to detect cases of lung cancer accurately, in order to avoid delaying potentially curative treatment. The focus of this study was to review the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules, to discuss the current role of {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography, addressing its accuracy and cost-effectiveness, and to detail the current recommendations for the examination in this scenario. (author)

  10. Surgical and Pathological Changes after Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Dobrinja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA has been recently advocated as an effective technique for the treatment of symptomatic benign thyroid nodules. It is not known to what extent it may affect any subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis. Materials and Methods. RFA was performed on 64 symptomatic Thy2 nodules (benign nodules and 6 symptomatic Thy3 nodules (follicular lesions/follicular neoplasms. Two Thy3 nodules regrew after the procedure, and these patients accepted to undergo a total thyroidectomy. Here we present how RFA has affected the operation and the final pathological features of the surgically removed nodules. Results and Conclusions. RFA is effective for the treatment of Thy2 nodules, but it should not be recommended as first-line therapy for the treatment of Thy3 nodules (irrespective of their mutational status, as it delays surgery in case of malignancy. Moreover, it is unknown whether RFA might promote residual tumor progression or neoplastic progression of Thy3 lesions. Nevertheless, here we show for the first time that one session of RFA does not affect subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis.

  11. Effect of exogenous application of rhizopine on lucerne root nodulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhizopine, 3-0 -methyl scyllo-inosamine was applied to the roots of luceme seedling inoculated with either rhizopine synthesizing Sinorhizobium meliloti strain L530 or the non-rhizopine synthesizing strain Rm 1021 . There was an initial delay in nodule formation. A significant increase in the number of nodules formed in ...

  12. Partially Cystic Thyroid Nodules: Ultrasound Findings of Malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang Mi; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kwag, Hyon Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To seek for the ultrasound (US) findings of partially cystic thyroid nodules that are associated with malignancy. We reviewed the US characteristics of 22 surgically confirmed partially cystic papillary carcinomas, and compared them with those of 80 benign partially cystic nodules. The review cases were selected in a random order from a total of 1029 partially cystic nodules that were diagnosed with an US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy over a period of 8 years (June 2003 to October 2010) at our institution. In partially cystic thyroid nodules, a taller-than-wide shape (100%, p<0.001) and spiculated or microlobulated margin (58.3%, p 0.003) were significantly associated with malignancy. In terms of internal solid portion of the nodule, eccentric configuration (68.0%, p<0.001), non-smooth margin (81.3%, p<0.001), hypoechogenecity (30.0%, p<0.042), and microcalcification (89.5%, p<0.001) were more frequently demonstrated in malignant nodules than benign ones. In partially cystic thyroid nodules, understanding the characteristics of US findings is important to make a precise diagnosis of malignant nodules.

  13. Geochemistry of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Khadge, N.H.; Desa, J.A.E.

    ) In the CCD model, the smaller nodules ( 4 cm) are formed at or near the CCD and are influencEd. by diagenesis and high biological productivity; they are enriched in Mn, Cu and Ni, and todorokite is present. (2) In the deep-sea environment model, large nodules...

  14. Nodulin gene expression during soybean (Glycine max) nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloudemans, T.; Vries, de S.; Bussink, H.J.; Malik, N.S.A.; Franssen, H.; Louwerse, J.; Bisseling, T.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro translation products of total RNA isolated from soybean nodules at successive stages of nodule development were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In that way the occurrence of over 20 mRNAs specifically transcribed from nodulin genes was detected. The nodulin genes could be

  15. Uranium in Pacific Deep-Sea Sediments and Manganese Nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Pluger, W. L.; Friedrich, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 1344 manganese nodules and 187 pelagic sediments from 9 areas in the North and the South Pacific were analyzed for U by the delayed-neutron counting technique. A strong positive correlation between U and Fe in nodules and sediments suggests a co-precipitative removal from sea water int...

  16. Malignancy risk estimation of pulmonary nodules in screening CTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Riel, Sarah J; Ciompi, Francesco; Winkler Wille, Mathilde M

    2017-01-01

    model (PanCan) assigned a malignancy probability score to each nodule. Performances were expressed by area under the ROC curve (AUC). Performance differences were tested using the Dorfman, Berbaum and Metz method. Seven observers assessed morphological nodule characteristics using a predefined list...

  17. Solitary pulmonary nodule: radiologic features and diagnostic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cambronero, Luis Enrique

    2012-01-01

    A literature review is conducted on the solitary pulmonary nodule, to determine the diagnostic methods and specific characteristics. The diagnostic methods used have been: chest radiography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The radiological features are defined: location, size, definition of contours or edges (margins), densitometric and attenuation characteristics, cavitation, air bronchogram, growth, doubling time, satellite nodules, nutrient vessels [es

  18. Buried nodules from the central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.

    . Of these, 13 buried nodules are from two sediment cores in siliceous ooze and seven from two sediment cores in a red clay area. The morphology, size, surface texture and chemical composition of buried nodules from two different sediment type have been...

  19. Vocal nodules in a colombian teachers group with dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Alvarado Díaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study determined the prevalence of vocal nodules associated with dysphonia in teachers aged from 35 to 65 years, taking into consideration both individual and occupational variables. Methodology: Descriptive study that included the information contained in 262 medical records of teachers diagnosed with dysphonia in occupational health consultations at the institutions that provide health services in Bogotá, Colombia from March 2009 to March 2012. The presence of laryngeal nodules was based on the findings of a nasofibrolaryngoscopy procedure. Results: Nodules were found in 67 teachers, which corresponded to a rate of 25.5%, being apparently (highest observed rates associated primarily with the following variables: females, ages from 45 to 54 years, bilateral nodules, and teaching position (preschool and physical education. Of the teachers with nodules, 76.1% had fewer than five doctor's appointments, and 75% had more than 90 days of sick leave. Conclusion: A high percentage of teachers have vocal nodules associated with dysphonia. This may be apparently related to different variables such as sex, type of nodule, area and teaching position. Was observed only a statistically significant association among presence of nodules and age (p=0.018. In addition this disorder generates a large number of incapacities and employee absenteeism.

  20. System for automatic detection of lung nodules exhibiting growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Carol L.; Shen, Hong; Odry, Benjamin L.; Ko, Jane P.; Naidich, David P.

    2004-05-01

    Lung nodules that exhibit growth over time are considered highly suspicious for malignancy. We present a completely automated system for detection of growing lung nodules, using initial and follow-up multi-slice CT studies. The system begins with automatic detection of lung nodules in the later CT study, generating a preliminary list of candidate nodules. Next an automatic system for registering locations in two studies matches each candidate in the later study to its corresponding position in the earlier study. Then a method for automatic segmentation of lung nodules is applied to each candidate and its matching location, and the computed volumes are compared. The output of the system is a list of nodule candidates that are new or have exhibited volumetric growth since the previous scan. In a preliminary test of 10 patients examined by two radiologists, the automatic system identified 18 candidates as growing nodules. 7 (39%) of these corresponded to validated nodules or other focal abnormalities that exhibited growth. 4 of the 7 true detections had not been identified by either of the radiologists during their initial examinations of the studies. This technique represents a powerful method of surveillance that may reduce the probability of missing subtle or early malignant disease.

  1. Computerized detection of lung nodules in digital chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giger, M.L.; Doi, K.; MacMahon, H.

    1987-01-01

    Detection of cancerous lung nodules in chest radiographs is one of the more important tasks performed by a radiologist. In addition, the ''miss rate'' associated with the radiographic detection of lung nodules is approximately 30%. A computerized scheme that alerts the radiologist to possible locations of lung nodules should allow this number of false-negative diagnoses to be reduced. The authors are developing a computer-aided nodule detection scheme based on a difference image approach. They attempt to eliminate the camouflaging background structure of the normal lung anatomy by creating, from a single-projection chest image, two images: one in which the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the nodule is maximized and another in which that SNR is suppressed while the processed background remains essentially the same. Thus, the difference between these two processed images should consist of the nodule superimposed on a relatively uniform background in which the detection task may be simplified. This difference image approach is fundamentally different from conventional subtraction techniques (e.g., temporal or dual-energy subtraction) in that the two images which are subtracted arise from the same single-projection chest radiograph. Once the difference image is obtained, thresholding is performed along with tests for circularity, size and growth in order to extract the nodules. It should be noted that once an original chest image is input to the computer the nodule detection process is totally automated

  2. Carcinoma in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule in recurrent hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoving, J.; Piers, D.A.; Vermey, A.; Oosterhuis, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    A patient with an invasive thyroid carcinoma located within a hot thyroid nodule is reported. Only four similar cases have been described in the literature. It is emphasized that a hot thyroid nodule per se should not be used as an argument against the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  3. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy of autonomous (toxic) thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieter Erich Apitzsch, M. D.; Staedtische Paracelsusklinik

    2005-01-01

    In Europe, 9-10% of hyperfunctioning thyroid glands have toxic, autonomous thyroid nodules (ATN). Since 1994, in the Municipal hospital of Marl, Germany, 186 patients have performed percutaneous ethanol ablation of toxic thyroid nodules with very good or at least sufficient results. In this article, the ablation technique is described in detail and the costs of therapy of ATN are given.(authors)

  4. 3D pulmonary nodules detection using fast marching segmentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes an automated computer aided diagnosis system for detection of pulmonary nodules based on three dimensional (3D) structures. Lung ... The proposed detection methodology can give the accuracy of 92%. Keywords: lung cancer; pulmonary nodule; fast marching; 3D features; random forest classifier.

  5. Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, F; Chaussain, J L; Job, J C

    1986-01-01

    Eight children and adolescents, seven female and one male, aged 7.1 to 15.0 years, referred over a 12-year period for a solitary mass in an otherwise normal thyroid gland, exhibited a hyperfunctioning nodule on thyroid scintiscan. Tracer uptake in the surrounding thyroid tissue was reduced or completely suppressed, but could be restored after TSH stimulation. Only one patient had mild clinical hyperthyroidism with normal T4 but increased T3 serum levels and blunted TSH responsiveness to TRH. A similar hormonal pattern suggestive of subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in three other subjects who were clinically euthyroid. One patient initially euthyroid progressed to subclinical hyperthyroidism two years later. In the whole group a significant negative relationship was found between serum T3 level and TRH-stimulated TSH peak (r = -0.829, p less than 0.02). All the patients underwent selective surgery after a 3-month to 2-year period of follow-up. Microscopic examination was consistent with adenoma in seven patients, while in one case a well-encapsulated papillary adenocarcinoma was found. Though hyperfunctioning nodules are seldom malignant, their surgical removal must be recommended when they become thyrotoxic, exceed 3 cm or show progressive enlargement.

  6. Gamma radiation induced and natural variability for nodulation in legumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maherchandani, N; Rana, O P.S. [Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hissar (India). Dept. of Genetics

    1977-09-01

    Gamma radiation induced variability for nodulation was studied in 112 M4 mutant lines of cowpea variety C-15-2. Ten lines superior in nodulation to the original variety have been identified. Natural variability for nodulation and plant growth was investigated in 75 genotypes of chickpea. A number of genotype were found to be superior to cultivated variety C-235 for nodulation characters. Nodule characters were found to be related to dry matter accumulation but not to grain yield. Another experiment on 10 varieties of chick pea conducted under aseptic conditions revealed that host genotypes showed specificity for Rhizobial strains and different Rhizobial strains differed in their effectiveness on different host genotypes. H 551 and H 355 were the most responsive varieties.

  7. Direct detection of radicals in intact soybean nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, C; Moreau, S; Frendo, P

    1998-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed to examine the nature of the metal ions and radicals present in intact root nodules of soybean plants grown in the absence of nitrate. The spectra obtained from nodules of different ages using this non-invasive technique show dramatic...... differences, suggesting that there are both qualitative and quantitative changes in the metal ion and radical species present. A major component of the spectra obtained from young nodules is assigned to a complex (Lb-NO) of nitric oxide (NO.) with the heme protein leghemoglobin (Lb). This Lb-NO species, which...... has not been previously detected in intact root nodules of plants grown in the absence of nitrate, is thought to be formed by reaction of nitric oxide with iron(II) leghemoglobin. The nitric oxide may be generated from arginine via a nitric oxide synthase-like activity present in the nodules...

  8. The thyroid nodule. Thyrotropin and peripheral thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimny, M.

    2008-01-01

    Thyrotropin, free triodothyronine and thyroxine represent the standard serological parameters for the diagnostic work-up of the thyroid but only a minority of thyroid nodules present with subclinical or overt thyroid disorders. Besides a review of the regulation and principle of function of thyroid hormones as well as the effects of subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism, the significant role of these parameters beyond the assessment of hyperthyroidism in thyroid nodules is discussed. There is evidence that the level of thyrotropin within the normal range is predictive for the relevance of autonomous functioning nodules and the risk of malignancy of non-functioning thyroid nodules. Furthermore, the ratio of triodothyronine and thyroxine indicates the etiology of hyperthyroidism. Thyrotropin represents the main parameter to determine the adequate dose of thyroid hormone therapy of thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  9. Variation of stemness markers expression in tumor nodules from synchronous multi-focal hepatocellular carcinoma - an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Regina Cheuk-Lam; Leung, Carmen Oi-Ning; Chok, Kenneth Siu-Ho; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin

    2017-08-01

    Advancing knowledge in molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) opens up new horizons in the diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic perspectives. Assessing the expression of molecular targets prior to definitive treatment is gaining importance in clinical practice. In this study, we investigated the variation in expression pattern of stemness markers in synchronous multi-focal HCC. In the first cohort, 21 liver explants with multi-focal HCC were examined for expression of stemness markers EpCAM, Sox9 and CK19 by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Expression data of 50 tumor nodules were analyzed to determine the concordance of expression among nodules in the same livers. In the second cohort, 14 tumor nodules from 6 multi-focal HCC cases proven as intra-hepatic metastasis were examined for Soc9 immunoexpression. In the first cohort, thirty nodules from 16 cases expressed one or more markers, with Sox9 being most frequently expressed. Complete concordance of expression pattern for all 3 markers was observed in 6 cases. Discrepancy of staining degree was noted in 4 cases for EpCAM, 14 cases for Sox9, and 6 cases for CK19. A two-tier or three-tier difference in staining scores was noted in 5 cases for Sox9 and one case for CK19. With Sox9, identical tumor morphology in terms of Edmondson grading and growth pattern did not infer the same degree of immunoexpression; and the largest tumor nodule was not representative of highest IHC score. In the second cohort of intra-hepatic metastasis, complete concordance of Sox9 expression level was observed in 5 out of 6 cases; while the remaining case showed a 1-tier difference of positive staining. Our findings suggested that clonality of tumor nodules is apparently an important factor to infer immunoexpression pattern. When there is limited information to discern multiple primaries versus intra-hepatic metastasis in multi-focal HCC, discordant degree of stemness markers expression among tumor nodules was commonly

  10. Effect of Scanning and Reconstruction Parameters on Three Dimensional Volume and CT Value Measurement of Pulmonary Nodules: A Phantom Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datong SU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The computed tomography (CT follow-up of indeterminate pulmonary nodules aiming to evaluate the change of the volume and CT value is the common strategy in clinic. The CT dose needs to considered on serious CT scans in addition to the measurement accuracy. The purpose of this study is to quantify the precision of pulmonary nodule volumetric measurement and CT value measurement with various tube currents and reconstruction algorithms in a phantom study with dual-energy CT. Methods A chest phantom containing 9 artificial spherical solid nodules with known diameter (D=2.5 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm and density (-100 HU, 60 HU and 100 HU was scanned using a 64-row detector CT canner at 120 Kilovolt & various currents (10 mA, 20 mA, 50 mA, 80 mA,100 mA, 150 mA and 350 mA. Raw data were reconstructed with filtered back projection and three levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm (FBP, ASIR; 30%, 50% and 80%. Automatic volumetric measurements were performed using commercially available software. The relative volume error (RVE and the absolute attenuation error (AAE between the software measures and the reference-standard were calculated. Analyses of the variance were performed to evaluate the effect of reconstruction methods, different scan parameters, nodule size and attenuation on the RPE. Results The software substantially overestimated the very small (D=2.5 mm nodule's volume [mean RVE: (100.8%±28%] and underestimated it attenuation [mean AAE: (-756±80 HU]. The mean RVEs of nodule with diameter as 5 mm and 10 mm were small [(-0.9%±1.1% vs (0.9%±1.4%], however, the mean AAEs [(-243±26 HU vs (-129±7 HU] were large. The ANOVA analysis for repeated measurements showed that different tube current and reconstruction algorithm had no significant effect on the volumetric measurements for nodules with diameter of 5 mm and 10 mm (F=5.60, P=0.10 vs F=11.13, P=0.08, but significant effects on the measurement of CT

  11. Phylogenetic relationships and host range of Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lucas, I; Segovia, L; Martinez-Romero, E; Pueppke, S G

    1995-07-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene segments from five Rhizobium strains that have been isolated from tropical legume species. All share the capacity to nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L., the common bean. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these strains are of two different chromosomal lineages. We defined the host ranges of two strains of Rhizobium etli and three strains of R. tropici, comparing them with those of the two most divergently related new strains. Twenty-two of the 43 tested legume species were nodulated by three or more of these strains. All seven strains have broad host ranges that include woody species such as Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia maculata, and Leucaena leucocephala.

  12. Impact of overexpression of cytosolic isoform of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase on soybean nodulation and nodule metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen-fixing nodules, which are also major sites of sulfur assimilation, contribute significantly to the sulfur needs of the whole soybean plants. Nodules are the predominant sites for cysteine accumulation and the activity of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS; also known as O-acetylserine(thio...

  13. Persistent pulmonary subsolid nodules: model-based iterative reconstruction for nodule classification and measurement variability on low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Kim, Seong Ho; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Kyung Hee; Park, Chang Min; Park, Sang Joon; Goo, Jin Mo

    2014-01-01

    To compare the pulmonary subsolid nodule (SSN) classification agreement and measurement variability between filtered back projection (FBP) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). Low-dose CTs were reconstructed using FBP and MBIR for 47 patients with 47 SSNs. Two readers independently classified SSNs into pure or part-solid ground-glass nodules, and measured the size of the whole nodule and solid portion twice on both reconstruction algorithms. Nodule classification agreement was analyzed using Cohen's kappa and compared between reconstruction algorithms using McNemar's test. Measurement variability was investigated using Bland-Altman analysis and compared with the paired t-test. Cohen's kappa for inter-reader SSN classification agreement was 0.541-0.662 on FBP and 0.778-0.866 on MBIR. Between the two readers, nodule classification was consistent in 79.8 % (75/94) with FBP and 91.5 % (86/94) with MBIR (p = 0.027). Inter-reader measurement variability range was -5.0-2.1 mm on FBP and -3.3-1.8 mm on MBIR for whole nodule size, and was -6.5-0.9 mm on FBP and -5.5-1.5 mm on MBIR for solid portion size. Inter-reader measurement differences were significantly smaller on MBIR (p = 0.027, whole nodule; p = 0.011, solid portion). MBIR significantly improved SSN classification agreement and reduced measurement variability of both whole nodules and solid portions between readers. (orig.)

  14. Pulmonary nodule size evaluation with chest tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Åse A; Fagman, Erika; Vikgren, Jenny; Fisichella, Valeria A; Boijsen, Marianne; Flinck, Agneta; Kheddache, Susanne; Svalkvist, Angelica; Båth, Magnus

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate intra- and interobserver variability, as well as agreement for nodule size measurements on chest tomosynthesis and computed tomographic (CT) images. The Regional Ethical Review Board approved this study, and all participants gave written informed consent. Thirty-six segmented nodules in 20 patients were included in the study. Eight observers measured the left-to-right, inferior-to-superior, and longest nodule diameters on chest tomosynthesis and CT images. Intra- and interobserver repeatability, as well as agreement between measurements on chest tomosynthesis and CT images, were assessed as recommended by Bland and Altman. The difference between the mean manual and the segmented diameter was -2.2 and -2.3 mm for left-to-right and -2.6 and -2.2 mm for the inferior-to-superior diameter for measurements on chest tomosynthesis and CT images, respectively. Intraobserver 95% limits of agreement (LOA) for the longest diameter ranged from a lower limit of -1.1 mm and an upper limit of 1.0 mm to -1.8 and 1.8 mm for chest tomosynthesis and from -0.6 and 0.9 mm to -3.1 and 2.2 mm for axial CT. Interobserver 95% LOA ranged from -1.3 and 1.5 mm to -2.0 and 2.1 mm for chest tomosynthesis and from -1.8 and 1.1 mm to -2.2 and 3.1 mm for axial CT. The 95% LOA concerning the mean of the observers' measurements of the longest diameter at chest tomosynthesis and axial CT were ±2.1 mm (mean measurement error, 0 mm). For the different observers, the 95% LOA between the modalities ranged from -2.2 and 1.6 mm to -3.2 and 2.8 mm. Measurements on chest tomosynthesis and CT images are comparable, because there is no evident bias between the modalities and the repeatability is similar. The LOA between measurements for the two modalities raise concern if measurements from chest tomosynthesis and CT were to be used interchangeably. © RSNA, 2012.

  15. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules in Colorectal-Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Jorgensen, Lars N; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPN) at staging computed tomography (CT) for colorectal cancer (CRC), and the optimal diagnostic approach, are debated. This study aimed to analyse variability in radiologists' detection of IPN at staging CT for CRC. METHODS......: All patients with CRC referred to our center between 2006 and 2011 were included. Primary staging CT scans were re-evaluated by an experienced thoracic radiologist whose findings were entered into a dedicated database and merged with data from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database, the National...... investigated radiological characteristics or clinicopathological factors were significantly associated with malignancy of IPN. CONCLUSION: The characterization of pulmonary findings on staging CT for CRC varied greatly between the radiologists, and double-reading of scans with IPN is recommended prior...

  16. Co-existence of Rhizobia and Diverse Non-rhizobial Bacteria in the Rhizosphere and Nodules of Dalbergia odorifera Seedlings Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium elkanii, Rhizobium multihospitium–Like and Burkholderia pyrrocinia–Like Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junkun Lu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia induce root nodules and fix atmospheric N2 for most legume species in exchange for carbon. However, the diverse endophytic non-rhizobial bacteria in legume nodules that co-exist with rhizobia are often ignored because they are difficult to cultivate using routine cultivation approaches. To enhance our understanding of the incidence and diversity of legume–bacteria associations, a high-throughput sequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes was used to examine the bacterial community in the rhizospheres and root nodules of Dalbergia odorifera seedlings that were uninoculated or inoculated with Bradyrhizobium elkanii H255, Rhizobium multihospitium–like HT221, or Burkholderia pyrrocinia–like H022238, in two growth media (nitrogen [N]-supplied soil or N-omitted potting mix. Seedlings inoculated with Bradyrhizobium had significantly more nodules than seedlings in the other inoculation conditions, regardless of growth media. Using the 15N natural abundance method, it was shown that the inoculated plants had significantly higher N2 fixation efficiency (48–57% and specific nodule activity [269–313 μg N mg−1 of dry weight (dwt nodule] compared to the uninoculated plants (203 μg N mg−1 dwt nodule. The 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that there was generally a higher bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere than in the nodules in the corresponding condition. Both rhizobial inoculation and media status significantly altered the bacterial communities in the rhizospheres and nodules (P < 0.05, with the exception of the inoculated soil rhizospheres. Regarding non-rhizobial bacteria, three genera, i.e., Lactococcus, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas, were consistently enriched in the rhizosphere and Bradyrhizobium, Chloroplast norank (which belongs to Cyanobacteria, and Lactococcus were commonly found in the nodules. In contrast, common rhizobial genera (including Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Burkholderia were only present in the nodules at low

  17. Quantitative CT: technique dependence of volume estimation on pulmonary nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baiyu; Barnhart, Huiman; Richard, Samuel; Colsher, James; Amurao, Maxwell; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-03-01

    Current estimation of lung nodule size typically relies on uni- or bi-dimensional techniques. While new three-dimensional volume estimation techniques using MDCT have improved size estimation of nodules with irregular shapes, the effect of acquisition and reconstruction parameters on accuracy (bias) and precision (variance) of the new techniques has not been fully investigated. To characterize the volume estimation performance dependence on these parameters, an anthropomorphic chest phantom containing synthetic nodules was scanned and reconstructed with protocols across various acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Nodule volumes were estimated by a clinical lung analysis software package, LungVCAR. Precision and accuracy of the volume assessment were calculated across the nodules and compared between protocols via a generalized estimating equation analysis. Results showed that the precision and accuracy of nodule volume quantifications were dependent on slice thickness, with different dependences for different nodule characteristics. Other parameters including kVp, pitch, and reconstruction kernel had lower impact. Determining these technique dependences enables better volume quantification via protocol optimization and highlights the importance of consistent imaging parameters in sequential examinations.

  18. Monitoring Cu nodule formation using Ni marker layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafouresse, M.C., E-mail: mlafouresse@gmail.co [Department of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Fukunaka, Y. [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Waseda University, Shinjuku Ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); ISS Science Project Office, JAXA, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Matsuoka, T. [Department of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Schwarzacher, W. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-30

    Highlights: {yields} Ni marker layers to monitor electrodeposited Cu nodule morphological evolution. {yields} The edges of the nodules trace out a straight line. {yields} Difference in growth between spheres and hemispheres. {yields} Nodule on nodule growth at high overpotential. {yields} No dramatic effect of the diffusion layer thickness on the film morphology. - Abstract: We have used Ni marker layers to study the evolution of the characteristic spheroidal nodule morphology in electrodeposited Cu films. Ultrathin Ni layers were electrodeposited in-between Cu layers, and cross sections prepared by electrochemical polishing. During growth of a typical spheroidal feature, the edge (i.e. where there is a discontinuity in the surface slope) traces out a straight line in the cross-sectional image. At high overpotential, the cross-sections show nodule-on-nodule growth, giving rise to the well known cauliflower morphology. Rotating disk electrode studies reveal that, surprisingly, the absolute diffusion layer thickness does not appear to play a major role in the development of spheres.

  19. Monitoring Cu nodule formation using Ni marker layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafouresse, M.C.; Fukunaka, Y.; Matsuoka, T.; Schwarzacher, W.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ni marker layers to monitor electrodeposited Cu nodule morphological evolution. → The edges of the nodules trace out a straight line. → Difference in growth between spheres and hemispheres. → Nodule on nodule growth at high overpotential. → No dramatic effect of the diffusion layer thickness on the film morphology. - Abstract: We have used Ni marker layers to study the evolution of the characteristic spheroidal nodule morphology in electrodeposited Cu films. Ultrathin Ni layers were electrodeposited in-between Cu layers, and cross sections prepared by electrochemical polishing. During growth of a typical spheroidal feature, the edge (i.e. where there is a discontinuity in the surface slope) traces out a straight line in the cross-sectional image. At high overpotential, the cross-sections show nodule-on-nodule growth, giving rise to the well known cauliflower morphology. Rotating disk electrode studies reveal that, surprisingly, the absolute diffusion layer thickness does not appear to play a major role in the development of spheres.

  20. Transcription reprogramming during root nodule development in Medicago truncatula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Moreau

    Full Text Available Many genes which are associated with root nodule development and activity in the model legume Medicago truncatula have been described. However information on precise stages of activation of these genes and their corresponding transcriptional regulators is often lacking. Whether these regulators are shared with other plant developmental programs also remains an open question. Here detailed microarray analyses have been used to study the transcriptome of root nodules induced by either wild type or mutant strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti. In this way we have defined eight major activation patterns in nodules and identified associated potential regulatory genes. We have shown that transcription reprogramming during consecutive stages of nodule differentiation occurs in four major phases, respectively associated with (i early signalling events and/or bacterial infection; plant cell differentiation that is either (ii independent or (iii dependent on bacteroid differentiation; (iv nitrogen fixation. Differential expression of several genes involved in cytokinin biosynthesis was observed in early symbiotic nodule zones, suggesting that cytokinin levels are actively controlled in this region. Taking advantage of databases recently developed for M. truncatula, we identified a small subset of gene expression regulators that were exclusively or predominantly expressed in nodules, whereas most other regulators were also activated under other conditions, and notably in response to abiotic or biotic stresses. We found evidence suggesting the activation of the jasmonate pathway in both wild type and mutant nodules, thus raising questions about the role of jasmonate during nodule development. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyse the expression of a series of nodule regulator and marker genes at early symbiotic stages in roots and allowed us to distinguish several early stages of gene expression activation or repression.

  1. Evaluation of percutaneous ethanol injections in benign thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Camila Luhm Silva; Fighera, Tayane Muniz; Miasaki, Fabiola; Mesa Junior, Cleo Otaviano; Paz Filho, Gilberto Jorge da; Graf, Hans; Carvalho, Gisah Amaral de

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. We evaluated 120 patients with benign thyroid nodules. Patients underwent evaluation of serum TSH and free T4, cervical ultrasound, and thyroid scintigraphy (in those with suppressed TSH levels). The application of sterile ethanol 99% was guided by ultrasound, with the injected volume amounting to one-third of the nodule volume. Response was considered complete (reduction of 90%); partial (reduction between 50 and 90%); or none (reduction of nodules were evaluated for normalization of TSH levels. Among the nodules studied, 30.8% were solid, 56.7% were mixed, 12.5% were cystic, and 21.6% were hyperfunctioning. The initial volume of the treated nodules ranged from 0.9 to 74.8 mL (mean 13.1 ± 12.4 mL). We performed 1-8 sessions of PEI, applying an average of 6.2 mL of ethanol for patient. After 2 years of follow-up, 17% of patients achieved a complete response (94% reduction); 53%, a partial response (70% reduction); and 30%, no response. A reduction in the volume of autonomous nodules was noted in 70% of cases, and 54% had a normalized value of TSH. The main side effect is local pain, lasting less than 24 hours in most cases. This study showed that PEI is a safe and effective procedure for treatment of benign, solid or mixed thyroid nodules. Most cases resulted in significant reduction in nodule volume, with normalization of thyroid function.

  2. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Kant

    Full Text Available A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2 into ammonia (NH3 in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO, Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea.

  3. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Chandra; Pradhan, Seema; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea.

  4. Evaluation of thyroid nodules by 123I thyroid scintigraphy and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Yoshiko; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Ehara, Norishige

    1991-01-01

    We have already reported that computed tomography (CT) could be used to quantify iodine concentration in the thyroid. Correlation between CT value and iodine concentration in thyroid tissues was represented by the following formula (n=31, r=0.96): iodine concentration=(CT value-65)/104 (mg/g). In this study, we evaluated thyroid nodules by 123 I thyroid scintigraphy and histograms of CT values in the nodules. Radioiodine accumulation and the histograms on CT of the thyroid nodules were correlated with the histopathology of 35 thyroid nodules (22 benign nodules, 13 malignant nodules) of 27 patients. Results showed no definite correlation between radioiodine accumulation in the thyroid nodule and the pattern on CT reflecting iodine concentration in the nodule. Some nodules with little radioiodine accumulation had considerable iodine concentration. Benign thyroid nodules tended to have lower iodine concentration than malignant nodules. Fifteen (94%) of 16 nodules showing only minimal iodine concentration were benign. We conclude that the function and/or differentiation of tumor cells in the thyroid nodule must be evaluated not only radioiodine accumulation in the nodule but also by iodine concentration in the nodule and that thyroid nodules with only minimal iodine concentration are most likely benign. (author)

  5. Genetic variation in nodule size at different sites on the skins of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from the limitations evident from these results, the objective measurement of nodules on ostrich skins is tedious when done manually, with little prospect for automation. The number of nodules per dm² (nodule density) was considered within skin sites as an indirect criterion for the improvement of nodule size. However ...

  6. Nodule detection in digital chest radiography: Part of image background acting as pure noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, M.; Haakansson, M.; Boerjesson, S.; Kheddache, S.; Grahn, A.; Bochud, F. O.; Verdun, F. R.; Maansson, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    There are several factors that influence the radiologist's ability to detect a specific structure/lesion in a radiograph. Three factors that are commonly known to be of major importance are the signal itself, the system noise and the projected anatomy. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent the image background acts as pure noise for the detection of subtle lung nodules in five different regions of the chest. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study with five observers was conducted on two different sets of images, clinical chest X-ray images and images with a similar power spectrum as the clinical images but with a random phase spectrum, resulting in an image background containing pure noise. Simulated designer nodules with a full-width-at-fifth-maximum of 10 mm but with varying contrasts were added to the images. As a measure of the part of the image background that acts as pure noise, the ratio between the contrast needed to obtain an area under the ROC curve of 0.80 in the clinical images to that in the random-phase images was used. The ratio ranged from 0.40 (in the lateral pulmonary regions) to 0.83 (in the hilar regions) indicating that there was a large difference between different regions regarding to what extent the image background acted as pure noise; and that in the hilar regions the image background almost completely acted as pure noise for the detection of 10 mm nodules. (authors)

  7. Incidental perifissural nodules on routine chest computed tomography. Lung cancer or not?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mets, Onno M.; Veldhuis, Wouter B.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Chung, Kaman; Scholten, Ernst T.; Ginneken, Bram van [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Prokop, M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meander Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2018-03-15

    Perifissural nodules (PFNs) are a common finding on chest CT, and are thought to represent non-malignant lesions. However, data outside a lung cancer-screening setting are currently lacking. In a nested case-control design, out of a total cohort of 16,850 patients ≥ 40 years of age who underwent routine chest CT (2004-2012), 186 eligible subjects with incident lung cancer and 511 controls without were investigated. All non-calcified nodules ≥ 4 mm were semi-automatically annotated. Lung cancer location and subject characteristics were recorded. Cases (56 % male) had a median age of 64 years (IQR 59-70). Controls (60 % male) were slightly younger (p<0.01), median age of 61 years (IQR 51-70). A total of 262/1,278 (21 %) unique non-calcified nodules represented a PFN. None of these were traced to a lung malignancy over a median follow-up of around 4.5 years. PFNs were most often located in the lower lung zones (72 %, p<0.001). Median diameter was 4.6 mm (range: 4.0-8.1), volume 51 mm{sup 3} (range: 32-278). Some showed growth rates < 400 days. Our data show that incidental PFNs do not represent lung cancer in a routine care, heterogeneous population. This confirms prior screening-based results. (orig.)

  8. Persistent pulmonary subsolid nodules: model-based iterative reconstruction for nodule classification and measurement variability on low-dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Chang Min; Kim, Seong Ho; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Sang Joon; Lee, Kyung Hee; Goo, Jin Mo

    2014-11-01

    To compare the pulmonary subsolid nodule (SSN) classification agreement and measurement variability between filtered back projection (FBP) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). Low-dose CTs were reconstructed using FBP and MBIR for 47 patients with 47 SSNs. Two readers independently classified SSNs into pure or part-solid ground-glass nodules, and measured the size of the whole nodule and solid portion twice on both reconstruction algorithms. Nodule classification agreement was analyzed using Cohen's kappa and compared between reconstruction algorithms using McNemar's test. Measurement variability was investigated using Bland-Altman analysis and compared with the paired t-test. Cohen's kappa for inter-reader SSN classification agreement was 0.541-0.662 on FBP and 0.778-0.866 on MBIR. Between the two readers, nodule classification was consistent in 79.8 % (75/94) with FBP and 91.5 % (86/94) with MBIR (p = 0.027). Inter-reader measurement variability range was -5.0-2.1 mm on FBP and -3.3-1.8 mm on MBIR for whole nodule size, and was -6.5-0.9 mm on FBP and -5.5-1.5 mm on MBIR for solid portion size. Inter-reader measurement differences were significantly smaller on MBIR (p = 0.027, whole nodule; p = 0.011, solid portion). MBIR significantly improved SSN classification agreement and reduced measurement variability of both whole nodules and solid portions between readers. • Low-dose CT using MBIR algorithm improves reproducibility in the classification of SSNs. • MBIR would enable more confident clinical planning according to the SSN type. • Reduced measurement variability on MBIR allows earlier detection of potentially malignant nodules.

  9. Nodule-Enriched GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 Enzymes Have Distinct Substrate Specificities and Are Important for Proper Soybean Nodule Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Damodaran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Legume root nodules develop as a result of a symbiotic relationship between the plant and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria in soil. Auxin activity is detected in different cell types at different stages of nodule development; as well as an enhanced sensitivity to auxin inhibits, which could affect nodule development. While some transport and signaling mechanisms that achieve precise spatiotemporal auxin output are known, the role of auxin metabolism during nodule development is unclear. Using a soybean root lateral organ transcriptome data set, we identified distinct nodule enrichment of three genes encoding auxin-deactivating GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA amido transferase enzymes: GmGH3-11/12, GmGH3-14 and GmGH3-15. In vitro enzymatic assays showed that each of these GH3 proteins preferred IAA and aspartate as acyl and amino acid substrates, respectively. GmGH3-15 showed a broad substrate preference, especially with different forms of auxin. Promoter:GUS expression analysis indicated that GmGH3-14 acts primarily in the root epidermis and the nodule primordium where as GmGH3-15 might act in the vasculature. Silencing the expression of these GH3 genes in soybean composite plants led to altered nodule numbers, maturity, and size. Our results indicate that these GH3s are needed for proper nodule maturation in soybean, but the precise mechanism by which they regulate nodule development remains to be explained.

  10. Fossil manganese nodules from Timor: geochemical and radiochemical evidence for deep-sea origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolis, S.V.; Fein, C.D.; Glasby, G.P.; Audley-Charles, M.G.

    1978-01-01

    Fossil Mn nodules of Cretaceous age from western Timor exhibit chemical, structural and radioisotope compositions consistent with their being of deep-sea origin. These nodules show characteristics similar to nodules now found at depths of 3,500-5,000 m in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Slight differences in the fine structure and chemistry of these nodules and modern deep-sea nodules are attributed to diagenetic alteration after uplift of enclosing sediments

  11. The Indian Ocean nodule field: Geology and resource potential

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Ghosh, A; Iyer, S.D.

    This book briefly accounts for the physiography, geology, biology, physics and chemistry of the nodule field, and discusses in detail the aspects of structure, tectonic and volcanism in the field. The role of the ocean floor sediment that hosts...

  12. Scripps Institution of Oceanography Ferromanganese Nodule Analysis File - IDOE Portion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) compiled data on the geochemistry of marine ferromanganese nodules, funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation...

  13. Manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mauritius

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    The distribution of manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the island nation Mauritius was delineated during cruise SK-35 of ORV Sagar Kanya in 1987. The areas surveyed included Saya de Malha and Nazareth Banks, the Cargados Carajos...

  14. Development of manganese nodule resources in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    Resources evalution on grade and abundance of nodules using statistical methods for grab samples and photography data, combined with bathymetric and structural mapping, were carried out for delineation of the potential area of Central Indian Ocean...

  15. Initial results of India's environmental impact assessment of nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.

    The Indian Deepsea Experiment (INDEX) was intiated in 1995, with the objective of predicting the environmental impact of nodule mining, in the Central Indian Basin. More than 20 scientists and technical staff of the National Institute...

  16. Germination, growth and nodulation of Trigonella foenum graecum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... In this work, we analyzed the effects of salinity on seed germination, growth and nodulation of fenugreek ..... metabolic activities in function, such as the accumulation .... stress: possible role of trehalose in osmoregulation. Lett.

  17. India's manganese nodule mine site in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    This commentary highlights the activities of massive exploration programme for manganese nodule deposits in the Central Indian Basin located 5 km below the ocean surface and India's claim for mine site development and registration with UNCLOS...

  18. Ferromanganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhari, P.; Pattan, J.N.

    In order to delineate a mine site for ferromanganese nodules, extensive surveys were conducted in Central Indian Ocean Basin. Mapping of the basin by multibeam swath bathymetry (Hydrosweep) has revealed many new bottom relief features...

  19. Undercooling and nodule count in thin walled ductile iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    Casting experiments have been performed with eutectic and hypereutectic castings with plate thicknesses from 2 to 8 mm involving both temperature measurements during solidification and microstructural examination afterwards. The nodule count was the same for the eutectic and hypereutectic casting...

  20. Genesis and growth of internal microstructures of manganese nodule

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Tarkian, M.

    tension of the 2 adjacent colloidal precipitate surfaces which have a tendency to grow into a spheroid, probably similar to phenomenon of drop formation. Detrital components within the nodule material identified include heavy titanium minerals, viz...

  1. The aluminosilicate fraction of North Pacific manganese nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J.L.; Piper, D.Z.; Leong, K.

    1981-01-01

    Nine nodules collected from throughout the deep North Pacific were analyzed for their mineralogy and major-element composition before and after leaching with Chester-Hughes solution. Data indicate that the mineral phillipsite accounts for the major part (> 75%) of the aluminosilicate fraction of all nodules. It is suggested that formation of phillipsite takes place on growing nodule surfaces coupled with the oxidation of absorbed manganous ion. All the nodules could be described as ternary mixtures of amorphous iron fraction (Fe-Ti-P), manganese oxide fraction (Mn-Mg Cu-Ni), and phillipsite fraction (Al-Si-K-Na), these fractions accounting for 96% of the variability of the chemical composition. ?? 1981.

  2. Radiographic test phantom for computed tomographic lung nodule analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerhouni, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a method for evaluating a computed tomograph scan of a nodule in a lung of a human or non-human animal. The method comprises generating a computer tomograph of a transverse section of the animal containing lung and nodule tissue, and generating a second computer tomograph of a test phantom comprising a device which simulates the transverse section of the animal. The tissue simulating portions of the device are constructed of materials having radiographic densities substantially identical to those of the corresponding tissue in the simulated transverse section of the animal and have voids therein which simulate, in size and shape, the lung cavities in the transverse section and which contain a test reference nodule constructed of a material of predetermined radiographic density which simulates in size, shape and position within a lung cavity void of the test phantom the nodule in the transverse section of the animal and comparing the respective tomographs

  3. Radio-guided thoracoscopic surgery (RGTS) of small pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrogi, Marcello Carlo; Melfi, Franca; Zirafa, Carmelina; Lucchi, Marco; De Liperi, Annalisa; Mariani, Giuliano; Fanucchi, Olivia; Mussi, Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    The demand for adequate tissue sampling to determine individual tumor behavior is increasing the number of lung nodule resections, even when the diagnosis is already recognized. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is the procedure of choice for diagnosis and treatment of small pulmonary nodules. Difficulties in localizing smaller and deeper nodules have been approached with different techniques. Herein we report our 13-years' experience with radio-guided thoracoscopic resection. Patients with pulmonary nodules smaller than 1 cm and/or deeper than 1 cm, below the visceral pleura, underwent computed tomography (CT)-guided injection of a solution, composed of 0.2 ml (99)Tc-labeled human serum albumin microspheres and 0.1 ml nonionic contrast, into the nodule. During the VATS procedure, an 11-mm-diameter collimated probe connected to a gamma ray detector was introduced to scan the lung surface. The area of major radioactivity, which matched with the area of the nodule, was resected. From 1997 to 2009, 573 patients underwent thoracoscopic resection of small pulmonary nodules, 211 with the radio-guided technique. There were 159 men and 52 women, with an average age of 60.6 years (range = 12-83). The mean duration of the surgical procedure was 41 min (range = 20-100). The procedure was successful in 208/211 cases. Three patients (0.5%) required conversion to a minithoracotomy. The mean length of pleural drainage and hospital stay was 2.3 and 3.7 days, respectively. Histological examination showed 98 benign lesions and 113 malignant lesions (61 metastases and 52 primary lung cancers). This study confirms that radio-guided localization of small pulmonary nodules is a feasible, safe, and quick procedure, with a high rate of success. The spread of the sentinel lymph node technique has increased the availability of technology required for RGTS.

  4. Multiple Pulmonary Nodules in an Immunocompetent Adolescent with Infectious Mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Praveena Nediyara; Puliyel, Mammen; Myers, Melissa; Abughali, Nazha

    2018-02-15

    Infectious mononucleosis is usually a self-limiting illness, but can be rarely associated with complications. A 17-year-old boy with Epstein-Barr virus related infectious mononucleosis and cold antibody-mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia with incidentally noted multiple pulmonary nodules. Nodules regressed over the next few weeks without specific therapy. Pediatricians need to be aware of this rare clinical presentation of infectious mononucleosis so that further invasive testing can be avoided.

  5. Subcentimeter Pulmonary Nodules Detected in Patients with Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S. Ginsberg

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Subcentimeter pulmonary nodules are being detected with increasing frequency in patients with sarcoma due to the greater use of chest CT, the advent of helical (spiral CT scanning and multidetector scanners, and the attendant decrease in image section thickness.Assessing the clinical significance of these pulmonary nodules is of particular importance in sarcoma patients, due to the frequent occurrence of pulmonary metastasis from sarcomas.

  6. Indian exploration for polymetallic nodules in the central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.

    measuring 18,400 km 2 has been earmarked for this purpose wherein close-grid sampling, detailed resource evaluation, and high resolution mapping is being carried out. While the abundance of nodules and grades are now known in all the allocated areas... by the Glomar Challenger expedition. The nodules were christened ‘manganese nodules’ in view of the largest component being manganese. However, since it was discovered that they contain many more important metals (although in lower percentages) the term...

  7. Effect of Bradyrhizobium photosynthesis on stem nodulation of Aeschynomene sensitiva

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Eric; Hannibal, Laure; Fardoux, Joël; Verméglio, A.; Dreyfus, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    Some leguminous species of the genus #Aeschynomene$ are specifically stem-nodulated by photosynthetic bradyrhizobia. To study the effect of bacterial photosynthesis during symbiosis, we generated a photosynthesis-negative mutant of the #Bradyrhizobium$ sp. strain ORS278 symbiont of #Aeschynomene sensitiva$. The presence of a functional photosynthetic unit in bacterioids and the high expression of the photosynthetic genes observed in stem nodules demonstrate that the bacteria are photosyntheti...

  8. Pulmonary Nodules with Cutaneous Manifestations: A Case Report and Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiles T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of multiple pulmonary nodules is large and includes congenital and inherited disorders, malignancy, infectious etiologies, noninfectious granulomatous and inflammatory conditions,among many others. Diagnostic evaluation is aided by attention to extrapulmonary symptoms and features. We herein describe an unusual case of multiple pulmonary nodules attributed to cysticercosis and present a discussion of pathophysiologic changes related to medications and highlight the diagnostic value of extrapulmonary cutaneous features.

  9. On the computed tomographic diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yuuichirou

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was used to examine 53 pulmonary nodules which were considered not definitely calcified on plain radiographs or conventional tomograms. An average CT number was calculate for each lesion. For the primary lung cancers, the average CT number was 36 HU with a standard deviation of 6.6 HU, while the benign lesions had the mean CT number of 69 HU, with a standard deviation of 42.8 HU. The mean CT number separating lung malignancies from benign lesions was 78.8 HU. To evaluate the attenuation values within each nodule, iso-CT value map was obtained by using Siemens therapy planning system, MEVAPLAN. Nodules were classified into five categories, Type I to V. All of three nodules classified as Type IV were benign. Iso-CT value map was effective in establishing the benignancy of nodules. The quantitative computed tomographic analysis of pulmonary nodules was evaluated by dual-energy CT. Dual-energy CT has the potential to eliminate the effect of spectral hardening by use of monoenergic images derived from dual-kV data and to separate high CT numbers due to calcium from those due to high density organic material. (author)

  10. Benign and malignant thyroid nodules after neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjaelling, M.T.; Tisell, L.E.; Carlsson, S.; Hansson, G.; Lundberg, L.M.; Oden, A.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 444 persons were examined for the presence of thyroid nodules on average of 43 years after having been treated with x-rays for cervical tuberculous adenitis. Of this total, 101 subjects had undergone surgery for thyroid nodules: 25 for carcinoma (6%) and 76 for benign nodules (17%). Carcinoma occurred with the same frequency in multinodular and uninodular glands. Because of the uneven age distribution in the current series, it could not be decided whether there was a higher susceptibility of the young thyroid to the induction of thyroid carcinoma or benign nodules. The dosage range for the whole series was 0.40 to 50.90 Gy (40-5090 rad). There was a positive correlation between the absorbed radiation dose and the probability of developing benign and malignant thyroid nodules, even after doses of 20 Gy or more. The risk of developing thyroid carcinoma was equal for men and women, while the female-to-male ratio for benign nodules was 2.9:1, indicating that risk factors associated with females are of less importance in irradiated than in nonirradiated populations. The median latency for carcinoma was 40 years, suggesting that the increased risk of thyroid carcinoma after irradiation remains for the rest of the patient's life

  11. Percutaneous ethanol injection of large autonomous hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, L; Giorgio, A; Mariniello, N; de Stefano, G; Perrotta, A; Aloisio, V; Tamasi, S; Forestieri, M C; Esposito, F; Esposito, F; Finizia, L; Voza, A

    2000-01-01

    To verify the effectiveness of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in the treatment of large (>30-mL) hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Twelve patients (eight women, four men; age range, 26-76 years) with a large hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule (volume range, 33-90 mL; mean, 46.08 mL) underwent PEI treatment under ultrasonographic (US) guidance. US was used to calculate the volume of the nodules and to assess the diffusion of the ethanol in the lesions during the procedure. When incomplete necrosis of the nodule was depicted at scintigraphy performed 3 months after treatment, additional PEI sessions were performed. Four to 11 PEI sessions (mean, seven) were performed in each patient, with an injection of 3-14 mL of 99.8% ethanol per session (total amount of ethanol per patient, 30-108 mL; mean, 48.5 mL). At scintigraphy after treatment in all patients, recovery of extranodular uptake, absence of uptake in the nodule, and normalization of thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin) levels were observed. In all patients, US showed volume reductions of 30%-50% after 3 months and 40%-80% after 6-9 months. Side effects were self-limiting in all patients. During the 6-48-month follow-up, no recurrence was observed. PEI is an effective and safe technique for the treatment of large hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

  12. Survey of management of solitary thyroid nodules in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietlein, M; Wegscheider, K; Vaupel, R; Schmidt, M; Schicha, H

    2008-01-01

    To compare the opinions of practitioners in primary care with those of thyroid specialists in Germany on the management of solitary thyroid nodules (Papillon 2005). Questionnaires were filled in by 2,191 practitioners and 297 thyroid specialists between June 1 and September 30, 2005. The test cases and their modifications described a solitary thyroid nodule of 2-3 cm with different levels of thyroid function and a hypoechogenic nodule of 1 cm in diameter. TSH determination and sonography were found to be standard procedures, followed by scintigraphy (selected by 84.7% of practitioners and 95.1% of specialists, p nodule calcitonin determination was advocated by 54.0% of endocrinologists and by 32.2% of nuclear medicine physicians (p thyroid nodule would be treated medically by 77.8% of practitioners and by 85.7% of specialists, the combination of levothyroxine and iodine being clearly preferred (60.9% of practitioners and 67.1% of specialists). For a hyperfunctioning nodule the preference of radioiodine therapy was significantly higher in the specialist group (88.8%) than among the practitioners (52.2%). The main differences of opinion between practitioners and specialists focused on calcitonin screening and referral to radioiodine therapy.

  13. The independent acquisition of plant root nitrogen-fixing symbiosis in Fabids recruited the same genetic pathway for nodule organogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Svistoonoff

    Full Text Available Only species belonging to the Fabid clade, limited to four classes and ten families of Angiosperms, are able to form nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses (RNS with soil bacteria. This concerns plants of the legume family (Fabaceae and Parasponia (Cannabaceae associated with the Gram-negative proteobacteria collectively called rhizobia and actinorhizal plants associated with the Gram-positive actinomycetes of the genus Frankia. Calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK is a key component of the common signaling pathway leading to both rhizobial and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses (AM and plays a central role in cross-signaling between root nodule organogenesis and infection processes. Here, we show that CCaMK is also needed for successful actinorhiza formation and interaction with AM fungi in the actinorhizal tree Casuarina glauca and is also able to restore both nodulation and AM symbioses in a Medicago truncatula ccamk mutant. Besides, we expressed auto-active CgCCaMK lacking the auto-inhibitory/CaM domain in two actinorhizal species: C. glauca (Casuarinaceae, which develops an intracellular infection pathway, and Discaria trinervis (Rhamnaceae which is characterized by an ancestral intercellular infection mechanism. In both species, we found induction of nodulation independent of Frankia similar to response to the activation of CCaMK in the rhizobia-legume symbiosis and conclude that the regulation of actinorhiza organogenesis is conserved regardless of the infection mode. It has been suggested that rhizobial and actinorhizal symbioses originated from a common ancestor with several independent evolutionary origins. Our findings are consistent with the recruitment of a similar genetic pathway governing rhizobial and Frankia nodule organogenesis.

  14. Toxocariasis masquerading as liver and lung metastatic nodules in patents with gastrointestinal cancer: clinicopathologic study of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghui; Kim, Yun Soo; Kim, Yu Jin; Kyung, Sun Young; Park, Jeong-Woong; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Lee, Sang Pyo

    2012-01-01

    There are sporadic reports in the literature in which radiologic liver and lung lesions found incidentally during follow-up metastatic surveillance were shown to be caused by toxocariasis. The objective of the work discussed in this report was to identify common clinical and histopathological features of toxocariasis resembling metastatic nodules in five patients with gastrointestinal cancer. We retrospectively analyzed clinical features of five gastrointestinal cancer patients with liver or lung nodules mimicking metastasis. Serologic tests for parasitic infestations and pathologic examinations were performed. All five patients were males and three patients had gastric cancer and two had colorectal cancer. All the cases of toxocariasis were confirmed serologically. On follow-up imaging, the lesions improved or resolved, suggestive of the phenomenon of visceral larva migrans. In two patients, liver biopsy was performed and showed eosinophilic abscess. Serologic tests and liver or lung biopsy should be performed aggressively to exclude toxocariasis when patients with underlying gastrointestinal cancer present with hepatic or pulmonary nodules associated with eosinophilia, particularly if the patients have a clinical history of raw animal liver ingestion. Curative surgical intervention should not be excluded just because of multiple nodules in the liver or the lungs.

  15. Organogenic nodule formation in hop: a tool to study morphogenesis in plants with biotechnological and medicinal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Ana M; Santos, Filipa; Pais, Maria S

    2010-01-01

    The usage of Humulus lupulus for brewing increased the demand for high-quality plant material. Simultaneously, hop has been used in traditional medicine and recently recognized with anticancer and anti-infective properties. Tissue culture techniques have been reported for a wide range of species, and open the prospect for propagation of disease-free, genetically uniform and massive amounts of plants in vitro. Moreover, the development of large-scale culture methods using bioreactors enables the industrial production of secondary metabolites. Reliable and efficient tissue culture protocol for shoot regeneration through organogenic nodule formation was established for hop. The present review describes the histological, and biochemical changes occurring during this morphogenic process, together with an analysis of transcriptional and metabolic profiles. We also discuss the existence of common molecular factors among three different morphogenic processes: organogenic nodules and somatic embryogenesis, which strictly speaking depend exclusively on intrinsic developmental reprogramming, and legume nitrogen-fixing root nodules, which arises in response to symbiosis. The review of the key factors that participate in hop nodule organogenesis and the comparison with other morphogenic processes may have merit as a study presenting recent advances in complex molecular networks occurring during morphogenesis and together, these provide a rich framework for biotechnology applications.

  16. Competitive nodulation blocking of cv. Afghanistan pea is related to high levels of nodulation factors made by some strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, B.; Davies, A.E.; Wilson, K.E.; Bisseling, T.; Downie, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivar Afghanistan peas are resistant to nodulation by many strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae but are nodulated by strain TOM, which carries the host specificity gene nodX. Some strains that lack nodX can inhibit nodulation of cv. Afghanistan by strain TOM. We present evidence that

  17. Diagnostic procedures of the solitary pulmonary nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoe, Keisuke; Hiraki, Akio; Kohara, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    The spread of computed tomography (CT) brought the frequent further examinations of the solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). To aim the evaluation of initial data on examinations of SPN for differential diagnosis, we studied retrospective cases. Thirty-one cases of SPN less than 20 mm in diameter were compared in clinical findings and CT image findings and were examined the diagnostic procedures in recent three years in National Sanyo Hospital. The 31 patients consisted of 14 males and 17 females ranging 44 to 79 years old, median 65 years old. The causes of SPN were lung cancer (11 patients), cryptococcosis (4 patients), tuberculoma (3 patients), non-tuberculous mycobacteria (2 patients), pneumoconiosis (2 patients), pneumonia scar (one patient), hamartoma (one patient), and unknown (7 patients). There were no significant differences in laboratory findings between lung cancer and the others. CT findings showed significant differences in four categories. All patients underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB) examinations and 12 patients were determined the diagnosis initial FB. Five patients were established their diagnosis using videoassociated thoracoscopic surgeries. (author)

  18. Increased thyrotropin binding in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Gärtner, H W; Schneider, C; Bay, V; Tadt, A; Rehpenning, W; de Heer, K; Jessel, M

    1987-08-01

    The object of this study was to investigate TSH receptors in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HFN). In HFN, obtained from seven patients, 125-I-TSH binding as determined by equilibrium binding analysis on particulate membrane preparations, was found to be significantly increased as compared with normal thyroid tissues (five patients; P less than 0.001). Scatchard analysis of TSH-binding revealed two kinds of binding sites for both normal thyroid tissue and HFN, and displayed significantly increased association constants of high- and low-affinity binding sites in HFN (Ka = 11.75 +/- 6.8 10(9) M-1, P less than 0.001 and Ka = 2.1 +/- 1.0 10(7) M-1, P less than 0.025; x +/- SEM) as compared with normal thyroid tissue (Ka = 0.25 +/- 0.06 10(9) M-1, Ka = 0.14 +/- 0.03 10(7) M-1; x +/- SEM). The capacity of the high-affinity binding sites in HFN was found to be decreased (1.8 +/- 1.1 pmol/mg protein, x +/- SEM) in comparison with normal thyroid tissue (4.26 +/- 1.27 pmol/mg protein; x +/- SEM). TSH-receptor autoradiography applied to cryostatic tissue sections confirmed increased TSH binding of the follicular epithelium in HFN. These data suggest that an increased affinity of TSH-receptor sites in HFN in iodine deficient areas may be an important event in thyroid autonomy.

  19. Cooled microwave ablation of thyroid nodules: Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkusuz, Yücel [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt (Germany); Mader, Oscar Maximilian, E-mail: info@dzta.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt (Germany); Kromen, Wolfgang [Department of Neuro Radiology University Hospital (Germany); Happel, Christian [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt (Germany); German Centre for Thermoablation of Thyroid Nodules, University Hospital, Frankfurt (Germany); Ahmad, Shadi [Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Agaplesion Elisabethenstift, Darmstadt (Germany); Gröner, Daniel; Koca, Mithat; Mader, Alexander [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt (Germany); Grünwald, Frank; Korkusuz, Hüdayi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt (Germany); German Centre for Thermoablation of Thyroid Nodules, University Hospital, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • cMWA is a safe and effective treatment for thyroid nodules. • Ultrasound imaging allows guidance during microwave ablation. • Pain level during cMWA treatment is reduced in comparison to RFA. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate if internally cooled microwave ablation (cMWA) is a safe and effective method for treatment of benign and malign thyroid nodules. Methods: 9 patients with 11 symptomatic cold benign thyroid nodules and 1 recurrent thyroid carcinoma ranging in volume from 9.1 to 197 ml (mean size 52 ±  57 ml) were treated with cMWA. The mean age of the patients was 59 years. Pain during the treatment was measured on a 10-point scale. Side effects revealed by ultrasound or patients’ complaints were documented. Periablative efficacy was measured 24 h after cMWA as change (Δ) in serum thyreoglobulin (Tg). Nodule elasticity was measured on a 4-point scale, blood circulation and echogenicity on a 3-point scale. Results: All patients tolerated cMWA well. Median pain intensity averaged 2.1 ± 0.8 (range: 1–3). Postablative hematoma was observed in all cases. In no cases ablation led to hoarseness, superficial burns, nodule ruptures, vagal reactions or dysphagia. cMWA lead to a significant decrease of blood circulation, nodule echogenicity and a significant increase of elasticity (Δ  =  1.1  ±  0.33; 0.8  ±  0.4 and 1.1  ±  0.6 points)(p < 0.05). An average increase of 4495 ng/ml Tg was measured (p < 0.05). Conclusions: cMWA is an effective and secure method for treatment of thyroid nodules.

  20. Computed tomographic diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoue, Masataka

    1986-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two pulmonary nodules (PNs) were examined by thin-section computed tomography (CT) and conventional tomography (tomography). In this study, 109 PNs were analyzed to assess tissue density by calculating the representative CT number (RCT no.) from a computer printout. For the primary malignancies, the mean RCT no. was 72 HU, with a standard deviation (SD) of 21 HU, and for metastases, it was 66 ± 19 HU. The RCT no. separating primary malignancy from benign lesions was 157 HU, the one including metastasis was 183 HU. In addition, dual-energy CT scan was performed to evaluate capability of diagnosing calcification in 35 PNs. Dual-energy CT scan had increased the reliability of CT diagnosis for PNs with RCT no. between 100 HU and 300 HU. The descriptive criteria of CT and tomography for 127 PNs were analyzed and statistical diagnoses by CT and tomography were compared with the results of their final diagnoses. CT and tomography had domonstrated similar sensitivities in the evaluation of primary malignancies; 86 % in CT and 90 % in tomography, and the same sensitivities (86 %) in diagnosing metastases. In evaluating benign PNs, CT was superior to tomography with capability to detect minimal calcification and fat density; the specificity was 80 % with CT, and 52 % with tomography (p < 0.025). Overall accuracy in the diagnosis for PNs was 82 % with CT, and 73 % with tomography, which was not different statistically. It can be concluded that CT is a reliable examination in the evaluation of PNs, and there is an advantage to the use of CT over tomography in diagnosing benign lesions. (author)

  1. Nódulo de tiroides Thyroid nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Elena Turcios Tristá

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha incrementado la frecuencia diagnóstica del nódulo de tiroides. Un adecuado método clínico y algunos exámenes complementarios, serán los factores a tener en cuenta para definir la naturaleza de la lesión y su funcionalidad. En la actualidad se adicionan nuevos elementos en los estudios por imagen que ayudan a predecir, en alguna medida, el riesgo de malignidad de estas lesiones, y se trata de que el resultado citológico sea más uniforme y orientador. Las conductas se adecuan al tipo de enfermedad tiroidea y a sus riesgos, pero es imprescindible la unión de las especialidades que tienen que ver con la enfermedad nodular tiroidea, para unificar criterios que favorezcan un adecuado y eficiente proceso diagnóstico-terapéutico, que reduzcan los riesgos y los costos que implica la adopción de conductas inadecuadas e innecesarias.In the last few years, the frequency of diagnosis of the thyroid nodule has increased. A correct clinical method and some supplementary tests are the factors to be taken into account to define the nature of lesion and functionality. At present, new elements are added to the imaging studies, which help to predict somehow the risk of malignancy of these lesions, and it is intended to reach a more uniform and guiding cytological result. The behaviors should adapt to the type of thyroid disease and to the risks, but the combination of those specialties that have to do with the nodular thyroid disease is indispensable in order to uniform criteria favoring adequate and efficient diagnostic and therapeutic processes, and reducing the risks and costs of the adoption of inadequate and unnecessary behaviors.

  2. Nodulation of legumes, nitrogenase activity of roots and occurrence of nitrogen-fixing Azospirillum spp. In representative soils of central Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester-Bradley, R; De Oliverira, L A; De Podesta Filho, J A; John, T V

    1980-12-01

    Leguminosae do not predominate in the Brazilian Amazon rain forest, although they are among the five best represented families. Plant roots from various soils were examined for the presence of nodules, acetylene-reducing activity and N/sub 2/-fixing Azospirillum spp. Abundant nodulation was found in black earth (''terra preta dos indios'') and in one case on sandy soil under campinarana vegetation along a tributary of the upper Rio Negro. In sandy latosol some nodules occurred in secondary forest and fewer in primary forest. Legumes in disturbed clayey or sandy latosol showed more frequent nodulation. Primary forest on alluvial (''varzea'') soil, and in Bahia coastal rain forest on sandy latosol and Erythrina glauca used for shading cacao plantations were abundantly nodulated. Acetylene reduction assays showed no, or very little, nitrogenase activity of roots from primary or secondary forest on clayey latosol near Manaus. Nodulated roots from secondary forest on sandy latosol showed acetylene-reducing activity. High rates of acetylene reduction were observed in nodulated roots of primary forest on alluvial ''varzea'' soil. Root samples showed ethylene absorption in controls without acetylene which might interfere with the results of acetylene reduction tests. The incidence of Azospirillum was also higher in black earth than the other soils examined, and in soils with higher pH. The hypothesis that Azospirillum is associated with Trema micantha roots was refuted. Roots and soils collected under cultivated grasses showed a higher incidence of Azospirillum when fertilized with phosphorus and lime. Results indicate that nitrogen fixation did occur in association with roots in some soils, but not with roots of primary or secondary forest on clayey latosol in the vicinity of Manaus, which is the most common soil in Central Amazonia. The possible reasons for this are discussed.

  3. Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as toxic nodule in an adolescent: coexistent polymorphism of the TSHR and Gsα genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Rosaria Maddalena; Campennì, Alfredo; Giovinazzo, Salvatore; Saraceno, Giovanna; Vicchio, Teresa Manuela; Carlotta, Dario; Cucinotta, Maria Paola; Micali, Carmelo; Trimarchi, Francesco; Tuccari, Giovanni; Baldari, Sergio; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2013-02-01

    Autonomously functioning, "hot", thyroid nodules are not common in children and adolescents. Such nodules are not considered alarming because they are assumed to be benign adenomas. Herein, we present a 15-year-old girl with a papillary thyroid carcinoma of 3.5 cm in diameter, which was functionally autonomous and scintigraphically hot. The patient, initially referred to our Endocrine Unit because of a thyroid nodule, returned 6 months later for symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism was confirmed biochemically. Radioactive iodine ((131)I) thyroid scintigraphy was consistent with an autonomous thyroid nodule. As per guidelines, the patient underwent surgery and a pathological examination revealed papillary carcinoma, follicular variant. The excised nodule was examined for activating mutations of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR), Gsα (GNAS1), H-RAS, N-RAS, K-RAS, and BRAF genes by direct sequencing. No mutations were found. Nevertheless, two combined nonfunctioning mutations were detected: a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the TSHR gene, in exon 7, at codon 187 (AAT→AAC, both encoding asparagine), and a SNP within exon 8 of the Gsα gene at codon 185 (ATC→ATT, both encoding isoleucine). Both SNPs were also identified in the germline DNA of the patient. The same SNPs were sought in the parents and brother of our patient. Her father was heterozygous for the TSHR SNP, her mother heterozygous for the Gsα SNP, and her brother was wild type. This case demonstrates that the presence of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule(s) does not rule out cancer and warrants careful evaluation, especially in childhood and adolescence to overlook malignancy.

  4. Eficiência e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas que nodulam caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação Efficiency and phenotypic diversity among nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in bauxite-mined soils under rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Melloni

    2006-04-01

    as leguminosae-nodulating, nitrogen fixing bacteria (LNNFB are essential because they are involved in nutrient cycling processes and, therefore, to the sustainability of these areas. Aiming to evaluate the efficiency and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB, soil samples were collected from different bauxite mining areas with distinct rehabilitation strategies and chronosequences in the summer of 1999. With these materials we installed experiments using bean and cowpea as trap species under greenhouse conditions. At flowering, the plants were harvested and the shoot dry weight, nodule number, nodule weight, nitrogenase activity, and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB isolates evaluated by culture characterization on 79 medium. There was no influence of the different rehabilitation strategies on the efficiency of LNNFB populations in promoting bean growth. After phenotypic characterization of 328 bean and 420 cowpea LNNFB isolates, it was found that the latter is better suited than bean for studies evaluating LNNFB nodulation, efficiency and diversity in these areas. Mining strongly decreases the LNNFB diversity, while there is little effect on nodulation of trap plants. Rehabilitation strategies contribute to increase LNNFB diversity in bauxite mined soils, mainly when legume species were introduced.

  5. Diffuse Anterior Retinoblastoma with Sarcoidosis-Like Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Kitazawa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinoblastomas account for 4% of malignancies in children, 1-2% of which are diffuse infiltrating retinoblastomas. Diffuse anterior retinoblastoma is rare and does not involve the retina. Here, we report on a diffuse anterior retinoblastoma with large sarcoidosis-like nodules on the iris that were responsive to anti-inflammatory therapy. Case: We present a 6-year-old girl who had anterior uveitis with white nodules on the iris and posterior surface of the cornea in her right eye. The nodules initially responded well to anti-inflammatory treatment. However, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT showed that the nodules gradually grew, shrinking the iris. We then collected the aqueous humor for diagnosis. A biopsy revealed clusters of small cells with a high nuclear-to-cytoplasm ratio with partial rosette formation. Therefore, we diagnosed diffuse anterior retinoblastoma without retinal involvement and performed enucleation of the right eye. The histopathology demonstrated undifferentiated cells similar to those seen on the biopsy, and tumor cells invaded the iris stroma, posterior surface of the cornea, ciliary body, and sclera. After the enucleation, she underwent chemotherapy and remains alive. Conclusion: A differential diagnosis of retinoblastoma should be considered when white nodules refractory to anti-inflammatory therapy occur in the eye, even in the absence of obvious retinal masses. AS-OCT findings are useful in assessing retinoblastoma.

  6. Micro CT based truth estimation of nodule volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnard, L. M.; Gavrielides, M. A.; Myers, K. J.; Zeng, R.; Whiting, B.; Lin-Gibson, S.; Petrick, N.

    2010-03-01

    With the advent of high-resolution CT, three-dimensional (3D) methods for nodule volumetry have been introduced, with the hope that such methods will be more accurate and consistent than currently used planar measures of size. However, the error associated with volume estimation methods still needs to be quantified. Volume estimation error is multi-faceted in the sense that there is variability associated with the patient, the software tool and the CT system. A primary goal of our current research efforts is to quantify the various sources of measurement error and, when possible, minimize their effects. In order to assess the bias of an estimate, the actual value, or "truth," must be known. In this work we investigate the reliability of micro CT to determine the "true" volume of synthetic nodules. The advantage of micro CT over other truthing methods is that it can provide both absolute volume and shape information in a single measurement. In the current study we compare micro CT volume truth to weight-density truth for spherical, elliptical, spiculated and lobulated nodules with diameters from 5 to 40 mm, and densities of -630 and +100 HU. The percent differences between micro CT and weight-density volume for -630 HU nodules range from [-21.7%, -0.6%] (mean= -11.9%) and the differences for +100 HU nodules range from [-0.9%, 3.0%] (mean=1.7%).

  7. Treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarai Maryam

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autonomous thyroid nodules can be treated by a variety of methods. We assessed the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection in treating autonomous thyroid nodules. Methods 35 patients diagnosed by technetium-99 scanning with hyperfunctioning nodules and suppressed sensitive TSH (sTSH were given sterile ethanol injections under ultrasound guidance. 29 patients had clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. The other 6 had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed sTSH levels (3, T4 and sTSH levels had returned to normal, or else injections could no longer be performed because significant side effects. Patients were followed up at 3, 6 and, in 15 patients, 24 months after the last injection. Results Average pre-treatment nodule volume [18.2 ± 12.7 ml] decreased to 5.7 ± 4.6 ml at 6 months follow-up [P 4 and sTSH did not change significantly between 6 months and 2 years [P > 0.05]. Ethanol injections were well tolerated by the patients, with only 2 cases of transient dysphonia. Conclusion Our findings indicate that ethanol injection is an alternative to surgery or radioactive iodine in the treatment of autonomous thyroid nodules.

  8. Parasitic thyroid nodule in a patient with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Vitorino Modesto dos; Lima, Marcus Aurelho de; Marinho, Euripedes Oliveira; Marinho, Marco Aurelio de Oliveira; Santos, Lister Arruda Modesto dos; Raphael, Cristiane Mendes

    2000-01-01

    A case of parasitic thyroid nodule is presented. The patient was a non symptomatic 53-year-old white woman, on irregular course of L-thyroxine to treat hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Without a history of thyroid trauma or surgery, she presented a 1.6 x 0.7 x 0.5 cm right pre-laryngeal lymph node-like mass which, on ultrasonography, appeared distinct from the gland. TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody serum levels were elevated and T4-free level was normal. Thyroid and total body 99m Tc isonitrile scintiscan showed a topic thyroid without radionuclide uptake in the nodule. Fine-needle aspiration of the nodule showed epithelial cells with nuclear atypia and oncocitic changes plus intense lymphoid infiltration and germinative center formation, simulating lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conventional biopsy revealed a parasitic thyroid nodule with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis. Parasitic thyroid nodule must always be remembered so that unnecessary surgical assessment and undesirable sequels may be avoided. (author)

  9. Treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Bagher; Pajouhi, Mohammad; Ghanaati, Hossein; Bastanhagh, Mohammad-Hassan; Abbasvandi, Fereshteh; Firooznia, Kazem; Shirzad, Mahmood; Amini, Mohammad-Reza; Sarai, Maryam; Abbasvandi, Nasreen; Baradar-Jalili, Reza

    2002-12-06

    BACKGROUND: Autonomous thyroid nodules can be treated by a variety of methods. We assessed the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection in treating autonomous thyroid nodules. METHODS: 35 patients diagnosed by technetium-99 scanning with hyperfunctioning nodules and suppressed sensitive TSH (sTSH) were given sterile ethanol injections under ultrasound guidance. 29 patients had clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. The other 6 had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed sTSH levels (thyroid hormone levels. Ethanol injections were performed once every 1-4 weeks. Ethanol injections were stopped when serum T3, T4 and sTSH levels had returned to normal, or else injections could no longer be performed because significant side effects. Patients were followed up at 3, 6 and, in 15 patients, 24 months after the last injection. RESULTS: Average pre-treatment nodule volume [18.2 PlusMinus; 12.7 ml] decreased to 5.7 PlusMinus; 4.6 ml at 6 months follow-up [P thyroid hormone levels at 3 and 6 months follow-up [P 0.05]. Ethanol injections were well tolerated by the patients, with only 2 cases of transient dysphonia. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that ethanol injection is an alternative to surgery or radioactive iodine in the treatment of autonomous thyroid nodules.

  10. [Role of MRI for detection and characterization of pulmonary nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, G; Koenigkam-Santos, M; Biederer, J; Puderbach, M

    2014-05-01

    Due to physical and technical limitations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has hitherto played only a minor role in image-based diagnostics of the lungs. However, as a consequence of important methodological developments during recent years, MRI has developed into a technically mature and clinically well-proven method for specific pulmonary questions. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview on the currently available sequences and techniques for assessment of pulmonary nodules and analyzes the clinical significance according to the current literature. The main focus is on the detection of lung metastases, the detection of primary pulmonary malignancies in high-risk individuals and the differentiation between pulmonary nodules of benign and malignant character. The MRI technique has a sensitivity of approximately 80 % for detection of malignant pulmonary nodules compared to the reference standard low-dose computed tomography (CT) and is thus somewhat inferior to CT. Advantages of MRI on the other hand are a higher specificity in differentiating malignant and benign pulmonary nodules and the absence of ionizing radiation exposure. A systematic use of MRI as a primary tool for detection and characterization of pulmonary nodules is currently not recommended due to insufficient data. The diagnostic potential of MRI for early detection and staging of malignant pulmonary diseases, however, seems promising. Therefore, further evaluation of MRI as a secondary imaging modality in clinical trials is highly warranted.

  11. Phosphorus use efficiency in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tripartite symbiosis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) 147 with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in sand culture by comparing the effects of three AMF species on the mycorrhizal root colonization, rhizobial nodulation, plant growth and phosphorus use ...

  12. Determination of nodule coverage parameters using multibeam normal incidence echo characteristics: A study in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Pathak, D.; Sudhakar, M.; Raju, Y.S.N.

    A study of the echo peak amplitudes from known nodule areas is initiated to observe the acoustic response for varying nodule abundances and number densities. A statistical study of the peak amplitudes from different nodule areas confirms...

  13. Diversity of Rhizobium-Phaseolus vulgaris symbiosis: Overview and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Romero, Esperanza

    2001-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has become a cosmopolitan crop, but was originally domesticated in the Americas and has been grown in Latin America for several thousand years. Consequently an enormous diversity of bean nodulating bacteria have developed and in the centers of origin the predominant species in bean nodules is R. etli. In some areas of Latin America, inoculation, which normally promotes nodulation and nitrogen fixation is hampered by the prevalence of native strains. Many other species in addition to R. etli have been found in bean nodules in regions where bean has been introduced. Some of these species such as R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, R. gallicum bv. phaseoli and R. giardinii bv. phaseoli might have arisen by acquiring the phaseoli plasmid from R. etli. Others, like R. trap id, are well adapted to acid soils and high temperatures and are good inoculants for bean under these conditions. The large number of rhizobia species capable of nodulating bean supports that bean is a promiscuous host and a diversity of bean-rhizobia interactions exists. Large ranges of dinitrogen fixing capabilities have been documented among bean cultivars and commercial beans have the lowest values among legume crops. Knowledge on bean symbiosis is still incipient but could help to improve bean biological nitrogen fixation. (author)

  14. Thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic results on repeat fine-needle aspiration biopsy: which nodules should be considered for repeat biopsy or surgery rather than follow-up?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, Na Lae; Chang, Hang Seok; Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Jeong Ah; Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Jun [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Mi Ri [Dept. of Radiology, Dongjak Kyunghee Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ah Young [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The goal of this study was to assess the clinicopathologic and ultrasonographic features of thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic results on repeat ultrasonography (US)-guided fineneedle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) according to size and the number of suspicious findings and to determine the proper management of nodules with consecutive nondiagnostic results. This retrospective study included 297 nodules with nondiagnostic results on repeat FNAB that were evaluated by US over the course of at least 12 months of follow-up, a follow-up biopsy, or an operation. We compared clinical and US variables between benign and malignant nodules in thyroid nodules with repeat nondiagnostic results. The comparison of benign and malignant nodules with repeat nondiagnostic results revealed that age, marked hypoechogenicity, irregular or microlobulated margins, microcalcifications, and nonparallel shape were significantly associated with malignancy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis in malignant nodules revealed that microcalcifications and irregular or microlobulated margins were independently associated with malignancy. Among them, only irregular or microlobulated margins were independently significant as a predictor of malignancy in repeatedly nondiagnostic nodules measuring >10 mm. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, the best cutoff value for the “number of suspicious findings” between benign and malignant nodules was three in nodules of all sizes, three in nodules measuring ≤10 mm, and two in nodules measuring >10 mm. Irregular or microlobulated margins may be the most frequent US features in repeatedly nondiagnostic nodules >10 mm. The presence of “two or more suspicious findings” can be used as the cutoff for distinguishing benign and malignant nodules.

  15. Nodulation and nitrogen uptake characteristics as selection indices for promiscuous soybean breeding in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ababio, R.C.; Sanginga, K.E.; Dashiell, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    Selection for atmospheric dinitrogen fixation in promiscuous soybeans by indigenous rhizobia populations is usually determined indirectly based on visual assessment of nodulation. As the method has been criticized extensively, we have examined this assay in relation to other N 2 fixation indices by evaluating growth of promiscuous soybeans in four ecological zones of Nigeria. Nodulation was affected considerably by rainfall indigenous, rhizobia populations and soil P. The N 2 fixation indices measured, nodule development, apparent effectiveness, total N accumulation and N derived from fixation, varied among soybean genotypes. The visual nodule assessment index correlated with nodule weight (r = 0.74; P = 0.01), but had no significant correlation (r = 0.13) with proportion of apparent effective nodules. All nodule parameters, however, correlated significantly (r = 0.16-0.71; P=0.05) with total N accumulation and seed yield. The percent apparent effectiveness of nodules was a superior index to nodule score and nodule number but inferior to nodule mass. Total N accumulation patterns in the genotypes indicated that N 2 fixation in some genotypes could be substantial during the reproductive growth phase and may serve as suitable criteria for selection. Therefore, in low N soils, percent nodule effectiveness and total N accumulation may be used to augment the visual scores particularly for genotypes, which seem to nodulate profusely with indigenous rhizohia populations (author)

  16. Usefulness of the CAD System for Detecting Pulmonary Nodule in Real Clinical Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Chung, Myung Jin; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Kyung Soo; Jeong, Sun Young

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of the computer-aided detection (CAD) system for detecting pulmonary nodules in real clinical practice by using the CT images. Our Institutional Review Board approved our retrospective study with a waiver of informed consent. This study included 166 CT examinations that were performed for the evaluation of pulmonary metastasis in 166 patients with colorectal cancer. All the CT examinations were interpreted by radiologists and they were also evaluated by the CAD system. All the nodules detected by the CAD system were evaluated with regard to whether or not they were true nodules, and they were classified into micro nodules (MN, diameter < 4 mm) and significant nodules (SN, 4 ≤ diameter ≤ 10 mm). The radiologic reports and CAD results were compared. The CAD system helped detect 426 nodules: 115 (27%) of the 426 nodules were classified as true nodules and 35 (30%) of the 115 nodules were SNs, and 83 (72%) of the 115 were not mentioned in the radiologists' reports and three (4%) of the 83 nodules were non-calcified SNs. One of three non-calcified SNs was confirmed as a metastatic nodule. According to the radiologists' reports, 60 true nodules were detected, and 28 of the 60 were not detected by the CAD system. Although the CAD system missed many SNs that are detected by radiologists, it helps detect additional nodules that are missed by the radiologists in real clinical practice. Therefore, the CAD system can be useful to support a radiologist's detection performance

  17. Prognosis of thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Hayashida

    Full Text Available After the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP, the incidence of thyroid cancer increased among children. Recently, a strong relationship between solid thyroid nodules and the incidence of thyroid cancer was shown in atomic bomb survivors. To assess the prognosis of benign thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine, around the CNPP, we conducted a follow-up investigation of screening data from 1991 to 2000 in the Ukraine.Participants of this study were 160 inhabitants with thyroid nodules (nodule group and 160 inhabitants without thyroid nodules (normal control group intially identified by ultrasonography from 1991 to 2000. All participants were aged 0 to 10 years old and lived in the same area at the time of the accident. We performed follow-up screening of participants and assessed thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration biopsy.Among the nodule group participants, the number and size of nodules were significantly increased at the follow-up screening compared with the initial screening. No thyroid nodules were observed among the normal control group participants. The prevalence of thyroid abnormality, especially nodules that could be cancerous (malignant or suspicious by fine needle aspiration biopsy, was 7.5% in the nodule group and 0% in the normal control group (P<0.001.Our study indicated that a thyroid nodule in childhood is a prognostic factor associated with an increase in the number and size of nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine.

  18. Interaction of a nodule specific, trans-acting factor with distinct DNA elements in the soybean leghaemoglobin Ibc(3) 5' upstream region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Østergaard; Marcker, Kjeld A; Schell, J

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear extracts from soybean nodules, leaves and roots were used to investigate protein-DNA interactions in the 5' upstream (promoter) region of the soybean leghaemoglobin lbc(3) gene. Two distinct regions were identified which strongly bind a nodule specific factor. A Bal31 deletion analysis......, but with different affinities. Elements 1 and 2 share a common motif, although their AT-rich DNA sequences differ. Element 2 is highly conserved at an analogous position in other soybean lb gene 5' upstream regions. Udgivelsesdato: 1988-May...

  19. South African Papilionoid Legumes Are Nodulated by Diverse Burkholderia with Unique Nodulation and Nitrogen-Fixation Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, Chrizelle W.; Venter, Stephanus N.; Law, Ian J.; Phalane, Francina L.; Steenkamp, Emma T.

    2013-01-01

    The root-nodule bacteria of legumes endemic to the Cape Floristic Region are largely understudied, even though recent reports suggest the occurrence of nodulating Burkholderia species unique to the region. In this study, we considered the diversity and evolution of nodulating Burkholderia associated with the endemic papilionoid tribes Hypocalypteae and Podalyrieae. We identified distinct groups from verified rhizobial isolates by phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and recA housekeeping gene regions. In order to gain insight into the evolution of the nodulation and diazotrophy of these rhizobia we analysed the genes encoding NifH and NodA. The majority of these 69 isolates appeared to be unique, potentially representing novel species. Evidence of horizontal gene transfer determining the symbiotic ability of these Cape Floristic Region isolates indicate evolutionary origins distinct from those of nodulating Burkholderia from elsewhere in the world. Overall, our findings suggest that Burkholderia species associated with fynbos legumes are highly diverse and their symbiotic abilities have unique ancestries. It is therefore possible that the evolution of these bacteria is closely linked to the diversification and establishment of legumes characteristic of the Cape Floristic Region. PMID:23874611

  20. Studies on zinc nodules electrodeposited from acid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Rolfe [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1984-12-01

    The development of morphology of electrodeposited zinc was investigated by studying the initial stages of deposition. Zinc was deposited galvanostatically from 1.0 M ZnCl2 electrolyte (0.7 < pH < 4.6) on rotating disc electrodes at current densities from 5 to 130 ma/cm2. Pine glassy carbon, Union Carbide pyrolytic graphite, Gould pyrolytic graphite, Exxon graphite loaded polymer, and platinum substrates were used. The number densities of nodules (diameter greater than 1 μm), typically encountered during incipient morphological development, were measured using scanning electron microscopy and image analysis. Nodule densities up to 7 x 104 nodules/mm2 were measured.

  1. What to Do with All of These Lung Nodules?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Rozenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caplan syndrome is a rare entity that is specific to rheumatoid arthritis and presents with multiple, well-defined necrotic nodules in patients with occupational dust exposure. The present report describes a case of Caplan syndrome involving a 71-year-old man with a known diagnosis of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis who presented to the authors’ centre with a five-year history of multiple, bilateral cavitary lung nodules with mild dyspnea on exertion. He was an ex-smoker (30 pack-years and had previously worked with silica. The case highlights the clinical, radiological and pathological features of this syndrome and outlines the importance of considering a broad differential in the management of pulmonary nodules, especially in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. Lung Nodule Detection in CT Images using Neuro Fuzzy Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Usman Akram

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated lung cancer detection using computer aided diagnosis (CAD is an important area in clinical applications. As the manual nodule detection is very time consuming and costly so computerized systems can be helpful for this purpose. In this paper, we propose a computerized system for lung nodule detection in CT scan images. The automated system consists of two stages i.e. lung segmentation and enhancement, feature extraction and classification. The segmentation process will result in separating lung tissue from rest of the image, and only the lung tissues under examination are considered as candidate regions for detecting malignant nodules in lung portion. A feature vector for possible abnormal regions is calculated and regions are classified using neuro fuzzy classifier. It is a fully automatic system that does not require any manual intervention and experimental results show the validity of our system.

  3. Solitary pulmonary nodule by pulmonary hematoma under warfarin therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheppach, W.; Kulke, H.; Liebau, G.; Braun, H.; Wuerzburg Univ.

    1983-01-01

    Pulmonary hematoma is a rare cause of a pulmonary nodule. Mostly it results from penetrating or blunt chest injuries. The case of a patient is reported, whose chest X-ray showed a pulmonary nodule suspected of malignancy. This patient was maintained permanently on anticoagulants (warfarin derivates) after cardiac valve replacement with a prosthesis. A definite diagnosis could not be established by non-invasive methods. A needle biopsy of the lung was impracticable because of the location of the pulmonary lesion; an exploratory thoracotomy could not be carried out due to a general indication of nonoperability. Control examinations showed that the pulmonary nodule had vanished completely within four months. In consideration of the patient's clinical situation it can be concluded that the pulmonary lesion was caused by a hematoma of the lung. (orig.) [de

  4. Solitary pulmonary nodule by pulmonary hematoma under warfarin therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheppach, W.; Kulke, H.; Liebau, G.; Braun, H.

    1983-06-01

    Pulmonary hematoma is a rare cause of a pulmonary nodule. Mostly it results from penetrating or blunt chest injuries. The case of a patient is reported, whose chest X-ray showed a pulmonary nodule suspected of malignancy. This patient was maintained permanently on anticoagulants (warfarin derivates) after cardiac valve replacement with a prosthesis. A definite diagnosis could not be established by non-invasive methods. A needle biopsy of the lung was impracticable because of the location of the pulmonary lesion; an exploratory thoracotomy could not be carried out due to a general indication of nonoperability. Control examinations showed that the pulmonary nodule had vanished completely within four months. In consideration of the patient's clinical situation it can be concluded that the pulmonary lesion was caused by a hematoma of the lung.

  5. Effect of fertilization and soil treatment on the soybean nodulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel aziz, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. ) is one of the most important leguminosae crops all over the world. It is considered one of the most important protein sources for human and animals. During the last 20 years, soybean was introduced to Egypt, however the nodulation of soybean under field conditions remains a problem because the egyptian soils were void of soybean rhizobia. Since soybean is a leguminosae crop, symbiosis with root - nodule R hizobium might play a significant role in the management of its production . Nevertheless, soybean suffers from poor nodulation in egypt, hence nitrogenase fertilization for legume is a logical practice. Soybean can utilize both soil -N or applied N and symbiotically fixed atmospheric nitrogen under normal field condition. The fixation of atmospheric N by the legume/Rhizobium symbiosis is an integrated process in which the host plant ( macrosymbiont) supplies the bacterium (microsymbiont) with energy and the bacterium supplies the plant with reduced N. figs.,172 refs

  6. Evidence for the formation of different-sized nodules by different accretionary processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    suggests that the smaller (M and I) nodules are diagenetic and the larger (S, B, L, and V) are hydrogenetic, exhibiting variations in todorokite abundance and in chemical composition. There is also substantial evidence that the nodules of high economic...

  7. Inter-relationship between nuclei and gross characteristics of manganese nodules, Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, C; Iyer, S.D.; Hazra, S.

    More than 200 samples of manganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) were studied for their different parameters. The study included various aspects such as morphology, texture, mineralogy, and composition of the nodules. The nuclei...

  8. Exploration for nodules in the Central Indian Ocean Basin: Past present and the future

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.

    The Polymetallic Nodules Project has a long (less than 2 decades)history. Initially, the Surveys and Exploration aspect was the driving force for this project. The project was initiated with the recovery of manganese nodules onboard RV Gaveshani...

  9. Characterizing Indian Ocean manganese nodule-bearing seafloor using multi-beam angular backscatter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Kodagali, V.N.

    backscattering in delineating seafloor parameters characteristic of nodule-rich sediments. In this paper, processed Hydrosweep multi-beam backscatter data from 45 spot locations in the CIOB (where nodule samples are available) were analysed to estimate seafloor...

  10. Internal constitution of manganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    Morphological, chemical, physical and acoustic properties of Mn-nodules in the the Indian Ocean are inter-linked and depend much on local and regional oceanic environments. These nodules are anisotropic and sound propagation is faster parallel...

  11. Lung nodule volumetry: segmentation algorithms within the same software package cannot be used interchangeably

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Haseem; de Hoop, B; Shaker, S B

    2010-01-01

    We examined the reproducibility of lung nodule volumetry software that offers three different volumetry algorithms.......We examined the reproducibility of lung nodule volumetry software that offers three different volumetry algorithms....

  12. Solitary necrotic nodules of the liver mimicking hepatic metastasis: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kwon Ha; Yun, Ki Jung; Lee, Jung Min [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Guhn [Chunbuk National University Medical School, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    We present two cases of solitary necrotic nodules of the liver which on radiologic images mimicked hepatic metastasis. Solitary necrotic nodule of the liver is a rare but benign entity which histopathologically consists of an outer fibrotic capsule with inflammatory cells and a central core of amorphous necrotic material. The lesion was seen on contrast-enhanced CT as an ovoid-shaped hypoattenuating nodule; on CT during hepatic arteriography as enhancing nodule; on intraoperative US as a target-appearing hypoechoic nodule; on T2WI as a hyperintensity nodule, and on dynamic MR as a subtle peripheral enhancing nodule. Although the radiologic features are not specific, solitary necrotic nodule of the liver should be included in the differential diagnosis of hepatic metastasis.

  13. Killian-Jamieson Diverticulum Mimicking a Thyroid Nodule on Ultrasonography: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Soo; Lee, Kwan Seop; Yoon, Hoi Soo; Jeon, Eui Yong; Hwang, Hee Sung; Koh, Sung Hye; Kim, Min Jeong; Jang, Kyung Mi; Lee, Myung Jun; Lee, Yul

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid ultrasonography is widely used for diagnosis and cytologic evaluation of thyroid nodules. We encountered a case of Killian-Jamieson diverticulum, which was differentiated from a thyroid nodule using ultrasonography

  14. Desmoid tumor of bone with enchondromatous nodules, mistaken for chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Musculoskeletal Oncology Study Group, Catholic University of Korea (Korea); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Uijongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, 65-1 Geumohdong, Uijongbu, Gyunggido, 480-130 (Korea); Kang, Yong-Koo; Lee, An-Hee [Musculoskeletal Oncology Study Group, Catholic University of Korea (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthpaedic Oncology, Orthopaedic Hospital, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Desmoid tumor of bone, also termed desmoplastic fibroma or aggressive fibromatosis, is a rare, locally aggressive fibroblastic tumor. We present a 16-year-old male with a huge desmoid tumor involving the iliac wing. It was associated with enchondromatous nodules mimicking malignancy. The tumor in this patient was mistaken for chondrosarcoma and hemipelvectomy was performed. To our knowledge, such a case has not previously been documented fully in the English literature. The radiographic and pathologic findings and a possible mechanism of enchondromatous nodule formation in fibrous bone tumors are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Nitrogen fixation and induction of pseudo-nodules in grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasul, G.; Hassan, U.; Mehnaz, S.; Malik, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    The rice grown nitrogen depleted saline sols showed higher values for in-situ ARA. Isolations of N/sub 2/ fixing bacteria were carried out on soil Azotobacter was observed in plant rhizosphere. The 2,4-D (0.5 and 1 ppm) with diazo trophic bacteria induced nodule like structure on the wheat roots. The bacteria were found in nodules in the form of micro colonies or bacterial aggregates which were responsible for nitrogen fixation providing optimum 02 concentrations was incorporations /sup 15/N dilution data indicated that 125-46.5% atmosphere N was incorporated in nitrogen pool of inoculated plants. (author)

  16. Transcription of the soybean leghemoglobin genes during nodule development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcker, Anne; Ø Jensen, Erik; Marcker, Kjeld A

    1984-01-01

    During the early stages of soybean nodule development the leghemoglobin (Lb) genes are activated sequentially in the opposite order to which they are arranged in the soybean genome. At a specific stage after the initial activation of all the Lb genes, a large increment occurs in the transcription...... of the Lb(c1), Lb(c3) and Lb(a) genes while the transcription of the Lb(c2) gene is not amplified to a similar extent. All the Lb genes retain significant activity for a long period during the lifetime of a nodule. Consequently the soybean Lb genes are not regulated by a developmental gene switching...

  17. Thyroid carcinoma masquerading as a solitary benign hyperfunctioning nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandler, M.P.; Fellmeth, B.; Salhany, K.E.; Patton, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    Focal hot nodules on iodine thyroid images are associated with an exceedingly low incidence of malignancy. Most previously reported hot carcinomas represent the coexistence of small malignancies in or adjacent to a benign hot lesion. Described here is a 3-cm papillary carcinoma that fulfilled the criteria for benignancy on Tc-99m and I-123 imaging. Coincidental carcinoma within a benign lesion was excluded by detailed scintigraphic-pathologic correlation of the tumor. The implications of this case on the management of the solitary hot nodule are discussed and the literature reviewed.

  18. Thyroid carcinoma masquerading as a solitary benign hyperfunctioning nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, M.P.; Fellmeth, B.; Salhany, K.E.; Patton, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Focal hot nodules on iodine thyroid images are associated with an exceedingly low incidence of malignancy. Most previously reported hot carcinomas represent the coexistence of small malignancies in or adjacent to a benign hot lesion. Described here is a 3-cm papillary carcinoma that fulfilled the criteria for benignancy on Tc-99m and I-123 imaging. Coincidental carcinoma within a benign lesion was excluded by detailed scintigraphic-pathologic correlation of the tumor. The implications of this case on the management of the solitary hot nodule are discussed and the literature reviewed

  19. Evaluation of an improved method of simulating lung nodules in chest tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svalkvist, Angelica; Allansdotter Johnsson, Aase; Vikgren, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Background Simulated pathology is a valuable complement to clinical images in studies aiming at evaluating an imaging technique. In order for a study using simulated pathology to be valid, it is important that the simulated pathology in a realistic way reflect the characteristics of real pathology. Purpose To perform a thorough evaluation of a nodule simulation method for chest tomosynthesis, comparing the detection rate and appearance of the artificial nodules with those of real nodules in an observer performance experiment. Material and Methods A cohort consisting of 64 patients, 38 patients with a total of 129 identified pulmonary nodules and 26 patients without identified pulmonary nodules, was used in the study. Simulated nodules, matching the real clinically found pulmonary nodules by size, attenuation, and location, were created and randomly inserted into the tomosynthesis section images of the patients. Three thoracic radiologists and one radiology resident reviewed the images in an observer performance study divided into two parts. The first part included nodule detection and the second part included rating of the visual appearance of the nodules. The results were evaluated using a modified receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results The sensitivities for real and simulated nodules were comparable, as the area under the modified ROC curve (AUC) was close to 0.5 for all observers (range, 0.43-0.55). Even though the ratings of visual appearance for real and simulated nodules overlapped considerably, the statistical analysis revealed that the observers to were able to separate simulated nodules from real nodules (AUC values range 0.70-0.74). Conclusion The simulation method can be used to create artificial lung nodules that have similar detectability as real nodules in chest tomosynthesis, although experienced thoracic radiologists may be able to distinguish them from real nodules

  20. Thyroid nodules with minimal cystic changes have a low risk of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Dong Gyu; Kim, Dae Sik; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Ji Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules with minimal cystic changes. A total of consecutive 1,000 thyroid nodules (≥1 cm) with final diagnoses from two institutions were included in this study. The risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules was analyzed according to the internal content, which was categorized as purely solid, minimally cystic (cystic changes ≤10%), and partially cystic (cystic changes >10%). We also assessed the risk of malignancy of nodules with minimal cystic changes depending on echogenicity and presence of any suspicious ultrasonografic (US) features. The overall frequency of purely solid, minimally cystic, and partially cystic nodules was 730/1,000 (73%), 61/1,000 (6.1%), and 209/1,000 (20.9%), respectively, with risks of malignancy of 14.8% (108/730), 3.3% (2/61), and 3.3% (7/209), respectively. The risk of malignancy of nodules with minimal cystic changes was significantly lower than that of purely solid nodules (P=0.013). The risk of malignancy of nodules with minimal cystic changes was also lower than that of purely solid nodules in the group of hypoechoic nodules (P=0.063) and in the group of nodules with suspicious US features (P=0.028), but was not significantly different from that of partially cystic nodules regardless of echogenicity or the presence of suspicious US features (P≥0.652). Thyroid nodules with minimal cystic changes have a low risk of malignancy, similar to that of partially cystic nodules regardless of echogenicity or the presence of suspicious US features. The US lexicon could define solid nodules as nodules with purely solid internal content in order to enhance the accuracy of estimated risks of malignancy

  1. Elevated CO2 concentration around alfalfa nodules increases N2 fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Fischinger, Stephanie A.; Hristozkova, Marieta; Mainassara, Zaman-Allah; Schulze, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Nodule CO2 fixation via PEPC provides malate for bacteroids and oxaloacetate for N assimilation. The process is therefore of central importance for efficient nitrogen fixation. Nodule CO2 fixation is known to depend on external CO2 concentration. The hypothesis of the present paper was that nitrogen fixation in alfalfa plants is enhanced when the nodules are exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations. Therefore nodulated plants of alfalfa were grown in a hydroponic system that allowed separate ae...

  2. Inflammatory Hepatic Nodules Associated with Urinary Tract Infection in Two Pediatric Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ye Lim; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Jae Woong; Lee, Jong Mee; Park, Cheol Min

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory nodule in the liver associated with acute urinary infection is an uncommon presentation. We recently experienced two pediatric patients, admitted for urinary tract infection, in whom a solitary hyperechoic nodule or multiple low echoic nodules in the liver were incidentally discovered. All patients complained of fever, and urine culture results were positive for Klebsiella, Streptococcus, and Escherichia coli. After receiving treatment with antibiotics, the hepatic nodules gradually decreased in size and completely disappeared

  3. A solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma: review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Mirfakhraee, Sasan; Mathews, Dana; Peng, Lan; Woodruff, Stacey; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid are thought to only rarely harbor thyroid cancer, and thus are infrequently biopsied. Here, we present the case of a patient with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma and, using MEDLINE literature searches, set out to determine the prevalence of and characteristics of malignant ?hot? nodules as a group. Historical, biochemical and radiologic characteristics of the case subjects and their nodules were compared to those in cases o...

  4. Inflammatory Hepatic Nodules Associated with Urinary Tract Infection in Two Pediatric Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ye Lim; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Jae Woong; Lee, Jong Mee; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Inflammatory nodule in the liver associated with acute urinary infection is an uncommon presentation. We recently experienced two pediatric patients, admitted for urinary tract infection, in whom a solitary hyperechoic nodule or multiple low echoic nodules in the liver were incidentally discovered. All patients complained of fever, and urine culture results were positive for Klebsiella, Streptococcus, and Escherichia coli. After receiving treatment with antibiotics, the hepatic nodules gradually decreased in size and completely disappeared

  5. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  6. Computational investigation of small RNAs in the establishment of root nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza in leguminous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Danfeng; Meng, Xianwen; Wang, Yue; Wang, Jingjing; Zhao, Yuhua; Chen, Ming

    2018-01-03

    Many small RNAs have been confirmed to play important roles in the development of root nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza. In this study, we carried out the identification of certain small RNAs in leguminous plants (Medicago truncatula, soybean, peanut and common bean), such as miRNAs, tRFs and srRNAs, as well as the computational investigation of their regulations. Thirty miRNAs were predicted to be involved in establishing root nodules and mycorrhiza, and 12 of them were novel in common bean and peanut. The generation of tRFs in M. truncatula was not associated with tRNA gene frequencies and codon usage. Six tRFs exhibited different expressions in mycorrhiza and root nodules. Moreover, srRNA 5.8S in M. truncatula was generated from the regions with relatively low conservation at the rRNA 3' terminal. The protein-protein interactions between the proteins encoded by the target genes of miRNAs, tRFs and srRNAs were computed. The regulation of these three types of sRNAs in the symbiosis between leguminous plants and microorganisms is not a single regulation of certain signaling or metabolic pathways but a global regulation for the plants to own growth or specific events in symbiosis.

  7. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  8. A comparative study of proliferative nodules and lethal melanomas in congenital nevi from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yélamos, Oriol; Arva, Nicoleta C; Obregon, Roxana; Yazdan, Pedram; Wagner, Annette; Guitart, Joan; Gerami, Pedram

    2015-03-01

    Differentiating proliferative nodules (PNs) from melanomas arising in congenital nevi (CN) is a considerable challenge for dermatopathologists. Most of the specimens dermatopathologists assess that deal with this differential diagnosis involve proliferations of melanocytes arising in the dermis. In this study, we compare the clinical, histologic, and molecular findings of these 2 conditions. In our database, we found 22 examples of PNs arising in the dermis of CN and 2 cases of lethal melanomas arising from the dermis/epidermis of CN of children. Importantly, we found that among dermal melanocytic proliferations arising from CN in children, PNs are far more common than lethal melanomas. Clinically, multiplicity of lesions favored a diagnosis of PNs, whereas ulceration was infrequent in PNs compared with lethal melanomas. Histologically, PNs showed several distinct patterns including expansile nodules of epithelioid melanocytes with mitotic counts lower than that seen in the melanomas (1.67 vs. 12.5 mitoses/mm), a small round blue cell pattern often highly mitotically active, neurocristic-like, blue nevus-like, a nevoid melanoma-like pattern, or an undifferentiated spindle cell pattern. The lethal melanomas both featured expansile nodules of epithelioid melanocytes with high mitotic counts (range, 5 to 20 mitoses/mm) and an ulcerated overlying epidermis. At the molecular level, the PNs showed mostly whole chromosomal copy number aberrations, which in some cases were accompanied by rare partial chromosomal aberrations, whereas both lethal melanomas showed highly elevated copy number aberrations involving 6p25 without gains of the long arm of chromosome 6.

  9. Nonphotosynthetic CO2 fixation by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots and nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.P.; Heichel, G.H.; Vance, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    The dependence of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root and nodule nonphotosynthetic CO 2 fixation on the supply of currently produced photosynthate and nodule nitrogenase activity was examined a various times after phloem-girdling and exposure of nodules to Ar:O 2 . Phloem-girdling was effected 20 hours and exposure to Ar:O 2 was effected 2 to 3 hours before initiation of experiments. Nodule and root CO 2 fixation rates of phloem-girdled plants were reduced to 38 and 50%, respectively, of those of control plants. Exposure to Ar:O 2 decreased nodule CO 2 fixation rates to 45%, respiration rates to 55%, and nitrogenase activities to 51% of those of the controls. The products of nodule CO 2 fixation were exported through the xylem to the shoot mainly as amino acids within 30 to 60 minutes after exposure to 14 CO 2 . In contrast to nodules, roots exported very little radioactivity, and most of the 14 C was exported as organic acids. The nonphotosynthetic CO 2 fixation rate of roots and nodules averaged 26% of the gross respiration rate, i.e. the sum of net respiration and nonphotosynthetic CO 2 assimilation. Nodules fixed CO 2 at a rate 5.6 times that of roots, but since nodules comprised a small portion of root system mass, roots accounted for 76% of the nodulated roots system CO 2 fixation. The results indicate that nodule CO 2 fixation in alfalfa is associated with N assimilation

  10. The influence of inspiratory effort and emphysema on pulmonary nodule volumetry reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, J B; Mak, S M; McNulty, W H; Padley, S; Nair, A; Shah, P L; Devaraj, A

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of inspiratory effort and emphysema on reproducibility of pulmonary nodule volumetry. Eighty-eight nodules in 24 patients with emphysema were studied retrospectively. All patients had undergone volumetric inspiratory and end-expiratory thoracic computed tomography (CT) for consideration of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction. Inspiratory and expiratory nodule volumes were measured using commercially available software. Local emphysema extent was established by analysing a segmentation area extended circumferentially around each nodule (quantified as percent of lung with density of -950 HU or less). Lung volumes were established using the same software. Differences in inspiratory and expiratory nodule volumes were illustrated using the Bland-Altman test. The influences of percentage reduction in lung volume at expiration, local emphysema extent, and nodule size on nodule volume variability were tested with multiple linear regression. The majority of nodules (59/88 [67%]) showed an increased volume at expiration. Mean difference in nodule volume between expiration and inspiration was +7.5% (95% confidence interval: -24.1, 39.1%). No relationships were demonstrated between nodule volume variability and emphysema extent, degree of expiration, or nodule size. Expiration causes a modest increase in volumetry-derived nodule volumes; however, the effect is unpredictable. Local emphysema extent had no significant effect on volume variability in the present cohort. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphological variations in the polymetallic nodules from selected stations in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.

    Polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean largely range in size from 2 to 6 cm. The smaller nodules (4 cm) are subspheroidal to spheroidal in shape and with the increase in size, nodules become more discoidal and elongated. The size...

  12. In situ localization of chalcone synthase mRNA in pea root nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.C.; Canter Cremers, H.C.J.; Hogendijk, P.; Katinakis, P.; Wijffelman, C.A.; Franssen, H.J.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper studies on the role of flavonoids in pea root nodule development are reported. Flavonoid synthesis was followed by localizing chalcone synthase (CHS) mRNA in infected pea roots and in root nodules. In a nodule primordium, CHS mRNA is present in all cells of the primordium. Therefore it

  13. Designing a new CAD system for pulmonary nodule detection in High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Hosseini M

    2012-07-01

    Conclusion: Considering the complexity and different shapes of lung nodules and large number of CT images to evaluate, finding lung nodules are difficult and time consuming for physicians and include human error. Experimental results showed the accuracy of the proposed method to be appropriate (P<0.05 for lung nodule detection.

  14. Bag of frequencies: a descriptor of pulmonary nodules in Computed Tomography images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciompi, F.; Jacobs, C.; Scholten, E.T.; Wille, M.M.W.; Jong, P.A. de; Prokop, M.; Ginneken, B. van

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel descriptor for the characterization of pulmonary nodules in computed tomography (CT) images. The descriptor encodes information on nodule morphology and has scale-invariant and rotation-invariant properties. Information on nodule morphology is captured by sampling intensity

  15. Dual-energy CT in the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules by virtual non-enhanced images: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xing; Ding Wei; Qin Huijuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accuracy and radiation dose of dual-energy computed tomography (CT) in evaluating solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) by virtual non-enhanced images. Methods: Sixty-one patients with SPNs including 39 malignant and 18 benign nodules proved by pathology underwent DECT scans. The CT values of SPNs on enhanced weighted average and virtual non-enhanced images were compared by using Liver VNC processing unit in terms of their diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing malignant and benign nodules with a 20 HU threshold. Diagnostic accuracy was compared. In 28 patients of all patients, image noise and quality score of the non-enhanced and virtual non-enhanced images were compared, and radiation doses of each patient were recorded. The paired t test was used to analyze the noise difference between the plain scan and virtual non-enhanced scan. The Mann-Whitney U test. was used to analyze statistically significant differences of the image quality score and radiation dose between the non-enhanced scan and virtual non-enhanced scan. Results: The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for distinguishing benign and malignant nodules by using the virtual non-enhanced image of were 89.7% (35/39), 72.2% (13/18), 84.2% (48/57) respectively. The noise of common CT and virtual non- enhanced images were (8.49±1.94) HU and (10.14±2.18) HU, and there were statistically difference (t=9.45, P 0.05). The radiation doses of common CT and DECT were (3.72±0.48) mSv and (3.78±0.45) mSv, and there were no statistical difference (U= 350.50, P>0.05). Conclusion: DECT by using virtual non-enhanced images is useful tool to distinguish the benign and malignant SPN without additional radiation dose. (authors)

  16. Diseases caused by poxvirus - orf and milker's nodules: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.C.S. Barraviera

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and cattle parapoxviruses cause in human beings diseases of very similar aspect, named orf and milker's nodules, respectively. These infections are generically called farmyard pox. In the present article, we show the epidemiological, clinical, and histopathological aspects, as well as the treatment of these two viral diseases that are very similar, being differentiated only by their epidemiological aspects.

  17. Nitrogen fixation and nodulation of soybean as affected by rhizobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the efficacy of different adhesives added to rhizobial seed inoculum on soybean nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation in a screen house and under field conditions. The experiment was a 6×3 factorial arranged in Completely Randomized Design and Randomized Complete Block Design for the pot ...

  18. The Indian Ocean Nodule Field: Petrotectonic evolution and ferromanganese deposits

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Iyer, S.D.; Ghosh, A.K.

    , symmetrical and of high amplitude. The timing and intensity of the collision of India with Eurasia is constrained by the variable intensity of these flexures, suggesting probably a ‘soft’ touch at f58 Ma and the hard collision at about 51 Ma.The nodule field...

  19. Root-nodule bacteria isolated from native Amphithalea ericifolia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... the acidic soils of the South African fynbos are tolerant to very low ... With some bacterial species, however, adaptation to low. pH provides ... Nodules were collected from field plants of A. linearis subsp. linearis,. Aspalathus ...

  20. Mineralogical and geochemical studies of phosphorite nodules in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineralogical and geochemical studies of phosphorite nodules in the Dange Formation Sokoto Basin, Northwestern Niveria. OA Adekeye, SO Akande. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Mining and Geology Vol.40(2) 2004: 101-106. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  1. Environmental considerations of nodule mining in Central Indian basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.; Rao, A.

    fauna as well as the area of seafloor and the volume of sediment expected to be disturbed due to nodule mining. The resulting environmental implications due to large scale mining are expected to be in the form of 'plume' at the seafloor, turbidity...

  2. Positron emission tomography of incidentally detected small pulmonary nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, B M; Mortensen, J; Dirksen, A

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) imaging of small pulmonary nodules incidentally detected by spiral computed tomography (CT) in a high-risk population. Ten patients (five females, five males, aged 54-72 years) were recruited...

  3. Nodules on the Hair: A Rare Case of Mixed Piedra

    OpenAIRE

    Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

    2013-01-01

    Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair.

  4. Nodules on the hair: a rare case of mixed piedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

    2013-10-01

    Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair.

  5. A new design concept for nodule mining system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Janakiraman, G.; Venkatesan, R.; Rajaraman, V.S.

    An overview is presented on the hazards associated with various types of equipment to be used for the commercial mining of nodules from the seabed. The design of a suitable mining collector and the various options available are discussed. A novel...

  6. Thyroglobulin Gene Mutation with Cold Nodule on Thyroid Scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Kahara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglobulin gene mutation is a rare cause of congenital hypothyroidism, but thyroglobulin gene mutations are thought to be associated with thyroid cancer development. A 21-year-old Japanese man treated with levothyroxine for congenital hypothyroidism had an enlarged thyroid gland with undetectable serum thyroglobulin despite elevated serum TSH level. The patient was diagnosed with thyroglobulin gene mutation, with compound heterozygosity for Gly304Cys missense mutation and Arg432X nonsense mutation. Ultrasonography showed a hypovascular large tumor in the left lobe that appeared as a cold nodule on thyroid scintigraphy. He underwent total thyroidectomy, but pathological study did not reveal findings of thyroid carcinoma, but rather a hyperplastic nodule with hemorrhage. Strong cytoplasmic thyroglobulin immunostaining was observed, but sodium iodide symporter immunostaining was hardly detected in the hyperplastic nodule. The clinical characteristics of patients with thyroglobulin gene mutations are diverse, and some patients are diagnosed by chance on examination of goiter in adults. The presence of thyroid tumors that appear as cold nodules on thyroid scintigraphy should consider the potential for thyroid carcinoma, if the patient has relatively low serum thyroglobulin concentration in relation to the degree of TSH without thyroglobulin autoantibody.

  7. Percutaneous laser ablation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Enrico; Bizzarri, Giancarlo; Pacella, Claudio M

    2008-10-01

    Percutaneous image-guided procedures, largely based on thermal ablation, are at present under investigation for achieving a nonsurgical targeted cytoreduction in benign and malignant thyroid lesions. In several uncontrolled clinical trials and in two randomized clinical trials, laser ablation has demonstrated a good efficacy and safety for the shrinkage of benign cold thyroid nodules. In hyperfunctioning nodules, laser ablation induced a nearly 50% volume reduction with a variable frequency of normalization of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Laser ablation has been tested for the palliative treatment of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas, local recurrences or distant metastases. Laser ablation therapy is indicated for the shrinkage of benign cold nodules in patients with local pressure symptoms who are at high surgical risk. The treatment should be performed only by well trained operators and after a careful cytological evaluation. Laser ablation does not seem to be consistently effective in the long-term control of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules and is not an alternative treatment to 131I therapy. Laser ablation may be considered for the cytoreduction of tumor tissue prior to external radiation therapy or chemotherapy of local or distant recurrences of thyroid malignancy that are not amenable to surgical or radioiodine treatment.

  8. Low dose iodine-131 therapy in solitary toxic thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Rajeev

    1999-01-01

    Forty patients with solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules were treated with relatively low dose radioiodine therapy, 131 I doses were calculated taking into account thyroid mass and radioiodine kinetics to deliver 100 μCi/g of estimated nodule weight corrected for uptake. Patients remaining persistently hyperthyroid at four months after the initial therapy were retreated with a similarly calculated dose. Cure of the hyperthyroid state was achieved in all patients, total administered dose in individual cases ranging from 3-17 mCi. 28 of the 40 patients required a single therapy dose. 36 patients were euthyroid after a 4.5 year mean follow-up period. Four cases developed post therapy hypothyroidism requiring replacement therapy. Nodules regressed completely in nine cases following 131 I treatment, with partial regression in size in 19 patients. Control of hyperthyroid state in cases of solitary toxic thyroid nodules can be satisfactorily achieved using relatively low dose radioiodine therapy with low incidence of post therapy hypothyroidism. (author)

  9. The frequency of carcinoma in solitary thyroid nodules and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam was made to determine the frequency of malignancy in patients with solitary non-toxic thyroid nodule (STN) and in those with multinodular goitre (MNG). There were 60 cases of STN and. 178 with MNG. Nodular goitre was found to be predominantly a disease of females with sex.

  10. Root-nodule bacteria isolated from native Amphithalea ericifolia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous root-nodule bacteria isolated from the acid sands of the Cape using Aspalathus linearis, Aspalathus hispida, Aspalathus carnosa, Aspalathus capensis and Amphithalea ericifolia as trap hosts showed considerable tolerance to low pH. Isolates from A. ericifolia and A. carnosa could even grow in YMB medium at ...

  11. Effects of Different Reconstruction Parameters on CT Volumetric Measurement 
of Pulmonary Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong YANG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that volumetric measurements could detect subtle changes in small pulmonary nodules in serial CT scans, and thus may play an important role in the follow-up of indeterminate pulmonary nodules and in differentiating malignant nodules from benign nodules. The current study aims to evaluate the effects of different reconstruction parameters on the volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules in chest CT scans. Methods Thirty subjects who underwent chest CT scan because of indeterminate pulmonary nodules in General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from December 2009 to August 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 52 pulmonary nodules were included, and all CT data were reconstructed using three reconstruction algorithms and three slice thicknesses. The volumetric measurements of the nodules were performed using the advanced lung analysis (ALA software. The effects of the reconstruction algorithms, slice thicknesses, and nodule diameters on the volumetric measurements were assessed using the multivariate analysis of variance for repeated measures, the correlation analysis, and the Bland-Altman method. Results The reconstruction algorithms (F=13.6, P<0.001 and slice thicknesses (F=4.4, P=0.02 had significant effects on the measured volume of pulmonary nodules. In addition, the coefficients of variation of nine measurements were inversely related with nodule diameter (r=-0.814, P<0.001. The volume measured at the 2.5 mm slice thickness had poor agreement with the volumes measured at 1.25 mm and 0.625 mm, respectively. Moreover, the best agreement was achieved between the slice thicknesses of 1.25 mm and 0.625 mm using the bone algorithm. Conclusion Reconstruction algorithms and slice thicknesses have significant impacts on the volumetric measurements of lung nodules, especially for the small nodules. Therefore, the reconstruction setting in serial CT scans should be consistent in the follow

  12. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  13. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  14. Effect of radioiodine therapy on thyroid nodule size in patients with toxic adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkovaca, Z.; Mijatovic, J.; Skrobis, M.; Kovacevic, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Autonomously functioning toxic adenomas are a common cause of hyperthyroidism. Surgery, radioiodine and percutaneous ethanol injection into the nodule are effective therapies. Radioiodine therapy is increasingly used as first line therapy especially in elderly patients. Radioactive iodine I-131 seems to be a good therapeutic option with low incidence of post-therapy hypothyroidism. The important therapeutic effect has also been the regression in nodule size. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of radioiodine therapy on the size of toxic adenomas. Forty-six patients with age range of 37-76 years (Mean age=60.9 years) were followed up for a period of 12 months after I-131 therapy for toxic adenomas. Thyroid hormone levels (T3, T4 and TSH) were determined. Each patient was subjected to ultrasound and radionuclide scanning of thyroid gland at 3,6 and 12 months following I-131 therapy. Successful treatment was defined as control of hyperthyroidism and reappearance of extra-glandular thyroid tissue on Thyroid scan, which were suppressed by the hyperactive nodule prior to therapy. The volumes of the thyroid pre and post-therapy were estimated by US using the formula of ellipsoid model (δ/2π6 x length x width x depth). The therapeutic dose of I-131 was calculated for each patient by the following formula: 12 mCi x 100/24 hrs RAIU. Patients received a single dose of I-131 and the range of administered I-131 dose was 825 1221 MBq. Results revealed that 42 patients (91%) became euthyroid in three months after I-131. All patients became euthyroid in 6 months. The adenomas were reduced in size from a mean of 18.23+11.21 ml to 7.38+3.48 ml during the 12 months follow up. This was highly significant (p<0.05, t=3.408). The extra-nodular thyroid volume did not change following therapy (12.2+7.4 ml pre-therapy vs. 11.8+7.1 ml post therapy at 12 months). The results of our study showed that I-131 can successfully treat not only the functional state of

  15. Detection, Characterization, and Biological Effect of Quorum-Sensing Signaling Molecules in Peanut-Nodulating Bradyrhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Giordano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Bradyrhizobium are able to establish a symbiotic relationship with peanut (Arachis hypogaea root cells and to fix atmospheric nitrogen by converting it to nitrogenous compounds. Quorum sensing (QS is a cell-cell communication mechanism employed by a variety of bacterial species to coordinate behavior at a community level through regulation of gene expression. The QS process depends on bacterial production of various signaling molecules, among which the N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs are most commonly used by Gram-negative bacteria. Some previous reports have shown the production of QS signaling molecules by various rhizobia, but little is known regarding mechanisms of communication among peanut-nodulating strains. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize QS signals produced by peanut-nodulating bradyrhizobial strains and to evaluate their effects on processes related to cell interaction. Detection of AHLs in 53 rhizobial strains was performed using the biosensor strains Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4 (pZLR4 and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 for AHLs with long and short acyl chains, respectively. None of the strains screened were found to produce AHLs with short acyl chains, but 14 strains produced AHLs with long acyl chains. These 14 AHL-producing strains were further studied by quantification of β-galactosidase activity levels (AHL-like inducer activity in NTL4 (pZLR4. Strains displaying moderate to high levels of AHL-like inducer activity were subjected to chemical identification of signaling molecules by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. For each AHL-producing strain, we found at least four different AHLs, corresponding to N-hexanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone (C6, N-(3-oxodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3OC10, N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3OC12, and N-(3-oxotetradecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3OC14. Biological roles of 3OC10, 3OC12, and 3OC14 AHLs

  16. Solitary pulmonary nodule evaluation in regions endemic for infectious diseases: Do regional variations impact the effectiveness of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purandare, N C; Pramesh, C S; Agarwal, J P; Agrawal, A; Shah, S; Prabhash, K; Karimundackal, G; Jiwnani, S; Tandon, S; Rangarajan, V

    2017-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) has become a preferred imaging modality for the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN), particularly in the developed world. Since FDG can concentrate in infective/inflammatory lesions, the diagnostic utility of FDG-PET can be questioned, particularly in regions endemic for infectious decisions. To evaluate the accuracy of FDG-PET/CT in evaluation of SPNs in a population endemic for infectious disease and to assess if regional variations have an impact on its effectiveness. All patients who underwent an FDG/PET-CT with a clinico-radiological diagnosis of SPN categorized as indeterminate were included. Based on a maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) cut-off of 2.5, lesions were classified as benign (2.5) and compared with gold standard histopathology. The diagnostic accuracy of PET-CT to detect malignancy was calculated. On the basis of final histopathology, lesions were grouped as (a) malignant nodules (b) infective/granulomatous nodules with a specific diagnosis and (c) nonspecific inflammatory nodules. The SUVmaxbetween these groups was compared using nonparametric statistical tests. A total of 191 patients (129 males, 62 females) with a median age of 64 years (range: 36-83) were included. Totally, 144 nodules (75.3%) were malignant and 47 were benign (24.7%). Adenocarcinoma (n = 84) was the most common malignancy. Tuberculosis (n = 16) and nonspecific infections (n = 24) were the two most common benign pathologies. There was a significant overlap in the metabolic uptake of malignant (median SUVmax-11.2, range: 3.3-34.6) and tuberculous nodules (median SUVmax-10.3, range: 2.7-22.5) with no statistically difference between their SUVmaxvalues (P = 0.43). The false-positive rate was 65.2% and the false-negative rate was 5.5%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of FDG-PET/CT for detecting malignancy were 94

  17. Uranium-throium isotopes and transition metal fluxes in two oriented manganese nodules from the Central Indian Basin: implications for nodule turnover

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    turnover. Mar. Geol., 95:71-76. Transition metal fluxes to the top and bottom of two oriented manganese nodules (SS-657 and SK-176) were deter- mined by combining radiochemical and geochemical analyses. Distinct differences in transition metal fluxes, 2a... of rotation of the nodule several times over time intervals which are smaller than the time resolution involved in U-Th isotope dating techniques. Introduction orientation of a nodule, the turnover exposing the accreting surfaces to different environ...

  18. Qualitative elastography can replace thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration in patients with soft thyroid nodules. A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nell, Sjoerd; Kist, Jakob W. [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Debray, Thomas P.A. [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care Utrecht (Netherlands); Keizer, Bart de [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Oostenbrugge, Timotheus J. van; Borel Rinkes, Inne H.M. [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Valk, Gerlof D. [Department of Endocrinology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Vriens, Menno R., E-mail: mvriens@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    Context: Only a minority of thyroid nodules is malignant; nevertheless, many invasive diagnostic procedures are performed to distinguish between benign and malignant nodules. Qualitative ultrasound elastography is a non-invasive technique to evaluate thyroid nodules. Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of qualitative elastography in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules in patients referred for fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Data sources: A systematic literature search (PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library) was performed. Study selection: Included studies reported thyroid nodule elastography color scores and the related cytologic or histologic findings in patients with a thyroid nodule referred for FNA. Data extraction: Two independent reviewers extracted study data and assessed study quality. Pooled sensitivities and specificities of different populations were calculated using a bivariate Bayesian framework. Data Synthesis: Twenty studies including thyroid nodules were analyzed. Pooled results of elastography indicate a summary sensitivity of 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79–90%) and specificity of 80% (95% CI, 73–86%). The respective pooled negative predictive and positive predictive values were 97% (95% CI, 94–98%) and 40% (95% CI, 34–48%). The pretest probability of a benign nodule was 82%. Only 3.7% of the false-negative nodules was a follicular thyroid carcinoma. A pooled negative predictive value of 99% (95% CI, 97–100%) was found when only complete soft nodules (Asteria elastography 1) were classified as benign, which included 14% of the studied population. Conclusions: Elastography has a fair specificity and sensitivity for diagnostic accuracy. Its major strength entails the detection of benignity, especially when only completely soft nodules are qualified as benign. The outcomes of our analysis show that FNA could safely be omitted in patients referred for analysis of their thyroid nodule when elastography shows it

  19. Local pulmonary structure classification for computer-aided nodule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Claus; Li, Xianlin; Okada, Kazunori

    2006-03-01

    We propose a new method of classifying the local structure types, such as nodules, vessels, and junctions, in thoracic CT scans. This classification is important in the context of computer aided detection (CAD) of lung nodules. The proposed method can be used as a post-process component of any lung CAD system. In such a scenario, the classification results provide an effective means of removing false positives caused by vessels and junctions thus improving overall performance. As main advantage, the proposed solution transforms the complex problem of classifying various 3D topological structures into much simpler 2D data clustering problem, to which more generic and flexible solutions are available in literature, and which is better suited for visualization. Given a nodule candidate, first, our solution robustly fits an anisotropic Gaussian to the data. The resulting Gaussian center and spread parameters are used to affine-normalize the data domain so as to warp the fitted anisotropic ellipsoid into a fixed-size isotropic sphere. We propose an automatic method to extract a 3D spherical manifold, containing the appropriate bounding surface of the target structure. Scale selection is performed by a data driven entropy minimization approach. The manifold is analyzed for high intensity clusters, corresponding to protruding structures. Techniques involve EMclustering with automatic mode number estimation, directional statistics, and hierarchical clustering with a modified Bhattacharyya distance. The estimated number of high intensity clusters explicitly determines the type of pulmonary structures: nodule (0), attached nodule (1), vessel (2), junction (>3). We show accurate classification results for selected examples in thoracic CT scans. This local procedure is more flexible and efficient than current state of the art and will help to improve the accuracy of general lung CAD systems.

  20. Redox regulation of peroxiredoxin and proteinases by ascorbate and thiols during pea root nodule senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, Karin; Dutilleul, Christelle; van Heerden, Philippus D R; Vanacker, Hélène; Bernard, Stéphanie; Finkemeier, Iris; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Foyer, Christine H

    2006-02-20

    Redox factors contributing to nodule senescence were studied in pea. The abundance of the nodule cytosolic peroxiredoxin but not the mitochondrial peroxiredoxin protein was modulated by ascorbate. In contrast to redox-active antioxidants such as ascorbate and cytosolic peroxiredoxin that decreased during nodule development, maximal extractable nodule proteinase activity increased progressively as the nodules aged. Cathepsin-like activities were constant throughout development but serine and cysteine proteinase activities increased during senescence. Senescence-induced cysteine proteinase activity was inhibited by cysteine, dithiotreitol, or E-64. Senescence-dependent decreases in redox-active factors, particularly ascorbate and peroxiredoxin favour decreased redox-mediated inactivation of cysteine proteinases.

  1. {sup 10}Be in rhodochrosite nodules from Neogene sediments along the Galapagos Ridge, equatorial Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldahan, A., E-mail: ala.aldahan@geo.uu.s [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Geology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Morad, S. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Petroleum Geosciences, Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Possnert, G. [Tandem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Sturesson, U. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); ElSaiy, A. [Department of Geology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-04-15

    Microcrystalline, calcian rhodochrosite occurs as nodules around burrows in late Neogene pelagic sediments from the Galapagos Ridge in the Guatemala Basin, eastern equatorial Pacific (DSDP Leg 68; Site 503). {sup 10}Be isotope revealed that the rhodochrosite nodules have formed under growth conditions much faster than those reported for Fe-Mn nodules. The overall REE patterns of the nodules and host pelagic sediments indicate element derivation mainly from marine pore water. However, variations in the shale normalised Eu values suggest influx of hydrothermal fluids into mounds area at Galapagos, which is also evidenced by the similar minor and major element contents in the nodules and host sediments.

  2. Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy of Multiple Thyroid Nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Dae; Bae, Il Hun; Lee, Seung Young; Han, Gi Seok; Cha, Sang Hun; Kim, Sung Jin; Park, Kil Sun; Koong, Sung Soo; Lee, Ok Jun

    2006-01-01

    To standardize the number of nodules which necessitates ultrasound-guided, fine-needle, aspiration biopsy in patients who have multiple thyroid nodules with the same sonographic characteristics as each other. From February, 2002 to March, 2004, among patients whose diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound-guided, fine-needle, aspiration biopsy, 545 nodules of 203 patients were found in sonography with more than two thyroid nodules. Each thyroid gland nodule was classified on a score from 0 to 2 points on the basis of the following 5 characteristics: internal content, margin, echogenicity, shape and calcification in sonography. When the score of all characteristics was the same, by deciding on nodules with the same sonographic characteristics and with the score of at least one characteristic being different, we divided the nodules with different sonographic characteristics in a patient. By methods such as given in the preceding descriptions, patients with multiple thyroid nodules were separated into two groups: one in which all nodules had the same sonographic characteristics and another in which nodules have at least one different sonographic characteristic. Then, each pathologic result was searched for the same case and different case in each patient group. Among the 203 patients who were diagnosed with multiple thyroid nodules in ultrasonography, 79 patients (38.9%) had nodules with the same ultrasonographic characteristics and 124 patients (61.1%) had nodules with at least one different ultrasonographic characteristic. All 79 patient's nodules with the same ultrasonographic characteristics in each patient showed the same pathologic result in all cases (100.0%) and there was no case showing a different pathologic result. Otherwise, among the 124 patient's nodules with different ultrasonographic characteristics, each patient showed the same pathologic result in 111 (89.5%) and different pathologic result in 13 (10.5%). In patients who have multiple thyroid nodules

  3. Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma presenting as a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabalec, Filip; Svilias, Ioannis; Plasilova, Ivana; Hovorkova, Eva; Ryska, Aler; Horacek, Jiri

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we describe a case of papillary carcinoma in a 15-year-old girl who presented with a hyperfunctioning (hot) thyroid nodule and discuss it in the context of current management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules. In adults, hot nodules rarely require cytologic or histologic evaluation, and hyperthyroidism is often treated with radioiodine (131I). However, in children and adolescents, the malignancy rate for nodules (both cold and hot) is higher and surgery is often necessary. Surgery may serve as a therapy, as well as a diagnostic tool, to treat hot nodules in children and adolescents.

  4. 10Be in rhodochrosite nodules from Neogene sediments along the Galapagos Ridge, equatorial Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldahan, A.; Morad, S.; Possnert, G.; Sturesson, U.; ElSaiy, A.

    2010-01-01

    Microcrystalline, calcian rhodochrosite occurs as nodules around burrows in late Neogene pelagic sediments from the Galapagos Ridge in the Guatemala Basin, eastern equatorial Pacific (DSDP Leg 68; Site 503). 10 Be isotope revealed that the rhodochrosite nodules have formed under growth conditions much faster than those reported for Fe-Mn nodules. The overall REE patterns of the nodules and host pelagic sediments indicate element derivation mainly from marine pore water. However, variations in the shale normalised Eu values suggest influx of hydrothermal fluids into mounds area at Galapagos, which is also evidenced by the similar minor and major element contents in the nodules and host sediments.

  5. The Micro-RNA172c-APETALA2-1 Node as a Key Regulator of the Common Bean-Rhizobium etli Nitrogen Fixation Symbiosis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova-Franco, Bárbara; Íñiguez, Luis P.; Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Leija, Alfonso; Fuentes, Sara I.; Ramírez, Mario; Paul, Sujay

    2015-01-01

    Micro-RNAs are recognized as important posttranscriptional regulators in plants. The relevance of micro-RNAs as regulators of the legume-rhizobia nitrogen-fixing symbiosis is emerging. The objective of this work was to functionally characterize the role of micro-RNA172 (miR172) and its conserved target APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factor in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)-Rhizobium etli symbiosis. Our expression analysis revealed that mature miR172c increased upon rhizobial infection and continued increasing during nodule development, reaching its maximum in mature nodules and decaying in senescent nodules. The expression of AP2-1 target showed a negative correlation with miR172c expression. A drastic decrease in miR172c and high AP2-1 mRNA levels were observed in ineffective nodules. Phenotypic analysis of composite bean plants with transgenic roots overexpressing miR172c or a mutated AP2-1 insensitive to miR172c cleavage demonstrated the pivotal regulatory role of the miR172 node in the common bean-rhizobia symbiosis. Increased miR172 resulted in improved root growth, increased rhizobial infection, increased expression of early nodulation and autoregulation of nodulation genes, and improved nodulation and nitrogen fixation. In addition, these plants showed decreased sensitivity to nitrate inhibition of nodulation. Through transcriptome analysis, we identified 114 common bean genes that coexpressed with AP2-1 and proposed these as being targets for transcriptional activation by AP2-1. Several of these genes are related to nodule senescence, and we propose that they have to be silenced, through miR172c-induced AP2-1 cleavage, in active mature nodules. Our work sets the basis for exploring the miR172-mediated improvement of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in common bean, the most important grain legume for human consumption. PMID:25739700

  6. Bacterial diversity in the sediment from polymetallic nodule fields of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Sheng; Liao, Li; Xu, Hong-Xiang; Xu, Xue-Wei; Wu, Min; Zhu, Li-Zhong

    2010-10-01

    The Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) is located in the northeastern equatorial Pacific and contains abundant polymetallic nodules. To investigate its bacterial diversity, four libraries of 16S rRNA genes were constructed from sediments of four stations in different areas of the CCFZ. In total, 313 clones sequenced from the 4 libraries were assigned into 14 phylogenetic groups and 1 group of 28 unclassified bacteria. High bacterial diversity was predicted by the rarefaction analysis. The most dominant group overall was Proteobacteria, but there was variation in each library: Gammaproteobacteria was the most dominant group in two libraries, E2005-01 and ES0502, while Alphaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria were the most dominant groups in libraries EP2005-03 and WS0505, respectively. Seven groups, including Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were common to all four libraries. The remaining minor groups were distributed in libraries with different patterns. Most clones sequenced in this study were clustered with uncultured bacteria obtained from the environment, such as the ocean crust and marine sediment, but only distantly related to isolates. Bacteria involved in the cycling of metals, sulfur and nitrogen were detected, and their relationship with their habitat was discussed. This study sheds light on the bacterial communities associated with polymetallic nodules in the CCFZ and provides primary data on the bacterial diversity of this area.

  7. Mimics of Duplication Cysts: Intraperitoneal Nodules in a 14-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E. Ohanessian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are the most common primary hepatic tumors, but there are few reports of their occurrence elsewhere in the abdomen. The concurrent existence of multiple fibrous nodules of the omentum, mesentery, and porta hepatis, along with a gastric hemangioma, in a child raises the question of syndromic association. Our search of the English literature revealed only rare mentions of hemangiomas involving the stomach and mesentery or omentum. These lesions have attracted clinical attention by symptoms of obstruction, gastrointestinal bleeding, intussusception, infection, perforation, or vague abdominal pain. Although some tumors exist unnoticed for many decades and are identified only incidentally, others present emergently and require immediate surgical attention. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy who presented with symptoms similar to those for appendicitis or duplication cyst, who was found to have a torsed gastric hemangioma and multiple benign fibrous nodules in the abdomen. The presence of multiple vascular or fibrous lesions is associated with genetic syndromes that can have lifelong and reproductive repercussions; so it is imperative that these tumors be recognized by diagnosticians.

  8. Elastography in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules in Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Mustafa; Çakal, Erman; Özbek, Mustafa; Güngünes, Aşkin; Arslan, Müyesser Sayki; Akkaymak, Esra Tutal; Uçan, Bekir; Ünsal, Ilknur Öztürk; Bozkurt, Nujen Çolak; Delibaşi, Tuncay

    2014-08-01

    Elastography is a method which assesses the risk of the malignancy and provides information about the degree of hardness in tissue. Hashimoto's thyroiditis, autoimmune lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis, is considered to be a very common disease that is able to change the hardness of the tissue. The diagnostic value of elastography of this group of patients has not previously been reported. In our study, we aimed to determine the diagnostic value of elastography in 283 patients (255 female, 28 male) with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Elastography score and index were measured with real-time ultrasound elastography (Hitachi(®) EUB 7000 HV machine with using 13 MHz linear transducer). The outcome of this measure shows that malignant nodules were with higher elastography scores (ES) and strain indexes (SI) values. ES ≥3 were observed in 16/20 malignant and 130/263 benign nodules, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) for the elasto score (AUC) was 0.72 (p = 0.001), and AUC for the strain index was 0.77 (p Hashimoto patients although sensitivity and specificity decreases in Hashimoto in this population.

  9. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  10. Correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenshi ZHANG

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective The solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs is one of the most common findings on chest radiographs. It becomes possible to provide more accurately quantitative information about blood flow patterns of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs with multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size. Methods 68 patients with maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs (diameter <=4 cmunderwent multi-location dynamic contrast material-enhanced (nonionic contrast material was administrated via the antecubital vein at a rate of 4mL/s by an autoinjector, 4*5mm or 4*2.5mm scanning mode with stable table were performed. serial CT. Precontrast and postcontrast attenuation on every scan was recorded. Perfusion (PSPN, peak height (PHSPNratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (SPN-to-A ratioand mean transit time(MTT were calculated. The correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size were assessed by means of linear regression analysis. Results No significant correlations were found between the tumor size and each of the peak height (PHSPN ratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (SPN-to-A ratio perfusion(PSPNand mean transit time (r=0.18, P=0.14; r=0.20,P=0.09; r=0.01, P=0.95; r=0.01, P=0.93. Conclusion No significant correlation is found between the tumor size and each of the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules.

  11. Rhizobial Nodulation Factors Stimulate Mycorrhizal Colonization of Nodulating and Nonnodulating Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z. P.; Staehelin, C.; Vierheilig, H.; Wiemken, A.; Jabbouri, S.; Broughton, W. J.; Vogeli-Lange, R.; Boller, T.

    1995-08-01

    Legumes form tripartite symbiotic associations with noduleinducing rhizobia and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Co-inoculation of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) roots with Bradyrhizobium japonicum 61-A-101 considerably enhanced colonization by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae. A similar stimulatory effect on mycorrhizal colonization was also observed in nonnodulating soybean mutants when inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and in wild-type soybean plants when inoculated with ineffective rhizobial strains, indicating that a functional rhizobial symbiosis is not necessary for enhanced mycorrhiza formation. Inoculation with the mutant Rhizobium sp. NGR[delta]nodABC, unable to produce nodulation (Nod) factors, did not show any effect on mycorrhiza. Highly purified Nod factors also increased the degree of mycorrhizal colonization. Nod factors from Rhizobium sp. NGR234 differed in their potential to promote fungal colonization. The acetylated factor NodNGR-V (MeFuc, Ac), added at concentrations as low as 10-9 M, was active, whereas the sulfated factor, NodNGR-V (MeFuc, S), was inactive. Several soybean flavonoids known to accumulate in response to the acetylated Nod factor showed a similar promoting effect on mycorrhiza. These results suggest that plant flavonoids mediate the Nod factor-induced stimulation of mycorrhizal colonization in soybean roots.

  12. Towards automatic pulmonary nodule management in lung cancer screening with deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciompi, Francesco; Chung, Kaman; van Riel, Sarah J; Setio, Arnaud Arindra Adiyoso; Gerke, Paul K; Jacobs, Colin; Scholten, Ernst Th; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Wille, Mathilde M W; Marchianò, Alfonso; Pastorino, Ugo; Prokop, Mathias; van Ginneken, Bram

    2017-04-19

    The introduction of lung cancer screening programs will produce an unprecedented amount of chest CT scans in the near future, which radiologists will have to read in order to decide on a patient follow-up strategy. According to the current guidelines, the workup of screen-detected nodules strongly relies on nodule size and nodule type. In this paper, we present a deep learning system based on multi-stream multi-scale convolutional networks, which automatically classifies all nodule types relevant for nodule workup. The system processes raw CT data containing a nodule without the need for any additional information such as nodule segmentation or nodule size and learns a representation of 3D data by analyzing an arbitrary number of 2D views of a given nodule. The deep learning system was trained with data from the Italian MILD screening trial and validated on an independent set of data from the Danish DLCST screening trial. We analyze the advantage of processing nodules at multiple scales with a multi-stream convolutional network architecture, and we show that the proposed deep learning system achieves performance at classifying nodule type that surpasses the one of classical machine learning approaches and is within the inter-observer variability among four experienced human observers.

  13. A Structural and Histochemical Study of Actinorhizal Nodules of Casuarina equisetifolia Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Athar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Casuarina equisetifolia Linn. is an introduced actinorhizal plant grown as roadside ornamental tree and as forest plantation in Pakistan. Actinorhizal nodules are formed on the roots of C. equisetifolia as a response to infection by Frankia. Structure of C. equisetifolia nodules is described using histochemical methods to elucidate the nature of micro-symbiont within the nodules. C. equisetifolia nodules were similar to a root in general anatomical structure and resembled with Myrica-type nodules. The nodule consisted of a distinct periderm enclosing the cortex. The cortex showed patches of infected cells interspersed among uninfected ones. Inside the cortex there was a stele bounded by an endodermis, which contained tannins. The phloem-xylem relationship was amphicribral. A poorly defined meristem was also observed. Apart from simple nodules, dichotomously branched and coralloid nodules were also observed. The stele in simple and branched nodules reached up to the tip of the nodules. The micro-symbiont was observed in the nodule tissues in hyphal form only. The histochemical tests revealed absence of vacuoles and starch grains, and presence of tannins and lignin.

  14. Qualitative ultrasound elastography assessment of benign thyroid nodules: Patterns and intra-observer acquisition variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacout, Alexis; Chevenet, Carole; Thariat, Juliette; Figl, Andrea; Marcy, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    To report and evaluate qualitative elastography patterns by using gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound (US) in patients presenting with benign thyroid nodules and to evaluate the reproducibility of US elastography examinations. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and all patients provided informed consent. Over a 3-month time period, all consecutive adult patients were referred to our institution to undergo a thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) procedure. Patients presenting with benign cytology according to the Bethesda 2008 classification were prospectively enrolled in the study. Each thyroid nodule was assessed by using gray-scale, Doppler US, and elastography acquisitions by a single operator (A. L.). Multiple elastography acquisitions per thyroid nodule were performed and elastography scorings of the nodules were compared with each other. Nineteen patients (16 women and 3 men, mean age 58 years) with 22 thyroid nodules were included in the present study. Elastographic patterns 1, 2, and 3 were reported (23% nodules showed pattern 3). The elastography pattern showed a strong variability in 13 nodules (59%). The elastography acquisition result variability involved the “malignant” pattern 3 in 36% of cases. Almost one-third of benign thyroid nodules displayed pattern 3 on qualitative US elastography. The intra-observer variability of the benign thyroid elastography scoring is wide, thus limiting the thyroid nodule US examination accuracy. In FNAB-proven benign thyroid nodules, elastography pattern 3 is frequent and cannot be used as a strong indicator of thyroid malignancy

  15. Advances in intelligent diagnosis methods for pulmonary ground-glass opacity nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Hailin; Geng, Chen; Dai, Yakang; Ji, Jiansong

    2018-02-07

    Pulmonary nodule is one of the important lesions of lung cancer, mainly divided into two categories of solid nodules and ground glass nodules. The improvement of diagnosis of lung cancer has significant clinical significance, which could be realized by machine learning techniques. At present, there have been a lot of researches focusing on solid nodules. But the research on ground glass nodules started late, and lacked research results. This paper summarizes the research progress of the method of intelligent diagnosis for pulmonary nodules since 2014. It is described in details from four aspects: nodular signs, data analysis methods, prediction models and system evaluation. This paper aims to provide the research material for researchers of the clinical diagnosis and intelligent analysis of lung cancer, and further improve the precision of pulmonary ground glass nodule diagnosis.

  16. Root nodule symbiosis in Lotus japonicus drives the establishment of distinctive rhizosphere, root, and nodule bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Jensen, Dorthe Bodker; Koprivova, Anna; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Radutoiu, Simona

    2016-12-06

    Lotus japonicus has been used for decades as a model legume to study the establishment of binary symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia that trigger root nodule organogenesis for bacterial accommodation. Using community profiling of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we reveal that in Lotus, distinctive nodule- and root-inhabiting communities are established by parallel, rather than consecutive, selection of bacteria from the rhizosphere and root compartments. Comparative analyses of wild-type (WT) and symbiotic mutants in Nod factor receptor5 (nfr5), Nodule inception (nin) and Lotus histidine kinase1 (lhk1) genes identified a previously unsuspected role of the nodulation pathway in the establishment of different bacterial assemblages in the root and rhizosphere. We found that the loss of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis dramatically alters community structure in the latter two compartments, affecting at least 14 bacterial orders. The differential plant growth phenotypes seen between WT and the symbiotic mutants in nonsupplemented soil were retained under nitrogen-supplemented conditions that blocked the formation of functional nodules in WT, whereas the symbiosis-impaired mutants maintain an altered community structure in the nitrogen-supplemented soil. This finding provides strong evidence that the root-associated community shift in the symbiotic mutants is a direct consequence of the disabled symbiosis pathway rather than an indirect effect resulting from abolished symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Our findings imply a role of the legume host in selecting a broad taxonomic range of root-associated bacteria that, in addition to rhizobia, likely contribute to plant growth and ecological performance.

  17. Nodule activity and allocation of photosynthate of soybean during recovery from water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, R. J.; Patterson, R. P.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Harris, D.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    Nodulated soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) in a growth-chamber study were subjected to a leaf water potential (psi w) of -2.0 megapascal during vegetative growth. Changes in nonstructural carbohydrate contents of leaves, stems, roots, and nodules, allocation of dry matter among plant parts, in situ specific nodule activity, and in situ canopy apparent photosynthetic rate were measured in stressed and nonstressed plants during a 7-day period following rewatering. Leaf and nodule psi w also were determined. At the time of maximum stress, concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates had declined in leaves of stressed, relative to nonstressed, plants, and the concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates had increased in stems, roots, and nodules. Sucrose concentrations in roots and nodules of stressed plants were 1.5 and 3 times greater, respectively, than those of nonstressed plants. Within 12 hours after rewatering, leaf and nodule psi w of stressed plants had returned to values of nonstressed plants. Canopy apparent photosynthesis and specific nodule activity of stressed plants recovered to levels for nonstressed plants within 2 days after rewatering. The elevated sucrose concentrations in roots and nodules of stressed plants also declined rapidly upon rehydration. The increase in sucrose concentration in nodules, as well as the increase of carbohydrates in roots and stems, during water stress and the rapid disappearance upon rewatering indicates that inhibition of carbohydrate utilization within the nodule may be associated with loss of nodule activity. Availability of carbohydrates within the nodules and from photosynthetic activity following rehydration of nodules may mediate the rate of recovery of N2-fixation activity.

  18. The effects of computed tomography with iterative reconstruction on solid pulmonary nodule volume quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Willemink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of iterative reconstruction (IR on pulmonary nodule volumetry with chest computed tomography (CT. METHODS: Twenty patients (12 women and 8 men, mean age 61.9, range 32-87 underwent evaluation of pulmonary nodules with a 64-slice CT-scanner. Data were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP and IR (Philips Healthcare, iDose(4-levels 2, 4 and 6 at similar radiation dose. Volumetric nodule measurements were performed with semi-automatic software on thin slice reconstructions. Only solid pulmonary nodules were measured, no additional selection criteria were used for the nature of nodules. For intra-observer and inter-observer variability, measurements were performed once by one observer and twice by another observer. Algorithms were compared using the concordance correlation-coefficient (pc and Friedman-test, and post-hoc analysis with the Wilcoxon-signed ranks-test with Bonferroni-correction (significance-level p<0.017. RESULTS: Seventy-eight nodules were present including 56 small nodules (volume<200 mm(3, diameter<8 mm and 22 large nodules (volume≥200 mm(3, diameter≥8 mm. No significant differences in measured pulmonary nodule volumes between FBP, iDose(4-levels 2, 4 and 6 were found in both small nodules and large nodules. FBP and iDose(4-levels 2, 4 and 6 were correlated with pc-values of 0.98 or higher for both small and large nodules. Pc-values of intra-observer and inter-observer variability were 0.98 or higher. CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of solid pulmonary nodule volume measured with standard-FBP were comparable with IR, regardless of the IR-level and no significant differences between measured volumes of both small and large solid nodules were found.

  19. Making the Common Good Common

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  20. Critical Pitfalls in the use of BRAF Mutation as a Diagnostic Tool in Thyroid Nodules: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Elisabetta; Ragazzi, Moira; Zini, Michele; Giordano, Davide; Nicoli, Davide; Piana, Simonetta

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is the primary tool for the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules. BRAF mutation analysis is employed as an ancillary tool in indeterminate cases, as recommended by the American Thyroid Association management guidelines. Hereby, we report the case of a 73-year-old woman who presented an 8-mm-size, ill-defined, left thyroid nodule. FNA resulted "suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma". BRAF mutation status was analyzed, and somatic BRAF (V600E) mutation identified. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. At histological examination, the nodule was composed of Langerhans cells, admixed with many eosinophils. A final diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid was made. Our case emphasizes the critical diagnostic pitfalls due to the use of BRAF (V600E) mutation analysis in thyroid FNA. Notably, BRAF (V600E) mutation is common in melanoma, colorectal carcinoma, lung carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, brain tumors, hairy cell leukemia, multiple myeloma, and histiocytoses. Therefore, in cases of indeterminate FNA with unclassifiable atypical cells BRAF (V600E) mutated, the possibility of a localization of hystiocytosis or a secondary thyroid malignancy should be taken into account.

  1. Less is More: Comparing the 2015 and 2009 American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brian W; Yousman, Wina; Wong, Wei Xiang; Cheng, Cheng; McAninch, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    The American Thyroid Association (ATA) has recently revised its guidance pertaining to thyroid nodules and follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer. The 2015 guidelines are massive in both scope and scale, with changes in the organizational approach to risk stratification of nodules and cancer, as well as multiple sections covering new material. This review highlights the major structural and organizational changes, focusing attention on the most dramatically changed recommendations, that is, those recommendations that clinicians will find striking because they call for significant divergence from prior clinical practice. The revised approach to thyroid nodule risk stratification is based on sonographic pattern, with an emphasis on pattern rather than growth in the long-term surveillance of nodules. Accumulating data have also been incorporated into an updated risk stratification scheme for thyroid cancer that increases the size of the low-risk pool, in part because low-volume lymph nodal metastases are now considered low risk. The most fundamentally altered recommendation is that lobectomy might be considered as the initial surgical approach for follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers from 1 to 4 cm in size. The underlying theme of the 2015 ATA guidelines is that "less is more." As these new recommendations are adopted, fewer fine-needle aspiration biopsies will need to be done, less extensive surgeries will become more common, less radioactive iodine will be used either for treatment or for diagnostics, and less stimulated thyroglobulin testing will be done. Mastery of these guidelines will help clinicians know when it is reasonable to do less, thus providing responsibly individualized therapy for their patients.

  2. Radioiodine therapy of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules: usefulness of an implemented dose calculation algorithm allowing reduction of radioiodine amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, M; Bagnara, M C; Pomposelli, E; Altrinetti, V; Calamia, I; Camerieri, L; Giusti, M; Pesce, G; Reitano, C; Bagnasco, M; Caputo, M

    2013-09-01

    Radioiodine is a common option for treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Due to the expected selective radioiodine uptake by adenoma, relatively high "fixed" activities are often used. Alternatively, the activity is individually calculated upon the prescription of a fixed value of target absorbed dose. We evaluated the use of an algorithm for personalized radioiodine activity calculation, which allows as a rule the administration of lower radioiodine activities. Seventy-five patients with single hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule eligible for 131I treatment were studied. The activities of 131I to be administered were estimated by the method described by Traino et al. and developed for Graves'disease, assuming selective and homogeneous 131I uptake by adenoma. The method takes into account 131I uptake and its effective half-life, target (adenoma) volume and its expected volume reduction during treatment. A comparison with the activities calculated by other dosimetric protocols, and the "fixed" activity method was performed. 131I uptake was measured by external counting, thyroid nodule volume by ultrasonography, thyroid hormones and TSH by ELISA. Remission of hyperthyroidism was observed in all but one patient; volume reduction of adenoma was closely similar to that assumed by our model. Effective half-life was highly variable in different patients, and critically affected dose calculation. The administered activities were clearly lower with respect to "fixed" activities and other protocols' prescription. The proposed algorithm proved to be effective also for single hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule treatment and allowed a significant reduction of administered 131I activities, without loss of clinical efficacy.

  3. Performance of computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules in low-dose CT: comparison with double reading by nodule volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yingru; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Wang, Ying; Ooijen, Peter M.A. van; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen/University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [University of Groningen/University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); Klaveren, Rob J. van [Lievensberg Hospital, Department of Pulmonology, P.O. Box 135, Bergen op Zoom (Netherlands); Bogoni, Luca [CAD Group, Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Malvern, PA (United States); Jong, Pim A. de; Mali, Willem P. [University of Utrecht, Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    To evaluate performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) beyond double reading for pulmonary nodules on low-dose computed tomography (CT) by nodule volume. A total of 400 low-dose chest CT examinations were randomly selected from the NELSON lung cancer screening trial. CTs were evaluated by two independent readers and processed by CAD. A total of 1,667 findings marked by readers and/or CAD were evaluated by a consensus panel of expert chest radiologists. Performance was evaluated by calculating sensitivity of pulmonary nodule detection and number of false positives, by nodule characteristics and volume. According to the screening protocol, 90.9 % of the findings could be excluded from further evaluation, 49.2 % being small nodules (less than 50 mm{sup 3}). Excluding small nodules reduced false-positive detections by CAD from 3.7 to 1.9 per examination. Of 151 findings that needed further evaluation, 33 (21.9 %) were detected by CAD only, one of them being diagnosed as lung cancer the following year. The sensitivity of nodule detection was 78.1 % for double reading and 96.7 % for CAD. A total of 69.7 % of nodules undetected by readers were attached nodules of which 78.3 % were vessel-attached. CAD is valuable in lung cancer screening to improve sensitivity of pulmonary nodule detection beyond double reading, at a low false-positive rate when excluding small nodules. circle Computer-aided detection (CAD) has known advantages for computed tomography (CT). (orig.)

  4. Performance of computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules in low-dose CT: comparison with double reading by nodule volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yingru; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Wang, Ying; Ooijen, Peter M.A. van; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Klaveren, Rob J. van; Bogoni, Luca; Jong, Pim A. de; Mali, Willem P.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) beyond double reading for pulmonary nodules on low-dose computed tomography (CT) by nodule volume. A total of 400 low-dose chest CT examinations were randomly selected from the NELSON lung cancer screening trial. CTs were evaluated by two independent readers and processed by CAD. A total of 1,667 findings marked by readers and/or CAD were evaluated by a consensus panel of expert chest radiologists. Performance was evaluated by calculating sensitivity of pulmonary nodule detection and number of false positives, by nodule characteristics and volume. According to the screening protocol, 90.9 % of the findings could be excluded from further evaluation, 49.2 % being small nodules (less than 50 mm 3 ). Excluding small nodules reduced false-positive detections by CAD from 3.7 to 1.9 per examination. Of 151 findings that needed further evaluation, 33 (21.9 %) were detected by CAD only, one of them being diagnosed as lung cancer the following year. The sensitivity of nodule detection was 78.1 % for double reading and 96.7 % for CAD. A total of 69.7 % of nodules undetected by readers were attached nodules of which 78.3 % were vessel-attached. CAD is valuable in lung cancer screening to improve sensitivity of pulmonary nodule detection beyond double reading, at a low false-positive rate when excluding small nodules. circle Computer-aided detection (CAD) has known advantages for computed tomography (CT). (orig.)

  5. Sonographically guided fine-needle biopsy of thyroid nodules: the effects of nodule characteristics, sampling technique, and needle size on the adequacy of cytological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degirmenci, B.; Haktanir, A.; Albayrak, R.; Acar, M.; Sahin, D.A.; Sahin, O.; Yucel, A.; Caliskan, G.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of sonographic characteristics of thyroid nodules, the diameter of needle used for sampling, and sampling technique on obtaining sufficient cytological material (SCM). Materials and methods: We performed sonography-guided fine-needle biopsy (FNB) in 232 solid thyroid nodules. Size-, echogenicity, vascularity, and localization of all nodules were evaluated by Doppler sonography before the biopsy. Needles of size 20, 22, and 24 G were used for biopsy. The biopsy specimen was acquired using two different methods after localisation. In first method, the needle tip was advanced into the nodule in various positions using a to-and-fro motion whilst in the nodule, along with concurrent aspiration. In the second method, the needle was advanced vigorously using a to-and-fro motion within the nodule whilst being rotated on its axis (capillary-action technique). Results: The mean nodule size was 2.1 ± 1.3 cm (range 0.4-7.2 cm). SCM was acquired from 154 (66.4%) nodules by sonography-guided FNB. In 78 (33.6%) nodules, SCM could not be collected. There was no significant difference between nodules with different echogenicity and vascularity for SCM. Regarding the needle size, the lowest rate of SCM was obtained using 20 G needles (56.6%) and the highest rate of adequate material was obtained using 24 G needles (82.5%; p = 0.001). The SCM rate was 76.9% with the capillary-action technique versus 49.4% with the aspiration technique (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Selecting finer needles (24-25 G) for sonography-guided FNB of thyroid nodules and using the capillary-action technique decreased the rate of inadequate material in cytological examination

  6. Thyroid nodules, polymorphic variants in DNA repair and RET-related genes, and interaction with ionizing radiation exposure from nuclear tests in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Alice J.; Land, Charles E.; Bhatti, Parveen; Pineda, Marbin; Brenner, Alina; Carr, Zhanat; Gusev, Boris I.; Zhumadilov, Zhaxibay; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Rutter, Joni L.; Ron, Elaine; Struewing, Jeffery P.

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors for thyroid cancer remain largely unknown except for ionizing radiation exposure during childhood and a history of benign thyroid nodules. Because thyroid nodules are more common than thyroid cancers and are associated with thyroid cancer risk, we evaluated several polymorphisms potentially relevant to thyroid tumors and assessed interaction with ionizing radiation exposure to the thyroid gland. Thyroid nodules were detected in 1998 by ultrasound screening of 2997 persons who lived near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan when they were children (1949-62). Cases with thyroid nodules (n=907) were frequency matched (1:1) to those without nodules by ethnicity (Kazakh or Russian), gender, and age at screening. Thyroid gland radiation doses were estimated from fallout deposition patterns, residence history, and diet. We analyzed 23 polymorphisms in 13 genes and assessed interaction with ionizing radiation exposure using likelihood ratio tests (LRT). Elevated thyroid nodule risks were associated with the minor alleles of RET S836S (rs1800862, p = 0.03) and GFRA1 -193C>G (rs not assigned, p = 0.05) and decreased risk with XRCC1 R194W (rs1799782, p-trend = 0.03) and TGFB1 T263I (rs1800472, p = 0.009). Similar patterns of association were observed for a small number of papillary thyroid cancers (n=25). Ionizing radiation exposure to the thyroid gland was associated with significantly increased risk of thyroid nodules (age and gender adjusted excess odds ratio/Gy = 0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.05-0.56), with evidence for interaction by genotype found for XRCC1 R194W (LRT p value = 0.02). Polymorphisms in RET signaling, DNA repair, and proliferation genes may be related to risk of thyroid nodules, consistent with some previous reports on thyroid cancer. Borderline support for gene-radiation interaction was found for a variant in XRCC1, a key base excision repair protein. Other pathways, such as genes in double strand break repair, apoptosis, and

  7. Radiology reports for incidental thyroid nodules on CT and MRI: high variability across subspecialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, A T; Sosa, J A; Tanpitukpongse, T P; Choudhury, K R; Gupta, R T; Hoang, J K

    2015-02-01

    Variability in radiologists' reporting styles and recommendations for incidental thyroid nodules can lead to confusion among clinicians and may contribute to inconsistent patient care. Our aim was to describe reporting practices of radiologists for incidental thyroid nodules seen on CT and MR imaging and to determine factors that influence reporting styles. This is a retrospective study of patients with incidental thyroid nodules reported on CT and MR imaging between January and December 2011, identified by text search for "thyroid nodule" in all CT and MR imaging reports. The studies included CT and MR imaging scans of the neck, spine, and chest. Radiology reports were divided into those that mentioned the incidental thyroid nodules only in the "Findings" section versus those that reported the incidental thyroid nodules in the "Impression" section as well, because this latter reporting style gives more emphasis to the finding. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify radiologist, patient, and nodule characteristics that influenced reporting styles. Three hundred seventy-five patients met the criterion of having incidental thyroid nodules. One hundred thirty-eight (37%) patients had incidental thyroid nodules reported in the "Impression" section. On multivariate analysis, only radiologists' divisions and nodule size were associated with reporting in "Impression." Chest radiologists and neuroradiologists were more likely to report incidental thyroid nodules in the "Impression" section than their abdominal imaging colleagues, and larger incidental thyroid nodules were more likely to be reported in "Impression" (P ≤ .03). Seventy-three percent of patients with incidental thyroid nodules of ≥20 mm were reported in the "Impression" section, but higher variability in reporting was seen for incidental thyroid nodules measuring 10-14 mm and 15-19 mm, which were reported in "Impression" for 61% and 50% of patients, respectively. Reporting

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of subsolid nodules: Evaluation of a commercial CAD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzakoun, Joseph; Bommart, Sébastien; Coste, Joël; Chassagnon, Guillaume; Lederlin, Mathieu; Boussouar, Samia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CAD sensitivity is still limited for automated detection of subsolid nodules. • CAD detection rate is higher for part-solid than for pure ground-glass nodules. • Part-solid nodule detection is not better for nodules with larger solid component. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the performance of a commercially available CAD system for automated detection and measurement of subsolid nodules. Materials and methods: The CAD system was tested on 50 pure ground-glass and 50 part-solid nodules (median diameter: 17 mm) previously found on standard-dose CT scans in 100 different patients. True nodule detection and the total number of CAD marks were evaluated at different sensitivity settings. The influence of nodule and CT acquisition characteristics was analyzed with logistic regression. Software and manually measured diameters were compared with Spearman and Bland-Altman methods. Results: With sensitivity adjusted for 3-mm nodule detection, 50/100 (50%) subsolid nodules were detected, at the average cost of 17 CAD marks per CT. These figures were respectively 26/100 (26%) and 2 at the 5-mm setting. At the highest sensitivity setting (2-mm nodule detection), the average number of CAD marks per CT was 41 but the nodule detection rate only increased to 54%. Part–solid nodules were better detected than pure ground glass nodules: 36/50 (72%) versus 14/50 (28%) at the 3-mm setting (p < 0.0001), with no influence of the solid component size. Except for the type (i.e. part solid or pure ground glass), no other nodule characteristic influenced the detection rate. High-quality segmentation was obtained for 79 nodules, which for automated measurements correlated well with manual measurements (rho = 0.90[0.84–0.93]). All part-solid nodules had software-measured attenuation values above −671 Hounsfield units (HU). Conclusion: The detection rate of subsolid nodules by this CAD system was insufficient, but high-quality segmentation was obtained in 79% of

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of subsolid nodules: Evaluation of a commercial CAD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzakoun, Joseph, E-mail: benzakoun.joseph@gmail.com [Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, 1 parvis Notre-Dame, 75004 Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Bommart, Sébastien, E-mail: s-bommart@chu-montpellier.fr [CHU de Montpellier, 191 avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34000 Montpellier (France); INSERM U 1046, 371 avenue du Doyen G. Giraud, 34000 Montpellier (France); Coste, Joël, E-mail: joel.coste@htd.aphp.fr [Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, 1 parvis Notre-Dame, 75004 Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Chassagnon, Guillaume, E-mail: gchassagnon@gmail.com [Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Hôpital Cochin, Radiologie, 27 rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, 75014 Paris (France); Lederlin, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.lederlin@chu-rennes.fr [CHU de Rennes, Radiologie, 2 Rue Henri le Guilloux, 35000 Rennes (France); Université de Rennes 1, 9 Rue Jean Macé, 35000 Rennes (France); Boussouar, Samia, E-mail: samiaboussouar@gmail.com [Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, 20 Rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris (France); and others

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • CAD sensitivity is still limited for automated detection of subsolid nodules. • CAD detection rate is higher for part-solid than for pure ground-glass nodules. • Part-solid nodule detection is not better for nodules with larger solid component. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the performance of a commercially available CAD system for automated detection and measurement of subsolid nodules. Materials and methods: The CAD system was tested on 50 pure ground-glass and 50 part-solid nodules (median diameter: 17 mm) previously found on standard-dose CT scans in 100 different patients. True nodule detection and the total number of CAD marks were evaluated at different sensitivity settings. The influence of nodule and CT acquisition characteristics was analyzed with logistic regression. Software and manually measured diameters were compared with Spearman and Bland-Altman methods. Results: With sensitivity adjusted for 3-mm nodule detection, 50/100 (50%) subsolid nodules were detected, at the average cost of 17 CAD marks per CT. These figures were respectively 26/100 (26%) and 2 at the 5-mm setting. At the highest sensitivity setting (2-mm nodule detection), the average number of CAD marks per CT was 41 but the nodule detection rate only increased to 54%. Part–solid nodules were better detected than pure ground glass nodules: 36/50 (72%) versus 14/50 (28%) at the 3-mm setting (p < 0.0001), with no influence of the solid component size. Except for the type (i.e. part solid or pure ground glass), no other nodule characteristic influenced the detection rate. High-quality segmentation was obtained for 79 nodules, which for automated measurements correlated well with manual measurements (rho = 0.90[0.84–0.93]). All part-solid nodules had software-measured attenuation values above −671 Hounsfield units (HU). Conclusion: The detection rate of subsolid nodules by this CAD system was insufficient, but high-quality segmentation was obtained in 79% of

  10. Accuracy of lung nodule volumetry in low-dose CT with iterative reconstruction: an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doo, K W; Kang, E-Y; Yong, H S; Woo, O H; Lee, K Y; Oh, Y-W

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess accuracy of lung nodule volumetry in low-dose CT with application of iterative reconstruction (IR) according to nodule size, nodule density and CT tube currents, using artificial lung nodules within an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom. Eight artificial nodules (four diameters: 5, 8, 10 and 12 mm; two CT densities: -630 HU that represents ground-glass nodule and +100 HU that represents solid nodule) were randomly placed inside a thoracic phantom. Scans were performed with tube current-time product to 10, 20, 30 and 50 mAs. Images were reconstructed with IR and filtered back projection (FBP). We compared volume estimates to a reference standard and calculated the absolute percentage error (APE). The APE of all nodules was significantly lower when IR was used than with FBP (7.5 ± 4.7% compared with 9.0 ±6.9%; p volumetry in low-dose CT by application of IR showed reliable accuracy in a phantom study. Lung nodule volumetry can be reliably applicable to all lung nodules including small, ground-glass nodules even in ultra-low-dose CT with application of IR. IR significantly improved the accuracy of lung nodule volumetry compared with FBP particularly for ground-glass (-630 HU) nodules. Volumetry in low-dose CT can be utilized in patient with lung nodule work-up, and IR has benefit for small, ground-glass lung nodules in low-dose CT.

  11. Granulomatous Bronchiolitis with Necrobiotic Pulmonary Nodules in Chrohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old man with extensive Crohn's disease of the stomach, small and large intestine for almost a decade developed respiratory symptoms and radiological findings suggestive of pneumonia that failed to resolve with antibiotic treatment. Computed tomography scanning of his lungs showed extensive changes with cavitated parenchymal nodules. Histological evaluation of an open lung biopsy showed granulomatous bronchiolitis and pulmonary necrobiosis. Treatment with steroids and immunosuppression resulted in complete resolution of his clinical symptoms of pneumonia and abnormal computed tomography imaging changes. Granulomatous bronchiolitis and necrobiotic nodules may be a manifestation of Crohn's disease in the absence of microbial agents, including mycobacteria or fungal agents. While a multiplicity of complex pulmonary changes may occur in Crohn's disease, their clinical recognition and precise pathological definition may be particularly important if treatment with a biological agent, such as infliximab, is being considered.

  12. Inference method using bayesian network for diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawagishi, Masami; Iizuka, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Yakami, Masahiro; Kubo, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Koji; Togashi, Kaori

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the improvements of a naive Bayes model that infers the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules in chest CT images based on the findings obtained when a radiologist interprets the CT images. We have previously introduced an inference model using a naive Bayes classifier and have reported its clinical value based on evaluation using clinical data. In the present report, we introduce the following improvements to the original inference model: the selection of findings based on correlations and the generation of a model using only these findings, and the introduction of classifiers that integrate several simple classifiers each of which is specialized for specific diagnosis. These improvements were found to increase the inference accuracy by 10.4% (p<.01) as compared to the original model in 100 cases (222 nodules) based on leave-one-out evaluation. (author)

  13. Subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain) presenting as a painless cold nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, P.C.; Boer, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    A 49-yr-old woman presented with a solid, painless, nontender nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed a solitary cold area in the left lobe and a slightly decreased 24-hr radioactive iodine thyroid uptake (9%). Although there were no specific clinical or biochemical signs suggesting thyroiditis needle aspiration cytology showed the presence of a subacute thyroiditis. Approximately 1 mo later the entire thyroid gland was affected leading to a completely suppressed thyroid radioiodine uptake and elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations. This case illustrates that in the early phase of the disease, subacute thyroiditis may present as a solitary, painless, cold nodule and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of such lesions

  14. Evaluation of radiographic imaging techniques in lung nodule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, J.T.; Kruger, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Dual-energy radiography appears to be the most effective technique to address bone superposition that compromises conventional chest radiography. A dual-energy, single-exposure, film-based technique was compared with a dual-energy, dual-exposure technique and conventional chest radiography in a simulated lung nodule detection study. Observers detected more nodules on images produced by dual-energy techniques than on images produced by conventional chest radiography. The difference between dual-energy and conventional chest radiography is statistically significant and the difference between dual-energy, dual-exposure and single-exposure techniques is statistically insignificant. The single-exposure technique has the potential to replace the dual-exposure technique in future clinical application

  15. Marine biominerals: perspectives and challenges for polymetallic nodules and crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Müller, Werner E G

    2009-06-01

    Deep sea minerals in polymetallic nodules, crusts and hydrothermal vents are not only formed by mineralization but also by biologically driven processes involving microorganisms (biomineralization). Within the nodules, free-living and biofilm-forming bacteria provide the matrix for manganese deposition, and in cobalt-rich crusts, coccolithophores represent the dominant organisms that act as bio-seeds for an initial manganese deposition. These (bio)minerals are economically important: manganese is an important alloying component and cobalt forms part of special steels in addition to being used, along with other rare metals, in plasma screens, hard-disk magnets and hybrid car motors. Recent progress in our understanding of the participation of the organic matrices in the enrichment of these metals might provide the basis for feasibility studies of biotechnological applications.

  16. Cytokinins in Symbiotic Nodulation: When, Where, What For?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamas, Pascal; Brault, Mathias; Jardinaud, Marie-Françoise; Frugier, Florian

    2017-09-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the understanding of early stages of the symbiotic interaction between legume plants and rhizobium bacteria. Those include the specific recognition of symbiotic partners, the initiation of bacterial infection in root hair cells, and the inception of a specific organ in the root cortex, the nodule. Increasingly complex regulatory networks have been uncovered in which cytokinin (CK) phytohormones play essential roles in different aspects of early symbiotic stages. Intriguingly, these roles can be either positive or negative, cell autonomous or non-cell autonomous, and vary, depending on time, root tissues, and possibly legume species. Recent developments on CK symbiotic functions and interconnections with other signaling pathways during nodule initiation are the focus of this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Global optimization in the adaptive assay of subterranean uranium nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulkan, U.; Ben-Haim, Y.

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive assay is one in which the design of the assay system is modified during operation in response to measurements obtained on-line. The present work has two aims: to design an adaptive system for borehole assay of isolated subterranean uranium nodules, and to investigate globality of optimal design in adaptive assay. It is shown experimentally that reasonably accurate estimates of uranium mass are obtained for a wide range of nodule shapes, on the basis of an adaptive assay system based on a simple geomorphological model. Furthermore, two concepts are identified which underlie the optimal design of the assay system. The adaptive assay approach shows promise for successful measurement of spatially random material in many geophysical applications. (author)

  18. Outcome of hypovascular hepatic nodules with positive uptake of gadoxetic acid in patients with cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Katsuhiro; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Morisaka, Hiroyuki [University of Yamanashi, Department of Radiology, Chuo-City, Yamanashi (Japan); Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hidaka-City, Saitama (Japan); Motosugi, Utaroh; Ichikawa, Shintaro [University of Yamanashi, Department of Radiology, Chuo-City, Yamanashi (Japan); Enomoto, Nobuyuki [University of Yamanashi, First Department of Internal Medicine, Yamanashi (Japan); Matsuda, Masanori; Fujii, Hideki [University of Yamanashi, First Department of Surgery, Yamanashi (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    To evaluate the longitudinal risk to patients with cirrhosis of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) developing from hypovascular hepatic nodules that show positive uptake of gadoxetic acid (hyperintensity) on hepatocyte phase images. In 69 patients, we evaluated findings from serial follow-up examinations of 633 hepatic nodules that appeared hypovascular and hyperintense on initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) until the nodules demonstrated hypervascularity and were diagnosed as hypervascular HCC. Cox analyses were performed to identify risk factors for the development of hypervascular HCCs from the nodules. The median follow-up was 663 days (range, 110 to 1215 days). Hypervascular HCCs developed in six of the 633 nodules (0.9 %) in five of the 69 patients. The only independent risk factor, the nodule's initial maximum diameter of 10 mm or larger, demonstrated a hazard ratio of 1.25. The one-year risk of hypervascular HCC developing from a nodule was 0.44 %. The risk was significantly higher for nodules of larger diameter (1.31 %) than those smaller than 10 mm (0.10 %, p < 0.01). Hypervascular HCC rarely develops from hypovascular, hyperintense hepatic nodules. We observed low risk even for nodules of 10 mm and larger diameter at initial examination. (orig.)

  19. Development and comparison of projection and image space 3D nodule insertion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to develop and compare two methods of inserting computerized virtual lesions into CT datasets. 24 physical (synthetic) nodules of three sizes and four morphologies were inserted into an anthropomorphic chest phantom (LUNGMAN, KYOTO KAGAKU). The phantom was scanned (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare) with and without nodules present, and images were reconstructed with filtered back projection and iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) at 0.6 mm slice thickness using a standard thoracic CT protocol at multiple dose settings. Virtual 3D CAD models based on the physical nodules were virtually inserted (accounting for the system MTF) into the nodule-free CT data using two techniques. These techniques include projection-based and image-based insertion. Nodule volumes were estimated using a commercial segmentation tool (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc.). Differences were tested using paired t-tests and R2 goodness of fit between the virtually and physically inserted nodules. Both insertion techniques resulted in nodule volumes very similar to the real nodules (values were all <0.97 for both insertion techniques. These data imply that these techniques can confidently be used as a means of inserting virtual nodules in CT datasets. These techniques can be instrumental in building hybrid CT datasets composed of patient images with virtually inserted nodules.

  20. Benign pulmonary nodule. Morphological features and contrast enhancement evaluated with contiguous thin-section CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Hisayasu; Murata, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Masashi; Morita, Rikushi [Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Otsu (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    The morphological changes in 54 benign lung nodules, including 8 histologically proven nodules of tuberculoma, 10 of focal organizing pneumonia (FOP), 1 of lung abscess and 35 other benign nodules, were evaluated with contiguous thin-section (3 mm) CT. In addition, incremental dynamic studies were carried out in 25 of these nodules. The three-dimensional shapes of the nodules were found to be quite varied and were classified into four types: round mass (n=18), polygonal mass with concave or straight margins (n=20), oval or band-like mass extending along the bronchovascular bundle (n=7), and oval mass attached to the pleura with broad contact (n=9). Forty-two (78%) of the 54 nodules were located along the bronchovascular bundle. The maximum increments in CT values over 20 HU were observed after contrast enhancement in 18 (72%) of the 25 benign nodules, among which all tuberculomas showed little or no contrast enhancement. The number of small vessels quantified microscopically in the center of the nodules were minimal in tuberculomas with little enhancement and plentiful in lesions of FOP and abscess which showed marked enhancement. Our results suggest that the differentiation between benign and malignant pulmonary nodules is not possible simply on the basis of the degree of contrast enhancement. Therefore, morphological features and the anatomical relation to the bronchovascular bundles should also be taken into consideration in the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules. (author)

  1. Benign pulmonary nodule. Morphological features and contrast enhancement evaluated with contiguous thin-section CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Hisayasu; Murata, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Masashi; Morita, Rikushi

    1998-01-01

    The morphological changes in 54 benign lung nodules, including 8 histologically proven nodules of tuberculoma, 10 of focal organizing pneumonia (FOP), 1 of lung abscess and 35 other benign nodules, were evaluated with contiguous thin-section (3 mm) CT. In addition, incremental dynamic studies were carried out in 25 of these nodules. The three-dimensional shapes of the nodules were found to be quite varied and were classified into four types: round mass (n=18), polygonal mass with concave or straight margins (n=20), oval or band-like mass extending along the bronchovascular bundle (n=7), and oval mass attached to the pleura with broad contact (n=9). Forty-two (78%) of the 54 nodules were located along the bronchovascular bundle. The maximum increments in CT values over 20 HU were observed after contrast enhancement in 18 (72%) of the 25 benign nodules, among which all tuberculomas showed little or no contrast enhancement. The number of small vessels quantified microscopically in the center of the nodules were minimal in tuberculomas with little enhancement and plentiful in lesions of FOP and abscess which showed marked enhancement. Our results suggest that the differentiation between benign and malignant pulmonary nodules is not possible simply on the basis of the degree of contrast enhancement. Therefore, morphological features and the anatomical relation to the bronchovascular bundles should also be taken into consideration in the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules. (author)

  2. Multidetector computed tomography analysis of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Caisong; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jun; Yang, Jing; Shao, Kangwei; Yuan, Lixin; Chen, Hairong; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) features of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). MDCT findings, including the size, solid percentage, calcification, margin, capsule, anteroposterior-transverse diameter ratio as well as the mode and the degree of enhancement of 137 thyroid nodules in 127 CLT cases were retrospectively analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between MDCT findings and pathological results combined with the CT perfusion imaging was analyzed for the differences between benign and malignant nodules. A total of 77.5% (31/40) of malignant nodules were completely solid, and 33% (32/97) of benign nodules were predominantly cystic. Compared with the benign nodules, micro-calcification and internal calcification were more frequently observed in the malignant nodules (Pbenign and malignant nodules (P>0.05). MDCT features are useful in differentiating the benign and malignant nodules in CLT patients, and it may be essential for a radiologist to review the MDCT characteristics of nodules in the clinical practice.

  3. [Treatment of autonomous and cystic thyroid nodules with intranodular ethanol injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga-Basaria, Milena; Trippia, Marcus Adriano; Stolf, Anderson Ravy; Mesa, Cléo; Graf, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Intranodular ethanol injection has been used for the past 10 years as an efficient modality for treating patients with thyroid nodules. Several studies have reported the success of this therapy in autonomous and cystic nodules and, more recently, in cold benign nodules. To evaluate the efficacy of this therapeutic modality on the treatment of autonomous and cystic thyroid nodules. 42 patients (26 with cystic and 16 with autonomous nodules) were treated with ultrasound guided intranodular 99% ethanol injection and followed for 6 months. No major complications were observed during or after treatment, however, most of the patients reported slight to moderate pain and/or discomfort after the injection. Most of the nodules showed reduction after the treatment. Autonomous nodules had a mean reduction of 50.3% and cystic nodules of 69.3%. No significant differences in pretreatment serum total T3, total T4 or TSH were observed among the patients in the cystic group. Patients in the autonomous group with hyperfunctioning nodules showed a decrease in serum total T3, total T4 and an increase in serum TSH levels, hence, proving the effectiveness of this therapy. Intranodular ethanol injection is a safe and efficient treatment for autonomous and cystic nodules of the thyroid.

  4. Level-set segmentation of pulmonary nodules in megavolt electronic portal images using a CT prior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildkraut, J. S.; Prosser, N.; Savakis, A.; Gomez, J.; Nazareth, D.; Singh, A. K.; Malhotra, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Pulmonary nodules present unique problems during radiation treatment due to nodule position uncertainty that is caused by respiration. The radiation field has to be enlarged to account for nodule motion during treatment. The purpose of this work is to provide a method of locating a pulmonary nodule in a megavolt portal image that can be used to reduce the internal target volume (ITV) during radiation therapy. A reduction in the ITV would result in a decrease in radiation toxicity to healthy tissue. Methods: Eight patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer were used in this study. CT scans that include the pulmonary nodule were captured with a GE Healthcare LightSpeed RT 16 scanner. Megavolt portal images were acquired with a Varian Trilogy unit equipped with an AS1000 electronic portal imaging device. The nodule localization method uses grayscale morphological filtering and level-set segmentation with a prior. The treatment-time portion of the algorithm is implemented on a graphical processing unit. Results: The method was retrospectively tested on eight cases that include a total of 151 megavolt portal image frames. The method reduced the nodule position uncertainty by an average of 40% for seven out of the eight cases. The treatment phase portion of the method has a subsecond execution time that makes it suitable for near-real-time nodule localization. Conclusions: A method was developed to localize a pulmonary nodule in a megavolt portal image. The method uses the characteristics of the nodule in a prior CT scan to enhance the nodule in the portal image and to identify the nodule region by level-set segmentation. In a retrospective study, the method reduced the nodule position uncertainty by an average of 40% for seven out of the eight cases studied.

  5. Automated nodule location and size estimation using a multi-scale Laplacian of Gaussian filtering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapatnakul, Artit C; Fotin, Sergei V; Reeves, Anthony P; Biancardi, Alberto M; Yankelevitz, David F; Henschke, Claudia I

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of nodule location and size is an important pre-processing step in some nodule segmentation algorithms to determine the size and location of the region of interest. Ideally, such estimation methods will consistently find the same nodule location regardless of where the the seed point (provided either manually or by a nodule detection algorithm) is placed relative to the "true" center of the nodule, and the size should be a reasonable estimate of the true nodule size. We developed a method that estimates nodule location and size using multi-scale Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) filtering. Nodule candidates near a given seed point are found by searching for blob-like regions with high filter response. The candidates are then pruned according to filter response and location, and the remaining candidates are sorted by size and the largest candidate selected. This method was compared to a previously published template-based method. The methods were evaluated on the basis of stability of the estimated nodule location to changes in the initial seed point and how well the size estimates agreed with volumes determined by a semi-automated nodule segmentation method. The LoG method exhibited better stability to changes in the seed point, with 93% of nodules having the same estimated location even when the seed point was altered, compared to only 52% of nodules for the template-based method. Both methods also showed good agreement with sizes determined by a nodule segmentation method, with an average relative size difference of 5% and -5% for the LoG and template-based methods respectively.

  6. Acropetal Auxin Transport Inhibition Is Involved in Indeterminate But Not Determinate Nodule Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L. P. Ng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Legumes enter into a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, leading to nodule development. Two main types of nodules have been widely studied, indeterminate and determinate, which differ in the location of the first cell division in the root cortex, and persistency of the nodule meristem. Here, we compared the control of auxin transport, content, and response during the early stages of indeterminate and determinate nodule development in the model legumes Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, respectively, to investigate whether differences in auxin transport control could explain the differences in the location of cortical cell divisions. While auxin responses were activated in dividing cortical cells during nodulation of both nodule types, auxin (indole-3-acetic acid content at the nodule initiation site was transiently increased in M. truncatula, but transiently reduced in L. japonicus. Root acropetal auxin transport was reduced in M. truncatula at the very start of nodule initiation, in contrast to a prolonged increase in acropetal auxin transport in L. japonicus. The auxin transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA only induced pseudonodules in legume species forming indeterminate nodules, but failed to elicit such structures in a range of species forming determinate nodules. The development of these pseudonodules in M. truncatula exhibited increased auxin responses in a small primordium formed from the pericycle, endodermis, and inner cortex, similar to rhizobia-induced nodule primordia. In contrast, a diffuse cortical auxin response and no associated cortical cell divisions were found in L. japonicus. Collectively, we hypothesize that a step of acropetal auxin transport inhibition is unique to the process of indeterminate nodule development, leading to auxin responses in pericycle, endodermis, and inner cortex cells, while increased auxin responses in outer cortex cells likely

  7. A solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfakhraee, Sasan; Mathews, Dana; Peng, Lan; Woodruff, Stacey; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2013-05-04

    Hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid are thought to only rarely harbor thyroid cancer, and thus are infrequently biopsied. Here, we present the case of a patient with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma and, using MEDLINE literature searches, set out to determine the prevalence of and characteristics of malignant "hot" nodules as a group. Historical, biochemical and radiologic characteristics of the case subjects and their nodules were compared to those in cases of benign hyperfunctioning nodules. A literature review of surgical patients with solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules managed by thyroid resection revealed an estimated 3.1% prevalence of malignancy. A separate literature search uncovered 76 cases of reported malignant hot thyroid nodules, besides the present case. Of these, 78% were female and mean age at time of diagnosis was 47 years. Mean nodule size was 4.13 ± 1.68 cm. Laboratory assessment revealed T3 elevation in 76.5%, T4 elevation in 51.9%, and subclinical hyperthyroidism in 13% of patients. Histological diagnosis was papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in 57.1%, follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) in 36.4%, and Hurthle cell carcinoma in 7.8% of patients. Thus, hot thyroid nodules harbor a low but non-trivial rate of malignancy. Compared to individuals with benign hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules, those with malignant hyperfunctioning nodules are younger and more predominantly female. Also, FTC and Hurthle cell carcinoma are found more frequently in hot nodules than in general. We were unable to find any specific characteristics that could be used to distinguish between malignant and benign hot nodules.

  8. Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in toxic multinodular goiter share activating thyrotropin receptor mutations with solitary toxic adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonacchera, M; Chiovato, L; Pinchera, A; Agretti, P; Fiore, E; Cetani, F; Rocchi, R; Viacava, P; Miccoli, P; Vitti, P

    1998-02-01

    Toxic multinodular goiter is a cause of nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism and is believed to differ in its nature and pathogenesis from toxic adenoma. Gain-of-function mutations of the TSH receptor gene have been identified as a cause of toxic adenoma. The pathogenesis at the molecular level of hyperfunctioning nodules in toxic multinodular goiter has yet not been reported. Six patients with a single hot nodule within a multinodular goiter and 11 patients with toxic thyroid adenoma were enrolled in our study. At histology five hyperfunctioning nodules in multinodular goiters showed the features of adenomas, and one was identified as a hyperplastic nodule. The entire exon 10 of the TSH receptor gene was directly sequenced after PCR amplification from genomic DNA obtained from surgical specimens. Functional studies of mutated receptors were performed in COS-7 cells. Five out of 6 (83%) hyperfunctioning nodules within toxic multinodular goiters harbored a TSH receptor mutation. A TSH receptor mutation was also evident in the hyperfunctioning nodule that at histology had the features of noncapsulated hyperplastic nodule. Among toxic adenomas, 8 out of 11 (72%) nodules harbored a TSH receptor mutation. All the mutations were heterozygotic and somatic. Nonfunctioning nodules, whether adenomas or hyperplastic nodules present in association with hyperfunctioning nodules in the same multinodular goiters, had no TSH receptor mutation. All the mutations identified had constitutive activity as assessed by cAMP production after expression in COS-7 cells. Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in multinodular goiters recognize the same pathogenetic event (TSH receptor mutation) as toxic adenoma. Other mechanisms are implicated in the growth of nonfunctioning thyroid nodules coexistent in the same gland.

  9. F-18 FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan H.; Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seek Nam; Hwang, Kyung Hoon

    2001-01-01

    F-18 FDG PET has become an important diagnostic imaging modality of various malignancies including thyroid cancer. Focal hypermetabolic lesion in the thyroid gland is usually considered malignant (Fig.1), although some benign lesions are also hypermetabolic. The aim of our poster presentation is to demonstrate F-18- FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules (ATN) and to avoid confusion in the interpretation of F-18-FDG PET performed for the evaluation of thyroid malignancy. Two patients with ATN (one with toxic and the other with nontoxic) underwent F-18-PET. ATN was proven by Tc-99m pertechnate thyroid scan (TS) and thyroid function tests (TFTs) were performed. First patient with ATN was asymptomatic and had a long history of thyroid nodule. Second patient was suffering from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and he was mildly thyrotoxic clinically and chemically. Gamma camera based F-18 FDG PET was performed utilizing Elscints Varicam (Haifa, Israel) one hour after IV administration of 111 MBq (3mCi) F-18 FDG. Patients were fasting more than 6 hours prior ot FDG injection. First patients was scanned the neck and second patient had scan of the whole trunk including neck for the evaluation of AML. Both nontoxic and toxic ATNs were hypermetabolic and it was impossible to differentiate benign from malignancy. Biopsy of nodule of the first patient and surgical removal of the nodule in the second patient was benign. Benign nontoxic and toxic ATNs are F-18 FDG avid. The reason for this is that ATN has increased glycolysis and iodide metabolism. Therefore, focal increased FDG uptake within the thyroid gland should be interpreted with TS and TFTs for an accurate diagnosis when F-18 FDG PET is used in the evaluation of thyroid malignancy

  10. Vocal nodules in a colombian teachers group with dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Felipe Alvarado Díaz; Carlos Eduardo Pinzón; José Rafael Tovar Cuevas; Adriana Fajardo Hoyos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study determined the prevalence of vocal nodules associated with dysphonia in teachers aged from 35 to 65 years, taking into consideration both individual and occupational variables. Methodology: Descriptive study that included the information contained in 262 medical records of teachers diagnosed with dysphonia in occupational health consultations at the institutions that provide health services in Bogotá, Colombia from March 2009 to March 2012. The presence of laryngeal nod...

  11. Dynamics of formation of ferromanganese nodules in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Ghosh, A.K.

    ., 2008). It is therefore interesting to examine and model the various factors that might influence the formation, growth and characters of nodules in the neighbouring sectors within the IONF (sector A to D, Fig. 2). The seafloor underlying... these sectors, originated from the Indian Ocean Ridge System (IORS), and is strikingly different from one sector to another. For example, the sectors A and C were formed during crustal stretching, and are characterised by a largely smooth seafloor...

  12. Comparative analysis between spiral CT and pathology of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kaifu; Zhang Zhanqing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of spiral CT in the diagnosis of atypical pulmonary nodules. Methods: CT, clinic and histopathologic data of 72 patients with atypical pulmonary nodules confirmed by surgical resection in 41 cases and/or biopsy in 31 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Results: CT scans demonstrated slight lobulation in 34 cases, irregular margin in 50 cases, long speculate in 10 cases, air-bronchogram in 2 case, vacuole in 2 case. 38 pulmonary cancer, 22 pulmonary tuberculosis and 12 pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumors were diagnosed with spiral CT. However, 30 pulmonary cancer, 30 pulmonary tuberculosis and 12 pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumors were confirmed by histopathology. The overall accurate diagnostic rate of pulmonary cancer was 66.7% (20/30), pulmonary tuberculosis was 60%(18/30), pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumors was 16.7%(2/12). 40 cases were diagnosed correctly and 32 cases were misdiagnosed with CT in 72 cases of atypical pulmonary nodules. The misdiagnostic rate of CT was 44.4%. 10 cases of lung cancer were misdiagnosed, including 4 cases of tuberculosis (long speculate or irregular margin) and 6 cases of inflammatory pseudotumors (irregular margin or long speculate or air-bronchogram). 12 cases of tuberculosis were misdiagnosed, including 8 cases lung cancer (slight lobulation) and 4 cases of inflammatory pseudotumors (slight lobulation). 10 cases inflammatory pseudotumor were misdiagnosed as lung cancer (slight lobulation). Conclusion: Spiral CT was very useful in the localization and morphological describing, but difficult in qualitative diagnosing of atypical pulmonary nodules, exactly diagnosis was relied on surgery and biopsy. (authors)

  13. Application of a kernel-based online learning algorithm to the classification of nodule candidates in computer-aided detection of CT lung nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, S.; Ohno, Y.; Takenaka, D.; Sugimura, K.; Yamagata, H.

    2007-01-01

    Classification of the nodule candidates in computer-aided detection (CAD) of lung nodules in CT images was addressed by constructing a nonlinear discriminant function using a kernel-based learning algorithm called the kernel recursive least-squares (KRLS) algorithm. Using the nodule candidates derived from the processing by a CAD scheme of 100 CT datasets containing 253 non-calcified nodules or 3 mm or larger as determined by the consensus of two thoracic radiologists, the following trial were carried out 100 times: by randomly selecting 50 datasets for training, a nonlinear discriminant function was obtained using the nodule candidates in the training datasets and tested with the remaining candidates; for comparison, a rule-based classification was tested in a similar manner. At the number of false positives per case of about 5, the nonlinear classification method showed an improved sensitivity of 80% (mean over the 100 trials) compared with 74% of the rule-based method. (orig.)

  14. Laparoscopic Scar: a mimicker of Sister Mary Joseph's nodule on positron emission tomography/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setty, B.; Blake, M.A.; Holalkere, N.S.; Blaszkowsky, L.S.; Fischman, A.

    2006-01-01

    Positron emission tomography/CT is an established imaging method in the diagnosis and staging of cancers. 18 F -fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is the most commonly used radiotracer in positron emission tomography/CT. It is a tumour viability agent and usually its uptake within a lesion reflects the presence of a viable tumour tissue. However, false-positive FDG uptake is known to occur in benign processes of either inflammatory or infectious aetiology. We describe FDG uptake at the site of laparoscopic scar that mimicked Sister Mary Joseph's nodule in a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma. Here, the knowledge of the patient's history and subtle imaging findings helped in accurate staging of the patient. In this case report, we emphasize the value of the knowledge of the patient history and awareness of different pitfalls of FDG to achieve a correct diagnosis on positron emission tomography/CT

  15. Drought stress responses in soybean roots and nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Kunert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is considered to be a major threat to soybean production worldwide and yet our current understanding of the effects of drought on soybean productively is largely based on studies on above-ground traits. Although the roots and root nodules are important sensors of drought, the responses of these crucial organs and their drought tolerance features remain poorly characterized. The symbiotic interaction between soybean and rhizobia facilitates atmospheric nitrogen fixation, a process that provides essential nitrogen to support plant growth and development. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is important for sustainable agriculture, as it sustains plant growth on nitrogen-poor soils and limits fertilizer use for crop nitrogen nutrition. Recent developments have been made in our understanding of the drought impact on soybean root architecture and nodule traits, as well as underpinning transcriptome, proteome and also emerging metabolome information, with a view to improve the selection of more drought-tolerant soybean cultivars and rhizobia in the future. We conclude that the direct screening of root and nodule traits in the field as well as identification of genes, proteins and also metabolites involved in such traits will be essential in order to gain a better understanding of the regulation of root architecture, bacteroid development and lifespan in relation to drought tolerance in soybean.

  16. Drought Stress Responses in Soybean Roots and Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Karl J; Vorster, Barend J; Fenta, Berhanu A; Kibido, Tsholofelo; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Foyer, Christine H

    2016-01-01

    Drought is considered to be a major threat to soybean production worldwide and yet our current understanding of the effects of drought on soybean productively is largely based on studies on above-ground traits. Although the roots and root nodules are important sensors of drought, the responses of these crucial organs and their drought tolerance features remain poorly characterized. The symbiotic interaction between soybean and rhizobia facilitates atmospheric nitrogen fixation, a process that provides essential nitrogen to support plant growth and development. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is important for sustainable agriculture, as it sustains plant growth on nitrogen-poor soils and limits fertilizer use for crop nitrogen nutrition. Recent developments have been made in our understanding of the drought impact on soybean root architecture and nodule traits, as well as underpinning transcriptome, proteome and also emerging metabolome information, with a view to improve the selection of more drought-tolerant soybean cultivars and rhizobia in the future. We conclude that the direct screening of root and nodule traits in the field as well as identification of genes, proteins and also metabolites involved in such traits will be essential in order to gain a better understanding of the regulation of root architecture, bacteroid development and lifespan in relation to drought tolerance in soybean.

  17. Significance of pulmonary nodules in patients with colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerri, Fabio [Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Oncological Radiology Unit, Padua (Italy); University of Padua, Department of Medicine, Padua (Italy); Istituto Oncologico Veneto IOV-IRCCS, Radiologia, Padova (Italy); Pucciarelli, Salvatore; Nitti, Donato [University of Padua, Department of Oncological and Surgical Sciences, 2nd Surgical Clinic, Padua (Italy); Maretto, Isacco [Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Surgical Unit, Padua (Italy); Perrone, Ernesta; Pintacuda, Giovanna [Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Oncological Radiology Unit, Padua (Italy); Lonardi, Sara [Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Medical Oncology Unit 1, Padua (Italy); Muzzio, Pier Carlo [Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Padua (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Radiographically small pulmonary nodules (PNs) in patients with colorectal cancer are troublesome because their discovery raises concern about metastases. This study sought to establish the appropriate timing of radiological follow-up for PNs detected at initial staging evaluation of colorectal carcinoma patients. The medical records of 376 consecutive colorectal cancer patients who underwent curative surgery and had baseline and follow-up chest X-rays (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) were reviewed. The study included 92 patients who had all CXR and chest CT available for review, at least one PN found on baseline imaging, and no synchronous neoplasms. On baseline chest CT, these 92 patients had 170 PNs altogether and 77 (45.2 %) of them were greater than 5 mm in size. Baseline CXR detected 13 PNs in 12 patients and all but 2 were larger than 5 mm. Nodule size greater than 5 mm and irregular margins were predictors of nodule growth. The mean doubling time of 24/170 (14.1 %) growing PNs was about 4 months. Our findings suggest that baseline and follow-up CXR are pointless, and short-interval CT follow-up is warranted when PNs larger than 5 mm with irregular margins are detected on preoperative chest CT. (orig.)

  18. Spatial resolution and chest nodule detection: an interesting incidental finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, R. J.; McEntee, M. F.; Ryan, J. T.; Evanoff, M. G.; Hayes, A.; Brennan, P. C.

    2010-02-01

    This study reports an incidental finding from a larger work. It examines the relationship between spatial resolution and nodule detection for chest radiographs. Twelve examining radiologists with the American Board of Radiology read thirty chest radiographs in two conditions - full (1500 × 1500 pixel) resolution, and 300 × 300 pixel resolution linearly interpolated to 1500 × 1500 pixels. All images were surrounded by a 10-pixel sharp grey border to aid in focussing the observer's eye when viewing the comparatively unsharp interpolated images. Fifteen of the images contained a single simulated pulmonary nodule. Observers were asked to rate their confidence that a nodule was present on each radiograph on a scale of 1 (least confidence, certain no lesion is present) to 6 (most confidence, certain a lesion was present). All other abnormalities were to be ignored. No windowing, levelling or magnification of the images was permitted and viewing distance was constrained to approximately 70cm. Images were displayed on a 3 megapixel greyscale monitor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied to the results of the readings using the Dorfman-Berbaum-Metz multiplereader, multiple-case method. No statistically significant differences were found with either readers and cases treated as random or with cases treated as fixed. Low spatial frequency information appears to be sufficient for the detection of chest lesion of the type used in this study.

  19. Characterization of rhizobial isolates nodulating Millettia pinnata in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Abdul; Amalraj, E Leo Daniel; Praveen Kumar, G; Grover, Minakshi; Venkateswarlu, B

    2012-11-01

    Millettia pinnata (Synonym Pongamia pinnata) is a viable source of oil for the mushrooming biofuel industry, source for agroforestry, urban landscaping, and the bio-amelioration of degraded lands. It also helps in maintaining soil fertility through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. However, not much work is reported on classification and characterization of the rhizobia associated with this plant. In the present study, an attempt was made to isolate rhizobial strains nodulating Millettia from soils collected from southern regions of India. The isolates were characterized using numerical taxonomy, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and cross nodulation ability. The results showed high phenotypic and genetic diversity among the rhizobia symbiotic with Millattia pinnata. The isolates formed five clusters at similarity level of 0.82 based on the results of numerical taxonomy. Results on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that most microsymbionts of M. pinnata belonged to Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, which are closely related to Rhizobium sp., B. elkanii and B. yuanmingense. Among these isolates, some isolates could grow in a pH range of 4.0-10.0, some could tolerate a high salt concentration (3% NaCl) and could grow at a maximum temperature between 35 and 45 °C. M. pinnata formed nodules with diverse rhizobia in Indian soils. These results offered the first systematic information about the microsymbionts of M. pinnata grown in the soils from southern part of India. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recent metalliferous sediment in the North Pacific manganese nodule area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Quaternary sediments cored in the northeast Pacific nodule area (DOMES site C, 14??N, 126??W) contain a significant amount of hydrothermal metalliferous mud. Water content, color, mineralogy, and chemical composition are analogous to metalliferous sediments of the subequatorial East Pacific Rise. Correction for contribution of pelagic clay indicates the metalliferous fraction to be about 40% of the sediment. SiO2 and Mg are major components in the corrected composition, as they are for other metalliferous sediments similarly corrected from a variety of East Pacific Rise and DSDP metalliferous sediments. A correlation between Mg and SiO2 for these corrected sediments could indicate a hydrothermal origin for a significant portion of the SiO2. Results from DSDP in the nodule area suggest that metalliferous globules are a ubiquitous minor component of the Clipperton Oceanic Formation, which underlies much of the Pacific ferromanganese nodule belt. This indicates that deposition of hydrothermal precipitates is not confined to spreading centers. ?? 1977.

  1. Management implications from routine needle biopsy of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walfish, P G; Strawbridge, H T; Rosen, I B

    1985-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic and treatment consequences of using a routine needle biopsy procedure on all thyroid nodules without a radioisotopic scintigraphic study, 12 patients with documented hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules were retrospectively evaluated regarding the physical and cytologic observations obtained after a fine-needle (22 to 27-gauge) aspiration biopsy (FNB) procedure. Among the seven solid lesions, features of marked cellularity and nuclear pleomorphism were present in three and moderate sheets of epithelium in four raising the suspicion of underlying malignancy, while five mixed (cystic and solid) lesions were larger than 3 cm, hemorrhagic, and recurrent, with two having detectable sheets of epithelium. Evidence for concomitant lymphocytic thyroiditis was seen in five of 12 (42%) patients, and nine had positive serum antithyroid antibody titers as well. In conclusion, total reliance on FNB without scintigraphy could lead to operations on hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas for suspected malignancy, of whom the vast majority would be benign, and could expose some unprepared patients with thyrotoxicosis to surgical morbidity. Routine thyroid hormone suppression therapy for apparently benign inflammatory or cystic degenerative lesions could also induce hyperthyroidism in patients with hyperfunctional or autonomous (nonsuppressible) nodules. When using an initial FNB approach, the need for thyroid function studies and scintigraphy before undertaking surgery or thyroid hormone feeding, as well as the consequences of omitting such studies, should be considered.

  2. Role of Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) in the detection of pulmonary nodules on 64 row multi detector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakashini, K; Babu, Satish; Rajgopal, K V; Kokila, K Raja

    2016-01-01

    To determine the overall performance of an existing CAD algorithm with thin-section computed tomography (CT) in the detection of pulmonary nodules and to evaluate detection sensitivity at a varying range of nodule density, size, and location. A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted on 20 patients with 322 suspected nodules who underwent diagnostic chest imaging using 64-row multi-detector CT. The examinations were evaluated on reconstructed images of 1.4 mm thickness and 0.7 mm interval. Detection of pulmonary nodules, initially by a radiologist of 2 years experience (RAD) and later by CAD lung nodule software was assessed. Then, CAD nodule candidates were accepted or rejected accordingly. Detected nodules were classified based on their size, density, and location. The performance of the RAD and CAD system was compared with the gold standard that is true nodules confirmed by consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. The overall sensitivity and false-positive (FP) rate of CAD software was calculated. Of the 322 suspected nodules, 221 were classified as true nodules on the consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. Of the true nodules, the RAD detected 206 (93.2%) and 202 (91.4%) by the CAD. CAD and RAD together picked up more number of nodules than either CAD or RAD alone. Overall sensitivity for nodule detection with the CAD program was 91.4%, and FP detection per patient was 5.5%. The CAD showed comparatively higher sensitivity for nodules of size 4-10 mm (93.4%) and nodules in hilar (100%) and central (96.5%) location when compared to RAD's performance. CAD performance was high in detecting pulmonary nodules including the small size and low-density nodules. CAD even with relatively high FP rate, assists and improves RAD's performance as a second reader, especially for nodules located in the central and hilar region and for small nodules by saving RADs time.

  3. The Evolution of a Malignancy Risk Prediction Model for Thyroid Nodules Using the Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Paydar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinically frank thyroid nodules are common and believed to be present in 4% to 10% of the adult population in the United States. In the current literature, fine needle aspiration biopsies are considered to be the milestone of a model which helps the physician decide whether a certain thyroid nodule needs a surgical approach or not. A considerable fact is that sensitivity and specificity of the fine needle aspiration varies significantly as it remains highly dependent on the operator as well as the cytologist’s skills. Practically, in the above group of patients, thyroid lobectomy/isthmusectomy becomes mandatory for attaining a definitive diagnosis where the majority (70%-80% have a benign surgical pathology. The scattered nature of clinically gathered data and analysis of their relevant variables need a compliant statistical method. The artificial neural network is a branch of artificial intelligence. We have hypothesized that conduction of an artificial neural network applied to certain clinical attributes could develop a malignancy risk assessment tool to help physicians interpret the fine needle aspiration biopsy results of thyroid nodules in a context composed of patient’s clinical variables, known as malignancy related risk factors. Methods: We designed and trained an artificial neural network on a prospectively formed cohort gathered over a four year period (2007-2011. The study population comprised 345 subjects who underwent thyroid resection at Nemazee and Rajaee hospitals, tertiary care centers of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, and Rajaee Hospital as a level I trauma center in Shiraz, Iran after having undergone thyroid fine needle aspiration. Histopathological results of the fine needle aspirations and surgical specimens were analyzed and compared by experienced, board-certified pathologists who lacked knowledge of the fine needle aspiration results for thyroid malignancy. Results: We compared the preoperative

  4. Soybean SAT1 (Symbiotic Ammonium Transporter 1) encodes a bHLH transcription factor involved in nodule growth and NH4+ transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, David M; Loughlin, Patrick C; Mazurkiewicz, Danielle; Mohammadidehcheshmeh, Manijeh; Fedorova, Elena E; Okamoto, Mamoru; McLean, Elizabeth; Glass, Anthony D M; Smith, Sally E; Bisseling, Ton; Tyerman, Stephen D; Day, David A; Kaiser, Brent N

    2014-04-01

    Glycine max symbiotic ammonium transporter 1 was first documented as a putative ammonium (NH4(+)) channel localized to the symbiosome membrane of soybean root nodules. We show that Glycine max symbiotic ammonium transporter 1 is actually a membrane-localized basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) DNA-binding transcription factor now renamed Glycine max bHLH membrane 1 (GmbHLHm1). In yeast, GmbHLHm1 enters the nucleus and transcriptionally activates a unique plasma membrane NH4(+) channel Saccharomyces cerevisiae ammonium facilitator 1. Ammonium facilitator 1 homologs are present in soybean and other plant species, where they often share chromosomal microsynteny with bHLHm1 loci. GmbHLHm1 is important to the soybean rhizobium symbiosis because loss of activity results in a reduction of nodule fitness and growth. Transcriptional changes in nodules highlight downstream signaling pathways involving circadian clock regulation, nutrient transport, hormone signaling, and cell wall modification. Collectively, these results show that GmbHLHm1 influences nodule development and activity and is linked to a novel mechanism for NH4(+) transport common to both yeast and plants.

  5. Long-Term Exposure of Agricultural Soil to Veterinary Antibiotics Changes the Population Structure of Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobacteria Occupying Nodules of Soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revellin, Cécile; Hartmann, Alain; Solanas, Sébastien; Topp, Edward

    2018-05-01

    Antibiotics are entrained in agricultural soil through the application of manures from medicated animals. In the present study, a series of small field plots was established in 1999 that receive annual spring applications of a mixture of tylosin, sulfamethazine, and chlortetracycline at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg · kg -1 soil. These antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production. The field plots were cropped continuously for soybeans, and in 2012, after 14 annual antibiotic applications, the nodules from soybean roots were sampled and the occupying bradyrhizobia were characterized. Nodules and isolates were serotyped, and isolates were distinguished using 16S rRNA gene and 16S to 23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer region sequencing, multilocus sequence typing, and RSα fingerprinting. Treatment with the antibiotic mixture skewed the population of bradyrhizobia dominating the nodule occupancy, with a significantly larger proportion of Bradyrhizobium liaoningense organisms even at the lowest dose of 0.1 mg · kg -1 soil. Likewise, all doses of antibiotics altered the distribution of RSα fingerprint types. Bradyrhizobia were phenotypically evaluated for their sensitivity to the antibiotics, and there was no association between in situ treatment and a decreased sensitivity to the drugs. Overall, long-term exposure to the antibiotic mixture altered the composition of bradyrhizobial populations occupying nitrogen-fixing nodules, apparently through an indirect effect not associated with the sensitivity to the drugs. Further work evaluating agronomic impacts is warranted. IMPORTANCE Antibiotics are entrained in agricultural soil through the application of animal or human waste or by irrigation with reused wastewater. Soybeans obtain nitrogen through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Here, we evaluated the impact of 14 annual exposures to antibiotics commonly used in swine production on the distribution of bradyrhizobia occupying nitrogen

  6. Predicting gene regulatory networks of soybean nodulation from RNA-Seq transcriptome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingzhu; Dahmen, Jeremy L; Stacey, Gary; Cheng, Jianlin

    2013-09-22

    High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is a revolutionary technique to study the transcriptome of a cell under various conditions at a systems level. Despite the wide application of RNA-Seq techniques to generate experimental data in the last few years, few computational methods are available to analyze this huge amount of transcription data. The computational methods for constructing gene regulatory networks from RNA-Seq expression data of hundreds or even thousands of genes are particularly lacking and urgently needed. We developed an automated bioinformatics method to predict gene regulatory networks from the quantitative expression values of differentially expressed genes based on RNA-Seq transcriptome data of a cell in different stages and conditions, integrating transcriptional, genomic and gene function data. We applied the method to the RNA-Seq transcriptome data generated for soybean root hair cells in three different development stages of nodulation after rhizobium infection. The method predicted a soybean nodulation-related gene regulatory network consisting of 10 regulatory modules common for all three stages, and 24, 49 and 70 modules separately for the first, second and third stage, each containing both a group of co-expressed genes and several transcription factors collaboratively controlling their expression under different conditions. 8 of 10 common regulatory modules were validated by at least two kinds of validations, such as independent DNA binding motif analysis, gene function enrichment test, and previous experimental data in the literature. We developed a computational method to reliably reconstruct gene regulatory networks from RNA-Seq transcriptome data. The method can generate valuable hypotheses for interpreting biological data and designing biological experiments such as ChIP-Seq, RNA interference, and yeast two hybrid experiments.

  7. Do manganese nodules grow or dissolve after burial? Results from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattan, J. N.; Parthiban, G.

    2007-07-01

    Fifty buried manganese nodules at different depth intervals were recovered in 12 sediment cores from the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB). A maximum of 15 buried nodules were encountered in one sediment core (AAS-22/GC-07) and the deepest nodule was recovered at 5.50 m below seafloor in core AAS-04/GC-5A. Approximately 80% of the buried nodules are small in size (˜2 cm diameter) in contrast to the Atlantic Ocean and Peru Basin (Pacific Ocean) where the majority of the buried nodules are large, ˜8 cm and >6 cm, respectively. Buried nodule size decreases with core depth and this distribution appears to be similar to the phenomenon of "Brazil Nut Effect". Buried nodules exhibit both smooth and rough surface textures and are ellipsoidal, elongated, rounded, sub rounded, irregular and polynucleated. Buried nodules from siliceous ooze are enriched in Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mo, Ga, V and Rb whereas those from red clay are enriched in Fe, Co, Ti, U, Th, Y, Cr, Nb and Rare Earth Elements (REE). Buried nodules from siliceous ooze suggest their formation under hydrogenetic, early digenetic and diagenetic processes whereas those from red clay are of hydrogenetic origin. REE are enriched more than 1.5 times in buried nodules from red clay compared to siliceous ooze. However, the mode of incorporation of REE into buried nodules from both sedimentary environments is by a single authigenic phase consisting of Fe-Ti-P. Shale-normalized REE patterns and Ce anomalies suggest that nodules from siliceous ooze formed under more oxidizing conditions than those from red clay. Nodules buried at depths between 1.5 and 2.5 m are diagenetic (Mn/Fe ratio 10-15), formed in highly oxic environments (large positive Ce anomalies) and record aeolian dust (high Eu anomalies). Chemical composition, surface texture and morphology of buried nodules are similar to those of surface nodules from the same basin. Furthermore, buried nodule compositions do not exhibit any distinct patterns within the core depth

  8. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Erik K.; Bible, Keith C.; Doherty, Gerard M.; Mandel, Susan J.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W.; Sawka, Anna M.; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G.; Sherman, Steven I.; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: The specific clinical questions addressed in these guidelines were based on prior versions of the guidelines, stakeholder input, and input of task force members. Task force panel members were educated on knowledge synthesis methods, including electronic database searching, review and selection of relevant citations, and critical appraisal of selected studies. Published English language articles on adults were eligible for inclusion. The American College of Physicians Guideline Grading System was used for critical appraisal of evidence and grading strength of recommendations for therapeutic interventions. We developed a similarly formatted system to appraise the quality of such studies and resultant recommendations. The guideline panel had complete editorial independence from the ATA. Competing interests of guideline task force members were regularly updated, managed, and communicated to the ATA and task force members. Results: The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, use of molecular markers, and management of benign thyroid nodules. Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to screening for thyroid cancer, staging and risk assessment, surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation and therapy

  9. Pulmonary nodules in workers exposed to urban stressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancini, A.; Fioravanti, M.; Ciarrocca, M.; Palermo, P.; Fiaschetti, M.; Schifano, M.P.; Tomei, G.; Tomei, F.

    2010-01-01

    By multilayer spiral low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) of the chest this study assesses the early detection of lung lesions on a sample of 100 traffic policemen of a big Italian city professionally exposed to urban pollutants and 100 controls non-occupationally exposed to urban pollutants matched by sex, age, length of service and cigarette smoking habit. Exposure to urban pollutants in traffic policemen was characterized using the annual average concentrations of PM 10 , NO 2 and benzene in the period 1998-2008 measured by fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city. A significant and increasing number of suspicious lung nodules with diameters between 5 and 10 mm was observed: in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) vs. controls (including smokers and non-smokers); in total smokers (including traffic policemen and controls) vs. total non-smokers (traffic policemen and controls); in smoker traffic policemen vs. smoker controls and vs. non-smoker traffic policemen; in non-smoker traffic policemen vs. non-smoker controls. The RR of finding cases with at least one lung nodule with diameters between 5 and 10 mm in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) compared to controls (including smokers and non-smokers) is 1.94 (CI 1.13-3.31); in total smokers vs. non-smokers the RR is 1.96 (CI 1.20-3.19). The comparison between the interaction exposure and smoking shows an increase in smoker traffic policemen than in smoker controls (RR=2.14; CI 1.02-4.52). The RR for smoker traffic policemen was higher than in non-smoker traffic policemen (RR=2.09; CI 1.19-3.66). The results of our study show that: (1) while smoker workers have a higher risk for developing solid suspicious lung nodules, the simple routinely exposure to urban pollutants is unable to produce the same kind of increased risk; (2) the interaction of smoking and exposure to urban pollutants greatly increases the risk for the development of solid suspicious lung

  10. Pulmonary nodules in workers exposed to urban stressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancini, A. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fioravanti, M. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Psychiatric Science and Psychological Medicine, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Ciarrocca, M.; Palermo, P.; Fiaschetti, M.; Schifano, M.P. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy); Tomei, G. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Psychiatric Science and Psychological Medicine, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Tomei, F., E-mail: francesco.tomei@uniroma1.it [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    By multilayer spiral low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) of the chest this study assesses the early detection of lung lesions on a sample of 100 traffic policemen of a big Italian city professionally exposed to urban pollutants and 100 controls non-occupationally exposed to urban pollutants matched by sex, age, length of service and cigarette smoking habit. Exposure to urban pollutants in traffic policemen was characterized using the annual average concentrations of PM{sub 10}, NO{sub 2} and benzene in the period 1998-2008 measured by fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city. A significant and increasing number of suspicious lung nodules with diameters between 5 and 10 mm was observed: in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) vs. controls (including smokers and non-smokers); in total smokers (including traffic policemen and controls) vs. total non-smokers (traffic policemen and controls); in smoker traffic policemen vs. smoker controls and vs. non-smoker traffic policemen; in non-smoker traffic policemen vs. non-smoker controls. The RR of finding cases with at least one lung nodule with diameters between 5 and 10 mm in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) compared to controls (including smokers and non-smokers) is 1.94 (CI 1.13-3.31); in total smokers vs. non-smokers the RR is 1.96 (CI 1.20-3.19). The comparison between the interaction exposure and smoking shows an increase in smoker traffic policemen than in smoker controls (RR=2.14; CI 1.02-4.52). The RR for smoker traffic policemen was higher than in non-smoker traffic policemen (RR=2.09; CI 1.19-3.66). The results of our study show that: (1) while smoker workers have a higher risk for developing solid suspicious lung nodules, the simple routinely exposure to urban pollutants is unable to produce the same kind of increased risk; (2) the interaction of smoking and exposure to urban pollutants greatly increases the risk for the development of solid

  11. Thyroid Nodules as a Late Effect of Exposure to Fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R. A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Sutow, W. W. [M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Colcock, B. P. [Lahey Clinic, Boston, MA (United States); Dobyns, B. M. [Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital, Cleveland, OH (United States); Paglia, D. E. [Center for the Health Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1969-11-15

    Multiple nodules of the thyroid gland have developed in a Marshallese population 10 to 14 years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout The exposure occurred in 1954 when an unpredicted shift in winds caused deposition of fallout on several Marshall Islands east of Bikini Sixty four people received 175 rads of gamma radiation which proved to be sub lethal but resulted in early nausea and vomiting and significant depression of blood elements Exposure of the skin resulted m beta bums and epilation and there was significant internal absorption of fission isotopes from contaminated food and water The most serious internal exposure was from radioiodines ({sup 131}I {sup 132}I {sup 133}I {sup 135}I) It was estimated that in addition to the gamma radiation the adult thyroid gland received 160 rads from radioiodines and the young children because of their considerably smaller glands an estimated 700 1400 rads Recovery of blood elements to nearly normal and healing of skin lesions with regrowth of hair was complete by one year These findings have been fully documented The most important late radiation effect has been the development of thyroid abnormalities Since 1963 a total of 20 cases have thus far been detected 17 in children exposed at less than 10 years of age (90% of that group) and 3 in adults Thyroid surgery on 11 children and 3 adults revealed that all had benign adenomatous nodules except for a mixed papillary and follicular carcinoma in a 40 year-old woman The benign nodules were similar to those associated with iodine deficiency but such deficiency was not apparent m the Marshallese who live largely on seafood However most pathologists could not distinguish definite radiation effects in the nodules Growth and development retardation in some of the exposed children is now clearly related to thyroid deficiency Two boys with the greatest growth retardation developed pronounced hypothyroidism with atrophy of their thyroid glands Treatment of the exposed

  12. CT detection of daughter nodules in hepatocellular carcinoma after lipiodol infusion via the hepatic artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohishi, Hajime; Ohgami, Syoichi; Katsuragi, Masami

    1985-02-01

    The detectability of daughter nodules in 80 hepatocellular carcinomas was compared between CT assisted by Lipiodol Ultra Fluid (Lipiodol) infused via the hepatic artery and IHA (Infusion hepatic angiography). Lipiodol infused via the hepatic artery was selectively accumulated in the tumor vessels and the tumors and small daughter nodules appeared as markedly high density areas by CT. 18 cases in which the daughter nodules were detected were identified only by CT. Furthermore, in 38 cases CT demonstrated superior detectability of the daughthr nodules than IHA. In 15 cases the daughter nodules were newly detected in areas other than the invaded area where the primary tumor existed. This method is very effective in the diagnosis of daughter nodules of hepatocellular carcinoma. (author).

  13. Influence of the in-plane artefact in chest tomosynthesis on pulmonary nodule size measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederman, Christina; Allansdotter Johnsson, Aase; Vikgren, Jenny; Rossi Norrlund, Rauni; Molnar, David; Svalkvist, Angelica; Maansson, Lars Gunnar; Baath, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how the in-plane artefact present in the scan direction around structures in tomosynthesis images should be managed when measuring the size of nodules in chest tomosynthesis images in order to achieve acceptable measurement accuracy. Data from measurements, performed by radiologists, of the longest diameter of artificial nodules inserted in chest tomosynthesis images were used. The association between the measurement error and the direction of the longest nodule diameter, relative to the scan direction, was evaluated using the Kendall rank correlation coefficient. All of the radiologists had chosen to not include the artefact in the measurements. Significant association between measurement error and the direction of the longest diameter was found for nodules larger than 12 mm, which indicates that, for these nodules, there is a risk of underestimating the nodule size if the in-plane artefact is omitted from manual diameter measurements. (authors)

  14. Discrimination method of large log-likelihood study in differential diagnosis of pulmonary diffuse mild micro-nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Budong; Ma Daqing; He Wen; Tang Hongqu; Qian Linxue; Zhou Ronglin

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To analyze HRCT and thin-slice CT scan findings in 150 patients with pulmonary diffuse mild micro-nodule, and to find the features with the purpose of identifying random micro-nodule, peri-lymphatic micro-nodule, and centrilobular micro-nodule. Methods: The useful features i 150 patients with pulmonary diffuse mild micro-nodule were translated into scores by means of discrimination method of large log-likelihood to identify the micro-nodular category. Results: The accuracy of diagnosis was 94.0% for random micro-nodule, 76.0% for peri-lymphatic micro-nodule, and 90.0% for centrilobular micro-nodule. Conclusion: HRCT and thin-slice CT scans were helpful in differential diagnosis of pulmonary diffuse mild micro-nodule. The discrimination method of large log-likelihood was propitious to diagnosis and differential diagnosis

  15. Environmental studies for mining of deep-sea polymetallic nodules - Accomplishments and future plans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    on marine ecosystem, the project on ‘EIA studies for nodule mining in CIB’ was initiated in 1996, under the national programme on polymetallic nodules funded by the Dept. of Ocean Development. Mining of the deep-sea minerals [1] is expected to alter... for the future • Development of predictive ecosystem models • Creation of environmental database • Evaluating the biogeochemical coupling of biota with deep-sea ecosystem • Development of environment management plan for nodule mining References...

  16. Ultrasonographic criteria for fine needle aspiration of nonpalpable thyroid nodules 1–2 cm in diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Yang, E-mail: j0kim040@louisville.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Louisville, 530 South Jackson Street, Louisville, KY 40242 (United States); Department of Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 737 Star tower, 40 floor, Yeoksam-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-080 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Young; Yang, Ki Ra [Department of Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 737 Star tower, 40 floor, Yeoksam-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-080 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To investigate the ultrasonographic (US) characteristics for nonpalpable thyroid nodules 1–2 cm in diameter and to evaluate the guideline for fine needle aspiration (FNA) in terms of US findings. Materials and methods: Between June 2005 and November 2006, FNA was performed in 919 thyroid nodules by radiologists. Of these nodules, 51 malignant nodules and 72 benign nodules were finally included. All 123 nodules were analyzed by 3 radiologists if there were the following US characteristics: marked hypoechogenecity, hypoechogenecity, isoechogenecity, hyperechogenecity, microcalcification, coarse calcification, rim calcification, spiculated margin, taller-than-wide shape, irregular shape, hypoechoic rim and honeycomb appearance. The maximum diameters of nodules and thickness of hypoechoic rim were measured. US characteristics relevant as predictors were identified using a Chi-square or Fisher's exact test and odds ratio. We compared the diagnostic efficacy of 3 US criteria for FNA indication. Results: Microcalcification, taller-than-wide shape, marked hypoechogenecity, hypoechogenecity, coarse calcification, irregular shape and spiculated margin were significant characteristics of malignant nodules. Isoechogenecity, hypoechoic rim and honeycomb appearance was significant characteristics of benign nodules. Rim or arc calcification, hyperechogenecity and thickness of hypoechoic rim were insignificant. Among 3 US criteria for FNA indication, NFI showed the highest diagnostic efficacy, 98.0% in sensitivity, 75.0% in specificity and 150.0 in odds ratio. Conclusion: As for nonpalpable thyroid nodules 1–2 cm in diameter, US characteristics are useful for differentiating between malignant and benign nodules. Malignant US characteristics and honeycombing appearance have significant value in selecting nodules for biopsy and reducing the frequency of the FNA procedure.

  17. Role of BRAFV600E Mutation Analysis for Thyroid Nodules Classified as Indeterminate on Ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang Yu; Shin, Jung Hee; Han, Boo Kyung; Ko, Eun Young; Kang, Seok Seon; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Hwang, Ji Young; Nam, Mee Young; Kim, Jong Won; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate a possible role for BRAFV600E mutation analysis of aspiration specimens in the work up of thyroid nodules classified as indeterminate on US. A total of 122 nodules from 122 patients were prospectively classified as indeterminate nodules based on US findings. US-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) was done for all 122 nodules. The presence of a BRAFV600E mutation in FNA specimens was determined by allele-specific PCR. US-indeterminate nodules were confirmed as malignant in 20.5% (25/122) of cases and benign in 76.2% (93/122) after FNA or surgery. A few (3.3% (4/122), remained indeterminate. A BRAFV600E mutation was identified in 14.8% (18/122) of US indeterminate nodules. Of those 18 nodules, three were benign and 13 were malignant after the initial FNA. One (0.8%, 1/122) with an initially benign cytology and a BRAFV600E mutation was confirmed to be malignant after surgery. The remaining two benign nodules with a mutation were not followed-up. All 9 initial FNA-nondiagnostic nodules were mutation negative but 2 (11.8%) of 17 indeterminate nodules on initial FNAs were mutation positive. BRAFV600E mutation analysis prevents false negative cytology for only 0.8% of cases and reduces ambiguous diagnoses for 1.6% of all US-indeterminate thyroid nodules. Therefore, adding BRAFV600E mutation analysis to FNA for US-indeterminate nodules is of limited usefulness

  18. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: Their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki Hyun

    2013-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  19. Microbial Community Analysis of Field-Grown Soybeans with Different Nodulation Phenotypes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E.; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod−), wild-type nodulated (Nod+), and hypernodulated (Nod++) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod+ soybe...

  20. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  1. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: Their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki Hyun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  2. 3-D Analysis of Graphite Nodules in Ductile Cast Iron Using FIB-SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, Luca; Jespersen, Freja N.; MacDonald, A. Nicole

    Ductile cast iron samples were analysed in a Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscope, FIB-SEM. The focussed ion beam was used to carefully remove layers of the graphite nodules to reveal internal structures in the nodules. The sample preparation and milling procedure for sectioning graphite...... inside the nodules, their orientation in relation to the graphite and the chemistry of the inclusions is analysed and described. Formation of the structures during solidification and subsequent cooling to room temperature is discussed....

  3. les facteurs prédictifs de malignité des nodules thyroïdiens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    19 déc. 2007 ... Le but de notre travail est de rassembler les critères épi- démiologiques, cliniques et paracliniques ..... L'aspect visible des nodules à l'inspection. Nodules malins Nodules bénins. %. Nbre. % .... Schlumberger M, De Vathaire F. Iode 131 : utilisation médicale. Effets can- cérigènes et génétiques. Annales ...

  4. Cytological and sonographic correlation of the biopsies by fine needle aspiration (FNAB) of thyroid nodules in the Hospital San Rafael de Alajuela of July 1, 2006 to February 28, 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrantes Vega, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the use of aspiration biopsy with ultrasonic-guided fine needle is recognized as screening method for diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Thyroid nodules are very common, the prevalence of palpitation has been estimated by 4% and 6% by ultrasound. The prevalence in autopsy data of patients with no history of thyroid pathology has been up to 50%. The use set of advanced imaging techniques and modified techniques of biopsy is implemented in order to increase the diagnostic security of thyroid lesions. The incidental finding of thyroid nodules or incidentalomas has soared dizzily, since the advent of ultrasound as an element in the valuation of thyroid disease and thyroid in the neck. Incidence has been reported even up to 40%. A growing number of endocrinologists are using aspiration biopsy with ultrasound guided fine needle of thyroid nodules as initial diagnostic procedure to identify discrete nodules with a direct location. The percentage of malignant nodules or that require surgery by size or symptomatology, generally, is very low, had to be established a systematic approach to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with major surgery of the neck and reduce costs. The biopsy by fine needle aspiration has been a well established diagnostic technique for preoperative evaluation of thyroid nodules, which has led a significant reduction in the number of unnecessary surgeries in most centers has been between 35-75%. This biopsy has been a specific method, sensitive and inexpensive. The sonographic guidance for biopsy by fine needle aspiration offers the following benefits: is safe and inexpensive, able to reduce costs in 25%, minimally invasive and highly effective, this guidance has increased the detection of malignancy of 14 to 39%. Among the complications that can occur is the formation of hematoma and pain, which are rare. On the other hand, the sonographic guidance is essential for biopsy nonpalpable nodules helping to ensure proper placement of

  5. An Innocent Appearing Subcutaneous Nodule Diagnoses a Small Cell Lung Cancer in a Never-Smoker Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer among never-smokers is recognized as the 7th most common cause of cancer death globally. Adenocarcinoma is the most commonly reported histology. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC has the strongest association with smoking and is rarely reported in never-smokers. Although lung cancer in never-smokers is more common in women, the overall incidence of SCLC in female never-smokers still remains low. Soft tissue metastases from any cancer are rare with an overall prevalence of 1.8%. Soft tissue metastases from lung primary are uncommon, mostly from adenocarcinoma, and portend a poor prognosis. Cutaneous metastases from SCLC are exceptionally rare with reported incidence of 0.3% to 0.8%. We believe ours is the first reported case of SCLC presenting as subcutaneous nodule, in a never-smoker, otherwise asymptomatic female. The diagnosis of SCLC was made incidentally by the excisional biopsy of the subcutaneous nodule. Subsequent CT chest and PET scan revealed a hypermetabolic right lower lobe spiculated lung mass with adrenal and liver involvement. Platinum and etoposide chemotherapy with prophylactic cranial irradiation was initiated for advanced SCLC, and she required further irinotecan and taxol for subsequent pancreatic and adrenal metastases. With continued deterioration, she died approximately 36 months from diagnosis, while under hospice care.

  6. Are common symbiosis genes required for endophytic rice-rhizobial interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Caiyan; Zhu, Hongyan

    2013-09-01

    Legume plants are able to establish root nodule symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, called rhizobia. Recent studies revealed that the root nodule symbiosis has co-opted the signaling pathway that mediates the ancestral mycorrhizal symbiosis that occurs in most land plants. Despite being unable to induce nodulation, rhizobia have been shown to be able to infect and colonize the roots of non-legumes such as rice. One fascinating question is whether establishment of such associations requires the common symbiosis (Sym) genes that are essential for infection of plant cells by mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia in legumes. Here, we demonstrated that the common Sym genes are not required for endophytic colonization of rice roots by nitrogen-fixing rhizobia.

  7. Transport and partitioning of CO2 fixed by root nodules of ureide and amide producing legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, C.P.; Boylan, K.L.M.; Maxwell, C.A.; Heichel, G.H.; Hardman, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nodulated and denodulated roots of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), soybean (Glycine max), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were exposed to 14 CO 2 to investigate the contribution of nodule CO 2 fixation to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. The distribution of radioactivity in xylem sap and partitioning of carbon fixed by nodules to the whole plant were measured. Radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated soybean and adzuki bean was located primarily (70 to 87%) in the acid fraction while the basic (amino acid) fraction contained 10 to 22%. In contrast radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated alfalfa was primarily in amino acids with about 20% in organic acids. Total ureide concentration was 8.1, 4.7, and 0.0 micromoles per milliliter xylem sap for soybean, adzuki bean, and alfalfa, respectively. While the major nitrogen transport products in soybeans and adzuki beans are ureides, this class of metabolites contained less than 20% of the the total radioactivity. When nodules of plants were removed, radioactivity in xylem sap decreased by 90% or more. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that CO 2 fixed by nodules was rapidly transported to shoots and incorporated into acid stable constituents. The data are consistent with a role for nodule CO 2 fixation providing carbon for the assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen in amide-based legumes. In contrast, CO 2 fixation by nodules of ureide transporting legumes appears to contribute little to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  8. Petrography of thoriferous hydrocarbon nodules in sandstones, and their significance for petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnell, J.; Monson, B.; Tosswill, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Nodules of thorium-rich hydrocarbon are recorded in sandstone sequences from several basins. The hydrocarbon nodules contain mineral inclusions, particularly of thorite or monazite. There is evidence both for accretion of hydrocarbons around detrital heavy mineral grains and for epigenetic growth by interaction of hydrocarbons with thorium-bearing fluids. Both mechanisms depend upon the precipitation of solid hydrocarbons induced by irradiation from thorium. The nodules exhibit aggressive replacement of other grains, a characteristic of radioanomalous hydrocarbons. The occurrence of the nodules is dependent upon an appropriate (plutonic) source for the thorium, but given this constraint they are important evidence for hydrocarbon migration pathways. (author)

  9. A COMPREHENSIVE FRAMEWORK FOR AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF PULMONARY NODULES IN LUNG CT IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alilou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Solitary pulmonary nodules may indicate an early stage of lung cancer. Hence, the early detection of nodules is the most efficient way for saving the lives of patients. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive Computer Aided Diagnosis (CADx framework for detection of the lung nodules in computed tomography images. The four major components of the developed framework are lung segmentation, identification of candidate nodules, classification and visualization. The process starts with segmentation of lung regions from the thorax. Then, inside the segmented lung regions, candidate nodules are identified using an approach based on multiple thresholds followed by morphological opening and 3D region growing algorithm. Finally, a combination of a rule-based procedure and support vector machine classifier (SVM is utilized to classify the candidate nodules. The proposed CADx method was validated on CT images of 60 patients, containing the total of 211 nodules, selected from the publicly available Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC image dataset. Comparing to the other state of the art methods, the proposed framework demonstrated acceptable detection performance (Sensitivity: 0.80; Fp/Scan: 3.9. Furthermore, we visualize a range of anatomical structures including the 3D lung structure and the segmented nodules along with the Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP volume rendering method that will enable the radiologists to accurately and easily estimate the distance between the lung structures and the nodules which are frequently difficult at best to recognize from CT images.

  10. Compositional changes of surface sediments and variability of manganese nodules in the Peru Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchig, Vesna; von Stackelberg, Ulrich; Hufnagel, Heinz; Durn, Goran

    Two types of manganese nodules were observed in the Peru Basin: large botryoidal nodules in basins and small ellipsoidal nodules on slope positions. The sediment in areas with large botryoidal nodules contains a thinner and weaker oxidation zone than the sediment under small ellipsoidal nodules, indicating that diagenetic processes in the sediment, which supply manganese nodules with metals for their growth, are stronger in sediments on which large botryoidal nodules grow. Organic matter, which activates remobilization of metals, occurs mostly in the form of refractory lipidic compounds in the inner capsule of radiolaria. This material needs bacterial degradation to act as a reducing agent. Easily oxidizable organic components could not be found in the sediments. Other changes in sediment composition do not have a link to manganese nodule growth. Biogenous components (radiolarians, organogenic barite and apatite) increase towards the equatorial high-productivity zone. Authigenous clay minerals (nontronite as well as montmorillonite with high Fe +3 incorporation on positions of ochtaedral Al) increase with distance from the continent. The assessment of environmental impacts will have to take into account the regional differences in sediment composition and the small-scale variability of manganese nodules.

  11. Lung nodule volumetry: segmentation algorithms within the same software package cannot be used interchangeably

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf, H.; Bach, K.S.; Hansen, H. [Copenhagen University, Department of Radiology, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup (Denmark); Hoop, B. de [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Shaker, S.B.; Dirksen, A. [Copenhagen University, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup (Denmark); Prokop, M. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Radboud University Nijmegen, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Pedersen, J.H. [Copenhagen University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery RT, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2010-08-15

    We examined the reproducibility of lung nodule volumetry software that offers three different volumetry algorithms. In a lung cancer screening trial, 188 baseline nodules >5 mm were identified. Including follow-ups, these nodules formed a study-set of 545 nodules. Nodules were independently double read by two readers using commercially available volumetry software. The software offers readers three different analysing algorithms. We compared the inter-observer variability of nodule volumetry when the readers used the same and different algorithms. Both readers were able to correctly segment and measure 72% of nodules. In 80% of these cases, the readers chose the same algorithm. When readers used the same algorithm, exactly the same volume was measured in 50% of readings and a difference of >25% was observed in 4%. When the readers used different algorithms, 83% of measurements showed a difference of >25%. Modern volumetric software failed to correctly segment a high number of screen detected nodules. While choosing a different algorithm can yield better segmentation of a lung nodule, reproducibility of volumetric measurements deteriorates substantially when different algorithms were used. It is crucial even in the same software package to choose identical parameters for follow-up. (orig.)

  12. Lung nodule volumetry: segmentation algorithms within the same software package cannot be used interchangeably

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, H.; Bach, K.S.; Hansen, H.; Hoop, B. de; Shaker, S.B.; Dirksen, A.; Prokop, M.; Pedersen, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the reproducibility of lung nodule volumetry software that offers three different volumetry algorithms. In a lung cancer screening trial, 188 baseline nodules >5 mm were identified. Including follow-ups, these nodules formed a study-set of 545 nodules. Nodules were independently double read by two readers using commercially available volumetry software. The software offers readers three different analysing algorithms. We compared the inter-observer variability of nodule volumetry when the readers used the same and different algorithms. Both readers were able to correctly segment and measure 72% of nodules. In 80% of these cases, the readers chose the same algorithm. When readers used the same algorithm, exactly the same volume was measured in 50% of readings and a difference of >25% was observed in 4%. When the readers used different algorithms, 83% of measurements showed a difference of >25%. Modern volumetric software failed to correctly segment a high number of screen detected nodules. While choosing a different algorithm can yield better segmentation of a lung nodule, reproducibility of volumetric measurements deteriorates substantially when different algorithms were used. It is crucial even in the same software package to choose identical parameters for follow-up. (orig.)

  13. Computer-aided detection of lung nodules in digital chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giger, M.L.; Doi, K.; MacMahon, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors are developing an automated method to detect lung nodules by eliminating the ''camouflaging: effect of the lung background. In order to increase the conspicuity of the nodules, we created, from a single chest radiograph, two images: one in which the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the nodule is maximized and another in which that S/N is suppressed. The difference between these two processed images was subjected to feature-extraction technique in order to isolate the nodules. The detection accuracy of the computer-aided detection scheme, as compared with unaided radiologists' performance, was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis

  14. Long-term follow-up sonography of benign cystic thyroid nodules after a percutaneous ethanol injection: the incidence of malignancy-mimicking nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Sung; Kim, Dong Wook; Eun, Choong Ki; Choi, Seok Jin; Rho, Myung Ho

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of malignancy-mimicking sclerosed thyroid nodules, from long-term follow-up ultrasonography (US) after an US-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI). We examined 86 benign cystic thyroid nodules from 80 patients. The nodules were classified into two groups based on whether an aspiration (Group A, n = 26) or non-aspiration (Group B, n 60) of infused ethanol was performed. The final follow-up US over 12 months was performed in all patients. Of the 86 nodules, the cystic portion of 82 (95.3%) cases, from 76 patients, completely disappeared subsequent to the first follow-up US (Group A, n = 24, Group B, n = 58) (Chi-square test, ρ > 0.05). Moreover, 46 sclerosed thyroid nodules showed two or more of the 'five sonographic criteria' upon a follow-up US (Group A, n = 13, 50.0%, Group B, n = 32, 53.3%). A higher ratio of the cystic portion of the nodules was associated with a higher incidence of the 'five sonographic criteria' for malignancies detected via a follow-up US (ρ < 0.01; Student's t-test). For the long-term follow-up US, the 'five sonographic criteria' were observed in half the patients who received US-guided PEI. Also, by acknowledging the possibility that sonographic findings mimic a malignancy, since the sclerosed thyroid nodule, patients may avoid an unnecessary biopsy

  15. Computer-aided Detection Fidelity of Pulmonary Nodules in Chest Radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Dellios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The most ubiquitous chest diagnostic method is the chest radiograph. A common radiographic finding, quite often incidental, is the nodular pulmonary lesion. The detection of small lesions out of complex parenchymal structure is a daily clinical challenge. In this study, we investigate the efficacy of the computer-aided detection (CAD software package SoftView™ 2.4A for bone suppression and OnGuard™ 5.2 (Riverain Technologies, Miamisburg, OH, USA for automated detection of pulmonary nodules in chest radiographs. Subjects and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated a dataset of 100 posteroanterior chest radiographs with pulmonary nodular lesions ranging from 5 to 85 mm. All nodules were confirmed with a consecutive computed tomography scan and histologically classified as 75% malignant. The number of detected lesions by observation in unprocessed images was compared to the number and dignity of CAD-detected lesions in bone-suppressed images (BSIs. Results: SoftView™ BSI does not affect the objective lesion-to-background contrast. OnGuard™ has a stand-alone sensitivity of 62% and specificity of 58% for nodular lesion detection in chest radiographs. The false positive rate is 0.88/image and the false negative (FN rate is 0.35/image. From the true positive lesions, 20% were proven benign and 80% were malignant. FN lesions were 47% benign and 53% malignant. Conclusion: We conclude that CAD does not qualify for a stand-alone standard of diagnosis. The use of CAD accompanied with a critical radiological assessment of the software suggested pattern appears more realistic. Accordingly, it is essential to focus on studies assessing the quality-time-cost profile of real-time (as opposed to retrospective CAD implementation in clinical diagnostics.

  16. Nodulation outer proteins: double-edged swords of symbiotic rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehelin, Christian; Krishnan, Hari B

    2015-09-15

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish a nodule symbiosis with legumes. Nodule formation depends on signals and surface determinants produced by both symbiotic partners. Among them, rhizobial Nops (nodulation outer proteins) play a crucial symbiotic role in many strain-host combinations. Nops are defined as proteins secreted via a rhizobial T3SS (type III secretion system). Functional T3SSs have been characterized in many rhizobial strains. Nops have been identified using various genetic, biochemical, proteomic, genomic and experimental approaches. Certain Nops represent extracellular components of the T3SS, which are visible in electron micrographs as bacterial surface appendages called T3 (type III) pili. Other Nops are T3 effector proteins that can be translocated into plant cells. Rhizobial T3 effectors manipulate cellular processes in host cells to suppress plant defence responses against rhizobia and to promote symbiosis-related processes. Accordingly, mutant strains deficient in synthesis or secretion of T3 effectors show reduced symbiotic properties on certain host plants. On the other hand, direct or indirect recognition of T3 effectors by plant cells expressing specific R (resistance) proteins can result in effector triggered defence responses that negatively affect rhizobial infection. Hence Nops are double-edged swords that may promote establishment of symbiosis with one legume (symbiotic factors) and impair symbiotic processes when bacteria are inoculated on another legume species (asymbiotic factors). In the present review, we provide an overview of our current understanding of Nops. We summarize their symbiotic effects, their biochemical properties and their possible modes of action. Finally, we discuss future perspectives in the field of T3 effector research. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  17. Fast-neutron activation analysis of manganese nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, W.; Fanger, H.U.; Mueller, A.; Pepelnik, R.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper describes the development of a new nuclear method that allows rapid determinations of the most relevant metals Ni and Cu without sample treatment, thus being particularly suited for quasi-continuous elemental analyses in mining and processing. The measurement is based on fast-neutron activation using Cockcroft-Walton generators, sealed neutron tubes or, possibly, (α,n)-type natural sources. Fast-neutron activation of manganese nodules is dominated by the (n,p)-reactions on Si, Al, Fe; the (n,α)-reaction on Mn and the (n,2n)-reaction on Cu. By choosing appropriate irradiation and cooling periods gamma-ray activities with comparatively simple spectral distributions are induced. From these spectra the Mn/Fe ratio in the nodules can be determined without the elaborate procedures usually required in absolute methods for eliminating systematic errors from fluctuations in sample and/or irradiation parameters. It is connected with the absolute Ni and Cu contents via well-known geochemical correlations which according to a lot of statistical data apply to quite different deposits and nodule types in the Pacific. Using these correlations the determination of the most important metals reduces to the evaluation of a peak area ratio. Measurements of the neutron flux distribution and the apparent sample density are unnecessary. The simple structure of the spectra allows the application of detectors with modest energy resolution, e.g. scintillation counters which can be manufactured as ruggedized crystal assemblies with great resistance to thermal and mechanical shock. The method is described in detail and possible interference, in particular from thermal and epithermal neutrons, are discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. Computerized detection of lung nodules by means of "virtual dual-energy" radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Suzuki, Kenji

    2013-02-01

    Major challenges in current computer-aided detection (CADe) schemes for nodule detection in chest radiographs (CXRs) are to detect nodules that overlap with ribs and/or clavicles and to reduce the frequent false positives (FPs) caused by ribs. Detection of such nodules by a CADe scheme is very important, because radiologists are likely to miss such subtle nodules. Our purpose in this study was to develop a CADe scheme with improved sensitivity and specificity by use of "virtual dual-energy" (VDE) CXRs where ribs and clavicles are suppressed with massive-training artificial neural networks (MTANNs). To reduce rib-induced FPs and detect nodules overlapping with ribs, we incorporated the VDE technology in our CADe scheme. The VDE technology suppressed rib and clavicle opacities in CXRs while maintaining soft-tissue opacity by use of the MTANN technique that had been trained with real dual-energy imaging. Our scheme detected nodule candidates on VDE images by use of a morphologic filtering technique. Sixty morphologic and gray-level-based features were extracted from each candidate from both original and VDE CXRs. A nonlinear support vector classifier was employed for classification of the nodule candidates. A publicly available database containing 140 nodules in 140 CXRs and 93 normal CXRs was used for testing our CADe scheme. All nodules were confirmed by computed tomography examinations, and the average size of the nodules was 17.8 mm. Thirty percent (42/140) of the nodules were rated "extremely subtle" or "very subtle" by a radiologist. The original scheme without VDE technology achieved a sensitivity of 78.6% (110/140) with 5 (1165/233) FPs per image. By use of the VDE technology, more nodules overlapping with ribs or clavicles were detected and the sensitivity was improved substantially to 85.0% (119/140) at the same FP rate in a leave-one-out cross-validation test, whereas the FP rate was reduced to 2.5 (583/233) per image at the same sensitivity level as the

  19. Computerized Detection of Lung Nodules by Means of “Virtual Dual-Energy” Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Suzuki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Major challenges in current computer-aided detection (CADe) schemes for nodule detection in chest radiographs (CXRs) are to detect nodules that overlap with ribs and/or clavicles and to reduce the frequent false positives (FPs) caused by ribs. Detection of such nodules by a CADe scheme is very important, because radiologists are likely to miss such subtle nodules. Our purpose in this study was to develop a CADe scheme with improved sensitivity and specificity by use of “virtual dual-energy” (VDE) CXRs where ribs and clavicles are suppressed with massive-training artificial neural networks (MTANNs). To reduce rib-induced FPs and detect nodules overlapping with ribs, we incorporated the VDE technology in our CADe scheme. The VDE technology suppressed rib and clavicle opacities in CXRs while maintaining soft-tissue opacity by use of the MTANN technique that had been trained with real dual-energy imaging. Our scheme detected nodule candidates on VDE images by use of a morphologic filtering technique. Sixty morphologic and gray-level-based features were extracted from each candidate from both original and VDE CXRs. A nonlinear support vector classifier was employed for classification of the nodule candidates. A publicly available database containing 140 nodules in 140 CXRs and 93 normal CXRs was used for testing our CADe scheme. All nodules were confirmed by computed tomography examinations, and the average size of the nodules was 17.8 mm. Thirty percent (42/140) of the nodules were rated “extremely subtle” or “very subtle” by a radiologist. The original scheme without VDE technology achieved a sensitivity of 78.6% (110/140) with 5 (1165/233) FPs per image. By use of the VDE technology, more nodules overlapping with ribs or clavicles were detected and the sensitivity was improved substantially to 85.0% (119/140) at the same FP rate in a leave-one-out cross-validation test, whereas the FP rate was reduced to 2.5 (583/233) per image at the same sensitivity

  20. Thallium 201 thyroid scan: differential diagnosis of benign and malignant nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Sub; Kim, Byong Geun; Park, Byung Ran; Kim, Se Jong; Ko, Kang Seok; Kim, Min Joong; Ji, Joo Yun

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate useful findings and diagnostic value of TI-201 thyroid scan in differentiating benign from malignant nodules. We studied 77 cold thyroid nodules proven histologically(27 malignant and 50 benign). Early (5-15 min) and delayed images(3-5 hours) were obtained after intravenous injection of thallium 201. In these nodules, we retrospectively analyzed the degree of TI-201 uptake in early and delayed images, histopathologic type, size, and presence or absence of cystic change in the sonograms of 22 malignant nodules. Useful finding for diagnosis of malignant nodules was strong uptake of TI-201 in early and delayed images(specificity: 98%, sensitivity: 63%, positive predictive value: 94.4%). Useful finding for benign nodules was no uptake of TI-201 in delayed image(specificity: 88.9%, sensitivity: 68%, positive predictive value: 91.9%). The accuracy of TI-201 thyroid scan in differentiating benign from malignant nodules was 66.2%. The nodules with strong TI-201 uptake in early image and low TI-201 uptake in delayed image were malignant in 29.4%. Cystic changes were found in 40% of malignant nodules with atypical TI-201 uptake. TI-201 thyroid scan showed high specificity in follicular neoplasm and adenomatous goiter in which differentiation of benignancy and malignancy is difficult with only cytologic examination. We consider that TI-201 thyroid scan is valuable in differentiating benign from malignant nodules and when combined with fine needle aspiration and ultrasound examination, it will enable more accurate differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid nodules

  1. Surgical resection of highly suspicious pulmonary nodules without a tissue diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Eun-Young; Lee, Kyung-Won; Jheon, Sanghoon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Yoon, Ho-II

    2011-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of surgical resection of lung nodule without tissue diagnosis is controversial. We evaluated direct surgical resection of highly suspicious pulmonary nodules and the clinical and radiological predictors of malignancy. Retrospective analyses were performed on 113 patients who underwent surgical resection without prior tissue diagnosis for highly suspicious pulmonary nodules. Clinical and radiological characteristics were compared between histologically proven benign and malignant nodules after resection. Total costs, length of hospitalization and waiting time to surgery were compared with those of patients who had tissue diagnosis prior to surgery. Among 280 patients with pulmonary nodules suspicious for lung cancer, 113 (40.4%) underwent operation without prior tissue diagnosis. Lung nodules were diagnosed as malignant in 96 (85%) of the 113 patients. Except for forced expiratory volume in 1 s, clinical characteristics were not significantly different according to the pathologic results. Forty-five (90%) of 50 patients with ground-glass opacity nodules had a malignancy. Mixed ground-glass opacity, bubble lucency, irregular margin and larger size correlated with malignancy in ground-glass opacity nodules (P<0.05). Fifty-one (81%) of 67 patients with solid nodules had a malignancy. Spiculation, pre-contrast attenuation and contrast enhancement significantly correlated with malignancy in solid nodules (P<0.05). Surgical resection without tissue diagnosis significantly decreased total costs, hospital stay and waiting time (P<0.05). Direct surgical resection of highly suspicious pulmonary nodules can be a valid procedure. However, careful patient selection and further investigations are required to justify direct surgical resection. (author)

  2. Paediatric CT: the effects of increasing image noise on pulmonary nodule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punwani, Shonit; Davies, Warren; Greenhalgh, Rebecca; Humphries, Paul; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    A radiation dose of any magnitude can produce a detrimental effect manifesting as an increased risk of cancer. Cancer development may be delayed for many years following radiation exposure. Minimizing radiation dose in children is particularly important. However, reducing the dose can reduce image quality and may, therefore, hinder lesion detection. We investigated the effects of reducing the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on CT lung nodule detection for a range of nodule sizes. A simulated nodule was placed at the periphery of the lung on an axial CT slice using image editing software. Multiple copies of the manipulated image were saved with various levels of superimposed noise. The image creation process was repeated for a range of nodule sizes. For a given nodule size, output images were read independently by four Fellows of The Royal College of Radiologists. The overall sensitivities in detecting nodules for the SNR ranges 0.8-0.99, 1-1.49, and 1.5-2.35 were 40.5%, 77.3% and 90.3%, respectively, and the specificities were 47.9%, 73.3% and 75%, respectively. The sensitivity for detecting lung nodules increased with nodule size and increasing SNR. There was 100% sensitivity for the detection of nodules of 4-10 mm in diameter at SNRs greater than 1.5. Reducing medical radiation doses in children is of paramount importance. For chest CT examinations this may be counterbalanced by reduced sensitivity and specificity combined with an increased uncertainty of pulmonary nodule detection. This study demonstrates that pulmonary nodules of 4 mm and greater in diameter can be detected with 100% sensitivity provided that the perceived image SNR is greater than 1.5. (orig.)

  3. Multiple nodules on the sole of the foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa J Miceli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ledderhose disease, or plantar fibromatosis, is a benign hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis. It presents as one or more round, firm slow-growing plaques or nodules on the plantar surface of the foot, typically on the medial side. The etiology is unknown, though it has been associated with trauma, liver disease, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy and alcoholism. Histopathological examination of plantar fibromatosis reveals dense fibrocellular tissue with parallel and nodular arrays of fibrocytes and fibrillar collagen with a distinctive cork-screw morphology. The differential diagnosis includes various fibroblastic and myofibroblastic proliferations.

  4. Rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary nodules: An unexpected final diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita Prada, Pablo Antonio; Urrego Laurín, Claudia Lía; Assyaaton Bobo, Sow; Faré García, Regina; Estrada Trigueros, Graciliano; Gallardo Romero, José Manuel; Borrego Pintado, Maria Henar

    We report the case of a 50-year-old female smoker with an 11-year history of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies) receiving triple therapy. She developed pulmonary nodules diagnosed as Langerhans cell histiocytosis by lung biopsy. We found no reported cases of the coexistence of these two diseases. Smoking abstinence led to radiologic resolution without modifying the immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  5. Miliary nodules in a patient of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N A; Sumon, S M; Rahman, A; Hossain, M A; Ferdous, J; Bari, M R

    2014-04-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergilosis (ABPA) is immunological pulmonary disease caused by hypersensitivity of aspergillus fumigatus usually occurs in patients with chronic asthma, cystic fibrosis and bronchiactasis. This disease may present with divers radiological presentation like; fleeting pulmonary opacities, bronchiactasis, mucoid impaction, perihilar opacity (hailer lymphadenopathy), and lung mass or pleural effusion. We describe the case of a 30 year old housewife who presented with progressive dysponea, low grade fever, dry cough, weight loss and miliary nodule in chest radiograph and high-resolution CT (HRCT) in a tertiary level hospital of Bangladesh. A diagnosis of ABPA was established on the basis of sputum routine microscopy and culture examination for fungus (Aspergillus).

  6. Clinical significance of pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, Micheal; Lee, Edward Y.; Zurakowski, David

    2015-01-01

    The clinical significance of a pulmonary nodule that is detected incidentally on CT studies in children is unknown. In addition, there is limited information regarding the management of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules discovered on abdominal CT studies in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of incidental pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT studies in children. This was a retrospective study performed following institutional review board approval. Abdominal CT reports in patients younger than 18 years of age from July 2004 to June 2011 were reviewed for the terms ''nodule,'' ''nodular'' or ''mass'' in reference to the lung bases. The study population included those pediatric patients in whom pulmonary nodules were initially detected on abdominal CT studies. The largest pulmonary nodules detected on CT studies were evaluated for their features (size, shape, margin, attenuation, location, and presence of calcification and cavitation). Follow-up CT studies and clinical records were reviewed for demographic information, history of underlying malignancies and the clinical outcome of the incidental pulmonary nodules. Comparison of malignant versus benign pulmonary nodules was performed with respect to the size of the nodule, imaging features on CT, and patient history of malignancy using the Student's t-test and Fisher exact test. Youden J-index in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off size for suggesting a high risk of malignancy of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules. Pulmonary nodules meeting inclusion criteria were detected in 62 (1.2%) of 5,234 patients. The mean age of patients with nodules was 11.2 years (range: 5 months-18 years). Thirty-one patients (50%) had follow-up CT studies and two of these patients (6%) were subsequently found to have malignant pulmonary nodules. Both of these

  7. Clinical significance of pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Micheal; Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, David [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Departments of Anesthesiology and Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The clinical significance of a pulmonary nodule that is detected incidentally on CT studies in children is unknown. In addition, there is limited information regarding the management of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules discovered on abdominal CT studies in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of incidental pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT studies in children. This was a retrospective study performed following institutional review board approval. Abdominal CT reports in patients younger than 18 years of age from July 2004 to June 2011 were reviewed for the terms ''nodule,'' ''nodular'' or ''mass'' in reference to the lung bases. The study population included those pediatric patients in whom pulmonary nodules were initially detected on abdominal CT studies. The largest pulmonary nodules detected on CT studies were evaluated for their features (size, shape, margin, attenuation, location, and presence of calcification and cavitation). Follow-up CT studies and clinical records were reviewed for demographic information, history of underlying malignancies and the clinical outcome of the incidental pulmonary nodules. Comparison of malignant versus benign pulmonary nodules was performed with respect to the size of the nodule, imaging features on CT, and patient history of malignancy using the Student's t-test and Fisher exact test. Youden J-index in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off size for suggesting a high risk of malignancy of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules. Pulmonary nodules meeting inclusion criteria were detected in 62 (1.2%) of 5,234 patients. The mean age of patients with nodules was 11.2 years (range: 5 months-18 years). Thirty-one patients (50%) had follow-up CT studies and two of these patients (6%) were subsequently found to have malignant pulmonary nodules. Both of these

  8. Return of the pulmonary nodule: the radiologist's key role in implementing the 2015 BTS guidelines on the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Richard N J; Baldwin, David R; Callister, Matthew E J; Gleeson, Fergus V

    2016-01-01

    The British Thoracic Society has published new comprehensive guidelines for the management of pulmonary nodules. These guidelines are significantly different from those previously published, as they use two malignancy prediction calculators to better characterize the risk of malignancy. There are recommendations for a higher nodule size threshold for follow-up (≥5 mm or ≥80 mm(3)) and a reduction of the follow-up period to 1 year for solid pulmonary nodules; both of these will reduce the number of follow-up CT scans. PET-CT plays a crucial role in characterization also, with an ordinal scale being recommended for reporting. Radiologists will be the key in implementing these guidelines, and routine use of volumetric image-analysis software will be required to manage patients with pulmonary nodules correctly.

  9. Generation of realistic virtual nodules based on three-dimensional spatial resolution in lung computed tomography: A pilot phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Akihiro; Ohkubo, Masaki; Murao, Kohei; Matsumoto, Toru; Wada, Shinichi

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this feasibility study using phantoms was to propose a novel method for obtaining computer-generated realistic virtual nodules in lung computed tomography (CT). In the proposed methodology, pulmonary nodule images obtained with a CT scanner are deconvolved with the point spread function (PSF) in the scan plane and slice sensitivity profile (SSP) measured for the scanner; the resultant images are referred to as nodule-like object functions. Next, by convolving the nodule-like object function with the PSF and SSP of another (target) scanner, the virtual nodule can be generated so that it has the characteristics of the spatial resolution of the target scanner. To validate the methodology, the authors applied physical nodules of 5-, 7- and 10-mm-diameter (uniform spheres) included in a commercial CT test phantom. The nodule-like object functions were calculated from the sphere images obtained with two scanners (Scanner A and Scanner B); these functions were referred to as nodule-like object functions A and B, respectively. From these, virtual nodules were generated based on the spatial resolution of another scanner (Scanner C). By investigating the agreement of the virtual nodules generated from the nodule-like object functions A and B, the equivalence of the nodule-like object functions obtained from different scanners could be assessed. In addition, these virtual nodules were compared with the real (true) sphere images obtained with Scanner C. As a practical validation, five types of laboratory-made physical nodules with various complicated shapes and heterogeneous densities, similar to real lesions, were used. The nodule-like object functions were calculated from the images of these laboratory-made nodules obtained with Scanner A. From them, virtual nodules were generated based on the spatial resolution of Scanner C and compared with the real images of laboratory-made nodules obtained with Scanner C. Good agreement of the virtual nodules generated from

  10. Contrast in manganese nodule distribution on either side of 79~'E fracture zone in central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.

    Seabed topography is one of the prime factors in controlling the distribution of manganese nodules. Study of the nodule abundance on either side of the 79~'E fracture zone in the Central Indian Basin (idenfitied from multibeam bathymetric data...

  11. Effect of sediment-water interface 'boundary layer' on exposure of nodules and their abundance: a study from seabed photos

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    affects nodule abundance estimates based on photos. A model showing variable burial (or exposure) depending upon the thickness of the Sediment-Water Interface Boundary (SWIB) layer is presented. Standard relationships can be established between nodule...

  12. Growth rate and chemical composition of a manganese nodule from the EEZ of Seychelles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Borole, D.V.

    mhe ferro-manganese nodule collected in EEZ of Seychelles yields a growth rate of 1.5 mm/10 6Y 230Th (ex)/ and 230Th (ex)/ 232Th activity ratio methods indicating very slow growth of ferro-manganese nodules. The Mn/Fe and U/Th ratios suggest...

  13. Benign thyroid nodule unresponsive to radiofrequency ablation treated with laser ablation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Silvia; Balestra, Margherita; Vera, Lara; Giusti, Massimo

    2018-05-11

    Radiofrequency ablation and laser ablation are safe and effective techniques for reducing thyroid nodule volume, neck symptoms, and cosmetic complaints. Therapeutic success is defined as a nodule reduction > 50% between 6 and 12 months after the procedure, but a percentage of nodules inexplicably do not respond to thermal ablation. We describe the case of a young Caucasian woman with a solid benign thyroid nodule who refused surgery and who had undergone radiofrequency ablation in 2013. The nodule did not respond in terms of either volume reduction or improvement in neck symptoms. After 2 years, given the patient's continued refusal of thyroidectomy, we proposed laser ablation. The nodule displayed a significant volume reduction (- 50% from radiofrequency ablation baseline volume, - 57% from laser ablation baseline), and the patient reported a significant improvement in neck symptoms (from 6/10 to 1/10 on a visual analogue scale). We conjecture that some benign thyroid nodules may be intrinsically resistant to necrosis when one specific ablation technique is used, but may respond to another technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the effect of performing a different percutaneous ablation technique in a nodule that does not respond to radiofrequency ablation.

  14. Seabed topography and distribution of manganese nodules in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Kodagali, V.N.

    in number in all the topographic environments. Mn/Fe ratio was least (2.2) for nodules from hill taps whereas it was maximum for those from the plains (4.4). Cu+Ni+Co compositioin varied antipathetically with nodule abundance in the Central Indian Ocean....

  15. Competitive Advantage Provided by Bacterial Motility in the Formation of Nodules by Rhizobium meliloti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Peter; Bergman, Kostia

    1981-01-01

    The effect of motility on the competitive success of Rhizobium meliloti in nodule production was investigated. A motile strain formed more nodules than expected when mixed at various unfavorable ratios with either flagellated or nonflagellated nonmotile derivatives. We conclude that motility confers a selective advantage on rhizobia when competing with nonmotile strains. PMID:7298580

  16. Observer training for computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules in chest radiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boo, Diederick W.; van Hoorn, François; van Schuppen, Joost; Schijf, Laura; Scheerder, Maeke J.; Freling, Nicole J.; Mets, Onno; Weber, Michael; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether short-term feedback helps readers to increase their performance using computer-aided detection (CAD) for nodule detection in chest radiography. The 140 CXRs (56 with a solitary CT-proven nodules and 84 negative controls) were divided into four subsets of 35; each were read in a

  17. Classification and inter-element relationships of ferromanganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhari, P.

    hydrogenous enrichment, type A nodules having a ratio 5 are early diagenetic type, and in between these two is the mixed type AB nodules, having Mn/Fe ratio between 2.5 to 5 and formed by the influence of both processes. Variations of Ni, Cu and Co with Mn/Fe...

  18. The hypofunctioning thyroid nodule: Radiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, R.; Wagner-Manslau, C.

    1992-01-01

    The hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule is a scintigraphic diagnosis by definition. Its dignity is assessed by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Radiographic methods and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are no primary tools in diagnosis of the hypofunctioning thyroid nodule but may reveal additional information, especially in cases of retrosternal goiter and thyroid malignomas. (orig.) [de

  19. DRAFT: Russian Association of Endocrinologists Clinic Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules Diagnostic and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Eduardovich Vanushko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Russian guidelines for diagnostic of thyroid nodules gained some actual questions: necessity of ultrasound (US-screening of the thyroid cancer, indications for fine needle aspiration and exam of calcitonin, necessity of unification of US and cytopathology classification for signs of thyroid nodules.

  20. Role of Duplex Power Doppler Ultrasound in Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Thyroid Nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algin, Oktay; Algin, Efnan; Gokalp, Gokhan; Ocakog, Gokhan; Erdog an, Cuneyt; Saraydaroglu, Ozlem; Ercan Tuncel, Prof

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the usage of duplex power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) for the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. We prospectively examined 77 thyroid nodules in 60 patients undergoing ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Each nodule was described according to size, inner structure, borders, parenchymal echogenicity, peripheral halo formation, and the presence of calcification (Bmode ultrasound findings). Vascularity as determined by PDUS imaging was defined as non-vascular, peripheral, central, or of mixed type. For each nodule, the pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) values were obtained. Results of FNAB and surgical pathological examination (if available) were used as a proof of final diagnosis to categorize all nodules as benign or malignant. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to establish cut-off, sensitivity, and specificity values associated with RI-PI values. A significant relationship was observed between malignancy and irregular margins, microcalcifications, and hypoechogenicity on ultrasound examination (p 0.05). The central, peripheral, and mean RI-PI values were higher in malignant nodules when compared to the other cytologies (p < 0.05). Vascularity is not a useful parameter for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules. However, RI and PI values are useful in distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules

  1. Undercooling, nodule count and carbides in thin walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Ductile cast iron has been cast in plate thicknesses between 2 to 8 mm. The temperature has been measured during the solidification and the graphite nodule count and size distribution together with the type and amount of carbides have been analysed afterwards. Low nodule count gives higher...

  2. Mineralogy of polymetallic nodules and associated sediments from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P

    in montmorillonite, chlorite and illite, delta MnO sub(2) is the dominant mineral phase in the nodules of the southern Central Indian Ocean Basin. These nodules have a smooth surface texture, are relatively rich in Fe and Co, and are associated with pelagic clay...

  3. Intracellular Catalytic Domain of Symbiosis Receptor Kinase Hyperactivates Spontaneous Nodulation in Absence of Rhizobia1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sudip; Dutta, Ayan; Bhattacharya, Avisek; DasGupta, Maitrayee

    2014-01-01

    Symbiosis Receptor Kinase (SYMRK), a member of the Nod factor signaling pathway, is indispensible for both nodule organogenesis and intracellular colonization of symbionts in rhizobia-legume symbiosis. Here, we show that the intracellular kinase domain of a SYMRK (SYMRK-kd) but not its inactive or full-length version leads to hyperactivation of the nodule organogenic program in Medicago truncatula TR25 (symrk knockout mutant) in the absence of rhizobia. Spontaneous nodulation in TR25/SYMRK-kd was 6-fold higher than rhizobia-induced nodulation in TR25/SYMRK roots. The merged clusters of spontaneous nodules indicated that TR25 roots in the presence of SYMRK-kd have overcome the control over both nodule numbers and their spatial position. In the presence of rhizobia, SYMRK-kd could rescue the epidermal infection processes in TR25, but colonization of symbionts in the nodule interior was significantly compromised. In summary, ligand-independent deregulated activation of SYMRK hyperactivates nodule organogenesis in the absence of rhizobia, but its ectodomain is required for proper symbiont colonization. PMID:25304318

  4. Nodulation of leguminous plants as affected by root secretions and red light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lie, T.A.

    1964-01-01

    Nodulation of bean plants, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in water culture was poor during hot sunny weather in the greenhouse. It did not improve when indoleacetic acid, kinetin, gibberellic acid, purines and pyrimidines, yeast and soil extract were added. Nodulation was enhanced by adding used

  5. Identification of Ononitol and O-methyl-scyllo-inositol in Pea Root Nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif; Egsgaard, Helge

    1984-01-01

    Ononitol (4-O-methyl-myo-inositol) and O-methyl-scyllo-inositol were identified in pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules formed by twoRhizobium leguminosarum strains. Ononitol was the major soluble carbohydrate in nodules formed by strain 1045 while O-methyl-scyllo-inositol and two unidentified com...

  6. Two negative regulatory systems of root nodule symbiosis - how are symbiotic benefits and costs balanced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Hanna; Suzaki, Takuya

    2018-05-30

    Root nodule symbiosis is one of the best-characterized mutualistic relationships between plants-microbes symbiosis, where mainly leguminous species can obtain nitrogen sources fixed by nitrogen-fixing rhizobia through the formation of symbiotic organs root nodules. In order to drive this symbiotic process, plants need to provide carbon sources that should be used for their growth. Therefore, a balance between the benefits of obtaining nitrogen sources and the costs of losing carbon sources needs to be maintained during root nodule symbiosis. Plants have developed at least two negative regulatory systems of root nodule symbiosis. One strategy involves the regulation of nodule number in response to rhizobial infection. For this regulation, a systemic long-range signaling between roots and shoots called autoregulation of nodulation has a pivotal role. Another strategy involves the regulation of root nodule symbiosis in response to nitrate, the most abundant form of nitrogen nutrients in the soil. Recent studies indicate that a long-distance signaling is shared between the two strategies, where NIN and NRSYM1, two paralogous RWP-RK transcription factors, can activate the production of nodulation-related CLE peptides in response to different inputs. Here, we give an overview of such progress in our understanding of molecular mechanisms relevant to the control of the symbiotic balance, including their biological significance.

  7. A Legume Genetic Framework Controls Infection of Nodules by Symbiotic and Endophytic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; James, Euan K.; Kelly, Simon; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; de Jonge, Nadieh; Jensen, Dorthe B.; Madsen, Lene H.; Radutoiu, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Legumes have an intrinsic capacity to accommodate both symbiotic and endophytic bacteria within root nodules. For the symbionts, a complex genetic mechanism that allows mutual recognition and plant infection has emerged from genetic studies under axenic conditions. In contrast, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the endophytic infection. Here we investigate the contribution of both the host and the symbiotic microbe to endophyte infection and development of mixed colonised nodules in Lotus japonicus. We found that infection threads initiated by Mesorhizobium loti, the natural symbiont of Lotus, can selectively guide endophytic bacteria towards nodule primordia, where competent strains multiply and colonise the nodule together with the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic partner. Further co-inoculation studies with the competent coloniser, Rhizobium mesosinicum strain KAW12, show that endophytic nodule infection depends on functional and efficient M. loti-driven Nod factor signalling. KAW12 exopolysaccharide (EPS) enabled endophyte nodule infection whilst compatible M. loti EPS restricted it. Analysis of plant mutants that control different stages of the symbiotic infection showed that both symbiont and endophyte accommodation within nodules is under host genetic control. This demonstrates that when legume plants are exposed to complex communities they selectively regulate access and accommodation of bacteria occupying this specialized environmental niche, the root nodule. PMID:26042417

  8. Hashimoto's thyroiditis presenting as hot and cold nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulimani, R.A.; el-Desouki, M. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))

    1990-05-01

    A case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is presented. I-123 thyroid scintigraphy demonstrated a hot nodule in the left lobe and a cold nodule in the right, which was well visualized by Tl-201 imaging. This unusual scintigraphic appearance is demonstrated, and its possible explanation discussed.

  9. Laser, radiofrequency, and ethanol ablation for the management of thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Enrico; Gugliemi, Rinaldo; Pacella, Claudio Maurizio

    2016-10-01

    The majority of benign thyroid nodules are nearly asymptomatic, remain stable in size, and do not require treatment. However, a minority of patients with growing nodules may complain of local symptoms or have cosmetic concerns, and thus seek surgical consultation. The timely use of ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures can change the natural history of benign enlarging thyroid nodules. The procedures produce persistent shrinkage of thyroid nodules and are associated with improvement of local symptoms. Among the various procedures, percutaneous ethanol injection represents the first-line treatment for relapsing thyroid cysts. In solid nonfunctioning nodules, laser and radiofrequency ablation produces a more than 50% reduction in nodular volume that remains persistent over several years. For hyperfunctioning nodules, thermal ablation techniques are not appropriate unless radioactive iodine is contraindicated or not accessible. MITs are best suited for the management of medium or large-sized nodules that are sonographically well visualized. Conversely, large nodules or nodular goiters that extend into the chest are difficult to treat. MITs are performed in outpatient clinics, are less expensive, and have a lower risk of complications, compared to surgery, and usually do not induce thyroid dysfunction. However, malignancy should be ruled out with a dedicated ultrasound neck assessment and repeat fine needle aspiration of the lesion before treatment.

  10. Activating thyrotropin receptor mutations in histologically heterogeneous hyperfunctioning nodules of multinodular goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P; Agretti, P; Giulianetti, B; Mazzi, B; Cavaliere, R; Ceccarini, G; Fiore, E; Viacava, P; Naccarato, A; Pinchera, A; Chiovato, L

    1998-07-01

    Activating thyrotropin (TSH) receptor mutations have been found in toxic adenomas and in hot nodules contained in toxic multinodular goiter. The typical feature of multinodular goiter is the heterogeneity in morphology and function of different follicles within the same enlarged gland. In this report we describe a patient with a huge multinodular goiter, normal free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) serum values, and subnormal TSH serum concentration. Thyroid scintiscan showed two hot areas corresponding to the basal and apical nodules of the left lobe. The right lobe was poorly visualized by the radioisotope. The patient underwent thyroidectomy, and histological examination of the tissue was performed. Genomic DNA was extracted from the tissue specimen and direct sequencing of the TSH receptor and Gs alpha genes was done. At histology, one hyperfunctioning nodule had the typical microscopic structure of thyroid adenomas, and the other contained multiple macrofollicular areas not confined by a capsule. In spite of this histological difference, both hyperfunctioning nodules harbored a mutation of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHr) gene: an isoleucine instead of a threonine in position 632 (T632I) in the first nodule and a methionine instead of an isoleucine in position 486 (I486M) in the second nodule. In conclusion, our findings show for the first time that gain-of-function TSHr mutations are not only present in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules with the histological features of the true thyroid adenomas, but also in hyperfunctioning hyperplastic nodules contained in the same multinodular goiter.

  11. Position of solitary thyroid nodules by gammagraphy; Ubicacion de nodulos tiroideos solitarios por gammagrafia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Medicina, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In this work it is presented which it is the position more frequent of the solitary thyroid nodules. It was used the method of retrospective longitudinal observational investigation in 125 patients that went to the laboratory for realization of detection of thyroid nodules in the years 2004 and 2005 through gammagraphy. (Author)

  12. Thyroid nodule and the value of tumormarkers; Der Schilddruesenknoten und der Stellenwert der Tumormarkerbestimmung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerges, R.; Bockisch, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-09-15

    According to common scientific opinion thyroglobulin (hTg) is not recommended as a tumor marker for clarifying the dignity of thyroid nodules, due to a strong overlap between values of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and benign thyroid nodules. Moreover, other benign thyroid diseases with cellular lesion, i.e. nodules and overt inflammation, lead to significantly increased thyroglobulin values (values in a four-digit range and even more in very rare cases). The determination of hTg before thyroid ablation can be a useful ''screening marker'' for patients with CUP-syndrome and suspicious thyroid lesions to identify subjects suffering under DTC. Furthermore, in the case of DTC preoperatively measured hTg will help to validate and evaluate hTg values in the follow-up of these patients. hTg determination can be disturbed by methodological artefacts, in particular by interfering anti-hTg auto-antibodies. For the authentication of hTg values anti-hTg auto-antibody measurement and/or recovery testing is therefore essential although both methods have advantages and disadvantages in that respect. Calcitonin (hCt) is a relatively reliable and specific marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) or neoplastic C-cell hyperplasia provided that optimal techniques and appropriate interpretation of test results are applied. The use of two-site assays with a high specificity for the monomer molecule is advised, but false-positive values can still occur, i.e. in renal insufficiency, during therapy with proton pump inhibitors, in goiters with ''physiological'' C-cell hyperplasia and in autoimmune thyroiditis. The Thyroid Section of the German Society of Endocrinology recommends hCt-screening for patients with nodular goiter although some questions regarding epidemiology, health economy and methodology are not resolved yet. Basal hCT values exceeding 100 pg/ml are highly predictive for MTC after exclusion of the reasons mentioned above

  13. The salt-responsive transcriptome of chickpea roots and nodules via deepSuperSAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhauer Diana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of high-throughput transcript profiling and next-generation sequencing technologies is a prerequisite for genome-wide comprehensive transcriptome analysis. Our recent innovation of deepSuperSAGE is based on an advanced SuperSAGE protocol and its combination with massively parallel pyrosequencing on Roche's 454 sequencing platform. As a demonstration of the power of this combination, we have chosen the salt stress transcriptomes of roots and nodules of the third most important legume crop chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.. While our report is more technology-oriented, it nevertheless addresses a major world-wide problem for crops generally: high salinity. Together with low temperatures and water stress, high salinity is responsible for crop losses of millions of tons of various legume (and other crops. Continuously deteriorating environmental conditions will combine with salinity stress to further compromise crop yields. As a good example for such stress-exposed crop plants, we started to characterize salt stress responses of chickpeas on the transcriptome level. Results We used deepSuperSAGE to detect early global transcriptome changes in salt-stressed chickpea. The salt stress responses of 86,919 transcripts representing 17,918 unique 26 bp deepSuperSAGE tags (UniTags from roots of the salt-tolerant variety INRAT-93 two hours after treatment with 25 mM NaCl were characterized. Additionally, the expression of 57,281 transcripts representing 13,115 UniTags was monitored in nodules of the same plants. From a total of 144,200 analyzed 26 bp tags in roots and nodules together, 21,401 unique transcripts were identified. Of these, only 363 and 106 specific transcripts, respectively, were commonly up- or down-regulated (>3.0-fold under salt stress in both organs, witnessing a differential organ-specific response to stress. Profiting from recent pioneer works on massive cDNA sequencing in chickpea, more than 9,400 Uni

  14. Selenomethionine scintigraphy in the diagnosis of cold thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldi, Chantal.

    1976-01-01

    This work attempts to establish the value of a tumoral radiotracer for thyroid exploration: 75 Se-labelled methionine. The purpose of such a radioelement for US in scintigraphy is to allow the cold thyroid nodule diagnosis to be established before surgery, the extent of which depends on whether the nodule is benign or malignant. After a survey of present thyroid cancer diagnosis methods the different tumoral radiotracers are reviewed especially those used to diagnose thyroid neoformations. Selenomethionine appears as one of the most universal of these radiotracers since methionine is an essential amino acid involved in protein synthesis, which is accelerated inside tumour cells, while selenium itself in the form of certain salts possesses a known tropism for neoplastic tissues. The original feature of our study is the use of a method attempting to optimise the results by a more objective reading of the images. To this end we employed a scintillation camera for image acquisition and a data processing system to perform an electronic subtraction, on the thyroid image obtained with selenomethionine, of the thyroid image supplied by radioiodine. The method is nevertheless limited by the properties of the radiotracer used: its long physical and biological half-life is a contra-indication in patients under forty, the dose received by the gonads being relatively large [fr

  15. The calcified lung nodule: What does it mean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to present a pictorial essay emphasizing the various patterns of calcification in pulmonary nodules (PN to aid diagnosis and to discuss the differential diagnosis and the pathogenesis where it is known. The imaging evaluation of PN is based on clinical history, size, distribution and the gross appearance of the nodule as well as feasibility of obtaining a tissue diagnosis. Imaging is instrumental in the management of PN and one should strive not only to identify small malignant tumors with high survival rates but to spare patients with benign PN from undergoing unnecessary surgery. The review emphasizes how to achieve these goals. One of the most reliable imaging features of a benign lesion is a benign pattern of calcification and periodic follow-up with computed tomography showing no growth for 2 years. Calcification in PN is generally considered as a pointer toward a possible benign disease. However, as we show here, calcification in PN as a criterion to determine benign nature is fallacious and can be misleading. The differential considerations of a calcified lesion include calcified granuloma, hamartoma, carcinoid, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and lung metastases or a primary bronchogenic carcinoma among others. We describe and illustrate different patterns of calcification as seen in PN on imaging.

  16. Diversity of root nodule bacteria from leguminous crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a total of 353 nodule-associated bacteria were isolated from 220 legume plant samples belonging to Cicer arietinum (85, Glycine max (74, Vigna radiata (21 and Cajanus cajan (40. A total of 224 bacteria were identified as fast-growing Rhizobium spp. on the basis of differential staining (Gram staining and carbol fuchsin staining and biochemical tests. All the isolates were tested for indole acetic acid production (IAA, phosphate solubilization and siderophore production on plate assay. To examine the effect of volatile organic metabolites (VOM and water soluble soil components (WSSC on nodule bacteria, culture conditions were optimized by observing the effects of various parameters such as pH, salt content and temperatures on the growth of bacteria. Selected rhizobia were subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA analysis to identify their species. On the basis of RAPD and ARDRA, 10 isolates were identified as Rhizobium meliloti. In this study, Rhizobium GO4, G16, G20, G77, S43, S81, M07, M37, A15 and A55 were observed as the best candidates among the tested bacteria and can be further used as potent bioinoculants.

  17. Management of solid pulmonary nodules; Management solider pulmonaler Rundherde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poschenrieder, F.; Beyer, L.; Stroszczynski, C.; Hamer, O.W. [Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg, Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Regensburg (Germany); Rehbock, B. [Praxis fuer Diagnostische Radiologie am St.-Hedwig-Krankenhaus Berlin-Mitte, Diagnostische Radiologie, Berlin (Germany); Diederich, S. [Marienhospital Duesseldorf, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Duesseldorf (Germany); Wormanns, D. [Evangelische Lungenklinik Berlin, Radiologisches Institut, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    The increasing availability of computed tomography has meant that the number of incidentally detected solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) has greatly increased in recent years. A reasonable management of these SPN is necessary in order to firstly be able to detect malignant lesions early on and secondly to avoid upsetting the patient unnecessarily or carrying out further stressful diagnostic procedures. This review article shows how the dignity of SPNs can be estimated and based on this how the management can be accomplished taking established guidelines into consideration. (orig.) [German] Die steigende Verfuegbarkeit leistungsstarker Computertomographen hat dazu gefuehrt, dass die Anzahl inzidentell detektierter solitaerer Lungenrundherde (''solitary pulmonary nodule'', SPN) in den letzten Jahren deutlich gestiegen ist. Diese SPN muessen einem sinnvollen Management zugefuehrt werden, um einerseits fruehzeitig auf maligne Laesionen reagieren zu koennen und andererseits bei benignen Laesionen eine unnoetige Beunruhigung des Patienten oder eine belastende weiterfuehrende Diagnostik zu vermeiden. Der Uebersichtsartikel stellt dar, wie die Dignitaet eines SPN eingeschaetzt werden kann und wie darauf basierend unter Beruecksichtigung etablierter Leitlinien das Management zielfuehrend gestaltet wird. (orig.)

  18. Nodule detection in digital chest radiography: Effect of anatomical noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, M.; Haakansson, M.; Boerjesson, S.; Hoeschen, C.; Tischenko, O.; Kheddache, S.; Vikgren, J.; Maansson, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    The image background resulting from imaged anatomy can be divided into those components that are meaningful to the observers, in the sense that they are recognised as separate structures, and those that are not. These latter components (referred to as anatomical noise) can be removed using a method developed within the RADIUS group. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the removal of the anatomical noise results in images where lung nodules with lower contrast can be detected. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was therefore conducted using two types of images: clinical chest images and chest images in which the anatomical noise had been removed. Simulated designer nodules with a full-width-at-fifth-maximum of 10 mm but with varying contrast were added to the images. The contrast needed to obtain an area under the ROC curve of 0.80, C0.8, was used as a measure of detectability (a low value of C0.8 represents a high delectability). Five regions of the chest X ray were investigated and it was found that in all regions the removal of anatomical noise led to images with lower C0.8 than the original images. On average, C0.8 was 20% higher in the original images, ranging from 7% (the lateral pulmonary regions) to 41% (the upper mediastinal regions). (authors)

  19. Development of a simulator with thyroid nodules for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, F.C.L.; Peixoto, J.A.; Maciel, M.F.; Souza, D.N.; Cunha, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is one of the methods used to diagnose diseases by the use of ionizing radiation. In this method, a radioisotope is injected into the patient and is directed to the body that should be evaluated. After this the patient is examined by a scintigraphic chamber, which will result in an image to view the organs evaluated. To verify the ability to view the chambers are made of quality control tests using simulators with objects that may have characteristics similar to that of human organs and systems. In this work, an object was made of acrylic thyroid simulator used for quality control in scintillation chamber for use in teaching morphological analysis of the thyroid. To simulate the thyroid nodules were included in the simulator of acrylic columns with different diameters. The analysis of thyroid scintigraphy was also used for quality control tests. These tests were conducted in scintigraphic chamber GE Millennium MG. In quality control was verified the spatial resolution of the equipment. The radiopharmaceutical used was 99m Tc. The phantom image was closer to an image with the presence of thyroid nodules. The simulator thyroid tested in this work can now be used for quality control tests in other scintillation chambers, enabling students and professionals in nuclear medicine know more about the objects simulators. (author)

  20. Update on Molecular Testing for Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Michiya; Nikiforova, Marina

    2018-04-01

    - Approximately 15% to 30% of thyroid nodules that undergo fine-needle aspiration are classified as cytologically indeterminate, presenting management challenges for patients and clinicians alike. During the past several years, several molecular tests have been developed to reduce the diagnostic uncertainty of indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspirations. - To review the methodology, clinical validation, and recent peer-reviewed literature for 4 molecular tests that are currently marketed for cytologically indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspiration specimens: Afirma, ThyroSeq, ThyGenX/ThyraMIR, and RosettaGX Reveal. - Peer-reviewed literature retrieved from PubMed search, data provided by company websites and representatives, and authors' personal experiences. - The 4 commercially available molecular tests for thyroid cytology offer unique approaches to improve the risk stratification of thyroid nodules. Familiarity with data from the validation studies as well as the emerging literature about test performance in the postvalidation setting can help users to select and interpret these tests in a clinically meaningful way.

  1. Rhizobium pongamiae sp. nov. from Root Nodules of Pongamia pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigya Kesari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pongamia pinnata has an added advantage of N2-fixing ability and tolerance to stress conditions as compared with other biodiesel crops. It harbours “rhizobia” as an endophytic bacterial community on its root nodules. A gram-negative, nonmotile, fast-growing, rod-shaped, bacterial strain VKLR-01T was isolated from root nodules of Pongamia that grew optimal at 28°C, pH 7.0 in presence of 2% NaCl. Isolate VKLR-01 exhibits higher tolerance to the prevailing adverse conditions, for example, salt stress, elevated temperatures and alkalinity. Strain VKLR-01T has the major cellular fatty acid as C18:1  ω7c (65.92%. Strain VKLR-01T was found to be a nitrogen fixer using the acetylene reduction assay and PCR detection of a nifH gene. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic distinctiveness and molecular data (16S rRNA, recA, and atpD gene sequences, G + C content, DNA-DNA hybridization etc., strain VKLR-01T = (MTCC 10513T = MSCL 1015T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium for which the name Rhizobium pongamiae sp. nov. is proposed. Rhizobium pongamiae may possess specific traits that can be transferred to other rhizobia through biotechnological tools and can be directly used as inoculants for reclamation of wasteland; hence, they are very important from both economic and environmental prospects.

  2. The natural history of thyroid autonomy and hot nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvilain, B

    2003-02-01

    Solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas are benign monoclonal tumors characterized by their capacity to grow and produce thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) autonomously, i.e. in the absence of thyrotropin (TSH). Mutations of the TSH receptor (TSH-R) have been found in the majority of solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas. On radioisotope scanning they generally appear as hot nodules because they concentrate radioiodide or 99mTc pertechnate, whereas the normal surrounding and contralateral tissue concentrate little isotopes. A toxic adenoma probably evolves gradually from a small autonomously hyperfunctioning adenoma that initially is only slightly more active than the extranodular tissue. This has been referred to as a "warm" nodule or a "compensated" adenoma. The diagnostic criterion for this designation is the persistence of detectable serum TSH maintaining some radioiodine uptake by the extranodular tissue. This "compensated" adenoma persists as long as the autonomous hormone output is not sufficient to suppress thyrotropin, i.e. to cause hyperthyroidism. The rate of development of thyrotoxicosis in patients with hyperfunctioning adenomas who are euthyroid initially is about 4% per year and depends on the size of the adenoma, iodine intake and age of the patient. No clear relationship can be establish between the nature of the TSH receptor mutations and the phenotype of the tumor.

  3. Percutaneous ethanol injection of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules: long-term follow-up in 125 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Luciano; Francica, Giampiero; Sordelli, Ignazio; Sperlongano, Pasquale; Parmeggiani, Domenico; Ripa, Carmine; Parmeggiani, Umberto

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for the treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. One hundred twenty-five patients (88 women, 37 men; age range, 17-76 years; mean age, 53 years) with 127 hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (volume, 1.2-90 mL; mean, 10.3 mL) were treated with PEI. There were 1-11 PEI sessions per patient (average, 3.9) performed, with injection of 1-14 mL of ethanol per session (total injected ethanol per patient, 3-108 mL; mean, 14.0 mL). Efficacy of the treatment was assessed with color Doppler sonography; scintigraphy; and free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) assays. Follow-up (9-144 months; median, 60 months) was performed with TSH and color Doppler sonography every 2 months for 6 months and every 6 months thereafter. Three (2.4%) of 125 patients refused completion of PEI therapy because of pain. Results are reported in 122 patients with 124 nodules. All 122 patients showed posttreatment normal levels of FT3, FT4, and TSH. A complete cure (absent uptake in the nodule and recovery of normal uptake in the thyroid parenchyma) was obtained in 113 (93%) of 122 patients-115 (92.7%) of 124 treated nodules. Residual hyperfunctioning nodular tissue along with decreased thyroid parenchyma uptake (partial cure) was present in nine patients accounting for nine (7.3%) of 124 nodules. Rates of complete cure after PEI were: overall nodules, 115 (92.7%) of 124; nodules nodules > 10 to nodules > 30 to nodules > 60 mL, three (100%) of three. The overall rate of major complications (transient laryngeal nerve damage, two patients; abscess and hematoma, one patient each) was four (3.2%) of 125 patients. Follow-up examinations showed marked shrinkage of 112 treated nodules ranging from 50% to 90% of the pretreatment volume (mean, 66%) and new growth of hyperfunctioning tissue in four patients at color Doppler sonography and scintigraphy at 12

  4. Triple-phase enhanced MSCT in evaluating solitary pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jin'e; Zhao Zhenjun; Liang Changhong; He Hui; Zhang Jia; Ru Guangteng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: An evaluation of the triple-phase enhanced MSCT in the assessment of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). Methods: Prospective study was made on 102 SPN using triple-phase enhanced MSCT, and the net elevation of the CT value of nodules as well as the neoplastic blood vessels were assessed. In total 102 patients were enrolled, including 63 males and 39 females, aged from 17 to 87 years (57.2 years in average). The nodules sized from 2.1 to 4.0 cm (3.3cm in average). Pulmonary carcinoma was proved in 71 cases and benign SPN in 31 cases(including 11 inflammatory pseudo tumors, 6 tuberculosis, 3 inflammatory granulomas, 3 lesions of acute nonspecific inflammation, 3 hamartomas, 3 mycosis and 2 abscesses). The spiral scan was performed on an 8-row detector spiral CT (GE/light speed Qx/I Extra) with 5mm/4 slices. The scan time was 1 second per circle. The 5mm sliced imaging was done for CT value measurement and 1.25mm sliced imaging was for MPR(multiplanar reconstruction) or VR(volume rendering), 20ml Ultravist(300 mg/I) was administered at first at a rate of 4ml/s via forearm superficial vein by a power injector. The peak CT values in pulmonary artery and aorta were to determine the delay time for the acquisition in pulmonary phase and aortal phase. Then Ultravist in a volume of lml/ body kilogram was injected, followed by 50 ml of sodium chloride. Delay phase was 3 minutes. Results: The differences of net increased CT value in three phases were statistically significant respectively between lung cancer and benign nodules (F=30.668, 4.495 and 56.141, respectively, P=0.000, 0.036 and 0. 000, respectively). When the net increased CT value≥20 HU was set as a diagnostic threshold, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predict value, negative predict value and veracity were 93%, 29%, 75%, 64.3% and 73.5%. When net increased CT value ≥20 HU in aortal phase while net increased CT value < 20 HU in pulmonary phase was set as a di- agnostic threshold, those values

  5. Regenerative nodules in patients with chronic Budd-Chiari syndrome: A longitudinal study using multiphase contrast-enhanced multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flor, Nicola; Zuin, Massimo; Brovelli, Francesca; Maggioni, Marco; Tentori, Augusta; Sardanelli, Francesco; Cornalba, Gian Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the serial evolution of regenerative nodules in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) treated with portal-systemic shunts, using multiphasic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: Five patients each underwent three MDCT exams over an extended period ranging from 36 to 42 months. Two radiologists in consensus retrospectively reviewed each exam for each patient. Individual nodules were grouped according to size (size I: nodules with diameter ≤15 mm; size II: >15 mm but <30 mm; size III: ≥30 mm), pattern of enhancement (A: homogeneously hypervascular or B: with central scar), and segmental location. Four nodules classified as size II, which increased in size over time, were needle-biopsied. Results: We detected 61 nodules at the first exam, 66 nodules at the second exam (7 nodules disappeared and 12 new nodules), and 85 nodules at the third exam (8 disappeared and 27 new) for a total of 212 findings. Nodules were mostly found in the right hepatic lobe. Fourteen of the 15 nodules that disappeared over time were size I and enhancement pattern A. At unenhanced MDCT, 204 (96%) of the 212 findings were isodense. Overall, 100 nodules, including the 61 initially detected, were considered newly diagnosed; of these 84 (84%) were size I and pattern A. Of 57 nodules considered size I and pattern A at the first or second exam, 24 (42%) changed to pattern B at the third exam and either size II (n = 18) or III (n = 6). The four biopsied nodules were each confirmed as benign regenerative nodule. No patient developed HCC at 5-year follow-up period. Conclusion: Hepatic nodules in BCS patients not only increase in number over time but may also increase in size and develop a central scar.

  6. Hyper-Echoic Rim in Thyroid Nodules: A New Ultrasonographic Feature for Malignancy Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, YiJie; Zhan, WeiWei; Zhou, JianQiao; Song, LinLin; Ni, XiaoFeng; Zhang, BenYan

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to verify the ultrasound features of hyper-echoic rims in thyroid nodules and to evaluate their diagnostic value in predicting thyroid malignancies. We retrospectively analyzed 228 pathologically proven thyroid nodules (137 malignant and 91 benign nodules). Forty-eight thyroid nodules had a hyper echogenic rim. All malignant nodules (137) were papillary carcinomas, which were studied to identify the correlation between the hyper-echoic rim (detected by ultrasound) and other histologic features. Presence of a hyper-echoic rim had high specificity (94.51%), but low sensitivity (31.39%) in predicting malignancy (p hyper-echogenic rim could be one additional ultrasound parameter in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Spontaneous Regression of Pulmonary Nodules Presenting as Epstein-Barr Virus-related Atypical Infectious Mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozuka, Jun; Awaguni, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Shin-Ichiro; Makino, Shigeru; Maruyama, Rikken; Inaba, Tohru; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary nodules associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related atypical infectious mononucleosis have rarely been described. A 12-year-old Japanese boy, upon admission, revealed multiple small round nodules (a total of 7 nodules in 4 to 8 mm size) in the lungs on computed tomography. The hemorrhagic pharyngeal tonsils with hot signals on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography were biopsied revealing the presence of EBV-encoded small nuclear RNA (EBER)-positive cells; however, no lymphoma was noted. The patient was diagnosed as having atypical EBV-infectious mononucleosis associated with primary EBV infection. Pulmonary nodules markedly reduced in numbers and sizes spontaneously over a 2-year period. Differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules in childhood should include atypical EBV infection.

  8. Innovative techniques for image-guided ablation of benign thyroid nodules: Combined ethanol and radiofrequency ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Sun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Choi, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Hyun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In the treatment of benign thyroid nodules, ethanol ablation (EA), and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have been suggested for cystic and solid thyroid nodules, respectively. Although combining these ablation techniques may be effective, no guidelines for or reviews of the combination have been published. Currently, there are three ways of combining EA and RFA: additional RFA is effective for treatment of incompletely resolved symptoms and solid residual portions of a thyroid nodule after EA. Additional EA can be performed for the residual unablated solid portion of a nodule after RFA if it is adjacent to critical structures (e.g., trachea, esophagus, and recurrent laryngeal nerve). In the concomitant procedure, ethanol is injected to control venous oozing after aspiration of cystic fluid prior to RFA of the remaining solid nodule.

  9. The thyroid nodule. Thyrotropin and peripheral thyroid hormones; Der Schilddruesenknoten. TSH und periphere Hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimny, M. [Klinikum Hanau (Germany). Inst. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-09-15

    Thyrotropin, free triodothyronine and thyroxine represent the standard serological parameters for the diagnostic work-up of the thyroid but only a minority of thyroid nodules present with subclinical or overt thyroid disorders. Besides a review of the regulation and principle of function of thyroid hormones as well as the effects of subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism, the significant role of these parameters beyond the assessment of hyperthyroidism in thyroid nodules is discussed. There is evidence that the level of thyrotropin within the normal range is predictive for the relevance of autonomous functioning nodules and the risk of malignancy of non-functioning thyroid nodules. Furthermore, the ratio of triodothyronine and thyroxine indicates the etiology of hyperthyroidism. Thyrotropin represents the main parameter to determine the adequate dose of thyroid hormone therapy of thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  10. A mixed reality approach for stereo-tomographic quantification of lung nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mianyi; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Yun, Wenbing; Cong, Wenxiang; Yang, Qingsong; Nguyen, Terry; Wei, Biao; Wang, Ge

    2016-05-25

    To reduce the radiation dose and the equipment cost associated with lung CT screening, in this paper we propose a mixed reality based nodule measurement method with an active shutter stereo imaging system. Without involving hundreds of projection views and subsequent image reconstruction, we generated two projections of an iteratively placed ellipsoidal volume in the field of view and merging these synthetic projections with two original CT projections. We then demonstrated the feasibility of measuring the position and size of a nodule by observing whether projections of an ellipsoidal volume and the nodule are overlapped from a human observer's visual perception through the active shutter 3D vision glasses. The average errors of measured nodule parameters are less than 1 mm in the simulated experiment with 8 viewers. Hence, it could measure real nodules accurately in the experiments with physically measured projections.

  11. 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic characterisation of a ferromanganese nodule from the Central Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, R.K.; Chakravortty, V.

    1997-01-01

    The iron bearing phases present in a ferromanganese nodule from the Central Indian Ocean have been determined using 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The Moessbauer results have been corroborated by XRD, IR and TG-DTA studies. The Moessbauer spectrum of a ferromanganese nodule shows a broad line width which indicates the presence of more than one iron bearing paramagnetic oxide or oxyhydroxide phases where iron is present as Fe 3+ . γ-FeOOH has been distinctly characterised as one of the iron bearing phases in the nodule. Other oxyhydroxide and oxide phases of iron in the nodule have been ruled out. A typical paramagnetic doublet persists even at very high temperature which has been proposed to be due to iron(III)phosphate. Formation of solid solution of Mn 2 O 3 -Fe 2 O 3 has been observed in the heat treated nodule at 1073 K, which has been characterised by the Moessbauer technique. (author)

  12. A report of 10 individuals with weathering nodules and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Udkoff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weathering nodules are a benign skin condition that usually present as papules on the helices of patients with significant prior sun exposure. They are easily recognized clinically and blanch upon application of pressure to the adjacent helical rim: a positive blanch sign. We describe the clinical presentation of weathering nodules in 10 patients, nine men and one woman, aging from 38 to 70 (median 59, and their associated risk factors. Eight patients had a history of actinic keratosis, three had a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer, and all patients had increased Sun exposure through outdoor activities. Weathering nodules are rarely mentioned in the literature and may be confused with other cutaneous disorders. Therefore, it is paramount for clinicians to become familiar with weathering nodules and include them in the differential diagnosis of ear nodules. Appropriate diagnosis will help avoid unnecessary biopsies while reassuring the patient that the lesions are benign.

  13. Discriminative Localization in CNNs for Weakly-Supervised Segmentation of Pulmonary Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinyang; Yang, Jie; Laine, Andrew F; Angelini, Elsa D

    2017-09-01

    Automated detection and segmentation of pulmonary nodules on lung computed tomography (CT) scans can facilitate early lung cancer diagnosis. Existing supervised approaches for automated nodule segmentation on CT scans require voxel-based annotations for training, which are labor- and time-consuming to obtain. In this work, we propose a weakly-supervised method that generates accurate voxel-level nodule segmentation trained with image-level labels only. By adapting a convolutional neural network (CNN) trained for image classification, our proposed method learns discriminative regions from the activation maps of convolution units at different scales, and identifies the true nodule location with a novel candidate-screening framework. Experimental results on the public LIDC-IDRI dataset demonstrate that, our weakly-supervised nodule segmentation framework achieves competitive performance compared to a fully-supervised CNN-based segmentation method.

  14. Evaluation of thyroid nodule characteristics in subclinical hypothyroid patients under a myo-inositol plus selenium treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, M; Basciani, S

    2018-04-01

    The anticancer effect of myo-inositol (MI) is catching researchers' attention worldwide. Thyroid nodules (TNs) have been detected by ultrasound (US) in up to 76% of the general population and, although most of them are benign, thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. A retrospective, observational study was conducted in 642 patients with suspected hypothyroidism undergoing US. The analysis was addressed exclusively to patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels borderline associated to TNs classified as class I and II; 1 group (control, no. 16) no treatment was prescribed; the other group (treated, no. 18) underwent treatment with 1 tablet containing MI plus selenium (Se) every day, for six months. Clinical data were collected to evaluate the nodular size, number, and elasticity, as well as TSH levels. Final data were analyzed from 34 patients: in 76% of mixed TNs was observed a significant reduction of their size and 56% of them significantly regressed nodule stiffness following oral supplementation with MI plus Se. The mean number of mixed nodules for patient shifted from 1.39 ± 0.16 to 1.05 ± 0.15 (p ≤ 0.05). TSH levels dropped from 4.2 ± 0.21 mIU/L at baseline to 2.1 ± 0.20 mIU/L post-treatment (p treatment with MI plus Se, a reduction of the size, number and elasticity score of TNs as well as TSH levels was observed. Further studies are required, either in vitro and in vivo, to investigate the use of MI plus Se for the management of TNs.

  15. Differential diagnosis and cancer staging of a unique case with multiple nodules in the lung - lung adenocarcinoma, metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma, and colon adenocarcinoma metastasizing to lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yun; Qiu, Jianxing; Shang, Xueqian; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Xiong, Yan; Li, Ting

    2015-05-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Despite this, there have been few cases of simultaneous primary and metastatic cancers in the lung reported, let alone coexisting with tumor-to-tumor metastasis. Herein, we describe an extremely unusual case. A 61-year-old man with a history of colon adenocarcinoma was revealed as having three nodules in the lung 11 months after colectomy. The nodule in the left upper lobe was primary lung adenocarcinoma, the larger one in the right upper lobe was a metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma, and the smaller one in the right upper lobe was colon adenocarcinoma metastasizing to lung adenocarcinoma. Our paper focused on the differential diagnosis and cancer staging of this unique case, and discussed the uncommon phenomenon of the lung acting as a recipient in tumor-to-tumor metastasis.

  16. Selenium hyperaccumulation by Astragalus (Fabaceae) does not inhibit root nodule symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Elan R; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H; Fakra, Sirine C; Paschke, Mark W

    2012-12-01

    A survey of the root-nodule symbiosis in Astragalus and its interaction with selenium (Se) has not been conducted before. Such studies can provide insight into how edaphic conditions modify symbiotic interactions and influence partner coevolution. In this paper plant-organ Se concentration ([Se]) was investigated to assess potential Se exposure to endophytes. • Selenium distribution and molecular speciation of root nodules from Se-hyperaccumulators Astragalus bisulcatus, A. praelongus, and A. racemosus was determined by Se K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to characterize the response of root-nodule symbiosis in Se-hyperaccumulators and nonhyperaccumulators. • Nodules in three Se-hyperaccumulators (Astragalus crotalariae, A. praelongus, and A. preussii) are reported for the first time. Leaves, flowers, and fruits from Se-hyperaccumulators were routinely above the hyperaccumulator threshold (1,000 µg Se g(-1) DW), but root samples rarely contained that amount, and nodules never exceeded 110 µg Se g(-1) DW. Nodules from A. bisulcatus, A. praelongus, and A. racemosus had Se throughout, with a majority stored in C-Se-C form. Finally, an evaluation of nodulation in Se-hyperaccumulators and nonhyperaccumulators indicated that there was no nodulation inhibition because of plant Se tolerance. Rather, we found that in Se-hyperaccumulators higher levels of Se treatment (up to 100 µM Se) corresponded with higher nodule counts, indicating a potential role for dinitrogen fixation in Se-hyperaccumulation. The effect was not found in nonhyperaccumulators. • As the evolution of Se hyperaccumulation in Astragalus developed, root-nodule symbiosis may have played an integral role.

  17. Rare earth element geochemistry of oceanic ferromanganese nodules and associated sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderfield, H.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Greaves, M. J.; Calvert, S. E.

    1981-04-01

    Analyses have been made of REE contents of a well-characterized suite of deep-sea (> 4000 m.) principally todorokite-bearing ferromanganese nodules and associated sediments from the Pacific Ocean. REE in nodules and their sediments are closely related: nodules with the largest positive Ce anomalies are found on sediments with the smallest negative Ce anomalies; in contrast, nodules with the highest contents of other rare earths (3 + REE) are found on sediments with the lowest 3 + REE contents and vice versa. 143Nd /144Nd ratios in the nodules (˜0.51244) point to an original seawater source but an identical ratio for sediments in combination with the REE patterns suggests that diagenetic reactions may transfer elements into the nodules. Analysis of biogenic phases shows that the direct contribution of plankton and carbonate and siliceous skeletal materials to REE contents of nodules and sediments is negligible. Inter-element relationships and leaching tests suggest that REE contents are controlled by a P-rich phase with a REE pattern similar to that for biogenous apatite and an Fe-rich phase with a pattern the mirror image of that for sea water. It is proposed that 3 + REE concentrations are controlled by the surface chemistry of these phases during diagenetic reactions which vary with sediment accumulation rate. Processes which favour the enrichment of transition metals in equatorial Pacific nodules favour the depletion of 3 + REE in nodules and enrichment of 3 + REE in associated sediments. In contrast, Ce appears to be added both to nodules and sediments directly from seawater and is not involved in diagenetic reactions.

  18. Lung nodule detection on chest CT: evaluation of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Jae; Gamsu, Gordon; Czum, Julianna; Johnson, Rebecca; Chakrapani, Sanjay; Wu, Ning

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the capacity of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system to detect lung nodules in clinical chest CT. A total of 210 consecutive clinical chest CT scans and their reports were reviewed by two chest radiologists and 70 were selected (33 without nodules and 37 with 1-6 nodules, 4-15.4 mm in diameter). The CAD system (ImageChecker CT LN-1000) developed by R2 Technology, Inc. (Sunnyvale, CA) was used. Its algorithm was designed to detect nodules with a diameter of 4-20 mm. The two chest radiologists working with the CAD system detected a total of 78 nodules. These 78 nodules form the database for this study. Four independent observers interpreted the studies with and without the CAD system. The detection rates of the four independent observers without CAD were 81% (63/78), 85% (66/78), 83% (65/78), and 83% (65/78), respectively. With CAD their rates were 87% (68/78), 85% (66/78), 86% (67/78), and 85% (66/78), respectively. The differences between these two sets of detection rates did not reach statistical significance. In addition, CAD detected eight nodules that were not mentioned in the original clinical radiology reports. The CAD system produced 1.56 false-positive nodules per CT study. The four test observers had 0, 0.1, 0.17, and 0.26 false-positive results per study without CAD and 0.07, 0.2, 0.23, and 0.39 with CAD, respectively. The CAD system can assist radiologists in detecting pulmonary nodules in chest CT, but with a potential increase in their false positive rates. Technological improvements to the system could increase the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of pulmonary nodules and reduce these false-positive results

  19. Usefulness of CT-guided automatic needle biopsy of solitary pulmonary nodule smaller than 15 mm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Gong Yong; Lim, Yeong Su

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy for the solitary pulmonary nodules smaller than 15 mm in diameter. Between April 2002 and May 2003, we evaluated twenty-five patients (11 men, 14 women, mean ages: 52.5 years) who had solitary pulmonary nodules, which we could not discriminate as being benign or malignant on the CT findings. All the subjects had CT-guided percutaenous cutting needle biopsy (PCNB) performed on them at our institution. A definitive diagnosis of benignity or malignancy was established to retrospectively analyze the patient's records. We evaluated the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and complications of PCNB for the definitive diagnosis of benignity or malignancy. The sensitivity and specificity of PCNB were determined using the Chi-square test, and the correlations with pneumothorax and emphysema after biopsy were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. In two nodules of the twenty-five nodules, no definitive diagnosis could be established. Of the remaining twenty-three nodules, 7 (30.4%) were malignant and 16 (69.6%) were benign. Twenty (87%) of the twenty-three definitively diagnosed nodules were correctly diagnosed with PCNB. Of the twenty nodules, 6 (30%) were malignant and 14 (70%) were benign. The sensitivity and specificity of the malignant nodules were 85.7% (6/7) and 100% (16/16), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the benign nodules were 87.5% (14/16) and 85.7% (6/7), respectively. Post-biopsy complication occurred in nine patients (36%): Hemoptysis (n=4, 16%) and pneumothorax (n=5, 20%). However, there was not a statistical significance between pneumothorax and emphysema after biopsy (r=0.3, p=0.15). When CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy of the solitary pulmonary nodules smaller than 15 mm in diameter was performed without an on-site cytopathologist, we know that PCNB can yield high diagnostic accuracy and very few complications

  20. Incidental splenic nodules found on MR imaging done for assessment of iron overload in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyad, Rayan A.; Lam, Christopher Z.; Navarro, Oscar M.; Shearkhani, Omid

    2017-01-01

    MR imaging is used to assess iron overload in patients with hemoglobinopathies and in those who have undergone multiple blood transfusions. Sometimes splenic nodules are found incidentally on these examinations and this may cause diagnostic uncertainty. To determine the prevalence, imaging characteristics and evolution of splenic nodules found on MR imaging for iron overload evaluation. Retrospective review of all MR imaging examinations performed for iron overload assessment from 2005 to 2015 in a tertiary pediatric hospital. The presence of focal splenic nodules including number, size, signal characteristics and changes on follow-up MR imaging were recorded. Relevant patient clinical information including underlying hematological disease was also documented. A total of 318 patients had MR imaging for iron overload assessment. Of these, 25 (8%) had at least one incidental splenic nodule. Sickle cell disease was present in 22 patients (88%) and thalassemia in 3 (12%). On intermediate-weighted spin-echo images, the nodules had high signal intensity compared to the remainder of the spleen in 23 patients (92%) and low signal intensity in the remaining 2 (8%). In all patients (100%) the nodules showed progressive loss of signal intensity with increasing echo time values. Follow-up MR imaging was performed in 20 (80%) patients, which showed an increase in the size of the splenic nodules in 7 patients (35%) stability in 11 (55%) and a decrease in size in 2 (10%). It is not uncommon to find splenic nodules during MR evaluation of iron overload. In patients with sickle cell disease, most of these nodules are thought to represent preserved splenic tissue and appear hyperintense compared to the remainder of the spleen. They frequently remain stable on follow-up imaging, although about a third of them may show growth. Awareness of these nodules is important to avoid concern for potential malignancy and unnecessary investigations. (orig.)