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Sample records for galleria mellonella linnaeus

  1. Effect of gamma radiation and entomopathogenic nematodes on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus) [Lep., Pyralidae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a lepidoptera insect; its larval stage, feeds on wax and pollen stored in combs of active honey bee colonies (Milam, 1970). It does not attack adult bees but destructs combs of a weak colony by chewing the comb; spinning silk-lined tunnels through the cell wall and over the face of the comb, which prevent the bees to emerge by their abdomen from their cell, so they die by starvation as they unable to escape from their cell. They also eat out a place to spin their cocoons in the soft wood of the bee hive. Galleria mellonella can also destroy stored honey combs. Therefore, it is considered a major pest of the honeybee. Damage will vary with the level of infestation and the time that has elapsed since the infestation first began. In time, stored combs may be completely destroyed and the frames and combs become filled with a mass of tough, silky web. In ideal conditions for wax moth development, a box (super) of combs may be rendered useless in about a week. Damage occurs mainly in the warm and hot months of the year when wax moths are most active. However, considerable damage can still occur during the cool part of late autumn and early spring as greater wax moth can produce a large amount of metabolic heat which can raise the immediate temperature around them by up to 25 degree C above the normal environment temperature. At the time of storage, combs that are apparently free of wax moth may contain eggs that will hatch later. They should be monitored

  2. Eficiência do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 no controle da traça da cera Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 for control of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Deodoro Magno Brighenti

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner no controle de Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos do Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, a 28±2ºC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Aplicou-se formulação comercial de B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki por meio de pulverização, imersão dos favos e também foi incorporada à dieta artificial fornecida às lagartas de terceiro ínstar da traça da cera. A aplicação do produto fitossanitário por meio da pulverização dos favos mostrou-se eficiente no controle de lagartas, atingindo níveis iguais ou superiores a 85% de mortalidade quando foram utilizados 5 g/100 mL de água. Na aplicação por imersão dos favos, todas as dosagens testadas foram eficientes atingindo até 100% de mortalidade. Adicionada à dieta artificial, a concentração com maior porcentagem de mortalidade foi de 10g/60g de dieta. Sintomas de infecção pelo B. thuringiensis foram identificados nas lagartas e o isolamento da bactéria, por meio de uma cultura de Bacillus, comprovou a causa da morte desses insetos em todas as dosagens da formulação comercial do B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki utilizadas.This research aim at evaluating the efficiency of Bacillus thruringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner in the control of Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus.The experiments were conducted in the Insect Biology Laboratory of the Entomology Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brazil, at 28±2ºC, RH 70±10% and 12-hour photophase. Commercial formulation of B. thuringiensis. var. kurstaki was applied through spraying, comb soaking and also incorporated into the artificial diet fed to third instar caterpillars of the greater wax moth. Application of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki through the spraying of the combs was efficient for control, reaching levels

  3. Capacidade reprodutiva de fêmeas de Apanteles galleriae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae em lagartas de Galleria mellonella e Achroia grisella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae criadas com dietas diferentes Reproductive capacity of Apanteles galleriae females (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in Galleria mellonella and Achroia grisella larvae (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae reared on different diets

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    Giuliano Grici Zacarin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive capacity of females of Apanteles galleriae (Wilkinson, 1932 was evaluated in fifth instar caterpillars of Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 and Achroia grisella (Fabricius, 1754 fed on standard diet and diets enriched with protein. The reproductive capacity of parasitoid females on fifth instar caterpillars of G. mellonella and A. grisella with variable weight was also evaluated. The host weight interfered in the sex ratio of the obtained parasitoids. In heavier caterpillars, the investment in female descendants was greater than in males, and in lighter caterpillars the inverse occurred.

  4. Fusarium pathogenesis investigated using Galleria mellonella as a heterologous host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Muhammed, Maged; Kasperkovitz, Pia V.; Vyas, Jatin M.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2011-01-01

    Members of the fungal genus Fusarium are capable of manifesting in a multitude of clinical infections, most commonly in immunocompromised patients. In order to better understand the interaction between the fungus and host, we have developed the larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, as a heterologous host for fusaria. When conidia are injected into the hemocoel of this Lepidopteran system, both clinical and environmental isolates of the fungus are able to kill the larvae at 37°C, although killing occurs more rapidly when incubated at 30°C. This killing was dependent on several other factors besides temperature, including the Fusarium strain, the number of conidia injected, and the conidia morphology, where macroconidia are more virulent than their microconidia counterpart. There was a correlation in the killing rate of Fusarium spp. when evaluated in G. mellonella and a murine model. In vivo studies indicated G. mellonella hemocytes were capable of initially phagocytosing both conidial morphologies. The G. mellonella system was also used to evaluate antifungal agents, and amphotericin B was able to confer a significant increase in survival to Fusarium infected-larvae. The G. mellonella-Fusarium pathogenicity system revealed that virulence of Fusarium spp. is similar, regardless of the origin of the isolate, and that mammalian endothermy is a major deterrent for Fusarium infection and therefore provides a suitable alternative to mammalian models to investigate the interaction between the host and this increasingly important fungal pathogen. PMID:22115447

  5. The Biology and Control of the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella.

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    Kwadha, Charles A; Ong'amo, George O; Ndegwa, Paul N; Raina, Suresh K; Fombong, Ayuka T

    2017-06-09

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella Linnaeus , is a ubiquitous pest of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus, and Apis cerana Fabricius . The greater wax moth larvae burrow into the edge of unsealed cells with pollen, bee brood, and honey through to the midrib of honeybee comb. Burrowing larvae leave behind masses of webs which causes galleriasis and later absconding of colonies. The damage caused by G. mellonella larvae is severe in tropical and sub-tropical regions, and is believed to be one of the contributing factors to the decline in both feral and wild honeybee populations. Previously, the pest was considered a nuisance in honeybee colonies, therefore, most studies have focused on the pest as a model for in vivo studies of toxicology and pathogenicity. It is currently widespread, especially in Africa, and the potential of transmitting honeybee viruses has raised legitimate concern, thus, there is need for more studies to find sustainable integrated management strategies. However, our knowledge of this pest is limited. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the biology, distribution, economic damage, and management options. In addition, we provide prospects that need consideration for better understanding and management of the pest.

  6. A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

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    Wendy Kloezen

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility towards antifungal agents are not well understood. This is because grain formation cannot be induced in vitro; a mammalian host is necessary to induce its formation. Until now, invertebrate hosts were never used to study grain formation in M. mycetomatis. In this study we determined if larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used to induce grain formation when infected with M. mycetomatis. Three different M. mycetomatis strains were selected and three different inocula for each strain were used to infect G. mellonella larvae, ranging from 0.04 mg/larvae to 4 mg/larvae. Larvae were monitored for 10 days. It appeared that most larvae survived the lowest inoculum, but at the highest inoculum all larvae died within the 10 day observation period. At all inocula tested, grains were formed within 4 hours after infection. The grains produced in the larvae resembled those formed in human and in mammalian hosts. In conclusion, the M. mycetomatis grain model in G. mellonella larvae described here could serve as a useful model to study the grain formation and therapeutic responses towards antifungal agents in the future.

  7. Hearing and evasive behavior in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Niels; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2000-01-01

    Greater wax moths (Galleria mellonella L., Pyraloidea) use ultrasound sensitive ears to detect clicking conspeci®cs and echolocating bats. Pyralid ears have four sensory cells, A1±4. The audiogram of G. mellonella has best frequency at 60 kHz with a threshold around 47 dB sound pressure level. A1...

  8. Coronatin-2 from the entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus kills Galleria mellonella larvae and incapacitates hemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguś, M I; Wieloch, W; Ligęza-Żuber, M

    2017-02-01

    Coronatin-2, a 14.5 kDa protein, was isolated from culture filtrates of the entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Costantin) Batko (Entomophthoramycota: Entomophthorales). After LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) analysis of the tryptic peptide digest of coronatin-2 and a mass spectra database search no orthologs of this protein could be found in fungi. The highest homology was observed to the partial translation elongation factor 1a from Sphaerosporium equinum (protein sequence coverage, 21%), with only one peptide sequence, suggesting that coronatin-2 is a novel fungal protein that has not yet been described. In contrast to coronatin-1, an insecticidal 36 kDa protein, which shows both elastolytic and chitinolytic activity, coronatin-2 showed no enzymatic activity. Addition of coronatin-2 into cultures of hemocytes taken from larvae of Galleria mellonella Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), resulted in progressive disintegration of nets formed by granulocytes and plasmatocytes due to rapid degranulation of granulocytes, extensive vacuolization of plasmatocytes accompanied by cytoplasm expulsion, and cell disintegration. Spherulocytes remained intact, while oenocytes rapidly disintegrated. Coronatin-2 produced 80% mortality when injected into G. mellonella at 5 µg larva-1. Further study is warranted to determine the relevance of the acute toxicity of coronatin-2 and its effects on hemocytes in vitro to virulence of C. coronatus against its hosts.

  9. The Effects of Biopesticide Azadirachtin on the Fifth Instar Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larval Integument

    OpenAIRE

    Ünsal, Sadettin; Güner, Emine

    2016-01-01

    The chitin synthesis inhibitory (CSI) effects of azadirachtin on the fifth instar Galleria mellonella L. larval integument were investigated. Using probit analysis, the LC95 value for G. mellonella larvae was detected as 3991 ppm. In this study, 3991 ppm and the reduced 1995, 997, and 498 ppm concentrations were used. It was observed that azadirachtin had different effects on the integument when the larvae were fed semi-synthetic feed containing 498, 997, 1995, or 3991 ppm azadirachtin. Morph...

  10. Effect of reserpine on development and its neuro-endocrine regulation in Galleria mellonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cymborowski, B.; Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    1975-01-01

    1. Studies were made on the effect of reserpine on development and its neuro-endocrine regulation in Galleria mellonella. It was shown that resperine greatly restricts the development of this insect. 2. Reserpine causes inhibition of the activity of the neurosecretory cells of pars intercerebralis...

  11. Ultrastructure changes in the haemocytes of Galleria mellonella larvae treated with gamma irradiated Steinernema carpocapsae BA2

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    Hedayat-allah M. Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure studies on the haemolymph of 5th larval instar of Galleria mellonella showed five types of haemocytes; Prohaemocytes, Plasmatocytes, Granulocytes, Oenocytoids and Spherulocytes. After treatment with Steinernema carpocapsae BA2, the haemocytes underwent considerable structural changes. More destructive effects were observed in the haemocytes of G. mellonella treated with gamma irradiated S. carpocapsae.

  12. Myricetin protects Galleria mellonella against Staphylococcus aureus infection and inhibits multiple virulence factors

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    Nogueira-Silva, L; Da Hora, G. C.A.; Soares, Goncalo Teofilo Afonso Pinheiro

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen related to a variety of life-threatening infections but for which antimicrobial resistance is liming the treatment options. We report here that myricetin, but not its glycosylated form, can remarkably decrease the production of several S. aureus ...... in the Galleria mellonella model. The present findings reveal the potential of Myr as an alternative multi-target antivirulence candidate to control S. aureus pathogenicity....

  13. Galleria mellonella L. as model organism used in biomedical and other studies

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    Mikulak, Ewa; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Przygodzka, Marta; Solecka, Jolanta

    2018-01-01

    Comparative of studies of genomes of invertebrates and humans shows that in invertebrates including insects there are numerous homologues of human’s genes coding proteins involved in recognition pathogens or transduction of the expression signal. Thanks this features, insects such as Drosophila melanogaster M., Blattella germanica L., Culex quinquefasciatus S., Bombyx mori L. and Galleria mellonella L. are used in studies on virulence, host resistance or in assessing the in vivo efficacy of antibiotics, fungicides and other biologically active substances. G. mellonella (greater wax moth) are rapid growth, high fertility, size and short life cycle insects- these are features that should be met by good model organisms; therefore the number of researches with larvae of wax moth as the model organism for pathogens assays grows from year to year. This is showing by number of scientific publications about infection’s model of G. mellonella. An obstacle in the wide use of G. mellonella caterpillars as a model in biomedical research is the lack of standardized breeding of these insects, which would guarantee the reproducibility of the obtained results and lack of procedures and standards according to which biomedical research will be carried out. Despite this, the G. mellonella model can be used in the initial analysis before conventional in vivo tests and to reduce the number of tests performed on mammals.

  14. Anti-Legionella dumoffii Activity of Galleria mellonella Defensin and Apolipophorin III

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    Małgorzata Cytryńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The gram-negative bacterium Legionella dumoffii is, beside Legionella pneumophila, an etiological agent of Legionnaires’ disease, an atypical form of pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of Galleria mellonella defense polypeptides against L. dumoffii. The extract of immune hemolymph, containing a mixture of defense peptides and proteins, exhibited a dose-dependent bactericidal effect on L. dumoffii. The bacterium appeared sensitive to a main component of the hemolymph extract, apolipophorin III, as well as to a defense peptide, Galleria defensin, used at the concentrations 0.4 mg/mL and 40 μg/mL, respectively. L. dumoffii cells cultured in the presence of choline were more susceptible to both defense factors analyzed. A transmission electron microscopy study of bacterial cells demonstrated that Galleria defensin and apolipophorin III induced irreversible cell wall damage and strong intracellular alterations, i.e., increased vacuolization, cytoplasm condensation and the appearance of electron-white spaces in electron micrographs. Our findings suggest that insects, such as G. mellonella, with their great diversity of antimicrobial factors, can serve as a rich source of compounds for the testing of Legionella susceptibility to defense-related peptides and proteins.

  15. Two symbiotic bacteria of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis spp. against Galleria mellonella.

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    Liao, Chunli; Gao, Along; Li, Bingbing; Wang, Mengjun; Shan, Linna

    2017-03-01

    The entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis spp. is considered a promising agent in the biocontrol of injurious insects of agriculture. However, different symbiotic bacteria associated with the nematode usually have different specificity and virulence toward their own host. In this study, two symbiotic bacteria, LY2W and NK, were isolated from the intestinal canals of two entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis megidis 90 (PDSj1 and PDSj2) from Galleria mellonela, separately. To determine their species classification, we carried out some investigations on morphology, culture, biochemistry, especially 16S rDNA sequence analyses. As a result, both of them belong to Enterobacter spp., showing the closest relatedness with Enterobacter gergoviae (LY2W) and Enterobacter cloacae (NK), respectively. Moreover, the toxicity to Galleria mellonella was examined using both the metabolites and washed cells (primary and secondary) of these two strains. The results indicated both metabolites and cells of the primary-type bacteria could cause high mortalities (up to 97%) to Galleria mellonella, while those of the primary-type bacteria only killed 20%. These findings would provide new symbiotic bacteria and further references for biological control of the agricultural pest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermal requirements of Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) immature stages; Exigencias termicas de estagios imaturos de Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

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    Cardoso, Aline C.; Prezoto, Fabio [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Biologicas]. E-mail: ac-bio@bol.com.br; fprezoto@icb.ufjf.br; Prata, Marcia C. de A.; Furlong, John [EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: mprata@cnpgl.embrapa.br, john@cnpgl.embrapa.br

    2007-09-15

    The rearing of Galleria mellonella L. in laboratory is important for multiplication of entomopathogenic nematodes, mandatory for biological control studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three thermal profiles on development stages of this insect, allowing synchronization of cycle production. Two distinct rearing phases were done: firstly, using nucleous of incubation for development of eggs and, secondly, using circular-aluminum manifolds for development of larvae and pupae. The time necessary for development of the immature stages decreased with higher temperatures. Incubation periods lasted 13.4 days at 22 deg C, 8.3 at 27 deg C and 6.8 days at 32 deg C, while periods for larvae development lasted 40.4, 27.2, and 23.4 days, respectively, for the same temperatures. Development to pupal stage was observed 18.2, 15.0, and 12.2 days, respectively, for the same temperatures. Larval survival was higher at 32 deg C, however embryonic stages and pupae survival were higher at 27 deg C and 22 deg C, respectively. The threshold temperature was 11.209167 deg C for the embryonic development stage, 7.695869 deg C for larval stage, and 1.943050 deg C for pupal stage of G. mellonella. Thermal constants were 138.380533 DG (degree day) for egg, 554.968830 DG for larvae, and 369.054080 DG for pupae. (author)

  17. Transcript Abundance of Photorhabdus Insect-Related (Pir Toxin in Manduca sexta and Galleria mellonella Infections

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    Anaïs Castagnola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed pirAB toxin transcription in Photorhabdus luminescens laumondii (strain TT01 (Enterobacteriaceae by comparing mRNA abundance under in vivo and in vitro conditions. In vivo assays considered both natural and forced infections with two lepidopteran hosts: Galleria mellonella and Manduca sexta. Three portals of entry were utilized for the forced infection assays: (a integument; (b the digestive route (via mouth and anus; and (c the tracheal route (via spiracles. We also assessed plu4093-2 transcription during the course of a natural infection; this is when the bacteria are delivered by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes. Transcript abundance in G. mellonella was higher than in M. sexta at two of the observed time points: 15 and 18 h. Expression of pirAB plu4093-2 reached above endogenous control levels at 22 h in G. mellonella but not in M. sexta. Overall, pirAB plu4093-2 transcripts were not as highly expressed in M. sexta as in G. mellonella, from 15 to 22 h. This is the first study to directly compare pirAB plu4093-2 toxin transcript production considering different portals of entry.

  18. Lactobacillus paracasei modulates the immune system of Galleria mellonella and protects against Candida albicans infection.

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    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Velloso, Marisol Dos Santos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics have been described as a potential strategy to control opportunistic infections due to their ability to stimulate the immune system. Using the non-vertebrate model host Galleria mellonella, we evaluated whether clinical isolates of Lactobacillus spp. are able to provide protection against Candida albicans infection. Among different strains of Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus fermentum, we verified that L. paracasei 28.4 strain had the greatest ability to prolong the survival of larvae infected with a lethal dose of C. albicans. We found that the injection of 107 cells/larvae of L. paracasei into G. mellonella larvae infected by C. albicans increased the survival of these insects compared to the control group (P = 0.0001). After that, we investigated the immune mechanisms involved in the protection against C. albicans infection, evaluating the number of hemocytes and the gene expression of antifungal peptides. We found that L. paracasei increased the hemocyte quantity (2.38 x 106 cells/mL) in relation to the control group (1.29 x 106 cells/mL), indicating that this strain is capable of raising the number of circulating hemocytes into the G. mellonella hemolymph. Further, we found that L. paracasei 28.4 upregulated genes that encode the antifungal peptides galiomicin and gallerymicin. In relation to the control group, L. paracasei 28.4 increased gene expression of galiomicin by 6.67-fold and 17.29-fold for gallerymicin. Finally, we verified that the prophylactic provision of probiotic led to a significant reduction of the number of fungal cells in G. mellonella hemolymph. In conclusion, L. paracasei 28.4 can modulate the immune system of G. mellonella and protect against candidiasis.

  19. Lactobacillus paracasei modulates the immune system of Galleria mellonella and protects against Candida albicans infection

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    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Velloso, Marisol dos Santos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics have been described as a potential strategy to control opportunistic infections due to their ability to stimulate the immune system. Using the non-vertebrate model host Galleria mellonella, we evaluated whether clinical isolates of Lactobacillus spp. are able to provide protection against Candida albicans infection. Among different strains of Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus fermentum, we verified that L. paracasei 28.4 strain had the greatest ability to prolong the survival of larvae infected with a lethal dose of C. albicans. We found that the injection of 107 cells/larvae of L. paracasei into G. mellonella larvae infected by C. albicans increased the survival of these insects compared to the control group (P = 0.0001). After that, we investigated the immune mechanisms involved in the protection against C. albicans infection, evaluating the number of hemocytes and the gene expression of antifungal peptides. We found that L. paracasei increased the hemocyte quantity (2.38 x 106 cells/mL) in relation to the control group (1.29 x 106 cells/mL), indicating that this strain is capable of raising the number of circulating hemocytes into the G. mellonella hemolymph. Further, we found that L. paracasei 28.4 upregulated genes that encode the antifungal peptides galiomicin and gallerymicin. In relation to the control group, L. paracasei 28.4 increased gene expression of galiomicin by 6.67-fold and 17.29-fold for gallerymicin. Finally, we verified that the prophylactic provision of probiotic led to a significant reduction of the number of fungal cells in G. mellonella hemolymph. In conclusion, L. paracasei 28.4 can modulate the immune system of G. mellonella and protect against candidiasis. PMID:28267809

  20. Fluorimetric determination of hydrogen peroxide production by the haemocytes of the wax moth Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašíček, Ondřej; Papežíková, Ivana; Hyršl, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 3 (2011), s. 481-485 ISSN 1210-5759 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP206/09/P470 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : Galleria mellonella * fluorescence * hydrogen peroxide Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.061, year: 2011

  1. Susceptibility of irradiated Galleria mellonella F1Larvae to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, H.M.; Rizk, S.A.; Sayed, R.M.; Hussein, M.A; Hafez, S.E

    2008-01-01

    Combined effect of substerilizing doses of gamma radiation (40 and 100 Gy) and different concentrations of entomopathogenic nematodes (20, 40, 60, and 80 IJs) on the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella was studied. The 4th larval instar resulted from irradiated male parent pupae mated with normal female were tested for susceptibility to Heterorhabditis bacteriophora BA1 and Steinernema carpocapsae BA2. The mortality rate of the larvae increased by increrasing radiation dose and nematode concentrations. The reproduction of both nematode strains decreased significantly with increasing the treatments (radiation dose and nematode concentrations). In addition, exposure to gamma radiation and entomopathogenic nematodes significantly decreased the total haemocyte count (THC) of the larvae with increasing radiation doses (40 and 100 Gy) and both nematode strains concentrations (20 and 40 IJs) and reached the minimal count at the combiend effect. Finally, larvae were more susceptible to Steinernema carpocapsa than Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. (author)

  2. Cryptococcus neoformans capsular enlargement and cellular gigantism during Galleria mellonella infection.

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    Rocío García-Rodas

    Full Text Available We have studied infection of Cryptococcus neoformans in the non-vertebrate host Galleria mellonella with particular interest in the morphological response of the yeast. Inoculation of C. neoformans in caterpillars induced a capsule-independent increase in haemocyte density 2 h after infection. C. neoformans manifested a significant increase in capsule size after inoculation into the caterpillar. The magnitude of capsule increase depended on the temperature, being more pronounced at 37°C than at 30°C, which correlated with an increased virulence of the fungus and reduced phagocytosis at 37°C. Capsule enlargement impaired phagocytosis by haemocytes. Incubation of the yeast in G. mellonella extracts also resulted in capsule enlargement, with the polar lipidic fraction having a prominent role in this effect. During infection, the capsule decreased in permeability. A low proportion of the cells (<5% recovered from caterpillars measured more than 30 µm and were considered giant cells. Giant cells recovered from mice were able to kill the caterpillars in a manner similar to regular cells obtained from in vivo or grown in vitro, establishing their capacity to cause disease. Our results indicate that the morphological transitions exhibited by C. neoformans in mammals also occur in a non-vertebrate host system. The similarities in morphological transitions observed in different animal hosts and in their triggers are consistent with the hypothesis that the cell body and capsular responses represent an adaptation of environmental survival strategies to pathogenesis.

  3. The Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo model for evaluation of Shigella virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoy, Shoshana; Gancz, Hanan; Zhu, Yuewei; Honnold, Cary L; Zurawski, Daniel V; Venkatesan, Malabi M

    2017-07-04

    Shigella spp. causing bacterial diarrhea and dysentery are human enteroinvasive bacterial pathogens that are orally transmitted through contaminated food and water and cause bacillary dysentery. Although natural Shigella infections are restricted to humans and primates, several smaller animal models are used to analyze individual steps in pathogenesis. No animal model fully duplicates the human response and sustaining the models requires expensive animals, costly maintenance of animal facilities, veterinary services and approved animal protocols. This study proposes the development of the caterpillar larvae of Galleria mellonella as a simple, inexpensive, informative, and rapid in-vivo model for evaluating virulence and the interaction of Shigella with cells of the insect innate immunity. Virulent Shigella injected through the forelegs causes larvae death. The mortality rates were dependent on the Shigella strain, the infectious dose, and the presence of the virulence plasmid. Wild-type S. flexneri 2a, persisted and replicated within the larvae, resulting in haemocyte cell death, whereas plasmid-cured mutants were rapidly cleared. Histology of the infected larvae in conjunction with fluorescence, immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy indicate that S. flexneri reside within a vacuole of the insect haemocytes that ultrastructurally resembles vacuoles described in studies with mouse and human macrophage cell lines. Some of these bacteria-laden vacuoles had double-membranes characteristic of autophagosomes. These results suggest that G. mellonella larvae can be used as an easy-to-use animal model to understand Shigella pathogenesis that requires none of the time and labor-consuming procedures typical of other systems.

  4. Galleria mellonella infection model demonstrates high lethality of ST69 and ST127 uropathogenic E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed F Alghoribi

    Full Text Available Galleria mellonella larvae are an alternative in vivo model for investigating bacterial pathogenicity. Here, we examined the pathogenicity of 71 isolates from five leading uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC lineages using G. mellonella larvae. Larvae were challenged with a range of inoculum doses to determine the 50% lethal dose (LD50 and for analysis of survival outcome using Kaplan-Meier plots. Virulence was correlated with carriage of a panel of 29 virulence factors (VF. Larvae inoculated with ST69 and ST127 isolates (10(4 colony-forming units/larvae showed significantly higher mortality rates than those infected with ST73, ST95 and ST131 isolates, killing 50% of the larvae within 24 hours. Interestingly, ST131 isolates were the least virulent. We observed that ST127 isolates are significantly associated with a higher VF-score than isolates of all other STs tested (P≤0.0001, including ST69 (P<0.02, but one ST127 isolate (strain EC18 was avirulent. Comparative genomic analyses with virulent ST127 strains revealed an IS1 mediated deletion in the O-antigen cluster in strain EC18, which is likely to explain the lack of virulence in the larvae infection model. Virulence in the larvae was not correlated with serotype or phylogenetic group. This study illustrates that G. mellonella are an excellent tool for investigation of the virulence of UPEC strains. The findings also support our suggestion that the incidence of ST127 strains should be monitored, as these isolates have not yet been widely reported, but they clearly have a pathogenic potential greater than that of more widely recognised clones, including ST73, ST95 or ST131.

  5. Stability and Activities of Antibiotics Produced during Infection of the Insect Galleria mellonella by Two Isolates of Xenorhabdus nematophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Philip W.; Chen, Genhui; Webster, John M.; Dunphy, Gary B.

    1994-01-01

    Xenorhabdus nematophilus subsp. dutki, an entomopathogenic bacterium, is vectored by steinernematid nematodes into insects, where it produces broad-spectrum antibiotics. The use of the nematode-bacterium complex against soil-dwelling pest insects could introduce antibiotics into the soil via the dead insect fragments during the emergence phase of the nematodes. Studies on the stability and activities of these antibiotics produced in the insect Galleria mellonella may contribute to assessing t...

  6. Expression of the insect metalloproteinase inhibitor IMPI in the fat body of Galleria mellonella exposed to infection with Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertyporokh, Lidiia; Wojda, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    The inducible metalloproteinase inhibitor (IMPI) discovered in Galleria mellonella is currently the only specific inhibitor of metalloproteinases found in animals. Its role is to inhibit the activity of metalloproteinases secreted by pathogenic organisms as virulence factors to degrade immune-relevant polypeptides of the infected host. This is a good example of an evolutionary arms race between the insect hosts and their natural pathogens. In this report, we analyze the expression of a gene encoding an inducible metalloproteinase inhibitor (IMPI) in fat bodies of the greater wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella infected with an entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. We have used a natural infection, i.e. covering larval integument with fungal aerospores, as well as injection of fungal blastospores directly into the larval hemocel. We compare the expression of IMPI with the expression of genes encoding proteins with fungicidal activity, gallerimycin and galiomycin, whose expression reflects the stimulation of Galleria mellonella defense mechanisms. Also, gene expression is analyzed in the light of survival of animals after spore injection.

  7. Bee moth (Galleria mellonella) allergic reactions are caused by several thermolabile antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalta, D; Martelli, P; Mistrello, G; Roncarolo, D; Zanoni, D

    2004-09-01

    Exposure and contact with bee moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae (Gm) can cause an allergic reaction both in anglers and breeders. We described the case of an amateur fisherman who experienced an allergic reaction using Gm but not using heat-treated Gm (h-Gm) (mummies). The aim of this study was to demonstrate by immunoblotting and radioallergosorbent test (RAST)-inhibition experiments the loss of allergenic epitopes in h-Gm extracts. Galleria mellonella larvae and h-Gm were homogenized and extracted at 10% (w/v) in 0.5 M phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.4 containing 0.5% NaN(3) for 16 h at 4 degrees C. Gm and h-Gm extracts were electrophoresed in a 10% polyacrylamide precast Nupage Bis-Tris gel at 180 mA for 1 h and the resolved proteins stained with 0.1% Coomassie brilliant blue and the molecular weight calculated. For the immunoblotting detection of allergenic components the resolved extracts were transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane and incubated with the patient's serum. Bound specific-IgE was detected by peroxidase-conjugated anti-human IgE. RAST inhibition experiments were performed according to the Ceska method. The protein profile of Gm and h-Gm extracts resulted markedly different in number, intensity and the position of bands, indicating that heat-treatment modifies the chemical-physical characteristics of the protein contents. The Gm extract showed a strong-coloured band at 73 kDa and more than 20 components ranging from 12 to 133 kDa; h-Gm showed two main band at 77 and 38 kDa and about 15 faint bands between 20 and 133 kDa apparently without any correspondence to the bands present in the Gm extract. Immunoblotting with the patient's serum demonstrated several bands of reactivity with the Gm extract ranging from 20 to 100 kDa and no recognizable bands, but only a diffuse smear with h-Gm. When used in a RAST inhibition experiment the h-Gm extract demonstrated an inability to compete with the Gm one for the binding to patient's IgE serum. The h

  8. Different extracts of Zingiber officinale decrease Enterococcus faecalis infection in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Valera, Marcia Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Dried, fresh and glycolic extracts of Zingiber officinale were obtained to evaluate the action against G. mellonella survival assay against Enterococcus faecalis infection. Eighty larvae were divided into: 1) E. faecalis suspension (control); 2) E. faecalis + fresh extract of Z. officinale (FEO); 3) E. faecalis + dried extract of Z. officinale (DEO); 4) E. faecalis + glycolic extract of Z. officinale (GEO); 5) Phosphate buffered saline (PBS). For control group, a 5 μL inoculum of standardized suspension (107 cells/mL) of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) was injected into the last left proleg of each larva. For the treatment groups, after E. faecalis inoculation, the extracts were also injected, but into the last right proleg. The larvae were stored at 37 °C and the number of dead larvae was recorded daily for 168 h (7 days) to analyze the survival curve. The larvae were considered dead when they did not show any movement after touching. E. faecalis infection led to the death of 85% of the larvae after 168 h. Notwithstanding, in treatment groups with association of extracts, there was an increase in the survival rates of 50% (GEO), 61% (FEO) and 66% (DEO) of the larvae. In all treatment groups, the larvae exhibited a survival increase with statistically significant difference in relation to control group (p=0.0029). There were no statistically significant differences among treatment groups with different extracts (p=0.3859). It may be concluded that the tested extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis infection by increasing the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae.

  9. A histological procedure to study fungal infection in the wax moth Galleria mellonella

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    F. Perdoni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate model Galleria mellonella is a widely used factitious host to study the microbial pathogenesis in vivo. However, a specific procedure for the recovery and the processing of the infected tissues, important for a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions, has not been reported to our knowledge. In the present study we describe a new procedure of fixation and processing of larval tissue that allows studying the larval topographic anatomy and assessing the morphological changes due to the fungal infection. Lepidopteran larvae were infected with Candida albicans strains displaying various biofilm-forming abilities. The whole larvae were then examined for tissue changes by histological techniques. We show that comparing cutting planes, serial transversal sections of paraffin-embedded larva result in better accuracy and information recovering. Using this technique, it was possible to preserve the integrity of G. mellonella internal structures allowing the detailed analysis of morphological differences in different experimental groups (i.e., healthy vs infected larvae. We were also able to study strain-related differences in the pathogenesis of C. albicans by observing the immune response elicited and the invasiveness of two isolates within the larval tissues. In general, by processing the whole larva and optimizing routinely histochemical stainings, it is possible to visualize and analyse infected tissues. Various degrees of pathogenicity (strain- or inoculum-related, and the infection time course can be described in details. Moreover, the host immune response events can be followed throughout the infectious process leading to a comprehensive picture of the studied phenomenon.

  10. Caffeine administration alters the behaviour and development of Galleria mellonella larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Ronan; Kunc, Martin; Hyrsl, Pavel; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    The effect of feeding caffeine on the behaviour and neural proteome of Galleria mellonella larvae was assessed. Caffeine was administered to larvae by force feeding and the metabolites theobromine and theophylline were subsequently detected by RP-HPLC analysis. Administration of caffeine to larvae resulted in reduced movement and a reduction in the formation of pupae. The production of the muscle relaxant theophylline may contribute to the reduction in larval movement. Analysis of the changes in proteome of the brain and surrounding tissues of caffeine fed larvae revealed an increase in the abundance of immune related proteins such as immune-related Hdd1 (6.28 fold increase) and hemolin (1.68 fold increase), ATPase associated proteins such as H+ transporting ATP synthase O subunit isoform 1 (1.87 fold increase) and H+ transporting ATP synthase delta subunit (1.53 fold increase) and proteins indicative of brain trauma such as troponin T transcript variant B, partial (1.55 fold increase). Proteins involved in development and protein degradation such as SUMO-activating enzyme subunit 1 (3.08 fold decrease) and chitin deacetylase, partial (3.67 fold decrease) were decreased in abundance. The results presented here indicate that caffeine is metabolised in a similar way in G. mellonella larvae to that in mammals and results in a variety of behavioural and developmental alterations. Utilisation of insects for studying the effects of caffeine and other neuroactive compounds may offer new insights into their mode of action and reduce the need to use mammals for this type of analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of Listeria monocytogenes virulence in the Galleria mellonella insect larvae model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakic Martinez, Mira; Wiedmann, Martin; Ferguson, Martine; Datta, Atin R

    2017-01-01

    Several animal models have been used to understand the molecular basis of the pathogenicity, infectious dose and strain to strain variation of Listeria monocytogenes. The greater wax worm Galleria mellonella, as an alternative model, provides some useful advantages not available with other models and has already been described as suitable for the virulence assessment of various pathogens including L. monocytogenes. The objectives of this study are: 1) confirming the usefulness of this model with a wide panel of Listeria spp. including non-pathogenic L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri and animal pathogen L. ivanovii; 2) assessment of virulence of several isogenic in-frame deletion mutants in virulence and stress related genes of L. monocytogenes and 3) virulence assessment of paired food and clinical isolates of L. monocytogenes from 14 major listeriosis outbreaks occurred worldwide between 1980 and 2015. Larvae injected with different concentrations of Listeria were incubated at 37°C and monitored over seven days for time needed to kill 50% of larvae (LT50) and to determine change of bacterial population in G. mellonella, 2 and 24 hours post-inoculation. Non-pathogenic members of Listeria and L. ivanovii showed significantly (P monocytogenes strains. Isogenic mutants of L. monocytogenes with the deletions in prfA, plcA, hly, actA and virR genes, also showed significantly (P monocytogenes strains related to non-invasive (gastroenteritis) outbreaks of listeriosis showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower virulence than isolates of the same serotype obtained from outbreaks with invasive symptoms. The difference, however, was dose and strain- dependent. No significant differences in virulence were observed among the serotype tested in this study.

  12. Ultrastructural and functional characterization of circulating hemocytes from Galleria mellonella larva: Cell types and their role in the innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gongqing; Liu, Yi; Ding, Ying; Yi, Yunhong

    2016-08-01

    Galleria mellonella larvae have been widely used as a model to study the virulence of various human pathogens. Hemocytes play important roles in the innate immune response of G. mellonella. In this study, the hemocytes of G. mellonella larvae were analyzed by transmission electron microscope, light microscope, and cytochemistry. The cytological and morphological analyses revealed four types of hemocytes; Plasmatocytes, granular cells, spherule cells and oenocytoids. Differential hemocyte counts showed that under our conditions plasmatocytes and granular cells were the most abundant circulating cell types in the hemolymph. We also investigated the role of different types of hemocytes in the cellular and humoral immune defenses. The in-vivo experiment showed that plasmatocytes, granular cells and oenocytoids phagocytized FITC-labelled Escherichia coli bacteria in larvae of G. mellonella, whereas the granular cells exhibited the strongest phagocytic ability against these microbial cells. After incubation with L-DOPA, plasmatocytes, granular cells and oenocytoids are stained brown, indicating the presence of phenoloxidase activity. These results shed new light on our understanding of the immune function of G. mellonella hemocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of Listeria monocytogenes virulence in the Galleria mellonella insect larvae model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Rakic Martinez

    Full Text Available Several animal models have been used to understand the molecular basis of the pathogenicity, infectious dose and strain to strain variation of Listeria monocytogenes. The greater wax worm Galleria mellonella, as an alternative model, provides some useful advantages not available with other models and has already been described as suitable for the virulence assessment of various pathogens including L. monocytogenes. The objectives of this study are: 1 confirming the usefulness of this model with a wide panel of Listeria spp. including non-pathogenic L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri and animal pathogen L. ivanovii; 2 assessment of virulence of several isogenic in-frame deletion mutants in virulence and stress related genes of L. monocytogenes and 3 virulence assessment of paired food and clinical isolates of L. monocytogenes from 14 major listeriosis outbreaks occurred worldwide between 1980 and 2015. Larvae injected with different concentrations of Listeria were incubated at 37°C and monitored over seven days for time needed to kill 50% of larvae (LT50 and to determine change of bacterial population in G. mellonella, 2 and 24 hours post-inoculation. Non-pathogenic members of Listeria and L. ivanovii showed significantly (P < 0.05 higher LT50 (lower virulence than the wild type L. monocytogenes strains. Isogenic mutants of L. monocytogenes with the deletions in prfA, plcA, hly, actA and virR genes, also showed significantly (P < 0.05 higher LT50 than the wild type strain at the inoculum of 106CFU/larva. Food isolates had significantly (P < 0.05 lower virulence than the paired clinical isolates, at all three inoculum concentrations. L. monocytogenes strains related to non-invasive (gastroenteritis outbreaks of listeriosis showed significantly (P < 0.05 lower virulence than isolates of the same serotype obtained from outbreaks with invasive symptoms. The difference, however, was dose and strain- dependent. No significant differences in

  14. Study the impact of gamma irradiation on the vitellogenin gene in Galleria mellonella females by using the comparative CT method

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    Y.S. Zaghloul

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The eggs deposited by oviparous organisms contain large amounts of vitellus, or yolk, which are utilized by the growing embryo. Vitellogenesis is the process of vitellus accumulation involves massive heterosynthetic synthesis of the protein vitellogenin (Vg and its deposition in the oocyte. Vg levels are indicative for the efficiency of the oogenesis process. This work summarizes data on Vg levels in Galleria mellonella females exposed to various doses of gamma radiation. The results stated that vitellogenin was affected by irradiation. The decreased levels of Vg was dose dependent reaching an undetermined level at 160Gy which is the sterileing dose for G. mellonella female that suppress the egg production by them.

  15. INSECTICIDAL AND OXIDATIVE EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON THE MODEL ORGANISM Galleria mellonella L. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Beyza; Altuntaş, Hülya; Nurullahoğlu, Z Ulya

    2015-07-01

    The insecticidal effects, specifically, changes in hemolymph total protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities of azadirachtin (AZA) given to the wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae via force feeding were investigated. Bioassays showed that the LD50 and LD99 (lethal dose) values of AZA were 2.1 and 4.6 μg/larva, respectively. Experimental analyses were performed with five doses of AZA (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/larva). Total protein level in larval hemolymph increased at all AZA doses at 24 h whereas a considerable decrease was observed at 2 and 3 μg/larva doses, and only an increase displayed at 1.5 μg/larva at 72 h. The level of MDA increased at 2 and 3 μg/larva doses at 24 h compared with controls. This trend was also observed at 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/larva doses at 72 h and MDA levels were lower when compared with those of 24 h at all doses except for 1.5 μg/larva dose. Catalase activity decreased at 1, 1.5, and 2 μg/larva doses at 24 h whereas increased at all doses except for 0.5 μg/larva at 72 h compared with controls. AZA led to a decline in superoxide dismutase activity at all experimental doses at 24 and 72 h except for 3 μg/larva doses at 72 h. An increase in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was evident at all AZA doses at 24 h. AZA displayed 68% decline in GST activity at 72 h post treatments when compared to 24 h. Consequently, We infer that the toxicity of AZA extends beyond its known actions in molting processes to redox homeostasis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Galleria mellonella model identifies highly virulent strains among all major molecular types of Cryptococcus gattii.

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    Carolina Firacative

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. However, the number of cases due to C. gattii is increasing, affecting mainly immunocompetent hosts. C. gattii is divided into four major molecular types, VGI to VGIV, which differ in their host range, epidemiology, antifungal susceptibility and geographic distribution. Besides studies on the Vancouver Island outbreak strains, which showed that the subtype VGIIa is highly virulent compared to the subtype VGIIb, little is known about the virulence of the other major molecular types. To elucidate the virulence potential of the major molecular types of C. gattii, Galleria mellonella larvae were inoculated with ten globally selected strains per molecular type. Survival rates were recorded and known virulence factors were studied. One VGII, one VGIII and one VGIV strain were more virulent (p 0.05, 21 (five VGI, five VGII, four VGIII and seven VGIV were less virulent (p <0.05 while one strain of each molecular type were avirulent. Cell and capsule size of all strains increased markedly during larvae infection (p <0.001. No differences in growth rate at 37°C were observed. Melanin synthesis was directly related with the level of virulence: more virulent strains produced more melanin than less virulent strains (p <0.05. The results indicate that all C. gattii major molecular types exhibit a range of virulence, with some strains having the potential to be more virulent. The study highlights the necessity to further investigate the genetic background of more and less virulent strains in order to recognize critical features, other than the known virulence factors (capsule, melanin and growth at mammalian body temperature, that maybe crucial for the development and progression of cryptococcosis.

  17. LPS structure and PhoQ activity are important for Salmonella Typhimurium virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model [corrected].

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    Jennifer K Bender

    Full Text Available The larvae of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella, have been used experimentally to host a range of bacterial and fungal pathogens. In this study we evaluated the suitability of G. mellonella as an alternative animal model of Salmonella infection. Using a range of inoculum doses we established that the LD₅₀ of SalmonellaTyphimurium strain NCTC 12023 was 3.6 × 10³ bacteria per larva. Further, a set of isogenic mutant strains depleted of known virulence factors was tested to identify determinants essential for S. Typhimurium pathogenesis. Mutants depleted of one or both of the type III secretion systems encoded by Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1 and 2 showed no virulence defect. In contrast, we observed reduced pathogenic potential of a phoQ mutant indicating an important role for the PhoPQ two-component signal transduction system. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS structure was also shown to influence Salmonella virulence in G. mellonella. A waaL(rfaL mutant, which lacks the entire O-antigen (OAg, was virtually avirulent, while a wzz(ST/wzz(fepE double mutant expressing only a very short OAg was highly attenuated for virulence. Furthermore, shortly after infection both LPS mutant strains showed decreased replication when compared to the wild type in a flow cytometry-based competitive index assay. In this study we successfully established a G. mellonella model of S. Typhimurium infection. By identifying PhoQ and LPS OAg length as key determinants of virulence in the wax moth larvae we proved that there is an overlap between this and other animal model systems, thus confirming that the G. mellonella infection model is suitable for assessing aspects of Salmonella virulence function.

  18. Clinical strains of Lactobacillus reduce the filamentation of Candida albicans and protect Galleria mellonella against experimental candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Dos Santos Velloso, Marisol; Figueiredo, Lívia Mara Alves; Martins, Carolina Pistille; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2018-05-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen and can grow as yeast or filaments, depending on the environmental conditions. The filamentous form is of particular interest because it can play a direct role in adherence and pathogenicity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three clinical strains of Lactobacillus on C. albicans filamentation as well as their probiotic potential in pathogen-host interactions via an experimental candidiasis model study in Galleria mellonella. We used the reference strain Candida albicans ATCC 18804 and three clinical strains of Lactobacillus: L. rhamnosus strain 5.2, L. paracasei strain 20.3, and L. fermentum strain 20.4. First, the capacity of C. albicans to form hyphae was tested in vitro through association with the Lactobacillus strains. After that, we verified the ability of these strains to attenuate experimental candidiasis in a Galleria mellonella model through a survival curve assay. Regarding the filamentation assay, a significant reduction in hyphae formation of up to 57% was observed when C. albicans was incubated in the presence of the Lactobacillus strains, compared to a control group composed of only C. albicans. In addition, when the larvae were pretreated with Lactobacillus spp. prior to C. albicans infection, the survival rate of G. mellonela increased in all experimental groups. We concluded that Lactobacillus influences the growth and expression C. albicans virulence factors, which may interfere with the pathogenicity of these microorganisms.

  19. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on the response of Galleria mellonella against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjão, Adeline Lacerda; de Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated the prophylactic effects of the live or heat-killed probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 in Galleria mellonella, inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli. L. rhamnosus suspension was prepared and a part of it was autoclaved to obtain heat-killed lactobacilli. The larvae were inoculated of these suspensions and pathogenic. The survival of the larvae was observed during 7 days and after 24 h of inoculation haemocytes counted, melanization and nitric oxide production were analyzed. Larvae survival rate increased in the group inoculated with heat-killed L. rhamnosus, however, with no statistical difference. There was a significant increase in total haemocyte counts in all test groups. Haemolymph melanization and nitric oxide production were higher in the group inoculated with L. rhamnosus and infected with S. aureus. It was concluded that, in this model of infection, heat-killed L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 promoted greater protection in Galleria mellonella infected with S. aureus or E. coli.

  20. Azadirachtin-induced effects on various life history traits and cellular immune reactions of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Er Aylin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the botanical insecticide azadirachtin were examined on the life history traits, fecundity and immune parameters of Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. We determined that for the topical application of azadirachtin, the LC50 was 16.564 ppm; at 100 ppm the adult emergence time was prolonged, however the longevity of adults remained unchanged above sublethal concentrations. The mean number of healthy eggs and the fecundity of adults decreased, whereas the number of defective eggs increased with azadirachtin treatment. At concentrations >50 ppm female G. mellonella adults laid no eggs. Azadirachtin reduced total hemocyte counts at 24 and 48 h posttreatment, however the alterations in differential hemocyte counts were only significant at 100 ppm. Laminarin-induced nodulation response and the spreading ability of hemocytes were also suppressed with azadirachtin treatment. Our results suggest that azadirachtin, as a good candidate for integrated pest control, has the capability to affect the biological parameters and cellular immunity of the model insect G. mellonella.

  1. Epigenetic Mechanisms Regulate Innate Immunity against Uropathogenic and Commensal-Like Escherichia coli in the Surrogate Insect Model Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmueller, Miriam; Billion, André; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Mukherjee, Krishnendu

    2017-10-01

    Innate-immunity-related genes in humans are activated during urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli but are suppressed by commensals. Epigenetic mechanisms play a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. To determine whether epigenetic mechanisms can explain the different behaviors of pathogenic and commensal bacteria, we infected larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella , a widely used model insect host, with a uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain that causes symptomatic UTIs in humans or a commensal-like strain that causes asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). Infection with the UPEC strain (CFT073) was more lethal to larvae than infection with the attenuated ABU strain (83972) due to the recognition of each strain by different Toll-like receptors, ultimately leading to differential DNA/RNA methylation and histone acetylation. We used next-generation sequencing and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to correlate epigenetic changes with the induction of innate-immunity-related genes. Transcriptomic analysis of G. mellonella larvae infected with E. coli strains CFT073 and 83972 revealed strain-specific variations in the class and expression levels of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and enzymes controlling DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Our results provide evidence for the differential epigenetic regulation of transcriptional reprogramming by UPEC and ABU strains of E. coli in G. mellonella larvae, which may be relevant to understanding the different behaviors of these bacterial strains in the human urinary tract. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Lactobacillus rhamnosus inhibits Candida albicans virulence factors in vitro and modulates immune system in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F C; de Barros, P P; Rossoni, R D; Junqueira, J C; Jorge, A O C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anti-Candida effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 9595 on Candida albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. The in vitro analysis evaluated the effects of L. rhamnosus on C. albicans's biofilm formation by CFU count and metabolic activity, filamentation capacity, and adhesion (ALS3 and HWP1) and transcriptional regulatory gene (BCR1 and CPH1) expression. The in vitro results showed that both the L. rhamnosus cells and supernatant reduced C. albicans biofilm formation, filamentation and gene expression. In the in vivo study, the treatment with L. rhamnosus supernatant increased 80% the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans. Furthermore, the supernatant of L. rhamnosus recruited haemocytes into the haemolymph (2·1-fold increase). Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduced the biofilm formation and filamentation of C. albicans in vitro by negatively regulating all studied C. albicans genes. Lactobacillus rhamnosus protected G. mellonella against experimental candidiasis in vivo. This study is the first study to report the anti-Candida properties of L. rhamnosus ATCC 9595. The supernatant of this strain has immunomodulatory effects on the G. mellonella model and protects the larvae against pathogens. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Passive vectoring of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana among the wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae by the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, Vadim Yu; Kryukova, Natalia A; Tyurin, Maksim V; Yaroslavtseva, Olga N; Glupov, Viktor V

    2017-03-15

    Females of the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor attack and envenomate numerous host individuals during oviposition. The vectoring of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana during the adhesion stage by ectoparasitoid females among the wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella was explored under laboratory conditions. Vectoring occurred both from infected parasitoids to wax moth larvae and from infected to healthy wax moth larvae by parasitoids. The efficacy of vectoring in both cases was dose dependent. Parasitoid females were unable to recognize infected larvae in a labyrinth test. In addition, the presence of H. hebetor females significantly (1.5-13 fold) increased the mycoses level in clusters of G. mellonella, with 40% of the larvae infected with fungal conidia. Envenomation by H. hebetor increased conidia germination on the cuticles of the wax moth larvae by 4.4 fold. An enhanced germination rate (2 fold) was registered in the n-hexane epicuticular extract of envenomated larvae compared to that of healthy larvae. Both envenomation and mycoses enhanced the phenoloxidase (PO) activity in the integument of G. mellonella and, in contrast, decreased the encapsulation rate in hemolymphs. We hypothesize that changes in the integument property and inhibition of cellular immunity provide the highest infection efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi with H. hebetor. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Adaptation of Listeria monocytogenes in a simulated cheese medium: effects on virulence using the Galleria mellonella infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, D; Helliwell, N; Neto, L; Faleiro, M L

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the acid and salt adaptation in a cheese-based medium on the virulence potential of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from cheese and dairy processing environment using the Galleria mellonella model. Four L. monocytogenes strains were exposed to a cheese-based medium in conditions of induction of an acid tolerance response and osmotolerance response (pH 5·5 and 3·5% w/v NaCl) and injected in G. mellonella insects. The survival of insects and the L. monocytogenes growth kinetics in insects were evaluated. The gene expression of hly, actA and inlA genes was determined by real-time PCR. The adapted cells of two dairy strains showed reduced insect mortality (P 0·05) was found between adapted and nonadapted cells. The gene expression results evidenced an overexpression of virulence genes in cheese-based medium, but not in simulated insect-induced conditions. Our results suggest that adaptation to low pH and salt in a cheese-based medium can affect the virulence of L. monocytogenes, but this effect is strain dependent. In this study, the impact of adaptation to low pH and salt in a cheese-based medium on L. monocytogenes virulence was tested using the Wax Moth G. mellonella model. This model allowed the differentiation of the virulence potential between the L. monocytogenes strains. The effect of adaptation on virulence is strain dependent. The G. mellonella model revealed to be a prompt method to test food-related factors on L. monocytogenes virulence. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Synergistic Effect of Pleuromutilins with Other Antimicrobial Agents against Staphylococcus aureus In Vitro and in an Experimental Galleria mellonella Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun-Liu; Li, Lin-Xiong; Cui, Ze-Hua; Chen, Shu-Wen; Xiong, Yan Q.; Lu, Jia-Qi; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Gao, Yuan; Sun, Jian; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Invasive infections due to Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus are prevalent and life-threatening. Combinations of antibiotic therapy have been employed in many clinical settings for improving therapeutic efficacy, reducing side effects of drugs, and development of antibiotic resistance. Pleuromutilins have a potential to be developed as a new class of antibiotics for systemic use in humans. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between pleuromutilins, including valnemulin, tiamulin, and retapamulin, and 13 other antibiotics representing different mechanisms of action, against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant S. aureus both in vitro and in an experimental Galleria mellonella model. In vitro synergistic effects were observed in combination of all three study pleuromutilins with tetracycline (TET) by standard checkerboard and/or time-kill assays. In addition, the combination of pleuromutilins with ciprofloxacin or enrofloxacin showed antagonistic effects, while the rest combinations presented indifferent effects. Importantly, all study pleuromutilins in combination with TET significantly enhanced survival rates as compared to the single drug treatment in the G. mellonella model caused by S. aureus strains. Taken together, these results demonstrated synergy effects between pleuromutilins and TET against S. aureus both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:28874907

  6. Synergistic Effect of Pleuromutilins with Other Antimicrobial Agents against Staphylococcus aureus In Vitro and in an Experimental Galleria mellonella Model

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    Chun-Liu Dong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive infections due to Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus are prevalent and life-threatening. Combinations of antibiotic therapy have been employed in many clinical settings for improving therapeutic efficacy, reducing side effects of drugs, and development of antibiotic resistance. Pleuromutilins have a potential to be developed as a new class of antibiotics for systemic use in humans. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between pleuromutilins, including valnemulin, tiamulin, and retapamulin, and 13 other antibiotics representing different mechanisms of action, against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant S. aureus both in vitro and in an experimental Galleria mellonella model. In vitro synergistic effects were observed in combination of all three study pleuromutilins with tetracycline (TET by standard checkerboard and/or time-kill assays. In addition, the combination of pleuromutilins with ciprofloxacin or enrofloxacin showed antagonistic effects, while the rest combinations presented indifferent effects. Importantly, all study pleuromutilins in combination with TET significantly enhanced survival rates as compared to the single drug treatment in the G. mellonella model caused by S. aureus strains. Taken together, these results demonstrated synergy effects between pleuromutilins and TET against S. aureus both in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Molecular detection and analysis of a novel metalloprotease gene of entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens strains in infected Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambong, J T; Xu, R; Sadiku, A; Chen, Q; Badiss, A; Yu, Q

    2014-04-01

    Serratia marcescens strains isolated from entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditis sp.) were examined for their pathogenicity and establishment in wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae. All the Serratia strains were potently pathogenic to G. mellonella larvae, leading to death within 48 h. The strains were shown to possess a metalloprotease gene encoding for a novel serralysin-like protein. Rapid establishment of the bacteria in infected larvae was confirmed by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of a DNA fragment encoding for this protein. Detection of the viable Serratia strains in infected larvae was validated using the SYBR Green reverse transcriptase real-time PCR assay targeting the metalloprotease gene. Nucleotide sequences of the metalloprotease gene obtained in our study showed 72 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and 3 insertions compared with the metalloprotease gene of S. marcescens E-15. The metalloprotease gene had 60 synonymous and 8 nonsynonymous substitutions relative to the closest GenBank entry, S. marcescens E-15. A comparison of the amino acid composition of the new serralysin-like protein with that of the serralysin protein of S. marcescens E-15 revealed differences at 11 positions and a new aspartic acid residue. Analysis of the effect of protein variation suggests that a new aspartic acid residue resulting from nonsynonymous nucleotide mutations in the protein structure could have the most significant effect on its biological function. The new metalloprotease gene and (or) its product could have applications in plant agricultural biotechnology.

  8. Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) Extract: In Vivo Study of Antimicrobial Activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis in Galleria mellonella Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparecida Procópio Gomes, Livia; Alves Figueiredo, Lívia Mara; Corrêa Geraldo, Barbara Maria; Isler Castro, Kelly Cristine; Ruano de Oliveira Fugisaki, Luciana; Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Antônio; Dias de Oliveira, Luciane; Campos Junqueira, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increase of bacterial resistance, medicinal alternatives are being explored. Punica granatum L. is an effective herbal extract with broad spectrum of action and bactericidal, antifungal, anthelmintic potential and being able to modulate the immune response. The aim was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of pomegranate glycolic extract (PGE) against the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis by using Galleria mellonella as in vivo model. Fifteen larvae were used per group. Injection of high concentration (200, 100, and 25 mg/mL) of PGE showed a toxic effect, leading them to death. A suspension of P. gingivalis (106 cells/mL) was inoculated in the left last proleg and PGE (12.5, 6.25, 3.1, and 2.5 mg/mL) were injected into the right proleg. The larvae were then kept at 37°C under the dark. Injection of PGE at any dose statistically improved larvae survival rates. The data were analysed (log-rank test, Mantel-Cox, P < 0.05) and showed that all concentrations of PGE (12.5, 6.25, 3.1, and 2.5 mg/mL) presented higher larval survival rates, with significant statistical difference in relation to control group (P. gingivalis). In conclusion, the PGE had antimicrobial action against P. gingivalis in vivo model using G. mellonella. PMID:27668280

  9. Galleria mellonella larvae are capable of sensing the extent of priming agent and mounting proportionatal cellular and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gongqing; Xu, Li; Yi, Yunhong

    2016-06-01

    Larvae of Galleria mellonella are useful models for studying the innate immunity of invertebrates or for evaluating the virulence of microbial pathogens. In this work, we demonstrated that prior exposure of G. mellonella larvae to high doses (1×10(4), 1×10(5) or 1×10(6) cells/larva) of heat-killed Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 increases the resistance of larvae to a lethal dose (50 cells/larva) of viable P. luminescens TT01 infection administered 48h later. We also found that the changes in immune protection level were highly correlated to the changes in levels of cellular and humoral immune parameters when priming the larvae with different doses of heat-killed P. luminescens TT01. Priming the larvae with high doses of heat-killed P. luminescens TT01 resulted in significant increases in the hemocytes activities of phagocytosis and encapsulation. High doses of heat-killed P. luminescens TT01 also induced an increase in total hemocyte count and a reduction in bacterial density within the larval hemocoel. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that genes coding for cecropin and gallerimycin and galiomycin increased in expression after priming G. mellonella with heat-killed P. luminescens TT01. All the immune parameters changed in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the insect immune system is capable of sensing the extent of priming agent and mounting a proportionate immune response. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Differences in Virulence Between Legionella pneumophila Isolates From Human and Non-human Sources Determined in Galleria mellonella Infection Model

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    Patrícia S. Sousa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous bacterium in freshwater environments and in many man-made water systems capable of inducing pneumonia in humans. Despite its ubiquitous character most studies on L. pneumophila virulence focused on clinical strains and isolates from man-made environments, so little is known about the nature and extent of virulence variation in strains isolated from natural environments. It has been established that clinical isolates are less diverse than man-made and natural environmental strains, suggesting that only a subset of environmental isolates is specially adapted to infect humans. In this work we intended to determine if unrelated L. pneumophila strains, isolated from different environments and with distinct virulence-related genetic backgrounds, displayed differences in virulence, using the Wax Moth Galleria mellonella infection model. We found that all tested strains were pathogenic in G. mellonella, regardless of their origin. Indeed, a panoply of virulence-related phenotypes was observed sustaining the existence of significant differences on the ability of L. pneumophila strains to induce disease. Taken together our results suggest that the occurrence of human infection is not related with the increased capability of some strains to induce disease since we also found a concentration threshold above which L. pneumophila strains are equally able to cause disease. In addition, no link could be established between the sequence-type (ST and L. pneumophila pathogenicity. We envision that in man-made water distribution systems environmental filtering selection and biotic competition acts structuring L. pneumophila populations by selecting more resilient and adapted strains that can rise to high concentration if no control measures are implemented. Therefore, public health strategies based on the sequence based typing (STB scheme analysis should take into account that the major disease-associated clones of L

  11. Macrophage and Galleria mellonella infection models reflect the virulence of naturally occurring isolates of B. pseudomallei, B. thailandensis and B. oklahomensis

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    Michell Stephen L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a tropical disease of humans with a variable and often fatal outcome. In murine models of infection, different strains exhibit varying degrees of virulence. In contrast, two related species, B. thailandensis and B. oklahomensis, are highly attenuated in mice. Our aim was to determine whether virulence in mice is reflected in macrophage or wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella infection models. Results B. pseudomallei strains 576 and K96243, which have low median lethal dose (MLD values in mice, were able to replicate and induce cellular damage in macrophages and caused rapid death of G. mellonella. In contrast, B. pseudomallei strain 708a, which is attenuated in mice, showed reduced replication in macrophages, negligible cellular damage and was avirulent in G. mellonella larvae. B. thailandensis isolates were less virulent than B. pseudomallei in all of the models tested. However, we did record strain dependent differences. B. oklahomensis isolates were the least virulent isolates. They showed minimal ability to replicate in macrophages, were unable to evoke actin-based motility or to form multinucleated giant cells and were markedly attenuated in G. mellonella compared to B. thailandensis. Conclusions We have shown that the alternative infection models tested here, namely macrophages and Galleria mellonella, are able to distinguish between strains of B. pseudomallei, B. thailandensis and B. oklahomensis and that these differences reflect the observed virulence in murine infection models. Our results indicate that B. oklahomensis is the least pathogenic of the species investigated. They also show a correlation between isolates of B. thailandensis associated with human infection and virulence in macrophage and Galleria infection models.

  12. Activity of levofloxacin in combination with colistin against Acinetobacter baumannii: In vitro and in a Galleria mellonella model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenjuan; Yang, Haifei; Hu, Lifen; Ye, Ying; Li, Jiabin

    2017-12-01

    Treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii infections is challenging owing to widespread multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-AB) and the lack of novel agents. Although recent data suggest that levofloxacin (LVX) may have unique activity against MDR-AB in combination with colistin (CST), further preclinical work is needed. We used a A. baumannii type strain ATCC19606, a CST-resistant strain AB19606R, and two clinical isolates (GN0624 and GN1115) of MDR-AB to investigate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of LVX-CST combination. Synergy studies were performed using the microtiter plate chequerboard assay and time-kill methodology. Inhibitory activity of antibiotics against biofilms and the mutant prevention concentrations were also studied in vitro. A simple invertebrate model (Galleria mellonella) has been used to assess the in vivo activity of antimicrobial therapies. The LVX-CST combination was bactericidal against the CST-susceptible clinical isolate (GN0624). In checkerboard assays, synergy (defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration index of baumanni. Treatment of G. mellonella larvae infected with lethal doses of A. baumannii resulted in significantly enhanced survival rates when LVX was given with CST compared with CST treatment alone (p < 0.05). In summary, a synergistic or additive effect between CST and LVX was observed in vitro and in vivo against CST-susceptible A. baumannii strains, although not against CST-resistant ones. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Listeria monocytogenes Induces a Virulence-Dependent microRNA Signature That Regulates the Immune Response in Galleria mellonella

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    Gopala K. Mannala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs coordinate several physiological and pathological processes by regulating the fate of mRNAs. Studies conducted in vitro indicate a role of microRNAs in the control of host-microbe interactions. However, there is limited understanding of miRNA functions in in vivo models of bacterial infections. In this study, we systematically explored changes in miRNA expression levels of Galleria mellonella larvae (greater-wax moth, a model system that recapitulates the vertebrate innate immunity, following infection with L. monocytogenes. Using an insect-specific miRNA microarray with more than 2000 probes, we found differential expression of 90 miRNAs (39 upregulated and 51 downregulated in response to infection with L. monocytogenes. We validated the expression of a subset of miRNAs which have mammalian homologs of known or predicted function. In contrast, non-pathogenic L. innocua failed to induce these miRNAs, indicating a virulence-dependent miRNA deregulation. To predict miRNA targets using established algorithms, we generated a publically available G. mellonella transcriptome database. We identified miRNA targets involved in innate immunity, signal transduction and autophagy, including spätzle, MAP kinase, and optineurin, respectively, which exhibited a virulence-specific differential expression. Finally, in silico estimation of minimum free energy of miRNA-mRNA duplexes of validated microRNAs and target transcripts revealed a regulatory network of the host immune response to L. monocytogenes. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for a role of miRNAs in the regulation of the innate immune response following bacterial infection in a simple, rapid and scalable in vivo model that may predict host-microbe interactions in higher vertebrates.

  14. The effect of entomopathogenic fungal culture filtrate on the immune response of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Namara, Louise; Carolan, James C; Griffin, Christine T; Fitzpatrick, David; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Galleria mellonella is a well-established model species regularly employed in the study of the insect immune response at cellular and humoral levels to investigate fungal pathogenesis and biocontrol agents. A cellular and proteomic analysis of the effect of culture filtrate of three entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) species on the immune system of G. mellonella was performed. Treatment with Beauveria caledonica and Metarhizium anisopliae 96h culture filtrate facilitated a significantly increased yeast cell density in larvae (3-fold and 3.8-fold, respectively). Larvae co-injected with either M. anisopliae or B. caledonica culture filtrate and Candida albicans showed significantly increased mortality. The same was not seen for larvae injected with Beauveria bassiana filtrate. Together these results suggest that B. caledonica and M. anisopliae filtrate are modulating the insect immune system allowing a subsequent pathogen to proliferate. B. caledonica and M. anisopliae culture filtrates impact upon the larval prophenoloxidase (ProPO) cascade (e.g. ProPO activating factor 3 and proPO activating enzyme 3 were increased in abundance relative to controls), while B. bassiana treated larvae displayed higher abundances of alpha-esterase when compared to control larvae (2.4-fold greater) and larvae treated with M. anisopliae and B. caledonica. Treatment with EPF culture filtrate had a significant effect on antimicrobial peptide abundances particularly in M. anisopliae treated larvae where cecropin-D precursor, hemolin and gloverin were differentially abundant in comparison to controls. Differences in proteomic profiles for different treatments may reflect or even partially explain the differences in their immunomodulatory potential. Screening EPF for their ability to modulate the insect immune response represents a means of assessing EPF for use as biocontrol agents, particularly if the goal is to use them in combination with other control agents. Additionally EPF represent a

  15. Insecticidal genes of Yersinia spp.: taxonomical distribution, contribution to toxicity towards Manduca sexta and Galleria mellonella, and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schachtner Joachim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxin complex (Tc proteins termed TcaABC, TcdAB, and TccABC with insecticidal activity are present in a variety of bacteria including the yersiniae. Results The tc gene sequences of thirteen Yersinia strains were compared, revealing a high degree of gene order conservation, but also remarkable differences with respect to pseudogenes, sequence variability and gene duplications. Outside the tc pathogenicity island (tc-PAIYe of Y. enterocolitica strain W22703, a pseudogene (tccC2'/3' encoding proteins with homology to TccC and similarity to tyrosine phosphatases at its C-terminus was identified. PCR analysis revealed the presence of the tc-PAIYe and of tccC2'/3'-homologues in all biotype 2–5 strains tested, and their absence in most representatives of biotypes 1A and 1B. Phylogenetic analysis of 39 TccC sequences indicates the presence of the tc-PAIYe in an ancestor of Yersinia. Oral uptake experiments with Manduca sexta revealed a higher larvae lethality of Yersinia strains harbouring the tc-PAIYe in comparison to strains lacking this island. Following subcutaneous infection of Galleria mellonella larvae with five non-human pathogenic Yersinia spp. and four Y. enterocolitica strains, we observed a remarkable variability of their insecticidal activity ranging from 20% (Y. kristensenii to 90% (Y. enterocolitica strain 2594 dead larvae after five days. Strain W22703 and its tcaA deletion mutant did not exhibit a significantly different toxicity towards G. mellonella. These data confirm a role of TcaA upon oral uptake only, and suggest the presence of further insecticidal determinants in Yersinia strains formerly unknown to kill insects. Conclusion This study investigated the tc gene distribution among yersiniae and the phylogenetic relationship between TccC proteins, thus contributing novel aspects to the current discussion about the evolution of insecticidal toxins in the genus Yersinia. The toxic potential of several Yersinia

  16. Immunomodulatory effects and anti-Candida activity of lactobacilli in macrophages and in invertebrate model of Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; de Barros, Patricia Pimentel; Begnini, Barbara Evelyn; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias

    2017-09-01

    Due to the growing number of multi-resistant Candida spp., adjuvant treatments that may help combat these fungal pathogens are relevant and useful. This study evaluated the immunomodulation and anti-Candida activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus paracasei suspensions, either single- or multiple-strain, in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) and Galleria mellonella (GM). Mouse macrophages were activated by different lactobacilli suspensions and challenged with C. albicans (CA). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17 production and cell viability were investigated. LR was the best suspension for stimulating all evaluated cytokines and thus was used in subsequent in vivo assays. Two C. albicans clinical strains, CA21 and CA60, were then added to the GM assays to further confirm the results. LR suspension was injected into the larvae 24 h before challenging with CA. Survival curve, CFU per larva and hemocytes were counted. In the GM, the LR suspension increased the survival rate and hemocyte counts and decreased the CFU per larva counts for all groups. Lactobacilli suspensions presented strain-dependent immunomodulation; however, single suspensions showed better results. Anti-Candida activity was demonstrated by decreased Candida counts in the GM with the use of LR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Examining the virulence of Candida albicans transcription factor mutants using Galleria mellonella and mouse infection models

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    Sara eAmorim-Vaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify C. albicans transcription factors (TF involved in virulence. Although mice are considered the gold-standard model to study fungal virulence, mini-host infection models have been increasingly used. Here, barcoded TF mutants were first screened in mice by pools of strains and fungal burdens quantified in kidneys. Mutants of unannotated genes which generated a kidney fungal burden significantly different from that of wild-type were selected and individually examined in G. mellonella. In addition, mutants that could not be detected in mice were also tested in G. mellonella. Only 25 % of these mutants displayed matching phenotypes in both hosts, highlighting a significant discrepancy between the two models. To address the basis of this difference (pool or host effects, a set of 19 mutants tested in G. mellonella were also injected individually into mice. Matching fungal burden phenotypes were observed in 50 % of the cases, highlighting the bias due to host effects. In contrast, 33.4 % concordance was observed between pool and single strain infections in mice, thereby highlighting the bias introduced by the pool effect. After filtering the results obtained from the two infection models, mutants for MBF1 and ZCF6 were selected. Independent marker-free mutants were subsequently tested in both hosts to validate previous results. The MBF1 mutant showed impaired infection in both models, while the ZCF6 mutant was only significant in mice infections. The two mutants showed no obvious in vitro phenotypes compared with the wild-type, indicating that these genes might be specifically involved in in vivo adaptation.

  18. Besinin Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Puplarının Toplam Lipid ve Toplam Yağ Asidi Yüzdelerine Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    Taşkın, Deniz

    2010-01-01

    Galleria mellonella (L.) kepek, mısır unu, gliserinli mısır unu, petek ve yarı sentetik besin olmak üzere beş ayrı besin kullanılarak kültüre edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Kepek ve mısır ununda G. mellonella gelişmemiştir. Petek, yarı sentetik besin ve gliserinli mısır unu ile beslenen puplarda toplam lipit ve yağ asidi yüzdeleri belirlenmiştir. Toplam lipit ve yağ asidi yüzdesi gliserinli mısır unu ile beslenen grupta, diğer gruptakilere göre daha yüksek bulunmuştur...

  19. Fluconazole Pharmacokinetics in Galleria mellonella Larvae and Performance Evaluation of a Bioassay Compared to Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Hemolymph Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astvad, Karen Marie Thyssen; Meletiadis, Joseph; Whalley, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The invertebrate model organism Galleria mellonella can be used to assess the efficacy of treatment of fungal infection. The fluconazole dose best mimicking human exposure during licensed dosing is unknown. We validated a bioassay for fluconazole detection in hemolymph and determined...... the fluconazole pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in larval hemolymph in order to estimate a humanized dose for future experiments. A bioassay using 4-mm agar wells, 20 μl hemolymph, and the hypersusceptible Candida albicans DSY2621 was established and compared to a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass...... spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method. G. mellonella larvae were injected with fluconazole (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of larval weight), and hemolymph was harvested for 24 h for pharmacokinetics calculations. The exposure was compared to the human exposure during standard licensed dosing. The bioassay had a linear standard...

  20. Histopathological effects of Bacillus Thuringiensis and gamma irradiation on F1 Larvae of the greater Wax Moth, Galleria Mellonella L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.F.; Mikhaiel, A.A.; Abul-Fadl, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full grown male pupae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L., were gamma irradiated with 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy. The resulting F1 larvae were treated at the fourth instar with different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 %) of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt.) var. kurstaki. Combined effects of the two doses of gamma radiation (50 and 100 Gy) and / or Bt. (LC 50 ) on certain biological aspects in addition to histological effects on larval mid gut were studied. The obtained results indicated that Bt. or irradiation treatments either alone or in combination decreased the number of F1 larvae that reached the adult stage as compared to the control. Also, the reduction in survived individuals was obvious at dose level 400 Gy than 50, 100 and 200 Gy (the lower doses). The larval mortality, percent pupation, percent emergence and adult survival were decreased gradually by increasing the concentration of Bt. especially at the combined treatments. The sex ratio was altered in favour of males at either Bt. and / or irradiation treatments. Certain histological changes through longitudinal sections of the mid gut of F1 larvae due to irradiation and / or Bt. treatments were detected. The damage of tissues was increased by increasing the dose of irradiation and / or concentration of Bt. The cytoplasmic extrusion was appeared as the apical margin of cells as a confluent mass and the muscular layers were broken in some parts, large amount of secretions was released in the lumen of the mid gut while a few amounts were attached to the apical margin of the cells. Much destruction of the mid gut took place when the Bt. treatments were combined with gamma irradiation where large number of epithelial cells became vacuolated and the cytoplasm was appeared as confluent masses because of the hydropic analysis of the epithelium

  1. Ultrastructure changes in the haemocytes of galleria mellonella larvae treated with gamma irradiated steinerrnma carpocapsae BA2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, H. M.; Sayed, R. M.; Hussein, M. A.; Hafez, S. E.; Hussein, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Five types of haemocytes were recognized in the haem lymph of 5 th larval in star of G. mellonella; prohaemocytes, plasmatocytes, Granulocytes, Oenocytoids and Spherulocytes. Structural changes were observed in the haemocytes after Steinernema carpoapsae BA2 treatment. More destructive effects were observed in the haemocytes of G. mellonella treated with gamma irradiated S. carpocapsa . (Author)

  2. Development of quantitative proteomics using iTRAQ based on the immunological response of Galleria mellonella larvae challenged with Fusarium oxysporum microconidia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Muñoz-Gómez

    Full Text Available Galleria mellonella has emerged as a potential invertebrate model for scrutinizing innate immunity. Larvae are easy to handle in host-pathogen assays. We undertook proteomics research in order to understand immune response in a heterologous host when challenged with microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum. The aim of this study was to investigate hemolymph proteins that were differentially expressed between control and immunized larvae sets, tested with F. oxysporum at two temperatures. The iTRAQ approach allowed us to observe the effects of immune challenges in a lucid and robust manner, identifying more than 50 proteins, 17 of them probably involved in the immune response. Changes in protein expression were statistically significant, especially when temperature was increased because this was notoriously affected by F. oxysporum 104 or 106 microconidia/mL. Some proteins were up-regulated upon immune fungal microconidia challenge when temperature changed from 25 to 37°C. After analysis of identified proteins by bioinformatics and meta-analysis, results revealed that they were involved in transport, immune response, storage, oxide-reduction and catabolism: 20 from G. mellonella, 20 from the Lepidoptera species and 19 spread across bacteria, protista, fungi and animal species. Among these, 13 proteins and 2 peptides were examined for their immune expression, and the hypothetical 3D structures of 2 well-known proteins, unannotated for G. mellonella, i.e., actin and CREBP, were resolved using peptides matched with Bombyx mori and Danaus plexippus, respectively. The main conclusion in this study was that iTRAQ tool constitutes a consistent method to detect proteins associated with the innate immune system of G. mellonella in response to infection caused by F. oxysporum. In addition, iTRAQ was a reliable quantitative proteomic approach to detect and quantify the expression levels of immune system proteins and peptides, in particular, it was found that 104

  3. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the biology and ultrastructure of haemocytes of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Galleridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kholy, Eman M.S. [Biological Applications Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Aziz, Nahla M., E-mail: nahlasalem97@yahoo.co [Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt)

    2010-09-15

    This study was carried out on fully grown pupae of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L., {gamma}-irradiated to 100, 150, 300 and 400 Gy. The four doses given to male parents in the F{sub 1} generation decreased the average number of eggs per mated female, the percentage of egg hatching and the percentage of mating in both the male and female lines; the effects increased with the dose. Dose dependence of the reduction in the fecundity and the percentage of egg hatching among the female line pairings (female descendants of irradiated parental male pupae) was more significant than among the male line pairings (male descendants of irradiated parental male pupae). We also examined morphological changes in the irradiated blood cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Vacuolization of the cytoplasm, disorganization and swelling of mitochondria were found.

  4. The Effect of Vitamin C and / Or Gamma Irradiation on Some Biological Aspects of the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhaiel, A.A.; Mohamed, H.F.; Mohamed, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    This study is conducted to determine the impact of unilateral and joint with vitamin C concentrations (0.25 Molar) and gamma rays in artificial diets on some biological aspects of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. Vitamin C showed the positive impact of combined treatment with the dose rate 100 Gy on the average number of eggs per mated female and on percentage of the eggs hatched through the crosses T male X N female and N male X T female. Larval and Pupal period for both sexes did much affect by either radiation or vitamin C or both together. The average weights of larvae and pupae were significantly increased in the most concentrations when compared with the untreated control group. The highest percentage of survived larvae was 96.30 % from the control at the concentration 0.25 Molar of vitamin C and the lowest percentage was 61.11% from the control at dose rate 300 Gy only. While highest rate of the emergence was found by the treatments of vitamin C only or combined with the dose rate 100 Gy. The percentage of sex ratio was in favor of males at the dose rate 300 Gy only. Vitamin C significantly increased the activity of GOT and GPT enzymes by increasing the dose of gamma radiation in larvae of G. mellonella as compared to the control group

  5. AÇÃO DA TERAPIA FOTODINÂMICA EM Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 4352 UTILIZANDO MODELO DE INFECÇÃO Galleria mellonella

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    Raquel Teles de Menezes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae é um dos patógenos que possui grande resistência a vários antimicrobianos. A Terapia Fotodinâmica Antimicrobiana (PDT vem sendo estudada como novo recurso no combate à resistência bacteriana. Objetivo: Avaliar a ação antimicrobiana da PDT em K. pneumoniae utilizando como modelo de infecção in vivo Galleria mellonella. Métodos: Foram inoculados 10µL da suspensão padronizada de K. pneumoniae ATCC 4352 na última proleg esquerda de cada larva selecionada de G. mellonella. Decorridos 30 minutos, as larvas foram submetidas a PDT, com o uso do fotossensibilizador Azul de metileno e Laser de Arseneto de Gálio Alumínio. Passadas 24h, por sete dias o número de lagartas mortas foi anotado para a realização da curva de sobrevivência. Resultados: A PDT contribuiu para melhora da sobrevida das larvas, porém sem apresentar diferença estatística significante. Conclusão: A PDT apresentou atividade antimicrobiana contra a cepa de K. pneumoniae ATCC 4352.

  6. Short-term heat shock affects the course of immune response in Galleria mellonella naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertyporokh, Lidiia; Taszłow, Paulina; Samorek-Pieróg, Małgorzata; Wojda, Iwona

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate how exposition of infected insects to short-term heat shock affects the biochemical and molecular aspects of their immune response. Galleria mellonella larvae were exposed to 43°C for 15min, at the seventy second hour after natural infection with entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. As a result, both qualitative and quantitative changes in hemolymph protein profiles, and among them infection-induced changes in the amount of apolipophorin III (apoLp-III), were observed. Heat shock differently affects the expression of the tested immune-related genes. It transiently inhibits expression of antifungal peptides gallerimycin and galiomicin in both the fat body and hemocytes of infected larvae. The same, although to a lesser extent, concerned apoLp-III gene expression and was observed directly after heat shock. Nevertheless, in larvae that had recovered from heat shock, apoLp-III expression was higher in comparison to unshocked larvae in the fat body but not in hemocytes, which was consistent with the higher amount of this protein detected in the hemolymph of the infected, shocked larvae. Furthermore, lysozyme-type activity was higher directly after heat shock, while antifungal activity was significantly higher also in larvae that had recovered from heat shock, in comparison to the respective values in their non-shocked, infected counterparts. These results show how changes in the external temperature modulate the immune response of G. mellonella suffering from infection with its natural pathogen B. bassiana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluconazole Pharmacokinetics in Galleria mellonella Larvae and Performance Evaluation of a Bioassay Compared to Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Hemolymph Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astvad, Karen Marie Thyssen; Meletiadis, Joseph; Whalley, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The invertebrate model organism Galleria mellonella can be used to assess the efficacy of treatment of fungal infection. The fluconazole dose best mimicking human exposure during licensed dosing is unknown. We validated a bioassay for fluconazole detection in hemolymph and determined the fluconazole pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in larval hemolymph in order to estimate a humanized dose for future experiments. A bioassay using 4-mm agar wells, 20 μl hemolymph, and the hypersusceptible Candida albicans DSY2621 was established and compared to a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS) method. G. mellonella larvae were injected with fluconazole (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of larval weight), and hemolymph was harvested for 24 h for pharmacokinetics calculations. The exposure was compared to the human exposure during standard licensed dosing. The bioassay had a linear standard curve between 1 and 20 mg/liter. Accuracy and coefficients of variation (percent) values were below 10%. The Spearman coefficient between assays was 0.94. Fluconazole larval pharmacokinetics followed one-compartment linear kinetics, with the 24-h area under the hemolymph concentration-time curve (AUC24 h) being 93, 173, and 406 mg · h/liter for the three doses compared to 400 mg · h/liter in humans under licensed treatment. In conclusion, a bioassay was validated for fluconazole determination in hemolymph. The pharmacokinetics was linear. An exposure comparable to the human exposure during standard licensed dosing was obtained with 20 mg/kg. PMID:28760893

  8. PirAB protein from Xenorhabdus nematophila HB310 exhibits a binary toxin with insecticidal activity and cytotoxicity in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Zhang, Jie; Li, Tianhui; Liu, Shen; Song, Ping; Nangong, Ziyan; Wang, Qinying

    2017-09-01

    PirAB (Photorhabdus insect-related proteins, PirAB) toxin was initially found in the Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 strain and has been shown to be a binary toxin with high insecticidal activity. Based on GenBank data, this gene was also found in the Xenorhabdus nematophila genome sequence. The predicted amino acid sequence of pirA and pirB in the genome of X. nematophila showed 51% and 50% identity with those gene sequences from P. luminescens. The purpose of this experiment is to identify the relevant information for this toxin gene in X. nematophila. The pirA, pirB and pirAB genes of X. nematophila HB310 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using the pET-28a vector. A PirAB-fusion protein (PirAB-F) was constructed by linking the pirA and pirB genes with the flexible linker (Gly) 4 DNA encoding sequence and then efficiently expressed in E. coli. The hemocoel and oral insecticidal activities of the recombinant proteins were analyzed against the larvae of Galleria mellonella. The results show that PirA/B alone, PirA/B mixture, co-expressed PirAB protein, and PirAB-F all had no oral insecticidal activity against the second-instar larvae of G. mellonella. Only PirA/B mixture and co-expressed PirAB protein had hemocoel insecticidal activity against G. mellonella fifth-instar larvae, with an LD 50 of 2.718μg/larva or 1.566μg/larva, respectively. Therefore, we confirmed that PirAB protein of X. nematophila HB310 is a binary insecticidal toxin. The successful expression and purification of PirAB laid a foundation for further studies on the function, insecticidal mechanism and expression regulation of the binary toxin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Activity of levofloxacin in combination with colistin against Acinetobacter baumannii: In vitro and in a Galleria mellonella model

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    Wenjuan Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii infections is challenging owing to widespread multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-AB and the lack of novel agents. Although recent data suggest that levofloxacin (LVX may have unique activity against MDR-AB in combination with colistin (CST, further preclinical work is needed. Methods: We used a A. baumannii type strain ATCC19606, a CST-resistant strain AB19606R, and two clinical isolates (GN0624 and GN1115 of MDR-AB to investigate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of LVX–CST combination. Synergy studies were performed using the microtiter plate chequerboard assay and time–kill methodology. Inhibitory activity of antibiotics against biofilms and the mutant prevention concentrations were also studied in vitro. A simple invertebrate model (Galleria mellonella has been used to assess the in vivo activity of antimicrobial therapies. Results: The LVX–CST combination was bactericidal against the CST-susceptible clinical isolate (GN0624. In checkerboard assays, synergy (defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration index of < 0.5 was observed between CST and LVX in GN0624. The combination had antibiofilm properties on the preformed biofilms of four tested strains and could prevent the emergence of CST-resistant A. baumanni. Treatment of G. mellonella larvae infected with lethal doses of A. baumannii resulted in significantly enhanced survival rates when LVX was given with CST compared with CST treatment alone (p < 0.05. Conclusion: In summary, a synergistic or additive effect between CST and LVX was observed in vitro and in vivo against CST-susceptible A. baumannii strains, although not against CST-resistant ones. Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii, antimicrobial synergy, invertebrate model, levofloxacin, polymyxins

  10. Identification and characterization of an insect toxin protein, Bb70p, from the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, using Galleria mellonella as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sehroon; Nadir, Sadia; Lihua, Guo; Xu, Jianchu; Holmes, Keith A; Dewen, Qiu

    2016-01-01

    An insect-toxic protein, Bb70p, was purified from Beauveria bassiana 70 using ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. Bb70p has a high affinity for anion exchangers and 2D electrophoresis results revealed a single spot with a molecular weight of 35.5 kDa and an iso-electric point of ∼4.5. Bb70p remains active from 4 to 60°C, within a pH range of 4-10, but is more active in slightly acidic pH. A pure protein, Bb70p does not have any carbohydrate side chains. The protein caused high mortality by intra-haemocelic injection into Galleria mellonella with LD50 of 334.4 μg/g body weight and activates the phenol oxidase cascade. With a partial amino acid sequence comparison using the NCBI database, we showed no homology to known toxin proteins of entomopathogenic fungi. Thus, Bb70p appears to be an insect toxin protein, demonstrating novelty. Identification of this insect-toxic protein presents potential to enhance the virulence of B. bassiana through genetic manipulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress conditions triggering mucoid morphotype variation in Burkholderia species and effect on virulence in Galleria mellonella and biofilm formation in vitro.

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    Inês N Silva

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc bacteria are opportunistic pathogens causing chronic respiratory infections particularly among cystic fibrosis patients. During these chronic infections, mucoid-to-nonmucoid morphotype variation occurs, with the two morphotypes exhibiting different phenotypic properties. Here we show that in vitro, the mucoid clinical isolate Burkholderia multivorans D2095 gives rise to stable nonmucoid variants in response to prolonged stationary phase, presence of antibiotics, and osmotic and oxidative stresses. Furthermore, in vitro colony morphotype variation within other members of the Burkholderia genus occurred in Bcc and non-Bcc strains, irrespectively of their clinical or environmental origin. Survival to starvation and iron limitation was comparable for the mucoid parental isolate and the respective nonmucoid variant, while susceptibility to antibiotics and to oxidative stress was increased in the nonmucoid variants. Acute infection of Galleria mellonella larvae showed that, in general, the nonmucoid variants were less virulent than the respective parental mucoid isolate, suggesting a role for the exopolysaccharide in virulence. In addition, most of the tested nonmucoid variants produced more biofilm biomass than their respective mucoid parental isolate. As biofilms are often associated with increased persistence of pathogens in the CF lungs and are an indicative of different cell-to-cell interactions, it is possible that the nonmucoid variants are better adapted to persist in this host environment.

  12. All Yersinia enterocolitica are pathogenic: virulence of phylogroup 1 Y. enterocolitica in a Galleria mellonella infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenizi, Dhahi; Ringwood, Tamara; Redhwan, Alya; Bouraha, Bouchra; Wren, Brendan W; Prentice, Michael; McNally, Alan

    2016-08-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic pathogen and a common cause of gastroenteritis in humans. The species is composed of six diverse phylogroups, of which strains of phylogroup 1 are considered non-pathogenic to mammals due to the lack of the major virulence plasmid pYV, and their lack of virulence in a mouse infection model. In the present report we present data examining the pathogenicity of strains of Y. enterocolitica across all six phylogroups in a Galleria mellonellla model. We have demonstrated that in this model strains of phylogroup 1 exhibit severe pathogenesis with a lethal dose of as low as 10 c.f.u., that this virulence is an active process and that flagella play a major role in the virulence phenotype. We have also demonstrated that the complete lack of virulence in Galleria of the mammalian pathogenic phylogroups is not due to carriage of the pYV virulence plasmid. Our data suggest that all Y. enterocolitica can be pathogenic, which may be a reflection of the true natural habitat of the species, and that we may need to reconsider the eco-evo perspective of this important bacterial species.

  13. Investigating the Effect of Different Treatments with Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Fate of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grounta, Athena; Harizanis, Paschalis; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2016-01-01

    The use of Galleria mellonella as a model host to elucidate microbial pathogenesis and search for novel drugs and therapies has been well appreciated over the past years. However, the effect of microorganisms with functional appeal in the specific host remains scarce. The present study investigates the effect of treatment with selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic potential, as potential protective agents by using live or heat-killed cells at 6 and 24 h prior to infection with Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus or as potential therapeutic agents by using cell-free supernatants (CFS) after infection with the same pathogens. The employed LAB strains were Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282 (isolated from table olive fermentations) along with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (inhabitant of human intestinal tract). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted while the pathogen's persistence in the larval hemolymph was determined by microbiological analysis. It was observed that the time (6 or 24 h) and type (live or heat-killed cells) of challenge period with LAB prior to infection greatly affected the survival of infected larvae. The highest decrease of L. monocytogenes population in the hemolymph was observed in groups challenged for 6 h with heat-killed cells by an average of 1.8 log units compared to non challenged larvae for strains B281 (p 0.0322), B282 (p 0.0325), and LGG (p 0.0356). In the case of S. aureus infection, the population of the pathogen decreased in the hemolymph by 1 log units at 8 h post infection in the groups challenged for 6 h with heat-killed cells of strains B281 (p 0.0161) and B282 (p 0.0096) and by 1.8 log units in groups challenged with heat-killed cells of LGG strain (p 0.0175). Further use of CFS of each LAB strain did not result in any significant prolonged survival but interestingly it resulted in pronounced decrease of L. monocytogenes in the hemolymph at 24 h and 48 h after infection by

  14. Investigating the Effect of Different Treatments with Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Fate of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Grounta

    Full Text Available The use of Galleria mellonella as a model host to elucidate microbial pathogenesis and search for novel drugs and therapies has been well appreciated over the past years. However, the effect of microorganisms with functional appeal in the specific host remains scarce. The present study investigates the effect of treatment with selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB with probiotic potential, as potential protective agents by using live or heat-killed cells at 6 and 24 h prior to infection with Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus or as potential therapeutic agents by using cell-free supernatants (CFS after infection with the same pathogens. The employed LAB strains were Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282 (isolated from table olive fermentations along with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (inhabitant of human intestinal tract. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted while the pathogen's persistence in the larval hemolymph was determined by microbiological analysis. It was observed that the time (6 or 24 h and type (live or heat-killed cells of challenge period with LAB prior to infection greatly affected the survival of infected larvae. The highest decrease of L. monocytogenes population in the hemolymph was observed in groups challenged for 6 h with heat-killed cells by an average of 1.8 log units compared to non challenged larvae for strains B281 (p 0.0322, B282 (p 0.0325, and LGG (p 0.0356. In the case of S. aureus infection, the population of the pathogen decreased in the hemolymph by 1 log units at 8 h post infection in the groups challenged for 6 h with heat-killed cells of strains B281 (p 0.0161 and B282 (p 0.0096 and by 1.8 log units in groups challenged with heat-killed cells of LGG strain (p 0.0175. Further use of CFS of each LAB strain did not result in any significant prolonged survival but interestingly it resulted in pronounced decrease of L. monocytogenes in the hemolymph at 24 h and 48 h after

  15. The efficiency of infection of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella L. caterpillars by entomopathogens isolated from soils of selected parks of the Mokotów District in Warsaw

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    Jan Zawitkowski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi occur in habitats of their host organisms i.e. in soil. Arthropods – their potential hosts, are one of the biotic factors affecting the occurrence and survival of the fungi. Infection by entomopathogenic organisms (fungi of the test insect Galleria mellonella L. was determined from pathological changes in caterpillars. The effect of incubation temperature on the development of entomophages was accounted for during observations. The infection of caterpillars by fungi was more effective at 25°C than at 20°C. Four species of entomopathognic fungi infecting caterpillars of the greater wax moth (G. mellonella were determined. Entomopathogenic nematodes infecting the insect were classified to family. Determined relationships may vary in time. A set of similar studies in the Mokotów District is needed to confirm the obtained results.

  16. BIOLOGICAL AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES ON THE HAEMOCYTES OF F1 LARVAE OF THE GAMMA IRRADIATED GREAT WAX MOTH PUPAE GALLERIA MELLONELLA (L.) (LEPIDOPTERA : GAELLERIDAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-KHOLY, E.M.S.; EL-NAGGAR, S.E.M.; ABD EL-AZIZ, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out on the full grown male pupae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L., when irradiated with 100, 150, 300 and 400 Gray of gamma radiation. Two groups of newly moulted 4 th instar larvae were set up, each group consisted of 50 larvae. The first group was exposed in the pupal stage to 100 Gy and the second with 150 Gy then the larval haemolymph was collected. Also, a control group of 50 larvae (non-irradiated) was investigated. The morphological changes in the irradiated blood cells, as compared to the control, were examined using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Vacuolization of cytoplasm, disorganization and swelling of mitochondria were appeared. The biological effects of gamma irradiation of the parental male pupae on the reproduction of adult moths when treated males were mated with normal females (male line) and when normal males were mated with treated females (female line) were studied. The latent biological effects of four gamma doses (100, 150, 300 and 400 Gy) on the F1 generation showed that the average number of eggs per mated female, the percentage of egg hatch and the percent of mating were gradually reduced when the given gamma dose to male parents was increased at all treatments (male and female lines). The reduction in the fecundity and the percentage of egg hatch among female line pairings (females descendant of irradiated parental male pupae) was reduced than that among male line pairings (males descendant of irradiated parental male pupae) with increasing the gamma dose

  17. Management of the Greater Wax Moth Galleria mellonella with Neem Azal- T/S, in the Laboratory and under Semi-Field Conditions

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    Elbehery Huda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations of Neem Azal-T/S were used in an artificial diet, to study the mortality of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. A Neem formulation and different ages of natural beeswax combs were used for the effective management of the wax moth. While the diet was being prepared, Neem Azal-T/S was directly added ensure that the Neem formulation was distributed evenly in the diet at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4%. The obtained results showed that the different concentrations of Neem Azal-T/S mixed in the prepared artificial diet had a significant efficacy against the tested 2nd instar larvae. An outstanding elongation of the 2nd larval instar was clear in comparison with the control, even at the least tested concentration (0.25%. Neem Azal-T/S at 4, 2,1, and 0.5% caused 100% mortality for all tested larvae. When using a 4% concentration, all the tested larvae died in the 2nd instar. However, when using a 2% concentration, the larvae died in the fifth instar. When using a decreased concentration of 1.0 and 0.5%, some of the larvae were tolerant and lived till the 6th instar. Feeding the larvae on beeswax combs treated with 2% Neem Azal-T/S, caused 100% mortality when fed on very old wax. When the diet was old wax treated with 2% Neem Azal-T/S, a 91% mortality was recorded. When the diet was new wax treated with 2% Neem Azal-T/S, a 90% mortality was recorded. A 4% Neem formulation caused mortality for all larvae during the first week of treatment on the different tested ages of beeswax combs.

  18. Optimization of Factors Affecting Beauveria bassiana Fungus Ability in Control of Greater Wax Moth (Galleria mellonella L. by Response Surface Method

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    Ali Heidari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stored product pests are a major problem in the storage of agricultural products that cause damage from harvest until consumption. Greater Wax Moth (Galleria mellonella L. is one of the most important pests of stored products and beehives. The most common method to control this pest in many countries is use of chemical compounds. However, these compounds have disadvantages such as pesticide residues in wax, the development of resistance in pest and irreversible effects on the environment and humans. The use of insect pathogenic fungi due to its low risk on mammals and natural enemies can be a good alternative to conventional chemical pesticides. Response surface methodology (RSM is a statistical technique that is employed to optimize processes that are affected by several variables. This technique uses regression analysis to obtain optimal equations to estimate the values. Using this method, while maintaining the quality in the experiments, the number of those could be reduced. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate response surface methodology to determine the effect of optimum lethal level of concentration of B. bassiana conidia, temperature as well as humidity variables on the mortality of fifth instar larvae of greater wax moth. Materials and Methods: Wax moth-eating insects were raised in plastic containers containing artificial food and old black wax at 30 ± 1 ° C and a relative humidity of 85 ± 1 % and photoperiod of 14:10 h (L: D. Isolation of insect pathogenic fungus B. bassiana was done by using Galleria Bait Method (GBM. For this purpose, after preparation of the fungus suspension from the infected larvae, 1 ml volume of the suspension was transferred to the water-agar 1.2% and then sealed petri dishes incubated at 30 ° C for three days. After identifying the single colony and formation of pure isolates, microscopic slides were prepared and eventually recovered isolates were recognized as B. bassiana. The

  19. Enhanced efficacy of imipenem-colistin combination therapy against multiple-drug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae: in vitro activity and a Galleria mellonella model

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    Haifei Yang

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: This is the first report demonstrating the efficacy of antimicrobial agents in the G. mellonella larvae model of infections caused by E. cloacae. Our study suggested that imipenem-colistin combination was highly active against E. cloacae both in vitro and in the simple invertebrate model, and provided preliminary in vivo evidence that such combination might be useful therapeutically.

  20. Activity of Daptomycin or Linezolid in Combination with Rifampin or Gentamicin against Biofilm-Forming Enterococcus faecalis or E. faecium in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Model Using Simulated Endocardial Vegetations and an In Vivo Survival Assay Using Galleria mellonella Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Megan K.; Arvanitis, Marios; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are the third most frequent cause of infective endocarditis. A high-inoculum stationary-phase in vitro pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations was used to simulate the human pharmacokinetics of daptomycin at 6 or 10 mg/kg of body weight/day or linezolid at 600 mg every 12 h (q12h), alone or in combination with gentamicin at 1.3 mg/kg q12h or rifampin at 300 mg q8h or 900 mg q24h. Biofilm-forming, vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (vancomycin-resistant enterococcus [VRE]) strains were tested. At 24, 48, and 72 h, all daptomycin-containing regimens demonstrated significantly more activity (decline in CFU/g) than any linezolid-containing regimen against biofilm-forming E. faecalis. The addition of gentamicin to daptomycin (at 6 or 10 mg/kg) in the first 24 h significantly improved bactericidal activity. In contrast, the addition of rifampin delayed the bactericidal activity of daptomycin against E. faecalis, and the addition of rifampin antagonized the activities of all regimens against VRE at 24 h. Also, against VRE, the addition of gentamicin to linezolid at 72 h improved activity and was bactericidal. Rifampin significantly antagonized the activity of linezolid against VRE at 72 h. In in vivo Galleria mellonella survival assays, linezolid and daptomycin improved survival. Daptomycin at 10 mg/kg improved survival significantly over that with linezolid against E. faecalis. The addition of gentamicin improved the efficacy of daptomycin against E. faecalis and those of linezolid and daptomycin against VRE. We conclude that in enterococcal infection models, daptomycin has more activity than linezolid alone. Against biofilm-forming E. faecalis, the addition of gentamicin in the first 24 h causes the most rapid decline in CFU/g. Of interest, the addition of rifampin decreased the activity of daptomycin against both E. faecalis and VRE. PMID:24867993

  1. Genes involved in Beauveria bassiana infection to Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anhui; Wang, Yulong; Shao, Ying; Zhou, Qiumei; Chen, Shanglong; Wu, Yonghua; Chen, Hongwei; Liu, Enqi

    2018-05-01

    The ascomycete fungus Beauveria bassiana is a natural pathogen of hundreds of insect species and is commercially produced as an environmentally friendly mycoinsecticide. Many genes involved in fungal insecticide infection have been identified but few have been further explored. In this study, we constructed three transcriptomes of B. bassiana at 24, 48 and 72 h post infection of insect pests (BbI) or control (BbC). There were 3148, 3613 and 4922 genes differentially expressed at 24, 48 and 72 h post BbI/BbC infection, respectively. A large number of genes and pathways involved in infection were identified. To further analyze those genes, expression patterns across different infection stages (0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 h) were studied using quantitative RT-PCR. This analysis showed that the infection-related genes could be divided into four patterns: highly expressed throughout the whole infection process (thioredoxin 1); highly expressed during early stages of infection but lowly expressed after the insect death (adhesin protein Mad1); lowly expressed during early infection but highly expressed after insect death (cation transporter, OpS13); or lowly expressed across the entire infection process (catalase protein). The data provide novel insights into the insect-pathogen interaction and help to uncover the molecular mechanisms involved in fungal infection of insect pests.

  2. A madurella mycetomatis grain model in galleria mellonella larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Kloezen (Wendy); M. van Helvert-van Poppel (Marilyn); A.H. Fahal (Ahmed); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractEumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility

  3. Susceptibility of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae to entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae

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    María L. PESCHIUTTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae es vector de los agentes etiológicos de la fiebre amarilla y del dengue. Una alternativa al control químico de este vector es el uso de agentes biológicos. Los nematodos entomopatógenos son efectivos en el control de plagas. La infectividad y el ciclo de vida de un aislado argentino de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae en larvas de A. aegypti se registró por primera vez bajo condiciones de laborato - rio. Para cada unidad experimental, 30 larvas de mosquito de segundo estadio fueron expuestas a 8 dosis del nematodo (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1, 1500:1. Los juveniles infectivos (JIs utilizados fueron multiplicados sobre Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. La continuidad infectiva de los JIs obtenidos de A. aegypti fue probada aplicándolos en una dosis de 100:1 sobre larvas del mosquito . Las tasas de mortalidad fueron de 0% a 84%. El número de nematodos desarrollados dentro de la larva de mosquito, la mortalidad larval y los nuevos JIs se incrementaron con el aumento de la dosis de nematodos. Los resultados indican que H. bacteriophora es capaz de infectar larvas de A. aegypti , se desarrolla y produce nuevos JIs, permitiendo la continuidad de su ciclo de vida.

  4. Instant Galleria how-to

    CERN Document Server

    Van Gheem, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This is a how-to book with practical recipes to make you an expert user of Galleria.This book is for Javascript developers and designers looking to learn how to create beautiful galleries for their web projects. It's assumed you know some JavaScript, JQuery, HTML, and CSS. Readers are expected to have images available to use with the galleries, a text editor, and a modern web browser to develop with.

  5. Evaluation of Galleria mellonella larvae for studying the virulence of Streptococcus suis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikova, Nadya; Kavanagh, Kevin; Wells, Jerry M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus suis is an encapsulated Gram-positive bacterium and the leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in young pigs, resulting in considerable economic losses in the porcine industry. S. suis is considered an emerging zoonotic agent with increasing numbers of human cases over the

  6. Control of the wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae by the male sterile technique (MST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Reza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the control of wax moth using the male sterile technique (MST with gamma-rays. To determine the safe and effective dosage of gamma-rays capable of sterilizing male pupae of the wax moth, male pupae were exposed to increasing single doses of gamma-rays (250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy. The release ratio of sterile to normal males was also studied in a similar experiment. Treatments included sterile males, normal males and virgin females at the following ratios: 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1, 4:1:1 and 5:1:1. Possible parthenogenetic reproduction of this pest was also examined. The results showed that 350 Gy was the most effective dose capable of sterilizing the male pupae of the wax moth. The best release ratio was established at four sterile males, one normal male for each normal female (4:1:1. Also females were incapable of producing offspring without males.

  7. Silk recycling in larvae of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaik, Haq Abdul; Mishra, Archana; Sehnal, František

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, JAN 27 (2017), s. 61-65 E-ISSN 1802-8829 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 907 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Pyralidae * silk recycling Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2017/01/09.pdf

  8. Polyethylene bio-degradation by caterpillars of the wax moth Galleria mellonella

    OpenAIRE

    Bombelli, P; Howe, CJ; Bertocchini, F

    2017-01-01

    Plastics are synthetic polymers derived from fossil oil and largely resistant to biodegradation. Polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) represent ∼92% of total plastic production. PE is largely utilized in packaging, representing ∼40% of total demand for plastic products (www.plasticseurope.org) with over a trillion plastic bags used every year [1]. Plastic production has increased exponentially in the past 50 years (Figure S1A in Supplemental Information, published with this article online...

  9. The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii communicates with the insect host Galleria mellonella during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Parasitic fungi are the only pathogens that can infect insect hosts directly through their proteinaceous exoskeleton. Penetration of the cuticle requires the release of fungal enzymes, including proteinases, which act as virulence factors. Insects can sense fungal infections and activate innate immune responses, including the synthesis of antifungal peptides and proteinase inhibitors that neutralize the incoming proteinases. This well-studied host response is epigenetically regulated by histone acetylation/deacetylation. Here we show that entomopathogenic fungi can in turn sense the presence of insect-derived antifungal peptides and proteinase inhibitors, and respond by inducing the synthesis of chymotrypsin-like proteinases and metalloproteinases that degrade the host-derived defense molecules. The rapidity of this response is dependent on the virulence of the fungal strain. We confirmed the specificity of the pathogen response to host-derived defense molecules by LC/MS and RT-PCR analysis, and correlated this process with the epigenetic regulation of histone acetylation/deacetylation. This cascade of responses reveals that the coevolution of pathogens and hosts can involve a complex series of attacks and counterattacks based on communication between the invading fungal pathogen and its insect host. The resolution of this process determines whether or not pathogenesis is successful.

  10. Is Vitamin E Life Supporter for Gamma Irradiated Galleria Mollenella?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    This study conducted to determine the effect of vitamin E separate or combined with gamma ray in semi artificial diets on some biological aspects of the Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Pyralidae : Lepidoptera). The increase in the average number of eggs per mated female for more than 70 % of the control in both treated male and female. Also, through the F1 generation (descendant of P1 progeny fed on artificial diet plus vitamin E) in either irradiated male or female at 100 and 300 Gy dose levels. The life supporter of vitamin E clearly demonstrates throughout F1 whose offspring fed on artificial diet plus Vitamin E, also more pronounced during the first generation treated with gamma irradiation (100 and 300 Gray) which descendant from the offspring were fed on the artificial diet containing Vitamin E (0.02%) than that treatments which treated with gamma irradiation only. The average weight of larvae and pupae significantly increase by using petroleum ether only or this may be abnormal. The average weight of larvae and pupae at the concentration 0.02% was 105.07 and 121.87 % from the control treatment, respectively then decreased to 67.86 and 75.12%, respectively from the control treatment at the concentration 0.04% and then increase at the two concentrations 0.06 and 0.08 %. The increase in weight gain in the case combined ( 100 Gy or 300 Gy with Vitamin E) more than in case using a single dose of gamma irradiation , the increase in case 300 Gy only or combined with Vitamin E more than the control treatment. The best result in case of Vitamin (E) only then when treated the pest with gamma radiation after Vitamin (E) and the effect at 100 Gy better than in case 300 Gy. The combined effect of sub sterilizing dose (300 Gy) and sterilizing doses (400 and 500 Gy) of gamma radiation and vitamin E on the mating competitiveness of F1 males G. Mellenella shows that the competitiveness values more than 1.0 at the combined VE and the two dose levels 400 and 500 Gy

  11. Linnaeus in Uppsala, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    Presents a brief life history of Carl Linnaeus, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala, Sweden. Highlights his work in developing a classification system for plants and animals, and his botanical lectures and demonstrations. (JRH)

  12. Effect of storage time and temperature on infectivity, reproduction and development of Heterorhabditis megidis in Galleria mellonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boff, M.I.C.; Wiegers, G.L.; Smits, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of temperature, dose and storage period on the infectivity and development of Heterorhabditis megidis (strain NLH-E 87.3) infective juveniles (IJ) was studied in the laboratory. IJ were stored at 5, 10, 15 and 20°C for a period of up to 70 days (10 weeks). Every second week, mortality,

  13. Desiccation and cold storage of Galleria mellonella cadavers and effects on in vivo production of Steinernema carpocapsae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Wang, H.; Feng, Q.Z.; Cui, X.Y.; Liu, R.Y.; Sun, Y.B.; Li, G.C.; Tan, H.; Song, D.M.; Liu, W.; Ruan, W.B.; Harvey, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUNDDirect application of insect cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) can successfully control target pest insects. Little is known about the effects of environmental factors (desiccation and temperature) on the production process for infective juveniles (IJ) in insects.

  14. Hemolin expression in the silk glands of Galleria mellonella in response to bacterial challenge and prior to cell disintegration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaik, Haq Abdul; Sehnal, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 9 (2009), s. 781-787 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5007402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : cell recognition * hemolin * 20-hydroxyecdysone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2009

  15. Penetration and encapsulation of the larval endoparasitoid Exorista larvarum (Diptera: Tachinidae) in the factitious host Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valigurová, A.; Michalkova, V.; Koník, Peter; Dindo, M. L.; Gelnar, M.; Vaňhara, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 2 (2014), s. 203-212 ISSN 0007-4853 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : endoparasitoid * respiratory funnel * haemocyte capsule * melanin simulated parasitization Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Entomology Impact factor: 1.910, year: 2014

  16. Carl Linnaeus: pictures and propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2003-03-01

    How do scientists become famous? Carl Linnaeus was an expert at self-promotion who used portraits to gain patronage and consolidate his reputation. His sexualized classification system was hugely controversial, yet his successors celebrated him as a great hero of botany.

  17. Reduced entomopathogen abundance in Myrmica ant nests-testing a possible immunological benefit of myrmecophily using Galleria mellonella as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schär, Sämi; Larsen, Louise L.M.; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt

    2015-01-01

    Social insects such as ants have evolved collective rather than individual immune defence strategies against diseases and parasites at the level of their societies (colonies), known as social immunity. Ants frequently host other arthropods, so-called myrmecophiles, in their nests. Here, we tested...... that immunological benefits of entering ant nests may provide us a new explanation of why natural selection acts in favour of such a life-history strategy....

  18. Mixed infection of Galleria mellonella with two entomopathogenic nematode (Nematoda: Rhabditida) species: Steinernema affine benefits from the presence of Steinernema kraussei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půža, Vladimír; Mráček, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 1 (2009), s. 40-43 ISSN 0022-2011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : entomopathogenic nematodes * Steinernema affine * Steinernema kraussei Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.807, year: 2009

  19. Nitric oxide production by hemocytes of larva and pharate prepupa of Galleria mellonella in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide: cytoprotective or cytotoxic?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krishnan, Natraj; Hyršl, P.; Šimek, V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 142, 1-2 (2006), s. 103-110 ISSN 1532-0456 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : nitric oxide * hemocytes * lipopolysaccharide Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.991, year: 2006

  20. Bad math in Linnaeus' Philosophia Botanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podani, János; Szilágyi, András

    2016-09-01

    In Philosophia Botanica (1751), Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) presented a calculation of the number of plant genera that may be distinguished based on his taxonomic concepts. In order to derive that number, he relied upon the organs of fructification, which represent the flower and the fruit, by selecting over 30 elements from them, and then assuming that each could vary by four dimensions. However, while Linnaeus was good in counting stamens and pistils, he and many of his followers who edited or translated Philosophia Botanica were less careful, basing their calculations of the number of possible genera on flawed assumptions, or even introducing basic arithmetic errors. Furthermore, although mathematics was quite advanced in the eighteenth century, the gap between combinatorial and botanical thinking was too deep, preventing Linnaeus to seek a reasonable solution to the problem he raised. The authors demonstrate this by a historical analysis of 15 editions of Philosophia Botanica, plus many references to it, and conclude that the desired number almost always appeared in error during the past 265 years. The German botanist J. G. Gleditsch (1714-1786) was the most successful with respect to Linnaeus' original intention. Elementary mathematics demonstrates that if Linnaeus' assumptions were taken seriously, then the possible number of genera would be astronomical. The practice he followed in Genera Plantarum (1754) shows, however, that the fructification dimensions served as a universal set for Linnaeus from which he chose only the relevant ones for describing a particular genus empirically. Based on the corrections and modifications implemented in reworked editions, we suggest an evolutionary network for the historical and modern versions or translations of Philosophia Botanica.

  1. Characterization of cry1Cb3 and cry1Fb7 from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleriae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huang, T.; Xiao, Y.; Pan, J.; Zhang, L.; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, X.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), s. 521-528 ISSN 2391-5412 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleriae * PCR-RFLP * cloning Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/biol.2015.10.issue-1/biol-2015-0054/biol-2015-0054.xml

  2. Bibliographie der Flussperlmuschel Margaritifera Margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbluth, J.H.; Coomans, H.E.; Grohs, H.

    1985-01-01

    Bibliography of the freshwater Pearlmussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda] The freshwater pearlmussel, described by Linnaeus as Mya margaritifera is one of the most important molluscs existing. It belongs with only a few congeneric fossil and recent species to the

  3. Enhancing Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) Cultivation and Seed Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) Cultivation and Seed Yield among ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... Jatropha curcas yields substantial quantity of seed oil and is growing in importance as a source of biodiesel.

  4. LINNAEUS: A species name identification system for biomedical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadic Goran

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The task of recognizing and identifying species names in biomedical literature has recently been regarded as critical for a number of applications in text and data mining, including gene name recognition, species-specific document retrieval, and semantic enrichment of biomedical articles. Results In this paper we describe an open-source species name recognition and normalization software system, LINNAEUS, and evaluate its performance relative to several automatically generated biomedical corpora, as well as a novel corpus of full-text documents manually annotated for species mentions. LINNAEUS uses a dictionary-based approach (implemented as an efficient deterministic finite-state automaton to identify species names and a set of heuristics to resolve ambiguous mentions. When compared against our manually annotated corpus, LINNAEUS performs with 94% recall and 97% precision at the mention level, and 98% recall and 90% precision at the document level. Our system successfully solves the problem of disambiguating uncertain species mentions, with 97% of all mentions in PubMed Central full-text documents resolved to unambiguous NCBI taxonomy identifiers. Conclusions LINNAEUS is an open source, stand-alone software system capable of recognizing and normalizing species name mentions with speed and accuracy, and can therefore be integrated into a range of bioinformatics and text-mining applications. The software and manually annotated corpus can be downloaded freely at http://linnaeus.sourceforge.net/.

  5. Carolus Linnaeus and the Edible Dormouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Violani

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carolus Linnaeus was totally unacquainted with the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis (L., a species not found in Sweden: while describing Mus Rattus in the 10th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1758, the Swedish naturalist confessed his ignorance concerning the "Glis" of the ancients and suggested that it might have been the marmot or the hamster. Thanks to written information received from his correspondent in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linnaeus was able to include the new species Sciurus Glis in his 12th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1766, reporting almost verbatim a summary of Scopoli's description of the rodent. Scopoli's letter is still preserved in the Library of the Linnean Society of London. The Linnean type locality "Habitat in Europa australi" for the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis glis must therefore be restricted to "Southern Carniola, Slovenia", contra "Germany" as stated, for instance, by Miller (1912, Toschi (1965, Corbet (1978 and Storch (1978. A new name is required for the continental European form, for which M. glis germanicus ssp. nov. is here proposed. Some information on the appreciation of Myoxus glis as a delicacy ("carnes avide eduntur" in Linnaeus' words conclude the paper. Riassunto Carlo Linneo ed il Ghiro - Dopo aver descritto Mus Rattus nella decima edizione del "Systema Naturae" (1758 il naturalista svedese Carlo Linneo confessava di non essere a conoscenza del "Glis" degli antichi autori e ne suggeriva l'identificazione con la Marmotta o con il Criceto comune; è infatti noto che Myoxus glis non è diffuso in Svezia. In base ad una lettera ricevuta dal suo corrispondente in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linneo fu in grado di descrivere questa nuova specie come Sciurus Glis nella dodicesima edizione del "Systema

  6. Analysis of lustred ceramics of the Galleria Regionale di Palazzo Bellomo di Siracusa, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politi, Giuseppe; Bouquillon, Anne; Aucouturier, Marc; Gueli, Anna; Troja, Sebastiano Olindo; Vella, Carmela; Pacheco, Claire; Pichon, Laurent; Moignard, Brice; Lemasson, Quentin

    2014-01-01

    Several fragments of lustred pottery coming from the collection of the Galleria Regionale di Palazzo Bellomo and excavated in Siracusa, were studied through non-invasive ion beam techniques in the Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France in Paris. Up to now only aesthetic and stylistic analysis were available for these objects, and their provenances and dating were unknown or uncertain; moreover, the question concerning a possible local production was still debated. Compositions of pottery and glazed parts were thus obtained by Particle Induced X-ray Emission analysis, while the depth distribution of element of the lustre was analyzed by the Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry technique. The obtained results provided important information on possible origin and production period of the objects

  7. Clio pyramidata Linnaeus, 1767 forma convexa (Boas, 1886) (Mollusca, Pteropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der S.

    1973-01-01

    The pelagic fauna of the Red Sea shows special variation induced by its isolated character (Van der Spoel, 1971). Clio pyramidata from the Red Sea is usually incorrectly referred to as the tropical forma lanceolata (Lesueur, 1813) or the typical forma pyramidata Linnaeus, 1767. Some large samples

  8. Regulatory effects of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus on immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the results of experiments to test the effect of the larvae of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus on the immune systems of mice. Mice were given a decoction of T. molitor in water at doses of 1.87, 3.75 and 7.50 g/kg/d for four weeks, after which their immune function was studied. The results indicate that T. molitor ...

  9. Sobre o lectótipo de Papilio bixae Linnaeus e a designação do lectótipo de Papilio proteus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf H. H. Mielke

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The lectotype of Papilo bixae Linnaeus, designated by Hemming (1964 based on the figure of Merian (1705, was found in the Wiesbaden Museum, and here with considered as such. It corresponds to Pyrrhopyge phidias bixae; Evans (1951. Two syntypes of Papilo proteus Linnaeus, 1758, were also found in the same Museum and one of them was selected as lectotype. These lectotypes are figured for the first time.

  10. First record of Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil (Bahia. It was originally described from Europe and is currently widely distributed in that continent and Asia.

  11. Attempted eradication of Porphyrio porphyrio Linnaeus in the Florida Everglades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave EGGEMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrio porphyrio (Fulica porphyrio Linnaeus was reported to the South Florida Water Management District in a Water Conservation Area and in constructed wetlands in the Everglades in 2006. A rapid assessment, including casual observations and surveys of land managers, indicated a limited number of P. porphyrio (~300 birds was present, and an eradication attempt was initiated. From 2006 – 2008, more than 3100 P. porphyrio were killed by shotgun from airboats during 73 hunts, suggesting the initial population assessment was severely underestimated. After removing nearly 1500 P. porphyrio in 2008, we concluded that eradication was not possible. Failure of this eradication attempt is attributed to P. porphyrio’s affinity with dense emergent vegetation, which greatly limited shooting effectiveness. Further, the failed eradication underscores the importance of a reporting network to improve early detection and the chance to eliminate naturalized or feral populations of non‐native species.

  12. Helminths of the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Worm burdens were evaluated and compared in two groups of the guinea pig, Cavia poreellus (Linnaeus, 1758: animals of the first group were conventionally maintained in an institutional animal house and those of the second group were openly kept in pet shops in Brazil. Animals from both sources were infected only with the nematode Paraspidodera uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1914 (10% of prevalence in guinea pigs from lhe institutional facility and 40% in those animals from the pet shop. Other helminth samples recovered from Brazilian guinea pigs during 52 years and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC were also analyzed. Paraspidodera uncinata and the cestode Monoecocestus parcitesticulatus Rêgo, 1960 were identified in these samples.

  13. The biological effects of gamma irradiation and/or plant extract (Neem) on the greater wax moth, Galleria Mollenella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H. F.

    2012-12-01

    The present study was evaluating the effect of plant extract (Neem) with the concentrations 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm on the percentage of observed mortality and corrected mortality of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellon ella zeller. Also the effect of the plant extract concentrations 0.25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm on the biology of this insect as percentage larval mortality, percentage larval weight, percentage larval and pupal duration, total development time, fecundity of resulting adults. Furthermore, we examined the effect of gamma irradiation with the doses 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gray on some biological aspects of G. mellon ella. In addition, we studied the combined effect of gamma irradiation and plant extract (Neem) on some biological aspects of G. mellon ella by the doses 0,100, 200, 300, 400 Gray of gamma irradiation and the concentration 15 ppm of Neem as the percentage larval mortality, percentage pupation, percentage pupal mortality, percentage of emergence and the percentage of adult survival. (Author)

  14. Topography of the medullar cone in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas de Assis Ribeiro; Tharlianne Alici M. de Souza; Priscilla Rosa Q. Ribeiro; Lázaro A. dos Santos; Daniela Cristina de O. Silva; Frederico O. Carneiro e Silva; Roseâmely Angélica C. Barros; Renata Graciele Zanon

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Ribeiro L.A., Souza T.A.M., Ribeiro P.R.Q., Santos L.A., Silva D.C.O., Carneiro e Silva F.O., Barros R.A.C. & Zanon R.G. [Topography of the medullar cone in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758.] Topografia do cone medular do Tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758). Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4):353-358, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias e Zootecnia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Fe...

  15. A Non-Proteinaceious Toxin from the Venomous Spines of the Lionfish Pterois Volitans (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Spines of the Lionfish Pterois Volitans (Linnaeus) 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) Nair, M.S.R. Cheung, P...and Identify by block number) Tinon Lionfish , Non-Proteinaceous Toxin, Ichthyotoxin 20. A9ST’ACT ? ( mt.e ,vmM N , mid ify by block nusmber) "!;The...COMMUNICATIONS A NON-PROTEINACEOUS TOXIN FROM THE VENOMOUS SPINES OF THE LIONFISH PTEROIS VOLITANS (LINNAEUS) 2 20 M. S. R. NAIR,’ PAUL CHEUNG, INA

  16. Histological description of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla P. Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The massive agricultural expansion converted the Cerdocyon thous, a South American native predator, in vulnerable specie. Basic data, such as histological description, are important to raise awareness on animal species, helping on preservation strategies. Considering the difficult in obtain samples, as the euthanasia of wild animals for this purpose is not allowed, data on histology are very scarce or inexistent. The objective of this paper was to provide a detailed histological description of the trachea and bronchial tree of the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766. The specimens (one adult male and one adult female used were provided by the Federal University of Pelotas (Pelotas, RS, Brazil Rehabilitation Center of Wild Fauna (NURFS. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin and included in paraffin. After slicing, samples were stained with HE (hematoxylin and eosin, PAS (periodic acid-Schiff and resorcin fuchsin. Trachea had an average diameter of 7.87mm, and approximately 57% of the mucosa ciliated pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium was composed of goblet cells, mostly in the dorsal region. Bronchia and bronchioles had a mucosal fold with higher number of goblet cells. Using all these techniques there is no great remarkable differences from C. thous trachea and lung, when compared with the previous described structures for carnivores and most mammals, except for the goblet cells “regionalization”. Described results are important to understand the animal physiological and behavioral habits, allowing the development of preservation and protection strategies.

  17. Homage to Linnaeus: How many parasites? How many hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Andy; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Jetz, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of the total number of species that inhabit the Earth have increased significantly since Linnaeus's initial catalog of 20,000 species. The best recent estimates suggest that there are ≈6 million species. More emphasis has been placed on counts of free-living species than on parasitic species. We rectify this by quantifying the numbers and proportion of parasitic species. We estimate that there are between 75,000 and 300,000 helminth species parasitizing the vertebrates. We have no credible way of estimating how many parasitic protozoa, fungi, bacteria, and viruses exist. We estimate that between 3% and 5% of parasitic helminths are threatened with extinction in the next 50 to 100 years. Because patterns of parasite diversity do not clearly map onto patterns of host diversity, we can make very little prediction about geographical patterns of threat to parasites. If the threats reflect those experienced by avian hosts, then we expect climate change to be a major threat to the relatively small proportion of parasite diversity that lives in the polar and temperate regions, whereas habitat destruction will be the major threat to tropical parasite diversity. Recent studies of food webs suggest that ≈75% of the links in food webs involve a parasitic species; these links are vital for regulation of host abundance and potentially for reducing the impact of toxic pollutants. This implies that parasite extinctions may have unforeseen costs that impact the health and abundance of a large number of free-living species.

  18. A New Maximum Length Record of the Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix Linnaeus, 1766) for Turkey Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz, Özgür

    2014-01-01

    One specimen of the bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix Linnaeus, 1766) with 76.5 cm in total length and 4800.0 g in total weight was photographed in the Çanakkale Fish Market. The given length is second maximum length record of the bluefish for Turkish waters

  19. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753)

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Anelise Machado; Tuler, Am?lia Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Ferreira, Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 pi...

  20. Eighteenth century classification of mental illness: Linnaeus, de Sauvages, Vogel, and Cullen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsche, Heather; Whitaker, Harry A

    2012-12-01

    Classification was an important aspect of the 17th and 18th century development of Western science, epitomized by Linnaeus's 1735 Systema Naturae (Nature's System), in which he divided each kingdom of nature into classes, orders, and species. Linnaeus, a physician in addition to being a renowned taxonomist, endeavored to classify all known human diseases, largely on the basis of symptoms, in his 1759 Genera Morborum (Varieties of Diseases). We focus on his classification of mental disorders, a large subset of the Genera Morborum. We compare and contrast the Linnaean system with François Boissier de Sauvages's 1772 Nosologie méthodique (A Systematic Nosology) and Rudolph Augustin Vogel's 1764 Generum Morborum (Varieties of Diseases). We consider the impact of these nosologies on William Cullen's (1769/1800) Nosology, a popular system of disease classification that persisted through much of the 19th century.

  1. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  2. The mortality of Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae induced by powdered plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłyś Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether powdered plants of different species namely: peppermint Mentha piperita (L. (Lamiaceae, wormwood Artemisia absinthium (L. (Asteraceae, common sage Salvia officinalis (L. (Lamiaceae, allspice Pimenta dioica (Linnaeus et Merrill (Myrtaceae and common garlic Allium sativum (L. (Amaryllidaceae, added to semolina using concentrations of 1.23, 3.61, and 5.88%, influence the mortality rate in the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory at 28°C and relative humidity 60±5%. At the concentration of 1.23%, allspice seeds caused the highest mortality amongst the saw-toothed grain beetle. When concentrations of 3.61 and 5.88% were used, sage, peppermint and wormwood caused the highest statistically significant mortality of O. surinamensis

  3. Linnaeus' restless system: translation as textual engineering in eighteenth-century botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    In this essay, translations of Linnaeus' Systema naturae into various European languages will be placed into the context of successively expanded editions of Linnaeus' writings. The ambition and intention of most translators was not only to make the Systema naturae accessible for practical botanical use by a wider readership, but also to supplement and correct it, and thus to shape it. By recruiting more users, translations made a significant contribution to keeping the Systema up to date and thus maintaining its practical value for decades. The need to incorporate countless additions and corrections into an existing text, to document their provenance, to identify inconsistencies, and to refer to relevant observations, descriptions, and illustrations in the botanical literature all helped to develop and refine techniques of textual montage. This form of textual engineering, becoming increasingly complex with each translation cycle, shaped the external appearance of new editions of the Systema, and reflected the modular architecture of a botanical system designed for expansion.

  4. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Belém-Costa,Andréa; Cyrino,José Eurico Possebon

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, i...

  5. Identity, biology and bionomics of the Common Mime Chilasa clytia Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Revathy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were made on the identity, biology and bionomics of the Common Mime Chilasa clytia Linnaeus.  Morphological details of the external genitalia were found to be useful in segregating the two forms clytia and dissimilis belonging to this species.  The biology took 32–36 days for completion.  Besides the host plants already recorded, Litsea coriacea was recorded as a new larval host plant of this butterfly.  

  6. Il muro come galleria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duccio Dogheria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Il muro, nel suo grigio rigore formale, nella sua fredda geometria, nel suo intento divisorio, nasconde spesso il cielo. Sovente il linguaggio dell’arte, ma non di meno quello della comunicazione, hanno interferito con le sue algide barriere. In molti casi, beninteso, non è che il potere in altre forme, che interferisce con se stesso: pensiamo ai bandi affissi agli angoli delle città, o le lettere d’indulgenza papali -spesso impreziosite da miniature al punto da poterle considerare antenate dal manifesto- che nel corso del medioevo venivano affisse sulle porte delle chiese.

  7. Occurrence of the Leech, Pontobdella muricata Linnaeus, on Elasmobranch Species in the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Luca; Leoni, Simone; Polidori, Piero; Grati, Fabio; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Pellini, Giulio; Domenichetti, Filippo; Ferrà, Carmen; Fabi, Gianna

    2016-12-01

    This study provides a parasitological analysis of the elasmobranch species caught in the northern and central Adriatic Sea. Sixty-two marine leeches were recorded on 747 individuals of Raja clavata Linnaeus, 1758 (thornback ray), Myliobatis aquila Linnaeus, 1758 (common eagle ray), and Torpedo marmorata Risso, 1810 (marbled torpedo ray) caught in 56 hauls over a 5 yr period. All leeches were identified as Pontobdella muricata, which is a typical ectoparasite of benthic elasmobranchs. The prevalence of infection ranged from 7.11% on R. clavata to 12.00% on M. aquila. The intensity of infection, the preferential sites of attachment to the host, and the periodicity of infection were evaluated.

  8. Biologia reprodutiva da cobra-coral Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus (Colubridae, no Sudeste do Brasil Reproductive biology of the coral snake Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus (Colubridae in the Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio A.V. Marques

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissection of 286 specimens of the "false" coral snake Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus, 1766, combined with data on captive individuais, provided information on the reproductive biology of this colubrid snake. Adult females (x snout-vent length = 74.5cm attain larger body size than males (x SVL = 62.6. Clutch size ranged from one to eight eggs and was correlated with maternal body size. Neonates measured 20.2-22.5cm SVL and weighed 5.1-5.8g. Males attain sexual maturity earlier than females. Reproduction seems to be aseasonal, with vitellogenesis occurring throughout the year. Apparently the growth rate of folheies decreases in the dry season, possibly due to lower tempeiatures during this period. Multiple clutches were recorded in captive snakes. Foraging strategies and availability of prey may explain continuous reproduction in E. aesculapii. However, data for other related snakes suggest that continuous reproduction is conservative in the Xenodontini.

  9. Miologia do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766)

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo M. Leal; Rafaela M. de Sá; Fabricio S. de Oliveira; Tais H.C. Sasahara; Bruno W. Minto; Marcia R.F. Machado

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: Objetivam-se descrever os músculos do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766), mediante dissecção anatômica dessa região. Foram utilizadas dez Cuniculus paca adultas, machos e fêmeas, pesando entre cinco e 10 kg do plantel de pacas do setor de Animais Silvestres da FCAV, Unesp, Jaboticabal/SP. Os animais foram fixados em formaldeído 10% e conservados em solução salina a 30% para dissecação anatômica da musculatura da pelve, coxa e perna, identificando-se a origem e inse...

  10. Loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758 (Testudines, Cheloniidae, as a new host of Monticellius indicum Mehra, 1939 (Digenea: Spirorchiidae and associated lesiond to spirorchiid eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present note describes the occurrence of Monticellius indicum Mehra, 1939 (Digenea: Spirorchiidae in an adult loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758, found on the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Pathological changes due to spirorchiid eggs (type 1 and 3 were found in gastrointestinal system, endocrine system, and heart. This parasite has previously been described in the green turtle, Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758, from Pakistan, Brazil and Costa Rica as well as in the hawksbill sea turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766, in Brazil. This note reports the loggerhead turtle as a new host for M. indicum.

  11. Resolution of the type material of the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Proboscidea, Elephantidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gentry, A.; Palkopoulou, E.

    2014-01-01

    .maximus, a complete foetus preserved in ethanol, is actually an African elephant, genus Loxodonta. We further discovered that an additional E.maximus syntype, mentioned in a description by John Ray (1693) cited by Linnaeus, has been preserved as an almost complete skeleton at the Natural History Museum...

  12. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  13. First data of Iberian Nematomorpha, with redescription of Gordius aquaticus Linnaeus, G. plicatulus Heinze, Gordionus wolterstorffii (Camerano) and Paragordius tricuspidatus (Dufour)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalobos, de Leonor Cristina; Ribera, Ignacio; Bilton, David T.

    2001-01-01

    Four species of Nematomorpha are recorded from NE Spain, representing the first reliable data on the group in the Iberian peninsula. Gordius aquations Linnaeus, 1758, G. plicatulus Heinze, 1937, Gordionus wolterstorffii (Camerano, 1888) and Paragordius tricuspidatus (Dufour, 1828) are redescribed

  14. Pengelolaan Lingkungan dalam Rangka Mengantisipasi Perkembangan Hama Belalang Nomadacris succincta Linnaeus (Orthoptera: Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Suharni Siwi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Swarming grasshopper Nomadacris succincta (Linnaeus, sinonim: Patanga succincta (L. was one of the dominant species attacked corn and soybean plantations at Jeneponto District, South Sulawesi in early 2005. The species has been identified for a long time occurred in that environment, although has never been reported before as pest of farmer's crops. For a basis of the capability in controlling the swarm grasshopper in the field, changed of increasing population hould be monitored regularly to prevent future outbreak. Information on taxonomic and ecology research of N. succincta are needed for environmental management efforts, such as change in morphology, physiology and behavior, change in host's preferences of gregarious adult, and environmental conditions i.e. climate, cultural techniques, and the death of natural enemies in the field.

  15. Analysis of the blackening of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100°C than at 90 and 80°C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100°C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON CERTAIN BIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF A LADYBEETLE COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTA TA LINNAEUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShefaliSrivastava; Dmkar

    2003-01-01

    Influence of temperature on certain biological attributes of an aphidophagous ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, feeding on mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), at five different temperatures, viz. 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35℃ was investigated. Its developmental period was shortest (11.7±0.09days) at 35℃ and longest (20.6±0.35 days) at 20℃. Developmental rate increased with increase in temperature. Hatching percent, larval survival, adult emergence and growth index were maximum at 30℃ and minimumat 20℃. Oviposition period and fecundity were highest at 30℃ and lowest at 20℃. A positive linear relationship exists between temperature and developmental rate and negative correlation between the duration of immature life stages and temperature. The proportion of developmental period allocated to each immature stage was found to be similar at each temperature regime. Thus, 30℃ was found as the most suitable for C. septempunctata amongst the five temperatures tested.

  17. Solid state characterization of α-chitin from Vanessa cardui Linnaeus wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffman, Jessica D.; Schauer, Caroline L.

    2009-01-01

    Material properties of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui Linnaeus were investigated using typical material science techniques. The examined butterflies were raised and hatched from the larvae stage and their chemical and crystalline structure evaluated and compared to that of crab shell (α-chitin) and squid pens from Notodarus sloanii and Loligo pealei (β-chitin). Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the painted lady butterflies are composed of α-chitin. Additionally, macro- and microstructure characterization of the chitins was conducted utilizing digital photography and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This work demonstrates that common characterization techniques combined with simple sample preparation of biological materials can yield successful material characterization, which could aide the fabrication of biomimetic materials.

  18. Solid state characterization of {alpha}-chitin from Vanessa cardui Linnaeus wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Jessica D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schauer, Caroline L., E-mail: cschauer@coe.drexel.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-05-05

    Material properties of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui Linnaeus were investigated using typical material science techniques. The examined butterflies were raised and hatched from the larvae stage and their chemical and crystalline structure evaluated and compared to that of crab shell ({alpha}-chitin) and squid pens from Notodarus sloanii and Loligo pealei ({beta}-chitin). Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the painted lady butterflies are composed of {alpha}-chitin. Additionally, macro- and microstructure characterization of the chitins was conducted utilizing digital photography and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This work demonstrates that common characterization techniques combined with simple sample preparation of biological materials can yield successful material characterization, which could aide the fabrication of biomimetic materials.

  19. Parasites of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus from Western Johor Straits, Malaysian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the apicomplexa as well as other parasites infecting organs/tissues of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly by hand picking, in November and December 2013. Histological techniques were performed, stained using Masson's Trichrome protocol and observed under light microscope. The results showed that gonad and gill were the most infected organs followed by digestive gland, intestine and adductor muscle. No pathology condition was observed in the mantle. Histophatological examination showed that the gregarine, Nematopsis, unidentified coccidian and Perkinsus were found in the gill and gonad, and also in the numerous hemocytes. Other pathological conditions such as bacteria-like inclusion and intracellular bacteria were also observed in the same organs. Further investigations are needed particularly on other molluscs present at the study area. Understanding the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  20. Infestasi Pinjal dan Infeksi Dipylidium Caninum Linnaeus pada Kucing Liar di Lingkungan Kampus Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kecamatan Dramaga

    OpenAIRE

    Bashofi, Aulia Syifak; Soviana, Susi; Ridwan, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate flea infestation and Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus 1758) infection on stray cat on Bogor Agricultural University Dramaga. Thirty stray cats were collected from various places around on Bogor Agricultural University Dramaga. The stray cats that showed clinical signs of pruritus and alopecia were collected purposively. The whole body was powdered by gamexan powder, after that the fleas were collected by manual and examined microscopically. The totals of 30...

  1. Perbedaan respon Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), terhadap paparan anti nyamuk bakar dan bunga keluwih (Artocarpus camansi, Blanco)

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Endah Wahyuningsih; Ramauli Agustina Sihit

    2015-01-01

    The control of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) it is important to control the vector, i.e. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse). Usually, controls of these vectors are done using chemical insecticides. Research on mosquito resistance has been done, but the impact of mosquitoes that survive after synthetic (chemical) insecticides application has not been studied. The aim of this research was to analyze the differences of fecundity, fertility and vitality rate of mosquitoes that w...

  2. Microsatellite loci discovery from next-generation sequencing data and loci characterization in the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Ewers-Saucedo, Christine; Zardus, John D.; Wares, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite markers remain an important tool for ecological and evolutionary research, but are unavailable for many non-model organisms. One such organism with rare ecological and evolutionary features is the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Chelonibia testudinaria appears to be a host generalist, and has an unusual sexual system, androdioecy. Genetic studies on host specificity and mating behavior are impeded by the lack of fine-scale, highly variable markers, su...

  3. Reprodução de Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus no litoral de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproduction of the Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus in the Santa Catarina's coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim O. Branco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O savacu Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 é uma espécie de hábitos crepusculares e noturnos, com ampla distribuição geográfica. Sua biologia reprodutiva tem sido intensivamente estudada nos países de ocorrência, entretanto, no Brasil, é comumente citada nos levantamentos de ornitólogos, mas não existem informações disponíveis sobre seu ciclo de vida. Esse trabalho objetiva contribuir para o conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva dessa espécie no litoral catarinense. As amostragens foram realizadas nos anos de 2000 a 2002 na Ilha dos Pássaros e de 2002 na Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. As maiores abundâncias de exemplares e ninhos com ovos ocorreram em outubro, sendo que o comprimento médio dos ovos variou entre 5,02 ± 0,23 a 5,07 ± 0,21 cm e o volume 31,71 ± 2,64 a 35,92 ± 3,47 cm³ e as maiores freqüências de filhotes em novembro, culminando o abandono da colônia em meados de janeiro. Foram identificados sete itens nos regurgitos dos filhotes, sendo que os peixes marinhos representaram 44,4% da massa total. O principal predador na colônia foi o urubu-comum, que atuou sobre os ovos no início da temporada e os filhotes no final.The black-crowned night heron N. nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 is a aquatic bird with twilight and night habits, with wide geographical distribution. His reproductive biology has been studied intensively at the occurrence countries, however, in Brazil, it is mentioned commonly in the ornithologists' risings, but available information don't exist on his life cycle. This work aims to contribute for the knowledge of the reproductive biology of that species in the Santa Catarina coast. The samplings were accomplished in the years from 2000 to 2002 in the Ilha dos Pássaros and of 2002 in the Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. The largest abundances of individuals and nests with eggs happened in October, and the medium length of the eggs varied between 5.02 ± 0.23 to 5.07 ± 0.21 cm and the volume 31

  4. Ontogenia do fruto em desenvolvimento de Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae Ontogeny of fruits of Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Carvalho Harthman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus são espécies invasoras que ocorrem em culturas e terrenos baldios na região de Maringá, Paraná. O trabalho teve por objetivo a análise morfoanatômica dos frutos em desenvolvimento e estruturas não pericárpicas dessas duas espécies, com a finalidade de contribuir com informações estruturais para identificação das espécies, classificação dos frutos e investigações ecológicas. Flores e frutos foram coletados no campus da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, fixados em Glutaraldeído, secionados em micrótomo de rotação e corados com a azul de Toluidina. As bractéolas e perigônio são persistentes nos frutos e têm estrutura diferente nas duas espécies. O aquênio de Alternanthera tenella mantém o mesmo número de estratos celulares que o ovário, que sofrem colapso na fase madura, exceto o mesocarpo interno que se mantém com espessamento parietal em U e cristais. O utrículo de Amaranthus blitum é semelhante ao ovário em número de camadas celulares e apresenta aerênquima quando maduro. As sementes maduras são exotestais, com mesotesta e endotesta colapsadas, e embrião curvo. Nesse estudo, foram registrados alguns caracteres estruturais dos perigônios e dos frutos que são potencialmente significativos para caracterização e separação das espécies, ao contrário das sementes que são muito semelhantes.Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus are weeds that occur in crops and uncultivated areas in the Maringá region of Paraná. In this study, a morphoanatomical analysis of fruit development and the pericarp of A. tenella and A. blitum was made in order to contribute structural information for species identification, fruit classification, and ecological investigations. Flowers and fruits were collected at the campus of the State University of Maringá, Paraná, fixed in glutaraldehyde, sectioned with a rotary microtome and stained with

  5. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isai Jorge de Castro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.

  6. LINNAEUS OIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Crude jatropha oil; Heterogeneous catalyst; Transesterification ... mmage for alternative fuel ... be designed to give higher activity and lifetimes [13]. So, the need for a cheap catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from no ... methanol (High Performance Liquid Chromatography ... ratio and were then charged into the glass reactor.

  7. Topography of the medullar cone in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Assis Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ribeiro L.A., Souza T.A.M., Ribeiro P.R.Q., Santos L.A., Silva D.C.O., Carneiro e Silva F.O., Barros R.A.C. & Zanon R.G. [Topography of the medullar cone in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758.] Topografia do cone medular do Tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:353-358, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias e Zootecnia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Rua João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, MG 38408-100, Brasil. E-mail: lucasassis83@yahoo.com.br The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla is a representative of the Order Hairy, belonging to the family Myrmecophagidae. General approaches on the behavior, ecology and physical abilities of this animal are available in the literature. However, information regarding different aspects of the anatomy of the nervous system giant anteater are sparsely found. Therefore, the morphological knowledge of the relationship between the spinal cord and vertebral column is of great importance to the scientific, as in the various species of animals, whether domestic or not, the relations of the caudal spinal differ. This difference comes out to meet the interests of wild animal medicine, especially as support for the practice of epidural anesthesia. Thus, the objective was to describe the topography of the conus M. tridactyla, providing anatomical data as a basis for the practice of epidural anesthesia. For this study we used three specimens of giant anteater, prepared by the usual techniques in Macroscopic Anatomy, which had three sacral vertebrae and 4. Sendo que a base do cone medular foi registrada ao nível da terceira vértebra lombar (L3, com comprimento variando entre 3,5cm e 4,5cm e ápice localizando-se ao nível da segunda vértebra sacral (S2. These anatomical findings may point out as a safe place to perform epidural anesthesia

  8. The Mediterranean stony coral Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767) as habitat provider for molluscs: colony size effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitacco, Valentina; Crocetta, Fabio; Orlando-Bonaca, Martina; Mavrič, Borut; Lipej, Lovrenc

    2017-11-01

    The stony coral Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767) is an important Mediterranean habitat builder, whose survival is now being threatened by human activities and possibly natural events such as mass mortality and bleaching. We characterized the mollusc assemblage associated with colonies in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) and then tested whether the number of mollusc species increases in relation with colony size, following a Species-Area Relationship (SAR) model. At least 62 taxa were found in association with coral colonies, with bivalves constituting the dominant group. More than half of the 3034 specimens encountered were juveniles. Mollusc taxa richness increased with increasing C. caespitosa colony size according to the power-function model, whilst the analyses of trophic and functional groups supports the hypothesis of at least two factors underlying SAR (area per se and habitat diversity). Our results confirmed the importance of C. caespitosa for benthic communities, indicating that larger colonies support higher biodiversity, and suggesting that C. caespitosa is the most important habit builder among Mediterranean cnidarians, having also an influential function as a natural nursery ground. These results underline the necessity of new investigations aimed at filling gaps in our knowledge and planning new measures to protect the species.

  9. The Aggregation of Boron on the Tissues of Gold Fish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Okan Genç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the water-borne and food-borne boron accumulation in the liver and muscle tissues of Gold Fish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758. For each treatment, 12 individuals were. The water-borne boron treatments were applied as boron acid concentration of 1 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L in the aquarium water, while the food-borne boron treatments were prepared food contained the defined levels of boron (1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg as boric acid. The boron levels in the tissues were determined by an ICP-MS procedure. The maximum boron concentration was found in the 20mg/L water borne boron treatment in the liver tissue (1.78±0.02 mg/kg. In the water-borne boron treatments, the maximum Transfer Factor (TF was found in the 20mg/L boron concentration, and TF values were increased when the boron concentrations were decreasing. In the 1 mg/kg food-borne boron treatment, TF was found as 0, and increasing concentration of boron in the food caused an increase in TF reached about 0.06. This study suggested that the target organ for boron accumulation is the liver rather than the muscles and the accumulation of food-borne boron is lower when comparing water-borne boron.

  10. Post-embrionic development of the digestive tube of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus (Diptera, Cuterebridae

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    Ana Maria Vieira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tube of 2nd and 3rd instar larvae, pupae and newly emerged adults of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 was studied anatomically. The specimens were dissected in buffer saline under a stereomicroscope, and the digestive tubes were placed on slides and fixed in 10% buffered formalin. Each tube was measured using a micrometric eye piece, and drawings were made with camera lucida. The results showed that the midgut, the hindgut and the Malpighian tubules with their ducts grow gradually during the larval development. The oesophagus and the salivary glands with their ducts grow only during the moult from the 2nd to the 3rd instar. In the pupal period, salivary glands grow gradually but disappeared after the 20th day. After metamorphosis the digestive tube regressed. This is expected since adult D. hominis lives about nine days without feeding. This fly, similar to other calyptratae muscoid flies shows no vestige of a crop during all post-embrionic development, and the adult has no salivary glands.

  11. Miologia do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

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    Leonardo M. Leal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Objetivam-se descrever os músculos do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766, mediante dissecção anatômica dessa região. Foram utilizadas dez Cuniculus paca adultas, machos e fêmeas, pesando entre cinco e 10 kg do plantel de pacas do setor de Animais Silvestres da FCAV, Unesp, Jaboticabal/SP. Os animais foram fixados em formaldeído 10% e conservados em solução salina a 30% para dissecação anatômica da musculatura da pelve, coxa e perna, identificando-se a origem e inserção de cada músculo. Os resultados foram fotodocumentados e discutidos com base na literatura sobre animais domésticos, ratos e cobaias. Salvo algumas variâncias na origem e inserção de cada músculo e na fusão dos ventres de alguns grupos musculares, de forma geral, a musculatura da paca assemelha-se a dos animais domésticos e a de outros roedores.

  12. Population size structure indices and growth standards for Salmo (trutta trutta Linnaeus, 1758 in Central Italy

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    Pedicillo G.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide reference data on the growth and population structure of brown trout Salmo (trutta trutta Linnaeus, in Central Italy. Standards for growth (percentiles and a standard growth model were developed from the von Bertalanffy growth model by using length-at-age data obtained from 122 sampling sites in the River Tiber basin. Length-frequency indices provide a numeric estimation for deviations of the population structure from a balanced population. We adapted the traditional North American Relative Stock Density (RSD and Proportional Stock Density (PSD indices to brown trout populations in Central Italy by means of two methods. In the first method, the benchmarks of length categories were established by using percentages applied to the largest individual in the dataset. In the second method, asymptotic length and size at maturity were used to define the length categories for index calculation. Both methods were tested on length-frequency data from 263 sampling sites in the River Tiber basin. The results showed that the PSD calculated by the first method provided a better insight into the population structures of brown trout. These results provide tools that will help ichthyologists and fish managers to compare the growth and population structure of brown trout throughout Central Italy.

  13. Molecular studies with Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), mosquito transmitting the dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luciana Patrícia Lima Alves; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Araruna, Felipe Bastos; de Andrade, Marcelo Souza; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Borges, Antônio Carlos Romão; do Rêgo Barros Pires Leal, Emygdia Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Dengue is an infectious viral disease, which can present a wide clinical picture, ranging from oligo or asymptomatic forms, to bleeding and shock, and can progress to death. The disease problem has increased in recent years, especially in urban and suburban areas of tropical and subtropical regions. There are five dengue viruses, called serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, and DEN-5), which belong to the Flaviviridae family and are transmitted to humans through infected mosquito bites, with the main vector the Aedes aegypti mosquito (Linnaeus, 1762). Studies performed with Ae. aegypti, aimed at their identification and analysis of their population structure, are fundamental to improve understanding of the epidemiology of dengue, as well for the definition of strategic actions that reduce the transmission of this disease. Therefore, considering the importance of such research to the development of programs to combat dengue, the present review considers the techniques used for the molecular identification, and evaluation of the genetic variability of Ae. aegypti.

  14. Antimicrobial and Anti-Proliferative Effects of Skin Mucus Derived from Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758

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    Virginia Fuochi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to chemotherapy occurs in various diseases (i.e., cancer and infection, and for this reason, both are very difficult to treat. Therefore, novel antimicrobial and chemotherapic drugs are needed for effective antibiotic therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial and anti-proliferative effects of skin mucus derived from Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758. Our results showed that skin mucus exhibited a significant and specific antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria but not against Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, we also observed a significant antifungal activity against some strains of Candida spp. Concerning anti-proliferative activity, we showed that fish mucus was specifically toxic for acute leukemia cells (HL60 with an inhibition of proliferation in a dose dependent manner (about 52% at 1000 μg/mL of fish skin mucous, FSM. Moreover, we did not observe effects in healthy cells, in neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y, and multiple myeloma cell lines (MM1, U266. Finally, it exhibited strong expression and activity of chitinase which may be responsible, at least in part, for the aforementioned results.

  15. Locomotion of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus (Gastropoda, Muricidae on a mixed shore of rocks and sand

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    Marcos G. Papp

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed shores of rocks and sand are appropriate systems for the study of limitations that the isolation of rocks may impose for gastropods that typically inhabit rocky shores. We marked 52 Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 snails on a mixed shore and found that 34 of them moved between rocks one to four times during 15 surveys in a period of 72 days. In the experiments, the snails moved on rock by continuous, direct, ditaxic, alternate undulations of the foot sole but on submerged sand they used slower arrhythmic discontinuous contractions of the foot sole. They switched between modes of locomotion in response to the type and topography of the substrate and possibly to water dynamics. In nature, snails moved between rocks forming aggregations where they oviposited. This may have masked other causes of movement, such as availability of prey. Most snails burrowed into the sand when the rocks became exposed during low tides. Further experiments are needed to explicitly address the possible causes of movements among rocks and burial.

  16. Mortality of red mullet (Mullus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758 on the Montenegrin shelf (South Adriatic

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    Joksimović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Red mullet, Mullus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758, is an economically very important species in trawl fisheries in the Adriatic Sea. Material for analysis was collected from October 2002 until May 2004 with a bottom trawl net from commercial trawlers on the Montenegrin shelf. Mortality of this species was analyzed for the first time in this area, sepa­rately for males and females and for both sexes together. Until now, only the spatial distribution and catch per unit of effort (CPUE of Mullus barbatus have been studied in Montenegrin waters. Estimated total mortality rates were Zmales = 0.653 and Zfemales = 0.712. The average mortality rate for both sexes was Z m+f = 0.749, while the natural mortality rate was Mm+f = 0.342. Values of Z in the Montenegrin shelf area are considerably lower than Z values for the Croatian and Italian parts of the Adriatic Sea, indicating that on the Montenegrin shelf fishing of this species is significantly less intensive than in other trawl-fishing areas of the Adriatic Sea.

  17. Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

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    Andréa Roveré Franz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Stored grains are subject to losses in quality nutritional value and in sanitation from the time they are stored to the time they are consumed. Botanical insecticides may offer an alternative solution for pest control. The objective was to test the insecticidal properties of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (leaf, Zingiber officinale (root and Mentha sp. (leaf. The efficacy of these oils was tested to control the rice weevil, S. oryzae, using hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis of the essential oils was carried out by gas chromatography. Major components of C. citratus were geranial (48% and neral (31%, of Z. officinale were α-zingibereno (13%, geranial (16%, neral (10% and α-farneseno (5% and of Mentha sp. was menthol (92%. Bioassays were carried out by fumigation and topical application. In topical application assays, the essential oil of C. citratus had greater toxicity (LC50 0.027 µL mL-1 and shorter exposure time than the oils of the other two plants. After 24 h and 48 h, 70% and 100% mortality of S. oryzae occurred, respectively. In fumigation assays, essential oil of Z. officinale had a lower LC50 (1.18 µL cm-2 and 70% mortality after 24 h exposure. Therefore, we recommend the use of essential oils of C. citratus and Z. officinale to control the rice weevil S. oryzae.

  18. A note on captive breeding and reproductive parameters of the Chinese pangolin, Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758

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    Fuhua Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758 is a critically endangered species, and documents on its captive breeding and reproductive parameters are scarce. MP8, kept in the Pangolin Research Base for Artificial Rescue and Conservation Breeding of South China Normal University (the PRB-SCNU, gave birth to a male offspring (MP86 on 19 October 2011. The baby pangolin was well developed, with a weight of 120 g and a total length of 23.2 cm. The gestation length of MP8 was estimated to be from 182 to 225d. Reproductive parameters of the Chinese pangolin are discussed based on collected data about this species. The Chinese pangolin has an obvious reproductive seasonality and its gestation length is typically six to seven months. In this observation, estrus and mating principally occurred in a one-year period from February to July. Parturition principally took place from September to February of the next year. Chinese pangolins usually give birth to one offspring at a time (n = 27. Sex ratio at birth was 0.71:1 (♀:♂, n = 12. Average weight for the reproducible females was 3.57 ± 1.38 kg (2.14–6.8 kg, n = 15. We estimated that Chinese pangolins could reach sexual maturity before they were one year old.

  19. Growth Parameters and Mortality of Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix Linnaeus, 1766) from Gallipoli Peninsula and Dardanelles (Northeastern Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz, Özgür; Özekinci, Uğur; Öztekin, Alkan; Kumaova, Can Ali

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the growth parameters of the bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766), were studied in Gallipoli Peninsula and Dardanelles (northeastern Mediterranean, Turkey) between November 2008 and October 2009. The length-weight relationship was calculated as W=0.0082TL3.02 for females, W=0.0081TL3.03 for males and W=0.0081TL3.03 for all samples. Growth parameters of the populations were L∞= 86.8 cm, k=0.15 year-1, t0=-1.40 for females; L∞=89.1 cm, k=0.16 year-1, t0=-1.46 for males...

  20. The discovery of Caligus temnodontis Brian, 1924 (Copepoda: Caligidae) from the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozak, Argun A; El-Rashidy, Hoda H; Demirkale, Ibrahim; Boxshall, Geoff A

    2010-07-01

    The temnodontis variety of Caligus mauritanicus Brian, 1924 described by Brian (1924) is a valid species known only from a single host species, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus). New material of this species has been examined from the same host fish caught from Abuqir Bay, Alexandria (Egypt), from Iskenderun Bay (Turkey) and from off the coast of South Africa. Using this material, C. temnodontis Brian, 1924 is redescribed and compared with related species. It is most closely related to the Indo-Pacific species C. pagrosomi Yamaguti, 1939.

  1. Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae infecting a Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758 from Brazil Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae infectando uma tartaruga marinha de pente Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758 no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Werneck

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 and Carettacola stunkardi Martin & Bamberger 1952 in a young specimen of Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 in Brazil was reported. Five A. caborojoensis trematodes were found in the small intestine (n=2 and liver (n=3, and two adult C. stunkardi specimens were collected from body wash. This is the first report of parasites of E. imbricata in Brazilian waters and Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and the second report of members of the Spirorchiidae family in that region. In addition, E. imbricata is a new host recorded for C. stunkardi.Relata-se a ocorrência de Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 e Carettacola stunkardi Martin e Bamberger 1952, em um exemplar juvenil de tartaruga marinha de pente Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 no Brasil. Foram coletados cinco trematódeos da espécie A. caborojoensis, dois no intestino delgado e três no fígado e dois exemplares adultos de C. stunkardi no lavado corporal. Destes apenas a espécie A. caborojoensis já tinha sido relatada como parasita dessa espécie de quelônio marinho. Esta é a primeira descrição de parasitas em E. imbricata em águas brasileiras e na área do Atlântico Sul Ocidental, e o segundo relato de membros da família Spirorchiidae na mesma região.

  2. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758. With our documentation large howler monkey remains in faeces, the possibility of ocelot being a potential predator of all Neotropical primates should be taken into consideration.São poucos os estudos sobre a predação de primatas. Sendo os bugios animais relativamente grandes, acredita-se que somente médios e grandes carnívoros e grandes rapineiros possam lograr sucesso em sua predação. O estudo foi realizado na Chácara Payquerê, situada no município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Dedos e unhas de Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 foram encontradas em duas amostras fecais de Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 que foram coletadas. Com este registro de grande primata em fezes, a possibilidade de a jaguatirica ser um potencial predador de todos os primatas neotropicais pode ser levada em consideração.

  3. Coexistence of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) and blue mussels Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 on a sheltered intertidal bivalve bed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, M.W.; Davids, J.K.; Dolmer, Per

    2016-01-01

    The invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793 was introduced in Denmark for aquaculture in the 1970s. Presently, feral populations are found in many parts of the country, with the largest populations established on existing beds of blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758...

  4. EXPLORATORY CELIOTOMY IN GREEN IGUANA (IGUANA IGUANA, LINNAEUS 1758 SHOWING SIGNS OF URINARY OBSTRUCTION IN THE CITY OF CUIABÁ - MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

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    I. N. Angeli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the therapeutic and surgical protocols adopted during the clinical management of a wild green iguana (Iguana iguana iguana,Linnaeus 1758 presented for lethargy, anorexy and clinical signs of urinary obstruction. There were also explored general aspects of the species, as well as the main impairments of health and their respective diagnosis and treatment.

  5. The eye-catching cicada Hamza ciliaris (Linnaeus, 1758) comb. n. in Indonesia and the Pacific: taxonomie status, synonymy, and distribution (Homoptera, Cicadoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffels, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The new combination Hamza ciliaris (Linnaeus) is proposed for a cicada species widely distributed in Maluku ( = Moluccas), Timor, Banda, Kei and Banggai Islands, the Philippines, and the Palau group of the Caroline Islands. The synonymy of five species, treated in the literature as junior synonyms

  6. A new species of Agonopterix feeding on giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) in the Caucasus, with a discussion of the nomenclature of A. heracliana (Linnaeus) (Depressariidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Lvovsky, Alexandr L.; Nielsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    in the umbels of Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Lévier Apiaceae) giant hogweed), an invasive weed in Europe, which is moreover toxic to human skin. The complicated and controversial nomenclature of the related A. heracliana (Linnaeus) (Phalaena (Tortrix)) is discussed, as is that of Depressaria heracliana...

  7. Microorganismos patógenos en Jatropha curcas Linnaeus. Estrategias potenciales para su manejo

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    O Alonso

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas Linnaeus (piñón botija, considerada la gran promesa verde para el biodiesel, es una planta de la que existen considerables incógnitas en el ámbito científico desde el punto de vista agronómico, sobre todo en lo referente a los microorganismos causantes de enfermedades, entre las que sobresale la conocida como damping off (estrangulamiento de las plántulas que es provocada por varias especies de hongos. Por ello, el objetivo de este artículo es compilar la mayor cantidad de información sobre los principales microorganismos fitopatógenos que afectan a J. curcas, así como las posibles estrategias para su manejo, con el fin de obtener rendimientos eficientes y rentables de este cultivo energético en Cuba. Se encontraron 48 agentes causales de enfermedades; los más representativos fueron los hongos, entre los que predominan los que producen la roya y el mildiu polvoso, fundamentalmente. En cuanto al manejo fitosanitario, se citan las medidas culturales preventivas y las químicas, como curativas. De ahí que en Cuba, al igual que en otros países donde se cultiva el piñón botija, sea imprescindible conocer los fitopatógenos que pueden reducir los rendimientos de dicha planta, para después implementar un sistema de manejo fitosanitario que contribuya a evitar pérdidas considerables en la producción de biodiesel como producto final.

  8. Artrópodos asociados a Jatropha curcas Linnaeus. Funciones y estrategia para su manejo

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    O Alonso

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, Jatropha curcas Linnaeus constituye una de las plantas más investigadas a nivel mundial debido a su potencial como productora de aceite, el cual se puede transformar en biodiesel. Sin embargo, aún no se dispone de suficiente información sobre sus interacciones ecológicas con otros vegetales y animales; por lo que el conocimiento referente a los artrópodos asociados al piñón nombre común por el que se le conoce» es un requisito indispensable para el manejo adecuado del cultivo. El objetivo de este artículo es exponer los resultados de una recopilación realizada acerca de dichos organismos (insectos, ácaros y arañas, fundamentalmente, para lograr una mejor explotación de las plantaciones de este cultivo energético en Cuba. Dentro del grupo de los fitófagos se encontraron 151 especies de insectos, entre las que sobresalen las del orden Hemiptera, por ejemplo: Pachycoris klugii Burmeister (Scutelleridae y Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas; además de cuatro de ácaros. Entre los benéficos se hallaron 90 especies de insectos, cinco de ácaros y 13 de arañas depredadoras. En cuanto a las estrategias de manejo de plagas, se hace un mayor énfasis en las medidas de control químico y en algunas acciones de tipo cultural. Teniendo en cuenta estos antecedentes, en Cuba es imprescindible conocer los principales organismos asociados a dicha planta, con vistas a incorporar con mayor precisión el componente agroecológico en el manejo de las plagas, y con ello contribuir al mantenimiento de las capacidades productivas de los agroecosistemas y a su resiliencia.

  9. Karyotype characterization and comparison of three hexaploid species of Bromus Linnaeus, 1753 (Poaceae

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    Leonardo Luís Artico

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome morphometry and nuclear DNA content are useful data for cytotaxonomy and to understand the evolutionary history of different taxa. For the genus Bromus Linnaeus, 1753, distinct ploidy levels have been reported, occurring from diploid to duodecaploid species. The geographic distribution of Bromus species has been correlated with chromosome number and ploidy level. In this study, the aims were to determine the nuclear genome size and characterize the karyotype of the South American Bromus species: Bromus auleticus Trinius ex Nees, 1829, Bromus brachyanthera Döll, 1878 and Bromus catharticus Vahl, 1791. The mean nuclear 2C value ranged from 2C = 12.64 pg for B. catharticus to 2C = 17.92 pg for B. auleticus, meaning a maximum variation of 2C = 5.28 pg, equivalent to 41.70%. Despite this significant difference in 2C value, the three species exhibit the same chromosome number, 2n = 6x = 42, which confirms their hexaploid origin. Corroborating the genome size, the chromosome morphometry (total, short- and long-arm length and, consequently, the class differed among the karyotypes of the species. Based on the first karyograms for these Bromus species, some morphologically similar and several distinct chromosome pairs were found. Therefore, the karyotype characterization confirmed the hexaploid origin of the studied Bromus species, which differ in relation to the karyogram and the nuclear 2C value. Considering this, cytogenetics and flow cytometry can be used to discriminate Bromus species, contributing to taxonomy and systematic studies and providing information on the evolutionary history of this taxa.

  10. Karyotype characterization and comparison of three hexaploid species of Bromus Linnaeus, 1753 (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Leonardo Luís; Mazzocato, Ana Cristina; Ferreira, Juliano Lino; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2017-01-01

    Chromosome morphometry and nuclear DNA content are useful data for cytotaxonomy and to understand the evolutionary history of different taxa. For the genus Bromus Linnaeus, 1753, distinct ploidy levels have been reported, occurring from diploid to duodecaploid species. The geographic distribution of Bromus species has been correlated with chromosome number and ploidy level. In this study, the aims were to determine the nuclear genome size and characterize the karyotype of the South American Bromus species: Bromus auleticus Trinius ex Nees, 1829, Bromus brachyanthera Döll, 1878 and Bromus catharticus Vahl, 1791. The mean nuclear 2C value ranged from 2C = 12.64 pg for B. catharticus to 2C = 17.92 pg for B. auleticus , meaning a maximum variation of 2C = 5.28 pg, equivalent to 41.70%. Despite this significant difference in 2C value, the three species exhibit the same chromosome number, 2n = 6x = 42, which confirms their hexaploid origin. Corroborating the genome size, the chromosome morphometry (total, short- and long-arm length) and, consequently, the class differed among the karyotypes of the species. Based on the first karyograms for these Bromus species, some morphologically similar and several distinct chromosome pairs were found. Therefore, the karyotype characterization confirmed the hexaploid origin of the studied Bromus species, which differ in relation to the karyogram and the nuclear 2C value. Considering this, cytogenetics and flow cytometry can be used to discriminate Bromus species, contributing to taxonomy and systematic studies and providing information on the evolutionary history of this taxa.

  11. Hematological importance of pseudoeosinophilic granulocytes in acclimation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758

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    Damir Suljevic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation mechanisms as response to water content, oxygen level and pollutants are very important and they can be interpreted by hematological analysis. The aim of this study was the analysis of hematological and immune adaptations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 to thermal stress. All specimens were divided into a control and experimental group. The control group of fish was exposed to a constant water temperature of 10°C. We induced thermal stress in experimental fish by gradually heating water to 28°C, held for 30 minutes and then comparing the obtained results with the control fish. Short-term hyperthermia lead to an increase of the number of leukocytes, especially pseudoeosinophilic granulocytes and monocytes, while the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was reduced. The analysis of the leukocyte number and differential blood count in the control group showed high individual variation of segmented granulocytes, monocytes and pseudoeosinophilic granulocytes. Statistically significant differences (p=0.00 were found for the white blood cells, nonsegmented neutrophils and pseudoeosinophils between the control and experimental group. The experimental group of males had an increased number of white blood cells, monocytes and pseudoeosinophils, where significant differences were found for nonsegmented and total neutrophils and also for pseudoeosinophils (p=0.00, lymphocytes (p=0.01 and monocytes (p=0.03. Females had an increased total number of white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and pseudoeosinophils, while significant differences (p=0.00 were obtained in the number of white blood cells, non segmented and total neutrophils and pseudoeosinophils between the control and experimental group. Adaptation mechanisms in carp after water temperature heating are mostly reflected in the increase of pseudoeosinophils and the decrease of neutrophils.

  12. Uptake, retention and organ/tissue distribution of 137Cs by Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.; Nakahara, M.; Nakamura, R.

    2004-01-01

    The work describes the uptake, retention/biological elimination and organ/tissue distribution of 137 Cs by freshwater Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) under laboratory conditions. The fish were divided into three groups based on their size and age and reared in 137 Cs-spiked water. The concentration of 137 Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured at regular intervals up to 60 days. A significant accumulation of 137 Cs was found, but a steady state condition was not achieved by the end of the experiment. The bioaccumulation factors at steady state and the required time to reach steady state were estimated to be 1.55 and 255 days, 1.76 and 180 days and 1.99 and 160 days for large, medium and small size fish, respectively. To determine the effective half-life of 137 Cs, the fish were transferred and reared in the non-contaminated host water. The concentration of the remaining 137 Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured up to 66 days. The average effective half-life of 137 Cs in the fish species was found to be ∼142 days for fish of all sizes. The distribution of 137 Cs in different organs/tissues of the fish was determined. Accumulation of 137 Cs in muscle/flesh of the fish was found to be ∼75% of whole body accumulation. The uptake rate and the retention capability of juvenile fish were found to be higher and therefore, these were more susceptible to 137 Cs than adult and old fish, and could be an important source of 137 Cs in the human food chain

  13. Determination of oral bioavailability of curcuminoid dispersions and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pei Shan; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing Huei

    2018-01-01

    Curcuminoid from Curcuma longa Linnaeus has been demonstrated to be effective in anti-cancer and anti-inflammation. The objectives of the present study were to prepare curcuminoid dispersion and nanoemulsion from C. longa and determine their oral bioavailabilities in rats. After curcuminoid extraction using 99.5% ethanol, bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and curcumin were separated within 10 min by high-performance liquid chromatography using an Eclipse XDB-C18 column (Agilent, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile, with a flow rate of 1 mL min -1 , column temperature of 35 °C and detection wavelength of 425 nm. Curcuminoid nanoemulsion at a particle size of 12.1 nm and encapsulation efficiency 98.8% was prepared using lecithin, Tween 80 and water. A pharmacokinetic study in rats revealed that the parameters including T max , C max , t 1/2 and the area under the curve were higher for curcuminoid nanoemulsions than for curcuminoid dispersion at the same dose employed for gavage administration, whereas, for intravenous injection, an opposite trend was shown. The oral bioavailabilities of BDMC, DMC, curcumin and total curcuminoids in nanoemulsion and dispersion were 34.39 and 4.65%, 39.93 and 5.49%, 47.82 and 9.38%, and 46 and 8.7%, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrate a higher oral bioavailability after incorporation of curcuminoid into nanoemulsion, facilitating its application as a botanic drug. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Anelise Machado; Tuler, Amélia Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Ferreira, Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2016-01-01

    Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 picograms (pg), and the karyotype showed 2n = 4x = 44 chromosomes. Thus, Psidium guineense has four chromosome sets, in accordance with the basic chromosome number of Psidium (x = 11). In addition, karyomorphometric analysis revealed morphologically identical chromosome groups in the karyotype of Psidium guineense. The high transferability of microsatellites (98.6%) further corroborates with phylogenetic relationship between Psidium guajava and Psidium guineense. Based on the data regarding nuclear genome size, karyotype morphometry and molecular markers of Psidium guineense and Psidium guajava (2C = 0.95 pg, 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes), Psidium guineense is a tetraploid species. These data reveal the role of euploidy in the diversification of the genus Psidium.

  15. Meiotic behaviour and its implication on species inter-relationship in the genus Curcuma (Linnaeus, 1753 (Zingiberaceae

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    Judith Mary Lamo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, detailed meiotic analysis was investigated in seven species of Curcuma (Linnaeus, 1753 which can contribute significantly to our understanding about species inter-relationship, speciation and evolution. The species were divided into two groups viz., Group I having 2n = 42 (C. comosa Roxburgh, 1810, C. haritha Mangaly & M.Sabu, 1993, C. mangga Valeton & Zijp, 1917, and C. motana Roxburgh, 1800 and Group II with 2n = 63 (C. caesia Roxburgh, 1810, C. longa Linnaeus, 1753 and C. sylvatica Valeton, 1918. Both groups display varying degree of chromosome associations. Group I species showed the prevalence of bivalents, however occasional quadrivalents besides univalents were also encountered. About 48% of the PMCs analyzed in C. mangga showed 21 bivalents (II meiotic configurations, 32% in C. comosa and 16% in C. haritha. Group II species as expected showed the presence of trivalents besides bivalents, univalents and quadrivalents. About 32% of the PMCs analyzed at MI in C. sylvatica showed 21 trivalents (III meiotic configurations, 24% in C. longa and 8% in C. caesia. Overall, low frequency of multivalent associations as compared to bivalents indicates that Curcuma is an allopolyploid complex. Moreover, x = 21 is too high a basic number, therefore, we suggest that the genus Curcuma has evolved by hybridization of species with different chromosome numbers of 2n = 24 and 18, resulting in a dibasic amphidiploid species.

  16. Virulence comparisons of high-temperature-adapted Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema feltiae and S. carpocapsae

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    Susurluk I. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are environmentally safe alternative control agents. Nematodes in the Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae families are widely used in biological control frameworks, especially for soil-inhabiting insect pests. In this experiment, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar, 1976, Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev, 1934 and S. carpocapsae (Weiser, 1955 adapted at high temperature were assessed in order to detect differences in virulence between adapted and non-adapted populations. All species were exposed to 38 °C for 2 h. After this treatment, live infective juveniles (IJs were used to infect to last instar Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758. larvae at the following doses: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 IJs/larva. The LD50 and LD90 were obtained for these species. Non-adapted populations of the nematode species were used as controls for this experiment. The results indicated that differences in S. feltiae and S. carpocapsae virulence between the adapted and non-adapted populations were significant; no significant difference was observed between the adapted and non-adapted H. bacteriophora populations.

  17. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the causal agent of chafer beetle mortality in the wheat fields of the Kurdistan province, Iran

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    Karimi Keivan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of chafer beetle [Anisoplia austriaca (Herbst 1783] mortality caused by Actinomucor elegans var. elegans in wheat fields of the Kurdistan province, Iran. For three years, dead larvae of Anisoplia austriaca were collected from wheat fields of the Kurdistan province. Similar isolates of a fast-growing fungus were recovered from all samples. The fungal isolates were identified as A. elegans var. elegans based on morphological and cultural characteristics. The identity of the species was further confirmed using sequence data of the ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer region of ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled by the inoculation of the larvae of A. austriaca and Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (as the model insect using the spore suspension of A. elegans var. elegans. The viability of sporangiospores was evaluated using a spore dilution technique on germination medium. The results on the pathogenicity (100% mortality in A. austriaca larvae and viability tests (germination: 95.45% demonstrated that A. elegans var. elegans can be considered as a potential biocontrol agent against the chafer beetle. Field experiments are still required to evaluate the capacity of A. elegans as a biological control agent.

  18. Morfologia do estômago e do duodeno da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

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    M.R.F. Machado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância da paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766, tanto como fonte proteica alternativa para a população quanto pela possibilidade de vir a se tornar um animal de experimentação e pela falta de informações sobre a sua anatomia, objetivou-se descrever a morfologia macroscópica e histológica do estômago e do duodeno desse roedor, reconhecendo as relações, forma e posição que esses órgãos estabelecem entre si e com outros órgãos. O estômago da paca é unicavitário, está no plano médio mais voltado para o antímero esquerdo, transversalmente, na região hipocôndrica em posição ventrocaudal, interposto entre o esôfago e o duodeno. O duodeno da paca se inicia em sequência ao estômago, segue caudalmente até o nível da quinta ou sexta vértebra lombar, na altura das quais se curva e toma direção cranial, dirigindo-se até o nível da transição entre a última vértebra torácica e a primeira vértebra lombar, onde se continua como jejuno. Histologicamente, o estômago e o duodeno da paca possuem o padrão característico da arquitetura dos órgãos ocos, apresentando as seguintes túnicas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular e serosa. Da forma que se conduziu este estudo, conclui-se que o estômago e duodeno da paca, de forma geral, possuem características morfológicas macroscópicas e histológicas semelhantes às dos animais domésticos e de outros roedores selvagens.

  19. Histologia do fígado de avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758

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    Gisele Saviani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A criação de avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758 é uma atividade de grande potencial, porém não existem padrões definidos sobre a histologia do seu fígado, que é um órgão de grande importância no metabolismo. O conhecimento de sua histologia pode contribuir para a detecção de doenças e deficiências nutricionais no animal. Para este estudo foram utilizados 24 avestruzes com idades entre 12 e 18 meses (com peso médio em torno de 80 a 100 kg, provenientes do abatedouro Don Pig, em Botucatu no estado de São Paulo. Os animais foram abatidos com pistola pneumática e, após a sangria, as amostras do fígado foram processadas e observadas em microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET. A hematoxilina e eosina (H.E, picrossírius, Gordon e Sweets, Sudan black e o ácido peródico de Schiff (PAS são colorações usadas respectivamente para observar a morfologia do fígado, colágeno, fibras reticulares, gordura e glicogênio. Foram encontrados os espaços portahepáticos.O glicogênio mostrou média de 5,68%, o conteúdo lipídico, média de 9,83%, o colágeno média de 14,71% e as fibras reticulares média de 5,96%. Quanto à MET notou-se no citoplasma dos hepatócitos, numerosas mitocôndrias, glicogênio, muitas gotas de gordura, alguns lisossomos, retículo endoplasmático granular ao redor das mitocôndrias, algumas células estreladas, célula em degeneração e o canalículo biliar ao centro. Provavelmente o quadro sugestivo de esteatose é resultante do estado nutricional dos animais. Estes resultados demonstraram que os hepatócitos dos avestruzes são muito similares às outras aves, como também muito semelhantes à estrutura e ultraestrutura das células do fígado de mamíferos.

  20. Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.

  1. Infestasi pinjal dan infeksi Dipylidium caninum Linnaeus pada kucing liar di lingkungan kampus Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kecamatan Dramaga

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    Aulia Syifak Bashofi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate flea infestation and Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus 1758 infection on stray cat on Bogor Agricultural University Dramaga. Thirty stray cats were collected from various places around on Bogor Agricultural University Dramaga. The stray cats that showed clinical signs of pruritus and alopecia were collected purposively. The whole body was powdered by gamexan powder, after that the fleas were collected by manual and examined microscopically. The totals of 30 fecal stray cat samples collected and examined toward D. caninum used Mcmaster methode, flotation methode, and saw the existence of proglottid. The result of identification showed that there was found one species of flea, namely Ctenocephalides felis (Bouche 1835, while on faeces was not found D. caninum. Twenty one stray cats were infected by the flea with density average of fleas per cat was 3.8 ± 1.9 individual.

  2. Ultrastructure of Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) is a common parasite of various galliform birds worldwide. Although A. galli has been extensively studied by many author, knowledge of the morphology of this species in detail is still insufficient. In the present paper, the detailed morphology of A. galli was further studied using light and scanning electron microscopy, based on specimens collected from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae) in China. The results revealed some erroneous and previously unreported morphological features, including the lips lacking real denticles, the lateral alae beginning at some distance posterior to the base of the ventrolateral lips and the caudal papillae with 4 different morphotypes. The present morphological and morphometric data complement previous descriptions and enable us to recognize this species more precisely.

  3. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL LIMITATIVE FACTORS FOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS LINNAEUS, 1758 IN EXTENSIVELY SYSTEM

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    R. C. DIMA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The oldest and most common method of increasing fish is a fish breeding ponds in which the supervision of nutrition and growth of biological material. Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus ruthenus Linnaeus 1785 is the 4th of sturgeon scale and economic importance as a share of production of these fish .Monitoring of physicochemical parameters of sturgeons ponds has a crucial role to obtain satisfactory yields both in qualitative and quantitative. Chemical characteristics of water were determined in laboratory ecosystems Chemistry of the Institute of Research and Development for Ecology Aquaculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture Galaţi for the samples have been taken of the total water. Determination of the chemical characteristics was performed by standardized methods. Physic-chemical parameters of water were determined according to norm on the classification of surface water quality in order to establish the ecological status of water (Order no. 161/2006, for Class II of quality.

  4. Microsatellite loci discovery from next-generation sequencing data and loci characterization in the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758

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    Christine Ewers-Saucedo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers remain an important tool for ecological and evolutionary research, but are unavailable for many non-model organisms. One such organism with rare ecological and evolutionary features is the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758. Chelonibia testudinaria appears to be a host generalist, and has an unusual sexual system, androdioecy. Genetic studies on host specificity and mating behavior are impeded by the lack of fine-scale, highly variable markers, such as microsatellite markers. In the present study, we discovered thousands of new microsatellite loci from next-generation sequencing data, and characterized 12 loci thoroughly. We conclude that 11 of these loci will be useful markers in future ecological and evolutionary studies on C. testudinaria.

  5. Microsatellite loci discovery from next-generation sequencing data and loci characterization in the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardus, John D.; Wares, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite markers remain an important tool for ecological and evolutionary research, but are unavailable for many non-model organisms. One such organism with rare ecological and evolutionary features is the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Chelonibia testudinaria appears to be a host generalist, and has an unusual sexual system, androdioecy. Genetic studies on host specificity and mating behavior are impeded by the lack of fine-scale, highly variable markers, such as microsatellite markers. In the present study, we discovered thousands of new microsatellite loci from next-generation sequencing data, and characterized 12 loci thoroughly. We conclude that 11 of these loci will be useful markers in future ecological and evolutionary studies on C. testudinaria. PMID:27231653

  6. Nesting and diet of Harpia harpyjaLinnaeus in the Native Community of Infi erno, Made de Dios, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Piana, Renzo P.

    2013-01-01

    El Águila Arpía (Harpia harpyja Linnaeus) es la rapaz de mayor tamaño que habita los bosques amazónicos, sin embargo en el Perú, es muy poco lo que se sabe de esta especie. Desde 1996 a 2001, realizó una investigación en la Comunidad Nativa de Infi erno para obtener información sobre la biología de la especie mediante la localización y observación de nidos activos y abandonados. La investigación permitió encontrar los primeros nidos activos descritos para el Águila Arpía en Perú e indica...

  7. Anidamiento y dieta de Harpia harpyjaLinnaeus en la Comunidad Nativa de Infierno, Madre de Dios, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Piana, Renzo

    2007-01-01

    El Águila Arpía (Harpia harpyja Linnaeus) es la rapaz de mayor tamaño que habita los bosques amazónicos, sin embargo en el Perú, es muy poco lo que se sabe de esta especie. Desde 1996 a 2001, realizó una investigación en la Comunidad Nativa de Infierno para obtener información sobre la biología de la especie mediante la localización y observación de nidos activos y abandonados. La investigación permitió encontrar los primeros nidos activos descritos para el Águila Arpía en Perú e indicarían u...

  8. Impact of elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 and herbivory on flavonoids of soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Bridget F; Zangerl, Arthur R; Dermody, Orla; Bilgin, Damla D; Casteel, Clare L; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H; Berenbaum, May R

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasing steadily over the last century. Plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions experience physiological changes, particularly in phytochemical content, that can influence their suitability as food for insects. Flavonoids are important plant defense compounds and antioxidants that can have a large effect on leaf palatability and herbivore longevity. In this study, flavonoid content was examined in foliage of soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus) grown under ambient and elevated levels of CO2 and subjected to damage by herbivores in three feeding guilds: leaf skeletonizer (Popillia japonica Newman), leaf chewer (Vanessa cardui Linnaeus), and phloem feeder (Aphis glycines Matsumura). Flavonoid content also was examined in foliage of soybean grown under ambient and elevated levels of O3 and subjected to damage by the leaf skeletonizer P. japonica. The presence of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein and the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol was confirmed in all plants examined, as were their glycosides. All compounds significantly increased in concentration as the growing season progressed. Concentrations of quercetin glycosides were higher in plants grown under elevated levels of CO2. The majority of compounds in foliage were induced in response to leaf skeletonization damage but remained unchanged in response to non-skeletonizing feeding or phloem-feeding. Most compounds increased in concentration in plants grown under elevated levels of O3. Insects feeding on G. max foliage growing under elevated levels of CO2 may derive additional antioxidant benefits from their host plants as a consequence of the change in ratios of flavonoid classes. This nutritional benefit could lead to increased herbivore longevity and increased damage to soybean (and perhaps other crop plants) in the future.

  9. Update on geographic spread of invasive lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first nonnative marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic/Caribbean region. The chronology of the invasion was reported last year (Schofield 2009) using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. This article provides an update of lionfish geographic spread (as of October 2010) and predictions of future range.

  10. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene c. carolina (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1950-01-01

    SUMMARY: A population study of the box turtle (Terrapene c. carolina Linnaeus) was made during the years 1944 to 1947 at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland. A thirty acre area in well drained bottomland forest on the flood plain of the Patuxent River was selected for intensive study. Similarly forested land extended in all directions from the study plot. Markers were established at eighty-three foot intervals over the study plot for reference in recording locality data. Individuals were marked by filing notches in the marginal scutes according to a code system. There were 2109 collections of study area turtles. Records of collecting sites and turtle behavior showed that in the bottomlands habitat cover is utilized extensively during the day as well as at night. Turtles not actively moving about are almost always found in or around brush piles, heaps of debris, and tangles of vines and briars. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Turtles are occasionally found in the mud or water of the gullies. The commonest type of night retreat is a cavity constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. These cavities, termed 'forms,' may be used only once, but are sometimes used repeatedly, often at intervals of several days or more. Different turtles sometimes use the same form on successive nights. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. The most unfavorable influences are low temperatures and drought. On most summer days there are some active turtles but individual turtles are not active every day. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet even in favorable weather. This behavior is most pronounced in early spring and late fall when inactive days are often more numerous than active ones. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. The turtles living in the study plot retained their ranges even through a flood that completely

  11. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1949-01-01

    A population study of Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus) was made at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, from 1944 to 1947. A thirty acre area in bottomland forest was selected for intensive study. Turtles were marked by filing notches in marginal scutes according to a code. Turtles make extensive use of brushy shelter during the day as well.as at night. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Nights are usually spent in a 'form,' constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. A form may be used once or it may be used repeatedly by the same or different turtles. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet, even in favorable weather. There is no evidence for territorialism. Ranges of turtles of all ages and both sexes overlap grossly. Turtles are frequently found near each other but no antagonistic behavior has been observed. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. Turtles retained their ranges even though a flood that completely covered the study area. Maximum home range diameters were determined by measurements of the mapped ranges of individual turtles. There was no significant difference between sizes of male and female ranges: males 33O+ 26 feet, females 37O+29 feet. A trail-laying device was used in following travel routes for 456 turtle days. Normal movements within the home range are characterized by (1) turns, doublings, detours, and criss-crossing paths, (2) interspersion of fairly direct traverses of the home range, (3) frequently repeated travels over certain routes. Maximum limits of the home range are ordinarily reached within a few days or weeks, although some turtles cover only one portion of the range at a time. Some turtles have two home ranges. One of these turtles was followed with a trailer for 161 days in 1946 and 1947. Trips outside the home range are made by

  12. THE NUTRITION OF A PIKEPERCH, Stizostedion lucioperca Linnaeus, 1758 in THE RIVER NERETVA

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    Sadbera Trožić-Borovac

    2007-04-01

    ., 1976; T r o ž i ć – B o r o v a c, 2002a, it could be concluded that a pikeperch has no competitor. The other fish species have fed on the invertebrates and plants of benthos, accept a rare lake trout Salmo trutta m. lacustris Linnaeus, 1758 specimens which have shown tendency to the greedy way of the nutrition. This paper is the contribution to the knowledge of a pikeperch nutrition in the river Neretva accumulations that is, beside the reproduction, the important character of population growth control of this greedy animal, and in the aim of the survival of the autochthonous ichthyopopulations in the river Neretva system.

  13. Role of juvenile hormone in the hypermetabolic production of water revealed by the O2 consumption and thermovision images of larvae of insects fed a diet of dry food

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel; Lukáš, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2013), s. 221-230 ISSN 1210-5759 Grant - others:Ministerstvo zemědělství(CZ) MZe0002700604 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Galleria mellonella * Coleoptera Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.076, year: 2013 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/110/2/221

  14. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in arable soil

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    Ryszard Miętkiewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Samples of soil were taken from arable field and from balk. Larvae of Galleria mellonella and Ephestia kühniella were used as an "insect bait" for isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soil. Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus were isolated from both kind of soil. but Beauveria bassiana was present only in soil taken from balk.

  15. Differential endophytic colonization of sorghum plant by eight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virulence of the conidia before and after endophytic growth phases were assessed using Galleria mellonella larvae mortality bioassay in-vitro. All the strains of the fungi colonised the sorghum plant. The strains of I. farinosa and B. bassiana were detected in the roots, the stem and the leaves while M. anisopliae was ...

  16. Identification of W chromosomes in Lepidoptera by comparative genome hybridization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sahara, K.; Marec, František; Traut, W.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 6 (1998), s. 20 [International Symposium on Genomics and Proteomics - Functional and Computational Aspects and Annual Meeting of the GfG. 04.10.1998-07.10.1998, Heidelberg] Keywords : Galleria mellonella * DNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science - Vol 33, No 2 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Native Fungal Isolates of Metrahizium anisopliae Var. Acridum and Beauveria bassiana against the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella (L) (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) in Ethiopia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. H. Namusana, E Seyoum, 117-124 ...

  18. Challenges for developing biopesticides against varroa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control of bee pests is a small but growing field as beekeepers and bee researchers seek ways to reduce pesticide use. Of the arthropod pests of honey bees, the pests that have been targets of biological control on at least the laboratory level are the Wax Moths Galleria mellonella and Ac...

  19. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 a antibióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Belém-Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas subst

  20. Fishery biology of the swordfish (Xiphias gladius, Linnaeus 1758 caught by surface longliners based in Itajaí, southern Brazil

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    Ana Lia Campos Quaggio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758 data used in the present study were obtained from commercial fishing cruises of the pelagic longline fleet based in Itajaí, operating in the Southwest Atlantic. For the Covariance models, fishing effort (number of hooks and catches (kg were pooled and categorized into the following groups: (1 year (1997, 1998, 2001, 2002 and 2007; (2 lunar phase; and (3 seasons, fishing effort being the covariate. The highest mean swordfish catch (kg occurred during the waxing crescent moon and during wintertime. The Mantel-Haenszel procedure was applied to compare the efficiency of the two hooks tested, and showed that the "J" hook type (J 9/0 10º offset, traditionally used by the fleet, catches 1.2-fold more Xiphias gladius than the circle hook (18/0 10º offset, used as an optional device to reduce sea turtle bycatch. The conversion of individual dressed weight (kg into total length (cm from 2000 to 2002, showed that sub-adults represented 66% of the total catch.No presente estudo foram analisados os dados obtidos para Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758 através de observadores, mapas de bordo e fichas de desembarque de carcaças, coletadas pela frota de espinhel-de-superfície sediada em Itajaí (SC. Modelos de análise de covariância (ANCOVA foram aplicados aos dados de captura (peso em kg do espadarte, tendo como efeitos: (1 anos de 1997, 1998, 2001, 2002 e 2007 (2 fases lunares e (3 épocas do ano. A covariável foi o esforço de pesca (n° de anzóis. As maiores médias de captura ocorreram durante as fases de lua crescente e no inverno. O procedimento estatístico de Mantel-Haenszel foi utilizado para comparar as capturas do espadarte no anzol tipo "Jota" (J 9/0 10º offset, comumente utilizado pela frota, com o anzol tipo "circular" (18/0 10º offset, este último oferecido como alternativa mitigadora à captura de tartarugas marinhas. O teste M-H mostrou que o anzol "Jota" apresentou 1,2 mais chances de capturar

  1. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

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    Chang HB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Bin Chang,1 Bing-Huei Chen1,21Department of Food Science, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 µg/mL, demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 µg/mL, and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 µg/mL. A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 µg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.Keywords: curcuminoid extract, curcuminoid nanoemulsion, Curcuma longa Linnaeus, lung cancer cell, cell cycle, apoptosis mechanism

  2. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae: a survey across Europe

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    David Sadílek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4 and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57. The karyotype of all the specimens of C. lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3% from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the

  3. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino médio de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae midgut

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    Edy de Lello

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 midgut is internally lined by an epithelium of polytenic cells, some low others prismatic with well developed brush border. Their apical portion are enlarged by secretory vesicles, forming button-like structures that are pinched off to the lumen, some accompained by the nucleus characterizing apocrine and holocrine secretions. This epithelium is gradually renewed by small, non polytenic regenerative cells, found scattered at its basal portion. At the end of the third instar the metamorphosis begins. The epithelial cells present signs of degeneration and at the first day of pupation the regenerative cells increase in number. By the 5th day of pupation these regenerative cells, besides being increased in number, differentiate themselves into two layers: one similar to the dense conective tissue that sustainning the larval epithelium is pinched off to the midgut lumen forming the "yellow bodies"; the other, develops right under it as the imaginal epitelium. The disorganized muscles bundles of the midgut wall, are invaded by phagocytes. At the end of pupation the midgut has a low prismatic epithelium with brush-border. In the adult, the torax portion of the midgut has prismatic homogeneously basophilic epithelium while in the abdominal portion the epithelium is made of high prismatic cells full of small vacuoles. The larval midgut epithelium suffers programmed cell death non compatible with apoptose. During the metamorphosis the midgut lenght diminishes from 31mm in the larva to 14mm in the adult.

  4. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino anterior de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae foregut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Vieira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Foregut in D. hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 as the majority of the larval Diptera somatic tissue, is made up of polytenic cells, and grows at the expenses of the polytenization of its nuclei followed by the increase in size of each cell. The oesophagus, of ectodermic origem, is interiorly covered by a chitinous squamous epithelium that rests upon a very thin basal lamina. This sheet is surrounded by thick muscle bundles. The oesophagus intussuscepts the midgut forming the cardia. The cardia, with three epithelial layers: two internal ones, of ectodermal origin and one external of endodermic origin. At the anterior portion of the cardia, between these two types of epithelium, there is a cluster of small, non polytenic cells, forming the imaginal disk of the foregut. Metamoiphosis begins at the end of the larval period with signs of nuclear degeneration of all the polytenic cells, as well as the increase in number of the imaginal disk ones. The oesophagic portion intussuscepted into the cardia, everts; its cells suffer apoptosis and are replaced by the new cells growing from the imaginal disk. The external layer cells also degenerate and are pinched off into the lumen of the very anterior portion of the midgut. The newly formed oesophagus intussuscepts "de novo" to form the two internal layers of the adult cardia. At the same time the midgut regenerative cells grow anteriorly to form the new external layer of the adult cardia.

  5. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands - A controlled mesocosm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil, E-mail: gil.penha-lopes@biology-research.co [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Bartolini, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Limbu, Samwel [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Cannicci, Stefano [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Mgaya, Yunus [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Kristensen, Erik [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Paula, Jose [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential. - Terebralia palustris high ecosystem engineering potential in constructed mangrove wetlands.

  6. Perbedaan respon Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae, terhadap paparan anti nyamuk bakar dan bunga keluwih (Artocarpus camansi, Blanco

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    Nur Endah Wahyuningsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The control of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF it is important to control the vector, i.e. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Ae. albopictus (Skuse. Usually, controls of these vectors are done using chemical insecticides. Research on mosquito resistance has been done, but the impact of mosquitoes that survive after synthetic (chemical insecticides application has not been studied. The aim of this research was to analyze the differences of fecundity, fertility and vitality rate of mosquitoes that were exposed to natural insecticides i.e with burned breadnut flowers and mosquito coils containing transflutrin and d-aletrin. Mosquito samples were taken from field eggs which were exposed with synthetic and natural insecticides. Mosquitoes that remainder alive after 24 hours exposure were mated and each group were put in 2 cages, each repetition were repeated 3 times. The mosquito eggs were observed until adult mosquitoes die. Then, the fecundity, fertility and vitality rate were compared. Based on our analysis, there were no differences on fecundity rate, between control and mosquitoes that were exposed to natural insecticides, but there were significant differences between the control and the synthetic insecticides. Natural insecticides do not increase the rate of fecundity but synthetic insecticides may increase the rate of fecundity and number of mosquitoes and causes the mosquito lifespan longer than the control and natural insecticide treatment.

  7. GRAMÍNEAS TROPICALES EN EL ENGORDE DE CUYES MEJORADOS SEXADOS (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus EN LA ZONA DE LA MANÁ

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    Adolfo Sánchez Laiño

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación de gramíneas tropicales en el engorde de cuyes en la zona de La Maná. La misma que persiguió los siguientes objetivos: Incrementar los índices productivos en cuyes (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus peruanos mejorados bajo el efecto del consumo del pasto saboya (Panicum maximun Jack, hojas de maíz (Zea mays y caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L en la zona de La Maná, y determinar la rentabilidad de los tratamientos. Se utilizaron 48 cuyes peruanos mejorados sexados de 35 días de edad con un peso promedio de 305 g. Se aplicó un arreglo factorial 2 (sexo x 3 (gramíneas con cuatro repeticiones, dentro de un (DBCA. Para las comparaciones entre medidas se utilizó la prueba de Tukey al 0.05% de probabilidad. Para obtener la rentabilidad de los tratamientos se utilizó la Relación Beneficio–Costo. Se evaluó el: consumo de gramíneas (g, consumo de alimento (g, ganancia de peso (g, conversión alimenticia, peso vivo (g y rendimiento a la canal (%. Los cuyes machos presentaron el mayor (P0.05 no se vio afectado por el efecto del consumo de gramíneas. La mayor rentabilidad la registraron los cuyes machos alimentados con hoja de maíz + balanceado (52.4%.

  8. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20–40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control. PMID:28425475

  9. First isolation and RFLP genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous-Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Jonatas Campos; de Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira; de Morais Pedrosa, Camila; da Silva Santos, Marcelo; de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Garcia, João Luis; Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2017-05-01

    Wild animals may play an important role in the transmission and maintenance of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and genotype T. gondii from a free-ranging crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous-Linnaeus, 1766). A crab-eating fox in critical health condition was attended in a veterinary hospital in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The animal died despite emergency treatment. The brain was collected aseptically and destined for mouse bioassay. One isolate of T. gondii was obtained, and Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to assess genetic variability at 11 markers (SAG1, SAG2, altSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c228, c292, L358, PK1 and APICO). A murine model was used to assess the virulence of the isolate. Using the PCR-RFLP, genotype ToxoDB #13 was identified, which is considered an atypical strain. The isolate was classified as avirulent in the murine model. This is the first study to report T. gondii infection in the crab-eating fox. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of culture conditions on the growth and reproduction of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus (Ulvales, Chlorophyta

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    Rapeeporn Ruangchuay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultivation of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, was experimentally studied to support its near optimalfarming, with potential impact in Thailand on its direct use as human food or its co-cultures in shrimp farming.Germling clusters (2 weeks old and 7.50±2.98 mm long were seeded into 500 mL flasks and biomass growth rateoptimized with respect to the main controllable factors; seedling density, salinity, light intensity, and temperature. These factorswere assumed to each have an optimal value independent of the others, and the factors were optimized one at a time. Themaximum growth at three to four weeks of cultivation was obtained at the factor levels of 0.05 gL-1, 20 ppt, 80 mol photonm-2s-1 and 25°C. Early zoosporangia were obtained from 2nd to 4th weeks. The relative growth rate ranged from 9.47 to 22.18 %day-1, and only asexual reproduction of U. intestinalis was observed under these culture conditions.

  11. Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae resistant to temephos

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    Wanessa Porto Tito Gambarra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a./L and multiple concentrations that caused mortalities between 5% and 99%. Electrophoresis of isoenzymes was used to verify the patterns of esterase activity among populations of the vector. RESULTS: All populations of Aedes aegypti were resistant to temephos, presenting a resistance rate (RR greater than 20. The greatest lethal dose 50% of the sample (CL50 was found for the municipality of Lagoa Seca, approximately forty-one times the value of CL50 for the Rockefeller population. The populations characterized as resistant showed two to six regions of α and β-esterase, called EST-1 to EST-6, while the susceptible population was only seen in one region of activity. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is widely distributed and shows a high degree of resistance to temephos in all municipalities studied. In all cases, esterases are involved in the metabolism and, consequently, in the resistance to temephos.

  12. Anidamientoydieta de Harpia harpyja Linnaeus en la Comunidad Nativa de Infierno, Madre de Dios, Perú

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    Renzo P. Piana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El Águila Arpía (Harpia harpyja Linnaeus es la rapaz de mayor tamaño que habita los bosques amazónicos, sin embargo en el Perú, es muy poco lo que se sabe de esta especie. Desde 1996 a 2001, realizó una investigación en la Comunidad Nativa de Infi erno para obtener información sobre la biología de la especie mediante la localización y observación de nidos activos y abandonados. La investigación permitió encontrar los primeros nidos activos descritos para el Águila Arpía en Perú e indicarían una cierta preferencia para anidar en castañales. Así mismo, la información recogida ha permitido establecer que el área de anidamiento de una pareja de Águilas Arpía en la zona de estudio es de aproximadamente 4300 hectáreas. El análisis de los restos de las presas consumidas y de las egagrópilas recolectadas dentro y alrededor de la base de los nidos nos han permitido hacer una primera descripción de la dieta de la especie, la cual está compuesta principalmente por mamíferos arbóreos.

  13. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-04-20

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20-40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control.

  14. Inhibition of Various Cancer Cells Proliferation of Bornyl Acetate and Essential Oil from Inula graveolens (Linnaeus Desf

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    Tunay Karan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Inula species are medicinal and aromatic plants used for folk medicine extensively. In this work, hydrodistilled essential oil of Inula graveolens (Linnaeus Desf. analyzed by GC-MS which revealed that bornyl acetate was the major product (69.15%. Camphene was the second major compound (11.11%. Antiproliferative activity of the essential oil and bornyl acetate was investigated on HeLa (human cervix carcinoma, HT29 (human colon carcinoma , A549 (human lung carcinoma, MCF7 ( human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells and FL (human amnion cells normal cells. The cytotoxicity was executed by a Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH Cytotoxicity Detection Kit. Essential oil and bornyl acetate displayed the outstanding activities on HeLa (IC 50, 64.1, 72.0 µg/mL, HT29 (IC 50, 24.6, 60.5 µg/mL, A549 (IC 50, 28.3, 44.1 µg/mL, MCF-7 (IC 50, 66.5, 85.6 µg/mL, and FL (IC 50, 42.1, 50.6 µg/mL cell lines respectively.

  15. The gold tegu, Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758) sensu lato (Squamata: Teiidae): evidence for an established population in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jake R.; Ketterlin, Jennifer K.; Rochford, Michael R.; Irwin, Rodney; Krysko, Kenneth L.; Duquesnel, James G.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Reed, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Gold tegus, Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758), are generalist predators from South America and are ecologically similar to Argentine black and white tegus (Salvator merianae), a successful invader in Florida. We trapped gold tegus in Broward and Miami-Dade counties, Florida, USA. In Miami-Dade County, collection occurred from 2008 through 2016. We combined new trapping records with previous literature records. Ten gold tegus of both sexes and multiple size classes over a nine year period indicate a reproducing population in Miami-Dade County. Tupinambis teguixin is the sixth established non-native teiid species in Florida. Additionally, we report Tupinambis teguixin from Sarasota and Lee counties, Florida, USA. Determining population status in those counties requires further study. It is critical to differentiate this species fromSalvator merianae during removal efforts. The possibility of eradicating Tupinambis teguixin exists if proper identification enables reliable monitoring of the populations.

  16. Modeling suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in North and South America’s coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Paul H.; Young, Nicholas E.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    We used two common correlative species-distribution models to predict suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. The Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) model were applied using the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling. We compared models developed using native occurrences, using non-native occurrences, and using both native and non-native occurrences. Models were trained using occurrence data collected before 2010 and evaluated with occurrence data collected from the invaded range during or after 2010. We considered a total of 22 marine environmental variables. Models built with non-native only or both native and non-native occurrence data outperformed those that used only native occurrences. Evaluation metrics based on the independent test data were highest for models that used both native and non-native occurrences. Bathymetry was the strongest environmental predictor for all models and showed increasing suitability as ocean floor depth decreased, with salinity ranking the second strongest predictor for models that used native and both native and non-native occurrences, indicating low habitat suitability for salinities lionfish could continue to invade southern latitudes in the western Atlantic Ocean and may establish localized populations in the eastern Pacific Ocean. We reiterate the importance in the choice of the training data source (native, non-native, or native/non-native) used to develop correlative species distribution models for invasive species.

  17. Temperature induced variation in oxygen consumption of juvenile and adult stage of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium (Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Wan Nurul Husna Wan; Amin, S. M. Nurul; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2015-09-01

    Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the important edible sea snail within the western Johor Straits, Malaysia. In this study, the impact of temperature on oxygen consumption (MO2) of L. canarium based on their ontogenetic changes (juvenile and adult) was measured in the laboratory condition at 22.0, 26.0, 30.0 and 34.0°C. Measurement of MO2 were taken every 1 s for 60 min on 4.20 - 34.00 g dog conch using respirometry chamber. All experiments were carried out in static conditions in five replicates with one snail per chambers. The results of oxygen consumption showed that juvenile dog conch respired at the rate of 0.163 ml h-1 and adult respired at the rate of 0.119 ml h-1. Consequently, the oxygen consumption in juvenile and adult dog conch was expressed as a total energy spends. The results indicates that total energy spend for oxygen consumed (ml h-1) of L. canarium at different temperature regimes (22.0 to 34.0°C) slightly increased over time period (0.63 ± 0.12 to 3.24 ± 0.05 J h-1) respectively. This finding of the present study suggested L. canarium is well adapted for life in high temperature environment.

  18. Size differences in the Dufour gland of Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae between and within the female castes

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    Fábio Camargo Abdalla

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The Dufour gland is found closely associated with the sting apparatus of all hymenopteran females, playing multiple roles among bees. In Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 the gland is connected to the dorsal vaginal wall and, in queens, it produces egg-marking pheromones. In workers the function of this gland is unknown, except by its capacity to mimic the queen secretion in egg-laying workers. In an attempt to understand the development and to substantiate the present knowledge about the Dufour gland in A. mellifera, a morphometric study of the gland between and within the female castes was made. Glands of workers and queens with different ages and life stages were dissected and measured with an ocular micrometer adapted to a stereoscope. The results showed that the Dufour gland is larger in queens than in workers, and that among workers, the gland is larger in egg-laying and foragers than it is in newly emerged and nurse workers. The larger size of the gland in egg-laying queens and workers is in accordance with its role in reproduction. In forager workers the larger size of the gland suggest that, as happens in some species of bees, the gland may participate in pheromone production for nest-mate or nest-entrance recognition.

  19. INVAZIA GHIDRINULUI – GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS LINNAEUS, 1758 ÎN FLUVIUL NISTRU (LIMITELE REPUBLICII MOLDOVA ŞI FACTORII DETERMINANŢI

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    Dumitru BULAT

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available În condiţiile intensificării presingului antropic în ecosistemele acvatice din Republica Moldova majoritatea speciilor stenobionte au devenit ameninţate cu dispariţia, însă unele, cu potenţial adaptiv înalt, dimpotrivă, pe fonul eliberării nişe­lor spaţiale, pot prolifera în exces şi chiar provoca efect invaziv. Pentru fluviul Nistru (limitele Republicii Moldova un exemplu elocvent este ghidrinul Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758 care, după construcţia hidrocentralei dela Novodnestrovsk (1981 a devenit o specie multidominantă, formând până la or. Soroca o populaţie locală deosebit de numeroasă.În lucrare sunt analizate particularităţile bioecologice ale ghidrinului şi sunt evidenţiaţi factorii de mediu ce au con­tribuit la invazia taxonului în fl. Nistru (limitele Republicii Moldova.THE INVASION OF THREE-SPINED STICKLEBACK – GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS LINNAEUS, 1758 IN DNIESTER RIVER (LIMITS OF REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AND ITS DETERINANT FACTORS Under the intensification of anthropogenic pressure in aquatic ecosystems of Republic of Moldova, most of stenobionte species became threatened with extinction, but some species, potentially high adaptive, contrast, in present demonstrates an evident biological progression, in some hydrobiotops causing a stressed invasive effect. For Dniester River (limits of Republic of Moldova three-spined stickleback – Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758 is a good example, after the construction of Novodnestrovsk hydropower (1981 became a multidominate species forming to Soroca city a particularly large local population.In this paper are analyzed bio- ecological peculiarities of three-spined stickleback and are highlighted environmental factors that contributed to taxon invasion in Dniester River (limits of Republic of Moldova.

  20. Effects of Feeding Frequency on Growth, Feed Consumption, and Body Composition in Juvenile Turbot (Psetta maxima Linnaeus, 1758) at Low Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    TÜRKER, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile turbot Psetta maxima (Linnaeus, 1758) (15.23 ± 2.99 g) were fed to satiation with a commercial extruded feed over a 60-day period. Feeding regimens were twice a day (TD), every other day (EOD), and 2-day intervals (TDI). Fish were kept in seawater (18 ppt) at 5-7.5 °C from January 21 to March 23, 2004. Feed conversion rate (FCR) and the protein efficiency ratios (PER) were within the ranges of 1.12-1.14 and 2.26-2.29, respectively. While the maximum relative growth rate (RGR), weight...

  1. Report of Enodiotrema megachondrus (Looss, 1899 Looss, 1901 (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae in a green turtle Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 (Testudines, Cheloniidae from Brazil

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    Werneck M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the occurrence of Enodiotrema megachondrus (Looss, 1899 Looss, 1901 in a juvenile green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 found on the coast of Brazil. This parasite has been described in Caretta caretta from Egypt, France, the Mediterranean Sea, the Madeira Archipelago, the Adriatic Sea and the USA, in C. mydas from Egypt and the USA, in Eretmochelys imbricata from Cuba, in Lepidochelys olivacea from Mexico and Costa Rica and in Lepidochelys kempii from USA. This note represents the first report of E. megachondus in a green sea turtle in the South-West Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Confirmation of the presence of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chaetodontidae and Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 (Pomacanthidae in Iraqi marine waters, Arabian Gulf

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    Jawad, L. A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two specimens (116,119 mm TL of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and four specimens (171–190 mm TL of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 were collected from Iraqi marine waters of the Arabian Gulf. These findings confirm the presence of H. acuminatus and establish the first record of P. maculosus from Iraqi waters. The samples were captured by hook and line off the coasts of Al–Fao City Peninsula, southern Iraq. Arabian Gulf. morphometric and meristic data are provided and compared with data from other parts of the world.

  3. Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Canidae), em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Pedó, Ezequiel; Tomazzoni, Ana C.; Hartz, Sandra M.; Christoff, Alexandre U.

    2006-01-01

    The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trai...

  4. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Pedó

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trails inside the Reserve. Samples were dried in an oven for 24h at 60ºC, immersed in 70% alcohol, and prey items were identified using a stereomicroscope. The diet of the crab-eating fox was essentially carnivorous (87.62% composed by vertebrates, with seasonal variation (p = 0.0009 and absence of fruits. Small non-flying mammals and birds were the most frequent prey, being proportionally more preyed in autumn and summer, respectively. Arthropods were more preyed in winter and spring and bird/reptile eggs only in summer and spring, in the reproduction period of these groups.O graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, é um canídeo de pequeno porte de hábito crepuscular e noturno que ocorre nas savanas e florestas da América do Sul. Neste estudo foi avaliada a sazonalidade e a dieta de C. thous na Reserva Biológica do Lami, uma unidade de conservação com 179,78ha, situada na região suburbana do município de Porto Alegre, no sul do Brasil. Durante o ano de 2000 foram coletadas 80 amostras fecais - 20 por estação do ano - em coletas realizadas a cada duas ou três semanas, percorrendo as trilhas existentes na Reserva. As amostras foram desidratadas em estufa por 24h a 60ºC, imersas em álcool a 70%, e as presas foram identificadas com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. A dieta do graxaim-do-mato apresentou-se essencialmente carnívora (87,62% composta por vertebrados, com variação sazonal (p = 0,0009 e ausência de frutos. Pequenos mamíferos n

  5. Behavioural responses of captive-born greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae submitted to antipredator training Respostas comportamentais de emas cativas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae submetidas a treinamentoanti-predação

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    Cristiano S. de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have been diminishing greater rhea Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758 populations throughout their natural distribution. The reintroductions of captive-born greater rheas have been tried but without success; since the individuals reintroduced were killed by predators. Captive-born animals that have been isolated from predators for many generations can lose their predator recognition abilities. To enhance the survival rates of the reintroduced animals, researchers are now using antipredator training techniques. We studied the response of 15 zoo-borne greater rheas to antipredator training. The animals were divided into three groups: two test groups and one control group. We ran 15 antipredator tests and four control testes with each group. Antipredator tests consisted of pairing a taxidermized predator model or a real predator (domestic dog with a simulation of a capture procedure. Control tests consisted of presenting the predator model (jaguar to the birds, after training but not associating it with an aversive event and recording behavioural responses. All tests were video-recorded and analysed a posteriori. Results showed that the trained rheas responded appropriately to the predators, becoming more vigilant and that there was considerable individual differences in response to antipredator training. The results demonstrated that antipredator training is effective and therefore an invaluable tool for reintroduction projects involving greater rheas. Furthermore, the methods employed in this research project should be applicable to other species of flightless birds.As atividades humanas têm diminuído as populações de emas Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758 por toda sua área de distribuição. Reintroduções de emas nascidas em cativeiro têm sido tentadas, mas sem sucesso, uma vez que os indivíduos reintroduzidos são mortos por predadores. Animais nascidos em cativeiro que foram isolados de seus predadores por várias gera

  6. Viabilidade econômica do cultivo de carpa comum (cyprinus carpio linnaeus, 1758 em monocultivo em densidades diferentes Economical viability of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 cultivation in monocultivations in different densities

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    Álvaro Graeff

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa estudar o efeito econômico do povoamento de alevinos I de carpa comum (Cyprinus carpio LINNAEUS, 1758 com densidade diferenciada e com alimentação artificial e adubação química. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (1; 0,5 e 0,33 peixes/m² avaliados ao longo do tempo e três repetições. Os peixes foram estocados com peso e comprimento médios de 2,40 g e 5,35; 5,40 e 5,39 cm, respectivamente, nos tratamentos, e com 45 dias de idade. As dietas foram formuladas com 27% de PB e 2925 Kcal/Kg de ração, sendo fornecidas diariamente na quantidade de 3% do peso vivo. Os resultados para o comprimento e peso dos peixes foram 25,68; 28,66 e 31,21 cm e 255,00; 424,00 e 519,66 g, respectivamente. A analise econômica foi estudada por meio de planilha de custo. Na produção total, os resultados foram 1882; 1513 e 1367 kg/hectare em um ciclo. Em condições similares, pode-se recomendar zootecnicamente todas as densidades estudadas e, economicamente, a lucratividade da atividade é crescente com o aumento da densidade, havendo diminuição do custo médio ou unitário.This research aimed at studying the economical effect of common carp (Cyprinus carpio LINNAEUS, 1758 settling of fingerlings with differenciated density and with artificial feeding and chemical fertilization. The design was entirely randomized with three treatments (1; 0.5 and 0.33 fishes/m² evaluated along the time and 3 repetitions. The fish were stocked with medium weight and mediun length of 2.40 g and 5.35; 5.40 and 5.39 cm, respectively, in the treatments, and 45 days old. The diets were formulated with 27% PB and 2.925 kcal/kg of ration, being given daily in the quantities of 3% of living weight. The results for the length and weight of the fishes were 25.68; 28.66 and 31.21 cm and 255.00; 424.00 and 519.66 g, respectively. The economical analisys was studied through cost planning. In the total production, the results

  7. Fertilidade do caranguejo de mangue Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae, em Iguape (São Paulo, Brasil Fertility of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae, at Iguape (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gustavo Yomar Hattori

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 58 Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 ovigerous females in final embryonic stage were collected in mangrove forest at Iguape (São Paulo. Each female were kept in laboratory until the larvae hatching and had their carapace width (CW measured with caliper (0.05 mm and the larval number (LN calculated by volumetric method. The hatching rates (HR were calculated for each animal's size class (5 mm. The values of LN and CW obtained were subjected to regression analyses and the best fitting model was chosen by comparing the obtained determination coefficients (R². The fertility varied from 71,200 to 220,800 larvae (147,169 ± 32,070 larvae, corresponding to 41.7 to 76.8 mm CW (63.7±7.9 mm, respectively. The relationship LNxCW was expressed by the equation LN = 284.1CW1.5º¹ (N = 58; R² = 0.74; p < 0.01, that showed a positive correlation between the variables. Most part of ovigerous females (89.7% showed their hatching during the nightly period. A negative correlation between HR and CW was observed in these animals (p < 0.05, probably due to reduction of spermatophores in the seminal receptacle (multiparous females or due to senility in the females with large size. The biological studies of U. cordatus are very important for practices adoption that preserve and make the rational use of this recourse in Brazilian's mangrove forests.

  8. Primera cita y confirmación de reproducción de Gomphus vulgatissimus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Odonata: Gomphidae en Gipuzkoa (País Vasco, España.

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    Leire Paz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la detección en 2016 de una larva de Gomphus vulgatisimus (Linnaeus, 1758 en el río Araxes se cita la especie por primera vez en el Territorio Histórico de Gipuzkoa (N Península Ibérica, confirmándose asimismo su reproducción en este enclave.

  9. Evaluation of architectural and histopathological biomarkers in the intestine of brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) challenged with environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barišić, Josip; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Mijošek, Tatjana; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra; Dragun, Zrinka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Ivanković, Dušica; Kružlicová, Dáša; Erk, Marijana

    2018-06-14

    In the present study novel histopathological approach, using fish intestine as a sensitive bioindicator organ of pollution impact in the freshwater ecosystem, was proposed. Histopathological alterations were compared between native brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) from the reference (Krka River spring) and pollution impacted location (influence of technological/municipal wastewaters and agricultural runoff near the Town of Knin) of the karst Krka River in Croatia. In brown trout from both locations, severe parasitic infestation with acanthocephalan species Dentitruncus trutae was found, enabling evaluation of acanthocephalan infestation histopathology, which indicated parasite tissue reaction in a form of inflammatory, necrotic and hyperplastic response that extended throughout lamina epithelialis mucosae, lamina propria, and lamina muscularis mucosae. New semi-quantitative histological approach was proposed in order to foresee alterations classified in three reaction patterns: control tissue appearance, moderate (progressive) tissue impairment and severe (regressive and inflammatory) tissue damage. The most frequent progressive alteration was hyperplasia of epithelium on the reference site, whereas the most frequent regressive alterations were atrophy and necrosis seen on the polluted site. Furthermore, histopathological approach was combined with micromorphological and macromorphological assessment as an additional indicator of pollution impact. Among 15 observed intestinal measures, two biomarkers of intestinal tissue damage were indicated as significant, height of supranuclear space (hSN) and number of mucous cells over 100 μm fold distance of intestinal mucosa (nM), which measures were significantly lower in fish from polluted area compared to the reference site. Obtained results indicated that combined histological and morphological approach on fish intestinal tissue might be used as a valuable biological tool for assessing pollution impact on

  10. Variation in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae infestation in artificial containers in Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil

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    Joelma Soares-da-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dengue is a serious public health problem worldwide, with cases reported annually in tropical and subtropical regions. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762, the main vector of dengue, is a domiciliary species with high dispersal and survival capacities and can use various artificial containers as breeding sites. We assessed potential container breeding sites of A. aegypti in the municipality of Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: In the initial phase, we analyzed 900 properties in 3 neighborhoods during the dry and rainy seasons (August-October 2005 and February-April 2006, respectively. During the second sampling period, September 2006-August 2007, we used 5 assessment cycles for 300 properties in a single neighborhood. RESULTS: During the dry and rainy seasons, water-storage containers comprised 55.7% (n = 1,970 and 48.5% (n = 1,836 of the total containers inspected, and showed the highest productivity of immature A. aegypti; we found 23.7 and 106.1 individuals/container, respectively, in peridomicile sites. In intradomicile sites, water-storage containers were also the most important breeding sites with 86.4% (n = 973 and 85.6% (n = 900 of all containers and a mean of 7.9 and 108.3 individuals/container in the dry and rainy seaso-October 2006 (1,342. The highest number of positives (70 was recorded in May, mostly (94% in storage containers. CONCLUSIONS: Storage containers are the principal and most productive A. aegypti breeding sites and are a major contributing factor to the maintenance of this vector in Caxias.

  11. Variation in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Culicidae) infestation in artificial containers in Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-da-Silva, Joelma; Ibiapina, Sebastiana Silva; Bezerra, Juliana Maria Trindade; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Pinheiro, Valéria Cristina Soares

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem worldwide, with cases reported annually in tropical and subtropical regions. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), the main vector of dengue, is a domiciliary species with high dispersal and survival capacities and can use various artificial containers as breeding sites. We assessed potential container breeding sites of A. aegypti in the municipality of Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil. In the initial phase, we analyzed 900 properties in 3 neighborhoods during the dry and rainy seasons (August-October 2005 and February-April 2006, respectively). During the second sampling period, September 2006-August 2007, we used 5 assessment cycles for 300 properties in a single neighborhood. During the dry and rainy seasons, water-storage containers comprised 55.7% (n = 1,970) and 48.5% (n = 1,836) of the total containers inspected, and showed the highest productivity of immature A. aegypti; we found 23.7 and 106.1 individuals/container, respectively, in peridomicile sites. In intradomicile sites, water-storage containers were also the most important breeding sites with 86.4% (n = 973) and 85.6% (n = 900) of all containers and a mean of 7.9 and 108.3 individuals/container in the dry and rainy seaso-October 2006 (1,342). The highest number of positives (70) was recorded in May, mostly (94%) in storage containers. Storage containers are the principal and most productive A. aegypti breeding sites and are a major contributing factor to the maintenance of this vector in Caxias.

  12. DYNAMICS OF PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS LINNAEUS, 1758 AGE STRUCTURE IN THE DNIEPER LOWER REACHES IN CONNECTION WITH FISHING

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    K. Geina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the dynamics of pike (Esox luceus Linnaeus, 1758 age structure of the Dnieper lower reaches in conditions of the modification of fishing pressure. Methodology. An analysis of fishing situation has been performed based on data of official fishery statistics. Fish sampling was done at control-observation posts of the Institute of Fisheries of the NAAS of Ukraine and directly in the fishery. Juvenile fish yield was determined using a complex of fry fishing gears using a stationary net-station. Field and cameral processing of the material was performed using generally accepted methods. Findings. A retrospective analysis of the situation in the Dnieper-Bug lower reach system clearly indicates on the presence of continuous tendency of catch decline of representative of native fish fauna – pike. With relatively uniform indices of the “yield” of its juveniles before Dnieper flow impoundment and in conditions of present time, its commercial catches significantly dropped. The dynamics of pike current age structure indicates on an increase of relative density of age groups, which form the recruitment of the commercial portion of the population (1-1+ and a decrease of importance of the component of the right side of age series. A discrepancy between the observed changes of the age group and commercial harvest quantities indicates on increased human pressure on this species. Originality. For the first, we analyzed the dynamics of fish juvenile “yield” and age structure of pike commercial stock of the Dnieper lower reaches in the river flow transformation process. Practical value. A decrease of the ichthyomass of piscivorous fishes in the Dnieper lower reaches results in changes of fish populations of littoral biotopes towards the prevalence of the dominance of coarse species that lead to a deterioration of forage availability for a number of valuable commercial species. An increase of the number of pike can regulate the strain

  13. Esterase-D and chromosome patterns in Central Amazon piranha (Serrasalmus rhombeus Linnaeus, 1766 from Lake Catalão

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    Aylton Saturnino Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents additional genetic data on piranha (Serrasalmus rhombeus Linnaeus, 1766 complex previously diagnosed due to the presence of distinct cytotypes 2n = 58 and 2n = 60. Three esterase-D enzyme loci (Est-D1, Est-D2 and Est-D3 were examined and complemented with chromosomal data from 66 piranha specimens collected from Lake Catalão. For all specimens the Est-D1 and Est-D2 loci were monomorphic. In contrast, the Est-D3 locus was polymorphic with genotypes and alleles being differentially distributed in the previously described cytotypes and served as the basis for detecting a new cytotype (2n = 60 B. In cytotype 2n = 58 the Est-D3 locus was also polymorphic and presented Mendelian allelic segregation with four genotypes (Est-D3(11, Est-D3(12, Est-D3(22 and Est-D3(33 out of six theoretically possible genotypes, presumably encoded by alleles Est-D3¹ (frequency = 0.237, EsT-D3² (0.710 and Est-D3³ (0.053. A Chi-squared (chi2 test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was applied to the Est-D3 locus and revealed a genetic unbalance in cytotype 2n = 58, indicating the probable existence in the surveyed area of different stocks for that karyotypic structure. A silent null allele (Est-D3(0 with a high frequency (0.959 occurred exclusively in the 2n = 60 cytotype. On the other hand, the new cytotype 2n = 60 B described here for the first time was monomorphic for the presumably fixed Est-D3³ allele. The data as a whole should contribute to the better understanding the rhombeus complex taxonomic status definition in the Central Amazon.

  14. The genome structure of Arachis hypogaea (Linnaeus, 1753 and an induced Arachis allotetraploid revealed by molecular cytogenetics

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    Eliza F. de M. B. do Nascimento

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Peanut, Arachis hypogaea (Linnaeus, 1753 is an allotetraploid cultivated plant with two subgenomes derived from the hybridization between two diploid wild species, A. duranensis (Krapovickas & W. C. Gregory, 1994 and A. ipaensis (Krapovickas & W. C. Gregory, 1994, followed by spontaneous chromosomal duplication. To understand genome changes following polyploidy, the chromosomes of A. hypogaea, IpaDur1, an induced allotetraploid (A. ipaensis × A. duranensis4x and the diploid progenitor species were cytogenetically compared. The karyotypes of the allotetraploids share the number and general morphology of chromosomes; DAPI+ bands pattern and number of 5S rDNA loci. However, one 5S rDNA locus presents a heteromorphic FISH signal in both allotetraploids, relative to corresponding progenitor. Whilst for A. hypogaea the number of 45S rDNA loci was equivalent to the sum of those present in the diploid species, in IpaDur1, two loci have not been detected. Overall distribution of repetitive DNA sequences was similar in both allotetraploids, although A. hypogaea had additional CMA3+ bands and few slight differences in the LTR-retrotransposons distribution compared to IpaDur1. GISH showed that the chromosomes of both allotetraploids had preferential hybridization to their corresponding diploid genomes. Nevertheless, at least one pair of IpaDur1 chromosomes had a clear mosaic hybridization pattern indicating recombination between the subgenomes, clear evidence that the genome of IpaDur1 shows some instability comparing to the genome of A. hypogaea that shows no mosaic of subgenomes, although both allotetraploids derive from the same progenitor species. For some reasons, the chromosome structure of A. hypogaea is inherently more stable, or, it has been at least, partially stabilized through genetic changes and selection.

  15. Environmental influences on the Indo-Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae): genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Sonia J; Pochon, Xavier; Watling, Les

    2015-01-01

    As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan) octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo-Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippurisLinnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP), Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (ΦST = 0.7683, P < 0.001). This evidence suggests-but does not confirm-that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulataNutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblastaZou, Huang & Wang, 1991), questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed axis of the Isididae is in

  16. Induction of gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid and doubled haploid development in the brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, O; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Sapota, M; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-04-01

    Gynogenetic and androgenetic brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758) haploids (Hs) and doubled haploids (DHs) were produced in the present research. Haploid development was induced by radiation-induced genetic inactivation of spermatozoa (gynogenesis) or eggs (androgenesis) before insemination. To provide DHs, gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid zygotes were subjected to the high pressure shock to suppress the first mitotic cleavage. Among haploids, gynogenetic embryos were showing lower mortality when compared to the androgenetic embryos; however, most of them die before the first feeding stage. Gynogenetic doubled haploids provided in the course of the brown trout eggs activation performed by homologous and heterologous sperm (rainbow trout) were developing equally showing hatching rates of 14.76 ± 2.4% and 16.14 ± 2.90% and the survival rates at the first feeding stage of 10.48 ± 3.48% and 12.78 ± 2.18%, respectively. Significantly, lower survival rate was observed among androgenetic progenies from the diploid groups with only few specimens that survived to the first feeding stage. Cytogenetic survey showed that among embryos from the diploid variants of the research, only gynogenetic individuals possessed doubled sets of chromosomes. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that radiation employed for the genetic inactivation of the brown trout eggs misaligned mechanism responsible for the cell divisions and might have delayed or even arrested the first mitotic cleavage in the androgenetic brown trout zygotes. Moreover, protocol for the radiation-induced inactivation of the paternal and maternal genome should be adjusted as some of the cytogenetically surveyed gynogenetic and androgenetic embryos exhibited fragments of the irradiated chromosomes. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Cs-134 transfer from water or food to the Ciprinid Tinca tinca Linnaeus: uptake and loss kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corisco, J.A.G.; Carreiro, M.C.V.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments with 134 Cs and the fish Tinca tinca Linnaeus (fam. Cyprinidae), as a part of a more extensive work, concerning a simplified freshwater trophic chain using water from Fratel dam, (at Tejo River), were undertaken. Direct uptake from water, during a period of about 30 days, leads to a kinetics expressed by the power function: CF (t) = 0.58 t 0.781 (t in days), the concentration factor (CF) referred to wet weight. Retention study, showed the existence of two biological half-lives, Tb 1 = 7 days and Tb 2 = 87 days, which might concern respectively, the 134 Cs desorption from the transit organs and the loss of the assimilated isotope from the storage organs. In the accumulation through the food chain, using planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera) as prey, a transfer factor (TF) related to wet weight of both fish and prey, is estimated through the power function: TF (t) = 0.022 t 0.578 (t in days). Finally, the retention study following the food pathway contamination, stresses the existence of one long term component, with half-life Tb = 61 days. The transfer factor kinetics seems to point out to a rather slow process, leading to lower 134 Cs concentration values, than the contamination through the water. The loss of the assimilated 134 Cs, uptaken through both pathways, water or food, is a slow process. The longer biological half-life is very important in Radiological Protection, once it may be attributed to the radionuclide loss from the muscular mass. (author)

  18. Environmental influences on the Indo–Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae): genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Xavier; Watling, Les

    2015-01-01

    As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan) octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo–Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippuris Linnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP), Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (ΦST = 0.7683, P < 0.001). This evidence suggests—but does not confirm—that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulata Nutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblasta Zou, Huang & Wang, 1991), questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed axis of the

  19. Environmental influences on the Indo–Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae: genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia J. Rowley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo–Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippuris Linnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP, Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (ΦST = 0.7683, P < 0.001. This evidence suggests—but does not confirm—that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulata Nutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblasta Zou, Huang & Wang, 1991, questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed

  20. The formulation of the essential oil of Piper aduncum Linnaeus (Piperales: Piperaceae) increases its efficacy as an insect repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamood, S N H; Hidayatulfathi, O; Budin, S B; Ahmad Rohi, G; Zulfakar, M H

    2017-02-01

    The essential oil (EO) of Piper aduncum Linnaeus, known as 'sireh lada' to locals Malaysian, has the potential to be used as an alternative to synthetic insect repellents such as N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide. However, the EO's efficacy as a repellent decreases after application due to the high volatility of its active ingredients. A number of studies have showed that optimizing the formulation of plant-based EOs can improve their efficacy as repellents. The present study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of 10% P. aduncum EO in ethanol and in three different semisolid formulations: ointment, cream and gel. These formulations were tested on Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. Each formulation was applied to the subject's hands, which were then inserted into a cage containing 25 nulliparous A. aegypti. The number of mosquitoes landing on or biting each subject's hand was recorded, and the repellency percentage, landing/biting percentage and protection time for each of the formulations were compared. There were no statistically significant differences between the semisolid EO formulations with regards to the repellency percentage and the landing/biting percentage at 4 h post-application. All three semisolid EO formulations were able to repel >65% of the A. aegypti at 4 h post-application. The EO ointment formulation provided a protection time (182.5 ± 16.01 min) that was statistically significantly longer than that associated with the EO gel formulation (97.5 ± 14.93 min). Meanwhile, the EO cream formulation provided a protection time of 162.5 ± 6.29 min. As the EO cream and ointment formulations displayed better repellent properties than the EO gel formulation, they appear to be the most promising P. aduncum EO formulations to be developed and commercialized as alternatives to synthetic repellents.

  1. Spatially explicit genetic structure in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759 within the framework of the monopolisation hypothesis

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    Livia Lucentini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An apparent paradox is known for crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans living in inland small water bodies: a potential for wide distribution due to the presence of resting stages is coupled with marked genetic differences between nearby water bodies, with enclave distributions masking clear phylogeographic patterns. According to the monopolisation hypothesis, this is due to the accumulation of resting stages, monopolising each water body. Freshwater sponges could represent a useful system to assess the generality of the mo- nopolisation hypothesis: these organisms i live in the same habitats as crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans, ii produce resting stages that can accumulate, and iii have indeed a wide distribution. Currently, no studies on spatially explicit genetic differentiation on fresh- water sponges are available. The aim of the present study is to provide additional empirical evidence in support of the generality of the scenario for small aquatic animals with resting stages by analysing genetic diversity at different spatial scales for an additional model system, the freshwater sponge ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759. We expected that system genetic variability would follow enclave distributions, no clear phylogeographical patterns would be present, and nearby unconnected water bodies would show markedly different populations for this new model too. We analysed the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions 5.8S-ITS2-28S, the D3 domain of 28S subunit, the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI and ten specific microsatellite markers of nine Italian and one Hungarian populations. Mitochondrial and nuclear sequences showed no or very low genetic polymorphism, whereas high levels of differentiation among populations and a significant polymorphism were observed using microsatellites. Microsatellite loci also showed a high proportion of private alleles for each population and an overall correlation between geographic and genetic

  2. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  3. Size and quality of wood used by Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in beech woodlands of Gipuzkoa (northern Spain

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    CASTRO, A., MARTINEZ DE MURGUIA, L., FERNANDEZ, J., CASIS, A., MOLINO-OLMEDO, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La conservación de la especie saproxilófaga legalmente protegida Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758 en los hayedos de Europa conlleva una gestión adecuada de los árboles muertos y moribundos. Sin embargo, los parámetros de los árboles preferidos (tamaño y calidad de la madera permanecen aún poco conocidos. En esta contribución se analizan los datos de distribución procedentes de seis años de trabajo en cuatro Lugares de Interés Comunitario de la provincia de Gipuzkoa (norte de España. Los individuos vivos de R. alpina y sus orificios de emergencia fueron registrados exclusivamente en hayas. 72 individuos vivos y 520 orificios fueron registrados en 77 árboles. Las evidencias de ocupación (presencia de individuos vivos o de orificios o de ambos fueron más frecuentes en troncos Ø > 25 cm de hayas en pie (tanto aún vivas como muertas que en ramas y árboles caídos y más delgados. Sin embargo, el número de orificios no mostró diferencias entre las clases de tamaño y la calidad de la madera de los troncos principales. Las ramas más gruesas (Ø > 15 cm registraron mayores tasas de presencia y número de orificios que las más finas. Conociendo los tipos de árboles más seleccionados, se sugiere la elaboración de un mapa regional de disponibilidad de hábitat como herramienta práctica para planificar estrategias de conservación.

  4. Um caso de albinismo em Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae na Serra do Mar, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná A case of albinism in Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae in Serra do Mar, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Veiga

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Described herein is a case of alhinism in lhe Peccary Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus. 1758 (Artiodaclyla. Tayassuidae. which was observed in Colônia Castelhanos. São José dos Pinhais. Paraná, in lhe Southern Bra/il. The specimen was caplured when very young. The normal peccary (Tayassu tajacu is a dark-gray animal wilh a while hand across the ehest from shoulder Io shoulder. This animal have while skin. hlued eyes bul has pigmented feet.

  5. Activities of tabanids (Diptera, Tabanidae attacking domestic duck-Cairina moschata (Linnaeus (Aves, Anatidae, introduced in a forest area in the Central Amazon, Manaus, Brazil

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    Ruth L. M. Ferreira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Presented here are the feeding habits, attack behavior, daily and annual activity of adult of Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedeman, 1821, Chrysops laetus (Fabricius, 1805 and Phaeotabanus cajennensis (Fabricius, 1787, while biting a domestic duck, Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758. The last two species were recorded for the first time attacking birds. This study comprehended monthly observations of two consecutive days from April/97 to March/98 between 5:30 a.m. and 6:30 p.m. at the Army Instructional Base ((BI-2/CIGS near Manaus. Annual occurrence of P. cinereus was from July to September, with a daily occurrence between 9:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. and highest activity at 12:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. C. laetus ocurred from June to October; with a daily occurrence between 8:00 a.m. and 3 p.m. and highest activity at 11:00 and 12:00 a.m. Occurrence of P. cajennensis with one specimen only, was in July between 10:00 and 11:00 a.m.Atividades de tabanídeos (Diptera, Tabanidae atacando pato doméstico Cairina moschata Linnaeus (Aves, Anatidae, introduzido em área de floresta na Amazônia Central, Manaus, Brasil. São apresentados o hábito alimentar, comportamento de ataque, atividade diária e anual de adultos de Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann, 1821, Chrysops laetus (Fabricius, 1805 e Phaeotabanus cajennensis (Fabricius, 1787 atacando pato doméstico - Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758. As últimas duas últimas espécies são registradas pela primeira vez atacando aves. O estudo compreendeu observações mensais durante dois dias consecutivos de Abril/97 a Março/98, entre 5:30 e 18:30 h, na base de instrução 2 do Centro de Instrução de Guerra na Selva (BI-2/CIGS, Manaus. A ocorrência anual de P. cinereus, foi de julho a setembro, com atividade diária entre 9:00 e 17:00 horas, com maior abundância entre 12:00 e 14:00 horas. C. laetus, ocorreu de junho a outubro, com atividade diária entre 8:00 e 15:00 horas, e maior abundância entre 11:00 e 12

  6. Cover Crop Species and Management Influence Predatory Arthropods and Predation in an Organically Managed, Reduced-Tillage Cropping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Ariel N; Mullen, Christina A; Barbercheck, Mary E

    2018-04-05

    Agricultural practices affect arthropod communities and, therefore, have the potential to influence the activities of arthropods. We evaluated the effect of cover crop species and termination timing on the activity of ground-dwelling predatory arthropods in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in transition to organic production in Pennsylvania, United States. We compared two cover crop treatments: 1) hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) planted together with triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) after wheat harvest, and 2) cereal rye (Secale cereale Linnaeus) planted after corn harvest. We terminated the cover crops in the spring with a roller-crimper on three dates (early, middle, and late) based on cover crop phenology and standard practices for cash crop planting in our area. We characterized the ground-dwelling arthropod community using pitfall traps and assessed relative predation using sentinel assays with live greater waxworm larvae (Galleria mellonella Fabricius). The activity density of predatory arthropods was significantly higher in the hairy vetch and triticale treatments than in cereal rye treatments. Hairy vetch and triticale favored the predator groups Araneae, Opiliones, Staphylinidae, and Carabidae. Specific taxa were associated with cover crop condition (e.g., live or dead) and termination dates. Certain variables were positively or negatively associated with the relative predation on sentinel prey, depending on cover crop treatment and stage, including the presence of predatory arthropods and various habitat measurements. Our results suggest that management of a cover crop by roller-crimper at specific times in the growing season affects predator activity density and community composition. Terminating cover crops with a roller-crimper can conserve generalist predators.

  7. Water ferns Azolla spp. (Azollaceae as new host plants for the small China-mark moth, Cataclysta lemnata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Acentropinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atousa Farahpour-Haghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water ferns (Azolla spp., Azollaceae are reported for the first time as host plants for the larvae of the small China-mark moth Cataclysta lemnata (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Acentropinae in rice fields and waterways of northern Iran. Cataclysta lemnata is a semi-aquatic species that has been recorded to feed on Lemnaceae and a few other aquatic plants. However, it has not been reported before on Azolla spp. Larvae use water fern as food source and shelter and, at high population density in the laboratory, they completely wiped water fern from the water surface. Feeding was confirmed after rearing more than eight continual generations of C. lemnata on water fern in the laboratory. Adults obtained this way are darker and have darker fuscous markings in both sexes compared with specimens previously reported and the pattern remains unchanged after several generations.

  8. The availability of Piperaceae and the search for this resource by Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Carolliinae in Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Passos de Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A study about the species of Piperaceae that are consumed by a colony of Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 in Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas (82,72 ha was carried out. Five available species of Piperaceae were found in the park: Piper aduncum Linnaeus, Piper amalago (Jacq. Yuncker, Piper crassinervium H.B.K., Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth and Piper sp. C. perspicillata fed on all of these species. During the spring, the most abundant item was P. amalago, but the consumption of P. aduncum was the highest. At the beginning of the summer, P. crassinervium was the most abundant and most consumed item. At the end of the summer and during the fall, P. gaudichaudianum was the most abundant and consumed item, even in May, when P. amalago was the most abundant item. During the winter, the most highly available items were P. aduncum, Piper sp. and P. amalago, and the ones that were consumed the most were Piper sp., P. gaudichaudianum and P. aduncum. The results have shown that the preferences of C. perspicillata in the park are related to the greater abundance or the higher energetic value of the available Piperaceae. The greater search for the most energetic and least abundant species, which happened in the spring and winter, is related to the energy gain, that is, the species searches for food that will provide a greater quantity of energy per unit of consumption; and the greater search for the most abundant item, which occurred in the summer and fall, is related to saving the energy used in the search for food.Estudou-se quais espécies de piperáceas são consumidas por uma colônia de Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 localizada do Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas (82,72ha. Foram encontradas no parque: Piper aduncum Linnaeus, Piper amalago (Jacq. Yuncker, Piper crassinervium H.B.K., Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth e Piper sp. C. perspicillata alimentou-se de todas essas espécies. Durante a primavera, o item mais abundante foi P. amalago, porém o

  9. Bioekologi vektor demam berdarah dengue (DBD serta deteksi virus dengue pada Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus dan Ae. albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae di kelurahan endemik DBD Bantarjati, Kota Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahara Fadilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF is a viral disease that threatened community health in Indonesia. As part of an eradication program, it is important to learn the behavioral aspect of the disease vector. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of dengue virus in Aedes spp., at Bantarjati Village, Bogor City and to learn to bioecology of. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus. Detection of dengue virus in Aedes spp. were done by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR technique that consist of two phase were synthesis phase and cDNA amplification and dengue virus serotipe characterization. The Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (Skuse mosquitoes were collected using the landing and resting moquito collection technique booth indoors and outdoors. The highest density of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were found in April and the peak activity was occurred at 10:00-11:00 am. Dengue virus was not detected in female mosquitoes Aedes spp.

  10. Chemical Modification of Oryza sativa Linnaeus Husk with Urea for Removal of Brilliant Vital Red and Murexide Dyes from Water by Adsorption in Environmentally Benign Way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, R.; Mahmud, T.; Kanwal, F.; Aslam, M.N.; Nisar, H.

    2013-01-01

    Oryza sativa Linnaeus is an important food item all around the world. Due to its huge consumption, a large amount of rice husk is generated as agrowaste which can be used for water treatment by adsorption. Its adsorption capacity further can be enhanced by chemical medication. In the present study, urea modified rice husk has been used for removing Brilliant Vital Red and Murexide form water in an efficient way. After optimizing operating conditions, isothermal and thermodynamical studies were carried out, which showed that maximum adsorption capacity of urea modified rice husk for removing Brilliant Vital Red and Murexide dyes were 28.93 and 30.74 mg.g/sup -1/. Adsorbent characterization was carried out by recording its FT-IR spectra. (author)

  11. Infestação de Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae em Plantas de Euterpe oleracea Martius (Arecaceae no Estado do Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. The açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Martius is a native palm tree from the Amazon region floodplains and may be indicated as the most economically profitable species of this genus. Its fruit pulp is extracted and widely consumed by the population of northern Brazil in several ways. With the expansion of the planted area many factors may affect the production and limit the cultivation, highlighting the occurrence of insect pests that cause losses in production. This report presents the first occurrence of the leafhopper Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae in E. oleracea plants. The occurrence of this insect associated with açai palms in Rio Branco, Acre, increases the list of hosts for this leafhopper in Brazil and reinforces the need for studies of population dynamics, survey of natural enemies, levels of damage and control methods in order to anticipate population outbreaks of this pest in commercial plantations of açai palms in the State.

  12. Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    APT Medeiros

    Full Text Available The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.

  13. SEROLOGIC RESPONSE TO CANINE DISTEMPER VACCINATION IN CAPTIVE LINNAEUS'S TWO-TOED SLOTHS ( CHOLOEPUS DIDACTYLUS) AFTER A FATAL CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS OUTBREAK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Julie D; Cushing, Andrew C; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Anis, Eman; Dubovi, Edward J

    2017-12-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) affects many wild and captive, nondomestic species worldwide but has not been previously reported in Xenarthra. Paucity of information on vaccination safety and efficacy presents challenges for disease prevention in captive collections. CDV infections and subsequent mortalities in five captive Linnaeus's two-toed sloths ( Choloepus didactylus) in eastern Tennessee are reported. Clinical signs included oculonasal discharge, oral ulcerations, and diarrhea, and the diagnosis was confirmed by necropsy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, and polymerase chain reaction. Viral sequencing identified the strain to be consistent with a new CDV lineage currently affecting domestic dogs and wildlife in Tennessee. Seven sloths were examined and vaccinated using a recombinant CDV vaccine on days 0 and 21. Subsequent blood samples showed increased titers in 3/4 sloths. Based on the outbreak and serologic findings postvaccination without adverse effects, the authors recommend recombinant CDV vaccination in sloths exposed to known carriers of CDV.

  14. Castosyringophilus meropis sp. n. (Acariformes: Syringophilidae) - a new quill mite species parasitising the world population of Merops apiaster Linnaeus (Coraciiformes: Meropidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Hromada, Martin; Sikora, Bozena

    2017-07-26

    A new species, Castosyringophilus meropis sp. n., found in quills of feathers of the European bee-eater Merops apiaster Linnaeus (Coraciiformes: Meropidae) is described. This new species is close to C. claravis Skoracki et Glowska, 2008 and differs, in females, by the presence apunctate coxal fields (vs sparsely punctate in C. claravis) and by the lengths of setae d1 145-180 µm, f2 170-185 µm and ag3 190-215 µm (vs d1 200-220 µm, f2 230-250 µm and ag3 150-170 µm). We present a vast mite material collected from bee-eaters originated from different localities in Europe, Asia and Africa, both breeding and wintering grounds of this bird. It indicates that the whole world population of the European bee-eater is parasitised by this quill mite species.

  15. The morphology and histology of the male reproductive system in Dolycoris baccarum Linnaeus 1758 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)--light and scanning electron micoscope studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Nurcan; Candan, Selami; Suludere, Zekiye

    2013-01-01

    The male reproductive system of Dolycoris baccarum (Linnaeus 1758) is studied morphologically and histologically using both light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). The reproductive system of the male D. baccarum consists of a pair of testis, a pair of vas deferens, a pair of seminal vesicles, accessory glands (mesadenia, ectadenia), a bulbus ejaculatorius, a pair of ectodermal sacs, and a ductus ejaculatorius. The number of testicular follicles varies from four to six. The testicular follicles have three different development zones (growth zone, maturation zone, differentiation zone). The testes are connected to the seminal vesicles by the vas deferens. Vas deferens and seminal vesicles, which are fine-long and cylindrical. The seminal vesicle is connected with bulbus ejaculatorius which is balloon-shaped and surrounded with accessory glands. The bulbus ejaculatorius is continuous with ductus ejaculatorius which connected to the aedeagus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Infracommunities of intestinal helminths of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 from Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Di Cerbo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most common carnivore in Italy and its spread includes almost the whole national territory. The species shows an high ecological plasticity and a variable diet composition connected in part to human sources. This high adaptability permits the red foxes to colonize different habitats like the suburbs of large cities as well as the small villages located in mountain areas. On the other hand, the tourism pressure seems to assume a great importance in the Alps, also in those areas where the foxes live. So, indirect interactions could take place between these animals and the humans. The role of V. vulpes in the zoonoses has not to be understated since this carnivore could transmit parasitic diseases that are able to cause serious pathologies in humans. This study aims just to investigate on intestinal communities of helmiths of V. vulpes in order to make progress in current knowledge on epidemiological situation in Italian Alps. During 1998-2003, we have examined 450 foxes from Trentino Alto Adige, Veneto, Lombardia and Valle d'Aosta. The specimens collected were found dead or have been hunted (according to national law n. 157/92 in localities situated between 170 and 2200 m a.s.l. The carcasses were carried to the provincial sections of Zooprofilattici Institutes, where the intestine was drawn by each sample and all the material was sent to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Milan. Parasitological examination of the small intestines was performed by the analysis of the whole sediment and counting technique (SCT. Parasites were preserved in alcohol 70° before to be clarified or stained and identified by microscope (Zeiss Axioscop. Mean abundance, mean intensity and prevalence were calculated for each taxon of helminth. Dates of sampling were grouped within the four seasons. Statistic tests were performed with software package SPSS rel. 11.5 and spatial analysis with the

  17. Sericin composition in the silk of Antheraea yamamai

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žurovec, Michal; Yonemura, N.; Kludkiewicz, Barbara; Sehnal, František; Kodrík, Dalibor; Cota Vieira, Ligia; Kučerová, Lucie; Strnad, H.; Koník, P.; Sehadová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2016), s. 1776-1787 ISSN 1525-7797 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Galleria mellonella L. * Bombyx mori * mechanical properties Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 5.246, year: 2016 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.biomac.6b00189

  18. C:\\Users\\AISA\\Desktop\\KALLEL SADREDDINE.xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    dans des récipients en plastique avec un couvercle de 12 cm de hauteur et présentant une base circulaire de 11cm de diamètre. Les sols sont par la suite humidifiés et déposés sur un papier filtre de 13 cm de diamètre préalablement humidifié et recevant soit des œufs de criquets soit des chenilles de Galleria mellonella.

  19. Gram-Negative Bacterial Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle Farms in Zaria and Kaduna and Possible Transmission Through Milk P. N. Mbianga, V. J. Umoh, A. I. 0, K. C. A; Ahmadu...Pathogenic Escherichia coli R. M. Ramirez, M-X. Haro, P. Miranda, S-H. Sanchez, L-E. Vidales; Univ. Aut6noma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Mexico 517...isolates. Subsequently, five representative isolates were tested in murine pulmonary and Galleria mellonella models of infection. Infections with one strain

  20. Stepwise emergence of azole, echinocandin and amphotericin B multidrug resistance in vivo in Candida albicans orchestrated by multiple genetic alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Thyssen Astvad, Karen Marie; Vale Silva, Luis

    2015-01-01

    -MS were used for sterol analyses. In vivo virulence was determined in the insect model Galleria mellonella and evaluated by log-rank Mantel–Cox tests. Results: P-1 + P-2 were susceptible, P-3 + P-4 fluconazole resistant, P-5 pan-azole resistant, P-6 + P-7 pan-azole and echinocandin resistant and P-8 + P-9...

  1. Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Flávia A; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Bezerra, José N S; Macrae, Andrew; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Fonteles-Filho, Antonio A; Vieira, Regine H S F

    2008-01-01

    Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller) and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds.

  2. Descripción osteológica del rorcual común (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 del Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of the skeleton of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona We describe the osteology of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, L., registration code MZB 83-308 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona. The specimen was stranded and died on a beach in Llançà (Girona, Spain in 1862. The skeleton weighed 1,161.59 kg and measured 14. 6 m, although the live animal would have been longer because the invertebral tissue was not included in the length originally stated. The newly reconstructed skeleton includes the invertebral discs and is 17.5 m long. The skull weighs 484 kg and the condilobasal length is 431 cm ( 24. 84% of the total length, corresponding to the mean length of specimens in the Mediterranean. The vertebral column has 58 vertebra structured following the formula: C7 T14 L14 Cd23. It is 10.29 m long and weighs 470.95 kg. All the cervical vertebra are free and show dorsoventral compression, differing from the thoracic, lumbar and first caudal vertebra that are relatively uniform, and rounded. From Cd14 se onwards, the vertebra vary in shape and the relationship between width and height is greater than 1, indicating lateral compression. The lack of suture lines in the epiphysis of the ulna and radius indicates the specimen is an adult that has reached ossification maturation.

  3. Vessel noise pollution as a human threat to fish: assessment of the stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Monica; Filiciotto, Francesco; Maricchiolo, Giulia; Genovese, Lucrezia; Quinci, Enza Maria; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Vazzana, Mirella; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the effects of boat noise pollution on the stress indices of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758). To assess the stress response in these fish, biometric values and plasma parameters such as ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity were analysed. After acclimatization of the animals, the experiment was carried out in a tank fitted with underwater speakers where the fish were exposed to sound treatments (in duplicate) consisting of: 10 days of no sound (control treatment; the animals were only exposed to the experimental tank's background noise) and 10 days of noise derived from original recordings of motor boats, including recreational boats, hydrofoil, fishing boat and ferry boat (vessel noise treatment). The exposure to noise produced significant variations in almost all the plasma parameters assessed, but no differences were observed in weights and fork lengths. A PERMANOVA analysis highlighted significantly increased values (p < 0.05) of ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity in the fish exposed to vessel noise for 10 days. This study clearly highlights that anthropogenic noise negatively affects fish, and they are valuable targets for detailed investigations into the effects of this global pollutant. Finally, these experimental studies could represent part of the science that is able to improve the quality of the policies related to management plans for maritime spaces (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 56/2008 CE) that are aimed at stemming this pollutant phenomenon.

  4. Effects of 200 Gy 60Co-γ Radiation on the Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes, Hsp70 Genes, and Serum Molecules of Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxue; Luo, Lingyan; Karthi, Sengodan; Zhang, Ke; Luo, Jianjun; Hu, Qiongbo; Weng, Qunfang

    2018-04-26

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is one of the notorious pests causing substantial loses to many cruciferous vegetables across the nations. The effects of 60 Co-γ radiation on physiology of P. xylostella were investigated and the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella . First, in our research, we detected Oxidase system and stress response mechanism of irradiated pupae, the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella . The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were increased significantly in contrast the level of peroxidase (POD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were decreased in 12⁻24 h post-treatment. The heat shock proteins (Hsps) gene expression level was significant increasing, maximum > 2-folds upregulation of genes were observed in peak. However, they also had a trend of gradual recovery with development. Second, we detected the testis lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity found that in male adults testis they increased significantly than control during its development. Thus the present research investigation highlights that the 60 Co-γ radiation treatments alters the physiological development of diamondback moth. The results showed that 200 Gy dosage resulted in stress damage to the body and reproductive system of the diamondback moth.

  5. Effects of 200 Gy 60Co-γ Radiation on the Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes, Hsp70 Genes, and Serum Molecules of Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, is one of the notorious pests causing substantial loses to many cruciferous vegetables across the nations. The effects of 60Co-γ radiation on physiology of P. xylostella were investigated and the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella. First, in our research, we detected Oxidase system and stress response mechanism of irradiated pupae, the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were increased significantly in contrast the level of peroxidase (POD and glutathione S-transferase (GST were decreased in 12–24 h post-treatment. The heat shock proteins (Hsps gene expression level was significant increasing, maximum > 2-folds upregulation of genes were observed in peak. However, they also had a trend of gradual recovery with development. Second, we detected the testis lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and acid phosphatase (ACP activity found that in male adults testis they increased significantly than control during its development. Thus the present research investigation highlights that the 60Co-γ radiation treatments alters the physiological development of diamondback moth. The results showed that 200 Gy dosage resulted in stress damage to the body and reproductive system of the diamondback moth.

  6. Study on trace element determination in liver samples of great-white-egret Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 (Ardeidae, Aves) for environmental contamination biomionitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2009-01-01

    Predatory birds such as herons have been used as bioindicators of pollution since they are at the top of their food webs. The tissues of these animals are analyzed for assessing environmental pollution caused by toxic elements. In the present study, adequate experimental conditions were established for determination of trace elements concentrations in the liver samples of Great-white-egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758) for further application of this specimens as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Four liver samples were collected from Greatwhite- egrets found in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and were they analyzed by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Concentrations of the elements Br, Co, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were measured in these liver tissues. The findings of this present study demonstrated that the established procedure for liver sample treatment was appropriate to obtain a homogeneous sample. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was very promising for liver sample analysis for evaluation of environmental contamination. (author)

  7. Gastrintestinal helminths Of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 -Smith, 1839 from the caatinga area of the Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto César Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 – Smith, 1839, is a medium sized canid which is found in almost every region of Brazil. It is the only registered native canid specie to be found in the semi-arid Northeastern region of the country. This study had as its objectives: the identification of the helminth fauna common to Cerdocyon thous found in the Caatinga of the state of Paraíba; and the determination of the ecological indications of helminthic infection, hoping to make a favourable addition to the understanding of this little known biome. In this study, 58 animals that were found as ‘roadkill’ on the highways in the municipality of Patos were used. The gastrointestinal helminths from these animals were colected. All the animals in this study were infected with helminths. 16 species of helminths were identified, two being trematodes, one being a cestode, one being an acanthocephalus, and the remaining twelve being nematodes. In this study a new specie, named Pterygodermatites pluripectinata n. sp. Was discovered and its host and location described.

  8. Some aspects on the reproductive cycle of European conger eel, Conger conger (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Anguilliformes, Congridae captured from Western Algerian coasts: a histological description of spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abi-ayad Sidi-Mohammed El-Amine

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the annual reproductive cycle of European conger eel (Conger conger,Linnaeus, 1758 through analysis and description of spermatogenesis. A sample of 168 males was capturedbetween September 2008 and August 2009 from the Western coast of Algeria, from Béni Saf. Fish length andweight varied between 26.20-112 cm and 0.45-3.44 kg, respectively.Condition factors (K, gonadosomatic index (G.S.I. and hepatosomatic index (H.S.I. were calculatedmonthly. Factor K reached the minimum in August/September (0.10% corresponding to reproductive periodand a maximum in January (0.18%. Although G.S.I. values revealed to be statistically not significant, therewere two peaks for G.S.I., the first in March, denoting the beginning of spermatogenesis, and the second inAugust/September, indicating the reproduction period. H.S.I. reached a peak in December (1.90%, then thevalue decreased to a minimum in April.Histological analysis of testis allowed us to distinguish 5 stages summarized as follows: Stage 1:Spermatogonia A; Stage 2: Spermatogonia B; Stage 3: Spermatocytes and spermatids; Stage 4: Spermatocytes,spermatids and spermatozoa (cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa; Stage 5: Spermatozoa(spermiogenesis or cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa.

  9. Effects of supplemental coated or crystalline methionine in low-fishmeal diet on the growth performance and body composition of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Liu, Hongyu

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of supplemental coated and crystalline methionine (Met) on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum Linnaeus) in a 60-d feeding trial. Fish groups were fed one of six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets: 1) fishmeal control; 2) un-supplemented experimental (low-fish-meal diet deficient in Met); or 3) one of four Met diets supplemented with crystalline L-Met, cellulose-acetate-phthalate coated L-Met, acrylic-resin coated L-Met, or tripalmitin-polyvinyl alcohol coated L-Met. The test diets were fed to triplicate groups of cobia (initial body weight 5.40±0.07 g) twice a day. The weight gain and specific growth rate of the fish fed the RES diet were highest among the Met-supplemented groups and were 23.64% and 7.99%, respectively, higher than those of the fish fed with the un-supplemented experimental diet ( Pcobia.

  10. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 μGy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 μGy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  11. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches.

  12. Study on trace element determination in liver samples of great-white-egret Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 (Ardeidae, Aves) for environmental contamination biomionitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Predatory birds such as herons have been used as bioindicators of pollution since they are at the top of their food webs. The tissues of these animals are analyzed for assessing environmental pollution caused by toxic elements. In the present study, adequate experimental conditions were established for determination of trace elements concentrations in the liver samples of Great-white-egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758) for further application of this specimens as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Four liver samples were collected from Greatwhite- egrets found in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and were they analyzed by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Concentrations of the elements Br, Co, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were measured in these liver tissues. The findings of this present study demonstrated that the established procedure for liver sample treatment was appropriate to obtain a homogeneous sample. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was very promising for liver sample analysis for evaluation of environmental contamination. (author)

  13. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound. PMID:26821032

  14. Absorbed dose rate due to intake of natural radionuclides by Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) estimated near uranium anomaly at Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2007-01-01

    The uranium mining at Santa Quiteria (Santa Quiteria Unit - USQ) is in its environmental licensing phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the USQ, a monitoring program is underway. However, radioprotection of biota is not explicitly mentioned in Brazilian norms. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to behave in a pro-active way as expected by licensing organs, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology, based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected biomarker was the fish tilapia (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). Since there are no exposition limits for biota, in Brazil, the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5 x 10 3 μGy/y has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for tilapia was 2.76 x 10 0 μGy/y, that is less than 0.1 % of the limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was U-238, with 99% of the absorbed dose rate. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that in pre-operational conditions analyzed natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to the biota. (author)

  15. Absorbed dose rate due to intake of natural radionuclides by Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) estimated near uranium anomaly at Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios], E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio], E-mail: Delcy@inb.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The uranium mining at Santa Quiteria (Santa Quiteria Unit - USQ) is in its environmental licensing phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the USQ, a monitoring program is underway. However, radioprotection of biota is not explicitly mentioned in Brazilian norms. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to behave in a pro-active way as expected by licensing organs, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology, based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected biomarker was the fish tilapia (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). Since there are no exposition limits for biota, in Brazil, the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5 x 10{sup 3} {mu}Gy/y has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for tilapia was 2.76 x 10{sup 0} {mu}Gy/y, that is less than 0.1 % of the limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was U-238, with 99% of the absorbed dose rate. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that in pre-operational conditions analyzed natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to the biota. (author)

  16. Circulating Hemocytes from Larvae of the Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle Allomyrina dichotoma (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and the Cellular Immune Response to Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sejung; Bang, Kyeongrin; Lee, Jiae; Cho, Saeyoull

    2015-01-01

    Hemocytes of the last larva of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle A. dichotoma (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) were classified as granulocytes, plasmatocytes, oenocytoids, spherulocytes, prohemocytes, and adipohemocytes. Among these cell types, only the granulocytes became immunologically activated with obvious morphological changes, displaying large amoeba-like, lobopodia-like, and fan-like structures. In addition, their cytoplasmic granules became larger and greatly increased in number. To explore whether these granules could be immunologically generated as phagosomes, total hemocytes were stained with LysoTracker. Greater than 90% of the granulocytes retained the LysoTracker dye at 4 h post-bacterial infection. In flow cytometry analysis, the red fluorescent signal was highly increased at 4 h post-bacterial infection (60.36%) compared to controls (5.08%), as was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. After 12 h post-infection, these signals returned to basal levels. The uptake of pathogens by granulocytes rapidly triggered the translocation of the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3) to the phagosome, which may result in enhanced pathogen killing.

  17. Circulating Hemocytes from Larvae of the Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle Allomyrina dichotoma (Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae and the Cellular Immune Response to Microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejung Hwang

    Full Text Available Hemocytes of the last larva of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle A. dichotoma (Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae were classified as granulocytes, plasmatocytes, oenocytoids, spherulocytes, prohemocytes, and adipohemocytes. Among these cell types, only the granulocytes became immunologically activated with obvious morphological changes, displaying large amoeba-like, lobopodia-like, and fan-like structures. In addition, their cytoplasmic granules became larger and greatly increased in number. To explore whether these granules could be immunologically generated as phagosomes, total hemocytes were stained with LysoTracker. Greater than 90% of the granulocytes retained the LysoTracker dye at 4 h post-bacterial infection. In flow cytometry analysis, the red fluorescent signal was highly increased at 4 h post-bacterial infection (60.36% compared to controls (5.08%, as was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. After 12 h post-infection, these signals returned to basal levels. The uptake of pathogens by granulocytes rapidly triggered the translocation of the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3 to the phagosome, which may result in enhanced pathogen killing.

  18. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse; Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de

    2008-01-01

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10 3 μGy y -1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10 0 μGy y -1 , that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota

  19. Estudio genético de la estructura poblacional y conectividad de dos corales endémicos del Mediterráneo: Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766) y Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767)

    OpenAIRE

    Casado-Amezúa, P.

    2012-01-01

    [ES] El objetivo general de la presente tesis es determinar la estructura genética y el alcance de la conectividad de las poblaciones de dos corales escleractinios del Mediterráneo, Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766) y Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767). Estos procesos están generalmente ligados a diferentes características biológicas de las especies, tales como la densidad y distribución de las poblaciones, la fecundidad, el éxito reproductor, el tipo de desarrollo larvario, la capacida...

  20. Ultraestrutura do espermatozóide de Ucides cordatus Linnaeus (Crustacea, Ocypodidae do litoral norte do Brasil Ultrastructure of spermatozoon of the crab Ucides cordatus Linaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda of the northern littoral of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Matos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructure of spermatozoa of the crab Ucides cordatus Linnaeus, 1763 is described and illustrated. Three parts can be distinguished: 1. the elongate-ovoid acrosome located anteriorly; 2. the cytoplasmic region; and 3. the nuclear region. The acrosome is composed of a thick electron-dense wall and a less electron-dense subacrosomal space. The cytoplasm region connects the acrosome with the nucleus, and three arms filled with microtubules arise from this region. The nucleus is polymorphous. The spermatozoon of Ucides cordatus follows the general pattern described for other Decapods.

  1. On mysterious occurrence of butterflies in the genus Delias at Jinmen Islands, with clarification on the nomenclature of D. pasithoe (Linnaeus, 1767) and D. acalis (Godart, 1819) in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Feng; Huang, Hang-Chi; Lu, Chen-Chih

    2017-06-11

    In recent years, a considerable number of pierid butterflies of the genus Delias have been found from Jinmen Islands, where no available hostplants grow, rendering a proof of cross sea water migration of these butterflies. It is suggested here that these butterflies come from nearby continent of eastern China, visiting the islands for nectar acquisition in seasons when nectar is in short supply because they mostly show up in autumn months. Samples obtained during the survey contained two species, namely Delias pasithoe (Linnaeus, 1767) and Delias acalis (Godart, 1819). Subspecific names applied to both species in eastern China appear to involve nomenclatural problems, with erroneous usage in recent literature.

  2. Una nueva especie de Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 del suroeste de Marruecos incluida en el grupo de M. (Eurymeloe rugosus Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Meloidae

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    Ruiz, José L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific collections of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid hold an extense set of entomological materials collected in Morocco along the first decades of the XXth century by the preeminent naturalist M. Martínez de la Escalera. Morphological studies of the specimens of the genus Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Meloidae reveals the existence of populations morphologically differentiated along the coastal regions of Essaouira and Ifni. These populations are included within the Meloe rugosus Marsham, 1802 species group in the subgenus Eurymeloe Reitter, 1911. Their differential traits with respect to all other North African and European species of the Meloe rugosus species group are constant, and permit considering these populations as a taxonomic independent unit described herein, Meloe baamarani n. sp. This new species is characterized by having a black, opaque, general coloration all over the body and appendages; black short vestiture; broad head with broadly rounded temples, without median longitudinal groove; long antennae, with segments III to VIII subcylindrical and longer than wide; pronotum transverse, with convergent sides toward the base, without median groove; head and pronotum punctuation dense; aedeagus narrow, median lobe wide and strong, dorsally sinuous, with ventral hooks close to the apex. Meloe baamarani can be only confused on the western regions of northern Africa with Meloe mediterraneus Müller, 1925. This species shares a general appearance with M. baamarani, but differs in many morphological traits. Among those, tegument micro-reticulation, absence of median groove along the head, pronotum morphology and macrosculpture, and configuration of the male genitalia, are included.Las colecciones científicas del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid albergan un extenso material entomológico recogido en Marruecos a principios del siglo XX por el insigne naturalista M. Mart

  3. Teknik budi daya larva Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus (Diptera: Stratiomyidae sebagai sumber protein pakan ternak melalui biokonversi limbah loading ramp dari pabrik CPO

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    Agustin Zarkani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Hermetia illucens fly (Linnaeus is an important source of alternative protein and can be used as pellets for feeds. Currently the production of H. illucens larvae is still limited because its rearing depends on palm kernel meal. The objective of the research is to explore alternative media for rearing, i.e. using loading ramp waste from crude palm oil factory. The study was conducted using physical-chemical analysis of the media. Evaluation of potential rearing media of loading ramp was done by studying the suitability of loading ramp fermented by EM4®, rumen microbes, and organic liquid fertilizer and without fermentation. Treatment media was develop with an enrichment ratio of 1 : 0.25, 1 : 05, and 1 : 1 (v/v for bran and husk, and 1.25, 2.5, and 5% (w/w for coconut sugar. Each experiment was arranged in complete randomized design using 20 larva of the 2nd instar. Larvas were incubated in plastic with tube with diameter of 10 cm and 20 cm in height containing of media 300 g. Response differences in growth and mortality were analyzed by ANOVA and least significant differences test at 0.05 levels. Preference and analysis suitability of the media were conducted using material enrichment. Results show that the loading ramp waste contain 9.80% protein and 10.32% fat. Although the media are could support growth and development of the larvae at different degree, media from waste fermentation POC loading ramp with bran enrichment 1 : 0.5 (v/v is the best media for rearing larva.

  4. Total and cytosolic concentrations of twenty metals/metalloids in the liver of brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1758) from the karstic Croatian river Krka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragun, Zrinka; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Ivanković, Dušica; Valić, Damir; Žunić, Jakov; Kapetanović, Damir; Smrzlić, Irena Vardić; Redžović, Zuzana; Grgić, Ivana; Erk, Marijana

    2018-01-01

    Total and cytosolic concentrations of twenty metals/metalloids in the liver of brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1758) were studied in the period from April 2015 to May 2016 at two sampling sites on Croatian river Krka, to establish if river water contamination with metals/metalloids downstream of Knin town has influenced metal bioaccumulation in S. trutta liver. Differences were observed between two sites, with higher concentrations of several elements (Ag, As, Ca, Co, Na, Se, Sr, V) found downstream of Knin town, whereas few others (Cd, Cs, Mo, Tl) were, unexpectedly, increased at the Krka River spring. However, total metal/metalloid concentrations in the liver of S. trutta from both sites of the Krka River were still mainly below previously reported levels for pristine freshwaters worldwide. The analysis of seasonal changes of metal/metalloid concentrations in S. trutta liver and their association with fish sex and size mostly indicated their independence of fish physiology, making them good indicators of water contamination and exposure level. Metal/metalloid concentrations in the metabolically available hepatic cytosolic fractions reported in this study are the first data of that kind for S. trutta liver, and the majority of analyzed elements were present in the cytosol in the quantity higher than 50% of their total concentrations, thus indicating their possible availability for toxic effects. However, the special attention should be directed to As, Cd, Cs, and Tl, which under the conditions of increased exposure tended to accumulate more within the cytosol. Although metal/metalloid concentrations in S. trutta liver were still rather low, monitoring of the Krka River water quality and of the health status of its biota is essential due to a trend of higher metal/metalloid bioaccumulation downstream of Knin town, especially taking into consideration the proximity of National Park Krka and the need for its conservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  5. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, Shanivarsanthe Leelesh; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Srinivasa Murthy, Kottilingam; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Verghese, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n=13) and adults (n=12) of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%), followed by bacilli (15.4%). Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%), bacilli (16.7%) and flavobacteria (16.7%). Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32μmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus - KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans - KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26μmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanivarsanthe Leelesh Ramya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n = 13 and adults (n = 12 of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%, followed by bacilli (15.4%. Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%, bacilli (16.7% and flavobacteria (16.7%. Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32 µmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus – KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans – KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26 µmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM.

  7. A morphohistological and histochemical study of hatchery-reared European hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758, during the lecitho-exotrophic larval phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan B. Ortiz-Delgado

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The larval development of reared European hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758, during the lecithotrophic phase, from hatching until 5 days post-hatching (dph, and throughout the endo-exotrophic feeding phase (6-10 dph was studied by histology and histochemistry. Many crucial morphological, cellular and tissular changes were observed during both feeding phases, mostly those related to digestive and visual ontogenetic events, such as differentiation of buccopharyngeal cavity and eye development (at hatching; pigmentation and differentiation of cone-photoreceptors (4 dph; opening of the mouth and anus, appearance of intestinal valves (5-6 dph; presence of buccopharyngo-esophageal (5-6 dph and intestinal (9 dph mucous cells; folding of intestinal mucosa (6 dph; development of regional specific digestive musculature (6 dph; typical structure and functionality of the liver (sinusoids, biliary and pancreatic ducts, glycogen, protein and lipid reserves (4-6 dph; and characteristic acinar distribution pattern of eosinophilic zymogen granules of the exocrine pancreas (6 dph. Between 9 and 10 dph, the hake larvae showed evident signs of lipid absorption within enterocytes of the anterior intestinal region and a remarkable process of pynocitosis and intracellular digestion was detected in the posterior intestine (supranuclear inclusions or acidophilic protein vesicles. In hake larvae at 10 dph, a proliferation of renal tubules, spleen differentiation and gill development, as well as the presence of the first thyroid follicle, were clearly distinguished. At this time, stomach gastric gland differentiation was not detected and endocrine pancreas and gill lamellae were not evidenced. However, and interestingly, swim bladder and eyes (developing rods were well differentiated in larval development from 9 dph onwards. In summary, in European hake larval development during the endo-exogenous feeding phase and especially at 9 to 10 dph, most systems, organs

  8. Anatomia do fígado de fetos de Guinea pig em final de gestação (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758

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    Mariangela Toledo Barbino

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n3p97 Desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de descrever a anatomia do fígado de fetos de Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758] em final de gestação e obter caracterizações anatômicas que possam fundamentar e auxiliar na compreensão da fisiologia da circulação fetal. Coletou-se os fetos de 3 fêmeas em final de gestação, os quais foram dissecados e retirado o fígado. Estes foram analisados, descritos e fotodocumentados macroscopicamente, por microscopia de luz em coloração HE e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O fígado dos fetos apresenta coloração castanho avermelhada e sua divisão em lobos é nitidamente observada, assim como a presença da vesícula biliar.  O fígado divide-se em lobo lateral esquerdo, lobo medial esquerdo, lobo lateral direito, lobo medial direito, lobo quadrado e lobo caudado com processos papilar e caudado Através da microscopia de luz, observa-se o tecido intensamente vascularizado sendo que, a porção esquerda do fígado recebe o sangue oriundo da placenta pela veia umbilical, e a porção direita é irrigada pela veia porta. Através desses resultados pode-se concluir que os fetos de Guinea pig possuem estruturas semelhantes anatomicamente aos de outras espécies de mamíferos.

  9. Cestodes of the blue shark, Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758), (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae), off the west coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Oscar; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2016-03-03

    The cestode species recovered from the spiral intestines of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported from the western coast of Baja California Sur (BCS). The sampling was undertaken on a monthly basis from January 2003 to January 2004. The helminthological examination indicated the presence of four species of cestodes: Platybothrium auriculatum Yamaguti, 1952; Prosobothrium japonicum Yamaguti, 1934; Anthobothrium caseyi (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke & Caira, 2009; and Paraorygmatobothrium prionacis (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke, 1994. Of all the 27 sharks examined, 88.8% were infected with at least one cestode species. The most frequent species was P. auriculatum infecting 85% of the spiral intestines examined. In contrast the species with the highest mean intensity was P. prionacis (80.4 200). The species richness of cestodes in P. glauca is very similar in other regions of the world despite its wide distribution; however, this richness is low compared with other species of sharks within the same family. The feeding and host-specific are important factors that influence the parameters of infection of cestodes in this shark. On the west coast of BCS, Prionace glauca feeds mainly on red crab Pleuroncodes planipes Stimpson, 1860; squids Gonatus californiensis Young, 1972, Ancistrocheirus lesueurii (D'Orbigny, 1842), Haliphron atlanticus Steenstrup, 1861, and low proportion of fish teleosts as Merluccius productus (Ayres, 1855), Sardinops sp. Hubbs, 1929 and Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1872. We speculate that these prey could be involved as the second intermediate hosts of these cestodes, as in other members of these genera, although the life cycles of none are known.

  10. O mexilhão Perna perna (Linnaeus (Bivalvia, Mytilidae em cultivo na Armação do Itapocoroy, Santa Catarina, Brasil The mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus (Bivalvia, Mytilidae in culture at the Armação of the Itapocoroy, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano W. C. Marenzi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar a viabilidade do cultivo do mexilhão, P. perna (Linnaeus, 1758 no sul do Brasil, duas experiências foram executadas na Armação de Itapocoroy. Das variáveis físicas e químicas foram analisadas a salinidade, temperatura e o oxigênio, que se mostraram ideais para esta espécie e, os macronutrientes também dentro dos níveis esperados para a região, não indicando poluição orgânica no local. O crescimento médio foi de 0,58 cm/mês e o aumento do peso foi de 2,57 g/mês. Curvas de crescimento e engordas foram elaboradas tendo como base a produção biológica após 6,7 meses de cultivo. A sobrevivência após oito meses foi de 79,2% e os valores os mais elevados do índice gônodo-somático foram detectados na primavera.To verify the viability of the culture of the mussel, P. perna (Linnaeus, 1758, in the south of Brazil, two experiences had been executed in the Armação do Itapocoroy. The averages of the salinity, temperature and the oxygen had shown ideals for this species and the macronutrients are inside of the natural levels for coast areas, not indicate organic pollution in the place. The average growth was of 0,58 cm/month and the increase of the weight was of 2.57 g/month. Curves of growth and fattening had been elaborated having for result the greater biological production after 6.7 months of culture. The survival after eight months was 79.2% and the most raised values of the gonad-somatic index were detected in the spring.

  11. Padrão de atividade e comportamento de forrageamento do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Activity pattern and foraging behavior of bulldog-bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae in Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre 18 de janeiro a 16 de dezembro de 1999 foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento e o padrão de atividade do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, em uma área de manguezal na Baía de Guaratuba, Sul do Brasil. Os grupos de N. leporinus observados permaneceram em atividade ao longo de todo o período noturno, mas com um aparente padrão bimodal. Durante os meses de abril a setembro, N. leporinus inicia a sua atividade geralmente às 18:00 h, uma hora mais cedo do que durante os meses de outubro a março, quando inicia sua atividade geralmente às 19:00 h. O comportamento de predação sobre os cardumes de peixes mostrou variações quanto ao local de forrageamento ao longo do período de atividade. Em baixos níveis de maré, os grupos de morcegos pescaram longe da margem em águas mais profundas, mas nos níveis de maré alta os grupos de morcegos permaneceram pescando sempre junto à margem, em águas mais rasas. Este padrão de comportamento em N. leporinus parece ser determinado pelo padrão de deslocamento dos cardumes de peixes na área de estudo.From January 18 to December 16 of 1999 the foraging behavior and activity pattern of fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied in mangrove ecosystem of Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil. The groups of N. leporinus observed remained active during all nightly period but showed an apparent bimodal pattern. During April and September N. leporinus generally begin their activity at 18:00h, one hour earlier than October to March months, when their activity started at 19:00 h. The foraging behavior on fish shoal varied spatially along all the activity period. During low tide level the bat groups remained fishing distant from margin on deeper water, but during high tide level the bats were always observed fishing close to the margin on flat water. This pattern in foraging behavior of N. leporinus appears to be determined by the fish shoal displacement pattern in

  12. Moluscos; anélidos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces de Rhizophora mangle linnaeus, en la región de Santa Marta, caribe colombiano Moluscos; anélidos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces de Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, en la región de Santa Marta, caribe colombiano

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    Reyes Rosalba

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative and quantitative study of the community of macro invertebrates associated to the submerged stilt roots of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, 1753, was carried out trimonthly between December 1988 and September 1989, in three stations at the Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM and three at the Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona (PNNT, Bahia de Chengue, Bahia de Nenguange, Colombian Caribbean. 181 species were determined: 99 crustaceans, 50 molluscs and 32 annellids. Most of the 26.729 individuals counted were crustaceans (12.213 moluscs (11.635 and annellids (2.881. The lowest diversity and evenness values, and the highest dominance values were found at the CGSM, while the opposite occurred at the PNNT. Moreover, cluster analysis showed that at the CGSM temporal variations in community composition were greater than spatial ones, while at the PNNT spatial differences were stronger. Other factors that could be importantin determinig community structure were detected, such as vecinity to other ecosystems and/or species- specific biological aspects as adaptations to fluctuating conditions, reproductive acti vities, feeding habits and migration to protected and shaded habitats. Se realizó un estudio trimestral cualitativo y cuantitativo de la comunidad de moluscos, anélidos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces sumergidas del mangle rojo, Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, entre diciembre de 1988 y septiembre de 1989, en tres estaciones en la Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM y tres en el Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona (PNNT, Bahía de Chengue y Bahía de Nenguange, Caribe colombiano. Se determinaron 181 especies: 99 crustáceos, 50 moluscos y 32 anélidos. En total se contaron 26.729 individuos: 12.213 crustáceos, 11.635 moluscos y 2.881 anélidos. Los valores más bajos de diversidad y equitatividad, y los mayores valores de dominancia, se encontraron en la CGSM, mientras que lo opuesto ocurrió en el PNNT. El análisis de

  13. Temporal variation in the reproductive success of Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus (Aves, Icterinae in an Atlantic Forest reserve in Southeast Brazil Variação temporal no sucesso reprodutivo de Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus (Aves, Icterinae em uma reserva de Floresta Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil

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    Charles Duca

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available For colonial bird species, egg hatching synchrony has been considered an important factor in their reproductive success. The Red-rumped Cacique, Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a Passeriformes species (Icterinae that reproduces in colonies in which groups of females lay their eggs at different periods during the reproductive season. The objective of this study was to evaluate if there was a variation in the reproductive success among C. haemorrhous females groups that lay eggs in different periods along the reproductive season. A total of 192 nests from four colonies were monitored at Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and used to calculate the nest survival probability in different periods (early and late of the 2001 reproductive season. The results showed that females that reproduced at the beginning of the reproductive period had higher reproductive success than those that reproduced later. Predation was the main cause of nests loss (48,4%, and an increase in predation rate was observed as the reproductive period advanced.Para espécies de aves coloniais a sincronia de eclosão dos ovos tem sido considerada um fator que influencia o sucesso reprodutivo. O Guaxe, Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766, é uma espécie de Passeriformes (Icterinae que se reproduz em colônias com grupos de fêmeas fazendo a postura em diferentes períodos ao longo da estação reprodutiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se há uma variação no sucesso reprodutivo de C. haemorrhous entre esses grupos de fêmeas que fazem a postura em diferentes períodos ao longo da estação reprodutiva. Quatro colônias totalizando 192 ninhos foram monitoradas no Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, Brasil, calculando-se a probabilidade de sobrevivência dos ninhos em relação a diferentes períodos (cedo e tardio ao longo da estação reprodutiva de 2001. Constatou-se que fêmeas que reproduziram mais cedo na estação reprodutiva

  14. Synthèses enzymatiques de néoglucoconjugués catalysées par l'alpha-glucosidase purifiée de la blatte Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus

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    Kamenan A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic synthesis of neoglucoconjugates by purified α-glucosidase from cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus. Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus contains in his digestive tract an acid (pH 5,0 and mesophile (50°C α-glucosidase. This enzyme, purified to homogeneity, hydrolyses highly maltose, sucrose and p-nitrophenyl-α-Dglucopyranoside. The ability of α-glucosidase from cockroach purified to homogeneity to catalyse transglucosylation reactions was tested using maltose and saccharose as glucosyl donors and 2-phenylethanol and phenol as acceptors. The experimental conditions were optimized in relation to the time course of the reaction, pH and concentrations of glucosyl donors and acceptors. The yields in transglucosylation reactions at 37 °C were very high and could attain 67% and 48% with 2-phenylethanol and phenol respectively as glucosyl acceptors. This α-glucosidase hydrolyzed the products formed. It seems that the products formed were the phenylethyl-α-D-glucoside and phenyl-α-D-glucoside. These results suggest that α- glucosidase from cockroach is an exoglucosidase which catalyse the splitting of the α-glucosyl residue from the non reducing terminal of the substrate to liberate α-glucose. This comportment indicates that this enzyme operated by a mechanism involving the retention of the anomeric configuration. On the basis of this work, α-glucosidase from P. americana appears to be a valuable tool for the preparation of α-neoglucoconjugates.

  15. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae): physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3) and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences) cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (Gymnotus sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, Gymnotus inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, Gymnotus pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758) from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. Gymnotus sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st), Gymnotus pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st), while Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a)and Gymnotus cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st) presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus, and on pair 2 in Gymnotus sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in Gymnotus sylvius and Gymnotus pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in Gymnotus sylvius and two pairs in Gymnotus pantherinus; Gymnotus inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and Gymnotus cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus and Gymnotus cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of Gymnotus sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGG)n indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present

  16. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae: physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

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    Priscilla Scacchetti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3 and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (G. sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, G. inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, G. pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758 from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. G. sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st, G. pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st, while G. inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a and G. cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus, and on pair 2 in G. sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in G. sylvius and G. pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in G. sylvius and two pairs in G. pantherinus; G. inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and G. cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus and G. cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of G. sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGGn indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present study reveals valuable cytotaxonomic markers for this group and allows a more precise evaluation of the processes involved in the

  17. Quadro citológico vaginal, concentração plasmática de progesterona durante a gestação e medidas fetais em paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 Vaginal citology, serum progesterone concentration during pregnancy and fetal measurements in paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

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    Vânia Maria França Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Em 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 objetivou-se descrever aos 30, 60 e 90 dias (D de prenhez diagnosticada por ultrassonografia (US, os tipos celulares do epitélio vaginal em esfregaços vaginais, relatar as condições de abertura da vulva e as características do muco vaginal, determinar a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 por radioimunoensaio, e ainda, mensurar por ultrassonografia (US o diâmetro biparietal (DBP fetal aos 60 e 90 dias de prenhez. No D30, 40% das amostras exibiram células (com características estrogênicas superficiais e presença de núcleos nus. Nos D60 e D90, células parabasais, intermediárias, superficiais e naviculares estavam presentes nas mesmas proporções, mas células endocervicais foram descritas em apenas 73,9% e 69% das amostras daqueles dias, respectivamente. No D30 a maior proporção de células naviculares e superficiais diferiu (p The objective of this work was to describe in 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 at 30, 60 and 90 days (D of pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasonography (U.S. the cell types of the vaginal epithelium by vaginal smears, to report the vulva opening condition and the characteristics of vaginal mucus, to determine the progesterone (P4 serum concentration by radioimmunoassay, and also measure by ultrasound (U.S. the fetuses biparietal diameter (BPD at 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. At D30, 40% of the smears exhibited surface cells (with estrogenic characteristics and of naked nuclei. At D60 and D90, parabasal, intermediate, superficial, and navicular cells were present in the same proportions, but endocervical cells were described in only 73.9% and 69% of those day's smears, respectively. At D30 the highest proportion of navicular and surface cells differed (p < 0.05 compared with other cell types. The vaginal mucus was crystalline and fluid in 100% and 70% of females at D30 and D60, respectively. It was observed the vaginal vestibule open in around 50% of

  18. Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana de extrato de folhas de goiabeira, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, sobre bactérias entéricas diarreiogênicas, isoladas de camarão sete-barbas, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller

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    Flávia A. Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds.O chá de folhas de goiaba Psidium guajava Linnaeus é comumente usado como remédio nas gastrenterites e diarréias infantis por aqueles que não têm acesso a antibióticos. Esta pesquisa estudou o efeito antibacteriano sobre bactérias causadoras de diarréias, do óleo essencial e do extrato de folhas de goiabeira usando como diluente: metanol, hexano e acetato de etila. Os extratos foram testados sobre Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. e Escherichia coli. As bactérias testadas foram isoladas de camarão sete-barbas Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller usando-se como controle cepas padrão, de cada espécie. Das bactérias testadas, o melhor efeito inibitório foi

  19. Preferência alimentar de adultos de Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae por diferentes híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae = Feeding preference of adults of Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae for different hybrids of Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae

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    Daniel Gandolfo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Metriona elatior Klug é potencial candidato para o controle biológico de Solanum viarum Dunal (joá-bravo, pois as larvas e adultos se alimentam de suas folhas e têm baixa taxa de dispersão. A especificidade é um forte requisito para a adequabilidade de umorganismo como agente de controle biológico, especialmente pela estratégia inundativa. Desse modo, a preferência alimentar do adulto desse inseto em laboratório foi avaliada em 14 híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (berinjela. A criação estoque foi mantida emlaboratório, com os indivíduos se alimentando de folhas do joá-bravo. O estudo foi realizado utilizando-se testes de dupla e múltipla escolha, em períodos de alimentação de 24 e 48h, oferecendo-se discos de tecido foliar, em condições de placas de Petri. As avaliaçõesda sobrevivência e consumo foliar dos insetos adultos recém-emergidos foram realizadas em folhas de joá-bravo e dos híbridos de berinjela, mantidas túrgidas pela imersão do pecíolo em água. A área foliar foi medida antes e após quatro dias de exposição ao inseto. M. elatiorapresentou preferência para alimentação, sobrevivência e consumo na planta daninha. A preferência do crisomelídeo foi maior para o híbrido ‘Minikuro Kowishiki’ de berinjela.Metriona elatior Klug is a potential biocontrol agent for Solanum viarum Dunal (tropical soda apple, because larvae and adults feed on its leaves and this species shows a low dispersion rate. Specificity plays a major role in the feasibility of an organism as abiological control agent, especially in the inundative strategy. The feeding preference of M. elatior adults was evaluated to 14 eggplant (Solanum melogena Linnaeus hybrids. Mass rearing was carried out under lab conditions, with the insect feeding directly on S. viarum leaves. The study started with dual and multiple choice tests in 24 and 48 hour feeding times, by offering leaf disks in Petri dish conditions. Survival and leaf

  20. Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae and birds in the Lami Biological Reserve, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Associações alimentares entre capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Ana C. Tomazzoni

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 and some bird species were registered in the Lami Biological Reserve, southern Brazil, through observations in a set of transects established in the five major vegetation types of the study area: shrubby and herbaceous swamps, wet grasslands, sandy grasslands and forests. Data included: date and time, vegetation type, bird species, number of individuals (birds and capybaras, type of prey consumed, foraging strategy of the birds and the behavior of the capybaras in relation to the presence of birds. Five species of birds were registered: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788, Machetornis rixosus (Vieillot, 1819, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816 and Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789. The interactions were observed in the shrubby swamp (M. bonariensis, forest (C. plancus and wet grassland (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. chimachima. The foraging strategies were: (1 use of the capybara as a perch, hunting from its back (M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (2 use of the capybara as a beater, hunting in the ground (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (3 foraging in the skin of the capybara, by picking the ectoparasites (C. plancus, F. rufus, M. chimachima. Strategies (1 and (2 were employed to catch arthropods flushed from the vegetation. Sometimes, capybaras lay down and exposed the abdomen and lateral areas of their bodies to facilitate cleaning by M. chimachima, but the presence of other bird species seemed to be neutral to capybaras.Foram registradas associações alimentares entre capivaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, sul do Brasil, por meio de observações em um conjunto de transecções estabelecidas nos cinco principais tipos de vegetação existentes na área: banhado arbustivo, banhado herbáceo, campo úmido, campo arenoso e mata. As informações coletadas foram: data, horário, tipo de vegeta

  1. Dieta e dispersão de sementes por Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnívora, Canidae, em um fragmento florestal no Paraná, Brasil Diet and seed dispersal by Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus in a forest fragment in Paraná (Carnivora, Canidae

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    Vlamir J. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora o cachorro-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, seja um Canidae relativamente comum, não há muita informação sobre sua dieta e seu papel como dispersor de sementes nos diferentes habitats onde ocorre. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de reportar a dieta de C. thous e sua importância como dispersor e/ou predador de sementes, e ainda testar a taxa de germinação de sementes após passar pelo trato digestório do animal. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento (680 ha de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, o Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, localizado na cidade de Londrina, Paraná, sul do Brasil. A metodologia consistiu de coletas de fezes de C. thous, as quais foram analisadas em laboratório para identificar os itens consumidos. Nos testes de germinação, as sementes foram dispostas para germinar em placas de Petri com algodão umedecido em água. Noventa e três amostras fecais com 219 itens de origem vegetal e animal foram registradas, sendo 36,52% contendo restos de pequenos roedores, 24,19% de gramíneas, 13,24% de aves, 10,47% de insetos, 6,39% de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassm., 4,6% de outros itens de origem animal e 4,54% de outros itens de origem vegetal. Ainda, C. thous dispersou nove espécies de plantas, com relevante importância para a germinação de algumas sementes que passaram pelo trato digestório do animal, exceto para S. romanzoffiana, cujas sementes não germinaram nas condições de laboratório. Conclui-se que, C. thous apresentou uma dieta generalista e oportunista, sobrevivendo em áreas degradadas e antrópicas, e agindo como dispersor de sementes nestes locais.Although the crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, is a relatively common Canidae, there isn't much information about its diet and its role as a seed disperser in the different habitats where it occurs. The aim of this work was to report the diet of the C. thous and its importance as a seed disperser and / or a seed predator and

  2. Recent record of harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus) (Aves, Accipitridae), in Atlantic forest of Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil and implications for the regional conservation of the species

    OpenAIRE

    Srbek-Araujo, Ana C.; Chiarello, Adriano G.

    2006-01-01

    A presente comunicação reporta o registro de um macho adulto de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758), na Reserva Natural da Vale do Rio Doce (RNVRD), região norte do Espírito Santo, em agosto de 2005. A análise deste e de registros históricos da espécie nesta reserva indica a presença de uma população residente na região compreendida pela RNVRD e pela Reserva Biológica de Sooretama. Estas duas reservas, contíguas entre si, compreendem cerca de 46250 ha de Floresta Atlântica de baixada (Mat...

  3. Ovitrampas para Avaliação da Presença de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus e Aedes albopictus (Skuse no Município de Vassouras, Estado do Rio de Janeiro

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    Alexandre Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse are vectors of many arboviruses including urban yellow fever and dengue, the latter being one of the biggest problems in the world in cities that have hot and humid climate. Having the consecutive cases of dengue in Vassouras, RJ it was important to ascertain the presence and behavior of the vector in different seasons of year and their predominance in the city. In this study we observed the presence of 10.44% Ae. aegypti and 89.56% Ae. albopictus of the 364 viable eggs and being the Matadouro neighborhood (point 4, the local with the largest presence of these culicids. These data showed that Ae. albopictus is ever more present in urban areas.

  4. Estimación de los principales parámetros reproductivos y productivos del Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus, 1758 pecari de collar o sajino en cautiverio (Loreto, Perú)

    OpenAIRE

    Rengifo Pinedo, Martha Estela

    2009-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Producción Animal El presente estudio estimación de los parámetros reproductivos y productivos de Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus, 1758 “pecari de collar” o “sajino” en cautiverio (Loreto, Perú), se llevó a cabo en el Centro Piloto de Zoocria para la Amazonía – UNAP, ubicado en la Región Loreto, Provincia de Maynas, Perú. La investigación es básica descriptiva ex post facto, que consistió en obtener información de los registr...

  5. Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first non-native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic. The chronology of the invasion is reported here using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Currently, lionfish are established off the Atlantic coast of the USA from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the Great Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The species have been reported from only one island in the Lesser Antilles (St. Croix), but it is not yet established there. Lionfish are established in Mexico, Honduras and Costa Rica. Reports have come from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), Belize, Panama and Colombia; although lionfish are not considered established in these localities at this time (August 2009), invasion is likely imminent.

  6. Ecologia da comunidade de metazoários parasitos da anchova Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus (Osteichthyes, Pomatomidae do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Community ecology of metazoan parasites of bluefish Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus (Osteichthyes, Pomatomidae from the littoral of State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    José Luis Luque

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five specimens of bluefish, Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus, 1766, collected at Cabo Frio (23ºS, 42ºW, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between March 1995 and November 1995, were necropsied to study their infracommunities of metazoan parasites. Sixteen species of metazoan parasites were collected. All fish were parasitized by one or more metazoan. The digeneans were the majority of the parasite specimens collected, with 44.2%, followed by the helminth larval stages (cestodes, acanthocephalans, and nematodes with 40.6%. The Simpson index for all parasite species was 0.097, indicating lack of dominance by any species in the parasite community. Microcotyle pomatomi Goto, 1899 showed the higher frequency of dominance and mean relative dominance. The parasite species of P. saltator showed the typical overdispersed pattern of distribution. The majority of parasite species showed positive correlation between the host's total body length and prevalence or parasite abundance. Two species, Brachyphallus parvus (Manter, 1947 and Phocanema sp. have differences in their prevalences and abundances in relation to sex of the hosts. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of P. saltator was H'=1.243±0.521, with correlation with the host's total length and without difference between male and female fish. The components of the parasite community of P. saltator showed overall positive association. All pairs confonned by ectoparasites and adult endoparasites species showed signiticant positive association or covariation between their abundances. Five pairs of endoparasites larval species showed positive association or covariation, and two pairs, showed negative association and covariation. The parasite community of P. saltator was dominated by species with high prevalence values, that composed a high number of associations, thus, is considered closer to the interactive type.

  7. Registro recente de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, na Mata Atlântica da Reserva Natural Vale do Rio Doce, Linhares, Espírito Santo e implicações para a conservação regional da espécie Recent record of harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, in Atlantic forest of Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil and implications for the regional conservation of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Srbek-Araujo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente comunicação reporta o registro de um macho adulto de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, na Reserva Natural da Vale do Rio Doce (RNVRD, região norte do Espírito Santo, em agosto de 2005. A análise deste e de registros históricos da espécie nesta reserva indica a presença de uma população residente na região compreendida pela RNVRD e pela Reserva Biológica de Sooretama. Estas duas reservas, contíguas entre si, compreendem cerca de 46250 ha de Floresta Atlântica de baixada (Mata de Tabuleiro, na sua maior parte bem conservada. Além da grande extensão de floresta, a rica e densa fauna de mamíferos presente nestas reservas contribuem para a permanência das harpias na região.The present communication reports an observation occurred in August 2005 of the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve (VRDNR, located in northern Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The analysis of this and past records of the species in this reserve indicates the presence of a resident population in the region encompassed by the VRDNR and the Sooretama Biological Reserve. These two reserves total circa 46,250 ha of lowland Atlantic forest (Tabuleiros forest, which are mostly well preserved. Besides the great extension of forests, the rich and abundant mammal fauna present in these two reserves contribute to the regional permanence of the harpy eagle.

  8. The dynamicity of the mesonephros microstructure in bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758 of the Dnieper-Bug estuary system in relation to spawning migration

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    K. Heina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the mesonephros structure in the bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758 during its spawning migration, to determine the perspective of the use of microanatomical monitoring data in fisheries practice for assessing the functional status of fish. Methodology. Collection of ichthyological material was carried out using permit documents of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS of Ukraine, while their processing was done at the Department of Aquatic Bioresources and Aquaculture of the Kherson State Agricultural University. Ichthyological material was collected using gill nets, fyke nets, beach seines. Monitoring stations were located along the spawning migration run of the bream from the Dnieper lagoon to the plavni system of the Dnieper River. Field and laboratory processing of the material was done using author’s equipment and original methods specially designed for histological diagnostics of tissues of aquatic animals. Findings. The basis of the adaptation of bream kidneys to waters of different salinities us structural irregularity of nephrons expressed in the size and structure of renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules. Significant fluctuations of osmolarity parameters within the lower Dnieper area have significant effects on changes in the structure and function of nephrogenic tissue in form of the reduction in the diameter of Boumen-Shumliansky capsule by 9.0 µm. Changes of the Boumen-Shumliansky capsule diameter in fish with moderate mineralization is the range of 6.0 and 4.0 µm. The reduction in the height of epitheliocytes of proximal convoluted tubules by 3.0; 2.0 and 4.0 µm also indicate on the reduction of the functional activity of the convolute. The fluctuations of nephrogenic and homeopathic tissue ratio have a balance nature that can be related to the redistribution of these components due to the appearance of an adaptation under the effect of chloride-ions. The dislocation of ion-transporting cells near the blood

  9. Avaliação da integridade cromatínica de espermatozóides de galos (Gallus gallus, Linnaeus, 1758 de linhagem pesada em duas idades

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    Jaqueline Melo Soares

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Na avicultura, a avaliação de fertilidade em machos é de extrema importância, para garantir uma melhor produção de ovos férteis. As técnicas para avaliação de fertilidade em galos são pouco exploradas, sendo que na maioria das vezes, a avaliação é feita por amostragem e levando em consideração, apenas fatores morfofisiológicos, diretamente relacionados com o espermatozóide. Mas é sabido que, em outras espécies, além dos fatores morfofisiológicos, existem problemas intrínsecos ao espermatozóide, como a baixa compactação da cromatina, que pode levar a disturbios de fertilidade, que na maioria das vezes não são diagnosticados. O objetivo desse trabalho foi a adaptação de técnicas de avaliação da cromatina, já descritas em outras espécies, para aves de linhagem pesada (Gallus gallus, Linnaeus, 1758, correlacionando as alterações cromatínicas com as alterações morfológicas e com a fertilidade. Para tanto, sêmen de galo com diferentes níveis de fertilidade, foram utilizados em diferentes métodos para identificação de alterações na cromatina, utilizando os corantes azul de toluidina e alaranjado de acridina. As avaliações demonstraram que esfregaços de sêmen fresco de galo com posterior fixação geram artefatos que levam a alterações na forma da cabeça e na integridade da cromatina, não sendo indicados em métodos de avaliação de fertilidade. Apesar de todos os métodos testados apresentarem falhas metodológicas e um certo grau de subjetividade, o método que gerou melhores resultados foi a mistura de uma gota de sêmen conservado em formol salina e uma gota do alaranjado de acridina sobre lâmina de microscopia, com posterior secagem e observação em microscopia de fluorescência com filtro de excitação azul. Pelo método verificou-se que alterações na compactação da cromatina de espermatozóides de galo geralmente não são acompanhadas por alterações morfológicas e que geralmente

  10. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions Fenologia de Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em pupas de Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae em condições de laboratório

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    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of Objetivando conhecer o ciclo de desenvolvimento de Spalangia endius sob condições de laboratório, 360 pupas de Musca domestica com idade de 24 a 48 horas foram expostas a 15 casais de S. endius por um período de 48 horas a 26 ± 2ºC. Estas pupas foram mantidas em BOD. Com mesma temperatura, umidade relativa <70% e com fotofase de 12 horas, onde diariamente dissecava-se 15 espécimes para avaliar o estágio e tempo de desenvolvimento do himenóptero. A fenologia permite concluir que S. endius apresenta um ciclo de desenvolvimento de 19 dias, cujo período de incubação foi de 24 horas, o desenvolvimento de larvas de S. endius ocorreu nos oito dias subsequentes nos quais uma série de alterações morfológicas foi observada. O estágio de pré-pupa deu-se no décimo dia onde cessa a movimentação e inicia a eliminação de mecônio. O estágio pupal ocorreu do décimo primeiro dia ao décimo nono, momento da emergência dos primeiros machos, já as fêmeas iniciaram a emergência aproximadamente 24 horas após. Estes resultados permitem avaliar aspectos da bionomia pormenorizada do desenvolvimento de S. endius para armazenar e programar a produção deste parasitóide, otimizando sua utilização como agente de controle biológico.

  11. Avaliação de inseticidas no controle de Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae e Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae em trigo armazenado Efficacy of insecticides to control Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae in stored wheat

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    Rui S. Furiatti

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792 (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae was determined exposing them to treated wheat in laboratory. Each plot, which was composed by 1.2 kg of wheat grain, was treated with 5 ml of the concentration/kg of wheat using a propelling air atomizer. Fifteen days after treatment 50 g samples of the grain were taken, from each plot, placed in plastic jars into which 10 adult insects of each species were released. This was repeated every 30 days until 165 days after treatment. The number of dead insects was counted 15 days after each infestation thus the evaluations were made at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after the insecticide application. Esfenvalerate+fenitrothion+pyperonil butoxide (0,375+7,5+3,0 and 0,5+10,0+4,0 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+esfen-valerate (7,5+0,375 and 10,0+0,375 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+synergised deltamethrin (7,5+0,375 g a.i./t and fenitrothion (7,5 g a.i./t were effective against Sitophilus oryzae until 180 days after treatment. Esfenvalerate+fenitrothion+pyperonil butoxide (0,5+10,0+4,0 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+esfenvalerate (7,5+0,375 and 10,0+0,375 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+synergised deltamethrin (7,5+0,375 g a.i./t were effective against R. dominica until 180 days after treatment. Synergised deltamethrin (0,375 g a.i./t was effective against S. oryzae until 150 days and against R. dominica until 120 days after treatment. Esfenvalerate (0,5 g a.i./t was ineffective against S. oryzae and effective until 60 days after treatment against R. dominica. Fenitrothion (7,5 g a.i./t was ineffective against R. dominica. The use of mixtures of organophosphorus plus pyrethroids were more effective against S. oryzae and R. dominica when compared with these insecticides used alone.

  12. Effects of Irradiation on Insect Host-Parasite Relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahalkar, G. W.; Ramakrishnan, V. [Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1968-06-15

    Effects of host irradiation on the development of its parasite were investigated. Females of Bracon brevicomis readily accepted irradiated larvae of tile wax moth (Galleria mellonella) and rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica) for oviposition. However, irradiated wax moth larvae adversely influenced the viability of eggs laid on them and also the survival of the parasite grubs feeding on their bodies. The female grubs were affected more than the males. Rice moth larvae, on the other hand, exerted no significant influence on the viability of parasite eggs, but adversely affected the survival of the grubs. The progeny of parents that had been reared on irradiated larvae also exhibited some developmental changes although grown on non-irradiated host larvae, and these changes were more pronounced when G. mellonella was used as the host insect. (author)

  13. Heterorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): A Nematode Parasite Isolated from the Banded Cucumber Beetle Diabrotica balteata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, C. S.; Fassuliotis, G.

    1985-01-01

    A nematode identified as Heterorhabditis sp. was discovered in June 1982 in larval cadavers of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata, in soil on wooded land. Effective beetle control (over 95%) was obtained when larvae were exposed to potted soil containing infective stage nematode juveniles or infected larval cadavers. The nematode was propagated in vivo on larvae of D. balteata, Diaphania nitidalis (the pickleworm), and Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth). This Heterorhabditis sp. has promising potential as a biocontrol agent for the banded cucumber beetle. PMID:19294074

  14. An insect pathogenic symbiosis between a Caenorhabditis and Serratia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Julie; Cooper, Vaughn; Thomas, W. Kelley

    2011-01-01

    We described an association between a strain of the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae, i.e. KT0001, and the bacteria Serratia sp. SCBI (South African Caenorhabditis briggsae isolate), which was able to kill the insect Galleria (G. mellonella). Here we show that the Serratia sp. SCBI lines the gut of the nematode, similar to the Heterorhabditis-Photorhabdus complex, indicating that the association is possibly internal. We also expand on the relevance of this tripartite, i.e. insect-nematode-bacteria, interaction in the broader evolutionary context and Caenorhabditis natural history. PMID:21389770

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to lungs of cystic fibrosis patients leads to lowered resistance to phage and protist enemies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friman, Ville-Petri; Ghoul, Melanie; Molin, Søren

    2013-01-01

    ) patients affects its survival in the presence of natural phage (14/1, ΦKZ, PNM and PT7) and protist (Tetrahymena thermophila and Acanthamoebae polyphaga) enemies. We found that most of the bacteria isolated from relatively recently intermittently colonised patients (1-25 months), were innately phage......-resistant and highly toxic for protists. In contrast, bacteria isolated from long time chronically infected patients (2-23 years), were less efficient in both resisting phages and killing protists. Moreover, chronic isolates showed reduced killing of wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella) probably due to weaker...

  16. Efeitos do endosulfano em concentrações subletais em carpas (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758: Análises morfométricas, histológicas e ultraestrutural e avaliação da atividade da colinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Maria Salvo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, has been banned by most developed countries, although it is still produced, sold and used in developing countries. Used for control in crops, as well as for insect control in public health programs in some countries, its effects on the environment and its toxicity are still in discussion. For some researchers, its bioaccumulation in terrestrial organisms is considered irrelevant but for aquatic life it should be considered carefully. The present research work was to carry out an study on the effects of sublethal concentrations of endosulfan on the fresh water fish carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758. The fishes were exposed during 15 days to 0.001 mg/L of endosulfan using dimethylsulfoxide 0.1% (DMSO as solvent. The acetylcholinesterase activity on the brain and axial muscle, as well as liver morphometric, histopathologic and ultrastructural analysis were studied. The hepatic somatic index and the livers weight showed smaller values when compared with the control groups, besides being also observed histopathological and ultrastructural alterations. It has not been observed significant alterations in the cholinesterase activity of both brain and striated muscle. These results suggest that the organochloride endosulfan caused toxic effects in the hepatic metabolism of the fish exposed to it in sub lethal doses.

  17. Mersin Bölgesinde Yetiştiriciliği Yapılan Bazı Akvaryum Balıkları (POECİLİDAE'nda Rastlanılan Lernea cyprinaceae (Linnaeus, 1758 Enfeksiyonu.

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    C. Erkin Koyuncu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırma Nisan - Ağustos 2002 tarihleri arasında Mersin Bölgesi’nde bir akvaryum işletmesinde Poecilidae familyasına ait balıklarda görülen ani ölümlerin nedenini ortaya koymak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Balıkların deri, yüzgeç ve solungaç dokularından alınan parazitler laboratuvarda incelenmesi sonucunda ölümlere neden olan etmenin Lernaea cyprinacea (Linnaeus, 1758 olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmada 110 adet balık incelenmiş olup, bunlardan 49 adetinin parazit ile enfeste olduğu saptanmıştır. Ayrıca parazitin morfolojik özellikleri ve balıklarda oluşturduğu semptomlar incelenmiştir. Balıklar Kloramin T (10 ppm / 1 saat / 3 gün kullanılarak tedavi edilmiştir

  18. Distribución y estado de conservación de los galápagos autóctonos, Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758 y Mauremys leprosa (Schweigger, 1812, en Castilla y León.

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    ALARCOS, G., FLECHOSO, F., LIZANA, M., MADRIGAL, J., ALVAREZ, F.

    2013-01-01

    (Schweigger, 1812 como de Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758. A pesar del aparente buen estado de alguna de estas poblaciones, se ha observado el declive en las zonas limítrofes de sus áreas de distribución. En otras provincias la presencia es anecdótica y casi residual. Cuando valoramos el estado de conservación regional obtuvimos que el galápago europeo se presenta como Vulnerable VUA3ceE y el galápago leproso como Casi Amenazado NT. Como principales factores del declive se señalan la desaparición de numerosos medios acuáticos, los cambios en el uso agrícola y la captura en nasas cangrejeras. Finalmente, se sugiere la realización de estudios específicos sobre poblaciones aisladas para determinar la necesidad de reproducción en cautividad para reforzarlas y conectarlas, y realizar estudios genéticos con el fin de valorar su origen como poblaciones introducidas o autóctonas. En obras o actuaciones sobre medios de presencia potencial realizar estudios específicos para minimizar los impactos negativos. También es importante realizar campañas de concienciación y buenas prácticas a determinados sectores, como el de los pescadores de cangrejos de río, que pueden afectar de forma directa y muy negativamente a las poblaciones.

  19. Avaliação hematológica e dosagem bioquímica de ALT, AST e creatinina em elefante-marinho-do-sul, Mirounga leonina (linnaeus, 1758, encontrado no litoral de Salvador, Bahia

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    Bruno Lopes Bastos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999 the Aquatic Mammals Rescue Center - AMRC has been working in the rescue and rehabilitation of stranded cetaceans and pinnipeds on the coast of Bahia, Brazil. This paper presents and analyses the blood cells count and clinical chemistry of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and creatinine of a southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina (LINNAEUS, 1758, found on February the 11th at Barra Beach, Salvador, BA. The specimen was an orphan male calf, with 137cm of length and estimated weight of 49kg. It presented bad nutritional conditions and a shark bite on the right shoulder area. Clinical management was performed for 56 days, anthelmintic Febendazole was utilized, and the bite was treated with iodined alcohol, Nitrofurazone solution and Kethanserin, simultaneously with Enrofloxacin 10%, Potenay®, Vitamin B Complex and Benerva®. On the 16th the animal presented a right unilateral conjuntivitis, treated with Cloranphenicol oftalmic pomade until the end of its stay in the captive. During this period a total of six blood samples were collected, three for total blood counts and the others for the biochemistry determination of ALT, AST and creatinine. According to the haematological analysis the seal developed an anaemia which was classified as microcytic and normochromic. Lymphopenia, eosinopenia and monocytopenia were also observed, possibly due to its handling and stress conditions. The clinical chemistry presented low values for AST and creatinine, although this did not represent the existence of any pathologic context or disease with clinical significance.

  20. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  1. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all

  2. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais da leishmaniose visceral em cães (Canis familiaris) (Linnaeus, 1758) provenientes da zona urbana do município de Bom Jesus- PI e região metropolitana do Recife- PE, Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    Jamile Prado dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    A Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) no Brasil é causada por Leishmania infantum a qual é relatada em várias regiões. O objetivo desta pesquisafoi verificar aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais da leishmaniose visceral em cães (Canis familiaris) (Linnaeus, 1758) provenientes da zona urbana do município de Bom Jesus PI e Região Metropolitana de Recife - PE, Brasil. Cães do município de Bom Jesus, Piauí, e do bairro de Muribeca, município de Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco...

  3. Mode d'exploitation et durabilité de la pêche de Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 et Gymnarchus niloticus (Cuvier, 1829 dans le lac de barrage du Sourou (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dialla, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mode of Operation and Sustainability of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 and Gymnarchus niloticus (Cuvier, 1829 Fisheries in the Sourou Dam Lake (Burkina Faso. This research on fishery exploitation in the Sourou dam raises the issue of sustainable management of common property. The central hypothesis is that the effectiveness of co-management for sustainable fishing practices is related to the level of ownership of that management and actors' games by fishing communities. In analysing co-management induced effects on fishing practices and exploitation of C. gariepinus, O. niloticus and G. niloticus species, related to its implementation in Sourou fishery, a research methodology that combines qualitative and quantitative methods is used. Socio-economic surveys were conducted with 30 fishermen in three villages bordering the fishery. Biological surveys were also conducted with catches of C. gariepinus, O. niloticus and G. niloticus of these fishermen,. The results indicate a weak ownership of the co-management model by fishermen and the strategies of actors that consist to minimize the costs of the sustainable management of fisheries resources at individual level. Indeed, even when informed of fisheries regulations, fishermen use prohibited fishing equipment (54.1% of the catches of studied species, and fishi illegally (43.3% of the fishermen. Furthermore, significant proportions of each studied species are captured before their first maturity sizes (52.2% of C. gariepinus, 15.8% of G. niloticus and 14.3% of O. niloticus. So, the central hypothesis is verified because the weak ownership of co-management by fishing communities and the actors' strategies do not encourage them to develop a responsible behavior for sustainable fishing.

  4. How nest translocation-time, clutch size and presence of yolkless eggs affected hatching success in Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus, 1766 (Testudines: Dermochelyidae, at Projeto Tamar-Ibama, Espirito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Pont Morisso, Eduardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analizó el manejo de los nidos de la especie Dermochelys coriacea, utilizados por el Proyecto Tamar-Ibama entre las temporadas reproductivas de 1989/1990 a 1998/1999, para verificación del éxito de la eclosión en relación a los tiempos de traslación. El estudio se realizó en el litoral norte del Estado de Espírito Santo. Existió tendencia a que el tiempo de traslación influencie el éxito de eclosión de los nidos. Los nidos trasladados entre 6 y más de 24 horas presentaron mayor cantidad de huevos sin desarrollo embrionario. No se encontró relación entre el número de huevos inviables trasladados y el tamaño de la postura, con el porcentual de eclosión. Se sugiere que la traslación sea realizada hasta las 6 horas, o 15 días después de la oviposición. The results of managing Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus, 1766 nests by Projeto TAMAR - IBAMA, in Northern Espírito Santo, Brazil, during the nesting seasons from 1989/90 to 1998/99 are analyzed. The influence of the translocation time on hatching success of the studied nests is discussed. The time translocation, in relation to natural oviposition, seems to increase the number of non-developed eggs found in each nest if translocated between 6 hours and 15 days post egg-laying. There was no relationship established between either the number of yolkless eggs in a translocated nest or the clutch size, with hatching success. The translocation of Dermochelys nests either within 6 hours or after 15 days from natural oviposition is recommended.

  5. Influência do período de quiescência dos ovos sobre o ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório

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    Silva Heloisa Helena Garcia da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência do período de quiescência dos ovos no ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório, na busca de informações que possam melhorar o direcionamento das ações de controle, pois sabe-se que o ovo é a forma mais resistente do ciclo biológico, possibilitando ao mosquito ampla sobrevida, devido à resistência às adversidades climáticas. Os experimentos foram realizados numa câmara biológica, mantida à temperatura de 28 ± 1oC, com umidade relativa de 80 ± 5% e fotofase de 12 horas. Apresentam-se os dados da influência de diferentes períodos de quiescência sobre a eclosão das larvas, desenvolvimento larval e pupal, ciclo evolutivo. Verificou-se o efeito altamente significativo do período de quiescência na eclosão das larvas. O período de quiescência não influenciou nas durações dos períodos de incubação, larval e pupal. Constatou-se que ovos de um mesmo período de quiescência apresentaram períodos de incubação estatisticamente diferentes entre si. As larvas eclodiam em grupos, definidos pela incubação, e este efeito de grupo foi significativo na duração do ciclo. Pode-se afirmar que, em 99,8% dos ciclos, a variação foi determinada pela incubação.

  6. Preferência alimentar de adultos de Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae por diferentes híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.5874 Feeding preference of adults of Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae for different hybrids of Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.5874

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    Robinson Antonio Pitelli

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Metriona elatior Klug é potencial candidato para o controle biológico de Solanum viarum Dunal (joá-bravo, pois as larvas e adultos se alimentam de suas folhas e têm baixa taxa de dispersão. A especificidade é um forte requisito para a adequabilidade de um organismo como agente de controle biológico, especialmente pela estratégia inundativa. Desse modo, a preferência alimentar do adulto desse inseto em laboratório foi avaliada em 14 híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (berinjela. A criação estoque foi mantida em laboratório, com os indivíduos se alimentando de folhas do joá-bravo. O estudo foi realizado utilizando-se testes de dupla e múltipla escolha, em períodos de alimentação de 24 e 48h, oferecendo-se discos de tecido foliar, em condições de placas de Petri. As avaliações da sobrevivência e consumo foliar dos insetos adultos recém-emergidos foram realizadas em folhas de joá-bravo e dos híbridos de berinjela, mantidas túrgidas pela imersão do pecíolo em água. A área foliar foi medida antes e após quatro dias de exposição ao inseto. M. elatior apresentou preferência para alimentação, sobrevivência e consumo na planta daninha. A preferência do crisomelídeo foi maior para o híbrido Minikuro Kowishiki de berinjela.Metriona elatior Klug is a potential biocontrol agent for Solanum viarum Dunal (tropical soda apple, because larvae and adults feed on its leaves and this species shows a low dispersion rate. Specificity plays a major role in the feasibility of an organism as a biological control agent, especially in the inundative strategy. The feeding preference of M. elatior adults was evaluated to 14 eggplant (Solanum melogena Linnaeus hybrids. Mass rearing was carried out under lab conditions, with the insect feeding directly on S. viarum leaves. The study started with dual and multiple choice tests in 24 and 48 hour feeding times, by offering leaf disks in Petri dish conditions. Survival and leaf

  7. Bark consumption by the spiny rat Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer (Echimyidae on a Pinus taeda Linnaeus (Pinaceae plantation in South Brazil Consumo de Pinus taeda (Pinaceae pelo rato-de-espinho Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer (Echimyidae em plantações no Sul do Brasil

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    Gislene L. Gonçalves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Feeding damage caused by Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814 (Echimyidae is documented for a Pinus taeda Linnaeus (Pinaceae plantation located in Cambará do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Under laboratory conditions, feeding acceptance of P. taeda trunk sections was tested with positive results for E. spinosus, but not for other three co-occurring sigmodontine rodents: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818 and Delomys dorsalis (Hensel, 1872.Esse estudo documenta os danos causados por Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814 em plantações de Pinus taeda Linnaeus (Pinaceae localizadas em Cambará do Sul, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Em laboratório foi testada positivamente a utilização de troncos de Pinus como recurso por E. spinosus, mas não para os outros roedores sigmodontíneos ocorrentes na área: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818 e Delomys dorsalis (Hensel, 1872.

  8. Photodynamic and antibiotic therapy impair the pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in a whole animal insect model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Chibebe Junior

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecium has emerged as one of the most important pathogens in healthcare-associated infections worldwide due to its intrinsic and acquired resistance to many antibiotics, including vancomycin. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT is an alternative therapeutic platform that is currently under investigation for the control and treatment of infections. PDT is based on the use of photoactive dye molecules, widely known as photosensitizer (PS. PS, upon irradiation with visible light, produces reactive oxygen species that can destroy lipids and proteins causing cell death. We employed Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth caterpillar fatally infected with E. faecium to develop an invertebrate host model system that can be used to study the antimicrobial PDT (alone or combined with antibiotics. In the establishment of infection by E. faecium in G. mellonella, we found that the G. mellonella death rate was dependent on the number of bacterial cells injected into the insect hemocoel and all E. faecium strains tested were capable of infecting and killing G. mellonella. Antibiotic treatment with ampicillin, gentamicin or the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin prolonged caterpillar survival infected by E. faecium (P = 0.0003, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, respectively. In the study of antimicrobial PDT, we verified that methylene blue (MB injected into the insect followed by whole body illumination prolonged the caterpillar survival (P = 0.0192. Interestingly, combination therapy of larvae infected with vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, with antimicrobial PDT followed by vancomycin, significantly prolonged the survival of the caterpillars when compared to either antimicrobial PDT (P = 0.0095 or vancomycin treatment alone (P = 0.0025, suggesting that the aPDT made the vancomycin resistant E. faecium strain more susceptible to vancomycin action. In summary, G. mellonella provides an invertebrate model host to

  9. Karamık Gölü (Afyonkarahisar'deki Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 (Sazan'nun Metazoon Parazitleri Üzerinde Anatomik, Morfolojik ve Ekolojik Bir Araştırma.

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    H. Levent Kutlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 13 Mart 2004 ile 28 Mayıs 2005 tarihleri arasında yapılan bu araştırmada, Karamık Gölü (Afyonkarahisar’nden yakalanan 71 Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 (sazan’nun metazoon parazitleri üzerinde incelemeler yapılmıştır. Konak balıkta üç parazit türü tanımlanmıştır: Gyrodactylus elegans, Nordmann, 1832; Dactylogyrus extensus Mueller ve Van Cleave, 1932 (Monogenoidea, Plathelmintes; Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Yamaguti, 1934 (Cestoidea, Plathelmintes. Bu türlerden G. elegans 16 balığın yüzgeçlerinde (% 22,5; 7,6 parazit/balık ve 2 balığın solungaçlarında (% 2,8; 5,0 parazit/balık, D. extensus 65 balığın solungaçlarında (% 91,5; 22,1 parazit/balık, B. acheilognathi ise 10 balığın bağırsaklarında (% 14,0; 10,8 parazit/balık görülmüştür. Konak balıktaki dominant parazit türü D. extensus’tur. İlgili parazite ait en yüksek enfeksiyon oranına ve parazit sayısına kış aylarında, en düşük değerlere ise ilkbahar ve yaz aylarında rastlanılmıştır. D. extensus ile enfekte olma oranı küçük boylu sazanlarda büyüklere göre daha fazladır. G. elegans, orta boylu sazanların yüzgeçlerinde ilkbaharda, solungaçlarında ise kış aylarında kaydedilmiştir. Küçük ve orta boylu sazanlarda görülen B. acheilognathi enfeksiyonu kış aylarında yüksek, ilkbahar ve yaz aylarında ise düşük bulunmuştur

  10. Different strategies to kill the host presented by Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustiguel, Cynthia Barbosa; Fernández-Bravo, María; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2018-03-01

    Studies conducted over the last decades have shown the potential of entomopathogenic fungi for the biocontrol of some insect pests. Entomopathogenic fungi infect their host through the cuticle, so they do not need to be ingested to be effective. These fungi also secrete secondary metabolites and proteins that are toxic to insect pests. In this context, we analyzed the pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) strains IBCB 384 and IBCB 425 and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. strains E 1764 and E 3158 against Galleria mellonella (Linn.) larvae, during pre-invasion and post-invasion phases. The results showed M. anisopliae, especially strain IBCB 384, was most virulent in the pre-invasion phase against G. mellonella, whereas B. bassiana, especially strain E 1764, was most virulent in the post-invasion phase. During in vivo development and in the production of toxic serum, B. bassiana E 3158 was the most virulent. Different fungal growth (or toxin) strategies were observed for studied strains. Metarhizium anisopliae IBCB 425 prioritizes the growth strategy, whereas strain IBCB 384 and B. bassiana strains E 1764 and E 3158 have a toxic strategy. All strains have pathogenicity against G. mellonella, indicating their possible use for biocontrol.

  11. The spectrum and occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in soils from apple orchards

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    Barbara Marjańska-Cichoń

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum and occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in orchard soil and arable soil were evaluated using an "insect bait method". Soil samples taken in autumn and spring from sward, herbicides fallow and arable soil were baited with Galleria mellonella larvae. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill., Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize Brown et Smith were isolated from three species of orchards soil and adjacent arable soil. Infection levels of G. mellonella larvae were depended from species of soil . M. anisoopliae caused most frequent infections of bait insects in light loamy sand and P. fumosoroseus in alluvial silt and coarse sand. B. bassiana was dominated in alluvial silt. It was established that M. anisopliae and B. bassiana infected more larvae in autumn than in spring. In case of P. fumosoroseus an opposite tendency was observed. Generaly in arable soil and sward number of infected larvae was higher than other stands. In case of light loamy sand more infections of G. mellonella larvae were found in samples from herbicides fallow. Irrespective of soil type B. bassiana was the dominated species isolated from herbicides fallow, M. anisopliae from sward and P. fumosoroseus - from arable soil.

  12. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of São Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in São Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23º 37'S - 45° 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23º 57'S - 46º 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all seasons of the year, beginning in spring 2008 and ending in winter 2009. The samples

  13. C. Linnaeus' ideas concerning retribution and fate

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    K. Rob. V. Wikman

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available Linnæus' Nemesis divina has been interpreted in different ways. Crucial is its central problem: the ideas of fate and retribution, but these are, in turn, dependent on Linnæus' conception of God and nature and not least on his opinions concerning the unity and coherence of the natural and ethical order of the world. From whatever sources Linnæus may have derived his religious ideas and whatever changes they may have undergone, his religious attitude in face of the works of nature remained unshaken. But Linnæus' religion, as we find it fragmentarily in these literary sources, was entirely undogmatic, untheological and, from a Christian point of view, even heterodox. Partly, this was in accord with his belief in the necessary immanent coherence in the processes of nature and the concomitant idea of the righteous divine order of the world.

  14. Iguana iguana (Linnaeus 1758 (Squamata: Iguanidae

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    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tres ejemplares fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia, y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF, La Paz, Bolivia. Los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Sección Primera, Municipio Ixiamas. Localidad El Tigre, 11º58'15.7"S, 68º00'22.5"W; 162 msnm. Fecha de colecta: 11 julio 2010. Hora: 9:27 AM. Colectores: Alvaro J. Aguilar Kirigin y Wilson Bani Rivero. Colectado en bajíos herbáceos inundables, a orillas del río Madre de Dios.

  15. ISOLASI NEMATODA PATOGEN SERANGGA STEINERNEMA DAN HETERORHABDITIS

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    Chaerani, Y. Suryadi, T.P. Priyatno, D. Koswanudin1, U. Rahmat , Sujatmo, Yusuf, dan C.T. Griffin.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Steinernema and Heterorhabditis. Entomopathogenic nematodes from the genus Steinernema and Heterorhabditis (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae are promising biological control agent of insect pests. Indigenous nematodes have been isolated and collected for the use in local biological control program of important insect pests. The nematodes were isolated using soil baiting method with insect larvae. Laboratory tests have shown that the mealworm larvae Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae served as a good alternative to the standard insect bait, the greater wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae for isolation and maintenance of nematodes. Both nematodes were successfully isolated using T. molitor larvae from 13% soil samples (26 out of a total of 207 collected from 14 locations in West and Central Java and Lampung provinces in the period of 1993 until 2006. Heterorhabditis (9% was more prevalent than Steinernema (4%. Both nematodes were successfully propagated on mealworm larvae.

  16. Ecological characterisation of the Colombian entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Torres, M C; Sáenz, A

    2013-05-01

    The entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708 (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) isolated from soil in Alcalá, Valle del Cauca (Colombia) was characterised ecologically using Galleria mellonella larvae (L) (Pyralidae: Galleriinae) as hosts. The effect of temperature on the viability, infectivity and reproduction, and of moisture on infectivity and storage in liquid were evaluated in infective juveniles (IJs). Significant differences were found in the viability, infectivity and reproduction of the IJs at different temperatures. No nematodes were recovered at 5 °C and 10 °C, and at 35 °C no infectivity was observed. Average daily nematode recovery was best at 25 °C, and survival of the IJs was low in substrates presenting 13% moisture. The optimal storage temperature for Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708 was between 20 °C and 30 °C, keeping its infectivity for up to 8 weeks.

  17. Sequence-specific antimicrobials using efficiently delivered RNA-guided nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citorik, Robert J; Mimee, Mark; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-11-01

    Current antibiotics tend to be broad spectrum, leading to indiscriminate killing of commensal bacteria and accelerated evolution of drug resistance. Here, we use CRISPR-Cas technology to create antimicrobials whose spectrum of activity is chosen by design. RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs) targeting specific DNA sequences are delivered efficiently to microbial populations using bacteriophage or bacteria carrying plasmids transmissible by conjugation. The DNA targets of RGNs can be undesirable genes or polymorphisms, including antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Delivery of RGNs significantly improves survival in a Galleria mellonella infection model. We also show that RGNs enable modulation of complex bacterial populations by selective knockdown of targeted strains based on genetic signatures. RGNs constitute a class of highly discriminatory, customizable antimicrobials that enact selective pressure at the DNA level to reduce the prevalence of undesired genes, minimize off-target effects and enable programmable remodeling of microbiota.

  18. Increase in virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis over five years in a patient with chronic disseminated sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Dayvison F S; Santos, Suelen S; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel M E; do Valle, Antonio C F; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    The metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro is hyperendemic for cat-associated sporotrichosis. This study aimed to assess the virulence of serial Sporothrix isolates from a 61-year-old male patient with chronic, destructive disseminated sporotrichosis. Five Sporothrix isolates were cultured from skin exudates and bone samples over a 5-year period, and all were molecularly identified as Sporothrix brasiliensis. The final isolate was significantly more virulent in Galleria mellonella larvae compared to earlier isolates. We conclude that S. brasiliensis has the capacity to increase in virulence in vivo. This finding is significant to clinicians caring for individuals with S. brasiliensis disease and it suggests that further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms underlying pathogenicity enhancement during chronic disease.

  19. The Effect Of Temperature On The Development Of Adult Generations Of Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema Arenarium Isolate CH

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    Yakovlev Ye. B.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Steinernema arenarium isolate CH was prepared at 22 °C and used as a control in laboratory experiments on rearing in Galleria mellonella larvae at different temperatures (18 and 28 °C. Host dead bodies were examined every two days. All reared adult nematodes were fixed in alcohol and mounted on permanent slides with glycerin solution in distilled water. The basic morphometric parameters (L, W, ES, ABD (CBD, T, V were measured, and statistical analysis was performed. Morphometric data in males and females of both generations were shown to significantly change depending on speed of growth and nutrients concentration. In both experimental groups, pygmy forms of adults were found.

  20. Does scavenging extend the host range of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Steinernematidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Půza, Vladimír; Mrácek, Zdenĕk

    2010-05-01

    Living and freeze-killed natural and laboratory hosts, with different susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes, were exposed to the larvae of Steinernema affine and Steinernema kraussei in two different experimental arenas (Eppendorf tubes, Petri dishes), and the success of the colonisation and eventual progeny production were observed. Both nematodes were able to colonise both living and dead larvae of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera) and adult Blatella germanica (Blattodea) even though the progeny production in dead hosts was lower on average. Living carabid beetles, Poecilus cupreus, and elaterid larvae (Coleoptera) were resistant to the infection, however, both nematodes were able to colonise and multiply in several dead P. cupreus and in a majority of dead elaterid larvae. By scavenging, EPNs can utilise cadavers of insects that are naturally resistant to EPN infection, and so broaden their host range. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Enterococcus infection biology: lessons from invertebrate host models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Grace J; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2014-03-01

    The enterococci are commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of many metazoans, from insects to humans. While they normally do not cause disease in the intestine, they can become pathogenic when they infect sites outside of the gut. Recently, the enterococci have become important nosocomial pathogens, with the majority of human enterococcal infections caused by two species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Studies using invertebrate infection models have revealed insights into the biology of enterococcal infections, as well as general principles underlying host innate immune defense. This review highlights recent findings on Enterococcus infection biology from two invertebrate infection models, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella and the free-living bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

  2. Host and Symbiont Jointly Control Gut Microbiota during Complete Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Paul R.; Rolff, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Holometabolous insects undergo a radical anatomical re-organisation during metamorphosis. This poses a developmental challenge: the host must replace the larval gut but at the same time retain symbiotic gut microbes and avoid infection by opportunistic pathogens. By manipulating host immunity and bacterial competitive ability, we study how the host Galleria mellonella and the symbiotic bacterium Enterococcus mundtii interact to manage the composition of the microbiota during metamorphosis. Disenabling one or both symbiotic partners alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which incurs fitness costs: adult hosts with a gut microbiota dominated by pathogens such as Serratia and Staphylococcus die early. Our results reveal an interaction that guarantees the safe passage of the symbiont through metamorphosis and benefits the resulting adult host. Host-symbiont “conspiracies” as described here are almost certainly widespread in holometobolous insects including many disease vectors. PMID:26544881

  3. Cloning and heterologous expression of a novel insecticidal gene (tccC1) from Xenorhabdus nematophilus strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo Lee, Pom; Ahn, Ji-Young; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Wook Kim, Seung; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Park, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jeewon

    2004-01-01

    We have identified and cloned a novel toxin gene (tccC1/xptB1) from Xenorhabdus nematophilus strain isolated from Korea-specific entomophagous nematode Steinernema glaseri MK. The DNA sequence of cloned toxin gene (3048 bp) has an open reading frame encoding 1016 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 111058 Da. The toxin sequence shares 50-96% identical amino acid residues with the previously reported tccC1 cloned from X. nematophilus (AJ308438), Photorhabdus luminescens W14 (AF346499) P. luminescens TTO1 (BX571873), and Yersinia pestis CO92 (NC 0 03143). The toxin gene was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant toxin protein caused a rapid cessation in mortality of Galleria mellonella larvae (80% death of larvae within 2 days). Conclusively, the heterologous expression of the novel gene tccC1 cloned into E. coli plasmid vector produced recombinant toxin with high insecticidal activity

  4. Identification of Burkholderia cenocepacia strain H111 virulence factors using nonmammalian infection hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwager, Stephan; Agnoli, Kirsty; Köthe, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia H111, a strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient, has been shown to effectively kill the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We used the C. elegans model of infection to screen a mini-Tn5 mutant library of B. cenocepacia H111 for attenuated virulence....... Of the approximately 5,500 B. cenocepacia H111 random mini-Tn5 insertion mutants that were screened, 22 showed attenuated virulence in C. elegans. Except for the quorum-sensing regulator cepR, none of the mutated genes coded for the biosynthesis of classical virulence factors such as extracellular proteases...... or siderophores. Instead, the mutants contained insertions in metabolic and regulatory genes. Mutants attenuated in virulence in the C. elegans infection model were also tested in the Drosophila melanogaster pricking model, and those also attenuated in this model were further tested in Galleria mellonella. Six...

  5. The Campylobacter jejuni MarR-like transcriptional regulators RrpA and RrpB both influence bacterial responses to oxidative and aerobic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan eGundogdu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the human intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni to respond to oxidative stress is central to bacterial survival both in vivo during infection and in the environment. Re-annotation of the C. jejuni NCTC11168 genome revealed the presence of two MarR-type transcriptional regulators Cj1546 and Cj1556, originally annotated as hypothetical proteins, which we have designated RrpA and RrpB (regulator of response to peroxide respectively. Previously we demonstrated a role for RrpB in both oxidative and aerobic (O2 stress and that RrpB was a DNA binding protein with auto-regulatory activity, typical of MarR-type transcriptional regulators. In this study, we show that RrpA is also a DNA binding protein and that a rrpA mutant in strain 11168H exhibits increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide oxidative stress. Mutation of either rrpA or rrpB reduces catalase (KatA expression. However a rrpAB double mutant exhibits higher levels of resistance to hydrogen peroxide oxidative stress, with levels of KatA expression similar to the wild-type strain. Neither the rrpA nor rrpB mutant exhibits any significant difference in sensitivity to either cumene hydroperoxide or menadione oxidative stresses, but both mutants exhibit a reduced ability to survive aerobic (O2 stress, enhanced biofilm formation and reduced virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model. The rrpAB double mutant exhibits wild-type levels of biofilm formation and wild-type levels of virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Together these data indicate a role for both RrpA and RrpB in the C. jejuni peroxide oxidative and aerobic (O2 stress responses, enhancing bacterial survival in vivo and in the environment.

  6. Соматические клетки мужской половой системы Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Игнатьев, Г.; Рахимов, И.; Салахов, Н.

    2014-01-01

    Введение. Изучено развитие органа движения хвоста церкарии Fasciolahepatica Linnaeus,1758 на эмбриональной стадииразвития, последующих трех днях активной части жизни и четвертого-пятого дня малоподвижного и неподвижного периода жизни. У печеночной фасциолы на стадии церкарии первыми появляются зачатки органа движения и выделительной системы....

  7. A Galleria Boundary Element Method for two-dimensional nonlinear magnetostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovont, Aaron D.

    The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is a numerical technique for solving partial differential equations that is used broadly among the engineering disciplines. The main advantage of this method is that one needs only to mesh the boundary of a solution domain. A key drawback is the myriad of integrals that must be evaluated to populate the full system matrix. To this day these integrals have been evaluated using numerical quadrature. In this research, a Galerkin formulation of the BEM is derived and implemented to solve two-dimensional magnetostatic problems with a focus on accurate, rapid computation. To this end, exact, closed-form solutions have been derived for all the integrals comprising the system matrix as well as those required to compute fields in post-processing; the need for numerical integration has been eliminated. It is shown that calculation of the system matrix elements using analytical solutions is 15-20 times faster than with numerical integration of similar accuracy. Furthermore, through the example analysis of a c-core inductor, it is demonstrated that the present BEM formulation is a competitive alternative to the Finite Element Method (FEM) for linear magnetostatic analysis. Finally, the BEM formulation is extended to analyze nonlinear magnetostatic problems via the Dual Reciprocity Method (DRBEM). It is shown that a coarse, meshless analysis using the DRBEM is able to achieve RMS error of 3-6% compared to a commercial FEM package in lightly saturated conditions.

  8. Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as an alternative host to study fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Patrícia Canteri; Morey, Alexandre Tadachi; Castanheira, Gabriel Marcondes; Bocate, Karla Paiva; Panagio, Luciano Aparecido; Ito, Fabio Augusto; Furlaneto, Márcia Cristina; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Costa, Idessânia Nazareth; Mora-Montes, Hector Manuel; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio

    2015-11-01

    Models of host–pathogen interactions are crucial for the analysis of microbial pathogenesis. In this context, invertebrate hosts, including Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) and Galleria mellonella (moth), have been used to study the pathogenesis of fungi and bacteria. Each of these organisms offers distinct benefits in elucidating host–pathogen interactions. In this study,we present a newinvertebrate infection model to study fungal infections: the Tenebrio molitor (beetle) larvae. Here we performed T. molitor larvae infection with one of two important fungal human pathogens, Candida albicans or Cryptococcus neoformans, and analyzed survival curves and larva infected tissues.We showed that increasing concentrations of inoculum of both fungi resulted in increased mortality rates, demonstrating the efficiency of the method to evaluate the virulence of pathogenic yeasts. Additionally, following 12 h post-infection, C. albicans formsmycelia, spreading its hyphae through the larva tissue,whilst GMS stain enabled the visualization of C. neoformans yeast and theirmelanin capsule. These larvae are easier to cultivate in the laboratory than G. mellonella larvae, and offer the same benefits. Therefore, this insect model could be a useful alternative tool to screen clinical pathogenic yeast strainswith distinct virulence traits or different mutant strains.

  9. Effects of associated bacteria on the pathogenicity and reproduction of the insect-parasitic nematode Rhabditis blumi (Nematoda: Rhabditida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Yong Ook; Ha, Jae-Seok; Youn, Sung Hun; Kim, Hyeong Hwan; Bilgrami, Anwar L; Shin, Chul Soo

    2011-09-01

    Three bacteria, Alcaligenes faecalis , Flavobacterium sp., and Providencia vermicola , were isolated from dauer juveniles of Rhabditis blumi . The pathogenic effects of the bacteria against 4th instar larvae of Galleria mellonella were investigated. Providencia vermicola and Flavobacterium sp. showed 100% mortality at 48 h after haemocoelic injection, whereas A. faecalis showed less than 30% mortality. Dauer juveniles showed 100% mortality against G. mellonella larvae, whereas axenic juveniles, which do not harbor associated bacteria, exhibited little mortality. All of the associated bacteria were used as a food source for nematode growth, and nematode yield differed with bacterial species. Among the bacterial species, P. vermicola was most valued for nematode yield, showing the highest yield of 5.2 × 10(4) nematodes/mL in the plate. In bacterial cocultures using two of the three associated bacteria, one kind stimulated the other. The highest total bacterial yield of 12.6 g/L was obtained when the inoculum ratio of P. vermicola to A. faecalis was 10:1. In air-lift bioreactors, the nematode growth rate increased with an increasing level of dissolved oxygen. The maximum nematode yield of 1.75 × 10(5) nematodes/mL was obtained at 192 h with an aeration rate of 6 vvm.

  10. Antifungal Efficacy during Candida krusei Infection in Non-Conventional Models Correlates with the Yeast In Vitro Susceptibility Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzoni, Liliana; de Lucas, Maria Pilar; Mesa-Arango, Ana Cecilia; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Lozano, Encarnación; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose; Zaragoza, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of opportunistic fungal infections has increased in recent decades due to the growing proportion of immunocompromised patients in our society. Candida krusei has been described as a causative agent of disseminated fungal infections in susceptible patients. Although its prevalence remains low among yeast infections (2–5%), its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole makes this yeast important from epidemiologic aspects. Non mammalian organisms are feasible models to study fungal virulence and drug efficacy. In this work we have used the lepidopteran Galleria mellonella and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as models to assess antifungal efficacy during infection by C. krusei. This yeast killed G. mellonella at 25, 30 and 37°C and reduced haemocytic density. Infected larvae melanized in a dose-dependent manner. Fluconazole did not protect against C. krusei infection, in contrast to amphotericin B, voriconazole or caspofungin. However, the doses of these antifungals required to obtain larvae protection were always higher during C. krusei infection than during C. albicans infection. Similar results were found in the model host C. elegans. Our work demonstrates that non mammalian models are useful tools to investigate in vivo antifungal efficacy and virulence of C. krusei. PMID:23555877

  11. Heterologous expression of Streptococcus mutans Cnm in Lactococcus lactis promotes intracellular invasion, adhesion to human cardiac tissues and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freires, Irlan A; Avilés-Reyes, Alejandro; Kitten, Todd; Simpson-Haidaris, P J; Swartz, Michael; Knight, Peter A; Rosalen, Pedro L; Lemos, José A; Abranches, Jacqueline

    2017-01-02

    In S. mutans, the expression of the surface glycoprotein Cnm mediates binding to extracellular matrix proteins, endothelial cell invasion and virulence in the Galleria mellonella invertebrate model. To further characterize Cnm as a virulence factor, the cnm gene from S. mutans strain OMZ175 was expressed in the non-pathogenic Lactococcus lactis NZ9800 using a nisin-inducible system. Despite the absence of the machinery necessary for Cnm glycosylation, Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses demonstrated that Cnm was effectively expressed and translocated to the cell wall of L. lactis. Similar to S. mutans, expression of Cnm in L. lactis enabled robust binding to collagen and laminin, invasion of human coronary artery endothelial cells and increased virulence in G. mellonella. Using an ex vivo human heart tissue colonization model, we showed that Cnm-positive strains of either S. mutans or L. lactis outcompete their Cnm-negative counterparts for tissue colonization. Finally, Cnm expression facilitated L. lactis adhesion and colonization in a rabbit model of infective endocarditis. Collectively, our results provide unequivocal evidence that binding to extracellular matrices mediated by Cnm is an important virulence attribute of S. mutans and confirm the usefulness of the L. lactis heterologous system for further characterization of bacterial virulence factors.

  12. The PacC transcription factor regulates secondary metabolite production and stress response, but has only minor effects on virulence in the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhibing; Ren, Hui; Mousa, Jarrod J; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Zhang, Yongjun; Bruner, Steven D; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2017-02-01

    The PacC transcription factor is an important component of the fungal ambient pH-responsive regulatory system. Loss of pacC in the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana resulted in an alkaline pH-dependent decrease in growth and pH-dependent increased susceptibility to osmotic (salt, sorbitol) stress and SDS. Extreme susceptibility to Congo Red was noted irrespective of pH, and ΔBbpacC conidia showed subtle increases in UV susceptibility. The ΔBbPacC mutant showed a reduced ability to acidify media during growth due to failure to produce oxalic acid. The ΔBbPacC mutant also did not produce the insecticidal compound dipicolinic acid, however, production of a yellow-colored compound was noted. The compound, named bassianolone B, was purified and its structure determined. Despite defects in growth, stress resistance, and oxalate/insecticidal compound production, only a small decrease in virulence was seen for the ΔBbpacC strain in topical insect bioassays using larvae from the greater waxmoth, Galleria mellonella or adults of the beetle, Tenebrio molitor. However, slightly more pronounced decreases were seen in virulence via intrahemcoel injection assays (G. mellonella) and in assays using T. molitor larvae. These data suggest important roles for BbpacC in mediating growth at alkaline pH, regulating secondary metabolite production, and in targeting specific insect stages. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Identification and characterization of haemofungin, a novel antifungal compound that inhibits the final step of haem biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Yaakov, Dafna; Rivkin, Anna; Mircus, Gabriel; Albert, Nathaniel; Dietl, Anna-Maria; Kovalerchick, Dimitry; Carmeli, Shmuel; Haas, Hubertus; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Osherov, Nir

    2016-04-01

    During recent decades, the number of invasive fungal infections among immunosuppressed patients has increased significantly, whereas the number of effective systemic antifungal drugs remains low and unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to characterize a novel antifungal compound, CW-8/haemofungin, which we previously identified in a screen for compounds affecting fungal cell wall integrity. The in vitro characteristics of haemofungin were investigated by MIC evaluation against a panel of pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi, bacteria and mammalian cells in culture. Haemofungin mode-of-action studies were performed by screening an Aspergillus nidulans overexpression genomic library for resistance-conferring plasmids and biochemical validation of the target. In vivo efficacy was tested in the Galleria mellonella and Drosophila melanogaster insect models of infection. We demonstrate that haemofungin causes swelling and lysis of growing fungal cells. It inhibits the growth of pathogenic Aspergillus, Candida, Fusarium and Rhizopus isolates at micromolar concentrations, while only weakly affecting the growth of mammalian cell lines. Genetic and biochemical analyses in A. nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus indicate that haemofungin primarily inhibits ferrochelatase (HemH), the last enzyme in the haem biosynthetic pathway. Haemofungin was non-toxic and significantly reduced mortality rates of G. mellonella and D. melanogaster infected with A. fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae, respectively. Further development and in vivo validation of haemofungin is warranted. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolated from patients exposed to invasive devices in a university hospital in Argentina: molecular typing, susceptibility and detection of potential virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Eliana; Garcia, Carlos; Papalia, Mariana; Vay, Carlos; Friedman, Laura; Passerini de Rossi, Beatriz

    2018-05-25

    The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of selected potential virulence factors, susceptibility and clonal relatedness among 63 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates recovered from patients exposed to invasive devices in a university hospital in Argentina between January 2004 and August 2012. Genetic relatedness was assessed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates were characterized by antimicrobial resistance, the presence and/or expression of potential virulence determinants, and virulence in the Galleria mellonella model.Results/Key findings. ERIC-PCR generated 52 fingerprints, and PFGE added another pattern. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (6.35 %), levofloxacin (9.52 %) and ciprofloxacin (23.80 %) was detected. All isolates were susceptible to minocycline. All isolates were lipase, protease and siderophore producers, while all but Sm61 formed biofilms. However, 11/63 isolates did not amplify the major extracellular protease-coding gene (stmPr1). Sm61 is an stmPr1-negative isolate, and showed (as did Sm13 and the reference strain K279a) strong proteolysis and siderophore production, and high resistance to hydrogen peroxide. The three isolates were virulent in the G. mellonella model, while Sm10, a low-resistance hydrogen peroxide stmPr1-negative isolate, and weak proteolysis and siderophore producer, was not virulent. This is the first epidemiological study of the clonal relatedness of S. maltophilia clinical isolates in Argentina. Great genomic diversity was observed, and only two small clusters of related S. maltophilia types were found. Minocycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were the most active agents. S. maltophilia virulence in the G. mellonella model is multifactorial, and further studies are needed to elucidate the role of each potential virulence factor.

  15. Correlation between fibroin amino acid sequence and physical silk properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedic, Robert; Zurovec, Michal; Sehnal, Frantisek

    2003-09-12

    The fiber properties of lepidopteran silk depend on the amino acid repeats that interact during H-fibroin polymerization. The aim of our research was to relate repeat composition to insect biology and fiber strength. Representative regions of the H-fibroin genes were sequenced and analyzed in three pyralid species: wax moth (Galleria mellonella), European flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella), and Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). The amino acid repeats are species-specific, evidently a diversification of an ancestral region of 43 residues, and include three types of regularly dispersed motifs: modifications of GSSAASAA sequence, stretches of tripeptides GXZ where X and Z represent bulky residues, and sequences similar to PVIVIEE. No concatenations of GX dipeptide or alanine, which are typical for Bombyx silkworms and Antheraea silk moths, respectively, were found. Despite different repeat structure, the silks of G. mellonella and E. kuehniella exhibit similar tensile strength as the Bombyx and Antheraea silks. We suggest that in these latter two species, variations in the repeat length obstruct repeat alignment, but sufficiently long stretches of iterated residues get superposed to interact. In the pyralid H-fibroins, interactions of the widely separated and diverse motifs depend on the precision of repeat matching; silk is strong in G. mellonella and E. kuehniella, with 2-3 types of long homogeneous repeats, and nearly 10 times weaker in P. interpunctella, with seven types of shorter erratic repeats. The high proportion of large amino acids in the H-fibroin of pyralids has probably evolved in connection with the spinning habit of caterpillars that live in protective silk tubes and spin continuously, enlarging the tubes on one end and partly devouring the other one. The silk serves as a depot of energetically rich and essential amino acids that may be scarce in the diet.

  16. Biocontrol Potential of Steinernema thermophilum and Its Symbiont Xenorhabdus indica Against Lepidopteran Pests: Virulence to Egg and Larval Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Vinay; Sharma, Garima; Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Ganguly, Sudershan

    2014-03-01

    Under laboratory conditions, the biocontrol potential of Steinernema thermophilum was tested against eggs and larval stages of two important lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura (polyphagous pests), as well as Galleria mellonella (used as a model host). In terms of host susceptibility of lepidopteran larvae to S. thermophilum, based on the LC50 36 hr after treatment, G. mellonella (LC50 = 16.28 IJ/larva) was found to be more susceptible than S. litura (LC50 = 85 IJ/larva), whereas neither host was found to be significantly different from H. armigera (LC50 = 54.68 IJ/larva). In addition to virulence to the larval stages, ovicidal activity up to 84% was observed at 200 IJ/50 and 100 eggs of H. armigera and S. litura, respectively. To our knowledge this is the first report of entomopathogenic nematode pathogenicity to lepidopteran eggs. Production of infective juvenile (IJ) nematodes/insect larva was also measured and found to be positively correlated with rate of IJ for H. armigera (r = 0.990), S. litura (r = 0.892), as well as G. mellonella (r = 0.834). Both Phase I and Phase II of symbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus indica were tested separately against neonates of H. armigera and S. litura by feeding assays and found to be virulent to the target pests; phase variation did not affect the level of virulence. Thus S. thermophilum as well as the nematode's symbiotic bacteria applied separately have the potential to be developed as biocontrol agents for key lepidopteran pests.

  17. High-resolution mass spectrometry driven discovery of peptidic danger signals in insect immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arton Berisha

    Full Text Available The 'danger model' is an alternative concept for immune response postulating that the immune system reacts to entities that do damage (danger associated molecular patterns, DAMP and not only to entities that are foreign (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMP as proposed by classical immunology concepts. In this study we used Galleria mellonella to validate the danger model in insects. Hemolymph of G. mellonella was digested with thermolysin (as a representative for virulence-associated metalloproteinases produced by humanpathogens followed by chromatographic fractionation. Immune-stimulatory activity was tested by measuring lysozyme activity with the lytic zone assays against Micrococcus luteus cell wall components. Peptides were analyzed by nano-scale liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometers. Addressing the lack of a genome sequence we complemented the rudimentary NCBI protein database with a recently established transcriptome and de novo sequencing methods for peptide identification. This approach led to identification of 127 peptides, 9 of which were identified in bioactive fractions. Detailed MS/MS experiments in comparison with synthetic analogues confirmed the amino acid sequence of all 9 peptides. To test the potential of these putative danger signals to induce immune responses we injected the synthetic analogues into G. mellonella and monitored the anti-bacterial activity against living Micrococcus luteus. Six out of 9 peptides identified in the bioactive fractions exhibited immune-stimulatory activity when injected. Hence, we provide evidence that small peptides resulting from thermolysin-mediated digestion of hemolymph proteins function as endogenous danger signals which can set the immune system into alarm. Consequently, our study indicates that the danger model also plays a role in insect immunity.

  18. Virulence characterisation of Salmonella enterica isolates of differing antimicrobial resistance recovered from UK livestock and imported meat samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick eCard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a foodborne zoonotic pathogen of significant public health concern. We have characterised the virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene content of 95 Salmonella isolates from 11 serovars by DNA microarray recovered from UK livestock or imported meat. Genes encoding resistance to sulphonamides (sul1, sul2, tetracycline (tet(A, tet(B, streptomycin (strA, strB, aminoglycoside (aadA1, aadA2, beta-lactam (blaTEM, and trimethoprim (dfrA17 were common. Virulence gene content differed between serovars; S. Typhimurium formed two subclades based on virulence plasmid presence. Thirteen isolates were selected by their virulence profile for pathotyping using the Galleria mellonella pathogenesis model. Infection with a chicken invasive S. Enteritidis or S. Gallinarum isolate, a multidrug resistant S. Kentucky, or a S. Typhimurium DT104 isolate resulted in high mortality of the larvae; notably presence of the virulence plasmid in S. Typhimurium was not associated with increased larvae mortality. Histopathological examination showed that infection caused severe damage to the Galleria gut structure. Enumeration of intracellular bacteria in the larvae 24 hours post-infection showed increases of up to 7 log above the initial inoculum and transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed bacterial replication in the haemolymph. TEM also revealed the presence of vacuoles containing bacteria in the haemocytes, similar to Salmonella containing vacuoles observed in mammalian macrophages; although there was no evidence from our work of bacterial replication within vacuoles. This work shows that microarrays can be used for rapid virulence genotyping of S. enterica and that the Galleria animal model replicates some aspects of Salmonella infection in mammals. These procedures can be used to help inform on the pathogenicity of isolates that may be antibiotic resistant and have scope to aid the assessment of their potential public and animal health risk.

  19. Distribución, ecología y origen de las poblaciones de Vitrina pellucida (O. F. Müller, 1774 y Cepaea nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora en las Cordilleras Béticas Orientales (Andalucía, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrebola, J. R.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the chorology and ecology of the andalusian terrestrial malacofauna (South of the Iberian Peninsula, has showed the presence of a group of climatic relicts characteristics from the Eurosiberian region, in the Eastern Betics Mountains Chains. The ecology and distribution of two of these species (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Millier, 1774: and Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeus, 1758 is exposed, being the main limiting factor the typical mediterranean summer drought. The adaptative response of these species against the scarcity of water depends on its different ecophysiologies. Vitrina pellucida (eurithermic lives in low-lands where the availability of water along the year is constant, as well as in dry soils of high mountains because of the cold weather. Cepaea nemoralis (stenothermic lives only in habitats with wet soils and heavy vegetal cover placed below 1500 m. The absence of similar vegetation over this altitude and the extreme climate conditions of the High Mediterranean Mountains prevents its appearance, contrarily to the High Eurosiberian Mountains.

    [fr]
    L'étude de la chorologie et de l'écologie de la malacofaune terrestre d'Andalousie (sud de la Péninsule Ibérique, a permis de déterminer la présence, dans les cordillères Bétiques Orientales, d'un groupe de reliques climatiques propres à la région Euro-sibérienne. L'écologie et la distribution de deux de ces espèces (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Müller, 1774 et Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeux, 1758 sont exposées ici, et on montre que le principal facteur limitant est la sécheresse estivale caractéristique du climat méditerranéen. La réponse adaptative de dex deux espèces face à la rareté de l'eau durant l'été est déterminée par leurs écophysiologies différentes, Vitrina pellucida (eurytherme utilise aussi bien les écosystèmes des terres basses là où la disponibilité en eau est constante tout au long de l

  20. Modulation of Replicative Lifespan in Cryptococcus neoformans: Implications for Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouklas, Tejas; Jain, Neena; Fries, Bettina C.

    2017-01-01

    The fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, has been shown to undergo replicative aging. Old cells are characterized by advanced generational age and phenotypic changes that appear to mediate enhanced resistance to host and antifungal-based killing. As a consequence of this age-associated resilience, old cells accumulate during chronic infection. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that shifting the generational age of a pathogenic yeast population would alter its vulnerability to the host and affect its virulence. SIR2 is a well-conserved histone deacetylase, and a pivotal target for the development of anti-aging drugs. We tested its effect on C. neoformans’ replicative lifespan (RLS). First, a mutant C. neoformans strain (sir2Δ) was generated, and confirmed a predicted shortened RLS in sir2Δ cells consistent with its known role in aging. Next, RLS analysis showed that treatment of C. neoformans with Sir2p-agonists resulted in a significantly prolonged RLS, whereas treatment with a Sir2p-antagonist shortened RLS. RLS modulating effects were dependent on SIR2 and not observed in sir2Δ cells. Because SIR2 loss resulted in a slightly impaired fitness, effects of genetic RLS modulation on virulence could not be compared with wild type cells. Instead we chose to chemically modulate RLS, and investigated the effect of Sir2p modulating drugs on C. neoformans cells in a Galleria mellonella infection model. Consistent with our hypothesis that shifts in the generational age of the infecting yeast population alters its vulnerability to host cells, we observed decreased virulence of C. neoformans in the Galleria host when RLS was prolonged by treatment with Sir2p agonists. In contrast, treatment with a Sir2p antagonist, which shortens RLS enhanced virulence in Galleria. In addition, combination of Sir2p agonists with antifungal therapy enhanced the antifungal’s effect. Importantly, no difference in virulence was observed with drug treatment when sir2Δ cells

  1. The feeding ecology of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus) from a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet of the grey mullet (Mugil cephalus L.) was investigated in the Lagos Lagoon (high brackish) habitat in Nigeria from February 2004 – January 2006. The highest number of empty stomachs was recorded in October 2004, while the lowest was in December 2005. The highest number of empty stomachs was recorded ...

  2. Age and growth of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1958) (Perciformes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apra.v3i3.36389 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  3. Topografia vertebromedular de irara (Eira barbara Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Adami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Um cadáver macho, adulto de irara (Eira barbara foi cedido pelo Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres (Cetas, localizado em Salvador/Bahia, ao Setor de Anatomia Veterinária da Escola de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade Federal da Bahia. Trata-se de um mamífero carnívoro que pertence à Família Mustelidae e Subfamília Mustelinae que contém o Gênero Eira, representado apenas pela Espécie Eira barbara. Objetivamos a investigação da topografia vertebromedular do espécime e assim verificar a relação da medula espinal com o canal vertebral; a identificação, origem, emergência e quantificação dos nervos espinhais relacionados com a medula espinal. Pesquisa número 43245-1 autorizada pelo Sistema de Autorização e Informação em Biodiversidade (Sisbio-ICMBio/IBAMA. O exemplar foi fixado em solução de formaldeído a 10% e posteriormente dissecado e radiografado. Foram identificados oito pares de nervos espinhais cervicais, quatorze torácicos e na porção lombossacral da medula espinhal seis nervos espinais lombares, três sacrais e mais de três nervos espinhais caudais. O término da medula espinal ocorreu no nível quinta vértebra lombar. Os oito segmentos medulares cervicais localizaram-se entre a primeira e sétima vértebras cervicais. Os quatorze nervos espinais torácicos originaram-se na porção cranial das vértebras respectivas. Os segmentos medulares lombares, sacrais e caudais restringiram-se à região lombar da coluna vertebral. O deslocamento cranial dos segmentos medulares foi observado no oitavo cervical, terceiro, quarto e quinto lombares e todos os segmentos sacrais e caudais. As informações obtidas poderão ser utilizadas para análises comparativas com as demais espécies e com a adoção de medidas que visem proporcionar o bem-estar animal e a preservação da espécie.

  4. THE ECOLOGY OF PATELLA LINNAEUS FROM THE CAPE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    all species of Patella,. and its colour varies according to the colour of the limpet. ...... A comparable situation exists on the Pacific coast of North America, where .... freshwater and positively to sea water, so that rainwater pools will be avoided. R.

  5. Simulated migration of European eel (Anguilla anguilla, Linnaeus 1758)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, van V.J.T.

    2006-01-01

    The European eel ( Anguillaanguilla L.) is a catadromic fish species with its spawning grounds thousands of kilometers away in the ocean, possibly theSargasso Sea. The objective of this study was to elucidate this oceanic phase of migration

  6. Topografia do cone medular da paca (Agouti paca, Linnaeus - 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Regina Freixo Scavone

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivamos neste trabalho determinar a esqueletopia da terminação do cone medular da paca relacionando com as vértebras lombares e sacrais, visando assim estabelecer parâmetros morfométricos e topográficos do cone medular nesta espécie. Para tanto, procedemos à dissecação, mediante incisão, rebatimento da pele, da tela subcutânea e da musculatura da região dorsal à coluna vertebral, com posterior secção e remoção dos arcos vertebrais para melhor visualização da medula espinhal. Após a individualização do cone medular, registramos os aspectos anatômicos de interesse, enfatizando seu início (base e seu término (ápice em relação às vértebras, e a partir de então efetuamos suas medidas com o auxílio de paquímetro; visando documentar nossos achados, realizamos fotografias e esquemas dos espécimes estudados.

  7. Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758): bioindicator of marine radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Gouvea, R. de C. dos; Santos, P.L. dos; Azevedo Gouvea, V. de

    The kinetic of uptake and loss of radionuclides in Perna perna in laboratory conditions were studied aiming to use this eatables pelecipoda as a bioindicator of radioactive pollution in marine environment. The radionuclides 137 Cs, 131 I, 133 Ba, 51 Cr, 60 Co and 65 Zn were used from 3,7 to 37,0 kBq/aquarium concentrations. The tests 'in acquaria' were made with the following parameters: the concentration velocity, concentration factor and biological half-life. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Cristina Macedo; Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo; Teresa Cristina Sauer Ávila-Pires; Elane Guerreiro Giese; Jeannie Nascimento dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetolog...

  9. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Cristina Macedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  10. Threatened fishes of the world: Misgurnus fossilis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartvich, P.; Lusk, Stanislav; Rutkayová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2010), s. 39-40 ISSN 0378-1909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : threatened fishes * Europe * Cobitidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2010

  11. The coronary arteries of the agouti (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Singaretti de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe the coronary arteries in the agouti. Twelve hearts set, in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution, were used. The presence of left and right coronary arteries was observed in all hearts. The fi rst arose from the aorta, between the left auricle and the pulmonary trunk, and gave off into a circumfl ex branch, whichever was directed to the right surface of this viscerae, and an interventricular paraconal branch that went through the cardiac apex, on the left atrioventricular sulcus. In 91.6% of the cases, at its origin, the paraconal branch gave off a thick side branch to the left ventricle wall, and in 100% of the cases, went deep, characterizing a large myocardial bridge. In 8.4% of the cases, this thick side branch to the left ventricle wall originated directly from the left coronary artery and not from the paraconal branch, and alterations such those to the circumfl ex branch did not occur. Regarding the right coronary artery, the origin of this vessel was from the aorta, on the atrial surface, in the direction of the right ventricular border, going through the subsinuous interventricular sulcus as an interventricular subsinuous branch.

  12. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  13. Morfologia do figado da paca (Cuniculus Paca, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luis Martins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n2p109 Foram observados os elementos referentes à morfologia do fígado da paca (Cuniculus paca, segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira que apresenta alto potencial zootécnico. Utilizaram-se oito animais provenientes do setor de Animais Silvestres da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Campus de Jaboticabal - UNESP, devidamente credenciado pelo IBAMA como criatório experimental. Mediante procedimento de dissecação verificou-se que o fígado da paca localiza-se na porção cranial do abdome, imediatamente depois do diafragma, ao qual se prende pelos ligamentos triangulares, coronários e falciforme, com sua maior parte localizada à direita do plano médio. O fígado desse roedor apresenta a seguinte lobação: lobo lateral direito, lobo medial direito, lobo quadrado, lobo medial esquerdo e lobo lateral esquerdo, além do lobo caudado formado pelo processo papilar do lobo caudado e processo caudado do lobo caudado. A vesícula biliar encontra-se entre os lobos quadrado e medial direito. Fragmentos desse órgão foram colhidos, fixados e preparadas histologicamente, sendo as amostras analisadas à microscopia de luz. Microscopicamente observou-se que o tecido conjuntivo intralobular é escasso,sua constituição básica de hepatócitos poliédricos organizados em cordões se interpõem por sinusóides e na periferia do lóbulo encontram-se as tríades portais, constituídas pela veia porta, arteria hepática e ducto biliar.

  14. Morphology of the paca liver (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Esper Gomes de Figueiredo Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The elements related to the morphology of the liver of paca (Cuniculus paca, the second largest rodent of the Brazilian fauna, were observed; this species present zootechnical potential. Eight animals from the animals sector of Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias – Campus of Jaboticabal – UNESP, which is duly certified by IBAMA as an experimental breeding institute, were used. Through a dissection procedure, it was found that the liver of the paca is located in the cranial portion of the abdomen, immediately after the diaphragm, to which it is connected by the triangular, coronary, and falciform ligaments, having its bigger part located right to the medium plan. The liver of this rodent presents the following lobation: right lateral lobe, right medial lobe, quadrate lobe, left medial lobe, and left lateral lobe, besides the caudate lobe formed by the papillary process of caudate lobe and the caudate process of caudate lobe. Gallbladder is located between the quadrate and right medial lobes. Fragments of this organ were collected, fixed, and histologically prepared, being the samples analyzed through light microscopy. It was microscopically observed that intralobular connective tissue is scarce, basically it consists polyhedral hepatocytes organized into cords interposed between sinusoids and the portal triads are found in the lobe, consisting of the portal vein, hepatic artery, and biliary duct.

  15. Regulatory effects of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus on immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... Abbreviations: SRBC, sheep red blood cells; HC50, half of hemolysis ... housed, five per cage, and maintained on 12 h day and night cycle. .... therapy, useful in cancer treatment, were found to deteriorate the immunity. The yellow mealworm, as an important food supplement, contains abundant active.

  16. Performance of Solanum incunum Linnaeus as natural coagulant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2- concentrations for the treated water conforms to the Tanzanian Standards and WHO guidelines for drinking ... that S. incunum is promising as coagulant and disinfectant product for water purification. Key words: .... light greenish blue-grey.

  17. The feeding ecology of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus) from a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... ... Olufemi Olukolajo. Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. ... algae and microscopic invertebrates which they filter from mud and sand through ... freshwater lagoons and rivers (K. Kusemiju and B.E.. Emmanuel ..... disgorged their food following capture. Consequently, the.

  18. The Habitat of Yellow Mouth Turban Turbo Chrysostomus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekendarsi, E.

    2018-03-01

    In general, yellow mouth turban snail Turbo chrysostomus L. 1758 was found in intertidal and coral reef area. This animal is active at night (nocturnal) and settles the coral reef-flats area to do its activity as substrate. In doing its activity, yellow mouth turban snail can be found in the depth of 50 cm until 4 m of tidal area. The adult yellow mouth turban snails are found in great number at intertidal area’s border and at coastal area of coral reef-flats. Methodology that was used in this study is visual analysis (descriptive method), and divided into two parameters which were observed, i.e. abiotic and biotic. Abiotic components that were measured are; Oxygen (ppm), pH, Water Temperature (°C), Salinity (ppm), Ammonia (mg/L), Nitrate (mg/L), Nitrite (mg/L), and Calsium Carbonat (mg/L).Whereas, biotic components that were measured are; substrates, seaweeds, other organisms, and epilithon. The observation’s result of yellow mouth turban snail’s environmental condition showed: abiotic condition of the waters consists of oxygen 3-5 ppm, seawater pH 7-8, seawater temperature 23-26°C, and the salinity of 32-33 ppm. The Habitat of yellow mouth turban snail settled the reef-flats area that is overgrown covered by seaweed Sargassum sp. as the place to do its activity.

  19. Food preferences of the common tern, sterna hirundo (Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seabirds are important in the dynamics of marine ecosystems because they recycle important biomass of lower trophic level organisms. Their faeces and carcasses provide important food sources for terrestrial and benthic scavengers. As a result of the abundance of food resources along the coast of Ghana, common terns ...

  20. Status of windowpane oyster Placuna placenta (Linnaeus) population in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Clemente, S.

    from the vari- laysia, the major producing country is the Philippines, ety ofcurios available in the local market (PL.65). Even which exported US$36 million worth of Kapis prod- though the meat content is very less. it is of superior ucts during 1986... to the lack of knowledge about its edibility as ies Profile 1991). Major markets include U.S.A. Ja- well as non- availability in the local markets. pan, Germany and the most of Europe. Kapis shells are gathered from the wild by hand, diving and dredg...

  1. Histologia do intestino do avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Saviani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A despeito de o avestruz (Struthio camelus compartilhar muitas adaptações evolucionárias presentes em outras aves, estes animais apresentam algumas características anatômicas peculiares, como é o caso do seu tubo digestivo em que o cólon é maior que o ceco. Há algum tempo, essa ave tem sido explorada econômicamente e principalmente como fonte alternativa de proteína animal na alimentação humana. O presente trabalho analisou os aspectos histológicos do intestino de avestruzes produzidos em boas condições de manejo ambiental e nutricional. Foram utilizados 13 avestruzes, com 18 a 30 meses de idade, provenientes da empresa Brasil Ostrich, e encaminhados para o abate no Abatedouro Escola da Universidade de São Paulo, Campus Administrativo de Pirassununga. Os animais foram abatidos com pistola pneumática e, após a sangria e evisceração, foram colhidas amostras de diferentes segmentos do intestino: duodeno, jejuno, íleo e ceco duplo. Os materiais foram processados, corados pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina (H-E e examinados em microscopia de campo claro. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que as vilosidades estão presentes no duodeno, porém, não existem no ceco. Dos quatro segmentos intestinais examinados, o ceco foi o que apresentou maior número de células caliciformes. Os nódulos linfáticos e os linfócitos foram observados em todos os segmentos examinados. No ceco, os nódulos linfáticos se agregam para constituir a placa de Peyer. O plano histológico dos segmentos intestinais examinados seguiu o padrão observado nos mamíferos domésticos e em outras aves. O conhecimento da histologia dos intestinos desses animais pode oferecer subsídios para a avaliação comparativa de procedimentos de manejo ambiental e nutricional que possam aumentar os níveis de produção e produtividade dessa atividade pecuária.

  2. Food preferences of the common tern, sterna hirundo (Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While earlier studies of food habits of seabirds worldwide used examination of ... birds included marine and fresh or brackish water fish, crustaceans and worms. ... showed that S. hirundo utilized the Panbros lagoon fish resource in feeding, ...

  3. Ultrastructure of spermatozoa in cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, Krishnamoorthy; Selvakumar, Narasimman; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2018-02-01

    Ultrastructure and development of spermatozoa in cobia, Rachycentron canadum are described. Sections through the testis show different developmental stages viz, Spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm. Spermatozoa of R. canadum exhibit the configuration of uniflagellated, anacrosomal Type I aquasperm, typical for externally fertilizing fish. Mature spermatozoon is seen with a prominent head and long cylindrical flagellum. Ultrastructure of sperm shows invaginated 'U' shaped nucleus and other organelles. The mitochondrial matrix is electron-dense with irregular arrangement of the cristae. The nucleus reveals a deep invagination (nuclear fossa) in which the centriolar complex is located. The centriolar complex lies inside the nuclear fossa and is composed of a proximal and a distal centriole. The two centrioles are placed perpendicular to each other. The flagellum has a typical eukaryotic organization (microtubule doublets 9 + 2 pattern) and measures around 36.21 ± 0.42 μm in length. This study for the first time provides a comprehensive detail on the ultrastructure and developmental process of sperm in cobia, R. canadum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. THE ECOLOGY OF PATELLA LINNAEUS FROM THE CAPE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Patella comprises intertidal and infratidal animals, which- are important not only because of their relative abundance on most shores, but because of the marked effect they may have on the ecology of these shores. Despite this, little is known about their detailed ecology in South Africa. The present paper is an ...

  5. Identification of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isoelectric focusing methodology using LKB 2117 Multiphor 11 electrofocusing apparatus was used for electofocusing and identification of Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zilli. The electrographs of the two species suggest clear protein differences producing species specific patterns. There were variations in the protein ...

  6. NILOTICUS (LINNAEUS, 1758) EFFETS DE L'HORMONE : 17-A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effets de l'hormone sur les performances zootechniques des souches ... et de Biologie Aquatique (LEBA), UFR des Sciences et Gestion de .... Des pêches de contrôle hebdomadaire de croissance ... chaque happa ont fait l'objet de mesure de.

  7. [Digenea of Haliaeetus albicilla (Linnaeus, 1758) and Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758) from middle and north-western Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisińska, Elzbieta; Rzad, Izabella; Sitko, Jilji; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Budis, Halina

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-2008 eight white-tailed eagles and two ospreys from middle and north-western Poland were examined for the presence of parasites. Nine birds were infected with 5 digenean species: Conodiplostomum perlatum, Paracoenogonimus ovatus, Strigeafalconis, Metorchis crassiusculus and Nematostrigea serpens. M. crassiusculus was found for the first time in an eagle from Poland.

  8. РЕПРОДУКТИВНАЯ СПОСОБНОСТЬ САМОК GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS LINNAEUS, 1758 СРЕДНЕГО ДНЕСТРА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нина ФУЛГА

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available В условиях Среднего Днестра самки трехиглой колюшки выметывают три порции икры. Овуляция четвертой генерации яйцеклеток текущего сезона размножения не происходит из-за отсутствия условий для завершения накопления в них трофических веществ. Перед выметом очередной генерации яйцеклеток величина гонадо­соматического индекса достоверно уменьшается (Р≥0,95, что свидетельствует об уменьшении относительной массы яичников и количества желтковых ооцитов, формирующих вторую и третью генерации яйцеклеток дан­ного сезона размножения. Величина абсолютной плодовитости самок достоверно возрастает при увеличении длины и массы тела рыбы (Р≥0,95, тогда как значения относительной плодовитости достоверно уменьшаются с увеличением возраста производителей (Р≥0,99.REPRODUCTIVE CAPACITE OF GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS LINNAEUS, 1758 FEMALES FROM MIDDLE NISTRU In the context of middleDniesterthe three-spined stickleback female spawn three portions of eggs. The ovulation of the fourth generation of eggs in the current breeding season does not occur due to the lack of conditions for the completion of trophic substances accumulation. Before sweeping the next generation oocytes the value of gonadosomatic index is significantly decreasing (P≥0.95, which indicates a decrease in the relative weight of the ovaries and in the number of yolk oocytes

  9. Desiccation and cold storage of Galleria mellonella cadavers and effects on in vivo production of Steinernema carpocapsae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Huan; Feng, Qing-zhou; Cui, Xi-yang; Liu, Ri-yue; Sun, Yan-bo; Li, Guo-chao; Tan, Hao; Song, Dong-min; Liu, Wen; Ruan, Wei-bin; Harvey, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Direct application of insect cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) can successfully control target pest insects. Little is known about the effects of environmental factors (desiccation and temperature) on the production process for infective juveniles (IJ) in insects.

  10. Cultivo in vivo y método de almacenamiento para juveniles infectivos de Steinernema feltiae (Rhabdita: Steinernematidae Cultivation in vivo and method of storage for infective juveniles of Steinernema feltiae (Rhabdita: Stenemematidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáenz Adriana

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Steinemema feltiae, es un entomonemátodo que afecta principalmente plagas asociadas al suelo, su ciclo tiene dos generaciones y se obtiene un gran número de juveniles infectivos (J3 en cultivos in vivo, utilizando insectos hospederos. Por ello, de acuerdo a estas caracteristicas se evalúo la producción de J3 a partir de suspensiones
    ajustadas de 100, 300, 500, 700 y 1000 J3 en larvas de último instar de la polilla mayor de las colmenas Galleria mellonella y polilla menor de las colmenas Achroia grisella, además de almacenar concentraciones de 10,000,30,000 y 50,000 J3 en suelo esterilizado, pasteurizado y natural -sin tratamiento- por seis meses, para determinar la viabilidad y patogenicidad de los juveniles infectivos. El diseño experimental utilizado para el cultivo in vivo correspondió
    a un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial de 3x6 con diez repeticiones, para G. mellonella y un diseño completamente alzar con seis tratamientos y 10 repeticiones para A. grisella. En cuanto al diseño utilizado para almacenamiento, correspondió a un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial de 3x3 con submuestreo. Los resultados obtenidos del cultivo in vivo, presentan diferencias en tamaño/peso de larvas de la polilla mayor de las colmenas y la producción de juveniles infectivos, siendo el tamaño
    pequeño el de menor producción con 510,55 13/larvas respecto al de los otros dos tamaños. EnA. grisella, no existen diferencias significadas entre las concentraciones y la cantidad de juveniles infectivos cosechados. En cuanto a la sobrevivencia de los juveniles almacenados en suelo presenta diferencias significativas en concentración y tiempo de almacenamiento, además el tratamiento al suelo no influye en la sobrevivencia de los 13. Sin embargo recuperar los 13 a partir de esta forma de almacenamiento es baja, no obstante, la patogenicidad de los 13 recuperados es superior en suelo pasteurizado que en los

  11. Effect of mini-sprinkler irrigation system on Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae infective juvenile Efeito do sistema de irrigação por microaspersão em juvenis infectantes de Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Lara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are currently being used as successful biological control agents of soil-dwelling insect pests. Previous field and greenhouse studies demonstrated that application techniques and non-biotic factors (temperature and pressure have a significant effect on EPNs efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of an irrigation spray application system on the viability, infectivity and host search capability of Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae infective juveniles (IJ. Two assays were proposed. Their viability was evaluated under the microscope after the IJ passed through the irrigation system. Infectivity on Galleria mellonella larvae, and host search capability, as evidenced by larval mortality, were evaluated in containers (Experiment 1. In the field (Experiment 2, mortality of G. mellonella larvae was evaluated under different nematode concentrations (0, 100,000, 300,000 and 500,000 IJ per tree. No differences were recorded on the viability, infectivity and host search capability of the IJ in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, differences were recorded among the different concentrations used (p Nematóides entomopatogênicos (NEPs vêm sendo usados com sucesso como agentes do controle biológico de pragas de solo. Estudos anteriores mostraram que técnicas de aplicação e fatores abióticos (temperatura e pressão afetam a eficiência dos NEPs em testes de campo e casa-de-vegetação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de condições geradas por um sistema de irrigação por microaspersão, na viabilidade, infectividade e na capacidade de busca de hospedeiros nos juvenis infectantes (JI de Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae. Dois experimentos foram propostos. A viabilidade dos juvenis infectantes (JI foi avaliada no microscópio imediatamente após sua passagem pelo sistema de irrigação. A infectividade e a capacidade de busca pelo

  12. Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Cameron; Lee, Sangmi; Jayeola, Victor; Kathariou, Sophia

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause severe disease (listeriosis) in susceptible individuals. It is ubiquitous in the environment and often exhibits resistance to heavy metals. One of the determinants that enables Listeria to tolerate exposure to cadmium is the cadAC efflux system, with CadA being a P-type ATPase. Three different cadA genes (designated cadA1 to cadA3 ) were previously characterized in L. monocytogenes A novel putative cadmium resistance gene ( cadA4 ) was recently identified through whole-genome sequencing, but experimental confirmation for its involvement in cadmium resistance is lacking. In this study, we characterized cadA4 in L. monocytogenes strain F8027, a cadmium-resistant strain of serotype 4b. By screening a mariner-based transposon library of this strain, we identified a mutant with reduced tolerance to cadmium and that harbored a single transposon insertion in cadA4 The tolerance to cadmium was restored by genetic complementation with the cadmium resistance cassette ( cadA4C ), and enhanced cadmium tolerance was conferred to two unrelated cadmium-sensitive strains via heterologous complementation with cadA4C Cadmium exposure induced cadA4 expression, even at noninhibitory levels. Virulence assessments in the Galleria mellonella model suggested that a functional cadA4 suppressed virulence, potentially promoting commensal colonization of the insect larvae. Biofilm assays suggested that cadA4 inactivation reduced biofilm formation. These data not only confirm cadA4 as a novel cadmium resistance determinant in L. monocytogenes but also provide evidence for roles in virulence and biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular foodborne pathogen causing the disease listeriosis, which is responsible for numerous hospitalizations and deaths every year. Among the adaptations that enable the survival of Listeria in the environment are the abilities to persist in biofilms, grow in the cold, and

  13. Predicting Spatial Distribution of Key Honeybee Pests in Kenya Using Remotely Sensed and Bioclimatic Variables: Key Honeybee Pests Distribution Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Makori

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bee keeping is indispensable to global food production. It is an alternate income source, especially in rural underdeveloped African settlements, and an important forest conservation incentive. However, dwindling honeybee colonies around the world are attributed to pests and diseases whose spatial distribution and influences are not well established. In this study, we used remotely sensed data to improve the reliability of pest ecological niche (EN models to attain reliable pest distribution maps. Occurrence data on four pests (Aethina tumida, Galleria mellonella, Oplostomus haroldi and Varroa destructor were collected from apiaries within four main agro-ecological regions responsible for over 80% of Kenya’s bee keeping. Africlim bioclimatic and derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI variables were used to model their ecological niches using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt. Combined precipitation variables had a high positive logit influence on all remotely sensed and biotic models’ performance. Remotely sensed vegetation variables had a substantial effect on the model, contributing up to 40.8% for G. mellonella and regions with high rainfall seasonality were predicted to be high-risk areas. Projections (to 2055 indicated that, with the current climate change trend, these regions will experience increased honeybee pest risk. We conclude that honeybee pests could be modelled using bioclimatic data and remotely sensed variables in MaxEnt. Although the bioclimatic data were most relevant in all model results, incorporating vegetation seasonality variables to improve mapping the ‘actual’ habitat of key honeybee pests and to identify risk and containment zones needs to be further investigated.

  14. Evaluation of combination therapy for Burkholderia cenocepacia lung infection in different in vitro and in vivo models.

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    Freija Van den Driessche

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for life-threatening infections in cystic fibrosis patients. B. cenocepacia is extremely resistant towards antibiotics and therapy is complicated by its ability to form biofilms. We investigated the efficacy of an alternative antimicrobial strategy for B. cenocepacia lung infections using in vitro and in vivo models. A screening of the NIH Clinical Collection 1&2 was performed against B. cenocepacia biofilms formed in 96-well microtiter plates in the presence of tobramycin to identify repurposing candidates with potentiator activity. The efficacy of selected hits was evaluated in a three-dimensional (3D organotypic human lung epithelial cell culture model. The in vivo effect was evaluated in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella and in a murine B. cenocepacia lung infection model. The screening resulted in 60 hits that potentiated the activity of tobramycin against B. cenocepacia biofilms, including four imidazoles of which econazole and miconazole were selected for further investigation. However, a potentiator effect was not observed in the 3D organotypic human lung epithelial cell culture model. Combination treatment was also not able to increase survival of infected G. mellonella. Also in mice, there was no added value for the combination treatment. Although potentiators of tobramycin with activity against biofilms of B. cenocepacia were identified in a repurposing screen, the in vitro activity could not be confirmed nor in a more sophisticated in vitro model, neither in vivo. This stresses the importance of validating hits resulting from in vitro studies in physiologically relevant model systems.

  15. An Insecticidal Compound Produced by an Insect-Pathogenic Bacterium Suppresses Host Defenses through Phenoloxidase Inhibition

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    Ihsan Ullah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A bioassay-guided column chromatographic strategy was adopted in the present study to fractionate the culture extract of Photorhabdus temperata M1021 to identify potential insecticidal and antimicrobial compounds. An ethyl acetate (EtOAc culture extract of P. temperata was assayed against Galleria mellonella larvae through intra-hemocoel injection and exhibited 100% insect mortality within 60 h. The EtOAc fraction and an isolated compound exhibited phenoloxidase (PO inhibition of up to 60% and 63%, respectively. The compound was identified as 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid, PA by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. PA exhibited insecticidal activity against G. mellonella in a dose-dependent manner, and 100% insect mortality was observed at 108 h after injection of 1 M PA. In a PO inhibition assay, 0.5 and 1 M concentrations of PA were found to inhibit PO activity by 74% and 82%, respectively; and in a melanotic nodule formation assay, nodule formation was significantly inhibited (27 and 10 nodules by PA (0.5 and 1 M, respectively. PA was furthermore found to have substantial antioxidant activity and maximum antioxidant activity was 64.7% for 0.5 M PA as compare to control. Antibacterial activity was assessed by The MIC values ranged from 0.1 M to 0.5 M of PA. This study reports a multifunctional PA, a potential insecticidal agent, could a factor of insect mortality along with other toxins produced by P. temperata M1021.

  16. In vivo interactions of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria spp. and Metarhizium anisopliae with selected opportunistic soil fungi of sugarcane ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, N; Preseetha, M; Hari, K; Santhalakshmi, G; Bai, K Subadra

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, the interactions of entomopathogenic fungi viz., Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria brongniartii and Metarhizium anisopliae among themselves and three other opportunistic soil fungi from the sugarcane ecosystem namely, Fusarium saachari, Aspergillus sp. and Penecillium sp. were assayed in vivo against Galleria mellonella larvae. The tested fungi were co-applied on IV instar G. mellonella @ 1 x 10(7) ml(-1), in combinations of two, at the interval of 24 hrs either preceding or succeeding each otherto assess their efficacy and sporulation rates. Results showed that often mortality rates did not correspond to the spore harvest of the mortality agent and presence of other fungus may be antagonistic. The efficacy of B. bassiana (90%) and B. brongniartii (100%) was not enhanced further but was negatively affected in most combinations with other fungi. In case of M. anisopliae compatibility was higher, resulting in higher mortality by application of B. bassiana before (100%) or after (83.3%) M. anisopliae than when it was applied alone (70%). During sporulation, B. bassiana faced the most intense competition from M. anisopliae (2.75 x 10(6) larva(-1)) and enhancement due to F sacchari irrespective of sequence of application. In case of B. brongniartii, sporulation was lowest in the combination of B. brongniartiipreceding M. anisopliae (1.83 x10(6) larva(-1)) and B. brongniartii succeeding B. bassiana (1.58 x 10(6) larva(-1)). Of all fungi tested, except F sacchari (65.33 x 10(6) larva(-1)) all the other species affected sporulation of M. ansiopliae with the least in treatment of B. bassiana application following M. anisopliae. Similar kind of interaction was observed during sporulation of soil fungi when combined with entomopathogenic fungi, though individually they could not cause mortality of larvae.

  17. Effect of spray volume on the deposition, viability and infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes in a foliar spray on vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusselman, Eva; Beck, Bert; Pollet, Sabien; Temmerman, Femke; Spanoghe, Pieter; Moens, Maurice; Nuyttens, David

    2012-10-01

    Spray volume can influence the amount of free water on the leaf surface and subsequently the ability of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) to move. In this study, an investigation was made of the effect of spray volume (548, 730 and 1095 L ha(-1) ) on the deposition, viability and infectivity of EPNs against Galleria mellonella on savoy cabbage, cauliflower and leek. Increasing spray volume decreased nematode deposition on 7.1 cm2 leek leaf discs at a 15° angle with the spray nozzle. Although the number of living nematodes observed on leek after 240 min of exposure was not significantly different between the low-volume application (548 L ha(-1) ) and the high-volume application (1095 L ha(-1) ), a greater infectivity was obtained in the latter application. The higher number of droplets deposited on the leek discs in the high-volume application may have stimulated nematode movement. No significant effect of spray volume was observed on the relative deposition of Steinernema carpocapsae on the bottom side of cauliflower and savoy cabbage leaf discs. In spite of the low S. carpocapsae deposition on the bottom side of the savoy cabbage discs, high infectivity was obtained against G. mellonella. Using the lowest spray volume on savoy cabbage, infectivity decreased with increasing exposure time, while infectivity was not affected by exposure time when a spray volume of 730 L ha(-1) or more was used. Spray volume is an important application parameter, as it affects nematode infectivity. Future research should investigate the effect of spray volume in the field and its influence on the effect of adjuvants. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Virulence Characterization of Salmonella enterica by a New Microarray: Detection and Evaluation of the Cytolethal Distending Toxin Gene Activity in the Unusual Host S. Typhimurium.

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    Rui Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic foodborne pathogen that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans. We assessed the virulence potential of one-hundred and six Salmonella strains isolated from food animals and products. A high through-put virulence genes microarray demonstrated Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPI and adherence genes were highly conserved, while prophages and virulence plasmid genes were variably present. Isolates were grouped by serotype, and virulence plasmids separated S. Typhimurium in two clusters. Atypical microarray results lead to whole genome sequencing (WGS of S. Infantis Sal147, which identified deletion of thirty-eight SPI-1 genes. Sal147 was unable to invade HeLa cells and showed reduced mortality in Galleria mellonella infection model, in comparison to a SPI-1 harbouring S. Infantis. Microarray and WGS of S. Typhimurium Sal199, established for the first time in S. Typhimurium presence of cdtB and other Typhi-related genes. Characterization of Sal199 showed cdtB genes were upstream of transposase IS911, and co-expressed with other Typhi-related genes. Cell cycle arrest, cytoplasmic distension, and nuclear enlargement were detected in HeLa cells infected by Sal199, but not with S. Typhimurium LT2. Increased mortality of Galleria was detected on infection with Sal199 compared to LT2. Thus, Salmonella isolates were rapidly characterized using a high through-put microarray; helping to identify unusual virulence features which were corroborated by further characterisation. This work demonstrates that the use of suitable screening methods for Salmonella virulence can help assess the potential risk associated with certain Salmonella to humans. Incorporation of such methodology into surveillance could help reduce the risk of emergence of epidemic Salmonella strains.

  19. Rapamycin exerts antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo against Mucor circinelloides via FKBP12-dependent inhibition of Tor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Robert J; Shertz, Cecelia A; Lee, Soo Chan; Heitman, Joseph; Cardenas, Maria E

    2012-03-01

    The zygomycete Mucor circinelloides is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that commonly infects patients with malignancies, diabetes mellitus, and solid organ transplants. Despite the widespread use of antifungal therapy in the management of zygomycosis, the incidence of infections continues to rise among immunocompromised individuals. In this study, we established that the target and mechanism of antifungal action of the immunosuppressant rapamycin in M. circinelloides are mediated via conserved complexes with FKBP12 and a Tor homolog. We found that spontaneous mutations that disrupted conserved residues in FKBP12 conferred rapamycin and FK506 resistance. Disruption of the FKBP12-encoding gene, fkbA, also conferred rapamycin and FK506 resistance. Expression of M. circinelloides FKBP12 (McFKBP12) complemented a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain lacking FKBP12 to restore rapamycin sensitivity. Expression of the McTor FKBP12-rapamycin binding (FRB) domain conferred rapamycin resistance in S. cerevisiae, and McFKBP12 interacted in a rapamycin-dependent fashion with the McTor FRB domain in a yeast two-hybrid assay, validating McFKBP12 and McTor as conserved targets of rapamycin. We showed that in vitro, rapamycin exhibited potent growth inhibitory activity against M. circinelloides. In a Galleria mellonella model of systemic mucormycosis, rapamycin improved survival by 50%, suggesting that rapamycin and nonimmunosuppressive analogs have the potential to be developed as novel antifungal therapies for treatment of patients with mucormycosis.

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to lungs of cystic fibrosis patients leads to lowered resistance to phage and protist enemies.

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    Ville-Petri Friman

    Full Text Available Pathogenic life styles can lead to highly specialized interactions with host species, potentially resulting in fitness trade-offs in other ecological contexts. Here we studied how adaptation of the environmentally transmitted bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to cystic fibrosis (CF patients affects its survival in the presence of natural phage (14/1, ΦKZ, PNM and PT7 and protist (Tetrahymena thermophila and Acanthamoebae polyphaga enemies. We found that most of the bacteria isolated from relatively recently intermittently colonised patients (1-25 months, were innately phage-resistant and highly toxic for protists. In contrast, bacteria isolated from long time chronically infected patients (2-23 years, were less efficient in both resisting phages and killing protists. Moreover, chronic isolates showed reduced killing of wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella probably due to weaker in vitro growth and protease expression. These results suggest that P. aeruginosa long-term adaptation to CF-lungs could trade off with its survival in aquatic environmental reservoirs in the presence of microbial enemies, while lowered virulence could reduce pathogen opportunities to infect insect vectors; factors that are both likely to result in poorer environmental transmission. From an applied perspective, phage therapy could be useful against chronic P. aeruginosa lung infections that are often characterized by multidrug resistance: chronic isolates were least resistant to phages and their poor growth will likely slow down the emergence of beneficial resistance mutations.

  1. Identification and Characterization of the Insecticidal Toxin “Makes Caterpillars Floppy” in Photorhabdus temperata M1021 Using a Cosmid Library

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    Ihsan Ullah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Photorhabdus temperata is an entomopathogenic enterobacterium; it is a nematode symbiont that possesses pathogenicity islands involved in insect virulence. Herein, we constructed a P. temperata M1021 cosmid library in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue MRF` and obtained 7.14 × 105 clones. However, only 1020 physiologically active clones were screened for insect virulence factors by injection of each E. coli cosmid clone into Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor larvae. A single cosmid clone, PtC1015, was consequently selected due to its characteristic virulent properties, e.g., loss of body turgor followed by death of larvae when the clone was injected into the hemocoel. The sequence alignment against the available sequences in Swiss-Prot and NCBI databases, confirmed the presence of the mcf gene homolog in the genome of P. temperata M1021 showing 85% homology and 98% query coverage with the P. luminescens counterpart. Furthermore, a 2932 amino acid long Mcf protein revealed limited similarity with three protein domains. The N-terminus of the Mcf encompassed consensus sequence for a BH3 domain, the central region revealed similarity to toxin B, and the C-terminus of Mcf revealed similarity to the bacterial export domain of ApxIVA, an RTX-like toxin. In short, the Mcf toxin is likely to play a role in the elimination of insect pests, making it a promising model for use in the agricultural field.

  2. Identification and Characterization of the Insecticidal Toxin “Makes Caterpillars Floppy” in Photorhabdus temperata M1021 Using a Cosmid Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Ihsan; Jang, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Min-Sung; Shin, Jin-Ho; Park, Gun-Seok; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Hong, Sung-Jun; Jung, Byung-Kwon; Choi, JungBae; Park, YeongJun; Kwak, Yunyoung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Photorhabdus temperata is an entomopathogenic enterobacterium; it is a nematode symbiont that possesses pathogenicity islands involved in insect virulence. Herein, we constructed a P. temperata M1021 cosmid library in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue MRF` and obtained 7.14 × 105 clones. However, only 1020 physiologically active clones were screened for insect virulence factors by injection of each E. coli cosmid clone into Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor larvae. A single cosmid clone, PtC1015, was consequently selected due to its characteristic virulent properties, e.g., loss of body turgor followed by death of larvae when the clone was injected into the hemocoel. The sequence alignment against the available sequences in Swiss-Prot and NCBI databases, confirmed the presence of the mcf gene homolog in the genome of P. temperata M1021 showing 85% homology and 98% query coverage with the P. luminescens counterpart. Furthermore, a 2932 amino acid long Mcf protein revealed limited similarity with three protein domains. The N-terminus of the Mcf encompassed consensus sequence for a BH3 domain, the central region revealed similarity to toxin B, and the C-terminus of Mcf revealed similarity to the bacterial export domain of ApxIVA, an RTX-like toxin. In short, the Mcf toxin is likely to play a role in the elimination of insect pests, making it a promising model for use in the agricultural field. PMID:25014195

  3. Models hosts for the study of oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2012-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused by yeast of the Candida genus, primarily Candida albicans. It is generally associated with predisposing factors such as the use of immunosuppressive agents, antibiotics, prostheses, and xerostomia. The development of research in animal models is extremely important for understanding the nature of the fungal pathogenicity, host interactions, and treatment of oral mucosal Candida infections. Many oral candidiasis models in rats and mice have been developed with antibiotic administration, induction of xerostomia, treatment with immunosuppressive agents, or the use of germ-free animals, and all these models has both benefits and limitations. Over the past decade, invertebrate model hosts, including Galleria mellonella, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster, have been used for the study of Candida pathogenesis. These invertebrate systems offer a number of advantages over mammalian vertebrate models, predominantly because they allow the study of strain collections without the ethical considerations associated with studies in mammals. Thus, the invertebrate models may be useful to understanding of pathogenicity of Candida isolates from the oral cavity, interactions of oral microorganisms, and study of new antifungal compounds for oral candidiasis.

  4. A novel small molecule methyltransferase is important for virulence in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissina, Elena; Weiss, David; Young, Brian; Rella, Antonella; Cheung-Ong, Kahlin; Del Poeta, Maurizio; Clarke, Steven G; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2013-12-20

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals. Despite its significant health impact, our understanding of C. albicans pathogenicity is limited, particularly at the molecular level. One of the largely understudied enzyme families in C. albicans are small molecule AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases (smMTases), which are important for maintenance of cellular homeostasis by clearing toxic chemicals, generating novel cellular intermediates, and regulating intra- and interspecies interactions. In this study, we demonstrated that C. albicans Crg1 (CaCrg1) is a bona fide smMTase that interacts with the toxin in vitro and in vivo. We report that CaCrg1 is important for virulence-related processes such as adhesion, hyphal elongation, and membrane trafficking. Biochemical and genetic analyses showed that CaCrg1 plays a role in the complex sphingolipid pathway: it binds to exogenous short-chain ceramides in vitro and interacts genetically with genes of glucosylceramide pathway, and the deletion of CaCRG1 leads to significant changes in the abundance of phytoceramides. Finally we found that this novel lipid-related smMTase is required for virulence in the waxmoth Galleria mellonella, a model of infection.

  5. First complete and productive cell culture model for members of the genus Iridovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Susan M; Vigerust, David J; Perales-Hull, Marsha R; Lodhi, Sundus A; Viravathana, Polrit; Bilimoria, Shän L

    2012-11-01

    Chilo iridescent virus (CIV; the type strain of the genus Iridovirus) replicates productively in larvae of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis. This study focuses on characterizing productive infections of a boll weevil cell line, BRL-AG-3A (AG3A), starting with CIV reared in the waxworm, Galleria mellonella. We show that CIV can be continually and productively passaged to high titer in AG3A cells. The replication of larval-derived CIV in AG3A was analyzed by observing viral DNA replication and restriction endonuclease digestion profiles, morphogenesis, and infectivity using TCID(50) assays with AG3A as an indicator cell line. The data showed that virus passaged in the AG3A host is stable. AG3A cells are more efficient than previously utilized CF-124T cells from Choristoneura fumiferana. This system constitutes a superior model for cellular and molecular studies on CIV; it represents the first complete, productive cell culture model for the replication of CIV or any member of the genus Iridovirus.

  6. Characterization of surface antigen protein 1 (SurA1) from Acinetobacter baumannii and its role in virulence and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Hu, Pan; Cai, Ling; Fu, Bao-Quan; Li, Yan-Song; Lu, Shi-Ying; Liu, Nan-Nan; Ma, Xiao-Long; Chi, Dan; Chang, Jiang; Shui, Yi-Ming; Li, Zhao-Hui; Ahmad, Waqas; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Hong-Lin

    2016-04-15

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacillus that causes nosocomial infections, such as bacteremia, pneumonia, and meningitis and urinary tract and wound infections. In the present study, the surface antigen protein 1 (SurA1) gene of A. baumannii strain CCGGD201101 was identified, cloned and expressed, and then its roles in fitness and virulence were investigated. Virulence was observed in the human lung cancer cell lines A549 and HEp-2 at one week after treatment with recombinant SurA1. One isogenic SurA1 knock-out strain, GR0015, which was derived from the A. baumannii strain CCGGD201101 isolated from diseased chicks in a previous study, highlighted the effect of SurA1 on fitness and growth. Its growth rate in LB broth and killing activity in human sera were significantly decreased compared with strain CCGGD201101. In the Galleria mellonella insect model, the isogenic SurA1 knock-out strain exhibited a lower survival rate and decreased dissemination. These results suggest that SurA1 plays an important role in the fitness and virulence of A. baumannii. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential Role of the T6SS in Acinetobacter baumannii Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault-Grunenwald, Marie-Laure; Borges, Vitor; Charpentier, Xavier; Limansky, Adriana S.; Gomes, João Paulo; Viale, Alejandro M.; Salcedo, Suzana P.

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, are an increasing burden in hospitals worldwide with an alarming spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Herein, we compared a type strain (ATCC17978), a non-clinical isolate (DSM30011) and MDR strains of A. baumannii implicated in hospital outbreaks (Ab242, Ab244 and Ab825), revealing distinct patterns of type VI secretion system (T6SS) functionality. The T6SS genomic locus is present and was actively transcribed in all of the above strains. However, only the A. baumannii DSM30011 strain was capable of killing Escherichia coli in a T6SS-dependent manner, unlike the clinical isolates, which failed to display an active T6SS in vitro. In addition, DSM30011 was able to outcompete ATCC17978 as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, bacterial pathogens relevant in mixed nosocomial infections. Finally, we found that the T6SS of DSM30011 is required for host colonization of the model organism Galleria mellonella suggesting that this system could play an important role in A. baumannii virulence in a strain-specific manner. PMID:26401654

  8. A nonribosomal peptide synthetase (Pes1) confers protection against oxidative stress in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Emer P; Reiber, Kathrin; Neville, Claire; Scheibner, Olaf; Kavanagh, Kevin; Doyle, Sean

    2006-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an important human fungal pathogen. The Aspergillus fumigatus genome contains 14 nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes, potentially responsible for generating metabolites that contribute to organismal virulence. Differential expression of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene, pes1, in four strains of Aspergillus fumigatus was observed. The pattern of pes1 expression differed from that of a putative siderophore synthetase gene, sidD, and so is unlikely to be involved in iron acquisition. The Pes1 protein (expected molecular mass 698 kDa) was partially purified and identified by immunoreactivity, peptide mass fingerprinting (36% sequence coverage) and MALDI LIFT-TOF/TOF MS (four internal peptides sequenced). A pes1 disruption mutant (delta pes1) of Aspergillus fumigatus strain 293.1 was generated and confirmed by Southern and western analysis, in addition to RT-PCR. The delta pes1 mutant also showed significantly reduced virulence in the Galleria mellonella model system (P < 0.001) and increased sensitivity to oxidative stress (P = 0.002) in culture and during neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis. In addition, the mutant exhibited altered conidial surface morphology and hydrophilicity, compared to Aspergillus fumigatus 293.1. It is concluded that pes1 contributes to improved fungal tolerance against oxidative stress, mediated by the conidial phenotype, during the infection process.

  9. Studies on the Virome of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Reveal Novel dsRNA Elements and Mild Hypervirulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta-Loizou, Ioly; Coutts, Robert H A

    2017-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has a wide host range and is used as a biocontrol agent against arthropod pests. Mycoviruses have been described in phytopathogenic fungi while in entomopathogenic fungi their presence has been reported only rarely. Here we show that 21.3% of a collection of B. bassiana isolates sourced from worldwide locations, harbor dsRNA elements. Molecular characterization of these elements revealed the prevalence of mycoviruses belonging to the Partitiviridae and Totiviridae families, the smallest reported virus to date, belonging to the family Narnaviridae, and viruses unassigned to a family or genus. Of particular importance is the discovery of members of a newly proposed family Polymycoviridae in B. bassiana. Polymycoviruses, previously designated as tetramycoviruses, consist of four non-conventionally encapsidated capped dsRNAs. The presence of additional non-homologous genomic segments in B. bassiana polymycoviruses and other fungi illustrates the unprecedented dynamic nature of the viral genome. Finally, a comparison of virus-free and virus-infected isogenic lines derived from an exemplar B. bassiana isolate revealed a mild hypervirulent effect of mycoviruses on the growth of their host isolate and on its pathogenicity against the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella, highlighting for the first time the potential of mycoviruses as enhancers of biocontrol agents.

  10. Potential of ozone as a fumigant to control pests in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) hives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R R

    2011-04-01

    Ozone is a powerful oxidant capable of killing insects and microorganisms, and eliminating odors, taste, and color. Thus, it could be useful as a fumigant to decontaminate honey comb between uses. The experiments here are intended to determine the exposure levels required to kill an insect pest and spore forming bee pathogens. Ozone was effective against greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), even on naturally infested comb. Neonates and adults were the easiest life stages to kill, requiring only a few hours of exposure, whereas eggs required a 48-h exposure (at 460-920 mg O3/m3). Two honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), pathogens, Ascosphaera apis (a fungus that causes chalkbrood) and Paenibacillus larvae (a bacterium that causes American foulbrood), also were killed with ozone. These pathogens required much higher concentrations (3200 and 8560 mg O3/m3, respectively) and longer exposure periods (3 d) than needed to control the insects. P. larvae was effectively sterilized only when these conditions were combined with high temperature (50 degrees C) and humidity (> or =75% RH). Thus, ozone shows potential as a fumigant for bee nesting materials, but further research is needed to evaluate its acceptability and efficacy in the field. The need for a reliable method to decontaminate honey bee nesting materials as part of an overall bee health management system is discussed.

  11. The Acinetobacter baumannii Two-Component System AdeRS Regulates Genes Required for Multidrug Efflux, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence in a Strain-Specific Manner

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    Grace E. Richmond

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii is able to persist in the environment and is often multidrug resistant (MDR, causing difficulties in the treatment of infections. Here, we show that the two-component system AdeRS, which regulates the production of the AdeABC multidrug resistance efflux pump, is required for the formation of a protective biofilm in an ex vivo porcine mucosal model, which mimics a natural infection of the human epithelium. Interestingly, deletion of adeB impacted only on the ability of strain AYE to form a biofilm on plastic and only on the virulence of strain Singapore 1 for Galleria mellonella. RNA-Seq revealed that loss of AdeRS or AdeB significantly altered the transcriptional landscape, resulting in the changed expression of many genes, notably those associated with antimicrobial resistance and virulence interactions. For example, A. baumannii lacking AdeRS displayed decreased expression of adeABC, pil genes, com genes, and a pgaC-like gene, whereas loss of AdeB resulted in increased expression of pil and com genes and decreased expression of ferric acinetobactin transport system genes. These data define the scope of AdeRS-mediated regulation, show that changes in the production of AdeABC mediate important phenotypes controlled by AdeRS, and suggest that AdeABC is a viable target for antimicrobial drug and antibiofilm discovery.

  12. Diversity and abundance of lepidopteran populations from selected crops of district faisalabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalik, S.; Rana, S.A.; Khan, H.A.; Ashfaq, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lepidopterans are represented by one of the most diverse group of insects. They are phytophagous as well as pollinators at the same time. During present study four crops i.e Wheat, Fodder, Brassica and Vegetables were sampled to assess the diversity and abundance of Lepidopteran populations. A total of 2811 specimens belonging to 14 species and 6 families were recorded. Pieris brassicae (29.46%) was the dominant species followed by Trichoplusia ni (19.28%), Helicoverpa Zea (11.78%), Helicoverpa armigera (11.60%), Spodoptera exigua (6.65%), Psedoplusia includes (5.09%), Spodoptera litura (3.81%), Agrotis ipsilon (4.87%), Plutella xylostella (2.92%), Lymatria dispar (2.24%), Pieris rapae (0.92%), Galleria mellonella (0.71%), Evergestris rimosalis (0.53%) and Menduca sexta (0.14%). Significant differences were observed among different crops by applying Shannon Diversity Index and T- test. CA (Cluster analysis) represented the species association with different crops. Majority of the species showed association with Vegetables and Fodder and least association was observed with Wheat. Such types of studies are necessary to design integrated pest management programs to control these pests. (author)

  13. Purification and Properties of an Insecticidal Metalloprotease Produced by Photorhabdus luminescens Strain 0805-P5G, the Entomopathogenic Nematode Symbiont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Chia Hsieh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 13 Photorhabdus luminescens strains were screened for proteolytic activity. The P. luminescens strain 0805-P5G had the highest activity on both skim milk and gelatin plates. The protease was purified to electrophoretical homogeneity by using a two-step column chromatographic procedure. It had a molecular weight of 51.8 kDa, as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The optimum pH, temperature, as well as pH and thermal stabilities were 8, 60 °C, 5–10, and 14–60 °C, respectively. It was completely inhibited by EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline. Bioassay of the purified protease against Galleria mellonella by injection showed high insecticidal activity. The protease also showed high oral toxicity to the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella of a Taiwan field-collected strain, but low toxicity to an American strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that the purified protease of P. luminescens has direct toxicity to P. xylostella and biopesticide potentiality.

  14. Edible insects - species suitable for entomophagy under condition of Czech Republic

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    Martina Bednářová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2002, when the first lecture on entomophagy took place at Mendel University in Brno, till today, participants of these educational lectures were asked to fill questionnaires in order to evaluate interest in entomophagy in Czech Republic and pick suitable species. Analyses of nutritional value of selected species were also performed during this time. The questionnaire was divided into several parts - suitable species, sensory properties, difficulty of breeding and processing and respondents own attitude to the consumption of insect species. For the purpose of this study the questionnaire was evaluated using the semantic differential, so to create a comprehensive picture of each insect species. Based on evaluation of more than 5,000 questionnaires, certain developmental stages of seven species of insect were selected for further evaluation: Tenebrio molitor (TM larvae, Zophobas morio (ZM larvae, Gryllus assimillis (GA nymphs, Locusta migratoria (LM nymphs, Galleria mellonella (GM larvae, Bombyx mori (BM Pupa, Apis mellifera (AM bee brood, while cockroaches were completely excluded for use in entomophagy. Although they are easy to breed and are available all year-round, consumers showed relatively great disgust. For all of these species, basic nutritional values were analysed, as well as content of amino acids and fattty acids. All parameters were statistically evaluated using ANOVA-1. Each species appears to be suitable for entomophagy for a different reason. Generally speaking, AM, TM and GA were best accepted considering the sensory aspect, nutritional values are interesting especially in BM and GM and TM wins with simplicity of its breeding.

  15. Pathogenicity of pan-drug-resistant Serratia marcescens harbouring blaNDM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Teresa M; Göttig, Stephan; Mark, Laura; Christ, Sara; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Wichelhaus, Thomas A; Hamprecht, Axel

    2015-04-01

    To characterize a pan-drug-resistant Serratia marcescens clinical isolate carrying the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-1. The presence of β-lactamase genes was examined by PCR and sequencing. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by antibiotic gradient test. Transformation assays, transconjugation assays, PFGE and PCR-based replicon typing were used for plasmid analysis. Horizontal gene transfer was evaluated by liquid mating using Escherichia coli J53 as a recipient. Pathogenicity of NDM-1 expressing S. marcescens was analysed using the Galleria mellonella infection model. S. marcescens isolate SM1890 was non-susceptible to all tested antibiotics, with minocycline retaining intermediate activity. blaNDM-1 was located on a 140 kb IncA/C-type plasmid which was transferable to E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by conjugation. The LD50 of the NDM-positive, SM1890 isolate was higher than that of other, NDM-1 negative, S. marcescens strains. The presence of a blaNDM-1-harbouring IncA/C plasmid resulted in marked resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, but had no significant effect on virulence of isogenic strains. Because of the intrinsic resistance of S. marcescens to colistin and reduced susceptibility to tigecycline, treatment options for infections by NDM-1-positive isolates are extremely limited in this species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Three Fusarium oxysporum mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have distinct and complementary roles in stress adaptation and cross-kingdom pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segorbe, David; Di Pietro, Antonio; Pérez-Nadales, Elena; Turrà, David

    2017-09-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades mediate cellular responses to environmental signals. Previous studies in the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum have revealed a crucial role of Fmk1, the MAPK orthologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fus3/Kss1, in vegetative hyphal fusion and plant infection. Here, we genetically dissected the individual and combined contributions of the three MAPKs Fmk1, Mpk1 and Hog1 in the regulation of development, stress response and virulence of F. oxysporum on plant and animal hosts. Mutants lacking Fmk1 or Mpk1 were affected in reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and impaired in hyphal fusion and aggregation. Loss of Mpk1 also led to increased sensitivity to cell wall and heat stress, which was exacerbated by simultaneous inactivation of Fmk1, suggesting that both MAPKs contribute to cellular adaptation to high temperature, a prerequisite for mammalian pathogens. Deletion of Hog1 caused increased sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress and resulted in partial rescue of the restricted colony growth phenotype of the mpk1Δ mutant. Infection assays on tomato plants and the invertebrate animal host Galleria mellonella revealed distinct and additive contributions of the different MAPKs to virulence. Our results indicate that positive and negative cross-talk between the three MAPK pathways regulates stress adaptation, development and virulence in the cross-kingdom pathogen F. oxysporum. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  17. Plant-expressed pyocins for control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

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    Šarūnas Paškevičius

    Full Text Available The emergence, persistence and spread of antibiotic-resistant human pathogenic bacteria heralds a growing global health crisis. Drug-resistant strains of gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are especially dangerous and the medical and economic burden they impose underscore the critical need for finding new antimicrobials. Recent studies have demonstrated that plant-expressed bacteriocins of the colicins family can be efficient antibacterials against all major enteropathogenic strains of E. coli. We extended our studies of colicin-like bacteriocins to pyocins, which are produced by strains of P. aeruginosa for ecological advantage against other strains of the same species. Using a plant-based transient expression system, we expressed six different pyocins, namely S5, PaeM, L1, L2, L3 and one new pyocin, PaeM4, and purified them to homogeneity. Among these pyocins, PaeM4 demonstrated the broadest spectrum of activity by controlling 53 of 100 tested clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. The activity of plant-made pyocins was confirmed in the agar drop, liquid culture susceptibility and biofilm assays, and in the Galleria mellonella animal infection model.

  18. Effector Protein Cig2 Decreases Host Tolerance of Infection by Directing Constitutive Fusion of Autophagosomes with the Coxiella-Containing Vacuole

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    Lara J. Kohler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii replicates in an acidified lysosome-derived vacuole. Biogenesis of the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV requires bacterial effector proteins delivered into host cells by the Dot/Icm secretion system. Genetic and cell biological analysis revealed that an effector protein called Cig2 promotes constitutive fusion of autophagosomes with the CCV to maintain this compartment in an autolysosomal stage of maturation. This distinguishes the CCV from other pathogen-containing vacuoles that are targeted by the host autophagy pathway, which typically confers host resistance to infection by delivering the pathogen to a toxic lysosomal environment. By maintaining the CCV in an autolysosomal stage of maturation, Cig2 enabled CCV homotypic fusion and enhanced bacterial virulence in the Galleria mellonella (wax moth model of infection by a mechanism that decreases host tolerance. Thus, C. burnetii residence in an autolysosomal organelle alters host tolerance of infection, which indicates that Cig2-dependent manipulation of a lysosome-derived vacuole influences the host response to infection.

  19. Secretome analysis defines the major role of SecDF in Staphylococcus aureus virulence.

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    Chantal Quiblier

    Full Text Available The Sec pathway plays a prominent role in protein export and membrane insertion, including the secretion of major bacterial virulence determinants. The accessory Sec constituent SecDF has been proposed to contribute to protein export. Deletion of Staphylococcus aureus secDF has previously been shown to reduce resistance, to alter cell separation, and to change the expression of certain virulence factors. To analyse the impact of the secDF deletion in S. aureus on protein secretion, a quantitative secretome analysis was performed. Numerous Sec signal containing proteins involved in virulence were found to be decreased in the supernatant of the secDF mutant. However, two Sec-dependent hydrolases were increased in comparison to the wild type, suggesting additional indirect, regulatory effects to occur upon deletion of secDF. Adhesion, invasion, and cytotoxicity of the secDF mutant were reduced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Virulence was significantly reduced using a Galleria mellonella insect model. Altogether, SecDF is a promising therapeutic target for controlling S. aureus infections.

  20. Biofilm Formation by Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium Species: A Comparative Study

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    Rodrigo Rollin-Pinheiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium species are medically important fungi that are present in soil and human impacted areas and capable of causing a wide spectrum of diseases in humans. Although little is known about their pathogenesis, their growth process and infection routes are very similar to those of Aspergillus species, which grow as biofilms in invasive infections. All nine strains tested here displayed the ability to grow as biofilms in vitro and to produce a dense network of interconnected hyphae on both polystyrene and the surfaces of central venous catheters, but with different characteristics. Scedosporium boydii and S. aurantiacum clinical isolates were able to form biofilms faster than the corresponding environmental strains, as evidenced in kinetic assays for S. boydii and CLSM for S. aurantiacum. Biofilms formed by Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium species had significantly higher resistance to the class of antifungal azole than was observed in planktonic cells, indicating a protective role for this structure. In addition, the clinical S. aurantiacum isolate that formed the most robust biofilms was also more virulent in a larvae Galleria mellonella infection model, suggesting that the ability to form biofilms enhances virulence in Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium species.

  1. The YvfTU Two-component System is involved in plcR expression in Bacillus cereus

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    Nguyen-the Christophe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most extracellular virulence factors produced by Bacillus cereus are regulated by the pleiotropic transcriptional activator PlcR. Among strains belonging to the B. cereus group, the plcR gene is always located in the vicinity of genes encoding the YvfTU two-component system. The putative role of YvfTU in the expression of the PlcR regulon was therefore investigated. Results Expression of the plcR gene was monitored using a transcriptional fusion with a lacZ reporter gene in a yvfTU mutant and in its B. cereus ATCC 14579 parental strain. Two hours after the onset of the stationary phase, a stage at which the PlcR regulon is highly expressed, the plcR expression in the yvfTU mutant was only 50% of that of its parental strain. In addition to the reduced plcR expression in the yvfTU mutant, a few members of the PlcR regulon showed a differential expression, as revealed by transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. The virulence of the yvfTU mutant in a Galleria mellonella insect model was slightly lower than that of the parental strain. Conclusion The YvfTU two-component system is not required for the expression of most of the virulence factors belonging to the PlcR regulon. However, YvfTU is involved in expression of plcR, a major regulator of virulence in B. cereus.

  2. Impact of Resistance to Fluconazole on Virulence and Morphological Aspects of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii Isolates.

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    Suélen Andreia eRossi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus spp. are responsible for around one million cases of meningitis every year. Fluconazole (FLU is commonly used in the treatment of cryptococcosis, mainly in immunocompromised patients and the resistance is usually reported after long periods of treatment. In this study, the morphological characterization and virulence profile of FLU-susceptible and FLU-resistant clinical and environmental isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii were performed both in vitro and in vivo using the Galleria mellonella model. FLU-susceptible isolates from C. neoformans were significantly more virulent than the FLU-resistant isolates. FLU-susceptible C. gattii isolates showed a different virulence profile from C. neoformans isolates where only the environmental isolate, CL, was more virulent compared with the resistant isolates. Cell morphology and capsule size were analyzed and the FLU-resistant isolates did not change significantly compared with the most sensitive isolates. Growth at 37°C was also evaluated and in both species, the resistant isolates showed a reduced growth at this temperature, indicating that FLU resistance can affect their growth. Based on the results obtained is possible suggest that FLU resistance can influence the morphology of the isolates and consequently changed the virulence profiles. The most evident results were observed for C. neoformans showing that the adaptation of isolates to antifungal selective pressure influenced the loss of virulence.

  3. Structure of Penaeus stylirostris Densovirus, a Shrimp Pathogen

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    Kaufmann, Bärbel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J.; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G. (INRS); (Purdue)

    2010-11-16

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a {beta}-barrel 'jelly roll' motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a 'domain-swapped' conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins.

  4. The Mkk2 MAPKK Regulates Cell Wall Biogenesis in Cooperation with the Cek1-Pathway in Candida albicans.

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    Elvira Román

    Full Text Available The cell wall integrity pathway (CWI plays an important role in the biogenesis of the cell wall in Candida albicans and other fungi. In the present work, the C. albicans MKK2 gene that encodes the putative MAPKK of this pathway was deleted in different backgrounds and the phenotypes of the resultant mutants were characterised. We show here that Mkk2 mediates the phosphorylation of the Mkc1 MAPK in response to cell wall assembly interfering agents such as zymolyase or tunicamycin and also to oxidative stress. Remarkably, mkk2 and mkc1 mutants display related but distinguishable- cell wall associated phenotypes and differ in the pattern of MAPK phosphorylation under different stress conditions. mkk2 and mkc1 mutants display an altered expression of GSC1, CEK1 and CRH11 genes at different temperatures. Combined deletion of MKK2 with HST7 supports a cooperative role for the Cek1-mediated and CWI pathways in regulating cell wall architecture under vegetative growth. However, and in contrast to Mkc1, Mkk2 does not seem to play a role in the virulence of C. albicans in the mouse systemic model or the Galleria mellonella model of infection.

  5. Concerted action of sphingomyelinase and non-hemolytic enterotoxin in pathogenic Bacillus cereus.

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    Viktoria M Doll

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus causes food poisoning and serious non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. Non-hemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe, which is present in most B. cereus strains, is considered to be one of the main virulence factors. However, a B. cereus ΔnheBC mutant strain lacking Nhe is still cytotoxic to intestinal epithelial cells. In a screen for additional cytotoxic factors using an in vitro model for polarized colon epithelial cells we identified B. cereus sphingomyelinase (SMase as a strong inducer of epithelial cell death. Using single and double deletion mutants of sph, the gene encoding for SMase, and nheBC in B. cereus we demonstrated that SMase is an important factor for B. cereus cytotoxicity in vitro and pathogenicity in vivo. SMase substantially complemented Nhe induced cytotoxicity in vitro. In addition, SMase but not Nhe contributed significantly to the mortality rate of larvae in vivo in the insect model Galleria mellonella. Our study suggests that the role of B. cereus SMase as a secreted virulence factor for in vivo pathogenesis has been underestimated and that Nhe and SMase complement each other significantly to cause full B. cereus virulence hence disease formation.

  6. Tedrici Azalan Sıcaklığın Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae’ nın Ömür Uzunluğuna ve Yumurta Verimine Etkileri

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    Rahile ÖZTÜRK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, laboratuvar şartlarında Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae puplarında yetiştirilen endoparazitoid Pimpla turionellae L. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae’ nın larval evresine, konak içinde uygulanan tedrici azalan sıcaklığın etkileri araştırılmıştır. Parazitlenen konak pupları sırasıyla 25, 20, 15 ve 10°C’ lerde 3’ er gün, 4°C’ de 2, 3, 4 ve 5’ er gün bekletilmiştir. Uygulamalar sonucunda çıkan bireylerin ergin ömür uzunlukları ve dişilerin yumurta verimi araştırılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre, 4°C’ de bekletme süresinin artması ile ömür uzunluğu ve yumurta verimi azalmıştır.

  7. The MrCYP52 cytochrome P450 monoxygenase gene of Metarhizium robertsii is important for utilizing insect epicuticular hydrocarbons.

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    Liangcai Lin

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens of plants and insects infect their hosts by direct penetration of the cuticle. Plant and insect cuticles are covered by a hydrocarbon-rich waxy outer layer that represents the first barrier against infection. However, the fungal genes that underlie insect waxy layer degradation have received little attention. Here we characterize the single cytochrome P450 monoxygenase family 52 (MrCYP52 gene of the insect pathogen Metarhizium robertsii, and demonstrate that it encodes an enzyme required for efficient utilization of host hydrocarbons. Expressing a green florescent protein gene under control of the MrCYP52 promoter confirmed that MrCYP52 is up regulated on insect cuticle as well as by artificial media containing decane (C10, extracted cuticle hydrocarbons, and to a lesser extent long chain alkanes. Disrupting MrCYP52 resulted in reduced growth on epicuticular hydrocarbons and delayed developmental processes on insect cuticle, including germination and production of appressoria (infection structures. Extraction of alkanes from cuticle prevented induction of MrCYP52 and reduced growth. Insect bioassays against caterpillars (Galleria mellonella confirmed that disruption of MrCYP52 significantly reduces virulence. However, MrCYP52 was dispensable for normal germination and appressorial formation in vitro when the fungus was supplied with nitrogenous nutrients. We conclude therefore that MrCYP52 mediates degradation of epicuticular hydrocarbons and these are an important nutrient source, but not a source of chemical signals that trigger infection processes.

  8. Capsule-Targeting Depolymerase, Derived from Klebsiella KP36 Phage, as a Tool for the Development of Anti-Virulent Strategy

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    Grażyna Majkowska-Skrobek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rise of antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, a leading nosocomial pathogen, prompts the need for alternative therapies. We have identified and characterized a novel depolymerase enzyme encoded by Klebsiella phage KP36 (depoKP36, from the Siphoviridae family. To gain insights into the catalytic and structural features of depoKP36, we have recombinantly produced this protein of 93.4 kDa and showed that it is able to hydrolyze a crude exopolysaccharide of a K. pneumoniae host. Using in vitro and in vivo assays, we found that depoKP36 was also effective against a native capsule of clinical K. pneumoniae strains, representing the K63 type, and significantly inhibited Klebsiella-induced mortality of Galleria mellonella larvae in a time-dependent manner. DepoKP36 did not affect the antibiotic susceptibility of Klebsiella strains. The activity of this enzyme was retained in a broad range of pH values (4.0–7.0 and temperatures (up to 45 °C. Consistently, the circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy revealed a highly stability with melting transition temperature (Tm = 65 °C. In contrast to other phage tailspike proteins, this enzyme was susceptible to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS denaturation and proteolytic cleavage. The structural studies in solution showed a trimeric arrangement with a high β-sheet content. Our findings identify depoKP36 as a suitable candidate for the development of new treatments for K. pneumoniae infections.

  9. Experimental In Vivo Models of Candidiasis

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    Esther Segal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is a multifaceted fungal disease including mucosal-cutaneous, visceral, and disseminated infections caused by yeast species of the genus Candida. Candida infections are among the most common human mycoses. Candida species are the third to fourth most common isolates from bloodstream infections in neutropenic or immunocompromised hospitalized patients. The mucosal-cutaneous forms—particularly vaginal infections—have a high prevalence. Vaginitis caused by Candida species is the second most common vaginal infection. Hence, candidiasis is a major subject for research, including experimental in vivo models to study pathogenesis, prevention, or therapy of the disease. The following review article will focus on various experimental in vivo models in different laboratory animals, such as mammals (mice, rats, rabbits, the fruit fly–Drosophila melanogaster, the larvae of the moth Galleria mellonella, or the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The review will describe the induction of the different clinical forms of candidiasis in the various models and the validity of such models in mimicking the human clinical situations. The use of such models for the assessment of antifungal drugs, evaluation of potential vaccines to protect before candidiasis, exploration of Candida virulence factors, and comparison of pathogenicity of different Candida species will be included in the review. All of the above will be reported as based on published studies of numerous investigators as well as on the research of the author and his group.

  10. Granular Formulations of Steinernema carpocapsae (strain All) (Nematoda: Rhabditida) with Improved Shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connick, W. J.; Nickle, W. R.; Williams, K. S.; Vinyard, B. T.

    1994-01-01

    Shelf life (nematode survival) of Steinernema carpocapsae (strain All) nematodes at 21 C in "Pesta" granules, made by a pasta-like process, was increased from 8 to 26 weeks by incorporating low concentrations of formaldehyde. Pesta samples containing an average of 427,000 nematodes/g were prepared with wheat flour (semolina or bread flour), kaolin, bentonite, peat moss, nematode slurry, and formaldehyde (0-1.4% w/w) and were dried to a water content of 23.6-26.9%. Nematodes emerged from Pesta (S. carpocapsae) granules when placed in water or on moist filter paper. Incorporation of 0.2% w/w formaldehyde (nominal; 0.05% by analysis) was optimum for increasing nematode survival in semolina-based Pesta, and also inhibited fungal growth on the granules. Bread flour Pesta samples prepared by formaldehyde addition to the nematode slurry prior to dough preparation, rather than by addition to a mixture of dry ingredients, had longer shelf life. Nematodes recovered from granules made with 0.2% formaldehyde and stored 20 weeks at 21 C caused 100% mortality of wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae. PMID:19279903

  11. Entomopathogenic nematodes in agricultural areas in Brazil.

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    de Brida, Andressa Lima; Rosa, Juliana Magrinelli Osório; Oliveira, Cláudio Marcelo Gonçalves de; Castro, Bárbara Monteiro de Castro E; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola; Leite, Luis Garrigós; Wilcken, Silvia Renata Siciliano

    2017-04-06

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) can control pests due to the mutualistic association with bacteria that kill the host by septicemia and make the environment favorable for EPNs development and reproduction. The diversity of EPNs in Brazilian soils requires further study. The identification of EPNs, adapted to environmental and climatic conditions of cultivated areas is important for sustainable pest suppression in integrated management programs in agricultural areas of Brazil. The objective was to identify EPNs isolated from agricultural soils with annual, fruit and forest crops in Brazil. Soil samples were collected and stored in 250 ml glass vials. The nematodes were isolated from these samples with live bait traps ([Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae]. Infective juveniles were collected with White traps and identified by DNA barcoding procedures by sequencing the D2/D3 expansion of the 28S rDNA region by PCR. EPNs identified in agricultural areas in Brazil were Heterorhabditis amazonensis, Metarhabditis rainai, Oscheios tipulae and Steinernema rarum. These species should be considered pest biocontrol agents in Brazilian agricultural areas.

  12. Synergistic Efficacy of Aedes aegypti Antimicrobial Peptide Cecropin A2 and Tetracycline against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaojun; Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Liu, Qingzhong; Kim, Wooseong; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Zhang, Rijun; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has created an urgent need for alternative drugs with new mechanisms of action. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates that could address the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, either alone or in combination with conventional antibiotics. We studied the antimicrobial efficacy and bactericidal mechanism of cecropin A2, a 36-residue α-helical cationic peptide derived from Aedes aegypti cecropin A, focusing on the common pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The peptide showed little hemolytic activity and toxicity toward mammalian cells, and the MICs against most clinical P. aeruginosa isolates were 32 to 64 μg/ml, and its MICs versus other Gram-negative bacteria were 2 to 32 μg/ml. Importantly, cecropin A2 demonstrated synergistic activity against P. aeruginosa when combined with tetracycline, reducing the MICs of both agents by 8-fold. The combination was also effective in vivo in the P. aeruginosa/Galleria mellonella model (P < 0.001). We found that cecropin A2 bound to P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides, permeabilized the membrane, and interacted with the bacterial genomic DNA, thus facilitating the translocation of tetracycline into the cytoplasm. In summary, the combination of cecropin A2 and tetracycline demonstrated synergistic antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo, offering an alternative approach for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:28483966

  13. Group X hybrid histidine kinase Chk1 is dispensable for stress adaptation, host-pathogen interactions and virulence in the opportunistic yeast Candida guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Arias, María J; Dementhon, Karine; Defosse, Tatiana A; Foureau, Emilien; Courdavault, Vincent; Clastre, Marc; Le Gal, Solène; Nevez, Gilles; Le Govic, Yohann; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Noël, Thierry; Mora-Montes, Hector M; Papon, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid histidine kinases (HHKs) progressively emerge as prominent sensing proteins in the fungal kingdom and as ideal targets for future therapeutics. The group X HHK is of major interest, since it was demonstrated to play an important role in stress adaptation, host-pathogen interactions and virulence in some yeast and mold models, and particularly Chk1, that corresponds to the sole group X HHK in Candida albicans. In the present work, we investigated the role of Chk1 in the low-virulence species Candida guilliermondii, in order to gain insight into putative conservation of the role of group X HHK in opportunistic yeasts. We demonstrated that disruption of the corresponding gene CHK1 does not influence growth, stress tolerance, drug susceptibility, protein glycosylation or cell wall composition in C. guilliermondii. In addition, we showed that loss of CHK1 does not affect C. guilliermondii ability to interact with macrophages and to stimulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Finally, the C. guilliermondii chk1 null mutant was found to be as virulent as the wild-type strain in the experimental model Galleria mellonella. Taken together, our results demonstrate that group X HHK function is not conserved in Candida species. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. OCCURRENCE IN THE SOIL AND DISPERSAL OF Lecanicillium lecanii, A FUNGAL PATHOGEN OF THE GREEN COFFEE SCALE (Coccus viridis AND COFFEE RUST (Hemileia vastatrix

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    Doug William Jackson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Lecanicillium lecanii attacks the green scale (Coccus viridis, a pest of coffee, and is also a hyperparasite of coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix. Knowledge of the epizootiology of this fungus is potentially important for conservation biological control in coffee agroecosystems. The presence of viable propagules of L. lecanii in the soil, a possible environmental reservoir, was assessed using two baiting methods: the standard Galleria mellonella bait method and a C. viridis bait method. Infectious propagules of L. lecanii were detected in soil samples taken from a 45 ha study plot, both nearby and far from recent epizootics of L. lecanii. To test the potential for the transmission of L. lecanii conidia from the soil via rain splash or wind, coffee seedlings with populations of C. viridis were placed near L. lecanii-inoculated soil and then subjected to artificial rain and wind treatments. Rain splash was shown to be a potential transmission mechanism. Dispersal of L. lecanii conidia by the ant Azteca instabilis was tested using field and laboratory ant-exclusion experiments. Azteca instabilis was shown to transport conidia of L. lecanii; however, dispersal by A. instabilis may not be important under field conditions.

  15. Production of destruxins from Metarhizium spp. fungi in artificial medium and in endophytically colonized cowpea plants.

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    Patrícia S Golo

    Full Text Available Destruxins (DTXs are cyclic depsipeptides produced by many Metarhizium isolates that have long been assumed to contribute to virulence of these entomopathogenic fungi. We evaluated the virulence of 20 Metarhizium isolates against insect larvae and measured the concentration of DTXs A, B, and E produced by these same isolates in submerged (shaken cultures. Eight of the isolates (ARSEF 324, 724, 760, 1448, 1882, 1883, 3479, and 3918 did not produce DTXs A, B, or E during the five days of submerged culture. DTXs were first detected in culture medium at 2-3 days in submerged culture. Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor showed considerable variation in their susceptibility to the Metarhizium isolates. The concentration of DTXs produced in vitro did not correlate with percent or speed of insect kill. We established endophytic associations of M. robertsii and M. acridum isolates in Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas and Cucumis sativus (cucumber plants. DTXs were detected in cowpeas colonized by M. robertsii ARSEF 2575 12 days after fungal inoculation, but DTXs were not detected in cucumber. This is the first instance of DTXs detected in plants endophytically colonized by M. robertsii. This finding has implications for new approaches to fungus-based biological control of pest arthropods.

  16. Rapamycin Exerts Antifungal Activity In Vitro and In Vivo against Mucor circinelloides via FKBP12-Dependent Inhibition of Tor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Robert J.; Shertz, Cecelia A.; Lee, Soo Chan; Heitman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The zygomycete Mucor circinelloides is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that commonly infects patients with malignancies, diabetes mellitus, and solid organ transplants. Despite the widespread use of antifungal therapy in the management of zygomycosis, the incidence of infections continues to rise among immunocompromised individuals. In this study, we established that the target and mechanism of antifungal action of the immunosuppressant rapamycin in M. circinelloides are mediated via conserved complexes with FKBP12 and a Tor homolog. We found that spontaneous mutations that disrupted conserved residues in FKBP12 conferred rapamycin and FK506 resistance. Disruption of the FKBP12-encoding gene, fkbA, also conferred rapamycin and FK506 resistance. Expression of M. circinelloides FKBP12 (McFKBP12) complemented a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain lacking FKBP12 to restore rapamycin sensitivity. Expression of the McTor FKBP12-rapamycin binding (FRB) domain conferred rapamycin resistance in S. cerevisiae, and McFKBP12 interacted in a rapamycin-dependent fashion with the McTor FRB domain in a yeast two-hybrid assay, validating McFKBP12 and McTor as conserved targets of rapamycin. We showed that in vitro, rapamycin exhibited potent growth inhibitory activity against M. circinelloides. In a Galleria mellonella model of systemic mucormycosis, rapamycin improved survival by 50%, suggesting that rapamycin and nonimmunosuppressive analogs have the potential to be developed as novel antifungal therapies for treatment of patients with mucormycosis. PMID:22210828

  17. Habitat Characterization of Entomopathogenic Nematodes in North Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noujeim Abi Nader, E.; El Hayek, P.; Darwich, T.; Khater, C.; Nemer, N.; Thaler, O.

    2010-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are soil organisms, adapted to most climatic conditions in hot, temperate, and cold zones, distributed from lowlands to high alpine altitudes (Steiner, 1996). During a previous survey of entomopathogenic nematodes-EPNs in Lebanon (Noujeim Abi Nader et al., in review), 3 out of 19 sites were estimated positive in EPNs. The reasons for the presence of EPNs in some sites in Lebanon rather than others, are still not well established. Even less is known about the correlation between EPNs distribution in land and soil texture, soil pH, insect hosts, and vegetation cover. In the current study, assessment of habitat preference of EPNs is conducted in a positive site previously sampled for EPNs occurrence. The relationship between EPNs, entomofauna, vegetation cover and soil characteristics is determined using a gridded method and baiting with Galleria mellonella tubes introduced in situ into soil. The method used allows precision sampling with minimal soil disturbance. Results showed a correlation between EPNs and some soil characteristics (humidity, organic matter, texture, porosity) and also communities of invertebrates. No significant linkages were demonstrated between the presence of EPNs and the vegetation nor with the soil pH or any specific entomofauna order. (author)

  18. Biology, behaviour and functional response of Cydnocoris gilvus Brum. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae a predator of Tea Mosquito Bug (Helopeltis antonii Sign. on cashew in India

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    K.K. Srikumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae are major sucking pests of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. in India. Cydnocoris gilvus Brum. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae is recorded as a potential predator of Helopeltis spp. Biology, mating behaviour and functional response of C. gilvus were studied by rearing in the laboratory (temperature 26-28 0C; relative humidity 89-94 % with wax moth, Galleria mellonella, larvae. Based on laboratory rearing, the fecundity was 56.33 eggs in 8.67 batches per female. The average stadial period was 37.3 days, with a maximum of 11 days for V instar and a minimum of 4.5 days for III instars. C. gilvus took 45.5 days to complete a generation. The innate capacity of natural increase was 0.07 with a gross reproduction of 67.8 females per female. The adult exhibited a pin and jab mode of predation in a sequence of actions. The sequential action of mating comprised arousal (1.32 min, approach (12.30 min, riding over (140.48 min and copulation (85.40 min. The predator responded to increasing prey density by killing more prey than at lower prey densities

  19. RNAi-Based Functional Genomics Identifies New Virulence Determinants in Mucormycosis.

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    Trung Anh Trieu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucorales are an emerging group of human pathogens that are responsible for the lethal disease mucormycosis. Unfortunately, functional studies on the genetic factors behind the virulence of these organisms are hampered by their limited genetic tractability, since they are reluctant to classical genetic tools like transposable elements or gene mapping. Here, we describe an RNAi-based functional genomic platform that allows the identification of new virulence factors through a forward genetic approach firstly described in Mucorales. This platform contains a whole-genome collection of Mucor circinelloides silenced transformants that presented a broad assortment of phenotypes related to the main physiological processes in fungi, including virulence, hyphae morphology, mycelial and yeast growth, carotenogenesis and asexual sporulation. Selection of transformants with reduced virulence allowed the identification of mcplD, which encodes a Phospholipase D, and mcmyo5, encoding a probably essential cargo transporter of the Myosin V family, as required for a fully virulent phenotype of M. circinelloides. Knock-out mutants for those genes showed reduced virulence in both Galleria mellonella and Mus musculus models, probably due to a delayed germination and polarized growth within macrophages. This study provides a robust approach to study virulence in Mucorales and as a proof of concept identified new virulence determinants in M. circinelloides that could represent promising targets for future antifungal therapies.

  20. In-host microevolution of Aspergillus fumigatus: A phenotypic and genotypic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Eloise; Melchers, Willem J G; Zoll, Jan; Brown, Alistair J P; Verweij, Paul E; Warris, Adilia

    2018-04-01

    In order to survive, Aspergillus fumigatus must adapt to specific niche environments. Adaptation to the human host includes modifications facilitating persistent colonisation and the development of azole resistance. The aim of this study is to advance understanding of the genetic and physiological adaptation of A. fumigatus in patients during infection and treatment. Thirteen A. fumigatus strains were isolated from a single chronic granulomatous disease patient suffering from persistent and recurrent invasive aspergillosis over a period of 2 years. All strains had identical microsatellite genotypes and were considered isogenic. Whole genome comparisons identified 248 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms. These non-synonymous mutations have potential to play a role in in-host adaptation. The first 2 strains isolated were azole susceptible, whereas later isolates were itraconazole, voriconazole and/or posaconazole resistant. Growth assays in the presence and absence of various antifungal stressors highlighted minor changes in growth rate and stress resistance, with exception of one isolate showing a significant growth defect. Poor conidiation was observed in later isolates. In certain drug resistant isolates conidiation was restored in the presence of itraconazole. Differences in virulence were observed as demonstrated in a Galleria mellonella infection model. We conclude that the microevolution of A. fumigatus in this patient has driven the emergence of both Cyp51A-independent and Cyp51A-dependent, azole resistance mechanisms, and additional phenotypes that are likely to have promoted fungal persistence. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pyrokinin β-neuropeptide affects necrophoretic behavior in fire ants (S. invicta), and expression of β-NP in a mycoinsecticide increases its virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanhua; Pereira, Roberto M; Kilic, Engin; Casella, George; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2012-01-01

    Fire ants are one of the world's most damaging invasive pests, with few means for their effective control. Although ecologically friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides such as the insecticidal fungus Beauveria bassiana have been suggested for the control of fire ant populations, their use has been limited due to the low virulence of the fungus and the length of time it takes to kill its target. We present a means of increasing the virulence of the fungal agent by expressing a fire ant neuropeptide. Expression of the fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) pyrokinin β-neuropeptide (β-NP) by B. bassiana increased fungal virulence six-fold towards fire ants, decreased the LT(50), but did not affect virulence towards the lepidopteran, Galleria mellonella. Intriguingly, ants killed by the β-NP expressing fungus were disrupted in the removal of dead colony members, i.e. necrophoretic behavior. Furthermore, synthetic C-terminal amidated β-NP but not the non-amidated peptide had a dramatic effect on necrophoretic behavior. These data link chemical sensing of a specific peptide to a complex social behavior. Our results also confirm a new approach to insect control in which expression of host molecules in an insect pathogen can by exploited for target specific augmentation of virulence. The minimization of the development of potential insect resistance by our approach is discussed.

  2. Selection of Functional Quorum Sensing Systems by Lysogenic Bacteriophages in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Miguel A. Saucedo-Mora

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing (QS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates the expression of virulence factors, some of which are used as public goods. Since their production is a cooperative behavior, it is susceptible to social cheating in which non-cooperative QS deficient mutants use the resources without investing in their production. Nevertheless, functional QS systems are abundant; hence, mechanisms regulating the amount of cheating should exist. Evidence that demonstrates a tight relationship between QS and the susceptibility of bacteria against the attack of lytic phages is increasing; nevertheless, the relationship between temperate phages and QS has been much less explored. Therefore, in this work, we studied the effects of having a functional QS system on the susceptibility to temperate bacteriophages and how this affects the bacterial and phage dynamics. We find that both experimentally and using mathematical models, that the lysogenic bacteriophages D3112 and JBD30 select QS-proficient P. aeruginosa phenotypes as compared to the QS-deficient mutants during competition experiments with mixed strain populations in vitro and in vivo in Galleria mellonella, in spite of the fact that both phages replicate better in the wild-type background. We show that this phenomenon restricts social cheating, and we propose that temperate phages may constitute an important selective pressure toward the conservation of bacterial QS.

  3. Preparation, Characterization and in Vivo Antimycobacterial Studies of Panchovillin-Chitosan Nanocomposites

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    Edward Rwegasila

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CS, molecular weight 20.2 kDa, degree of deacylation (DD 73.31% was successfully obtained by deacetylation of chitin extracted from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei shell wastes. The encapsulation of the bioactive natural product, panchovillin (PANV, isolated from Erythrina schliebenii, on a chitosan-tripolyphosphate (CS/TPP nano-framework was achieved by ionotropic gelation. Characterization of pure CS, CS/TPP and PANV-CS/TPP nanocomposites was performed by FTIR, SEM and XRD. The molecular weight of chitosan and the thermal stability of the materials were determined by MALDI-TOF-MS and simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA/DTG, respectively. The respective encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of the PANV were found to be 70% and 0.36%. The in vitro release studies showed an initial burst of 42% of PANV in the first six hours. This was followed by a slow and sustained release up to 72 h. The in vivo antimycobacterial activities of both PANV and PANV-CS/TPP nanocomposite against Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP using Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo infection model are reported in this paper.

  4. The Rcs regulon in Proteus mirabilis: implications for motility, biofilm formation, and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howery, Kristen E; Clemmer, Katy M; Rather, Philip N

    2016-11-01

    The overall role of the Rcs phosphorelay in Proteus mirabilis is largely unknown. Previous work had demonstrated that the Rcs phosphorelay represses the flhDC operon and activates the minCDE cell division inhibition system. To identify additional cellular functions regulated by the Rcs phosphorelay, an analysis of RNA-seq data was undertaken. In this report, the results of the RNA-sequencing are discussed with an emphasis on the predicted roles of the Rcs phosphorelay in swarmer cell differentiation, motility, biofilm formation, and virulence. RcsB is shown to activate genes important for differentiation and fimbriae formation, while repressing the expression of genes important for motility and virulence. Additionally, to follow up on the RNA-Seq data, we demonstrate that an rcsB mutant is deficient in its ability to form biofilm and exhibits enhanced virulence in a Galleria mellonella waxworm model. Overall, these results indicate the Rcs regulon in P. mirabilis extends beyond flagellar genes to include those involved in biofilm formation and virulence. Furthermore, the information presented in this study may provide clues to additional roles of the Rcs phosphorelay in other members of the Enterobacteriaceae.

  5. Differential Role of the T6SS in Acinetobacter baumannii Virulence.

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    Guillermo D Repizo

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, are an increasing burden in hospitals worldwide with an alarming spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR strains. Herein, we compared a type strain (ATCC17978, a non-clinical isolate (DSM30011 and MDR strains of A. baumannii implicated in hospital outbreaks (Ab242, Ab244 and Ab825, revealing distinct patterns of type VI secretion system (T6SS functionality. The T6SS genomic locus is present and was actively transcribed in all of the above strains. However, only the A. baumannii DSM30011 strain was capable of killing Escherichia coli in a T6SS-dependent manner, unlike the clinical isolates, which failed to display an active T6SS in vitro. In addition, DSM30011 was able to outcompete ATCC17978 as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, bacterial pathogens relevant in mixed nosocomial infections. Finally, we found that the T6SS of DSM30011 is required for host colonization of the model organism Galleria mellonella suggesting that this system could play an important role in A. baumannii virulence in a strain-specific manner.

  6. COMPARISON OF CHITIN STRUCTURES DERIVED FROM THREE COMMON WASP SPECIES (Vespa crabro LINNAEUS, 1758, Vespa orientalis LINNAEUS, 1771 and Vespula germanica (FABRICIUS, 1793)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Murat; Bağrıaçık, Nil; Seyyar, Osman; Baran, Talat

    2015-08-01

    There has been no study on the chitin structure of wasp species. Here, we selected the three most common wasp species belonging to the family Vespidae for chitin extraction and characterization. Chitin was isolated from each wasp species and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), elemental analysis (EA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chitin contents of Vespa crabro, Vespa orientalis, and Vespula germanica were 8.3, 6.4, and 11.9%, respectively. The crystalline index (CrI) values for the chitin extracted from each species were 69.88, 53.92, and 50%, respectively. The most important finding of the study is that although the same method was used to extract chitin from each of the three wasp species, the degree of acetylation was different: for V. crabro and V. orientalis it was 96.85 and 99.82% (the chitin was extremely pure), respectively, whereas that for V. germanica the chitin was 79.83%. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Identification of bester hybrid and its parental species (♀ Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758 and ♂ Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758 by nuclear markers

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    Andreea Dudu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, sturgeon farming is gaining advance, different species being raised for commercial purposes and for restocking activities. A correct identification of individuals is imposed since severe ecological damages might occur if non-native species or hybrids are used for restocking. Such identification is required also for commercial reasons, the meat and caviar from different species having different prices. The aim of our study was to analyze two sturgeon species, Huso huso and Acipenser ruthenus and their interspecific hybrid - bester, using nuclear markers, in order to set up a molecular method for their accurate identification. The genetic pattern of the species was inferred from the analysis of nine microsatellite loci (LS19, LS34, LS39, LS54, AoxD234, AnacC11, LS68, Aox45 and Aox27 amplified by multiplex PCR reactions. The genotype data were analyzed with GENETIX v4.05 and STRUCTURE. The FCA analysis grouped the individuals in three distinct clusters corresponding to each of the pure species and to the interspecific hybrids. The admixture analysis performed in STRUCTURE also assigned three groups, confirming the results highlighted by FCA. We can conclude that the selected microsatellite markers allow the unambiguously identification of the bester hybrid and its genitor species from Romanian farms.

  8. Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

    2014-06-01

    In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

  9. BIOMETRY OF PACA NEWBORNS BRED IN CAPTIVITY(AGOUTI PACA, LINNAEUS, 1766 NOTA CIENTÍFICA: BIOMETRIA DOS NEONATOS DE PACA CRIADOS EM CATIVEIRO (AGOUTI PACA, LINNAEUS, 1766

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    Júlio Carlos Canola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Biometry provides important data on weight and length of wild animal newborns. After ultrasound pregnancy detection, 22 female pacas were separated in individual bails and kept until weaning of newborns. Newborns were measured with a metric tape (between the tips of the muzzle rostrally and the tail distally and weighted in a digital weight scale. Considering males and females, the average newborn length (average length ± standard deviation was 33.37 ± 0.57cm. Among males, the average weight was 33.30 ± 0.52 cm and among females 33.45 ± 0.62cm. Considering males and females, newborns weighted (average weight ± standard deviation 741.14 ± 51.23g. Among males, average weight was 717.75 ± 49.06g and among females 764.53 ± 53.40g. Female newborns are higher and heavier than males, but averages of weight and length of males and females did not differ themselves by the Tukey test (P<0.05.

    Key-words: Agouti paca, biometry, newborns.

    A biometria proporciona dados importantes no peso e comprimento de neonatos de animais selvagens. Após detecção ultra-sonográfica da prenhez, 22 pacas fêmeas foram separadas em baias individuais e mantidas até o desmame dos filhotes. Os neonatos eram medidos com uma fita métrica flexível (entre as extremidades do focinho e da caudal e então pesados em balança digital de precisão. Considerando-se machos e fêmeas, o comprimento dos neonatos (comprimento ± desvio padrão foi 33,37 ± 0,57 cm. Entre os machos, o comprimento médio foi 33,30 ± 0,52 cm e entre as fêmeas foi de 33,45 ± 0,62 cm. Em relação ao peso e considerando-se machos e fêmeas, os neonatos pesavam (peso ± desvio padrão 741,14 ± 51,23g. Entre os machos, o peso médio foi 717,75 ± 49,06g e entre as fêmeas 764,53 ± 53,40g. Os neonatos fêmeas são maiores e mais pesados que os neonatos machos de paca, mas as médias de peso e de comprimento de machos e fêmeas não diferiram entre si, pelo teste de Tukey (P<0.05.

    Palavras-chaves: Biometria, neonatos, agouti paca.

  10. Evaluación larvicida de suspensiones acuosas de Annona muricata Linnaeus «guanábana» sobre Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Miguel Bobadilla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available EL presente trabajo evaluó la toxicidad larvicida de suspensiones acuosas provenientes de extractos etanólicos de las semillas, flores, hojas, corteza de ramas y corteza de raíces de Annona muricata L. «guanábana» sobre larvas del IV estadio de Aedes aegypti para determinar de esta manera los niveles de susceptibilidad. El mayor efecto tóxico correspondió a la suspensión de las semillas con un 100% de mortalidad a las 24 horas a 0,5 mg/mL, seguidos por las flores a las 48 horas a 10 mg/mL y hojas a las 36 horas a 100 mg/mL. En semillas, las concentraciones letales al 50% (CL50 y 90% (CL90 a las 48 horas de exposición fueron 0,02 mg/mL y 0,11 mg/mL, en flores 3,33 y 12,16 mg/mL, en hojas 8,25 y 26,87 mg/mL y en corteza de ramas 19,21 y 97,23 mg/mL, respectivamente. Los resultados de las rectas probit-logarítmicas indicaron susceptibilidad de los individuos a cada suspensión, gracias a la acción de diversos principios activos distribuidos en todo el árbol.

  11. Mammalia, Myrmecophagidae, Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) and Cervidae, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758): contribution to the knowledge of the historical distribution in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tortato, Fernando; Althoff, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports historical records of Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Ozotoceros bezoarticus from the north plateau of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, thus contributing to the knowledge about the distribution of these species. The possible causes of the extinction of Ozotoceros bezoarticus are also discussed as well as management tactics to conserve these species in southern Brazil.

  12. Descriptive macroscopic anatomy of the central nervous system six-banded armadillo (Euphractus sexcintus, Linnaeus, 1758 and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, Linnaeus, 1758

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    João Victor Silva Araújo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Armadillos of the species Dasypus novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcintus are xenarthrico is a mammal that inhabits fields and has several eating habits. This study proposes to analise the macroscopic anatomy of the nervous system of the armadillo peba, enabling comparisons with other mammals. Three animals of each species were to donated ICMBio - Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity, the Serra da Capivara National Park, authorized by SISBIO 22826-01, victims of poaching and they had died. The animals were stored in Histology and Embryology Laboratory of the Morphology Department of Health Sciences Center of the Federal University of Piauí. Initially, they were fixed with 10% buffered formalin for 24 hours and then dissected for observation of the organs forming the central nervous system. The central nervous system Armadillo consists of the brain and spinal cord. The macroscopic morphology, the central nervous system Armadillo resembles those of other mammals, however, anatomical features found in the brain and spinal cord suggest a higher olfactory expression and motor skills.

  13. Lateral Dispersal and Foraging Behavior of Entomopathogenic Nematodes in the Absence and Presence of Mobile and Non-Mobile Hosts.

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    Harit K Bal

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes have been classified into cruisers (active searchers and ambushers (sit and wait foragers. However, little is known about their dispersal and foraging behavior at population level in soil. We studied lateral dispersal of the ambush foraging Steinernema carpocapsae (ALL strain and cruise foraging Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (GPS11 strain from infected host cadavers in microcosms (0.05 m2 containing Wooster silt-loam soil (Oxyaquic fragiudalf and vegetation in the presence or absence of non-mobile and mobile hosts. Results showed that the presence of a non-mobile host (Galleria mellonella larva in a wire mesh cage enhanced H. bacteriophora dispersal for up to 24 hr compared with no-host treatment, but had no impact on S. carpocapsae dispersal. In contrast, presence of a mobile host (G. mellonella larvae increased dispersal of S. carpocapsae compared with no host treatment, but had no effect on H. bacteriophora dispersal. Also H. bacteriophora was better at infecting non-mobile than mobile hosts released into the microcosms and S. carpocapsae was better at infecting mobile than non-mobile hosts, thus affirming the established cruiser-ambusher theory. However, results also revealed that a large proportion of infective juveniles (IJs of both species stayed near (≤ 3.8 cm the source cadaver (88-96% S. carpocapsae; 67-79% H. bacteriophora, and the proportion of IJs reaching the farthest distance (11.4 cm was significantly higher for S. carpocapsae (1.4% than H. bacteriophora (0.4% in the presence of mobile hosts. S. carpocapsae also had higher average population displacement than H. bacteriophora in the presence of both the non-mobile (5.07 vs. 3.6 cm/day and mobile (8.06 vs. 5.3 cm/day hosts. We conclude that the two species differ in their dispersal and foraging behavior at the population level and this behavior is affected by both the presence and absence of hosts and by their mobility.

  14. The two-component system CpxRA negatively regulates the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli involving sigma 32 and Lon protease

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    MIGUEL A. eDE LA CRUZ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC is a significant cause of serious human gastrointestinal disease worldwide. EHEC strains contain a pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE, which encodes virulence factors responsible for damaging the gut mucosa. The Cpx envelope stress response of E. coli is controlled by a two-component system consisting of a sensor histidine kinase (CpxA and a cytoplasmic response regulator (CpxR. In this study, we investigated the role of CpxRA in the expression of LEE-encoded virulence factors of EHEC. We found that a mutation in cpxA significantly affected adherence of EHEC to human epithelial cells. Analysis of this mutant revealed the presence of high levels of CpxR which repressed transcription of grlA and ler, the main positive virulence regulators of the LEE, and influenced negatively the production of the type 3 secretion system–associated EspABD translocator proteins. It is known that CpxR activates rpoH (Sigma factor 32, which in turns activates transcription of the lon protease gene. We found that transcription levels of ler and grlA were significantly increased in the lon and cpxA lon mutants suggesting that lon is involved in down-regulating LEE genes. In addition, the Galleria mellonella model of infection was used to analyze the effect of the loss of the cpx and lon genes in EHEC’s ability to kill the larvae. We found that the cpxA mutant was significantly deficient at killing the larvae however, the cpxA lon mutant which overexpresses LEE genes in vitro, was unable to kill the larvae, suggesting that virulence in the G. mellonella model is T3SS independent and that CpxA modulates virulence through a yet unknown EHEC-specific factor. Our data provides new insights and broadens our scope into the complex regulatory network of the LEE in which the CpxA sensor kinase plays an important role in a cascade involving both global and virulence regulators.

  15. Carbapenem-resistance and pathogenicity of bovine Acinetobacter indicus-like isolates.

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    Peter Klotz

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize blaOXA-23 harbouring Acinetobacter indicus-like strains from cattle including genomic and phylogenetic analyses, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and evaluation of pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. Nasal and rectal swabs (n = 45 from cattle in Germany were screened for carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter spp. Thereby, two carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. from the nasal cavities of two calves could be isolated. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA sequencing identified these isolates as A. indicus-like. A phylogenetic tree based on partial rpoB sequences indicated closest relation of the two bovine isolates to the A. indicus type strain A648T and human clinical A. indicus isolates, while whole genome comparison revealed considerable intraspecies diversity. High mimimum inhibitory concentrations were observed for carbapenems and other antibiotics including fluoroquinolones and gentamicin. Whole genome sequencing and PCR mapping revealed that both isolates harboured blaOXA-23 localized on the chromosome and surrounded by interrupted Tn2008 transposon structures. Since the pathogenic potential of A. indicus is unknown, pathogenicity was assessed employing the Galleria (G. mellonella infection model and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay using A549 human lung epithelial cells. Pathogenicity in vivo (G. mellonella killing assay and in vitro (cytotoxicity assay of the two A. indicus-like isolates was lower compared to A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and similar to A. lwoffii ATCC 15309. The reduced pathogenicity of A. indicus compared to A. baumannii correlated with the absence of important virulence genes encoding like phospholipase C1+C2, acinetobactin outer membrane protein BauA, RND-type efflux system proteins AdeRS and AdeAB or the trimeric autotransporter adhesin Ata. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant A. indicus-like strains from cattle carrying blaOXA-23 on transposable elements and

  16. The Campylobacter jejuni MarR-like transcriptional regulators RrpA and RrpB both influence bacterial responses to oxidative and aerobic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Ozan; da Silva, Daiani T; Mohammad, Banaz; Elmi, Abdi; Mills, Dominic C; Wren, Brendan W; Dorrell, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the human intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni to respond to oxidative stress is central to bacterial survival both in vivo during infection and in the environment. Re-annotation of the C. jejuni NCTC11168 genome revealed the presence of two MarR-type transcriptional regulators Cj1546 and Cj1556, originally annotated as hypothetical proteins, which we have designated RrpA and RrpB (regulator of response to peroxide) respectively. Previously we demonstrated a role for RrpB in both oxidative and aerobic (O2) stress and that RrpB was a DNA binding protein with auto-regulatory activity, typical of MarR-type transcriptional regulators. In this study, we show that RrpA is also a DNA binding protein and that a rrpA mutant in strain 11168H exhibits increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide oxidative stress. Mutation of either rrpA or rrpB reduces catalase (KatA) expression. However, a rrpAB double mutant exhibits higher levels of resistance to hydrogen peroxide oxidative stress, with levels of KatA expression similar to the wild-type strain. Mutation of either rrpA or rrpB also results in a reduction in the level of katA expression, but this reduction was not observed in the rrpAB double mutant. Neither the rrpA nor rrpB mutant exhibits any significant difference in sensitivity to either cumene hydroperoxide or menadione oxidative stresses, but both mutants exhibit a reduced ability to survive aerobic (O2) stress, enhanced biofilm formation and reduced virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model. The rrpAB double mutant exhibits wild-type levels of biofilm formation and wild-type levels of virulence in the G mellonella infection model. Together these data indicate a role for both RrpA and RrpB in the C. jejuni peroxide oxidative and aerobic (O2) stress responses, enhancing bacterial survival in vivo and in the environment.

  17. Topografia do cone medular do cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766): relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Luane Lopes; Lima, Ana Rita de; Souza, Ana Carla Barros de; Pereira, Luiza Corrêa; Branco, Érika Renata

    2011-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p129 O cachorro-do-mato é o canídeo mais comum do continente sul-americano. De modo geral, tem sua dieta variada conforme a época do ano e a região habitada, o que permite a este uma ampla distribuição geográfica. Junto ao interesse na anatomia comparativa objetivou-se descrever a topografia do cone medular do cachorro-do-mato com intuito de oferecer informações que possam dar subsídios para a prática de anestesia epidural, cuja eficiência depe...

  18. Topografia do cone medular do cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luane Lopes Pinheiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p129 O cachorro-do-mato é o canídeo mais comum do continente sul-americano. De modo geral, tem sua dieta variada conforme a época do ano e a região habitada, o que permite a este uma ampla distribuição geográfica. Junto ao interesse na anatomia comparativa objetivou-se descrever a topografia do cone medular do cachorro-do-mato com intuito de oferecer informações que possam dar subsídios para a prática de anestesia epidural, cuja eficiência depende do conhecimento da anatomia desta região. Foi utilizado um exemplar, macho, adulto, proveniente da Mina de Bauxita - Paragominas-PA, o qual foi dissecado na região lombo-sacral. O cone medular do cachorro-do-mato apresentou base ao nível de L6 e ápice em S3, apresentando comprimento de 10,13cm. Concluímos que a região sacrococcígea é a mais indicada para a anestesia epidural, considerando que o exemplar em estudo apresentou nove vértebras lombares e quatro vértebras sacrais.

  19. Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 of the brazilian cerrado: hematology and storage effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla is a vulnerable species because of progressive habitat destruction, mostly affected by wildfires and car accidents. The increasing number of animals that are attended by wildlife rescue centres reinforces the need of knowledge about haematological parameters, especially for those that inhabit Brazilian cerrado biome. For this purpose and in order to establish reference values for this species and also to compare them with previous studies, haematological analysis of captive giant anteaters from Brazilian cerrado were performed. Moreover, the alterations of blood samples after 24 and 48 hours of storage at refrigeration temperatures (4oC and preserved with two different EDTA concentrations (5% and 10% were studied. Means and standard deviations of haematological parameters analysed immediately after collection were: RBC: 2,07 x106/μL ± 0,40; hematocrit: 38,08%± 5,93; haemoglobin: 11.33g/dL±2.15; MCV:186.52 fL±21.72; MCHC: 29.68g/dL±2.56; MCH: 55.08pcg±5,94; total leucocytes: 8.142/μL±2.441; neutrophils: 5.913/μL±2.168; lymphocytes: 1.460/μL±740; eosinophil: 522/μL±385; monocytes: 247/μL±176; thrombocytes: 123.458/μL±31.362 and total plasma protein: 6.23g/dL±0.49. This data shows evidence of the existence of important differences between these values and others from other areas, either from Brazil or from other South American countries. Those variations might be connected to environment, genetic, nutritional and/or management factors. Regarding the storage effect analysis, it can be concluded that in giant anteaters, haematological analysis can be performed until 24h after collection without any significant alterations on the haematological parameters, except for thrombocytes. Concerning the different EDTA concentrations, it can be concluded that there are no quantitative differences in haematological variables. Nevertheless, relevant morphologic alterations in blood cells can be observed after a 24h storage period, being most noticeable in the leucocytes. Those alterations can lead to misinterpretation of the results, interfering diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.

  20. Trophic discrimination factor and the significance of mangrove litter to benthic detritivorous gastropod, Ellobium aurisjudae (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Hong Wooi; Sasekumar, A.; Ismail, Mohamad Hanif; Chong, Ving Ching

    2018-01-01

    In stable isotope analysis, the estimation of proportional contribution of carbon and nitrogen from mangrove to benthic invertebrates requires knowledge of the food-consumer trophic discrimination factor (Δ δ13C and Δ δ15N). This study tested the hypothesis that the mangrove gastropod Ellobium aurisjudae can assimilate low quality refractory mangrove litter and aimed to determine the trophic discrimination values (TDV) of C and N isotopes between gastropod and the mangrove producer. The mean Δ δ13C for gastropods fed senescent leaves of the mangrove Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb) Wight & Arn and decomposing mangrove (unknown species from the same site) wood were estimated at 5.3 ± 0.3‰ and 3.2 ± 0.5‰ respectively, whereas for Δ δ15N, these values were 4.2 ± 0.2‰ and 6.0 ± 0.2‰ respectively. The gastropod assimilated refractory carbon from mangrove leaf and wood litter with 49% and 18% efficiency respectively. Rearing experiment of gastropods (n = 25) fed only mangrove wood litter over 5months in the laboratory, showed mean weight increments of 14.8-74.4% depending on the initial animal weight. Significant deviation of the TDVs for E. aurisjudae from the generalized discrimination values for herbivory underscores the need to use specific TDV for the detritivory link.

  1. Physiological responses of reared sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758) to an Amyloodinium ocellatum outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, M.; Schrama, D.; Soares, F.

    2017-01-01

    mortalities are usually attributed to anoxia, associated with serious gill hyperplasia, inflammation, haemorrhage and necrosis in heavy infestations; or with osmoregulatory impairment and secondary microbial infections due to severe epithelial damage in mild infestation. However, physiological information...

  2. Revising the phylogenetic position of the extinct Mascarene Parrot Mascarinus mascarin (Linnaeus 1771) (Aves: Psittaciformes: Psittacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsiadlowski, Lars; Gamauf, Anita; Töpfer, Till

    2017-02-01

    The phylogenetic position of the extinct Mascarene Parrot Mascarinus mascarin from La Réunion has been unresolved for centuries. A recent molecular study unexpectedly placed M. mascarin within the clade of phenotypically very different Vasa parrots Coracopsis. Based on DNA extracted from the only other preserved Mascarinus specimen, we show that the previously obtained cytb sequence is probably an artificial composite of partial sequences from two other parrot species and that M. mascarin is indeed a part of the Psittacula diversification, placed close to P. eupatria and P. wardi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of…

  4. Seminal plasma and sperm proteome of ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Herlon Victor Rodrigues; Rodriguez-Villamil, Paula; Magalhães, Francisco Felipe de; Nunes, Thalles Gothardo Pereira; Freitas, Luana Azevedo de; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigues; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues; Moura, Arlindo A; Silva, Lúcia Daniel Machado da

    2018-04-15

    Ring-tailed coati is listed as a species of least concern in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, however, there has been a sharp decline in their population. The present study was conducted to evaluate the major proteins of both seminal plasma and sperm in ring-tailed coatis. Semen sample was collected from three adult coatis and evaluated for their morphological characteristics. Further, the sample was centrifuged to separate spermatozoa from seminal plasma, and then stored in liquid nitrogen. The seminal plasma and sperm proteins were subjected to one-dimensional (1-D) sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and identified by mass spectrometry. Gene ontology and protein networks were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. Based on sperm concentration and average protein content of the semen, the concentration of protein/spermatozoon was found to be 104.69 ± 44.43 μg. The analysis of SDS-PAGE gels showed 20.3 ± 3.1 and 17 ± 2 protein bands/lane for seminal plasma and sperm, respectively. In-gel protein digestion and peptide analysis by mass spectrometry revealed 238 and 246 proteins in the seminal plasma and sperm, respectively. The gene ontology analysis revealed that the proteins of seminal plasma mainly participated in cellular (35%) and regulatory (21%) processes. According to their cellular localization, seminal plasma proteins were categorized as structural (18%), extracellular (17%), and nuclear (14%) proteins with molecular functions, such as catalytic activity (43%) and binding (43%). The sperm proteins were also involved in cellular (38%) and regulatory (23%) processes, and mainly categorized as extracellular (17%), nuclear (13%), and cytoplasmic (10%) proteins. The major molecular functions of the sperm proteins were catalytic activity (44%) and binding (42%). These results indicated that the seminal plasma of ring-tailed coati has an array of proteins that can potentially modulate several sperm functions, from sperm protection to oocyte binding. However, further studies are necessary to interpret the roles of these major seminal plasma proteins in coatis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The lumbosacral plexus of the red-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta leporina Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Caviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Benevides de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The red-rumped agouti is a small-sized wild rodent, belonging to the Dasyproctidae family, with great zootechnical potential, and it adapts well to captivity. In order to contribute to the species biology, this study describes the origin of the nerves forming the lumbosacral plexus. Twelve animals (six males and six females were used, from previous experiments. The animals were fixed in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution and eviscerated after 72 hours. Then, the major and minor psoas muscles were retracted, exposing the nerves forming the plexus. Cotton soaked with 20-volume hydrogen peroxide was placed on these nerves, remaining for 12 hours straight for bleaching and subsequent dissection. The topographical relations of the lumbosacral plexus were grouped into tables and arranged in terms of simple percentage. In 7 cases (58.34%, the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti stemmed from the ventral roots of the last 4 lumbar nerves and the first 3 sacral nerves (Type I – L4-S3, in 4 animals (33.33% it stemmed from L5-S3 (Type II, and in 1 case (8.33% it stemmed from L5-S4 (Type III. The nerves participating of the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti were: lateral femoral cutaneous, genitofemoral, femoral, obturator, sciatic, cranial gluteal, caudal gluteal, and pudendal nerve. The origin of the lumbosacral plexus and the spinal nerves making up this plexus in red-rumped agoutis were similar to that described in other rodents, such as rock cavy, lowland paca and spix's yellow-toothed cavy.

  6. Morphological variations and sexual dimorphism in Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix, 1824 and Chelonoidis denticulata (Linnaeus, 1766 (Testudinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Barros

    Full Text Available Chelonoidis Dcarbonaria and C. denticulata are two tortoises which are widely distributed Brazil. Although they occur sympatrically in different areas, C. carbonaria prefers open areas, while C. denticulata chooses forest areas. Significant morphological variations can be observed in these species due to the fact that they occupy a vast and environmentally diverse area. Data on shell shape of captive individuals reveal important differences between the two species, mainly in the plastron scutes, carapace width, and head length. Variation in shape is greater in C. carbonaria than in C. denticulata, which may be associated to a more elaborate and complex mating ritual. The shell shape in C. denticulata is more elongated than in C. carbonaria due to ecological habits. These aspects lead to a greater restriction in shape, limiting variation and dimorphism. In C. carbonaria, the shell opening is larger than in C. denticulata, which affords greater variation in shape. A more elongated shell facilitates movements of C. denticulata in densely forested areas. Yet, this characteristic reduces shell opening, lessening the possibilities of variation in form.

  7. Duplicación de miembro anterior en Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758: registro de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Germán Cupul-Magaña

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta nota registra el caso de polimelia en una hembra juvenil de iguana verde o Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae de entre cinco y seis meses de edad (camada del 2012, con talla de 43 cm y peso de 60 g.

  8. Histology and ultrastructure of the integumental chromatophores in tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) (Linnaeus, 1758) skin

    OpenAIRE

    Szyd?owski, Pawe?; Madej, Jan Pawe?; Mazurkiewicz-Kania, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between the arrangement of dermal chromatophores in tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) skin and the formation of wild-type colouration, with emphasis on the ultrastructure of chromatophores. The samples of the tokay gecko skin were collected from wild-type colouration adult specimens. Morphology and distribution of chromatophores was determined by using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The present study revealed that orange/red coloured skin ...

  9. Histology and ultrastructure of the integumental chromatophores in tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) (Linnaeus, 1758) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowski, Paweł; Madej, Jan Paweł; Mazurkiewicz-Kania, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between the arrangement of dermal chromatophores in tokay gecko ( Gekko gecko ) skin and the formation of wild-type colouration, with emphasis on the ultrastructure of chromatophores. The samples of the tokay gecko skin were collected from wild-type colouration adult specimens. Morphology and distribution of chromatophores was determined by using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The present study revealed that orange/red coloured skin of G. gecko contained erythrophores, which were located under basement membrane, and usually comprised deeper situated iridophores and melanophores which were form single layer with iridophores or were occupying the deepest region of dermis. In orange/red coloured skin, erythrophores were the predominant chromatophores. However in blue areas these cells occurred in small numbers or were not noticed at all. In blue pigmented areas predominated iridophores and melanophores. Iridophores were found just under basement membrane, but this superficial location of iridophores occured only in areas without erythrophores. Distribution of erythrophores, melanophores, and iridophores determines the characteristic blue colour of the tokay gecko skin with orange/red dots on the whole body.

  10. Oocyte adhesiveness and embryonic development of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pisces: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, André Alberto; Arantes, Fábio Pereira; Sato, Yoshimi; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2013-05-01

    This study shows for the first time the presence of a jelly coat on oocytes of neotropical Characiformes fish. This structure could be responsible for the adhesiveness of Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes, a species widely distributed in South America including in the São Francisco River basin in Brazil. Adult specimens of A. bimaculatus were submitted to artificial reproduction in order to analyse the egg morphology and embryonic development. The eggs were fertilised and kept in incubators with a water temperature of 24°C so that embryogenesis could be monitored. Ovulated and unfertilised oocytes were also collected and submitted to routine histological techniques. Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes were found to be spherical, yellowish, and covered by a thin jelly coat with a slightly adhesive surface. The mean oocyte diameter was 1.03 ± 0.03 mm, the perivitelline space was 0.21 ± 0.02 mm and the jelly coat's thickness was 0.04 ± 0.01 mm. Positive periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain and Alcian blue stain pH 2.5 indicated the presence of neutral glycoproteins, and carboxylated acid glycoconjugates on the jelly coat that formed mucosubstances that may be associated with egg adhesiveness. At a water temperature of 24°C, blastopore closure and hatching occurred at 5 h and 17 h after fertilisation, respectively. The results of this study provide essential information for phylogenetic studies and for a better understanding of the reproductive strategy of A. bimaculatus, currently included in the incertae sedis group of the Characidae family due to the lack of monophyly among the families of the group.

  11. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) as biological indicator for environmental pollution in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heltai, Miklós; Markov, Georgi

    2012-10-01

    Our aim were to establish the metal (Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Cd, and Pb) levels of red fox liver and the kidney samples (n = 10) deriving from central part of Hungary and compare the results with other countries' data. According to our results the concentrations of residues of the targeted elements (mg/kg dry weight) in liver and kidney samples were, respectively in liver: Cu: 21.418, Zn: 156.928, Ni: 2.079, Co: 1.611, Pb: 1.678 and Cd: 0.499; and kidney samples: Cu: 9.236; Zn: 87.159; Ni: 2.514; Co: 2.455; Pb: 2.63 and Cd: 0.818. Pb levels of Hungarian red fox liver samples significantly exceed the values of Italian specimens' samples, whilst the same element's concentrations of Hungarian red fox kidney samples were higher than the results published in Germany.

  12. Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) mussels irradiated by 60CO gamma rays cytotoxicity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Gisela A.; Pusceddu, Fabio H.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was the study of ionizing radiation effects on aquatic biota regarding the location of nuclear facilities nearby coastal areas assuming the risk of leaks and nuclear accidents. Bivalve mollusks have been widely used in the monitoring of aquatic environment studies mainly for their sessile habit and pollutants bioconcentration ability. So marine mussel Perna perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) was used as organism test in this study. The study of radioactive toxicity was performed by cytotoxicity test exposing the organisms to 11Gy gamma radiation dose. After radiation the neutral red retention assay evaluated the lysosomal membrane integrity in the mussel hemocytes. 50% lethal dose assay (LD50) of gamma radiation on Perna perna mussels was carried out by exposure the organisms to 60 Co gamma rays at doses ranging from 0 to 3000 Gy. The result of gamma radiation LD50 for these mussels was 1068 Gy and the neutral red retention time of irradiated organisms was about 47% lower than the control, non irradiated organisms. With the obtained results is expected to contribute in the study to identify the range of ionizing radiation doses which can cause toxic effects in marine invertebrates. (author)

  13. Adulticidal activity of some Malaysian plant extracts against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayatulfathi, O; Sallehuddin, S; Ibrahim, J

    2004-12-01

    The adulticidal activity of methanol extracts from three Malaysian plants namely Acorus calamus Linn., Litsea elliptica Blume and Piper aduncum Linn. against adult of Aedes aegypti (L.) were studied. Standard WHO bioassay tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of these plant extracts. The hexane fraction from methanol extract of Acorus calamus rhizome was the most effective, exhibiting LC50 and LC90 values of 0.04 mgcm(-2) and 0.09 mgcm(-2) respectively. For L. elliptica, the methanol fraction also displayed good adulticidal property with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.11 mgcm(-2) and 6.08 mgcm(-2) respectively. It is found that hexane fraction of the P. aduncum crude extract was the least effective among the three plants showing LC50 and LC90 values of 0.20 mgcm(-2) and 5.32 mgcm(-2), respectively. However, although A. calamus showed lowest LC values, the LT50 results indicated that the methanol fraction of L. elliptica was most potent extract among the extracts tested.

  14. Sertoli cell index and spermatic reserves in adult captive African lions (Panthera leo, Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, João Bosco Gonçalves; de Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rego; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Fonseca, Cláudio César; Leite, Flaviana Lima Guião; Rossi, João Luiz; de Oliveira, Priscila Carvalho; da Costa, Eduardo Paulino

    2007-12-01

    The intrinsic yield of spermatogenesis and the supporting indexes of the Sertoli cells are the best indicators for the spermatic production capacity in a species. The aim of the present study was to quantify the intrinsic yield of the spermatogenetic process, as well as the Sertoli cell index and spermatic reserves. Testicular fragments of five adult African lions was fixed in 4% glutaric aldehyde, dehydrated at increasing alcohol concentrations, included into hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and were cut into 4 microm thickness. In the seminiferous epithelium of the African lions, 10.3 primary spermatocytes at pre-leptotene phase are produced by the type-A spermatogonia. During meiotic divisions, only 2.7 spermatids were produced from the primary spermatocytes. The general spermatogenesis production in the African lions was approximately 22.1 cells, and each Sertoli cell was able to sustain and maintain approximately 14.9 cells of the germinative line, from which 7.9 are round spermatids. A total of 103x10(6) spermatozoa are produced by each testis gram at each cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. The spermatic reserve of lion is below the amplitude observed in mammals.

  15. Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the Scotia Arc, South Atlantic Ocean. I. The genus Alcyonium Linnaeus, 1758

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, C.; Ramil, F.; Ofwegen, van L.P.

    1997-01-01

    Three new species of Alcyonium collected by the Spanish Antarctic Expeditions "Antártida 8611" and "Bentart 95" are described and figured: Alcyonium paucilobulatum, A. grandis and A. southgeorgiensis. Another two species, A. antarcticum Wright & Studer, 1889, and Alcyonium sollasi Wright & Studer,

  16. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758: Biochemical response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acetylcholinsetrase (AChE activities were measured. Behavioral changes in the fish were also recorded during the experiment. Unbalanced swimming, swimming in the surface water and hyperglycemia, increased blood triglyceride, and increased levels of AST, LDH and CK activities as well as decreased levels of AChE activity were important changes that were observed in the specimens exposed to chlorpyrifos during experimental periods. The most important alterations in the blood biochemical parameters were measured in the specimens exposed to 40 µg/L chlorpyrifos on the 20th and 30th day of the trial. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos as low as 40 µg/L may cause biochemical and behavioral changes in Cyprinus carpio.

  17. Mating behaviour and gamete release in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758) held in captivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra-Zatarain, Z.; Duncan, N.

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to describe the reproductive behaviour of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in captivity. Twenty-four mature gilthead seabream, divided in two tanks, were utilized for the present study. Reproductive behaviour was recorded using submersibles cameras. A total of 67 spawning events were analysed. The mean duration time that gilthead seabream spent spawning was 54 ± 4 min/day, during which mean number of individual spawning events was 5.6 ± 0.2. The mean volume of eggs produced by both broodstocks was 405 ± 13.4 mL with a fertilization rate of 91.6 ± 0.4%. The reproductive behaviour began with a schooling behaviour and then forming light aggregations. From an aggregation or an encounter while swimming freely a female initiated a spawning rush followed by one or more males to gametes liberation. The spawning rush was brief, 1.6 ± 0.5 sec, over an approximately 1.7 ± 0.2 m distance from the tank bottom to the water surface. Pair spawning, between a single female and male, was the most common (71.6%). Group spawning was less common and involved a single female spawning with two males (22.5%) or three males (4.9%). Spawning rushes involving more than one female were not observed. Gilthead seabream in the present study presented a tendency to pair spawn and eggs collected as a “spawn” were actually the sum of many separate spawning events over a short time period. This is the first description of gilthead seabream spawning and the findings help to understand microsatellite based observations of spawning kinetics. (Author)

  18. Effects of glyphosate herbicide on the gastrointestinal microflora of Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas) Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Ronald P; McDermid, Karla J; Muehlstein, Lisa; Balazs, George H

    2018-02-01

    In Hawaii, glyphosate-based herbicides frequently sprayed near shorelines may be affecting non-target marine species. Glyphosate inhibits aromatic amino acid biosynthesis (shikimate pathway), and is toxic to beneficial gut bacteria in cattle and chickens. Effects of glyphosate on gut bacteria in marine herbivorous turtles were assessed in vitro. When cultures of mixed bacterial communities from gastrointestinal tracts of freshly euthanized green turtles (Chelonia mydas), were exposed for 24h to six glyphosate concentrations (plus deionized water control), bacterial density was significantly lower at glyphosate concentrations≥2.2×10 -4 gL -1 (absorbance measured at 600nm wavelength). Using a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay, the growth of four bacterial isolates (Pantoea, Proteus, Shigella, and Staphylococcus) was significantly inhibited by glyphosate concentrations≥1.76×10 -3 gL -1 . Reduced growth or lower survival of gut bacteria in green turtles exposed to glyphosate could have adverse effects on turtle digestion and overall health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Does myxomatosis still regulate numbers of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) in the United Kingdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, R C; Ross, J; Fox, A P

    1993-03-01

    Myxomatosis now kills a much smaller proportion of rabbit populations than in the past, while remaining an important regulatory factor, as shown experimentally. On two separate occasions, experimental reduction of the prevalence of the disease (by reducing infestations of the main vector, the rabbit flea) led to significant increases in numbers of rabbits surviving the winter.

  20. Myxomatosis: population dynamics of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) and ecological effects in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, J R; Trout, R C; Ross, J

    1992-12-01

    In 1953-1955, myxomatosis spread among rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the United Kingdom, causing 99% mortality. Subsequently, there was a gradual increase in rabbit numbers. By 1955, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) had already found attenuated strains of myxoma virus. By 1970, genetic resistance had appeared. In the 1970s, mortality declined to 47-69% with only approximately 25% of rabbits infected, giving a field mortality of 12-19%. However, myxomatosis is persistent, generally showing a major prevalence peak in autumn and often a minor peak in spring. An eight-year MAFF experiment in which prevalence of the disease was artificially reduced indicates that myxomatosis remains a significant factor in population regulation. After rabbit numbers fell in the 1950s, important ecological changes took place: vegetation altered due to reduced grazing pressure, predators were affected by the reduction of a major prey species and these changes also affected many other animals. Currently, rabbit numbers have returned to approximately one-third of pre-myxomatosis levels and this is causing damage to farm and conservation habitats.

  1. Otoliths of the wolf-fishes (genus Anarrhichas Linnaeus, 1758) from the Northern Atlantic (Pisces, Perciformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.

    1964-01-01

    While working at the Rijksinstituut voor Visserijonderzoek (R.V.I.O.) at IJmuiden, I received through the courtesy of Mr. C. van Delft some specimens of the three northern Atlantic species of wolf-fishes. At IJmuiden they are brought in by commercial trawlers. The only data in the literature known

  2. Sexual dimorphisms in the dermal denticles of the lesser-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Crooks

    Full Text Available The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female's pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle. No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle. Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process.

  3. On the Status of Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 in Lake Bracciano, Italy

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    Sakshi Sharda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For many species, the Mediterranean region harbors distinct lineages that are of conservation concerns. However, many of these are threatened by habitat degradation and by the introduction of non-native species. Here, we assess the status of the native threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Lake Bracciano region in Italy, where stickleback have been historically present. During a dedicated sampling campaign in summer 2015, surveying the potential habitats that sticklebacks commonly occupy, we could not confirm the presence of this species but found introduced species to be often most abundant. Stickleback are thus likely to either have become extinct over the last decades or be on the verge to extinction in the Lake Bracciano region.

  4. Bioactivity of Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus Linnaeus Essential Oils against Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Dewi Melani

    2016-05-01

    The study aims to determine the chemical compounds, toxicity, and antifeedant activity of sweet flag (Acorus calamus essential oils against third instar larvae of Spodoptera litura. The study was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD using various concentration of the essential oils (103, 2 × 103, 3 × 103, 4 × 103, 5 × 103 ppm. Mortality and antifeedant activity was observed 24 hours after treatment.  Toxicity and antifeedant activity values were 92.5% and 79.3%, respectively, with an LC50 value 586.96 ppm. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that essential oil of A. calamus consists of five chemical compounds: methyl isoeugenol, 3.9-decadien-ol-1,3-methyl-6-(1-methylethenyl, 4-pentyl-1-(4propylcyclohexyl1cyclohexene, γ-asarone and β asarone.

  5. Monogenean parasites of Lepomis gibbosus Linnaeus introduced into the River Durance, France

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlátová, Lucie; Ondračková, Markéta; Přikrylová, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2015), s. 323-330 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : non-native fish * invasive species * parasites * sunfish * Monogenea * host introductions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.602, year: 2015

  6. Gross morphology and anatomy of the large intestine of the paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Paes Bürger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the potential of using the paca as livestock involves understanding the morphophysiology of its digestive tract so its nutrition can be properly managed. The morphological and anatomical aspects of the large intestine of this species were investigated by inspecting material that was fresh and fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde. The material was provided by the Setor de Animais Selvagens do Departamento de Zootecnia da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal – UNESP (FCAV – UNESP. The large intestine of the paca is formed by cecum, colon and rectum, and is located in the abdominal and pelvic cavity near the third or fourth lumbar vertebrae. It was found, in the 10 samples analyzed, that there was no change in the pattern of this arrangement and that this pattern resembles that of mammals in general.

  7. Origem e distribuição do plexo lombossacral da paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela de Oliveira Tonini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n2p157 Considerando a importância da paca como fonte proteica alternativa à população e, em especial, por apresentar características adequadas à pesquisa como modelo experimental, objetiva-se descrever a origem e a distribuição do plexo lombossacral da paca, visando colaborar com o melhor conhecimento de sua morfologia, cuja descrição é escassa na literatura. Foram utilizadas oito pacas adultas (Cuniculus paca de ambos os sexos, provenientes do criatório do Setor de Animais Silvestres da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias da Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp em Jaboticabal; após o óbito, os animais foram fixadas em paraformaldeído 10% e dissecadas para identificação do plexo lombossacral. Este, em 7 pacas analisadas (87,5%, originou-se dos ramos ventrais dos nervos espinhais lombares L4, L5, L6 e L7 e dos nervos espinhais sacrais S1, S2 e S3; e em 1 espécime (12,5% o plexo lombossacral originou-se de L5, L6, L7, S1, S2 e S3, sem a participação de ramo proveniente de L4. Conclui-se que os nervos que contribuem para formação desse plexo são: nervo genitofemoral, nervo cutâneo femoral lateral, nervo femoral, nervo glúteo cranial, nervo obturatório, nervo isquiático, nervo glúteo caudal, nervo pudendo e nervo cutâneo femoral caudal.

  8. Morfologia e topografia do baço da paca ( Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella F. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A paca é um grande roedor, presente em parte do território brasileiro e na América Latina, cuja importância está na crescente produção comercial de carne exótica e na pesquisa científica como um promissor modelo experimental. Assim, este trabalho objetivou-se descrever a morfologia e a topografia do baço da paca (Cuniculus paca. Foram utilizadas cinco pacas adultas, machos e fêmeas, fixadas em formaldeído a 10% e armazenados em solução salina a 30% para sua conservação. Na paca, o baço tem sua localização relacionada ao estômago, ao fígado, ao rim esquerdo, ao pâncreas e ao omento maior. Possui forma irregular, sendo mais longo do que largo, possui coloração avermelhada-escura e textura lisa. Quanto à descrição histológica, apresenta cápsula de tecido conjuntivo denso que emitiu trabéculas que se projetam no parênquima. A cápsula e as trabéculas apresentam fibras musculares lisas. O parênquima è composto pela polpa branca e polpa vermelha, esta última formada por seios e cordões esplênicos.

  9. Anatomia microscópica e ultraestrutura do joelho da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

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    Alessandra Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A paca (Cuniculus paca, um dos maiores roedores da fauna brasileira, possui características inerentes à sua espécie que podem contribuir como uma nova opção de animal experimental; assim, considerando-se que há crescente busca por modelos experimentais apropriados para ortopedia e pesquisas cirúrgicas, foram analisados e descritos em detalhes a anatomia microscópica e ultraestrutural do joelho desse roedor. Os ligamentos colaterais são constituídos por feixes de fibras colágenas arranjadas paralelamente e com trajeto ondulado. Os fibroblastos formavam fileiras paralelas às fibras colágenas; quanto aos ligamentos colaterais, estes apresentaram citoplasma imperceptível à avaliação por microscopia de luz, entretanto, em análise ultraestrutural verificou-se vários prolongamentos citoplasmáticos. Microscopicamente, as estruturas presentes no joelho da paca assemelham-se às dos animais domésticos, roedores e lagomorfos.

  10. Morphology and topography of the external male genital organs of spotted paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

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    Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spotted paca (Cuniculus paca is a rodent species from the family Cuniculidae, found in South America, from the Orinoco River Basin to Paraguay. Although widely studied with regard to its morphological and reproductive aspects, still there’re no records on the morphology of the male reproductive system in this species. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate not only the macro and microscopic anatomy of the external genital organs in this species, but also their topography. We studied the external genital organs of 10 adult spotted pacas; 5 specimens, fixed in a 10% aqueous formaldehyde solution, were macroscopically studied and from 5 specimens we collected fragments from the reproductive system, for microscopic analysis. The testicles showed a parenchyma structured in seminiferous tubules and the germinal epithelium rested on its basal membrane. These organs were located in the abdominal cavity, the inguinal path, or within the scrotum. Penis, fibroelastic, was located in the pubic region, in caudal direction. Its glans, coated by keratinized epithelium, were covered by the prepuce and, below this, we identified a slender cartilaginous structure with serrated edges. A couple of bone spurs was located into a bag ventral to the urethra, whose mucosa was lined by transitional epithelium. The epididymal duct was balled up in the head, had a body and tail, and its head was lined by pseudo-stratified stereociliated epithelium, and the tail by simple cubic epithelium; from this, the deferent duct stemmed, lined by columnar stratified epithelium.

  11. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da veia cava de paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

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    Sérgio Pinter Garcia Filho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A paca (Cuniculus paca é o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira. Apresenta carne de excelente qualidade, o que incentiva a criação comercial. Além disso, este animal pode tornar-se uma opção válida em experimentação embora poucas sejam as informações detalhadas sobre sua morfologia. Assim, objetivou-se descrever a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções cranial e caudal da veia cava de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca adultas excedentes do plantel do Setor de Animais Silvestres do Departamento de Zootecnia da FCAV-Unesp. Os segmentos venosos foram analisados à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foram mensuradas as espessuras do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média, além da túnica adventícia e analisou-se os resultados pela estatística descritiva, teste "T" pareado (p<0,05. Em relação à espessura das túnicas estudadas, comprovou-se que os valores da espessura das túnicas íntima, média e adventícia, para todos os animais, foram significativamente maiores no segmento cranial. As camadas das paredes dos vasos apresentaram variações entre si quanto à estrutura e espessura, supostamente devido a uma adaptação à exigência funcional.

  12. Macroscopic description of thoracic member musculature in Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia, Cuniculidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuniculus paca (Mammalia: Cuniculidae, or ‘paca’ is a rodent species in great demand for its meat, which has led to domestication and development of paca farms in the Brazilian Amazon region, as well as in other states. Despite the growing consumption of paca meat, knowledge on muscle anatomy is still scarce. An anatomical description of paca forelimbs will form the basis for future zootechnical and veterinary studies, enabling the development of sustainable production in the Amazon region, as well as the preservation of the species. We studied forelimb anatomy in four (04 adult pacas from the Caboclinho Project of Catuaba Experimental Farm (UFAC under IBAMA authorization n°509309. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and thoracic limbs were dissected, after which anatomical descriptions and photographic records were generated. We found that paca forelimb musculature is similar to that of other groups of domestic animals with regard to the origin and muscle insertion.

  13. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da veia cava de paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766) criada em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Pinter Garcia Filho; Leandro Luís Martins; Ana Carolina Gonçalves dos Reis; Maria Rita Pacheco; Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado

    2013-01-01

    A paca (Cuniculus paca) é o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira. Apresenta carne de excelente qualidade, o que incentiva a criação comercial. Além disso, este animal pode tornar-se uma opção válida em experimentação embora poucas sejam as informações detalhadas sobre sua morfologia. Assim, objetivou-se descrever a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções cranial e caudal da veia cava de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca) adultas excedentes do plantel do Setor de Anima...

  14. Morfologia, ultraestrutura e morfometria do tegumento da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G.M.P. Isola

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a falta de informações detalhadas sobre a morfologia da paca, sendo o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira, de excelente qualidade de carne e, dada a importância do tegumento comum, inclusive para o bom manejo em cativeiro, e até mesmo estudos como uma opção de animal de experimentação, descreveu-se a morfologia, morfometria e a ultraestrutura da pele de oito pacas (Cuniculus paca machos e fêmeas, mediante a análise comparativa de segmentos cutâneos das regiões cervical, dorsal e medial do carpo. Observaram-se macroscopicamente as características da pelagem. Parte dos segmentos das regiões cutâneas foi analisada à microscopia de luz e parte, à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Mensuraram-se as espessuras da derme, epiderme, camada córnea, perfis das fibras de colágeno da derme reticular e a área dos perfis das células das glândulas sebáceas repletas. Analisaram-se os resultados pela estatística descritiva e teste "T" (p<0,001. A coloração da pelagem da paca é castanho avermelhado com cerdas organizadas em grupos. A arquitetura da cútis e os anexos cutâneos se assemelham aos dos mamíferos em geral, embora haja ausência de glândulas sudoríparas. De acordo com a analise morfométrica, pôde-se inferir que a arquitetura da cútis de pacas machos e fêmeas apresenta diferenças quando comparada entre os sexos e também em um mesmo animal, diferenciando-se entre diversas regiões corpóreas.

  15. Macroscopic description of thoracic member musculature in Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia, Cuniculidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n2p43 Cuniculus paca (Mammalia: Cuniculidae, or ‘paca’ is a rodent species in great demand for its meat, which has led to domestication and development of paca farms in the Brazilian Amazon region, as well as in other states. Despite the growing consumption of paca meat, knowledge on muscle anatomy is still scarce. An anatomical description of paca forelimbs will form the basis for future zootechnical and veterinary studies, enabling the development of sustainable production in the Amazon region, as well as the preservation of the species. We studied forelimb anatomy in four (04 adult pacas from the Caboclinho Project of Catuaba Experimental Farm (UFAC under IBAMA authorization n°509309. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and thoracic limbs were dissected, after which anatomical descriptions and photographic records were generated. We found that paca forelimb musculature is similar to that of other groups of domestic animals with regard to the origin and muscle insertion.

  16. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da aorta de paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766) criada em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Filho,S.P.; Martins,L.L.; Reis,A.C.G.; Pacheco,M.R.; Machado,M.R.F.

    2012-01-01

    Descreveram-se a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções torácica e abdominal da aorta de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca) adultas. Os segmentos aórticos foram analisados à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Mensuraram-se as espessuras do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média, além da túnica adventícia. Os valores referentes à espessura do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média da aorta torácica cranial foram significativamente ma...

  17. Macroscopic description of the external and middle ear of paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

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    Leandro L. Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Paca (Cuniculus paca, one of the largest rodents of the Brazilian fauna, has inherent characteristics of its species which can conribute as a new option for animal experimantation. As there is a growing demand for suitable experimental models in audiologic and otologic surgical research, the gross anatomy and ultrastructural ear of this rodent have been analyzed and described in detail. Fifteen adult pacas from the Wild Animals Sector herd of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp-Jaboticabal, were used in this study. After anesthesia and euthanasia, we evaluated the entire composition of the external ear, registering and ddescribing the details; the temporal region was often dissected for a better view and detailing of the tympanic bulla which was removed and opened to expose the ear structures analyzed mascroscopically and ultrastructurally. The ear pinna has a triangular and concave shape with irregular ridges and sharp apex. The external auditory canal is winding in its path to the tympanic mebrane. The tympanic bulla is is on the back-bottom of the skull. The middle ear is formed by a cavity region filled with bone and membranous structures bounded by the tympanic membrane and the oval and round windows. The tympanic membrane is flat and seals the ear canal. The anatomy of the paca ear is similar to the guinea pig and from the viewpoint of experimental model has major advantages compared with the mouse ear.

  18. The Hindlimb Arterial Vessels in Lowland paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, L M; de Freitas, H M G; Sasahara, T H C; Machado, M R F

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to describe the origin and distribution of the hindlimb arterial vessels. Five adult lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca) were used. Stained and diluted latex was injected, caudally to the aorta. After fixation in 10% paraformaldehyde for 72 h, we dissected to visualize and identify the vessels. It was found out that the vascularization of the hindlimb in lowland paca derives from the terminal branch of the abdominal aorta. The common iliac artery divides into external iliac and internal iliac. The external iliac artery emits the deep iliac circumflex artery, the pudendal epigastric trunk, the deep femoral artery; the femoral artery originates the saphenous artery, it bifurcates into cranial and caudal saphenous arteries. Immediately after the knee joint, the femoral artery is called popliteal artery, which divides into tibial cranial and tibial caudal arteries at the level of the crural inter-osseous space. The origin and distribution of arteries in the hindlimb of lowland paca resembles that in other wild rodents, as well as in the domestic mammals. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da aorta de paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Garcia Filho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreveram-se a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções torácica e abdominal da aorta de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca adultas. Os segmentos aórticos foram analisados à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Mensuraram-se as espessuras do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média, além da túnica adventícia. Os valores referentes à espessura do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média da aorta torácica cranial foram significativamente maiores (média: 702,19µm que os valores de outros segmentos aórticos analisados (médias: 354,18µm; 243,55µm. As camadas das paredes do vaso apresentaram variações entre si quanto à estrutura e espessura, supostamente em razão de adaptação à exigência funcional.

  20. Ground temperatures in ice-cemented ground at Linnaeus Terrace, Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Soil temperatures were measured with Campbell 107 soil thermistors. Thermistors were placed at 0, 17, 23 (just above the ice-cemented permafrost) and 40 cm depth. To...