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Sample records for galeras volcano colombia

  1. Self-potential signals caused by eruptions of the Galeras volcanoColombia

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    Greinwald S.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Institute of Geology and Mining, INGEOMINAS - Colombia, and the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, BGR - Germany, perform since 1997 as a joint venture
    multi-parameter measurements at the Galeras volcano, in the southwest of Colombia. Since the end of 1998 the Multi-parameter Station at Galeras (Estación Multiparámetro del Galeras - EMG includes the continuous monitoring of electromagnetic variations. The electromagnetic (EM station is located at the north-eastern foot walls of the central cone inside the caldera.
    During almost six years of electromagnetic monitoring, the data did not show significant variations of the electromagnetic field, which could be related to the volcanic activity. In July 2004 a new active period of Galeras began with two strong ash emissions. During both emissions strong self potential- (SP signals were recorded lasting for several hours. The present paper will present the data which could give some indications on the movements of liquids during ash emissions.

  2. Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia: A Participative Workshop to Reduce Volcanic Risk

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    Sheridan, M. F.; Cordoba, G. A.

    2009-12-01

    Galeras has been in nearly constant activity during modern historic times (roughly the past 500 years). Approximately 10,000 people live within an area designated as the highest-hazard and nearly 400,000 people are within areas of potential harmful effects. A wide variety of stakeholders are affected by the hazards, including: farmers, indigenous villagers, and people in urban environments. Hazards assessment and volcano monitoring are the responsibility of the Colombian Geological Survey (INGEOMINAS), whereas decisions regarding mitigation and response procedures are the responsibility of various governmental offices and the national emergency system (SNPAD). According to the current plan, when the risk level rises to a high level the people in the highest risk zone are required to evacuate. The volcano currently is in a very active, but fluctuating, condition and a future large eruption in a medium time frame (years to decades) is possible. There is a growing level of discomfort among many of the affected groups, including indigenous communities, farmers, and urban dwellers, related to the risk assessment. The general opinion prior to July 2009 was quite polarized as the decision makers saw the people of the region as poorly prepared to understand this hazard, whereas the population felt that their views were not being heard. The result was that the people in the hazardous areas decided not to evacuate, even during the current period of explosive activity. To resolve this situation the University of Nariño (Colombia) and the State University of New York at Buffalo organized a workshop named "Knowledge, Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia" that was held in Pasto (Colombia), between 6 and 11 July, 2009. The general objective of this workshop was to analyze the existing hazard maps and safety plans for Galeras and form a bridge connecting scientists, decision makers, and other stake holders to promote a better

  3. Unusual seismic signals associated with the activity at Galeras volcano, Colombia, from July 1992 to September 1994

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    L. Narvàez M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available After the emplacement of a lava dome at Galeras volcano in 1991, seven eruptions occurred from July 16, 1992, to September 23, 1994, six of which were preceded by quasi-monochromatic, long-duration seismic events with slowly decaying coda named «tornillos» (screws. The dominant frequencies of these unusual seismic signals are related to source characteristics and show temporal changes, diminishing and then tending to stabilize before an eruption. At the same time, the accumulated number and the duration of these signals increase several days prior to the eruption. The increase in the duration of the tornillo events and the decline of the dominant frequencies both suggest an increasing impedance contrast between the surrounding solid material and the fluid. These characteristics may be associated with an increase in the free gas phase in the magma produced by saturation of volatiles due to cooling, crystallization and partial solidification of the column of magma plugging the conduits. The solidified magma can contribute to sealing the conduits and preventing free gas escape, with consequent generation of overpressure. An eruption is initiated when the overpressure exceeds the resistance strength of the solid material.

  4. 14C ages and activity for the past 50 ka at Volcán Galeras, Colombia

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    Banks, N.G.; Calvache, V.M.L.; Williams, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    Volcán Galeras is the southernmost Colombian volcano with well-recorded historic activity. The volcano is part of a large and complex volcanic center upon which 400,000 people live. Historic activity has centered on a small-volume cone inside the youngest of several large amphitheaters that breach the west flank of the volcano, away from the city of Pasto (population 300,000). Lava flows (SiO2 between 54.6 and 64.7 wt.%) have dominated activity for more than 1 Ma, but explosive events have also occurred. Joint studies by volcanologists from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and the United States produced 24 new14C ages and more than 100 stratigraphic sections to interpret the past 50 ka of activity at Galeras, including sector collapse events. The youngest collapse event truncated 12.8 ka lava flows and may have occurred as recently as 8 to 10 ka. Tephra-fall material rapidly thins and becomes finer away from the vent area. The only widespread marker in the < 10 ka section is a biotite-bearing tephra deposited between 4.1 and 4.5 ka from a source south of Galeras. It separates cryoturbated from largely undisturbed layers on Galeras, and thus dates a stratigraphic horizon which is useful in the interpretation of other volcanoes and geotectonics in the equatorial Andes. Pyroclastic flows during the past 50 ka have been small to moderate in volume, but they have left numerous thin deposits on the north and east flanks where lava flows have been impeded by crater and amphitheater walls. Many of the pyroclastic-flow deposits are lithic rich, with fines and clasts so strongly altered by hydrothermal action before eruption that they, as well as the sector collapse deposits, resemble waste dumps of leached cappings from disseminated sulfide deposits more than volcanogenic deposits. This evidence of a long-lived hydrothermal system indicates susceptibility to mass failure and explosive events higher than expected for a volcano built largely by lava flows and

  5. Galeras: Progress and challenges of disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorado G, Lina Marlene

    2008-01-01

    The Galeras Volcano is presently being considered the most active in Colombia. For the last 17 years of constant vigilance, the occurrence of eruptions by Galeras Volcano has been mostly classified as small ones. In the high hazard zone, live 7935 persons who have to be evacuated every time level II to volcanic activity is reached (probable eruption in the course of days or weeks). For the first time in Colombian history, a disaster situation has been declared before its happening. On November 15th, 2005, the National Government, on the basis of the Decreto 4106, declared the existence of an disaster situation within the counties of Pasto, Narino and La Florida, all making part of the Narino Department. This declaration was made considering the serious alteration of the daily life style, to which the population was exposed due to a probable volcanic eruption, is out to come. The present work is an analysis of the emergency procedures which have been carried out with help of the PAR (pressure and release) methodology. This analysis contains some reflexions on how difficulties were solved, and on positive aspects, challenges and advances for a better long term management of evacuations, like those carried out in the high hazard zones of Galeras volcano

  6. Radon soil increases before volcano-tectonic earthquakes in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, G.; Serna, D.; Diago, J.; Moran, C.

    2003-01-01

    Continuous studies of radon concentration changes in soils for the purpose of earthquake monitoring have been carried out in three colombian districts and in the edifices of Galeras and nevado del Ruiz volcanoes since 1995. In zones of active faulting have been measured radon soil emissions between 1000 and 2500 pCi/L. In an intersection of two active geological faults have been measured levels of 25 000 pCi/L. In the present work appears a compilation of examples of the registered anomalous radon emissions in several stations before earthquakes of tectonic character. Examples of registered radon increases before: (1) events of magnitudes between 2 and 4; (2) the occurrence of seismic swarms; and (3) the Quindio (Colombia) earthquake (M w = 6, 2) of January 1999, are described. A model of transport mechanism for the studied isotopes is presented. (orig.)

  7. Geophysical monitoring of the Purace volcano, Colombia

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    M. Arcila

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Located in the extreme northwestern part of the Los Coconucos volcanic chain in the Central Cordillera, the Purace is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes. Recent geological studies indicate an eruptive history of mainly explosive behavior which was marked most recently by a minor ash eruption in 1977. Techniques used to forecast the renewal of activity of volcanoes after a long period of quiescence include the monitoring of seismicity and ground deformation near the volcano. As a first approach toward the monitoring of the Purace volcano, Southwest Seismological Observatory (OSSO, located in the city of Cali, set up one seismic station in 1986. Beginning in June 1991, the seismic signals have also been transmitted to the Colombian Geological Survey (INGEOMINAS at the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory (OVS-UOP, located in the city of Popayan. Two more seismic stations were installed early in 1994 forming a minimum seismic network and a geodetic monitoring program for ground deformation studies was established and conducted by INGEOMINAS.

  8. Volcanic hazard maps of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia

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    Parra, Eduardo; Cepeda, Hector

    1990-07-01

    Although the potential hazards associated with an eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano were known to civil authorities before the catastrophic eruption there in November 1985, their low perception of risk and the long quiescent period since the last eruption (140 years), caused them to wait for stronger activity before developing an eruption alert system. Unfortunately, the eruption occurred suddenly after a period of relative quiet, and as a result more than 25,000 people were killed. Although it was accurate and reasonably comprehensive, the hazard map that existed before the eruption was poorly understood by the authorities and even less so by the general population, because the scientific terminology and probabilistic approach to natural hazards were unfamiliar to many of them. This confusion was shared by the communication media, which at critical times placed undue emphasis on the possibility of lava flows rather than on the more imminent threat from mudflows, in keeping with the popular but often inaccurate perception of volcanic eruptions. This work presents an updated hazard map of Nevado del Ruiz that combines information on various hazardous phenomena with their relative probability of occurrence in order to depict numerical "hazard levels" that are easily comprehensible to nonspecialists and therefore less susceptible to misinterpretation. The scale of relative risk is arbitrary, ranging from five to one, and is intended to provide an intuitive indication of danger to people, property and crops. The map is meant to facilitate emergency preparedness and management by political and civil authorities, to educate the public concerning volcanic hazards and to assist in land-use planning decisions.

  9. Intense Seismic Activity at Chiles and Cerro Negro Volcanoes on the Colombia-Ecuador Border

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    Torres, R. A.; Cadena, O.; Gomez, D.; Ruiz, M. C.; Prejean, S. G.; Lyons, J. J.; White, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The region of Chiles and Cerro Negro volcanoes, located on the Colombian-Ecuadorian border, has experienced an ongoing seismic swarm beginning in Aug. 2013. Based on concern for local residents and authorities, a cooperative broadband monitoring network was installed by the Servicio Geológico Colombiano in Colombia and the Instituto Geofísico of the Escuela Politécnica Nacional in Ecuador. Since November 2013 more than 538,000 earthquakes were recorded; although since May 2015 the seismicity has decreased significantly to an average of 70 events per day. Three large earthquake swarms with increasing energy occurred in Aug.-Oct. 2013, March-May 2014, and Sept.-Dec. 2014. By the end of 2014, roughly 400 earthquakes greater than M 3 had occurred with a maximum rate of 8000 earthquakes per day. The largest earthquake was a 5.6 ML on Oct. 20, 2014. This event produced an InSAR coseismic deformation of ~23 cm (S. Ebmeier, personal communication). Most events are typical brittle failure volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes that are located in a cluster beneath the southern flank of Chiles volcano, with depths between 1.5 and 10 km. Although the great majority of earthquakes are VT, some low-frequency (LF, ~0.5 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF) events have occurred. Particle motion analysis suggests that the VLF source migrated with time. While a VLF on Oct. 15, 2014 was located south of Chiles volcano, near the InSAR source, the VLF registered on Feb. 14, 2015 was likely located very close to Chiles Volcano. We infer that magma intrusion and resulting fluid exsolution at depths greater than 5 km are driving seismicity in the Chiles-Cerro Negro region. However earthquakes are failing in a manner consistent with regional tectonics. Relative relocations reveal a structure consistent with mapped regional faults. Thus seismicity is likely controlled by an interaction of magmatic and tectonic processes. Because the regional stress field is highly compressional and the volcanoes

  10. A model of diffuse degassing at three subduction-related volcanoes

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    Williams-Jones, Glyn; Stix, John; Heiligmann, Martin; Charland, Anne; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; Arner, N.; Garzón, Gustavo V.; Barquero, Jorge; Fernandez, Erik

    Radon, CO2 and δ13C in soil gas were measured at three active subduction-related stratovolcanoes (Arenal and Poás, Costa Rica; Galeras, Colombia). In general, Rn, CO2 and δ13C values are higher on the lower flanks of the volcanoes, except near fumaroles in the active craters. The upper flanks of these volcanoes have low Rn concentrations and light δ13C values. These observations suggest that diffuse degassing of magmatic gas on the upper flanks of these volcanoes is negligible and that more magmatic degassing occurs on the lower flanks where major faults and greater fracturing in the older lavas can channel magmatic gases to the surface. These results are in contrast to findings for Mount Etna where a broad halo of magmatic CO2 has been postulated to exist over much of the edifice. Differences in radon levels among the three volcanoes studied here may result from differences in age, the degree of fracturing and faulting, regional structures or the level of hydrothermal activity. Volcanoes, such as those studied here, act as plugs in the continental crust, focusing magmatic degassing towards crater fumaroles, faults and the fractured lower flanks.

  11. Volcanoes

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    ... rock, steam, poisonous gases, and ash reach the Earth's surface when a volcano erupts. An eruption can also cause earthquakes, mudflows and flash floods, rock falls and landslides, acid rain, fires, and even tsunamis. Volcanic gas ...

  12. The Totumo mud volcano and its near-shore marine sedimentological setting (North Colombia) - From sedimentary volcanism to epithermal mineralization

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    Dill, H. G.; Kaufhold, S.

    2018-04-01

    The Holocene mud volcano exposed at Totumo (younger than 4150 ± 50 yr BP) lines up together with some other landforms of its kind along the Caribbean Coast in northern Colombia. It currently vents a mud of the silicate-phosphate-bearing sulfur-sodium chloride type. The mud volcanoes evolved in an active continental margin setting of the South American Cordillera with high seismicity and affected by pervasive neotectonic structural disturbances. During the Neogene and Quaternary linear terrigenous shoreline sediments alternating with delta deposits evolved on this mobile crustal segment between the Andes and ancient Precambrian cratons. Meso- to microtidal sedimentary settings during transgression and progradation created meta- to instable sedimentary and petrophysical conditions (e.g. overpressure and gas-bearing bubble sands), favorable for the formation of mud volcanoes, whose lithofacies is subdivided into (1) footwall facies (detritus from metabasic, -pelitic source rocks), (2) mud volcano plus lateral facies (material from deep-seated hydrothermal sources, hydrocarbon plays, and brine reflux from the sea), (3) hanging wall facies, sand characterized by a strong longshore drift. The sedimentary volcanism in the area is characterized by different temperatures of formation: (1) pre-stage (oxides, garnet, alumosilicates, tourmaline, zircon, barite, Fe sulfides and -sulfates), light (Ca sulfates, calcite, quartz, feldspar) and clay minerals (kaolinite, mica, pyrophyllite, chlorite, vermiculite) are efficient tools to determine the source of mud, to subdivide the mud volcano system as to its facies and describe its physical-chemical regime as to the temperature of formation, pH and Eh values. The mud volcano system of Totumo bridges the gap between sedimentary "volcanism" and epithermal hot spring deposits of intermediate to high sulfidation and forms a useful "guide" to hydrocarbon accumulation.

  13. ACTIVITY AND Vp/Vs RATIO OF VOLCANO-TECTONIC SEISMIC SWARM ZONES AT NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCANO, COLOMBIA

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    Londoño B. John Makario

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the seismic activity for volcano-tectonic earthquake (VT swarms zones at Nevado del Ruiz Volcano (NRV was carried out for the interval 1985- 2002, which is the most seismic active period at NRV until now (2010. The swarm-like seismicity of NRV was frequently concentrated in very well defined clusters around the volcano. The seismic swarm zone located at the active crater was the most active during the entire time. The seismic swarm zone located to the west of the volcano suggested some relationship with the volcanic crises. It was active before and after the two eruptions occurred in November 1985 and September 1989. It is believed that this seismic activity may be used as a monitoring tool of volcanic activity. For each seismic swarm zone the Vp/Vs ratio was also calculated by grouping of earthquakes and stations. It was found that each seismic swarm zone had a distinct Vp/Vs ratio with respect to the others, except for the crater and west swarm zones, which had the same value. The average Vp/Vs ratios for the seismic swarm zones located at the active crater and to the west of the volcano are about 6-7% lower than that for the north swarm zone, and about 3% lower than that for the south swarm zone. We suggest that the reduction of the Vp/Vs ratio is due to degassing phenomena inside the central and western earthquake swarm zones, or due to the presence of microcracks inside the volcano. This supposition is in agreement with other studies of geophysics, geochemistry and drilling surveys carried out at NRV.

  14. Gravity Changes and Internal Processes: Some Results Obtained from Observations at Three Volcanoes

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    Jentzsch, Gerhard; Weise, Adelheid; Rey, Carlos; Gerstenecker, Carl

    Temporal gravity changes provide information about mass and/or density variations within and below the volcano edifice. Three active volcanoes have been under investigation; each of them related to a plate boundary: Mayon/Luzon/Philippines, Merapi/Java/Indonesia, and Galeras/Colombia. The observed gravity changes are smaller than previously expected but significant. For the three volcanoes under investigation, and within the observation period, mainly the increase of gravity is observed, ranging from 1,000 nm-2 to 1,600 nms-2. Unexpectedly, the gravity increase is confined to a rather small area with radii of 5 to 8 km around the summit. At Mayon and Merapi the parallel GPS measurements yield no significant elevation changes. This is crucial for the interpretation, as the internal pressure variations do not lead to significant deformation at the surface. Thus the classical Mogi-model for a shallow extending magma reservoir cannot apply. To confine the possible models, the attraction due to changes of groundwater level or soil moisture is estimated along the slope of Merapi exemplarily by 2-D modelling. Mass redistribution or density changes were evaluated within the vent as well as deeper fluid processes to explain the gravity variations; the results are compared to the model incorporating the additional effect of elastic deformation.

  15. Alteration related to hydrothermal activity of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano (NRV), Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, Jhon; Zuluaga, Carlos; Mojica, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The hydrothermal activity in the NRV generates alteration characterized by mineral associations depending one number of physic-chemical factors of the hydrothermal system. Petrography of unaltered rocks was used to establish the mineral assemblage prior to rock-fluid interaction. XRD was used in altered rocks, where it was not possible to recognize the alteration products. the observed mineral assemblages indicate advanced and intermediate argillic alterations, this and the observation of very low modal proportion of sulphates, sulphides and native sulphur in some areas could point to a low sulphidation zone. However, the proximity to the volcano and the presence of acid thermal waters and steam pose an apparent contradiction with an expected high sulphidation zone which is explained by climatic conditions, where excess water has dissolved and leached sulfides, sulphur and sulphates close to the volcano. fault zones serve as conducts for fluid transport and have acid-sulphate mineral associations produced by atmospheric oxidation at the water table in a steam-heated environment of H 2 S released by deeper, boiling fluids or by the disproportionation of magmatic SO 2 to H 2 S and H 2 SO 4 during condensation of magmatic vapor plume at intermedia depths in magmatic hydrothermal environment in andesitic volcanic terrain characteristic of high sulphidation zones.

  16. Tumulus 20 of the Iberian necropolis of Tútugi (Galera, Granada

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    Rodríguez-Ariza, Mª Oliva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Here the results from the excavation of Tumulus 20 of the Iberian Necropolis of Tútugi are presented. This tumulus was robbed in 1916, but the materials were recovered and published by Cabré and Motos in 1920. Among the artefacts was the Dama de Galera (Lady of Galera. The excavation has uncovered a structural complex with two phases of construction. The first phase consists of a quadrangular chamber with an access passageway, both carved into the rock, and with a central pillar of adobe that possibly supported a ceiling. In the second phase, the chamber was filled in with rocks and earth, and the rock was cut to form a circular platform of 13 m in diameter, which was painted red. In the centre of this platform a quadrangular space serving as an entrance corridor was constructed as a projection of the underground structures. This building in the open air was framed within an Cypriot-ingot-shaped platform painted in white.

    Se presentan aquí los resultados obtenidos de la excavación del Túmulo 20 de la Necrópolis ibérica de Tútugi. Este túmulo fue saqueado en 1916 y los materiales fueron recuperados y publicados por Cabré y Motos en 1920, entre ellos se encontraba la Dama de Galera. La excavación ha puesto al descubierto un complejo estructural con dos fases constructivas. La primera fase consta de una cámara cuadrangular con pasillo de acceso, ambos excavados en la roca, y con un pilar central de adobe que posiblemente sostenía el techo. En una segunda fase la cámara es rellenada por piedras y tierra y se recortaría la roca para conformar una plataforma circular de 13 m de diámetro que es pintada de rojo. En el centro de esta plataforma se construye, como proyección de las estructuras subterráneas, un espacio cuadrangular con corredor de entrada. Este edificio al aire libre queda enmarcado dentro de la plataforma por la forma del lingote chipriota pintado en blanco.

  17. La diosa de Galera, fuente de aceite perfumado

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    Almagro-Gorbea, Martín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Goddess from Galera was found in a tomb of the Iberian cemetery of Tutugi (Granada dated c. 450 BC with a structure similar to the royal tomb of Pozo Moro. The Galera-Goddess is an alabaster sculpture dated in the VIII BC. from a Syrio-Phoenician workshop. It was a sacred vase for perfumed oil, devoted to the ritual anoint of god sculptures and sacred kings. The vase represents the goddess Astart, seated in her throne between two sphinxes and conceived as the Tree of Life. From her breasts come out the sacred perfumed oil which give life to the King, protect him magically and give him the Everlasting Life, as shown in oriental texts and iconography. Thereafter, it was not a keimélion brought trough Phoenicians trade, but a sacred object arrived to the Far West from a Nord-Syrian royal context trough the koiné of the Phoenician colonisation. As it was found in an Iberian royal tomb, it documents the origin of the ideology and ritual from the Tartessian and Iberian kings in the Orientalaizing Period.La llamada Diosa de Galera apareció en una tumba real de la necrópolis ibérica de Tutugi (Granada, comparable a la de Pozo Moro, aunque de mediados del siglo V a.C. Es una escultura de alabastro labrada en un taller áulico sirio-fenicio del siglo VIII a.C. para servir como vaso sagrado de aceite perfumado destinado en exclusiva a la unción ritual de estatuas de divinidad y/o de reyes divinizados. La diosa Astart, entronizada entre dos esfinges, aparece concebida como Árbol de la Vida, pues de sus pechos brota el divino néctar o ambrosía perfumado que da al Rey la vida, le protege mágicamente y le garantiza la vida eterna en el Más Allá, según indican textos y representaciones orientales. Se trata de un objeto ritual sacro de ámbito regio, no de un simple keimélion traído por los fenicios. Sería la divinidad protectora de algún miembro de estirpe real nordsirio llegado a Occidente a través de la koiné colonial fenicia. Su

  18. Structural analysis of the northeast nevado del Ruiz volcano area, Colombia - a contribution to geothermal exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, Eliana L; Velandia, Francisco; Zuluaga, Carlos A; Lopez, Julian A; Cramer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The structural geology studies around the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano (NRV), based on aerial photographs and digital terrene models interpretation, in conjunction with analysis of morphological, tectonic features, striated fault planes data and stress field calculation allow to propose a structural scheme that explains the pattern of location of hot springs and fluid released in the western part of the NRV. Structures and kinematics in the region are closely related to the dominant tectonic features of the NVR, nominally longitudinal NE-SW and N-S faults (Palestina, Santa Rosa and San Jeronimo) and a transverse NW-SE to E-W system (Villamaria-Termales,Campoalegrito, San Ramon faults). Quaternary stress tensor was obtained with a WSW-ENE direction of contraction, and dextral strike slip deformation by simple shear along main longitudinal faults, while left lateral displacement is transmitted to most of the NW transverse structures. A WSW-ENE direction of compression was also calculated from striated planes of Cretaceous-Paleocene and older rocks, meaning previous right lateral displacements along longitudinal faults (i.e. Palestina or San Jeronimo).

  19. Colombia.

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    1986-10-01

    This report of background notes for Colombia concentrates on political history, but also summarizes geography, people, economy, defense and foreign relations. Colombia, linking Panama to the northwest tip of South America, has 26.5 million people, growing at 1.3% per year, expected to be the third most populous nationon the continent soon. Infant mortality rate is 65/1000 and life expectancy is 62 years. Literacy is reported at 80% although less than 40% of children complete 2.5 years of school. Geographically, Colombia has flat coastal areas, several mountain ranges, highlands and hot eastern plains. 70% of the population live in cities. There are 2 major political parties, in existence since the early 19th century. Recently there have been violent inter-party differences, punctuated by even more contentious guerrilla attacks. Colombia possesses resources of oil, gas coal, nickel, gold, emeralds, platinum, iron. Agricultural products are dominated by coffee, but also include a wide variety of tropical and temperate grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy and meat products, timber and flowers.

  20. Volcano geodesy: The search for magma reservoirs and the formation of eruptive vents

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    Dvorak, J.J.; Dzurisin, D.

    1997-01-01

    Routine geodetic measurements are made at only a few dozen of the world's 600 or so active volcanoes, even though these measurements have proven to be a reliable precursor of eruptions. The pattern and rate of surface displacement reveal the depth and rate of pressure increase within shallow magma reservoirs. This process has been demonstrated clearly at Kilauea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Long Valley caldera, California; Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy; Rabaul caldera, Papua New Guinea; and Aira caldera and nearby Sakurajima, Japan. Slower and lesser amounts of surface displacement at Yellowstone caldera, Wyoming, are attributed to changes in a hydrothermal system that overlies a crustal magma body. The vertical and horizontal dimensions of eruptive fissures, as well as the amount of widening, have been determined at Kilauea, Hawaii; Etna, Italy; Tolbachik, Kamchatka; Krafla, Iceland; and Asal-Ghoubbet, Djibouti, the last a segment of the East Africa Rift Zone. Continuously recording instruments, such as tiltmeters, extensometers, and dilatometers, have recorded horizontal and upward growth of eruptive fissures, which grew at rates of hundreds of meters per hour, at Kilauea; Izu-Oshima, Japan; Teishi Knoll seamount, Japan; and Piton de la Fournaise, Re??union Island. In addition, such instruments have recorded the hour or less of slight ground movement that preceded small explosive eruptions at Sakurajima and presumed sudden gas emissions at Galeras, Colombia. The use of satellite geodesy, in particular the Global Positioning System, offers the possibility of revealing changes in surface strain both local to a volcano and over a broad region that includes the volcano.

  1. Geochemical processes assessed by Rare Earth Elements fractionation at “Laguna Verde” acidic-sulphate crater lake (Azufral volcano, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inguaggiato, Claudio; Burbano, Viviana; Rouwet, Dmitri; Garzón, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    The geochemical behaviour of major elements, Fe, Al, Mn, and Rare Earth Elements (REE) was investigated in the “Laguna Verde” acidic crater lake of Azufral volcano (Colombia). The cold lake water (T close to 10 °C) is sulphate-dominated, due to absorption and oxidation of H_2S (pH 2.1–2.7, Eh 196–260 mV), and Na-enriched (Total Dissolved Solids 0.79 g L"−"1). The total amount of REE dissolved in the lake ranges from 3.3 to 9.1 ppb. The REE patterns normalized to the local rocks show a Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE) depletion quite constant in the 15 samples. Similar patterns were already found in the acidic sulphate springs of Nevado del Ruiz volcano-hydrothermal system, caused by the precipitation of alunite and jarosite, absorbing LREE and hence removing them from solution. Alunite and jarosite minerals are not oversaturated at chemical-physical conditions within the lake itself, but alunite becomes oversaturated for temperatures above ≈100 °C, reigning in the underlying hydrothermal system. Water temperatures close to 75 °C were found in the northern part of the lake. Coupling the distribution of REE in lake water (LREE depleted) and the saturation indexes, we suggest that the distribution of REE in the lake water is the result of the alunite precipitation in the northern part of the lake and/or in the deeper hydrothermal system. The acidic hydrothermal fluids mobilize the REE with contents up to ≈5 orders of magnitude higher than seawater; acidic-hydrothermal systems, such as acidic crater lakes, can hence be considered potential REE “reservoirs”. - Highlights: • Acidic crater lakes can be considered potential Rare Earth Elements reservoirs. • Alunite precipitation removes Light Rare Earth Elements. • Rare Earth Elements identify geochemical processes in volcano-hydrothermal systems.

  2. Las galeras mercantiles de Florencia en el Reino de Granada en el siglo XV

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    González Arévalo, Raúl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Florence developped a statal galleys system in the 15th century. The present article analyzes its role in the Kingdom of Granada, in the Florentine Sea Consuls’ orders as well as in the privet documentation. Thus, we study aspects as different as the insertion of the Nasrid ports in the Florentine navigation lines, freight charges envisaged and the news about the mercantile practice. What emerges is a hitherto unknown image about the role of the Tuscan galleys in the external commercial organization of the Granadan territory.

    Florencia desarrolló un sistema estatal de galeras en el siglo XV. El presente artículo analiza su papel en el Reino de Granada, tanto en las órdenes del Consulado del Mar florentino como en la documentación privada. Así, se estudian aspectos tan dispares como la inserción de los puertos nazaríes en las líneas de navegación florentinas, los fletes previstos y las noticias sobre la práctica mercantil. Emerge una imagen inédita sobre el papel de las galeras toscanas en la articulación comercial exterior del territorio granadino.

  3. Crystallization conditions and petrogenesis of the lava dome from the ˜900 years BP eruption of Cerro Machín Volcano, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeger, Kathrin; Halama, Ralf; Hansteen, Thor; Savov, Ivan P.; Murcia, Hugo F.; Cortés, Gloria P.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2013-12-01

    The last known eruption at Cerro Machín Volcano (CMV) in the Central Cordillera of Colombia occurred ˜900 years BP and ended with the formation of a dacitic lava dome. The dome rocks contain both normally and reversely zoned plagioclase (An24-54), unzoned and reversely zoned amphiboles of dominantly tschermakite and pargasite/magnesio-hastingsite composition and olivine xenocrysts (Fo = 85-88) with amphibole/clinopyroxene overgrowth, all suggesting interaction with mafic magma at depth. Plagioclase additionally exhibits complex oscillatory zoning patterns reflecting repeated replenishment, fractionation and changes in intrinsic conditions in the magma reservoir. Unzoned amphiboles and cores of the reversely zoned amphiboles give identical crystallization conditions of 910 ± 30 °C and 360 ± 70 MPa, corresponding to a depth of about 13 ± 2 km, at moderately oxidized conditions (f = +0.5 ± 0.2 ΔNNO). The water content in the melt, calculated based on amphibole chemistry, is 7.1 ± 0.4 wt.%. Rims of the reversely zoned amphiboles are relatively enriched in MgO and yield higher crystallization temperatures (T = 970 ± 25 °C), slightly lower melt H2O contents (6.1 ± 0.7 wt.%) and overlapping pressures (410 ± 100 MPa). We suggest that these rims crystallized following an influx of mafic melt into a resident magma reservoir at mid-crustal depths, further supported by the occurrence of xenocrystic olivine. Crystallization of biotite, albite-rich plagioclase and quartz occurred at comparatively low temperatures (probably during early stages of ascent or storage at shallower levels. Based on amphibole mineral chemistry, the felsic resident melt had a rhyolitic composition (71 ± 2 wt.% SiO2), whereas the hybrid magma, from which the amphibole rims crystallized, was dacitic (64 ± 3 wt.% SiO2). The bulk rock chemistry of the CMV lava dome dacites is homogenous. They have elevated (La/Nb)N ratios of 3.8-4.5, typical for convergent margin magmas, and display several

  4. Field guides for excursions to the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano and to the Romeral Fault System (Colombia, in the frame of the Neotectonics of arc-continent collision concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borrero Carlos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Central Cordillera of Colombia near to the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, is a seismically active area above the subducting slab of the Nazca plate and deforming upper crust of the Andes. Buildings in the region require strengthening against the effects of both types of hazards: earthquakes and volcanoes. During these trips, we will discuss the 13
    November, 1985, Nevado del Ruiz Volcano eruption that destroyed the Armero city with about 22,000 deceases, as well the 25 January, 1999, Armenia earthquake (M 6.2 that killed about 2000 people and injured 4000 largely as the result of older, poorly 3 constructed buildings. The economic impact of the quake on the region was significant with about 8000 coffee farms either completely or partially destroyed and over 13,000 structures either partially damaged or completely destroyed.
    Both phenomena are associated to a large-transversal structure termed Caldas tear, which is controlling strong motion earthquakes and the Quaternary volcanism of the northern Andes.

  5. Possible cases of tuberculosis and brucellosis in Argaric villages in Galera (Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Rubio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of Bronze Age Argaric populations of Granada is an agricultural and livestock economy in which animals were present within the settlements. Such presence is a factor in the increase of the risk of contagious diseases. In this study we present some cases that could be linked to animal-transmitted infectious diseases due that have been documented at the sites of Castellón Alto and Fuente Amarga, both located in Galera (province of Granada. At these sites four individuals have been identified with new bone formations in the thorax (scapulae and ribs that can indicate the presence of tuberculosis. At Fuente Amarga another individual presents a characteristic lesion in the vertebral column linked to brucellosis (vertebral epiphysitis. These features are not uncommon in populations that have close contact with animals.

  6. Conservation and public presentation of the argaric site of Castellón Alto (Galera, Granada

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    Rodríguez-Ariza, M. Oliva

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnificent preservation of the archaeological site of Castellón Alto permitted reconstruction of the urbanism of this settlement and the life of its inhabitants. In addition to the necessary conservation, two interventions have been carried out with the principal objective of facilitating access, visiting, and the understanding of the site by the majority of the public. The first intervention happened in 1989 and the main task was centered on the consolidation, restoration, and delimiting of the archaeological bed. The second one happened in 1997 and was centered in the consolidation and reconstruction of both a hut and two tombs. With the opening of the Archaeological Museum of Galera, the cultural and touristic contribution of Castellón Alto will be complete. It will provide an interpretation of this prehistoric village, as well as the Argaric culture in general and all the other archaeological sites of the area.

    La magnífica conservación del registro arqueológico del Castellón Alto permitía reconstruir el urbanismo del poblado y la vida de estas poblaciones. Se han efectuado dos actuaciones con el objetivo principal de facilitar, además de la necesaria conservación, el acceso, la visita y la comprensión del poblado prehistórico por parte de un público mayoritario. La primera actuación se realizó en 1989 y los trabajos se centraron principalmente en la consolidación, restauración y cerramiento del área del yacimiento. La segunda se realizó en 1997 y se centró en el acondicionamiento y reconstrucción de una cabaña y dos sepulturas. La oferta turística y cultural que ofrece el Castellón Alto se completará con la próxima apertura del Museo Arqueológico de Galera, donde se efectuará una interpretación de este poblado y de la cultura argárica, así como del resto de yacimientos de la zona.

  7. Perspectivas hermenêuticas do romance metaficcional Cordilheira, de Daniel Galera

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    Bianca Cardoso Batista

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva elucidar os conceitos e características da hermenêutica, segundo Alfredo Bosi e Richard Palmer, e da metaficção, segundo Linda Hutcheon, Patrícia Waugh e Gustavo Bernardo. A partir das considerações e do posicionamento hermenêutico adotado, será feita uma pesquisa acerca da vida e obra de Daniel Galera para entender o contexto no qual o livro Cordilheira foi escrito e também para que se possa obter uma interpretação aprofundada da obra. Nesta análise é possível identificar a metaficção que, segundo Linda Hutcheon, é uma “ficção sobre ficção”. Ao final do artigo pode-se concluir que o leitor que desconhece o posicionamento hermenêutico e a visão metaficcional não consegue captar o sentido do texto. A interpretação requer um leitor específico, empenhado e entregue à obra, por isso o texto metaficcional só se torna compreensível e, consequentemente, interessante, a um leitor mais preparado.

  8. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  9. Nutrient uptake of the criolla potato (Solanum phureja var. Galeras for the determination of critical nutritional levels

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    Jaime Torres B.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the nutrient uptake of the criolla potato (Solanum phureja var. Galeras, the critical nutritional levels were determined on a farm in the Carrizal district of the municipality of Granada (Cundinamarca. Five fertilizing treatments were used: 0 fertilization (control, commercial control (CC, proposed recommendation + 50% (PR + 50%, proposed recommendation (PR, proposed recommendation - 50% (PR - 50%; organized with a random complete block design with three repetitions and repeated measurements over time; in each one, the material and nutrient absorption were evaluated in four phonological stages; in which the harvest, yield and profitability were measured. It was observed that the dry material increased rapidly until 113 days after planting (dap and was higher in treatments CC and PR + 50% with 8,818 and 7,743 kg ha-1 , respectively. The statistical analysis showed that the elements: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu and B did not present significant differences over time after 77 dap in treatments CC and PR + 50%. There were no significant differences in yield for treatments CC and PR + 50% but there were significant differences between these treatments and the others. The economic analysis showed that treatment CC had the highest profitability, confirming this as the critical level for the Galeras variety in Granada (Cundinamarca.

  10. Diversity of plasmodial slime molds (myxomycetes in coastal, mountain, and community forests of Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro, the Philippines

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    Nikki Heherson A. Dagamac

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available No profiling of diversity of myxomycetes has ever been conducted in one of the biodiversity hotspot areas in the Philippine archipelago, and this necessitates a swift survey of myxomycetes in Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro. An assessment of diversity of myxomycetes collected from seven collecting points of three different forest types in the study area showed a total of 926 records of myxomycetes. Of which, 42 morphospecies belonging to 16 genera are reported in this study. Species richness of myxomycetes was higher in collecting points that were found in inland lowland mountain forests, but the most taxonomically diverse species was found in coastal forests. Myxomycete species, namely, Arcyria cinerea, Diderma hemisphaericum, Physarum echinosporum, Lamproderma scintillans, and Stemonitis fusca, were found in all the collecting points. Manmade disturbances and forest structure may affect the occurrence of myxomycetes.

  11. What Are Volcano Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...

  12. Linking space observations to volcano observatories in Latin America: Results from the CEOS DRM Volcano Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Poland, M. P.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Wauthier, C.; Wnuk, K.; Parker, A. L.; Amelug, F.; Sansosti, E.; Mothes, P. A.; Macedo, O.; Lara, L.; Zoffoli, S.; Aguilar, V.

    2015-12-01

    Within Latin American, about 315 volcanoes that have been active in the Holocene, but according to the United Nations Global Assessment of Risk 2015 report (GAR15) 202 of these volcanoes have no seismic, deformation or gas monitoring. Following the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a 3-year pilot project to demonstrate how satellite observations can be used to monitor large numbers of volcanoes cost-effectively, particularly in areas with scarce instrumentation and/or difficult access. The pilot aims to improve disaster risk management (DRM) by working directly with the volcano observatories that are governmentally responsible for volcano monitoring, and the project is possible thanks to data provided at no cost by international space agencies (ESA, CSA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES). Here we highlight several examples of how satellite observations have been used by volcano observatories during the last 18 months to monitor volcanoes and respond to crises -- for example the 2013-2014 unrest episode at Cerro Negro/Chiles (Ecuador-Colombia border); the 2015 eruptions of Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes, Chile; the 2013-present unrest and eruptions at Sabancaya and Ubinas volcanoes, Peru; the 2015 unrest at Guallatiri volcano, Chile; and the 2012-present rapid uplift at Cordon Caulle, Chile. Our primary tool is measurements of ground deformation made by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) but thermal and outgassing data have been used in a few cases. InSAR data have helped to determine the alert level at these volcanoes, served as an independent check on ground sensors, guided the deployment of ground instruments, and aided situational awareness. We will describe several lessons learned about the type of data products and information that are most needed by the volcano observatories in different countries.

  13. Da valentia à neurose: Criminalização das galeras funk, ‘paz’ e (autoregulação das condutas nas favelas

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    Carla dos Santos Mattos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo versa sobre percepções e experiências de violência entre jovens ex-integrantes de galeras funk. O foco da análise recai sobre as palavras “neurose”, usada entre os jovens para contextualizar uma fase de maior tensão, e “violência”, ligada ao poder das facções do tráfico de drogas nas favelas cariocas. Busco explorar os sentidos da “neurose” como categoria que percebe uma mudança no padrão de interação social que marca a extinção das galeras no circuito de eventos em torno do funk. Tais percepções são parte da construção de subjetividades gestadas no processo de criminalização que opera a secular oposição “favela”/“asfalto”. From Valour to Neurosis: Criminalization of the ‘Galeras’ Funk, ‘Peace’ and (Self-Regulation of Conduct in the Fave­las addresses the perceptions and experiences of youth violence among former members of ‘galeras’ funk (tribe-like groups of funk aficionados. The analysis focuses on the words ‘neurose’ (neuro­sis, used by the youths to describe a situation of high tension, and ‘violência’ (violence, related to the power of the drug traffick­ing factions in the Rio de Janeiro slums. The category ‘neurosis’ detects a change in the pattern of social interaction that marks the elimination of the ‘galeras’ from the circuit of funk events. Such perceptions help construct subjective views generated in the process of criminalization that operates the secular opposition between the ‘favela’ and the ‘asfalto’ (the regular urban space.Key words: sociability, violence, favela, Rio de Janeiro funk, galeras

  14. Space Radar Image of Colombian Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The image was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The volcano near the center of the image is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR image reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing imaging in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations ofColombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of

  15. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  16. A Scientific Excursion: Volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Henry, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews an educationally valuable and reasonably well-designed simulation of volcanic activity in an imaginary land. VOLCANOES creates an excellent context for learning information about volcanoes and for developing skills and practicing methods needed to study behavior of volcanoes. (Author/JN)

  17. Volcano seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouet, B.

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental goal of volcano seismology is to understand active magmatic systems, to characterize the configuration of such systems, and to determine the extent and evolution of source regions of magmatic energy. Such understanding is critical to our assessment of eruptive behavior and its hazardous impacts. With the emergence of portable broadband seismic instrumentation, availability of digital networks with wide dynamic range, and development of new powerful analysis techniques, rapid progress is being made toward a synthesis of high-quality seismic data to develop a coherent model of eruption mechanics. Examples of recent advances are: (1) high-resolution tomography to image subsurface volcanic structures at scales of a few hundred meters; (2) use of small-aperture seismic antennas to map the spatio-temporal properties of long-period (LP) seismicity; (3) moment tensor inversions of very-long-period (VLP) data to derive the source geometry and mass-transport budget of magmatic fluids; (4) spectral analyses of LP events to determine the acoustic properties of magmatic and associated hydrothermal fluids; and (5) experimental modeling of the source dynamics of volcanic tremor. These promising advances provide new insights into the mechanical properties of volcanic fluids and subvolcanic mass-transport dynamics. As new seismic methods refine our understanding of seismic sources, and geochemical methods better constrain mass balance and magma behavior, we face new challenges in elucidating the physico-chemical processes that cause volcanic unrest and its seismic and gas-discharge manifestations. Much work remains to be done toward a synthesis of seismological, geochemical, and petrological observations into an integrated model of volcanic behavior. Future important goals must include: (1) interpreting the key types of magma movement, degassing and boiling events that produce characteristic seismic phenomena; (2) characterizing multiphase fluids in subvolcanic

  18. Volcanoes: Nature's Caldrons Challenge Geochemists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurer, Pamela S.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews various topics and research studies on the geology of volcanoes. Areas examined include volcanoes and weather, plate margins, origins of magma, magma evolution, United States Geological Survey (USGS) volcano hazards program, USGS volcano observatories, volcanic gases, potassium-argon dating activities, and volcano monitoring strategies.…

  19. Volcanoes: observations and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Clifford; Prejean, Stephanie G.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanoes are critical geologic hazards that challenge our ability to make long-term forecasts of their eruptive behaviors. They also have direct and indirect impacts on human lives and society. As is the case with many geologic phenomena, the time scales over which volcanoes evolve greatly exceed that of a human lifetime. On the other hand, the time scale over which a volcano can move from inactivity to eruption can be rather short: months, weeks, days, and even hours. Thus, scientific study and monitoring of volcanoes is essential to mitigate risk. There are thousands of volcanoes on Earth, and it is impractical to study and implement ground-based monitoring at them all. Fortunately, there are other effective means for volcano monitoring, including increasing capabilities for satellite-based technologies.

  20. Visions of Volcanoes

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    David M. Pyle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The long nineteenth century marked an important transition in the understanding of the nature of combustion and fire, and of volcanoes and the interior of the earth. It was also a period when dramatic eruptions of Vesuvius lit up the night skies of Naples, providing ample opportunities for travellers, natural philosophers, and early geologists to get up close to the glowing lavas of an active volcano. This article explores written and visual representations of volcanoes and volcanic activity during the period, with the particular perspective of writers from the non-volcanic regions of northern Europe. I explore how the language of ‘fire’ was used in both first-hand and fictionalized accounts of peoples’ interactions with volcanoes and experiences of volcanic phenomena, and see how the routine or implicit linkage of ‘fire’ with ‘combustion’ as an explanation for the deep forces at play within and beneath volcanoes slowly changed as the formal scientific study of volcanoes developed. I show how Vesuvius was used as a ‘model’ volcano in science and literature and how, later, following devastating eruptions in Indonesia and the Caribbean, volcanoes took on a new dimension as contemporary agents of death and destruction.

  1. Plan Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Chomsky

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia recibe más ayuda militar de Estados Unidos que el resto de América Latina y el Caribe unidos, y esta situación puede profundizarse con la ejecución del Plan Colombia, fundamentado en la lucha antidrogas. Sin embargo, el pais ha sido calificado con el récord en violación de derechos humanos. En este contexto se aplica la reforma económica más significativa en la década de los noventa, generando condicionantes en los procesos de integración con sus vecinos. En concordancia con el secretario de Defensa, Henry Stimson, desde los años 60 Estados Unidos estaba autorizado para controlar su propio sistema regional, mientras todos los demás intenlos serian desmantelados. La presentación ambigua de esta política del gobierno estadounidense en Colombia es cómo disociar esta guerra contra la droga y la lucha irregular contrainsurgente En Estados Unidos hay otra opinión que debe conocerse para comprender las divergencias en e! interior de dicho país. Este artículo del prestigioso profesor universitario del MU, Noam Chomsky, es un referente obligado en términos de opinión pública y académica de dimensión internacional, por el inmenso respeto que infunde tanto en América como en Europa

  2. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....

  3. Volcanoes: Coming Up from Under.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science and Children, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Provides specific information about the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in March 1980. Also discusses how volcanoes are formed and how they are monitored. Words associated with volcanoes are listed and defined. (CS)

  4. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  5. Hawaii's volcanoes revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, Barry W.; Robinson, Joel E.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Naka, Jiro; Smith, John R.; Takahashi, Eiichi; Clague, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes typically evolve in four stages as volcanism waxes and wanes: (1) early alkalic, when volcanism originates on the deep sea floor; (2) shield, when roughly 95 percent of a volcano's volume is emplaced; (3) post-shield alkalic, when small-volume eruptions build scattered cones that thinly cap the shield-stage lavas; and (4) rejuvenated, when lavas of distinct chemistry erupt following a lengthy period of erosion and volcanic quiescence. During the early alkalic and shield stages, two or more elongate rift zones may develop as flanks of the volcano separate. Mantle-derived magma rises through a vertical conduit and is temporarily stored in a shallow summit reservoir from which magma may erupt within the summit region or be injected laterally into the rift zones. The ongoing activity at Kilauea's Pu?u ?O?o cone that began in January 1983 is one such rift-zone eruption. The rift zones commonly extend deep underwater, producing submarine eruptions of bulbous pillow lava. Once a volcano has grown above sea level, subaerial eruptions produce lava flows of jagged, clinkery ?a?a or smooth, ropy pahoehoe. If the flows reach the ocean they are rapidly quenched by seawater and shatter, producing a steep blanket of unstable volcanic sediment that mantles the upper submarine slopes. Above sea level then, the volcanoes develop the classic shield profile of gentle lava-flow slopes, whereas below sea level slopes are substantially steeper. While the volcanoes grow rapidly during the shield stage, they may also collapse catastrophically, generating giant landslides and tsunami, or fail more gradually, forming slumps. Deformation and seismicity along Kilauea's south flank indicate that slumping is occurring there today. Loading of the underlying Pacific Plate by the growing volcanic edifices causes subsidence, forming deep basins at the base of the volcanoes. Once volcanism wanes and lava flows no longer reach the ocean, the volcano continues to submerge, while

  6. VENTAQUEMADA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio D. Fonseca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de someter los residuos de maíz al proceso termoquímico llamado gasificación, en este trabajo se muestran resultados de diferentes análisis para conocer algunas propiedades físico-químicas que son de gran importancia antes de realizar este proceso. Se determinó el contenido de lignina la cual registro un valor de 14,7%, se determinó el poder calorífico de esta biomasa obteniendo un valor de 17,965 MJ kg-1, análisis TGA con tres velocidades de calentamiento diferentes, se realiza un análisis ultimo para revelar la composición química de la biomasa; estos resultados fueron comparados con estudios realizados en otros países. Los resultados obtenidos contribuyen a la investigación de este tipo de biomasa en Colombia, ya que no se registra información bibliográfica de la caracterización de esta; se debe aprovechar su uso en la utilización en el proceso de gasificación, ya que poseen las características necesarias para obtener un producto como el “syngas”.

  7. Anatomy of a volcano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooper, A.; Wassink, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull caused major disruption in European airspace last year. According to his co-author, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, the reconstruction published in Nature six months later by aerospace engineering researcher, Dr Andy Hooper, opens up a new direction in volcanology. “We

  8. Spying on volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    Active volcanoes can be incredibly dangerous, especially to those who live nearby, but how do you get close enough to observe one in action? Matthew Watson explains how artificial drones are providing volcanologists with insights that could one day save human lives

  9. Geology of kilauea volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.B.; Trusdell, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower cast rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. ?? 1993.

  10. en Colombia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Andrés Ocampo Duque

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El Ministerio de Minas y Energía aprobó la comercialización de biogasolina en Colombia a partir del día 1.º de noviembre de 2005. La biogasolina (gasohol o mezcla E10 es una mezcla que contiene 90% de gasolina y 10% de etanol en volumen. El etanol se origina a partir de la fermentación natural, luego de extraer los jugos de cultivos como la caña de azúcar, el maíz, el trigo o la yuca. Tanto el Gobierno nacional como los productores interesados han manifestado que la biogasolina se presenta como una alternativa para reducir los efectos negativos sobre el medio ambiente que producen las grandes ciudades debido a la quema de combustibles fósiles en el sector del transporte. Sin embargo, en la literatura científica especializada la evidencia de efectos ambientales favorables por el uso de gasolina oxigenada con un 10% de etanol es escasa. Por el contrario, hay gran controversia a nivel mundial acerca del uso de este combustible modificado. En este trabajo se hace una extensa revisión científica en la que se muestra que la mezcla etanol-gasolina presenta cuestionables beneficios ambientales ya que puede incrementar la producción de contaminantes altamente tóxicos y smog fotoquímico, ofrece pocos beneficios en cuanto a reducciones de gases de efecto invernadero y sostenibilidad ambiental, además de incrementar el riesgo de la contaminación de las aguas subterráneas.

  11. (Colombia 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Constanza Cañón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio pretende indagar sobre las prácticas y comportamientos sexuales en una población universitaria, ya que comportamientos positivos pueden desarrollar mejores habilidades para la prevención de conductas de alto riesgo, mayor satisfacción sexual y, por ende, vivir más plenamente. La presente investigación es de tipo transversal y en ella participaron estudiantes de todas las facultades de la Universidad de Manizales (Caldas, Colombia, que estaban cursando entre primero y noveno semestre. La muestra de esta investigación la constituyeron 267 personas sobre una población de 3600 estudiantes regulares; se obtuvo mediante un muestreo probabilístico estratificado por género y facultad. La edad media fue de 21.69 años; la mayor proporción fue de mujeres en un 58.8%; 1.5% eran homosexuales y un 5%, bisexuales, el método de anticoncepción más usado fueron los métodos de barrera en un 41.3%; el 15.2% habían tenido alguna infección de transmisión sexual. En lo que se refiere a las prácticas sexuales el 22.8% realizan todas las prácticas (masturbación, sexo oral, sexo anal, sexo vaginal; en cuanto al promedio de edad de inicio de relaciones sexuales fue de 16.09 años; están de acuerdo con la despenalización total del aborto en un 53.1%; el 73.2% adoptan una posición de aceptación y tolerancia hacia la homosexualidad. El estudio permitió ver la influencia de varias variables como género, familia, religión y formación educativa sobre el comportamiento y la práctica sexual responsable.

  12. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrún; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdóttir, Sigrún; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna

    2017-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes (CIV) is a newly developed open-access web resource (http://icelandicvolcanoes.is) intended to serve as an official source of information about volcanoes in Iceland for the public and decision makers. CIV contains text and graphic information on all 32 active volcanic systems in Iceland, as well as real-time data from monitoring systems in a format that enables non-specialists to understand the volcanic activity status. The CIV data portal contains scientific data on all eruptions since Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and is an unprecedented endeavour in making volcanological data open and easy to access. CIV forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the European Union funded effort FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. The supersite concept implies integration of space and ground based observations for improved monitoring and evaluation of volcanic hazards, and open data policy. This work is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office, the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere.

  14. Counterterrorism policy in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Self, Kevin A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to suggest a coherent, credible, and long-term counterterrorism policy in Colombia. The events of September 11, 2001 heightened U.S. awareness of Colombian terrorist organizations, the most powerful being the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). The U.S. counterterror approach in Colombia appears fragmented, with only minor changes to its previous drug control policies. In contrast, the Colombian government has developed and implemented a policy to ...

  15. Colombia: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veillette, Connie

    2005-01-01

    ... into sharper focus after the attacks of September 11, 2001. The United States has made a significant commitment of funds and material support to help Colombia and the Andean region fight drug trafficking since the development of Plan Colombia in 1999...

  16. Arms Trafficking and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    chronology of the intensification of violence in the area, see Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá...Arms, London, UK: Zed Books, 2000, pp. 155–178. Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá: Cinep & Justicia

  17. InSAR observations of active volcanoes in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Rivera, A. M.; Chaussard, E.; Amelung, F.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last decade satellite-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has developed into a well-known technique to gauge the status of active volcanoes. The InSAR technique can detect the ascent of magma to shallow levels of the volcanic plumbing system because new arriving magma pressurizes the system. This is likely associated with the inflation of the volcanic edifice and the surroundings. Although the potential of InSAR to detect magma migration is well known, the principal limitation was that only for few volcanoes frequent observations were acquired. The ALOS-1 satellite of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) acquired a global L-band data set of 15-20 acquisitions during 2006-2011. Here we use ALOS InSAR and Small Baseline (SB) time-series methods for a ground deformation survey of Latin America with emphasis on the northern Andes. We present time-dependent ground deformation data for the volcanoes in Colombia, Ecuador and Peru and interpret the observations in terms of the dynamics of the volcanic systems.

  18. Eruptive viscosity and volcano morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posin, S.B.; Greeley, R.

    1988-01-01

    Terrestrial central volcanoes formed predominantly from lava flows were classified as shields, stratovolcanoes, and domes. Shield volcanoes tend to be large in areal extent, have convex slopes, and are characterized by their resemblance to inverted hellenic war shields. Stratovolcanoes have concave slopes, whereas domes are smaller and have gentle convex slopes near the vent that increase near the perimeter. In addition to these differences in morphology, several other variations were observed. The most important is composition: shield volcanoes tend to be basaltic, stratovolcanoes tend to be andesitic, and domes tend to be dacitic. However, important exceptions include Fuji, Pico, Mayon, Izalco, and Fuego which have stratovolcano morphologies but are composed of basaltic lavas. Similarly, Ribkwo is a Kenyan shield volcano composed of trachyte and Suswa and Kilombe are shields composed of phonolite. These exceptions indicate that eruptive conditions, rather than composition, may be the primary factors that determine volcano morphology. The objective of this study is to determine the relationships, if any, between eruptive conditions (viscosity, erupted volume, and effusion rate) and effusive volcano morphology. Moreover, it is the goal of this study to incorporate these relationships into a model to predict the eruptive conditions of extraterrestrial (Martian) volcanoes based on their morphology

  19. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA

  20. Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Founded in 1912 at the edge of the caldera of Kīlauea Volcano, HVO was the vision of Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., a geologist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, whose studies of natural disasters around the world had convinced him that systematic, continuous observations of seismic and volcanic activity were needed to better understand—and potentially predict—earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Jaggar summarized the aim of HVO by stating that “the work should be humanitarian” and have the goals of developing “prediction and methods of protecting life and property on the basis of sound scientific achievement.” These goals align well with those of the USGS, whose mission is to serve the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage natural resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.

  1. Volcanoes, Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Christopher J.

    It takes confidence to title a smallish book merely “Volcanoes” because of the impliction that the myriad facets of volcanism—chemistry, physics, geology, meteorology, hazard mitigation, and more—have been identified and addressed to some nontrivial level of detail. Robert and Barbara Decker have visited these different facets seamlessly in Volcanoes, Third Edition. The seamlessness comes from a broad overarching, interdisciplinary, professional understanding of volcanism combined with an exceptionally smooth translation of scientific jargon into plain language.The result is a book which will be informative to a very broad audience, from reasonably educated nongeologists (my mother loves it) to geology undergraduates through professional volcanologists. I bet that even the most senior professional volcanologists will learn at least a few things from this book and will find at least a few provocative discussions of subjects they know.

  2. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  3. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  4. Volcano warning systems: Chapter 67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Messages conveying volcano alert level such as Watches and Warnings are designed to provide people with risk information before, during, and after eruptions. Information is communicated to people from volcano observatories and emergency management agencies and from informal sources and social and environmental cues. Any individual or agency can be both a message sender and a recipient and multiple messages received from multiple sources is the norm in a volcanic crisis. Significant challenges to developing effective warning systems for volcanic hazards stem from the great diversity in unrest, eruption, and post-eruption processes and the rapidly advancing digital technologies that people use to seek real-time risk information. Challenges also involve the need to invest resources before unrest to help people develop shared mental models of important risk factors. Two populations of people are the target of volcano notifications–ground- and aviation-based populations, and volcano warning systems must address both distinctly different populations.

  5. GLACIERS OF THE KORYAK VOLCANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Manevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents main glaciological characteristics of present-day glaciers located on the Koryaksky volcano. The results of fieldwork (2008–2009 and high-resolution satellite image analysis let us to specify and complete information on modern glacial complex of Koryaksky volcano. Now there are seven glaciers with total area 8.36 km2. Three of them advance, two are in stationary state and one degrades. Moreover, the paper describes the new crater glacier.

  6. Radon emanometry in active volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M. (CNRS, IN2P3, BP45/F63170 Aubiere (France)); Cejudo, J. (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City)

    1984-01-01

    Radon emission measurements from active volcanoes has, since 1981, been continuously measured at monitoring stations in Mexico and in Costa Rica. Counting of etched alpha tracks on cellulose nitrate LR-115 detectors give varying results at the several stations. Radon emanation at Chichon, where an explosive eruption occurred in 1982, fell down. Radon detection at the active volcano in Colima shows a pattern of very low emission. At the Costa Rica stations located at Poas, Arenal and Irazu, the radon emanation shows regularity.

  7. Strategic ecosystems of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez Calle German

    2002-01-01

    The author relates the ecosystems in Colombia, he makes a relationship between ecosystems and population, utility of the ecosystems, transformation of the ecosystems and poverty and he shows a methodology of identification of strategic ecosystems

  8. Shadow Toll in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    González Ruiz, Juan David; Botero Botero, Sergio; Arboleda, Carlos Alejandro; Duque Grisales, Eduardo Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The growing development in infrastructure projects in Colombia has been linked to legal adjustments and capital markets. These two last factors have provided important elements for project developers to design funding strategies. Based on the shadow toll scheme, this paper proposes a new financing strategy for funding highway projects. This strategy may be implemented in Colombia. Finally, the paper proposes future research on shadow toll schemes as a financial mechanism.

  9. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Oceanic volcanoes offer abundant evidence of changes in their elevations through time. Their large-scale motions begin with a period of rapid subsidence lasting hundreds of thousands of years caused by isostatic compensation of the added mass of the volcano on the ocean lithosphere. The response is within thousands of years and lasts as long as the active volcano keeps adding mass on the ocean floor. Downward flexure caused by volcanic loading creates troughs around the growing volcanoes that eventually fill with sediment. Seismic surveys show that the overall depression of the old ocean floor beneath Hawaiian volcanoes such as Mauna Loa is about 10 km. This gross subsidence means that the drowned shorelines only record a small part of the total subsidence the islands experienced. In Hawaii, this history is recorded by long-term tide-gauge data, the depth in drill holes of subaerial lava flows and soil horizons, former shorelines presently located below sea level. Offshore Hawaii, a series of at least 7 drowned reefs and terraces record subsidence of about 1325 m during the last half million years. Older sequences of drowned reefs and terraces define the early rapid phase of subsidence of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau. Volcanic islands, such as Maui, tip down toward the next younger volcano as it begins rapid growth and subsidence. Such tipping results in drowned reefs on Haleakala as deep as 2400 m where they are tipped towards Hawaii. Flat-topped volcanoes on submarine rift zones also record this tipping towards the next younger volcano. This early rapid subsidence phase is followed by a period of slow subsidence lasting for millions of years caused by thermal contraction of the aging ocean lithosphere beneath the volcano. The well-known evolution along the Hawaiian chain from high to low volcanic island, to coral island, and to guyot is due to this process. This history of rapid and then slow subsidence is interrupted by a period of minor uplift

  10. Chiliques volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U

  11. Terrorism in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Zapata, Gabriel Darío

    2003-01-01

    Colombia is a poor country that has been plagued by ongoing violence for more than 120 years. During the 1940s, subversive terrorist groups emerged in rural areas of the country when criminal groups came under the influence of Communism, and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN) or National Liberation Army and Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionares de Colombia (FARC) or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia). Paramilitary terrorist groups emerged in response to subversive groups and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) or United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia. Terrorism has placed an enormous burden on modern Colombia. From 1995 to 2002, 9,435 people were killed by terrorism-related events, of which 5,864 were killed by subversive terrorist activities and 3,571 were killed by paramilitary terrorist activities. In 2002, at least nineteen attacks produced 10 or more casualties, of which 18 were bombings. In 2002, terrorists killed at least 12 mayors, 71 legislators, and internally displaced 300,000 persons from their homes. Since terrorist groups in Colombia are typically supported by drug manufacturing and trafficking, it has been difficult at times to distinguish violence due to terrorism from violence due to illicit drug trafficking. Terrorism has also had a major adverse effect on the economy, with restricted travel, loss of economic resources, and lack of economic investment. In addition to political, military, and commercial targets, terrorists have specifically targeted healthcare infrastructure and personnel. At the national and local levels, much emergency planning and preparedness has taken place for terrorism-related events. The Centro Regulador de Urgencias (CRU) or Emergency Regulation Center in Bogota plays a major role in coordinating local prehospital and hospital emergency response in the capital city and the national level where

  12. Global Volcano Mortality Risks and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Mortality Risks and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid representing global volcano mortality risks. The data set was constructed using historical...

  13. Global Volcano Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R. S. J.; Loughlin, S. C.; Cottrell, E.; Valentine, G.; Newhall, C.; Jolly, G.; Papale, P.; Takarada, S.; Crosweller, S.; Nayembil, M.; Arora, B.; Lowndes, J.; Connor, C.; Eichelberger, J.; Nadim, F.; Smolka, A.; Michel, G.; Muir-Wood, R.; Horwell, C.

    2012-04-01

    Over 600 million people live close enough to active volcanoes to be affected when they erupt. Volcanic eruptions cause loss of life, significant economic losses and severe disruption to people's lives, as highlighted by the recent eruption of Mount Merapi in Indonesia. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in 2010 illustrated the potential of even small eruptions to have major impact on the modern world through disruption of complex critical infrastructure and business. The effects in the developing world on economic growth and development can be severe. There is evidence that large eruptions can cause a change in the earth's climate for several years afterwards. Aside from meteor impact and possibly an extreme solar event, very large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions may be the only natural hazard that could cause a global catastrophe. GVM is a growing international collaboration that aims to create a sustainable, accessible information platform on volcanic hazard and risk. We are designing and developing an integrated database system of volcanic hazards, vulnerability and exposure with internationally agreed metadata standards. GVM will establish methodologies for analysis of the data (eg vulnerability indices) to inform risk assessment, develop complementary hazards models and create relevant hazards and risk assessment tools. GVM will develop the capability to anticipate future volcanism and its consequences. NERC is funding the start-up of this initiative for three years from November 2011. GVM builds directly on the VOGRIPA project started as part of the GRIP (Global Risk Identification Programme) in 2004 under the auspices of the World Bank and UN. Major international initiatives and partners such as the Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program, State University of New York at Buffalo - VHub, Earth Observatory of Singapore - WOVOdat and many others underpin GVM.

  14. Relative chronology of Martian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landheim, R.; Barlow, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    Impact cratering is one of the major geological processes that has affected the Martian surface throughout the planet's history. The frequency of craters within particular size ranges provides information about the formation ages and obliterative episodes of Martian geologic units. The Barlow chronology was extended by measuring small craters on the volcanoes and a number of standard terrain units. Inclusions of smaller craters in units previously analyzed by Barlow allowed for a more direct comparison between the size-frequency distribution data for volcanoes and established chronology. During this study, 11,486 craters were mapped and identified in the 1.5 to 8 km diameter range in selected regions of Mars. The results are summarized in this three page report and give a more precise estimate of the relative chronology of the Martian volcanoes. Also, the results of this study lend further support to the increasing evidence that volcanism has been a dominant geologic force throughout Martian history

  15. Systematic radon survey over active volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.; Garcia Vindas, J.R. [Centre National de la Recherche Cientifique, Montpellier (France). Lab. GBE; Ricard, L.P.; Staudacher, T. [Observatoire Volcanologique Du Pitou de la Fournaise, La Plaine des Cafres (France)

    1999-08-01

    Data obtained since 1993 on Costa Rica volcanos are presented and radon anomalies recorded before the eruption of the Irazu volcano (December 8, 1994) are discussed. The Piton de la Fournaise volcano is inactive since mid 1992. The influence of the external parameters on the radon behaviour is studied and the type of perturbations induced on short-term measurements are individuate.

  16. Volatiles and energy released by Puracé volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Luisa Fernanda Meza; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Jaramillo, Marco Tulio; Valencia, Gustavo Garzón; Mazot, Agnes

    2017-12-01

    Total CO2 output of Puracé volcano (Colombia) was estimated on the basis of fluids discharged by fumaroles, soil gases, and dissolved carbon species in the aquifer. The soil CO2 emission was computed from a field survey of 512 points of CO2 soil flux measurements at the main degassing areas of Puracé volcano. The CO2 flux from Puracé's plume was estimated using an indirect method, that used the SO2 plume flux and CO2/SO2 ratio of the main high temperature fumarole. The total output of CO2 was estimated at ≅ 1500 t/day. The main contribution of CO2 comes from the plume (summit degassing) and from soil degassing that emit 673 and 812 t/day, respectively. The contributions of summit and soil degassing areas are comparable, indicating an intermediate degassing style partitioned between closed and open conduit systems. The estimated water vapor discharge (as derived from the chemical composition of the fumaroles, the H2O/CO2 ratio, and the SO2 plume flux) allowed calculation of the total thermal energy (fumarolic, soil degassing, and aquifer) released from the Puracé volcanic system. This was 360 MW.

  17. Multiphase modelling of mud volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Clarke, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    Mud volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon, classically considered as the surface expression of piercement structures rooted in deep-seated over-pressured sediments in compressional tectonic settings. The release of fluids at mud volcanoes during repeated explosive episodes has been documented at numerous sites and the outflows resemble the eruption of basaltic magma. As magma, the material erupted from a mud volcano becomes more fluid and degasses while rising and decompressing. The release of those gases from mud volcanism is estimated to be a significant contributor both to fluid flux from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, and to the atmospheric budget of some greenhouse gases, particularly methane. For these reasons, we simulated the fluid dynamics of mud volcanoes using a newly-developed compressible multiphase and multidimensional transient solver in the OpenFOAM framework, taking into account the multicomponent nature (CH4, CO2, H2O) of the fluid mixture, the gas exsolution during the ascent and the associated changes in the constitutive properties of the phases. The numerical model has been tested with conditions representative of the LUSI, a mud volcano that has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. The activity of LUSI mud volcano has been well documented (Vanderkluysen et al., 2014) and here we present a comparison of observed gas fluxes and mud extrusion rates with the outcomes of numerical simulations. Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E. & Smekens, J.-F. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 15, 2932-2946

  18. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  19. Proyecto Ensamblando en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Kreime, Pablo; Gómez Morales, Yuri Jack; Ashmore, Malcolm; Miranda Canal, Néstor; Pérez Bustos, Tania; Vinck, Dominique; Amaya, José Antonio; Carvajal Marín, Luz Mery; Castro-Gómez, Santiago; Camargo Uribe, Juan Arturo; Dávila Dávila, Juan Manuel; Sebastián, Díaz Ángel; Duque Muñoz, Lucía; Durán-Sánchez, María Fernanda; García Álvarez, Claudia María

    2013-01-01

    Los dos volúmenes de esta obra reúnen los resultados del proyecto ganador de la «Convocatoria nacional de proyectos bicentenario 1810-2010 “Historia social de la ciencia, la tecnología y la innovación en Colombia: ciudadanía, saberes y nación”», lanzada por Colciencias en el 2009. El proyecto, titulado «Ensamblado en Colombia: producción de saberes y construcción de ciudadanías» se propuso estudiar la manera como se constituyen en el presente y se han constituido en el pasado «asuntos de inte...

  20. Laboratory volcano geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Færøvik Johannessen, Rikke; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen

    2014-05-01

    intrusion can be excavated and photographed from several angles to compute its 3D shape with the same photogrammetry method. Then, the surface deformation pattern can be directly compared with the shape of underlying intrusion. This quantitative dataset is essential to quantitatively test and validate classical volcano geodetic models.

  1. Monitoring Volcano Deformation in the Northernmost Andes with ALOS InSAR Time-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Rivera, A. M.; Amelung, F.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite-based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is well known to be used as a volcano monitoring tool, providing the opportunity to conduct local and regional surveys to detect and measure volcanic deformation. The signals detected by InSAR on volcanoes can be related to various phenomena, such as volume changes in magmatic reservoirs, compaction of recent deposits, changes in hydrothermal activity, and flank instability. The InSAR time-series method has well documented examples of these phenomena, including precursory inflation of magma reservoirs months prior to volcanic eruptions, proving its potential for early warning systems. We use the ALOS-1 satellite from the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), which acquired a global L-band data set of nearly 20 acquisitions during 2007-2011, to make an InSAR time-series analysis using the Small Baseline method (SBAS). Our analysis covers all of the volcanoes in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru that are cataloged by the Global Volcanism Program. We present results showing time-dependent ground deformation on an near the volcanoes, and present kinematic models to constrain the characteristics of the magmatic sources for the cases in which the deformation is likely related to changes in magma reservoir pressurization.

  2. What Happened to Our Volcano?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiante, Elaine Silva

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an investigative approach to "understanding Earth changes." The author states that students were familiar with earthquakes and volcanoes in other regions of the world but never considered how the land beneath their feet had experienced changes over time. Here, their geology unit helped them understand…

  3. IDRC in Colombia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    oceans, wastewater from poor urban com- munities could be treated and used to gener- ate energy. Mexican researchers lead the testing of wastewater treatment systems in Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Honduras, and. Mexico to identify the most appropriate technologies. Alternative energy (through biogas) could eventually ...

  4. El IDRC en Colombia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    gación de Colombia en salud, agri- ... y desarrollar una base nacional de datos ... apoyada por el IDRC mostró caminos para .... conocimiento con los formuladores de políticas, con otros investigadores y comunidades en todo el mundo.

  5. Morphometry of terrestrial shield volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Pablo; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2018-03-01

    Shield volcanoes are described as low-angle edifices built primarily by the accumulation of successive lava flows. This generic view of shield volcano morphology is based on a limited number of monogenetic shields from Iceland and Mexico, and a small set of large oceanic islands (Hawaii, Galápagos). Here, the morphometry of 158 monogenetic and polygenetic shield volcanoes is analyzed quantitatively from 90-meter resolution SRTM DEMs using the MORVOLC algorithm. An additional set of 24 lava-dominated 'shield-like' volcanoes, considered so far as stratovolcanoes, are documented for comparison. Results show that there is a large variation in shield size (volumes from 0.1 to > 1000 km3), profile shape (height/basal width (H/WB) ratios mostly from 0.01 to 0.1), flank slope gradients (average slopes mostly from 1° to 15°), elongation and summit truncation. Although there is no clear-cut morphometric difference between shield volcanoes and stratovolcanoes, an approximate threshold can be drawn at 12° average slope and 0.10 H/WB ratio. Principal component analysis of the obtained database enables to identify four key morphometric descriptors: size, steepness, plan shape and truncation. Hierarchical cluster analysis of these descriptors results in 12 end-member shield types, with intermediate cases defining a continuum of morphologies. The shield types can be linked in terms of growth stages and shape evolution, related to (1) magma composition and rheology, effusion rate and lava/pyroclast ratio, which will condition edifice steepness; (2) spatial distribution of vents, in turn related to the magmatic feeding system and the tectonic framework, which will control edifice plan shape; and (3) caldera formation, which will condition edifice truncation.

  6. Iridium emissions from Hawaiian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnegan, D.L.; Zoller, W.H.; Miller, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Particle and gas samples were collected at Mauna Loa volcano during and after its eruption in March and April, 1984 and at Kilauea volcano in 1983, 1984, and 1985 during various phases of its ongoing activity. In the last two Kilauea sampling missions, samples were collected during eruptive activity. The samples were collected using a filterpack system consisting of a Teflon particle filter followed by a series of 4 base-treated Whatman filters. The samples were analyzed by INAA for over 40 elements. As previously reported in the literature, Ir was first detected on particle filters at the Mauna Loa Observatory and later from non-erupting high temperature vents at Kilauea. Since that time Ir was found in samples collected at Kilauea and Mauna Loa during fountaining activity as well as after eruptive activity. Enrichment factors for Ir in the volcanic fumes range from 10,000 to 100,000 relative to BHVO. Charcoal impregnated filters following a particle filter were collected to see if a significant amount of the Ir was in the gas phase during sample collection. Iridium was found on charcoal filters collected close to the vent, no Ir was found on the charcoal filters. This indicates that all of the Ir is in particulate form very soon after its release. Ratios of Ir to F and Cl were calculated for the samples from Mauna Loa and Kilauea collected during fountaining activity. The implications for the KT Ir anomaly are still unclear though as Ir was not found at volcanoes other than those at Hawaii. Further investigations are needed at other volcanoes to ascertain if basaltic volcanoes other than hot spots have Ir enrichments in their fumes

  7. Iridium emissions from Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, D. L.; Zoller, W. H.; Miller, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Particle and gas samples were collected at Mauna Loa volcano during and after its eruption in March and April, 1984 and at Kilauea volcano in 1983, 1984, and 1985 during various phases of its ongoing activity. In the last two Kilauea sampling missions, samples were collected during eruptive activity. The samples were collected using a filterpack system consisting of a Teflon particle filter followed by a series of 4 base-treated Whatman filters. The samples were analyzed by INAA for over 40 elements. As previously reported in the literature, Ir was first detected on particle filters at the Mauna Loa Observatory and later from non-erupting high temperature vents at Kilauea. Since that time Ir was found in samples collected at Kilauea and Mauna Loa during fountaining activity as well as after eruptive activity. Enrichment factors for Ir in the volcanic fumes range from 10,000 to 100,000 relative to BHVO. Charcoal impregnated filters following a particle filter were collected to see if a significant amount of the Ir was in the gas phase during sample collection. Iridium was found on charcoal filters collected close to the vent, no Ir was found on the charcoal filters. This indicates that all of the Ir is in particulate form very soon after its release. Ratios of Ir to F and Cl were calculated for the samples from Mauna Loa and Kilauea collected during fountaining activity. The implications for the KT Ir anomaly are still unclear though as Ir was not found at volcanoes other than those at Hawaii. Further investigations are needed at other volcanoes to ascertain if basaltic volcanoes other than hot spots have Ir enrichments in their fumes.

  8. Loodushariduse mammutkongress Colombias / Aarne Tõldsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõldsepp, Aarne

    2009-01-01

    Sel suvel toimunud rahvusvahelisest matemaatika- ja loodushariduse kongressist Colombia ajaloolises sadamalinnas Cartagenas, mille peakorraldajaks oli 19 aastat tagasi Valgevenest Colombiasse emigreerunud professor Juri Orlik

  9. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains point locations of active volcanoes as compiled by Motyka et al., 1993. Eighty-nine volcanoes with eruptive phases in the Quaternary are...

  10. The Volcano Disaster Assistance Program—Helping to save lives worldwide for more than 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Ramsey, David W.

    2017-10-20

    What do you do when a sleeping volcano roars back to life? For more than three decades, countries around the world have called upon the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) to contribute expertise and equipment in times of crisis. Co-funded by the USGS and the U.S. Agency for International Development’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA), VDAP has evolved and grown over the years, adding newly developed monitoring technologies, training and exchange programs, and eruption forecasting methodologies to greatly expand global capabilities that mitigate the impacts of volcanic hazards. These advances, in turn, strengthen the ability of the United States to respond to its own volcanic events.VDAP was formed in 1986 in response to the devastating volcanic mudflow triggered by an eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia. The mudflow destroyed the city of Armero on the night of November 13, 1985, killing more than 25,000 people in the city and surrounding areas. Sadly, the tragedy was avoidable. Better education of the local population and clear communication between scientists and public officials could have allowed warnings to be received, understood, and acted upon prior to the disaster.VDAP strives to ensure that such a tragedy will never happen again. The program’s mission is to assist foreign partners, at their request, in volcano monitoring and empower them to take the lead in mitigating hazards at their country’s threatening volcanoes. Since 1986, team members have responded to over 70 major volcanic crises at more than 50 volcanoes and have strengthened response capacity in 12 countries. The VDAP team consists of approximately 20 geologists, geophysicists, and engineers, who are based out of the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington. In 2016, VDAP was a finalist for the Samuel J. Heyman Service to America Medal for its work in improving volcano readiness and warning

  11. Colombia vista desde afuera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico Banco de la República

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Mucha de la bibliografía sobre Colombia no se conoce en el país. Cada año se realizan centenares de trabajos acerca de diferentes aspectos de las ciencias naturales, sociales, o sobre literatura, que a la postre quedan archivadas en bibliotecas europeas o estadounidenses, como ocurre de manera específica con los trabajos presentados como tesis de grado en universidades extranjeras.

  12. The human impact of volcanoes: a historical review of events 1900-2009 and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dooling, Shayna; Gorokhovich, Yuri

    2013-04-16

    Introduction. More than 500 million people live within the potential exposure range of a volcano. The risk of catastrophic losses in future eruptions is significant given population growth, proximities of major cities to volcanoes, and the possibility of larger eruptions. The objectives of this review are to describe the impact of volcanoes on the human population, in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of volcanoes were compiled using two methods, a historical review of volcano events from 1900 to 2009 from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between volcano mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. There were a total of 91,789 deaths (range: 81,703-102,372), 14,068 injuries (range 11,541-17,922), and 4.72 million people affected by volcanic events between 1900 and 2008. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of numbers injured and affected. The primary causes of mortality in recent volcanic eruptions were ash asphyxiation, thermal injuries from pyroclastic flow, and trauma. Mortality was concentrated with the ten deadliest eruptions accounting for more than 80% of deaths; 84% of fatalities occurred in four locations (the Island of Martinique (France), Colombia, Indonesia, and Guatemala). Conclusions. Changes in land use practices and population growth provide a background for increasing risk; in conjunction with increasing urbanization in at risk areas, this poses a challenge for future volcano preparedness and mitigation efforts.

  13. Flank tectonics of Martian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.J.; Squyres, S.W.; Carr, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    On the flanks of Olympus Mons is a series of terraces, concentrically distributed around the caldera. Their morphology and location suggest that they could be thrust faults caused by compressional failure of the cone. In an attempt to understand the mechanism of faulting and the possible influences of the interior structure of Olympus Mons, the authors have constructed a numerical model for elastic stresses within a Martian volcano. In the absence of internal pressurization, the middle slopes of the cone are subjected to compressional stress, appropriate to the formation of thrust faults. These stresses for Olympus Mons are ∼250 MPa. If a vacant magma chamber is contained within the cone, the region of maximum compressional stress is extended toward the base of the cone. If the magma chamber is pressurized, extensional stresses occur at the summit and on the upper slopes of the cone. For a filled but unpressurized magma chamber, the observed positions of the faults agree well with the calculated region of high compressional stress. Three other volcanoes on Mars, Ascraeus Mons, Arsia Mons, and Pavonis Mons, possess similar terraces. Extending the analysis to other Martian volcanoes, they find that only these three and Olympus Mons have flank stresses that exceed the compressional failure strength of basalt, lending support to the view that the terraces on all four are thrust faults

  14. K-Ar ages of the Hiruzen volcano group and the Daisen volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukui, Masashi; Nishido, Hirotsugu; Nagao, Keisuke.

    1985-01-01

    Seventeen volcanic rocks of the Hiruzen volcano group and the Daisen volcano, in southwest Japan, were dated by the K-Ar method to clarify the age of volcanic activity in this region and the evolution of these composite volcanoes. The eruption ages of the Hiruzen volcano group were revealed to be about 0.9 Ma to 0.5 Ma, those of the Daisen volcano to be about 1 Ma to very recent. These results are consistent with geological and paleomagnetic data of previous workers. Effusion of lavas in the area was especially vigorous at 0.5+-0.1 Ma. It was generally considered that the Hiruzen volcano group had erupted during latest Pliocene to early Quaternary and it is older than the Daisen volcano, mainly from their topographic features. However, their overlapping eruption ages and petrographical similarities of the lavas of the Hiruzen volcano group and the Daisen volcano suggest that they may be included in the Daisen volcano in a broad sense. The aphyric andesite, whose eruption age had been correlated to Wakurayama andesite (6.34+-0.19 Ma) in Matsue city and thought to be the basement of the Daisen volcano, was dated to be 0.46+-0.04 Ma. It indicates that petrographically similar aphyric andesite erupted sporadically at different time and space in the San'in district. (author)

  15. Geoflicks Reviewed--Films about Hawaiian Volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 11 films on volcanic eruptions in the United States. Films are given a one- to five-star rating and the film's year, length, source and price are listed. Top films include "Inside Hawaiian Volcanoes" and "Kilauea: Close up of an Active Volcano." (AIM)

  16. Orographic Flow over an Active Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulidis, Alexandros-Panagiotis; Renfrew, Ian; Matthews, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Orographic flows over and around an isolated volcano are studied through a series of numerical model experiments. The volcano top has a heated surface, so can be thought of as "active" but not erupting. A series of simulations with different atmospheric conditions and using both idealised and realistic configurations of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model have been carried out. The study is based on the Soufriere Hills volcano, located on the island of Montserrat in the Caribbean. This is a dome-building volcano, leading to a sharp increase in the surface skin temperature at the top of the volcano - up to tens of degrees higher than ambient values. The majority of the simulations use an idealised topography, in order for the results to have general applicability to similar-sized volcanoes located in the tropics. The model is initialised with idealised atmospheric soundings, representative of qualitatively different atmospheric conditions from the rainy season in the tropics. The simulations reveal significant changes to the orographic flow response, depending upon the size of the temperature anomaly and the atmospheric conditions. The flow regime and characteristic features such as gravity waves, orographic clouds and orographic rainfall patterns can all be qualitatively changed by the surface heating anomaly. Orographic rainfall over the volcano can be significantly enhanced with increased temperature anomaly. The implications for the eruptive behaviour of the volcano and resulting secondary volcanic hazards will also be discussed.

  17. Colombia science without future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pérez-Cordero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia no será nada hasta que no se eduque su gente, es un país que está retrasado intelectualmente; un país que no valora la ciencia es porque nadie les ha enseñado a sus ciudadanos su valor y sus dirigentes no lo entienden, es porque no les interesa, según lo comentó GINAS, (2004. “El futuro de Colombia va a estar profunda y directamente relacionado con la capacidad que los colombianos tengamos de organizar la educación; la hija de la educación: la ciencia; y la hija de la ciencia: la tecnología-GINAS, 1993” (CORREA, 2017, hoy la ciencia en Colombia no tiene futuro; la inversión pública para ciencia disminuirá para el año 2018 en 41.5 %. El punto de inversión más alto fue de $430.150 millones para el año 2013; para 2014 bajó a $376.768 millones, en 2015 pasó a $332.197 y en 2016 perdió otra porción y se redujo a $304.516 millones. Este año bajó hasta $299.177 millones y para el 2018 se prevé será el más bajo en una década, con apenas $220.506 millones (CORREA, 2017. Las mayores repercusiones se reflejarán en el congelamiento de nuevas becas para programas doctorados y en el presupuesto para convocatorias de proyectos de investigación (EL ESPECTADOR, 2017.

  18. Energetic Planning in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombana V, Jorge E

    1998-01-01

    In the country one of the most dynamic sectors in the last years, it has been the mining - energy sector that has had rates of increase superiors to 5%. The most critical situation corresponds to the sector of hydrocarbons, where the exploration in Colombia has arrived at its lower historical levels as they are those of 22 and 30 perforated wells, and 2148 and 2300 acquired kilometers of seismic 2d, in the years of 1996 and 1997, that which doesn't agree with the National Energy Plan NEP that inclined to perforate 100 exploratory wells per year, for the period 1997 - 2010, with the purpose of maintaining the production of 1.0 mbd starting from the year 2000 and this way to avoid that Colombia loses its self-sufficiency and be importer in the 2004 again. The oil politics in charge of the Ecopetrol, will have to be revised with different approaches if one wants a reactivation, because from 1989, year in that included the escalation clause, not alone it has not been possible to increase the exploration, but rather it has fallen at the mentioned levels. In the electric sector; the Regulation of Energy and Gas Commission - REGC, has been a supremely difficult to put priorities, because measures and immediate and urgent changes are needed. To medium term, Colombia should solve its institutional, normative problems and of infrastructure, to be able to have a true integral planning, that takes us to receive the next millennium with true energy self-sufficiency and a consolidation of the country in the export of coal and petroleum, if they take the necessary measures and avoid the lost of the self-sufficiency in hydrocarbons

  19. Las serpientes en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, H.

    2012-01-01

    El estudio de las serpientes en Colombia no deja de tener su particular interés; existe una inmensa variedad de especies que se escalonan desde los valles ardientes hasta alturas relativamente considerables; en estos últimos puntos disminuye notablemente la variedad de formas y de modo especial las especies provistas de veneno. Hacer una distinción entre las especies venenosas y las inofensivas, resulta un tanto difícil; en algunos textos se dan unas cuántas reglas, pero la mayor parte d...

  20. Serpientes de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    M., Rodrigo Ángel

    2013-01-01

    En este libro es una guía práctica sobre las serpientes de Colombia en cuanto a su clasificación y tratamiento del envenenamiento causado por sus mordeduras. Contiene los siguientes capítulos: 1. Características generales, 2. Serpiente Colombianas, 3. Aparato venenoso, 4. Clasificación fisiopatología de los efectos del veneno, 5. Mordedura por serpientes venenosas en Antioquía, listas de nombres populares y científicos, la bibliografía. Esta es una introducción a esta práctica guí...

  1. Aging in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lourdes SANTOS PÉREZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data from statistical sources and official reports, we propose a critical approach to aging in Colombia, specifically from the point of view of public policy in progress or in planning. Our main hypothesis is that these measures refuse comprehensive treatment of the ageing in terms of needs and rights promoting a pure welfare system which, instead, contributes to reinforce a collective imagination of a dependent and impoverished old age, with «fatal» consequences that sustain and reproduce the socioeconomic system.

  2. The 2014 eruptions of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Haney, Matthew M.; Wallace, Kristi; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Schneider, David J.

    2017-12-22

    Pavlof Volcano is one of the most frequently active volcanoes in the Aleutian Island arc, having erupted more than 40 times since observations were first recorded in the early 1800s . The volcano is located on the Alaska Peninsula (lat 55.4173° N, long 161.8937° W), near Izembek National Wildlife Refuge. The towns and villages closest to the volcano are Cold Bay, Nelson Lagoon, Sand Point, and King Cove, which are all within 90 kilometers (km) of the volcano (fig. 1). Pavlof is a symmetrically shaped stratocone that is 2,518 meters (m) high, and has about 2,300 m of relief. The volcano supports a cover of glacial ice and perennial snow roughly 2 to 4 cubic kilometers (km3) in volume, which is mantled by variable amounts of tephra fall, rockfall debris, and pyroclastic-flow deposits produced during historical eruptions. Typical Pavlof eruptions are characterized by moderate amounts of ash emission, lava fountaining, spatter-fed lava flows, explosions, and the accumulation of unstable mounds of spatter on the upper flanks of the volcano. The accumulation and subsequent collapse of spatter piles on the upper flanks of the volcano creates hot granular avalanches, which erode and melt snow and ice, and thereby generate watery debris-flow and hyperconcentrated-flow lahars. Seismic instruments were first installed on Pavlof Volcano in the early 1970s, and since then eruptive episodes have been better characterized and specific processes have been documented with greater certainty. The application of remote sensing techniques, including the use of infrasound data, has also aided the study of more recent eruptions. Although Pavlof Volcano is located in a remote part of Alaska, it is visible from Cold Bay, Sand Point, and Nelson Lagoon, making distal observations of eruptive activity possible, weather permitting. A busy air-travel corridor that is utilized by a numerous transcontinental and regional air carriers passes near Pavlof Volcano. The frequency of air travel

  3. Exploring Geology on the World-Wide Web--Volcanoes and Volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmrich, Steven Henry; Gore, Pamela J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on sites on the World Wide Web that offer information about volcanoes. Web sites are classified into areas of Global Volcano Information, Volcanoes in Hawaii, Volcanoes in Alaska, Volcanoes in the Cascades, European and Icelandic Volcanoes, Extraterrestrial Volcanism, Volcanic Ash and Weather, and Volcano Resource Directories. Suggestions…

  4. Geophysical Exploration on the Structure of Volcanoes: Two Case Histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furumoto, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    Geophysical methods of exploration were used to determine the internal structure of Koolau Volcano in Hawaii and of Rabaul Volcano in New Guinea. By use of gravity and seismic data the central vent or plug of Koolau Volcano was outlined. Magnetic data seem to indicate that the central plug is still above the Curie Point. If so, the amount of heat energy available is tremendous. As for Rabaul Volcano, it is located in a region characterized by numerous block faulting. The volcano is only a part of a large block that has subsided. Possible geothermal areas exist near the volcano but better potential areas may exist away from the volcano.

  5. Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead to a range of geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The goal of volcano monitoring is to detect and correctly interpret such phenomena in order to provide early and accurate warnings of impending eruptions. Given the well-documented hazards posed by volcanoes to both ground-based populations (for example, Blong, 1984; Scott, 1989) and aviation (for example, Neal and others, 1997; Miller and Casadevall, 2000), volcano monitoring is critical for public safety and hazard mitigation. Only with adequate monitoring systems in place can volcano observatories provide accurate and timely forecasts and alerts of possible eruptive activity. At most U.S. volcanoes, observatories traditionally have employed a two-component approach to volcano monitoring: (1) install instrumentation sufficient to detect unrest at volcanic systems likely to erupt in the not-too-distant future; and (2) once unrest is detected, install any instrumentation needed for eruption prediction and monitoring. This reactive approach is problematic, however, for two reasons. 1. At many volcanoes, rapid installation of new ground-1. based instruments is difficult or impossible. Factors that complicate rapid response include (a) eruptions that are preceded by short (hours to days) precursory sequences of geophysical and (or) geochemical activity, as occurred at Mount Redoubt (Alaska) in 1989 (24 hours), Anatahan (Mariana Islands) in 2003 (6 hours), and Mount St. Helens (Washington) in 1980 and 2004 (7 and 8 days, respectively); (b) inclement weather conditions, which may prohibit installation of new equipment for days, weeks, or even months, particularly at

  6. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Colombia. Crónica de un proceso de paz fracasado

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  7. PLAN COLOMBIA: Some Differing Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcella, Gabriel

    2001-01-01

    This monograph, with an introduction by Dr. Gabriel Marcella, includes four short, but interesting and important papers presented at a conference on Plan Colombia, sponsored by the Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S...

  8. Gravity Data For Colombia 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (9,050 records), were observed and processed by the Instituto Geografico Agustin Codazzi(IGAC), in Colombia from 1958 to 1996. This data...

  9. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R.J.; Smoot, N.C.; Rubin, M.

    1984-01-01

    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: 1. (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. 2. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. 3. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin. ?? 1984.

  10. Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  11. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    Katharine eCashman; Juliet eBiggs

    2014-01-01

    An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behavior over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behavior (or “personali...

  12. LAS MIGRACIONES INTERNACIONALES EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maguemati Wabgou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo expone los resultados de una investigación sobre los flujos migratorios internacionales que han estado llegando a Colombia desde el siglo XVI hasta la actualidad. La metodología investigativa se fundamenta en la recolección y el análisis de datos derivados de investigaciones anteriores. Los resultados son significativos en lamedida que presentan el estado de las migraciones en Colombia entre los siglos XVI y XIX y desde la primera mitad del siglo XX hasta la actualidad. Por un lado, engloban a la inmigración británica, jamaiquina y africana en las islas de San Andrés y Providencia; junto con la inmigración árabe, judía, alemana, francesa, italiana y gitana en Colombia continental. Por otro, aluden a las migraciones japonesas, suramericanas, junto con los crecientes asentamientos de migrantes norteamericanos, europeos y las nuevas oleadas de migraciones asiáticas y africanas en Colombia. Todo ello lleva a aprehender la envergadura del papel jugado por Colombia como un país de destino de las migraciones internacionales, lo que contrasta con la imagen más conocida de Colombia como un país expulsor de emigrantes.

  13. Sertula Florae Colombiae, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Uribe Lorenzo

    1955-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo el autor registra como nuevas para Colombia varias especies pertenecientes a las Familias botánicas Aristolochiaceae, Passifloraceae y Solanaceae; provee de una diagnosis latina a Aristolochia argyroneura con el fin de revalidar ese binomio empleado irreglamentariamente desde hace medio siglo por carecer de la debida descripción; y discute brevemente el problema suscitado en torno al género Dilkea (de las Pasifloráceas, al cual se han atribuido varias especies por algunos botánicos, mientras otros sospechan que se trata de simples formas de una misma entidad específica por lo cual el genero debe ser considerado como monotípico.

  14. Marine biodiversity in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Juan Manuel

    2002-01-01

    One decade ago, the seas and oceans were considered biologically less diverse that the terrestrial environment. Now it is known that it is on the contrary; 33 of the 34 categories of animals (phylum), they are represented in the sea, compared with those solely 15 that exist in earth. The investigation about the diversity of life in the sea has been relatively scorned, but there are big benefits that we can wait if this is protected. The captures of fish depend on it; the species captured by the fisheries are sustained of the biodiversity of their trophic chains and habitats. The marine species are probably the biggest reservoir of chemical substances that can be used in pharmaceutical products. The genetic material of some species can be useful in biotechnical applications. The paper treats topics like the current state of the knowledge in marine biodiversity and it is done a diagnostic of the marine biodiversity in Colombia

  15. Derecho Electoral en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ariel Sanchez-Torres

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo quiere demostrar que la afirmación y profundización de las normas electorales, en orden a la democracia y su progreso, han constituido en Colombia una forma institucional de cambio.  Si bien es cierto que no puede desconocerse el paréntesis del Frente Nacional que limitó el libre juego de las fuentes políticas, la legislación en temas como financiación política, publicidad y encuestas de opinión actualmente vigentes, son vitales para  que la democracia  y las normas electorales sean el camino Institucional  del cambio.

  16. Mucormicosis (ficomicosis en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Peña

    1965-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan dos casos de mucormicosis (ficomicosis, entidad que ha sido muy raramente encontrada en Colombia. El primer caso se refiere a un prematuro con deshidratación consecutiva a vómito y diarrea. A la autopsia se encontró una mucormicosis del intestino delgado con necrosis del mismo e invasión al bazo, a la vez que una candidiasis esofágica. El segundo caso es el de un niño de 5 meses de edad, con diarreas, vómito, acidosis y signos de trombosis del seno cavernoso derecho y de meningitis. La autopsia reveló una mucormicosis ocular y meningo-encefálica acompañada de trombosis de la arteria cerebral media derecha y del seno cavernoso del mismo lado.

  17. Las Serpientes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H.

    1949-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las serpientes en Colombia no deja de tener su particular interés; existe una inmensa variedad de especies que se escalonan desde los valles ardientes hasta alturas relativamente considerables; en estos últimos puntos disminuye notablemente la variedad de formas y de modo especial las especies provistas de veneno. Hacer una distinción entre las especies venenosas y las inofensivas, resulta un tanto difícil; en algunos textos se dan unas cuántas reglas, pero la mayor parte de ellas sólo tienen aplicación con especies exóticas ya que la mayor parte de esas distinciones se han tomado de obras que hacen referencia a la fauna europea.

  18. Hydrothermal systems and volcano geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, R.O.

    2007-01-01

    The upward intrusion of magma from deeper to shallower levels beneath volcanoes obviously plays an important role in their surface deformation. This chapter will examine less obvious roles that hydrothermal processes might play in volcanic deformation. Emphasis will be placed on the effect that the transition from brittle to plastic behavior of rocks is likely to have on magma degassing and hydrothermal processes, and on the likely chemical variations in brine and gas compositions that occur as a result of movement of aqueous-rich fluids from plastic into brittle rock at different depths. To a great extent, the model of hydrothermal processes in sub-volcanic systems that is presented here is inferential, based in part on information obtained from deep drilling for geothermal resources, and in part on the study of ore deposits that are thought to have formed in volcanic and shallow plutonic environments.

  19. Lahar hazards at Mombacho Volcano, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.; Devoli, G.

    2001-01-01

    Mombacho volcano, at 1,350 meters, is situated on the shores of Lake Nicaragua and about 12 kilometers south of Granada, a city of about 90,000 inhabitants. Many more people live a few kilometers southeast of Granada in 'las Isletas de Granada and the nearby 'Peninsula de Aseses. These areas are formed of deposits of a large debris avalanche (a fast moving avalanche of rock and debris) from Mombacho. Several smaller towns with population, in the range of 5,000 to 12,000 inhabitants are to the northwest and the southwest of Mombacho volcano. Though the volcano has apparently not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce landslides and debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris -- also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas. -- Vallance, et.al., 2001

  20. Analysis of volcano rocks by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Dekan, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we have analysed the basalt rock from Mount Ba tur volcano situated on the Island of Bali in Indonesia.We compared our results with composition of basalt rocks from some other places on the Earth. (authors)

  1. Moessbauer Spectroscopy study of Quimsachata Volcano materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, A.G.B.

    1988-01-01

    It has been studied volcanic lava from Quimsachata Volcano in Pem. Moessbauer Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electronic and optical microscopy allowed the identification of different mineralogical phases. (A.C.AS.) [pt

  2. Lahar hazards at Agua volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.; Matías, O.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    At 3760 m, Agua volcano towers more than 3500 m above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan highlands to the north. The volcano is within 5 to 10 kilometers (km) of Antigua, Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla (population, ca. 100,000) to the south. Though the volcano has not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas.

  3. Land Reform and Conflict Resolution in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieswiadomy, Mark

    2003-01-01

    One of the leading arguments explaining the current rural conflict in Colombia is that it stems from deeply rooted peasant grievances over lack of land, As is true in much of Latin America, Colombia...

  4. United States Strategy in Colombia: New Opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Lee C

    2003-01-01

    .... Despite decades of U.S. support to the Government of Colombia, the troika of guerrilla insurgency, civil disorder by paramilitaries, and illegal drug activities has brought Colombia close to becoming a failed State. U.S...

  5. The Colombia Seismological Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Chia, J. F.; Poveda, E.; Pedraza, P.

    2013-05-01

    The latest seismological equipment and data processing instrumentation installed at the Colombia Seismological Network (RSNC) are described. System configuration, network operation, and data management are discussed. The data quality and the new seismological products are analyzed. The main purpose of the network is to monitor local seismicity with a special emphasis on seismic activity surrounding the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean oceans, for early warning in case a Tsunami is produced by an earthquake. The Colombian territory is located at the South America northwestern corner, here three tectonic plates converge: Nazca, Caribbean and the South American. The dynamics of these plates, when resulting in earthquakes, is continuously monitored by the network. In 2012, the RSNC registered in 2012 an average of 67 events per day; from this number, a mean of 36 earthquakes were possible to be located well. In 2010 the network was also able to register an average of 67 events, but it was only possible to locate a mean of 28 earthquakes daily. This difference is due to the expansion of the network. The network is made up of 84 stations equipped with different kind of broadband 40s, 120s seismometers, accelerometers and short period 1s sensors. The signal is transmitted continuously in real-time to the Central Recording Center located at Bogotá, using satellite, telemetry, and Internet. Moreover, there are some other stations which are required to collect the information in situ. Data is recorded and processed digitally using two different systems, EARTHWORM and SEISAN, which are able to process and share the information between them. The RSNC has designed and implemented a web system to share the seismological data. This innovative system uses tools like Java Script, Oracle and programming languages like PHP to allow the users to access the seismicity registered by the network almost in real time as well as to download the waveform and technical details. The coverage

  6. Enfermedad cerebrovascular en Colombia Cerebrovascular disease in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico A Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la enfermedad cerebrovascular constituye un problema de salud pública mundial. En Colombia es la cuarta causa de muerte en la población adulta y genera una alta discapacidad en estos pacientes. Objetivo: describir algunos resultados obtenidos por el grupo de Ciencias Neurovasculares de la Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia. Desarrollo y conclusiones: la enfermedad cerebrovascular es una entidad con una alta prevalencia en la población colombiana y genera discapacidad mental, motora y del lenguaje. Es necesaria la implementación de unidades de cuidado neurovascular con personal entrenado, protocolos definidos, tratamientos adecuados y tecnología de punta. En Colombia deben imponerse este tipo de unidades dentro del cuidado básico de los pacientes para disminuir la morbilidad, mortalidad y discapacidad generada en estos pacientes. La Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia es pionera en la implementación de este tipo de cuidados.Introduction: cerebrovascular disease constitutes a worldwide public health problem. In Colombia, it is the fourth leading cause of death in the adult population and generates high disability in these patients. Objective: to describe some results obtained by the Neurovascular Sciences group from the Colombian Cardiovascular Foundation. Development and conclusions: cerebrovascular disease has a high prevalence in the Colombian population and generates mental, motor, and language disabilities. The implementation of neurovascular care units with trained personnel, defined protocols, adequate treatments and high technology, are necessary. This kind of units must be imposed in Colombia as a basic care for these patients in order to decrease morbidity, mortality and disability. The Colombian Cardiovascular Foundation is pioneer in the implementation of these care units.

  7. de Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Jaramillo Ayerbe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la modelación para la predicción a corto plazo de la concentración de ozono troposférico en la zona urbana de la ciudad de Cali, Colombia, mediante el análisis univariante de series de tiempo. El método se aplicó a una serie de 2.496 datos horarios de concentración de ozono, obtenida en una de las estaciones de la Red de Monitoreo de Calidad del Aire (RMCA de Cali, correspondiente a 104 días consecutivos durante el período abril a julio de 2003. Los datos de los primeros 93 días se utilizaron para la estimación del modelo, y los de los 11 días restantes para la validación del mismo. El modelo propuesto podría ser utilizado por las autoridades ambientales de la región para predecir y alertar a la población sobre posibles episodios de altas concentraciones de ozono que puedan poner en riesgo la salud pública con hasta 8 horas de anticipación.

  8. Environmental information in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez S, Andres

    2005-01-01

    This article is a chapter from the paper, Elements for the description of an environmental information system, which was written by the author as a requirement for the degree of specialist on environment and Geoinformatics at the school of engineering. Universidad de Antioquia. The original paper attempted a description of the context and development of a particular environmental information system, built at the eastern region of Antioquia by CORNARE (a regional autonomous corporation for the environment and the natural resources). This article refers to the Colombian institutional context for environmental information. With particular emphasis laid on the strategic character that must be conceded to the administration of information. Towards the construction of equitable and sustainable development models under autonomous orientation an efficient and transparent environmental administration as is needed by such models is only attainable through the design and application of environmental information systems committed to the pursuit of collective interests. Here a balance is sought between accomplishments and failures reached during the long standing discussion held in Colombia around the formulation of public policies that acknowledge and strengthen the role of information as a cornerstone of environmental administration, and a contribution towards the goal of human sustainable development

  9. de barranquilla (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Flores

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación aborda algunas de las variables que, en las periferias de las ciudades del Tercer Mundo, inciden en la ausencia de una identidad urbana y de una cultura política democrática, tomando como ejemplo el municipio de Soledad, en el departamento del Atlántico, Colombia. La investigación tuvo como primer objetivo indagar por los sentidos de lo público que construyen los habitantes y para ello se realizó un inventario de los espacios públicos y unos diarios de campo sobre los usos dados a estos espacios. En segundo lugar, nos preguntamos sobre los modos de inserción en las dinámicas urbanas. Las encuestas realizadas confirmaron la ausencia de canales de expresión y participación, con lo cual formas no institucionalizadas de identidad social se convierten en la alternativa para los ciudadanos, en particular, para los jóvenes. De ahí que el estudio centrara sus conclusiones en las demandas que estas realidades presentan al Estado y en los peligros que, para la consolidación de la democracia, implican estas ciudadanías inconclusas..

  10. El Patentamiento Universitario en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Milena González Gélvez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta un panorama general del patentamiento que realizan las Universidades en Colombia. Para ello, se realiza un análisis de la información de la base de datos de patentes de la Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio de Colombia desde 1970 hasta 2010. Los resultados permiten observar el estado real del patentamiento Universitario en Colombia, así como identificar las Universidades más exitosas en el proceso de patentamiento y los tiempos reales requeridos para proteger las nuevas creaciones. Así mismo, los resultados son un insumo importante en la determinación de la estrategia de protección que adopten las Universidades Colombianas en cuanto a la protección de sus creaciones.

  11. Natalidad y fecundidad, Colombia, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    León A, Alba Luz; Ocampo A, Leidy Johanna; Spath P, Doris Estella; Agudelo G, Héctor Byron; Grisales R, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta la natalidad, la fecundidad y los nacimientos vivos en Colombia en el año 2001 con base en la totalidad de los registros de nacidos vivos del Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadísticas (dane) (724.236). La población de Colombia, calculada a mitad de período, se dividió en ocho categorías de municipios de acuerdo con el tamaño poblacional, según la Ley 617/2001. No se presentaron diferencias importantes entre las variables afines a las características del recién nacido po...

  12. Descubrir el universo desde Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Los dos hechos científicos más relevantes en la corta historia de Colombia, son la Real Expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada y la Misión Corográfica. Hoy cuando los astrónomos, entre otros asuntos que se ubican en la frontera del conocimiento, intentan conocer la geometría del espacio, la naturaleza de la materia oscura y los misterios del tiempo, en Colombia nuestros científicos tienen pendiente entre otros aportes para la construcción de la Nación, apoyar tareas fundamentales y es...

  13. Effects of Volcanoes on the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The primary focus of this project has been on the development of techniques to study the thermal and gas output of volcanoes, and to explore our options for the collection of vegetation and soil data to enable us to assess the impact of this volcanic activity on the environment. We originally selected several volcanoes that have persistent gas emissions and/or magma production. The investigation took an integrated look at the environmental effects of a volcano. Through their persistent activity, basaltic volcanoes such as Kilauea (Hawaii) and Masaya (Nicaragua) contribute significant amounts of sulfur dioxide and other gases to the lower atmosphere. Although primarily local rather than regional in its impact, the continuous nature of these eruptions means that they can have a major impact on the troposphere for years to decades. Since mid-1986, Kilauea has emitted about 2,000 tonnes of sulfur dioxide per day, while between 1995 and 2000 Masaya has emotted about 1,000 to 1,500 tonnes per day (Duffel1 et al., 2001; Delmelle et al., 2002; Sutton and Elias, 2002). These emissions have a significant effect on the local environment. The volcanic smog ("vog" ) that is produced affects the health of local residents, impacts the local ecology via acid rain deposition and the generation of acidic soils, and is a concern to local air traffic due to reduced visibility. Much of the work that was conducted under this NASA project was focused on the development of field validation techniques of volcano degassing and thermal output that could then be correlated with satellite observations. In this way, we strove to develop methods by which not only our study volcanoes, but also volcanoes in general worldwide (Wright and Flynn, 2004; Wright et al., 2004). Thus volcanoes could be routinely monitored for their effects on the environment. The selected volcanoes were: Kilauea (Hawaii; 19.425 N, 155.292 W); Masaya (Nicaragua; 11.984 N, 86.161 W); and Pods (Costa Rica; 10.2OoN, 84.233 W).

  14. Volcanoes in the Classroom--an Explosive Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Susan A.; Thompson, Keith S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a unit on volcanoes for third- and fourth-grade students. Includes demonstrations; video presentations; building a volcano model; and inviting a scientist, preferably a vulcanologist, to share his or her expertise with students. (JRH)

  15. Volcanostratigraphic Approach for Evaluation of Geothermal Potential in Galunggung Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhan, Q. S.; Sianipar, J. Y.; Pratopo, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    he geothermal systems in Indonesia are primarily associated with volcanoes. There are over 100 volcanoes located on Sumatra, Java, and in the eastern part of Indonesia. Volcanostratigraphy is one of the methods that is used in the early stage for the exploration of volcanic geothermal system to identify the characteristics of the volcano. The stratigraphy of Galunggung Volcano is identified based on 1:100.000 scale topographic map of Tasikmalaya sheet, 1:50.000 scale topographic map and also geological map. The schematic flowchart for evaluation of geothermal exploration is used to interpret and evaluate geothermal potential in volcanic regions. Volcanostratigraphy study has been done on Galunggung Volcano and Talaga Bodas Volcano, West Java, Indonesia. Based on the interpretation of topographic map and analysis of the dimension, rock composition, age and stress regime, we conclude that both Galunggung Volcano and Talaga Bodas Volcano have a geothermal resource potential that deserve further investigation.

  16. Serpientes de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rodrigo Ángel

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available En este libro es una guía práctica sobre las serpientes de Colombia en cuanto a su clasificación y tratamiento del envenenamiento causado por sus mordeduras. Contiene los siguientes capítulos: 1. Características generales, 2. Serpiente Colombianas, 3. Aparato venenoso, 4. Clasificación fisiopatología de los efectos del veneno, 5. Mordedura por serpientes venenosas en Antioquía, listas de nombres populares y científicos, la bibliografía. Esta es una introducción a esta práctica guía sobre las serpientes Colombianas: Desde el origen del hombre, a través de la evolución de las distintas culturas y aún en la época actual en un amplio sector sociocultural, la serpiente ha sido considerada como un animal dotado de ciertos poderes sobrenaturales, bien sea como fuente de mal, de beneficio, de poder, de sabiduría o de salud. Considerada por su aspecto tóxico, la influencia en la patología humana es evidente y de gran importancia como causa de morbilidad sobre todo en aquellos países donde se le considera animal sagrado. En el aspecto simbólico, el folklor es abundante en creencias y tradiciones, que generalmente coinciden en la mayoría de los pueblos. En un país tropical como Colombia, con diversidad de climas y bosques, las serpientes venenosas de gran poder tóxico son también abundantes y significan un peligro real para nuestra población campesina en lucha abierta con la naturaleza. Los envenenamientos causados por sus mordeduras, graves de por sí, empeoran frecuentemente debido a diversos factores tales como la escasez y alto costo del suero antiofídico y la demora en la atención médica, condicionada esta última no sólo por la deficiencias de nuestras vías de comunicación, sino por la influencia nefasta del curandero. Sobre tema tan importante de nuestra patología, es entonces necesario que nuestras instituciones educativas y las encargadas de velar por la salud, se preocupen no sólo por su

  17. Dengue en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Boshell

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available El Gobierno Colombiano estableció una campaña que erradicó el Aedes aegypti de su territorio en atención a las recomendaciones que hizo la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana en 1947. Esta campaña consiguió desaparecer el dengue endémico durante aproximadamente 20 años, apareciendo de nuevo en forma explosiva con la epidemia de dengue 2 en la Costa Atlántica (1971-1972, seguida de dos epidemias bien documentadas de dengue 3 (1975-1977 y dengue 1 en 1978. Se hace un resumen de las actividades que desarrolla el Laboratorio de Virología del Instituto Nacional de Salud para apoyar el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad en el país incluyendo el primer aislamiento de dengue 4 en 1982, la actividad de los virus dengue 1, 2 y 4 detectada hasta la fecha, los hallazgos clínicos y virológicos en un caso fatal de enfermedad hemorrágica asociada a infección por virus del dengue y un breve recuento de la epidemia de Tumaco en la Costa Pacífica en la cual se comprobó actividad simultánea de dengue 1 y 2. Finalmente se informa sobre el estado de infestación que tiene el país actualmente con el Aedes aegypti y sobre la actividad del virus de fiebre amarilla en focos selváticos vecinos a ciudades altamente infestadas, detectada en el mes de enero de 1987 en Colombia.

  18. de Manizales, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Humberto Vargas López

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se deriva de una investigación realizada con 29 jóvenes escolarizados de la ciudad de Manizales, Colombia, en la cual se indagó por los sentidos y significados de la ciudadanía. Para la recolección de información se utilizó el taller pedagógico, en tanto permitió combinar diversas técnicas e instrumentos tales como la entrevista semiestructurada, la entrevista a profundidad y la discusión. El estudio concluye que las y los jóvenes significan y comprenden la ciudadanía desde cuatro referentes: el lugar del sujeto en la sociedad y la cultura, el sentido del derecho y la ley en la organización y la convivencia, las percepciones del actuar moral y político de los líderes y de los políticos, y las percepciones y consumos de ciudad que hacen los ciudadanos. Se concluye que las y los jóvenes sitúan la ciudadanía desde un referente de la acción, manifestado fundamentalmente en la participación, el enjuiciamiento político y la posibilidad de ser representados por otros. Igualmente, se plantea que las y los jóvenes orientan la ciudadanía desde los principios y marcos de significación cultural de ciudad, expresados en los vínculos y compromisos que adquieren los ciudadanos con su ciudad y viceversa. Finalmente, se afirma que se trata de una ciudadanía significada en el respeto, la libertad, la justicia social y el reconocimiento del potencial humano universal

  19. Volcano Trial Case on GEP: Systematically processing EO data

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Andreas Bruno Graziano

    2017-01-01

    Volcanoes can be found all over the world; on land and below water surface. Even nowadays not all volcanoes are known. About 600 erupted in geologically recent times and about 50-70 volcanoes are currently active. Volcanoes can cause earthquakes; throw out blasts and tephras; release (toxic) gases; lava can flow relatively slow down the slopes; mass movements like debris avalanches, and landslides can cause tsunamis; and fast and hot pyroclastic surge, flows, and lahars can travel fast down ...

  20. Volcano Geodesy: Recent developments and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Jose F.; Pepe, Antonio; Poland, Michael; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2017-01-01

    Ascent of magma through Earth's crust is normally associated with, among other effects, ground deformation and gravity changes. Geodesy is thus a valuable tool for monitoring and hazards assessment during volcanic unrest, and it provides valuable data for exploring the geometry and volume of magma plumbing systems. Recent decades have seen an explosion in the quality and quantity of volcano geodetic data. New datasets (some made possible by regional and global scientific initiatives), as well as new analysis methods and modeling practices, have resulted in important changes to our understanding of the geodetic characteristics of active volcanism and magmatic processes, from the scale of individual eruptive vents to global compilations of volcano deformation. Here, we describe some of the recent developments in volcano geodesy, both in terms of data and interpretive tools, and discuss the role of international initiatives in meeting future challenges for the field.

  1. Soil radon response around an active volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Valdes, C.; Pena, P.; Mena, M.; Tamez, E.

    2001-01-01

    Soil radon behavior related to the volcanic eruptive period 1997-1999 of Popocatepetl volcano has been studied as a function of the volcanic activity. Since the volcano is located 60 km from Mexico City, the risk associated with an explosive eruptive phase is high and an intense surveillance program has been implemented. Previous studies in this particular volcano showed soil radon pulses preceding the initial phase of the eruption. The radon survey was performed with LR-115 track detectors at a shallow depth and the effect of the soil moisture during the rainy season has been observed on the detectors response. In the present state of the volcanic activity the soil radon behavior has shown more stability than in previous eruptive stages

  2. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

  3. Interdisciplinary studies of eruption at Chaiten Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Pallister; Jon J. Major; Thomas C. Pierson; Richard P. Hoblitt; Jacob B. Lowenstern; John C. Eichelberger; Lara. Luis; Hugo Moreno; Jorge Munoz; Jonathan M. Castro; Andres Iroume; Andrea Andreoli; Julia Jones; Fred Swanson; Charlie Crisafulli

    2010-01-01

    There was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaiten volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which...

  4. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  5. Living with Volcanoes: Year Eleven Teaching Resource Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Heron, Kiri; Andrews, Jill; Hooks, Stacey; Larnder, Michele; Le Heron, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unit on volcanoes and experiences with volcanoes that helps students develop geography skills. Focuses on four volcanoes: (1) Rangitoto Island; (2) Lake Pupuke; (3) Mount Smart; and (4) One Tree Hill. Includes an answer sheet and resources to use with the unit. (CMK)

  6. Solving Colombia’s Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    parties for political control during the period from 1948 to 1953.15 “During this period, referred to as ‘La Violencia ,’ groups of armed men paid by...surprise to those familiar with the Colombia government history of mishandling foreign aid in the war against drugs and in their parallel inability to

  7. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  8. Colombia extends its exploration horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    The Return 1 Contract, currently being awarded under the tender system, faithfully reflects Colombia's new approach to hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. This policy aims to increase reserves and has Ecopetrol assume a more aggressive role in its direct activities by sharing the exploration risks with private partners

  9. Pseudotectites from Colombia and Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, R.; Sitter-Koomans, de C.

    1955-01-01

    In a previous note on “Americanites” (Martin, 1934) from Colombia and Peru, the writer came to the conclusion, on the basis solely of published data, that it was very likely that these so-called tectites are in reality obsidian of terrestrial origin. He stated, however, that “before it is possible

  10. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, O.; Del Santo, M.; Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M.C.; Pareschi, G.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  11. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, O. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Del Santo, M., E-mail: melania@ifc.inaf.it [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M.C. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Pareschi, G. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807, Merate (Italy)

    2016-01-21

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  12. CANCER DE MAMA EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. González Mariño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la situación del cáncer de mama en Colombia mediante la revisión de publicaciones epidemiológicas y clínicas. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Evaluación de estudios publicados en revistas científicas seriadas sobre cáncer de mama en Colombia mediante búsqueda en las bases de datos Medline con los términos neoplasm and breast and Colombia y Lilacs con neoplasia y mama y Colombia. Se seleccionaron los estudios con aplicación epidemiológica o clínica con muestreo o datos de mujeres residentes en Colombia, ubicando sus resultados en la sección de introducción y en la de discusión de acuerdo con los enfoques de promoción, prevención y tratamiento. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron 62 referencias en Medline de las que se seleccionaron 23 y en Lilacs de 16 se escogieron 4. Las referencias se descartaron en Medline por las siguientes razones: 15 por el diseño de estudio (revisión de tema, presentación de casos clínicos, 7 por tratarse de investigación básica, 10 por tema diferente al cáncer de mama en Colombia y 7 por datos pertenecientes a otro país. En Lilacs se excluyeron por: 7 artículos también presentes en Medline, 3 por diseño, 1 de investigación básica y 1 de un tema diferente. CONCLUSIONES: Los artículos revisados permiten tener una visión integral sobre el cáncer de mama en Colombia. En ellos se puede verificar que hay limitaciones en la prestación del servicio de atención en salud para esta enfermedad, y se identifican factores de riesgo con significancia estadística como la nuliparidad, niveles altos de inactividad física y exposición a DDE (diclorodifenildicloroeteno y para el cáncer genético se encontraron mutaciones fundadoras. La consulta se hace principalmente por síntomas, no sobre resultados de cribado como sería lo deseable. Existen también contribuciones sobre el manejo quirúrgico y adyuvante extrapolables a las condiciones del país.

  13. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  14. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, John

    2011-01-01

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  15. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Ben

    2017-08-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  16. Volcanology and volcano sedimentology of Sahand region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moine Vaziri, H.; Amine Sobhani, E.

    1977-01-01

    There was no volcano in Precambrian and Mesozoic eras in Iran, but in most place of Iran during the next eras volcanic rocks with green series and Dacites were seen. By the recent survey in Sahand mountain in NW of Iran volcanography, determination of rocks and the age of layers were estimated. The deposits of Precambrian as sediment rocks are also seen in the same area. All of volcanic periods in this place were studied; their extrusive rocks, their petrography and the result of their analytical chemistry were discussed. Finally volcano sedimentology of Sahand mountain were described

  17. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, John [University of Hawaii' s Institute for Astronomy (United States)

    2011-05-15

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  18. Mining Taxation in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper first assesses the current Colombian mining tax-and-royalty regime in comparison with other countries from the points of view of efficiency, competitiveness and revenue performance. It then discusses the theoretical convenience of introducing alternative designs for a resource rent tax (RRT to be applied to new mining projects, together with a reduced common royalty rate for all minerals, and simulates their potential efficiency, competitiveness and revenue-performance effects. In particular, it examines alternative interactions between the RRT, the royalty regime and the corporate income tax (royalties creditable against the RRT or deductible from its tax base; accepting or not corporate income tax deductibility from the RRT tax base, under alternative RRT tax rates. It also discusses alternative capital return allowances and the pros and cons of project-by-project versus sectorial ring fencing, and sharing RRT revenues between the national and sub-national governments. It concludes with a detailed blueprint for reform based on these discussions, assessments and simulations, as well as political economy and administrative considerations for the specific case of Colombia. Este trabajo evalúa la eficiencia, competitividad y capacidad de recaudo del régimen tributario y de regalías colombiano en comparación con el de otros países mineros relevantes. Posteriormente, propone la implementación de un “Resource Rent Tax” (RRT para proyectos mineros futuros (junto con una reducción y unificación de la tasa de regalías entre minerales y modela el impacto que tendría éste sobre la eficiencia y el recaudo. Se examinan la interacción entre el RRT, las regalías y el impuesto de renta bajo distintos diseños y tasas de RRT y costo de oportunidad del capital. También se analiza si es preferible tener “ringfencing” a nivel de proyecto o a nivel sectorial. El trabajo concluye con una propuesta de reforma junto con consideraciones

  19. Recent Inflation of Kilauea Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklius, A.; Poland, M.; Desmarais, E.; Sutton, A.; Orr, T.; Okubo, P.

    2006-12-01

    Over the last three years, geodetic monitoring networks and satellite radar interferometry have recorded substantial inflation of Kilauea's magma system, while the Pu`u `O`o eruption on the east rift zone has continued unabated. Combined with the approximate doubling of carbon dioxide emission rates at the summit during this period, these observations indicate that the magma supply rate to the volcano has increased. Since late 2003, the summit area has risen over 20 cm, and a 2.5 km-long GPS baseline across the summit area has extended almost half a meter. The center of inflation has been variable, with maximum uplift shifting from an area near the center of the caldera to the southeastern part of the caldera in 2004-2005. In 2006, the locus of inflation shifted again, to the location of the long-term magma reservoir in the southern part of the caldera - the same area that had subsided more than 1.5 meters during the last 23 years of the ongoing eruption. In addition, the southwest rift zone reversed its long-term trend of subsidence and began uplifting in early 2006. The east rift zone has shown slightly accelerated rates of extension, but with a year-long hiatus following the January 2005 south flank aseismic slip event. Inflation rates have varied greatly. Accelerated rates of extension and uplift in early 2005 and 2006 were also associated with increased seismicity. Seismicity occurred not only at inflation centers, but was also triggered on the normal faulting area northwest of the caldera and the strike-slip faulting area in the upper east rift zone. In early 2006, at about the time that we started recording uplift on the southwest rift zone, the rate of earthquakes extending from the summit into the southwest rift zone at least quadrupled. The most recent previous episode of inflation at Kilauea, in 2002, may have resulted from reduced lava- transport capacity, as it was associated with decreased outflow at the eruption site. In contrast, eruption volumes

  20. Pasteur en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Bárcenas lsaacs

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Simposio Internacional sobre Inmunización y Producción de Vacunas, Bogotá, 29 de Septiembre de 1985.

    La Sociedad Colombiana de Historia de la Medicina recibió del Comité Organizador de la reunión que hoy nos congrega, la solicitud de presentar el tema de la influencia de Luís Pasteur en la América Latina. La Sociedad mencionada tuvo a bien encargarme de tan honroso cometido; sin embargo, habida cuenta de la vastedad de nuestro continente, del largo tiempo que se requiere para consultar responsable y juiciosamente archivos y bibliotecas en los diferentes países, además de los viajes que hubiera sido necesario realizar, decliné tan atractiva y desafiante tarea, pero propuse, en cambio, que se me permitiera abordar el tema circunscribiéndolo a Colombia.

    Me doy cuenta cabal de que lo que diga pudiera parecer estrecho o parroquial a este distinguido concurso de personalidades provenientes de tan diversas latitudes. No obstante, me atrevo a creer que lo que aconteció en Colombia al advenimiento de las ideas y de los descubrimientos de Pasteur, no debe diferir demasiado de lo sucedido en otras naciones, a las cuales Bolívar agrupó en una sola cuando dijo “para nosotros la patria es América”.

    Con la salvedad expresada, trataré de cumplir con la generosa designación que he recibido de la Sociedad Colombiana de Historia de la Medicina, a la cual me complazco en pertenecer y a cuyo presidente y Junta Directiva agradezco la distinción que me hacen.

    En este año de 1985 se cumplen y se celebran cien de la primera aplicación humana de la vacuna antirrábica debida a Pasteur. Se conmemora también el centenario de la muerte de Víctor Hugo, uno de los más grandes escritores y poetas de la humanidad. Siempre he creído que estos dos hijos insignes de la Francia del Siglo XIX, se distinguieron por el respeto, el afecto y la admiración que les profesaron sus contemporáneos y entre

  1. Growth and degradation of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 3 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, David A.; Sherrod, David R.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    The 19 known shield volcanoes of the main Hawaiian Islands—15 now emergent, 3 submerged, and 1 newly born and still submarine—lie at the southeast end of a long-lived hot spot chain. As the Pacific Plate of the Earth’s lithosphere moves slowly northwestward over the Hawaiian hot spot, volcanoes are successively born above it, evolve as they drift away from it, and eventually die and subside beneath the ocean surface.

  2. Carbonate assimilation at Merapi volcano, Java Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadwick, J.P; Troll, V.R; Ginibre,, C.

    2007-01-01

    Recent basaltic andesite lavas from Merapi volcano contain abundant, complexly zoned, plagioclase phenocrysts, analysed here for their petrographic textures, major element composition and Sr isotope composition. Anorthite (An) content in individual crystals can vary by as much as 55 mol% (An40^95...

  3. Probing magma reservoirs to improve volcano forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Hurwitz, Shaul

    2017-01-01

    When it comes to forecasting eruptions, volcano observatories rely mostly on real-time signals from earthquakes, ground deformation, and gas discharge, combined with probabilistic assessments based on past behavior [Sparks and Cashman, 2017]. There is comparatively less reliance on geophysical and petrological understanding of subsurface magma reservoirs.

  4. Biological Studies on a Live Volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipko, Stephen J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes scientific research on an Earthwatch expedition to study Arenal, one of the world's most active volcanoes, in north central Costa Rica. The purpose of the two-week project was to monitor and understand the past and ongoing development of a small, geologically young, highly active stratovolcano in a tropical, high-rainfall environment.…

  5. Of volcanoes, saints, trash, and frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    , at the same time as political elections and economic hardship. During one year of ethnographic fieldwork volcanoes, saints, trash and frogs were among the nonhuman entities referred to in conversations and engaged with when responding to the changes that trouble the world and everyday life of Arequipans...

  6. Muons reveal the interior of volcanoes

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    The MU-RAY project has the very challenging aim of providing a “muon X-ray” of the Vesuvius volcano (Italy) using a detector that records the muons hitting it after traversing the rock structures of the volcano. This technique was used for the first time in 1971 by the Nobel Prize-winner Louis Alvarez, who was searching for unknown burial chambers in the Chephren pyramid.   The location of the muon detector on the slopes of the Vesuvius volcano. Like X-ray scans of the human body, muon radiography allows researchers to obtain an image of the internal structures of the upper levels of volcanoes. Although such an image cannot help to predict ‘when’ an eruption might occur, it can, if combined with other observations, help to foresee ‘how’ it could develop and serves as a powerful tool for the study of geological structures. Muons come from the interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. They are able to traverse layers of ro...

  7. ALTERATION RELATED TO HYDROTHERMAL ACTIVITY OF THE NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCANO (NRV), COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Forero, Jhon; Zuluaga, Carlos; Mojica, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The hydrothermal activity in the NRV generates alteration characterized by mineral associations depending on a number of physic-chemical factors of the hydrothermal system. Petrography of unaltered rocks was used to establish the mineral assemblage prior to rock-fluid interaction. XRD was used in altered rocks, where it was not possible to recognize the alteration products. The observed mineral assemblages indicate advanced and intermediate argillic alterations, this and the observation of ve...

  8. False Color Image of Volcano Sapas Mons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This false-color image shows the volcano Sapas Mons, which is located in the broad equatorial rise called Atla Regio (8 degrees north latitude and 188 degrees east longitude). The area shown is approximately 650 kilometers (404 miles) on a side. Sapas Mons measures about 400 kilometers (248 miles) across and 1.5 kilometers (0.9 mile) high. Its flanks show numerous overlapping lava flows. The dark flows on the lower right are thought to be smoother than the brighter ones near the central part of the volcano. Many of the flows appear to have been erupted along the flanks of the volcano rather than from the summit. This type of flank eruption is common on large volcanoes on Earth, such as the Hawaiian volcanoes. The summit area has two flat-topped mesas, whose smooth tops give a relatively dark appearance in the radar image. Also seen near the summit are groups of pits, some as large as one kilometer (0.6 mile) across. These are thought to have formed when underground chambers of magma were drained through other subsurface tubes and lead to a collapse at the surface. A 20 kilometer-diameter (12-mile diameter) impact crater northeast of the volcano is partially buried by the lava flows. Little was known about Atla Regio prior to Magellan. The new data, acquired in February 1991, show the region to be composed of at least five large volcanoes such as Sapas Mons, which are commonly linked by complex systems of fractures or rift zones. If comparable to similar features on Earth, Atla Regio probably formed when large volumes of molten rock upwelled from areas within the interior of Venus known as'hot spots.' Magellan is a NASA spacecraft mission to map the surface of Venus with imaging radar. The basic scientific instrument is a synthetic aperture radar, or SAR, which can look through the thick clouds perpetually shielding the surface of Venus. Magellan is in orbit around Venus which completes one turn around its axis in 243 Earth days. That period of time, one Venus day

  9. Hazard maps of Colima volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero Ayala, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Colima volcano, also known as Volcan de Fuego (19° 30.696 N, 103° 37.026 W), is located on the border between the states of Jalisco and Colima and is the most active volcano in Mexico. Began its current eruptive process in February 1991, in February 10, 1999 the biggest explosion since 1913 occurred at the summit dome. The activity during the 2001-2005 period was the most intense, but did not exceed VEI 3. The activity resulted in the formation of domes and their destruction after explosive events. The explosions originated eruptive columns, reaching attitudes between 4,500 and 9,000 m.a.s.l., further pyroclastic flows reaching distances up to 3.5 km from the crater. During the explosive events ash emissions were generated in all directions reaching distances up to 100 km, slightly affected nearby villages as Tuxpan, Tonila, Zapotlán, Cuauhtemoc, Comala, Zapotitlan de Vadillo and Toliman. During the 2005 this volcano has had an intense effusive-explosive activity, similar to the one that took place during the period of 1890 through 1900. Intense pre-plinian eruption in January 20, 1913, generated little economic losses in the lower parts of the volcano due to low population density and low socio-economic activities at the time. Shows the updating of the volcanic hazard maps published in 2001, where we identify whit SPOT satellite imagery and Google Earth, change in the land use on the slope of volcano, the expansion of the agricultural frontier on the east and southeast sides of the Colima volcano, the population inhabiting the area is approximately 517,000 people, and growing at an annual rate of 4.77%, also the region that has shown an increased in the vulnerability for the development of economic activities, supported by the construction of highways, natural gas pipelines and electrical infrastructure that connect to the Port of Manzanillo to Guadalajara city. The update the hazard maps are: a) Exclusion areas and moderate hazard for explosive events

  10. Mauna Kea volcano's ongoing 18-year swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wech, A.; Thelen, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    Mauna Kea is a large postshield-stage volcano that forms the highest peak on Hawaii Island. The 4,205-meter high volcano erupted most recently between 6,000 and 4,500 years ago and exhibits relatively low rates of seismicity, which are mostly tectonic in origin resulting from lithospheric flexure under the weight of the volcano. Here we identify deep repeating earthquakes occurring beneath the summit of Mauna Kea. These earthquakes, which are not part of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory's regional network catalog, were initially detected through a systematic search for coherent seismicity using envelope cross-correlation, and subsequent analysis revealed the presence of a long-term, ongoing swarm. The events have energy concentrated at 2-7 Hz, and can be seen in filtered waveforms dating back to the earliest continuous data from a single station archived at IRIS from November 1999. We use a single-station (3 component) match-filter analysis to create a catalog of the repeating earthquakes for the past 18 years. Using two templates created through phase-weighted stacking of thousands of sta/lta-triggers, we find hundreds of thousands of M1.3-1.6 earthquakes repeating every 7-12 minutes throughout this entire time period, with many smaller events occurring in between. The earthquakes occur at 28-31 km depth directly beneath the summit within a conspicuous gap in seismicity surrounding the flanks of the volcano. Magnitudes and periodicity are remarkably stable long-term, but do exhibit slight variability and occasionally display higher variability on shorter time scales. Network geometry precludes obtaining a reliable focal mechanism, but we interpret the frequency content and hypocenters to infer a volcanic source distinct from the regional tectonic seismicity responding to the load of the island. In this model, the earthquakes may result from the slow, persistent degassing of a relic magma chamber at depth.

  11. Geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notsu, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes advances in three topics of geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes, which I and my colleagues have been investigating. First one is strontium isotope studies of arc volcanic rocks mainly from Japanese island arcs. We have shown that the precise spatial distribution of the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio reflects natures of the subduction structure and slab-mantle interaction. Based on the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of volcanic rocks in the northern Kanto district, where two plates subduct concurrently with different directions, the existence of an aseismic portion of the Philippine Sea plate ahead of the seismic one was suggested. Second one is geochemical monitoring of active arc volcanoes. 3 He/ 4 He ratio of volcanic volatiles was shown to be a good indicator to monitor the behavior of magma: ascent and drain-back of magma result in increase and decrease in the ratio, respectively. In the case of 1986 eruptions of Izu-Oshima volcano, the ratio began to increase two months after big eruptions, reaching the maximum and decreased. Such delayed response is explained in terms of travelling time of magmatic helium from the vent area to the observation site along the underground steam flow. Third one is remote observation of volcanic gas chemistry of arc volcanoes, using an infrared absorption spectroscopy. During Unzen eruptions starting in 1990, absorption features of SO 2 and HCl of volcanic gas were detected from the observation station at 1.3 km distance. This was the first ground-based remote detection of HCl in volcanic gas. In the recent work at Aso volcano, we could identify 5 species (CO, COS, CO 2 , SO 2 and HCl) simultaneously in the volcanic plume spectra. (author)

  12. Lahars at Cotopaxi and Tungurahua Volcanoes, Ecuador: Highlights from stratigraphy and observational records and related downstream hazards: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes, Patricia A; Vallance, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Lahars are volcanic debris flows that are dubbed primary when triggered by eruptive activity or secondary when triggered by other factors such as heavy rainfall after eruptive activity has waned. Variation in time and space of the proportion of sediment to water within a lahar dictates lahar flow phase and the resultant sedimentary character of deposits. Characteristics of source material and of debris eroded and incorporated during flow downstream may strongly affect the grain-size composition of flowing lahars and their deposits. Lahars borne on the flanks of two steep-sided stratocones in Ecuador exemplify two important lahar types. Glacier-clad Cotopaxi volcano has been a producer of primary lahars that flow great distances downstream. Such primary lahars include those of both clast-rich and matrix-rich composition—some of which have flowed as far as 325 km to the Pacific Ocean. Cotopaxi's last important eruption in 1877 generated formidable syneruptive lahars comparable in size to those that buried Armero, Colombia, following the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano. In contrast, ash-producing eruptive activity during the past 15 years at Tungurahua volcano has generated a continual supply of fresh volcaniclastic debris that is regularly remobilized by precipitation. Between 2000 and 2011, 886 rain-generated lahars were registered at Tungurahua. These two volcanoes pose dramatically different hazards to nearby populations. At Tungurahua, the frequency and small sizes of lahars have resulted in effective mitigation measures. At Cotopaxi 137 years have passed since the last important lahar-producing eruption, and there is now a high-risk situation for more than 100,000 people living in downstream valleys.

  13. Violencia y salud en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Franco Agudelo

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available La violencia en Colombia parece incontenible. A las masacres y asesinatos colectivos, de una crueldad desconcertante, se suman los secuestros y desapariciones, el maltrato de niños y ancianos y las violaciones de adolescentes. Cada día, sin tregua, los colombianos son espectadores o víctimas de atracos callejeros y de discriminación racial, sexual y socioeconómica. Sin quererlo, se convierten en agentes de agresiones en el transporte urbano, el hogar, la escuela y el trabajo. Colombia tiene las tasas de mortalidad por homicidio más altas del mundo. Independientemente de la enorme sobrecarga institucional que impone a los servicios de salud y medicina legal, la violencia constituye actualmente en Colombia el principal problema de salud pública. Para hacerle frente, el sector de la salud debe elaborar políticas y financiar acciones; crear nuevos procesos de formación de personal, poner en marcha procesos de educación pública, y dedicar mayor esfuerzo y creatividad al campo de la investigación, que hasta ahora ha dado respuestas importantes pero aún insuficientes. Al reflexionar sobre la violencia, que es la sustitución de toda argumentación por la fuerza, es necesario ubicarla en el contexto de la vida y la salud. No se pretende solo racionalizarla, y menos aún sustituir la acción por la palabra o por las reflexiones, sino tratar de comprenderla a fondo con el objeto de buscarle alternativas. En el presente artículo se analiza, con esta finalidad, el tema de la violencia en Colombia, principalmente desde el punto de vista de su efecto en la salud de los colombianos y de sus implicaciones para el sector sanitario. El autor expone sus puntos de vista con plena conciencia de su subjetividad y limitaciones.

  14. La industria maltera en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Restrepo, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo estudia la industria maltera de Colombia, su origen, evolución y el estado en que se encuentra. Presenta cifras respecto al comportamiento de la producción y ventas. Muestra las relaciones de propiedad y describe la importancia relativa de la empresa con las otras subsidiarias del grupo económico al que pertenece. De otra parte analiza las relaciones obrero/patronales en el contexto actual y las relaciones con la agroindustria colombiana.

  15. Violence and health in Colombia Violencia y salud en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Franco Agudelo

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, violence seems uncontrollable. Along with massacres and group killings of astonishing cruelty, there are also kidnappings and disappearances, abuse of children and the elderly, and rape of young adolescents. Every day, without respite, Colombians are witnesses or victims of street crimes as well as racial, sexual, and socioeconomic discrimination. Unwillingly, they become agents of aggression in public transport, at home, at school, and at work. Colombia has the highest rates of mortality from homicide in the world. Apart from the enormous institutional burden that violence imposes on the health services and forensic medicine, it now constitutes the principal public health problem in the country. To confront it, the health sector must develop policies and finance actions, develop innovative ways to train personnel, implement public education processes, and devote more effort and greater creativity to research, which up to now has provided some important, albeit insufficient, responses. Violence, which is the substitution of force for any type of dialogue, must be considered within the context of life and health. Doing so is not an attempt to rationalize violence, much less to substitute words or reflection for action, but rather an attempt to understand it in depth in order to search for alternatives. With that goal, this article analyzes the subject of violence in Colombia, principally from the perspective of its effect on the health of the citizens and its implications for the health sector. The author fully recognizes the subjectivity and limitations of the views he expresses herein.La violencia en Colombia parece incontenible. A las masacres y asesinatos colectivos, de una crueldad desconcertante, se suman los secuestros y desapariciones, el maltrato de niños y ancianos y las violaciones de adolescentes. Cada día, sin tregua, los colombianos son espectadores o víctimas de atracos callejeros y de discriminación racial, sexual

  16. Violencia y salud en Colombia Violence and health in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Franco Agudelo

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available La violencia en Colombia parece incontenible. A las masacres y asesinatos colectivos, de una crueldad desconcertante, se suman los secuestros y desapariciones, el maltrato de niños y ancianos y las violaciones de adolescentes. Cada día, sin tregua, los colombianos son espectadores o víctimas de atracos callejeros y de discriminación racial, sexual y socioeconómica. Sin quererlo, se convierten en agentes de agresiones en el transporte urbano, el hogar, la escuela y el trabajo. Colombia tiene las tasas de mortalidad por homicidio más altas del mundo. Independientemente de la enorme sobrecarga institucional que impone a los servicios de salud y medicina legal, la violencia constituye actualmente en Colombia el principal problema de salud pública. Para hacerle frente, el sector de la salud debe elaborar políticas y financiar acciones; crear nuevos procesos de formación de personal, poner en marcha procesos de educación pública, y dedicar mayor esfuerzo y creatividad al campo de la investigación, que hasta ahora ha dado respuestas importantes pero aún insuficientes. Al reflexionar sobre la violencia, que es la sustitución de toda argumentación por la fuerza, es necesario ubicarla en el contexto de la vida y la salud. No se pretende solo racionalizarla, y menos aún sustituir la acción por la palabra o por las reflexiones, sino tratar de comprenderla a fondo con el objeto de buscarle alternativas. En el presente artículo se analiza, con esta finalidad, el tema de la violencia en Colombia, principalmente desde el punto de vista de su efecto en la salud de los colombianos y de sus implicaciones para el sector sanitario. El autor expone sus puntos de vista con plena conciencia de su subjetividad y limitaciones.In Colombia, violence seems uncontrollable. Along with massacres and group killings of astonishing cruelty, there are also kidnappings and disappearances, abuse of children and the elderly, and rape of young adolescents. Every day

  17. Prediabetes in Colombia: Expert Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Carlos; Castillo, Jorge; Escobar, Iván Darío; Melgarejo, Enrique; Parra, Gustavo Adolfo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of Prediabetes in Colombia is high, and despite being recognized and categorized in the main Medical Guidelines and included in the International Classification of Diseases in Colombia, knowledge and awareness of it is limited amongst healthcare professionals and in the community. Our expert group recommends that educational programs emphasize a global approach to risk which includes a recognition of the importance of prediabetes and its evaluation along with and other risk factors such as a family history of DM2, overweight and obesity, dislipidemia and hypertension. Studies conducted in Colombia demonstrate the value of the FINDRIS questionnaire as a tool to identify subjects at risk of prediabetes and DM2, and we recommend that it should be systematic applied throughout the country as part of government policy. Prediabetes progresses to DM2 at an annual rate of 10%, but it has also been shown that prediabetes is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. On this basis, the Committee recommends that once prediabetes is detected and diagnosed, immediate management of the disease begins through lifestyle changes, with follow up assessments performed at 3 and 6 months. If the patient does not respond with a weight loss of at least 5% and if the HbA1C values ​​are not normalized, pharmacological management should be initiated with a metformin dose of 500 mg / day, increasing up to 1,500 - 1,700 mg / day, according to tolerance. PMID:29662261

  18. Violence and health in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Franco Agudelo

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, violence seems uncontrollable. Along with massacres and group killings of astonishing cruelty, there are also kidnappings and disappearances, abuse of children and the elderly, and rape of young adolescents. Every day, without respite, Colombians are witnesses or victims of street crimes as well as racial, sexual, and socioeconomic discrimination. Unwillingly, they become agents of aggression in public transport, at home, at school, and at work. Colombia has the highest rates of mortality from homicide in the world. Apart from the enormous institutional burden that violence imposes on the health services and forensic medicine, it now constitutes the principal public health problem in the country. To confront it, the health sector must develop policies and finance actions, develop innovative ways to train personnel, implement public education processes, and devote more effort and greater creativity to research, which up to now has provided some important, albeit insufficient, responses. Violence, which is the substitution of force for any type of dialogue, must be considered within the context of life and health. Doing so is not an attempt to rationalize violence, much less to substitute words or reflection for action, but rather an attempt to understand it in depth in order to search for alternatives. With that goal, this article analyzes the subject of violence in Colombia, principally from the perspective of its effect on the health of the citizens and its implications for the health sector. The author fully recognizes the subjectivity and limitations of the views he expresses herein.

  19. Prediabetes in Colombia: Expert Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Calderón, Carlos; Castillo, Jorge; Escobar, Iván Darío; Melgarejo, Enrique; Parra, Gustavo Adolfo

    2017-12-30

    The prevalence of Prediabetes in Colombia is high, and despite being recognized and categorized in the main Medical Guidelines and included in the International Classification of Diseases in Colombia, knowledge and awareness of it is limited amongst healthcare professionals and in the community. Our expert group recommends that educational programs emphasize a global approach to risk which includes a recognition of the importance of prediabetes and its evaluation along with and other risk factors such as a family history of DM2, overweight and obesity, dislipidemia and hypertension. Studies conducted in Colombia demonstrate the value of the FINDRIS questionnaire as a tool to identify subjects at risk of prediabetes and DM2, and we recommend that it should be systematic applied throughout the country as part of government policy. Prediabetes progresses to DM2 at an annual rate of 10%, but it has also been shown that prediabetes is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. On this basis, the Committee recommends that once prediabetes is detected and diagnosed, immediate management of the disease begins through lifestyle changes, with follow up assessments performed at 3 and 6 months. If the patient does not respond with a weight loss of at least 5% and if the HbA1C values ​​are not normalized, pharmacological management should be initiated with a metformin dose of 500 mg / day, increasing up to 1,500 - 1,700 mg / day, according to tolerance.

  20. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eCashman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or personality. In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption styles referenced to type volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian; this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1. The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  1. Continuous monitoring of volcanoes with borehole strainmeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Alan T.; Sacks, Selwyn

    Monitoring of volcanoes using various physical techniques has the potential to provide important information about the shape, size and location of the underlying magma bodies. Volcanoes erupt when the pressure in a magma chamber some kilometers below the surface overcomes the strength of the intervening rock, resulting in detectable deformations of the surrounding crust. Seismic activity may accompany and precede eruptions and, from the patterns of earthquake locations, inferences may be made about the location of magma and its movement. Ground deformation near volcanoes provides more direct evidence on these, but continuous monitoring of such deformation is necessary for all the important aspects of an eruption to be recorded. Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters have recorded strain changes associated with eruptions of Hekla, Iceland and Izu-Oshima, Japan. Those data have made possible well-constrained models of the geometry of the magma reservoirs and of the changes in their geometry during the eruption. The Hekla eruption produced clear changes in strain at the nearest instrument (15 km from the volcano) starting about 30 minutes before the surface breakout. The borehole instrument on Oshima showed an unequivocal increase in the amplitude of the solid earth tides beginning some years before the eruption. Deformational changes, detected by a borehole strainmeter and a very long baseline tiltmeter, and corresponding to the remote triggered seismicity at Long Valley, California in the several days immediately following the Landers earthquake are indicative of pressure changes in the magma body under Long Valley, raising the question of whether such transients are of more general importance in the eruption process. We extrapolate the experience with borehole strainmeters to estimate what could be learned from an installation of a small network of such instruments on Mauna Loa. Since the process of conduit formation from the magma sources in Mauna Loa and other

  2. Volcano Monitoring in Ecuador: Three Decades of Continuous Progress of the Instituto Geofisico - Escuela Politecnica Nacional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Yepes, H. A.; Hall, M. L.; Mothes, P. A.; Ramon, P.; Hidalgo, S.; Andrade, D.; Vallejo Vargas, S.; Steele, A. L.; Anzieta, J. C.; Ortiz, H. D.; Palacios, P.; Alvarado, A. P.; Enriquez, W.; Vasconez, F.; Vaca, M.; Arrais, S.; Viracucha, G.; Bernard, B.

    2014-12-01

    In 1988, the Instituto Geofisico (IG) began a permanent surveillance of Ecuadorian volcanoes, and due to activity on Guagua Pichincha, SP seismic stations and EDM control lines were then installed. Later, with the UNDRO and OAS projects, telemetered seismic monitoring was expanded to Tungurahua, Cotopaxi, Cuicocha, Chimborazo, Antisana, Cayambe, Cerro Negro, and Quilotoa volcanoes. In 1992 an agreement with the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion strengthened the monitoring of Tungurahua and Cotopaxi volcanoes with real-time SP seismic networks and EDM lines. Thus, background activity levels became established, which was helpful because of the onset of the 1999 eruptive activity at Tungurahua and Guagua Pichincha. These eruptions had a notable impact on Baños and Quito. Unrest at Cotopaxi volcano was detected in 2001-2002, but waned. In 2002 Reventador began its eruptive period which continues to the present and is closely monitored by the IG. In 2006 permanent seismic BB stations and infrasound sensors were installed at Tungurahua and Cotopaxi under a cooperative program supported by JICA, which allowed us to follow Tungurahua's climatic eruptions of 2006 and subsequent eruptions up to the present. Programs supported by the Ecuadorian Secretaria Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia and the Secretaria Nacional de Planificacion resulted in further expansion of the IG's monitoring infrastructure. Thermal and video imagery, SO2 emission monitoring, geochemical analyses, continuous GPS and tiltmeters, and micro-barometric surveillance have been incorporated. Sangay, Soche, Ninahuilca, Pululahua, and Fernandina, Cerro Azul, Sierra Negra, and Alcedo in the Galapagos Islands are now monitored in real-time. During this time, international cooperation with universities (Blaise Pascal & Nice-France, U. North Carolina, New Mexico Tech, Uppsala-Sweden, Nagoya, etc.), and research centers (USGS & UNAVCO-USA, IRD-France, NIED-Japan, SGC-Colombia, VAAC, MIROVA) has introduced

  3. Darwin's triggering mechanism of volcano eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    Charles Darwin wrote that ‘… the elevation of many hundred square miles of territory near Concepcion is part of the same phenomenon, with that splashing up, if I may so call it, of volcanic matter through the orifices in the Cordillera at the moment of the shock;…' and ‘…a power, I may remark, which acts in paroxysmal upheavals like that of Concepcion, and in great volcanic eruptions,…'. Darwin reports that ‘…several of the great chimneys in the Cordillera of central Chile commenced a fresh period of activity ….' In particular, Darwin reported on four-simultaneous large eruptions from the following volcanoes: Robinson Crusoe, Minchinmavida, Cerro Yanteles and Peteroa (we cite the Darwin's sentences following his The Voyage of the Beagle and researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). Let us consider these eruptions taking into account the volcano shape and the conduit. Three of the volcanoes (Minchinmavida (2404 m), Cerro Yanteles (2050 m), and Peteroa (3603 m)) are stratovolcanos and are formed of symmetrical cones with steep sides. Robinson Crusoe (922 m) is a shield volcano and is formed of a cone with gently sloping sides. They are not very active. We may surmise, that their vents had a sealing plug (vent fill) in 1835. All these volcanoes are conical. These common features are important for Darwin's triggering model, which is discussed below. The vent fill material, usually, has high level of porosity and a very low tensile strength and can easily be fragmented by tension waves. The action of a severe earthquake on the volcano base may be compared with a nuclear blast explosion of the base. It is known, that after a underground nuclear explosion the vertical motion and the surface fractures in a tope of mountains were observed. The same is related to the propagation of waves in conical elements. After the explosive load of the base. the tip may break and fly off at high velocity. Analogous phenomenon may be generated as a result of a

  4. Plan Colombia or development as security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Guevara Latorre

    2015-01-01

    the most relevant policy for the construction of the State in 21st-century Colombia from a critical standpoint. The document makes it possible to show that Plan Colombia is a privatized form of development, interpreted in terms of security based on an incomplete understanding of the Colombian conflict that prevails into our present

  5. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  6. Silicic magma generation at Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmarsson, O.

    2009-04-01

    Rate of magma differentiation is an important parameter for hazard assessment at active volcanoes. However, estimates of these rates depend on proper understanding of the underlying magmatic processes and magma generation. Differences in isotope ratios of O, Th and B between silicic and in contemporaneous basaltic magmas have been used to emphasize their origin by partial melting of hydrothermally altered metabasaltic crust in the rift-zones favoured by a strong geothermal gradient. An alternative model for the origin of silicic magmas in the Iceland has been proposed based on U-series results. Young mantle-derived mafic protolith is thought to be metasomatized and partially melted to form the silicic end-member. However, this model underestimates the compositional variations of the hydrothermally-altered basaltic crust. New data on U-Th disequilibria and O-isotopes in basalts and dacites from Askja volcano reveal a strong correlation between (230Th/232Th) and delta 18O. The 1875 AD dacite has the lowest Th- and O isotope ratios (0.94 and -0.24 per mille, respectively) whereas tephra of evolved basaltic composition, erupted 2 months earlier, has significantly higher values (1.03 and 2.8 per mille, respectively). Highest values are observed in the most recent basalts (erupted in 1920 and 1961) inside the Askja caldera complex and out on the associated fissure swarm (Sveinagja basalt). This correlation also holds for older magma such as an early Holocene dacites, which eruption may have been provoked by rapid glacier thinning. Silicic magmas at Askja volcano thus bear geochemical signatures that are best explained by partial melting of extensively hydrothermally altered crust and that the silicic magma source has remained constant during the Holocene at least. Once these silicic magmas are formed they appear to erupt rapidly rather than mixing and mingling with the incoming basalt heat-source that explains lack of icelandites and the bi-modal volcanism at Askja

  7. Decision Analysis Tools for Volcano Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincks, T. H.; Aspinall, W.; Woo, G.

    2005-12-01

    Staff at volcano observatories are predominantly engaged in scientific activities related to volcano monitoring and instrumentation, data acquisition and analysis. Accordingly, the academic education and professional training of observatory staff tend to focus on these scientific functions. From time to time, however, staff may be called upon to provide decision support to government officials responsible for civil protection. Recognizing that Earth scientists may have limited technical familiarity with formal decision analysis methods, specialist software tools that assist decision support in a crisis should be welcome. A review is given of two software tools that have been under development recently. The first is for probabilistic risk assessment of human and economic loss from volcanic eruptions, and is of practical use in short and medium-term risk-informed planning of exclusion zones, post-disaster response, etc. A multiple branch event-tree architecture for the software, together with a formalism for ascribing probabilities to branches, have been developed within the context of the European Community EXPLORIS project. The second software tool utilizes the principles of the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for evidence-based assessment of volcanic state and probabilistic threat evaluation. This is of practical application in short-term volcano hazard forecasting and real-time crisis management, including the difficult challenge of deciding when an eruption is over. An open-source BBN library is the software foundation for this tool, which is capable of combining synoptically different strands of observational data from diverse monitoring sources. A conceptual vision is presented of the practical deployment of these decision analysis tools in a future volcano observatory environment. Summary retrospective analyses are given of previous volcanic crises to illustrate the hazard and risk insights gained from use of these tools.

  8. Geothermal Exploration of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waibel, Albert F. [Columbia Geoscience, Pasco, WA (United States); Frone, Zachary S. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Blackwell, David D. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Davenport Newberry (Davenport) has completed 8 years of exploration for geothermal energy on Newberry Volcano in central Oregon. Two deep exploration test wells were drilled by Davenport on the west flank of the volcano, one intersected a hydrothermal system; the other intersected isolated fractures with no hydrothermal interconnection. Both holes have bottom-hole temperatures near or above 315°C (600°F). Subsequent to deep test drilling an expanded exploration and evaluation program was initiated. These efforts have included reprocessing existing data, executing multiple geological, geophysical, geochemical programs, deep exploration test well drilling and shallow well drilling. The efforts over the last three years have been made possible through a DOE Innovative Exploration Technology (IET) Grant 109, designed to facilitate innovative geothermal exploration techniques. The combined results of the last 8 years have led to a better understanding of the history and complexity of Newberry Volcano and improved the design and interpretation of geophysical exploration techniques with regard to blind geothermal resources in volcanic terrain.

  9. Electrical structure of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, D.V.; Stanley, W.D.; Bisdorf, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    From the interpretation of magnetotelluric, transient electromagnetic, and Schlumberger resistivity soundings, the electrical structure of Newberry Volcano in central Oregon is found to consist of four units. From the surface downward, the geoelectrical units are 1) very resistive, young, unaltered volcanic rock, (2) a conductive layer of older volcanic material composed of altered tuffs, 3) a thick resistive layer thought to be in part intrusive rocks, and 4) a lower-crustal conductor. This model is similar to the regional geoelectrical structure found throughout the Cascade Range. Inside the caldera, the conductive second layer corresponds to the steep temperature gradient and alteration minerals observed in the USGS Newberry 2 test-hole. Drill hole information on the south and north flanks of the volcano (test holes GEO N-1 and GEO N-3, respectively) indicates that outside the caldera the conductor is due to alteration minerals (primarily smectite) and not high-temperature pore fluids. On the flanks of Newberry the conductor is generally deeper than inside the caldera, and it deepens with distance from the summit. A notable exception to this pattern is seen just west of the caldera rim, where the conductive zone is shallower than at other flank locations. The volcano sits atop a rise in the resistive layer, interpreted to be due to intrusive rocks. -from Authors

  10. Monitoring active volcanoes: The geochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ohba

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The geochemical surveillance of an active volcano aims to recognize possible signals that are related to changes in volcanic activity. Indeed, as a consequence of the magma rising inside the volcanic "plumbing system" and/or the refilling with new batches of magma, the dissolved volatiles in the magma are progressively released as a function of their relative solubilities. When approaching the surface, these fluids that are discharged during magma degassing can interact with shallow aquifers and/or can be released along the main volcano-tectonic structures. Under these conditions, the following main degassing processes represent strategic sites to be monitored.

    The main purpose of this special volume is to collect papers that cover a wide range of topics in volcanic fluid geochemistry, which include geochemical characterization and geochemical monitoring of active volcanoes using different techniques and at different sites. Moreover, part of this volume has been dedicated to the new geochemistry tools.

  11. Nanoscale volcanoes: accretion of matter at ion-sculpted nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Toshiyuki; Stein, Derek; Kim, Young-Rok; Hoogerheide, David; Golovchenko, J A

    2006-01-27

    We demonstrate the formation of nanoscale volcano-like structures induced by ion-beam irradiation of nanoscale pores in freestanding silicon nitride membranes. Accreted matter is delivered to the volcanoes from micrometer distances along the surface. Volcano formation accompanies nanopore shrinking and depends on geometrical factors and the presence of a conducting layer on the membrane's back surface. We argue that surface electric fields play an important role in accounting for the experimental observations.

  12. Efficient inversion of volcano deformation based on finite element models : An application to Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charco, María; González, Pablo J.; Galán del Sastre, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    The Kilauea volcano (Hawaii, USA) is one of the most active volcanoes world-wide and therefore one of the better monitored volcanoes around the world. Its complex system provides a unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of magma transport and supply. Geodetic techniques, as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are being extensively used to monitor ground deformation at volcanic areas. The quantitative interpretation of such surface ground deformation measurements using geodetic data requires both, physical modelling to simulate the observed signals and inversion approaches to estimate the magmatic source parameters. Here, we use synthetic aperture radar data from Sentinel-1 radar interferometry satellite mission to image volcano deformation sources during the inflation along Kilauea's Southwest Rift Zone in April-May 2015. We propose a Finite Element Model (FEM) for the calculation of Green functions in a mechanically heterogeneous domain. The key aspect of the methodology lies in applying the reciprocity relationship of the Green functions between the station and the source for efficient numerical inversions. The search for the best-fitting magmatic (point) source(s) is generally conducted for an array of 3-D locations extending below a predefined volume region. However, our approach allows to reduce the total number of Green functions to the number of the observation points by using the, above mentioned, reciprocity relationship. This new methodology is able to accurately represent magmatic processes using physical models capable of simulating volcano deformation in non-uniform material properties distribution domains, which eventually will lead to better description of the status of the volcano.

  13. Geologic map of Medicine Lake volcano, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    Medicine Lake volcano forms a broad, seemingly nondescript highland, as viewed from any angle on the ground. Seen from an airplane, however, treeless lava flows are scattered across the surface of this potentially active volcanic edifice. Lavas of Medicine Lake volcano, which range in composition from basalt through rhyolite, cover more than 2,000 km2 east of the main axis of the Cascade Range in northern California. Across the Cascade Range axis to the west-southwest is Mount Shasta, its towering volcanic neighbor, whose stratocone shape contrasts with the broad shield shape of Medicine Lake volcano. Hidden in the center of Medicine Lake volcano is a 7 km by 12 km summit caldera in which nestles its namesake, Medicine Lake. The flanks of Medicine Lake volcano, which are dotted with cinder cones, slope gently upward to the caldera rim, which reaches an elevation of nearly 8,000 ft (2,440 m). The maximum extent of lavas from this half-million-year-old volcano is about 80 km north-south by 45 km east-west. In postglacial time, 17 eruptions have added approximately 7.5 km3 to its total estimated volume of 600 km3, and it is considered to be the largest by volume among volcanoes of the Cascades arc. The volcano has erupted nine times in the past 5,200 years, a rate more frequent than has been documented at all other Cascades arc volcanoes except Mount St. Helens.

  14. The critical role of volcano monitoring in risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tilling

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from volcano-monitoring studies constitute the only scientifically valid basis for short-term forecasts of a future eruption, or of possible changes during an ongoing eruption. Thus, in any effective hazards-mitigation program, a basic strategy in reducing volcano risk is the initiation or augmentation of volcano monitoring at historically active volcanoes and also at geologically young, but presently dormant, volcanoes with potential for reactivation. Beginning with the 1980s, substantial progress in volcano-monitoring techniques and networks – ground-based as well space-based – has been achieved. Although some geochemical monitoring techniques (e.g., remote measurement of volcanic gas emissions are being increasingly applied and show considerable promise, seismic and geodetic methods to date remain the techniques of choice and are the most widely used. Availability of comprehensive volcano-monitoring data was a decisive factor in the successful scientific and governmental responses to the reawakening of Mount St. elens (Washington, USA in 1980 and, more recently, to the powerful explosive eruptions at Mount Pinatubo (Luzon, Philippines in 1991. However, even with the ever-improving state-of-the-art in volcano monitoring and predictive capability, the Mount St. Helens and Pinatubo case histories unfortunately still represent the exceptions, rather than the rule, in successfully forecasting the most likely outcome of volcano unrest.

  15. Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation in the United States, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Diefenbach, Angela K.; Ewert, John W.; Ramsey, David W.; Cervelli, Peter F.; Schilling, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    The United States is one of the most volcanically active countries in the world. According to the global volcanism database of the Smithsonian Institution, the United States (including its Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands) is home to about 170 volcanoes that are in an eruptive phase, have erupted in historical time, or have not erupted recently but are young enough (eruptions within the past 10,000 years) to be capable of reawakening. From 1980 through 2008, 30 of these volcanoes erupted, several repeatedly. Volcano monitoring in the United States is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program, which operates a system of five volcano observatories-Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO), Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), Long Valley Observatory (LVO), and Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO). The observatories issue public alerts about conditions and hazards at U.S. volcanoes in support of the USGS mandate under P.L. 93-288 (Stafford Act) to provide timely warnings of potential volcanic disasters to the affected populace and civil authorities. To make efficient use of the Nation's scientific resources, the volcano observatories operate in partnership with universities and other governmental agencies through various formal agreements. The Consortium of U.S. Volcano Observatories (CUSVO) was established in 2001 to promote scientific cooperation among the Federal, academic, and State agencies involved in observatory operations. Other groups also contribute to volcano monitoring by sponsoring long-term installation of geophysical instruments at some volcanoes for specific research projects. This report describes a database of information about permanently installed ground-based instruments used by the U.S. volcano observatories to monitor volcanic activity (unrest and eruptions). The purposes of this Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation Database (VMID) are to (1) document the Nation's existing

  16. Data assimilation strategies for volcano geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yan; Gregg, Patricia M.

    2017-09-01

    Ground deformation observed using near-real time geodetic methods, such as InSAR and GPS, can provide critical information about the evolution of a magma chamber prior to volcanic eruption. Rapid advancement in numerical modeling capabilities has resulted in a number of finite element models targeted at better understanding the connection between surface uplift associated with magma chamber pressurization and the potential for volcanic eruption. Robust model-data fusion techniques are necessary to take full advantage of the numerical models and the volcano monitoring observations currently available. In this study, we develop a 3D data assimilation framework using the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) approach in order to combine geodetic observations of surface deformation with geodynamic models to investigate volcanic unrest. The EnKF sequential assimilation method utilizes disparate data sets as they become available to update geodynamic models of magma reservoir evolution. While the EnKF has been widely applied in hydrologic and climate modeling, the adaptation for volcano monitoring is in its initial stages. As such, our investigation focuses on conducting a series of sensitivity tests to optimize the EnKF for volcano applications and on developing specific strategies for assimilation of geodetic data. Our numerical experiments illustrate that the EnKF is able to adapt well to the spatial limitations posed by GPS data and the temporal limitations of InSAR, and that specific strategies can be adopted to enhance EnKF performance to improve model forecasts. Specifically, our numerical experiments indicate that: (1) incorporating additional iterations of the EnKF analysis step is more efficient than increasing the number of ensemble members; (2) the accuracy of the EnKF results are not affected by initial parameter assumptions; (3) GPS observations near the center of uplift improve the quality of model forecasts; (4) occasionally shifting continuous GPS stations to

  17. Enfermedad de Chagas en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Serpa Florez

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Generalidades.

    La tripanosomiasis americana o enfermedad de Chagas se halla ampliamente distribuida en Centro y Sur América. La Organización Mundial de la Salud considera que pueden haber doce millones de casos de esta dolencia en el continente (1, estudiados principalmente en Argentina, Brasil y Venezuela. Se calcula que en Colombia tendríamos una incidencia muy alta de casos, (Marinkelle (2 estima que 7.140/0 de la población podría estar infectada o sea cerca de dos millones de personas, distribuidos en las zonas rurales del nordeste del país (cuenca del Catatumbo Magdalena Medio y Llanos Orientales (Piedemonte, Macarena y Meta cercano (3 (4 (5 Y que seis millones de nuestros compatriotas -22.30/0 de la población total- (2 corren el riesgo de adquirir la enfermedad pues habitan en regiones donde se dan las condiciones para que ésta se propague.


    RESEÑA HISTORICA DE LA ENFERMEDAD EN COLOMBIA
    La existencia de casos de tripanosomiasis americana y de sus vectores fue comprobada en Colombia desde 1929 cuando César Uribe Piedrahita (6 encontró en Prado, Tolima, vectores del mal infectados con T.

    cruzi e Ignacio Moreno Pérez observó dicho hemoflagelado en sangre de seres humanos en Cali (4. En los años siguientes Hernando Ucrós, Benjamín Otálora, Hernando Groot, Santiago Renjifo, Hernando Osorno, Carlos Duarte Rangel, C.J. Marinkelle, Augusto Corredor, Ernesto Suescún y varios otros investigadores colomb iano s describieron diversos focos de la enfermedad en Colombia y estudiaron la distribución de sus vectores y huéspedes intermediarios. En 1947 1. Caicedo y C. Hernández publicaron su informe sobre los primeros casos crónicos de enfermedad de Chagas comprobados en nuestro país, procedentes de la región de Fusagasugá, Cundinamarca (7 en tanto que, en 1961, Marcos Duque inicia los estudios sobre cardiopatía chagásica (8 y Hernando Rocha, en 1971, comunica

  18. Historia del paramilitarismo en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera,Edgar de Jesús Velásquez

    2007-01-01

    En Colombia, desde la década de los años ochenta del siglo XX tomó fuerza el paramilitarismo como estrategia contrainsurgente, política que no ha sido reconocida como tal por parte de los distintos gobiernos y se expresa como terrorismo de Estado. Incidió en el surgimiento de tal fenómeno, la ideología anticomunista que profesan la mayoría de miembros de las fuerzas armadas, la cultura política derivada de la violencia, la corrupción y el clientelismo, así como el narcotráfico, al igual que l...

  19. Colombia competente para la paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sofía Vanegas Torres

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La paz y la convivencia en Colombia demandan el desarrollo de un enfoque humanístico, una competencia particular que como las restantes competencias implican un saber y un saber hacer dentro de un contexto, pero que en este caso se relacionan más concretamente con el saber vivir. Este artículo analiza el desarrollo de una posible de competencia para la paz y analiza la importancia de la academia como medio para su desarrollo e instrumentalización. Se analizan al mismo tiempo las connotaciones de esta competencia en el marco de la sociedad posmoderna contemporánea.

  20. MICROCRÉDITO EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Barona Z

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como propósitos: proporcionar una visión general de la forma en que el financiamiento de los microempresarios y los estratos más vulnerables de la población ha sido abocada en Colombia; resumir los grandes retos que enfrenta en la actualidad el programa de microfinanzas en el mundo, presentar el programa de investigación que están adelantando las Universidades Icesi y del Valle en Colombia en asocio con la Universidad de Laval en Canadá y con algunos centros de Investigación de Filipinas, Marruecos y Benin y algunos resultados parciales de este esfuerzo investigativo; y, presentar algunas recomendaciones tendientes a fortalecer a las organizaciones microfinancieras en el país. Una revisión de la historia y el estado actual del microcrédito en Colombia indica que los esfuerzos hasta ahora realizados parecen haberse quedado muy cortos frente a las necesidades de financiación de los microempresarios: la cobertura de microemepresarios alcanzada por instituciones gubernamentales, ONG y la banca convencional ha sido muy baja. En cuanto a los retos que afronta el movimiento microfinanciero en el mundo dos muy importantes son (i, clarificar el efecto de los diferentes esfuerzos de microcrédito realizados en la reducción de la pobreza de la población del país y, (ii, identificar mecanismos para lograr un aumento significativo de la cobertura mediante un balance adecuado entre regulación, supervisión y disciplina de mercado. Los principales resultados (parciales obtenidos en la línea de investigación descrita en este artículo son (i, contrario a lo que con frecuencia se asume, a medida que una organización cooperativa crece en tamaño no necesariamente se torna más eficiente: los posibles beneficios de la mayor escala fueron más que compensados en las empresas estudiadas por nosotros por la propensión al gasto excesivo que exhiben los gerentes en caso de instituciones de mayor tamaño (ii, las cooperativas

  1. Food Innocuousness: Prospect In Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elvira Ortiz Amaya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Food innocuousness, on all over the world, is receiving more attention due to the increment in the incidence of food borne diseases (ETAs, the worry about emergent known dangers and the globalization of trade. Consequently, this literature review shows the progress in relation to this thematic, in Colombia. It covers topics as the relation between food innocuousness and safety, the international and national organizations involved, the developments, in legislation, the system of epidemiological surveillance of ETAs and their perspectives, as cornerstones to ensure food quality

  2. La industria maltera en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Parra Restrepo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la industria maltera de Colombia, su origen, evolución y el estado en que se encuentra. Presenta cifras respecto al comportamiento de la producción y ventas. Muestra las relaciones de propiedad y describe la importancia relativa de la empresa con las otras subsidiarias del grupo económico al que pertenece. De otra parte analiza las relaciones obrero/patronales en el contexto actual y las relaciones con la agroindustria colombiana.

  3. Los desequilibrios territoriales en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Roa, Óscar A.; A. Alfonso R., Óscar; Revéiz Roldán, Édgar

    2016-01-01

    Colombia es un país de regiones metropolitanas. Si a cada región que es habitada por una población le es inmanente un gobierno, las formas de ocupación territorial por la población y las actividades humanas deberían contar con la forma de gobierno más pertinente. Por tanto, un nuevo modelo territorial de Estado tendrá que organizarse en torno a gobiernos metropolitanos cuyas funciones de alcance supralocal se construirían con base en las que ya poseen las jurisdicciones involucradas en el pol...

  4. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Una paz esquiva

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  5. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Una nueva estrategia de paz

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  6. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Una paz secuestrada

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  7. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Los momentos de la paz

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  8. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Siempre es tarde para la paz

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  9. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Viraje en el proceso de paz

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  10. Preliminary Volcano-Hazard Assessment for Gareloi Volcano, Gareloi Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2008-01-01

    Gareloi Volcano (178.794 degrees W and 51.790 degrees N) is located on Gareloi Island in the Delarof Islands group of the Aleutian Islands, about 2,000 kilometers west-southwest of Anchorage and about 150 kilometers west of Adak, the westernmost community in Alaska. This small (about 8x10 kilometer) volcano has been one of the most active in the Aleutians since its discovery by the Bering expedition in the 1740s, though because of its remote location, observations have been scant and many smaller eruptions may have gone unrecorded. Eruptions of Gareloi commonly produce ash clouds and lava flows. Scars on the flanks of the volcano and debris-avalanche deposits on the adjacent seafloor indicate that the volcano has produced large landslides in the past, possibly causing tsunamis. Such events are infrequent, occurring at most every few thousand years. The primary hazard from Gareloi is airborne clouds of ash that could affect aircraft. In this report, we summarize and describe the major volcanic hazards associated with Gareloi.

  11. Volcano art at Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park—A science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, Ben; Kauahikaua, James P.

    2018-03-26

    Long before landscape photography became common, artists sketched and painted scenes of faraway places for the masses. Throughout the 19th century, scientific expeditions to Hawaiʻi routinely employed artists to depict images for the people back home who had funded the exploration and for those with an interest in the newly discovered lands. In Hawaiʻi, artists portrayed the broad variety of people, plant and animal life, and landscapes, but a feature of singular interest was the volcanoes. Painters of early Hawaiian volcano landscapes created art that formed a cohesive body of work known as the “Volcano School” (Forbes, 1992). Jules Tavernier, Charles Furneaux, and D. Howard Hitchcock were probably the best known artists of this school, and their paintings can be found in galleries around the world. Their dramatic paintings were recognized as fine art but were also strong advertisements for tourists to visit Hawaiʻi. Many of these masterpieces are preserved in the Museum and Archive Collection of Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, and in this report we have taken the opportunity to match the artwork with the approximate date and volcanological context of the scene.

  12. Evolution of deep crustal magma structures beneath Mount Baekdu volcano (MBV) intraplate volcano in northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, J.; Kim, S.; Tkalcic, H.; Baag, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Heterogeneous features of magmatic structures beneath intraplate volcanoes are attributed to interactions between the ascending magma and lithospheric structures. Here, we investigate the evolution of crustal magmatic stuructures beneath Mount Baekdu volcano (MBV), which is one of the largest continental intraplate volcanoes in northeast Asia. The result of our seismic imaging shows that the deeper Moho depth ( 40 km) and relatively higher shear wave velocities (>3.8 km/s) at middle-to-lower crustal depths beneath the volcano. In addition, the pattern at the bottom of our model shows that the lithosphere beneath the MBV is shallower (interpret the observations as a compositional double layering of mafic underplating and a overlying cooled felsic structure due to fractional crystallization of asthenosphere origin magma. To achieve enhanced vertical and horizontal model coverage, we apply two approaches in this work, including (1) a grid-search based phase velocity measurement using real-coherency of ambient noise data and (2) a transdimensional Bayesian joint inversion using multiple ambient noise dispersion data.

  13. Understanding cyclic seismicity and ground deformation patterns at volcanoes: Intriguing lessons from Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberg, Jürgen W.; Collinson, Amy S. D.; Mothes, Patricia A.; Ruiz, Mario C.; Aguaiza, Santiago

    2018-01-01

    Cyclic seismicity and ground deformation patterns are observed on many volcanoes worldwide where seismic swarms and the tilt of the volcanic flanks provide sensitive tools to assess the state of volcanic activity. Ground deformation at active volcanoes is often interpreted as pressure changes in a magmatic reservoir, and tilt is simply translated accordingly into inflation and deflation of such a reservoir. Tilt data recorded by an instrument in the summit area of Tungurahua volcano in Ecuador, however, show an intriguing and unexpected behaviour on several occasions: prior to a Vulcanian explosion when a pressurisation of the system would be expected, the tilt signal declines significantly, hence indicating depressurisation. At the same time, seismicity increases drastically. Envisaging that such a pattern could carry the potential to forecast Vulcanian explosions on Tungurahua, we use numerical modelling and reproduce the observed tilt patterns in both space and time. We demonstrate that the tilt signal can be more easily explained as caused by shear stress due to viscous flow resistance, rather than by pressurisation of the magmatic plumbing system. In general, our numerical models prove that if magma shear viscosity and ascent rate are high enough, the resulting shear stress is sufficient to generate a tilt signal as observed on Tungurahua. Furthermore, we address the interdependence of tilt and seismicity through shear stress partitioning and suggest that a joint interpretation of tilt and seismicity can shed new light on the eruption potential of silicic volcanoes.

  14. Volcano monitoring with an infrared camera: first insights from Villarrica Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas Sotomayor, Florencia; Amigo Ramos, Alvaro; Velasquez Vargas, Gabriela; Medina, Roxana; Thomas, Helen; Prata, Fred; Geoffroy, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    This contribution focuses on the first trials of the, almost 24/7 monitoring of Villarrica volcano with an infrared camera. Results must be compared with other SO2 remote sensing instruments such as DOAS and UV-camera, for the ''day'' measurements. Infrared remote sensing of volcanic emissions is a fast and safe method to obtain gas abundances in volcanic plumes, in particular when the access to the vent is difficult, during volcanic crisis and at night time. In recent years, a ground-based infrared camera (Nicair) has been developed by Nicarnica Aviation, which quantifies SO2 and ash on volcanic plumes, based on the infrared radiance at specific wavelengths through the application of filters. Three Nicair1 (first model) have been acquired by the Geological Survey of Chile in order to study degassing of active volcanoes. Several trials with the instruments have been performed in northern Chilean volcanoes, and have proven that the intervals of retrieved SO2 concentration and fluxes are as expected. Measurements were also performed at Villarrica volcano, and a location to install a ''fixed'' camera, at 8km from the crater, was discovered here. It is a coffee house with electrical power, wifi network, polite and committed owners and a full view of the volcano summit. The first measurements are being made and processed in order to have full day and week of SO2 emissions, analyze data transfer and storage, improve the remote control of the instrument and notebook in case of breakdown, web-cam/GoPro support, and the goal of the project: which is to implement a fixed station to monitor and study the Villarrica volcano with a Nicair1 integrating and comparing these results with other remote sensing instruments. This works also looks upon the strengthen of bonds with the community by developing teaching material and giving talks to communicate volcanic hazards and other geoscience topics to the people who live "just around the corner" from one of the most active volcanoes

  15. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active volcanoes in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their location being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the volcano is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations

  16. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gulf of Cadiz is one of the most interesting areas to study mud volcanoes and structures related to cold fluid seeps since their discovery in 1999. In this study, we present results from gravity cores collected from Ginsburg and Meknes mud volcanoes and from circular structure located in the gulf of Cadiz (North Atlantic ...

  17. Fuego Volcano eruption (Guatemala, 1974): evidence of a tertiary fragmentation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenes-Andre, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Values for mode and dispersion calculated from SFT were analyzed using the SFT (Sequential Fragmentation/Transport) model to Fuego Volcano eruption (Guatemala, 1974). Analysis results have showed that the ideas initially proposed for Irazu, can be applied to Fuego Volcano. Experimental evidence was found corroborating the existence of tertiary fragmentations. (author) [es

  18. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (a...

  19. Using Google Earth to Study the Basic Characteristics of Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Stacia; Mattox, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Landforms, natural hazards, and the change in the Earth over time are common material in state and national standards. Volcanoes exemplify these standards and readily capture the interest and imagination of students. With a minimum of training, students can recognize erupted materials and types of volcanoes; in turn, students can relate these…

  20. Volcano ecology: Disturbance characteristics and assembly of biological communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volcanic eruptions are powerful expressions of Earth’s geophysical forces which have shaped and influenced ecological systems since the earliest days of life. The study of the interactions of volcanoes and ecosystems, termed volcano ecology, focuses on the ecological responses of organisms and biolo...

  1. Copahue volcano and its regional magmatic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J C; Zareski, J E; Camfield, L M; Todd, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Copahue volcano (Province of Neuquen, Argentina) has produced lavas and strombolian deposits over several 100,000s of years, building a rounded volcano with a 3 km elevation. The products are mainly basaltic andesites, with the 2000–2012 eruptive products the most mafic. The geochemistry of Copahue products is compared with those of the main Andes arc (Llaima, Callaqui, Tolhuaca), the older Caviahue volcano directly east of Copahue, and the back arc volcanics of the Loncopue graben. The Caviahue rocks resemble the main Andes arc suite, whereas the Copahue rocks are characterized by lower Fe and Ti contents and higher incompatible element concentrations. The rocks have negative Nb-Ta anomalies, modest enrichments in radiogenic Sr and Pb isotope ratios and slightly depleted Nd isotope ratios. The combined trace element and isotopic data indicate that Copahue magmas formed in a relatively dry mantle environment, with melting of a subducted sediment residue. The back arc basalts show a wide variation in isotopic composition, have similar water contents as the Copahue magmas and show evidence for a subducted sedimentary component in their source regions. The low 206Pb/204Pb of some backarc lava flows suggests the presence of a second endmember with an EM1 flavor in its source. The overall magma genesis is explained within the context of a subducted slab with sediment that gradually looses water, water-mobile elements, and then switches to sediment melt extracts deeper down in the subduction zone. With the change in element extraction mechanism with depth comes a depletion and fractionation of the subducted complex that is reflected in the isotope and trace element signatures of the products from the main arc to Copahue to the back arc basalts.

  2. Isotopic evolution of Mauna Loa volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, M.D.; Kammer, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    In an effort to understand the temporal helium isotopic variations in Mauna Loa volcano, we have measured helium, strontium and lead isotopes in a suite of Mauna Loa lavas that span most of the subaerial eruptive history of the volcano. The lavas range in age from historical flows to Ninole basalt which are thought to be several hundred thousand years old. Most of the samples younger than 30 ka in age (Kau Basalt) are radiocarbon-dated flows, while the samples older than 30 ka are stratigraphically controlled (Kahuku and Ninole Basalt). The data reveal a striking change in the geochemistry of the lavas approximately 10 ka before present. The lavas older than 10 ka are characterized by high 3 He/ 4 He (≅ 16-20 times atmospheric), higher 206 Pb/ 204 Pb (≅ 18.2), and lower 87 Sr/ 86 Sr(≅ 0.70365) ratios than the younger Kau samples (having He, Pb and Sr ratios of approximately 8.5 x atmospheric, 18.1 and 0.70390, respectively). The historical lavas are distinct in having intermediate Sr and Pb isotopic compositions with 3 He/ 4 He ratios similar to the other young Kau basalt (≅ 8.5 x atmospheric). The isotopic variations are on a shorter time scale (100 to 10,000 years) than has previously been observed for Hawaiian volcanoes, and demonstrate the importance of geochronology and stratigraphy to geochemical studies. The data show consistency between all three isotope systems, which suggests that the variations are not related to magma chamber degassing processes, and that helium is not decoupled from the other isotopes. However, the complex temporal evolution suggests that three distinct mantle sources are required to explain the isotopic data. Most of the Mauna Loa isotopic variations could be explained by mixing between a plume type source, similar to Loihi, and an asthenospheric source with helium isotopic composition close to MORB and elevated Sr isotopic values. (orig./WL)

  3. Monte Carlo Volcano Seismic Moment Tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, G. P.; Brill, K. A.; Lanza, F.

    2015-12-01

    Inverse modeling of volcano seismic sources can provide insight into the geometry and dynamics of volcanic conduits. But given the logistical challenges of working on an active volcano, seismic networks are typically deficient in spatial and temporal coverage; this potentially leads to large errors in source models. In addition, uncertainties in the centroid location and moment-tensor components, including volumetric components, are difficult to constrain from the linear inversion results, which leads to a poor understanding of the model space. In this study, we employ a nonlinear inversion using a Monte Carlo scheme with the objective of defining robustly resolved elements of model space. The model space is randomized by centroid location and moment tensor eigenvectors. Point sources densely sample the summit area and moment tensors are constrained to a randomly chosen geometry within the inversion; Green's functions for the random moment tensors are all calculated from modeled single forces, making the nonlinear inversion computationally reasonable. We apply this method to very-long-period (VLP) seismic events that accompany minor eruptions at Fuego volcano, Guatemala. The library of single force Green's functions is computed with a 3D finite-difference modeling algorithm through a homogeneous velocity-density model that includes topography, for a 3D grid of nodes, spaced 40 m apart, within the summit region. The homogenous velocity and density model is justified by long wavelength of VLP data. The nonlinear inversion reveals well resolved model features and informs the interpretation through a better understanding of the possible models. This approach can also be used to evaluate possible station geometries in order to optimize networks prior to deployment.

  4. COMERCIO DE FAUNA SILVESTRE EN COLOMBIA WILDLIFE TRADE IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Javier Mancera Rodríguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo ofrece un panorama sobre las actividades relacionadas con el comercio de bienes derivados de las especies de fauna silvestre en Colombia, abordando el tema desde el desarrollo que ha tenido su actividad productiva, el aprovechamiento extractivo, así como la dinámica de su comercio legal e ilegal en el país y el desarrollo y promoción de alternativas productivas sustentadas en su aprovechamiento. Se analizó la información secundaria de entidades como el Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial, las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales y Autoridades Ambientales Urbanas, el Instituto Colombiano de Desarrollo Rural-INCODER, las Autoridades Policiales, los Institutos de Investigación, el Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, la Dirección de Impuestos y Aduanas Nacionales-DIAN, el Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo, y PROEXPORT. entre otras. En Colombia, el comercio de especies de fauna silvestre está centrado principalmente en la extracción de ejemplares de forma ilegal, lo cual ha generado desequilibrios en las poblaciones naturales y ha repercutido en el deterioro de la dinámica de los ecosistemas. El comercio legal de fauna silvestre se basa en la producción de unas pocas especies entre las que se destacan la babilla (Caiman crocodilus, el chigüiro (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, cerca de 200 especies de peces ornamentales y en menor medida el lobo pollero (Tupinambis nigropunctatus, la iguana (Iguana iguana, la boa (Boa constrictor, escarabajos (Dynastes hercules y mariposas. En el país no se tiene información exacta sobre el número de incautaciones realizadas en los operativos de control al tráfico ilegal de fauna, y no existe un conocimiento de la dinámica de este comercio ilegal.This work offers a current view on the activities related to the trade of derived from the wildlife species in Colombia, approaching the topic from the development that has had its productive activity

  5. Volcano morphometry and volume scaling on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A broad variety of volcanic edifices have been observed on Venus. They ranged in size from the limits of resolution of the Magellan SAR (i.e., hundreds of meters) to landforms over 500 km in basal diameter. One of the key questions pertaining to volcanism on Venus concerns the volume eruption rate or VER, which is linked to crustal productivity over time. While less than 3 percent of the surface area of Venus is manifested as discrete edifices larger than 50 km in diameter, a substantial component of the total crustal volume of the planet over the past 0.5 Ga is related to isolated volcanoes, which are certainly more easily studied than the relatively diffusely defined plains volcanic flow units. Thus, we have focused our efforts on constraining the volume productivity of major volcanic edifices larger than 100 km in basal diameter. Our approach takes advantage of the topographic data returned by Magellan, as well as our database of morphometric statistics for the 20 best known lava shields of Iceland, plus Mauna Loa of Hawaii. As part of this investigation, we have quantified the detailed morphometry of nearly 50 intermediate to large scale edifices, with particular attention to their shape systematics. We found that a set of venusian edifices which include Maat, Sapas, Tepev, Sif, Gula, a feature at 46 deg S, 215 deg E, as well as the shield-like structure at 10 deg N, 275 deg E are broadly representative of the approx. 400 volcanic landforms larger than 50 km. The cross-sectional shapes of these 7 representative edifices range from flattened cones (i.e., Sif) similar to classic terrestrial lava shields such as Mauna Loa and Skjaldbreidur, to rather dome-like structures which include Maat and Sapas. The majority of these larger volcanoes surveyed as part of our study displayed cross-sectional topographies with paraboloidal shaped, in sharp contrast with the cone-like appearance of most simple terrestrial lava shields. In order to more fully explore the

  6. The deep structure of Axial Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael Edwin

    The subsurface structure of Axial Volcano, near the intersection of the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the Cobb-Eickelberg seamount chain in the northeast Pacific, is imaged from an active source seismic experiment. At a depth of 2.25 to 3.5 km beneath Axial lies an 8 km x 12 km region of very low seismic velocities that can only be explained by the presence of magma. In the center of this magma storage chamber at 2--3.5 km below sea floor, the crust is at least 10--20% melt. At depths of 4--5 km there is evidence of additional low concentrations of magma (a few percent) over a larger area. In total, 5--11 km3 of magma are stored in the mid-crust beneath Axial. This is more melt than has been positively identified under any basaltic volcano on Earth. It is also far more than the 0.1--0.2 km3 emplaced during the 1998 eruption. The implied residence time in the magma reservoir of a few hundred to a few thousand years agrees with geochemical trends which suggest prolonged storage and mixing of magmas. The large volume of melt bolsters previous observations that Axial provides much of the material to create crust along its 50 km rift zones. A high velocity ring-shaped feature sits above the magma chamber just outside the caldera walls. This feature is believed to be the result of repeated dike injections from the magma body to the surface during the construction of the volcanic edifice. A rapid change in crustal thickness from 8 to 11 km within 15 km of the caldera implies focused delivery of melt from the mantle. The high flux of magma suggests that melting occurs deeper in the mantle than along the nearby ridge. Melt supply to the volcano is not connected to any plumbing system associated with the adjacent segments of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. This suggests that, despite Axial's proximity to the ridge, the Cobb hot spot currently drives the supply of melt to the volcano.

  7. Cataloging tremor at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, W. A.; Wech, A.

    2013-12-01

    Tremor is a ubiquitous seismic feature on Kilauea volcano, which emanates from at least three distinct sources. At depth, intermittent tremor and earthquakes thought to be associated with the underlying plumbing system of Kilauea (Aki and Koyanagi, 1981) occurs approximately 40 km below and 40 km SW of the summit. At the summit of the volcano, nearly continuous tremor is recorded close to a persistently degassing lava lake, which has been present since 2008. Much of this tremor is correlated with spattering at the lake surface, but tremor also occurs in the absence of spattering, and was observed at the summit of the volcano prior to the appearance of the lava lake, predominately in association with inflation/deflation events. The third known source of tremor is in the area of Pu`u `O`o, a vent that has been active since 1983. The exact source location and depth is poorly constrained for each of these sources. Consistently tracking the occurrence and location of tremor in these areas through time will improve our understanding of the plumbing geometry beneath Kilauea volcano and help identify precursory patterns in tremor leading to changes in eruptive activity. The continuous and emergent nature of tremor precludes the use of traditional earthquake techniques for automatic detection and location of seismicity. We implement the method of Wech and Creager (2008) to both detect and localize tremor seismicity in the three regions described above. The technique uses an envelope cross-correlation method in 5-minute windows that maximizes tremor signal coherency among seismic stations. The catalog is currently being built in near-realtime, with plans to extend the analysis to the past as time and continuous data availability permits. This automated detection and localization method has relatively poor depth constraints due to the construction of the envelope function. Nevertheless, the epicenters distinguish activity among the different source regions and serve as

  8. Geology of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Tilling, Robert I.; Canul, Rene

    1984-03-01

    The (pre-1982) 850-m-high andesitic stratovolcano El Chichón, active during Pleistocene and Holocene time, is located in rugged, densely forested terrain in northcentral Chiapas, México. The nearest neighboring Holocene volcanoes are 275 km and 200 km to the southeast and northwest, respectively. El Chichón is built on Tertiary siltstone and sandstone, underlain by Cretaceous dolomitic limestone; a 4-km-deep bore hole near the east base of the volcano penetrated this limestone and continued 770 m into a sequence of Jurassic or Cretaceous evaporitic anhydrite and halite. The basement rocks are folded into generally northwest-trending anticlines and synclines. El Chichón is built over a small dome-like structure superposed on a syncline, and this structure may reflect cumulative deformation related to growth of a crustal magma reservoir beneath the volcano. The cone of El Chichón consists almost entirely of pyroclastic rocks. The pre-1982 cone is marked by a 1200-m-diameter (explosion?) crater on the southwest flank and a 1600-m-diameter crater apparently of similar origin at the summit, a lava dome partly fills each crater. The timing of cone and dome growth is poorly known. Field evidence indicates that the flank dome is older than the summit dome, and K-Ar ages from samples high on the cone suggest that the flank dome is older than about 276,000 years. At least three pyroclastic eruptions have occurred during the past 1250 radiocarbon years. Nearly all of the pyroclastic and dome rocks are moderately to highly porphyritic andesite, with plagioclase, hornblende and clinopyroxene the most common phenocrysts. Geologists who mapped El Chichón in 1980 and 1981 warned that the volcano posed a substantial hazard to the surrounding region. This warning was proven to be prophetic by violent eruptions that occurred in March and April of 1982. These eruptions blasted away nearly all of the summit dome, blanketed the surrounding region with tephra, and sent pyroclastic

  9. Degassing Processes at Persistently Active Explosive Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekens, Jean-Francois

    Among volcanic gases, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is by far the most commonly measured. More than a monitoring proxy for volcanic degassing, SO 2 has the potential to alter climate patterns. Persistently active explosive volcanoes are characterized by short explosive bursts, which often occur at periodic intervals numerous times per day, spanning years to decades. SO 2 emissions at those volcanoes are poorly constrained, in large part because the current satellite monitoring techniques are unable to detect or quantify plumes of low concentration in the troposphere. Eruption plumes also often show high concentrations of ash and/or aerosols, which further inhibit the detection methods. In this work I focus on quantifying volcanic gas emissions at persistently active explosive volcanoes and their variations over short timescales (minutes to hours), in order to document their contribution to natural SO2 flux as well as investigate the physical processes that control their behavior. In order to make these measurements, I first develop and assemble a UV ground-based instrument, and validate it against an independently measured source of SO2 at a coal-burning power plant in Arizona. I establish a measurement protocol and demonstrate that the instrument measures SO 2 fluxes with Indonesia), a volcano that has been producing cycles of repeated explosions with periods of minutes to hours for the past several decades. Semeru produces an average of 21-71 tons of SO2 per day, amounting to a yearly output of 8-26 Mt. Using the Semeru data, along with a 1-D transient numerical model of magma ascent, I test the validity of a model in which a viscous plug at the top of the conduit produces cycles of eruption and gas release. I find that it can be a valid hypothesis to explain the observed patterns of degassing at Semeru. Periodic behavior in such a system occurs for a very narrow range of conditions, for which the mass balance between magma flux and open-system gas escape repeatedly

  10. Mud Volcanoes as Exploration Targets on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2010-01-01

    Tens of thousands of high-albedo mounds occur across the southern part of the Acidalia impact basin on Mars. These structures have geologic, physical, mineralogic, and morphologic characteristics consistent with an origin from a sedimentary process similar to terrestrial mud volcanism. The potential for mud volcanism in the Northern Plains of Mars has been recognized for some time, with candidate mud volcanoes reported from Utopia, Isidis, northern Borealis, Scandia, and the Chryse-Acidalia region. We have proposed that the profusion of mounds in Acidalia is a consequence of this basin's unique geologic setting as the depocenter for the tune fraction of sediments delivered by the outflow channels from the highlands.

  11. Galactic Super-volcano in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    A galactic "super-volcano" in the massive galaxy M87 is erupting and blasting gas outwards, as witnessed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and NSF's Very Large Array. The cosmic volcano is being driven by a giant black hole in the galaxy's center and preventing hundreds of millions of new stars from forming. Astronomers studying this black hole and its effects have been struck by the remarkable similarities between it and a volcano in Iceland that made headlines earlier this year. At a distance of about 50 million light years, M87 is relatively close to Earth and lies at the center of the Virgo cluster, which contains thousands of galaxies. M87's location, coupled with long observations over Chandra's lifetime, has made it an excellent subject for investigations of how a massive black hole impacts its environment. "Our results show in great detail that supermassive black holes have a surprisingly good control over the evolution of the galaxies in which they live," said Norbert Werner of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, who led one of two papers describing the study. "And it doesn't stop there. The black hole's reach extends ever farther into the entire cluster, similar to how one small volcano can affect practically an entire hemisphere on Earth." The cluster surrounding M87 is filled with hot gas glowing in X-ray light, which is detected by Chandra. As this gas cools, it can fall toward the galaxy's center where it should continue to cool even faster and form new stars. However, radio observations with the Very Large Array suggest that in M87 jets of very energetic particles produced by the black hole interrupt this process. These jets lift up the relatively cool gas near the center of the galaxy and produce shock waves in the galaxy's atmosphere because of their supersonic speed. The scientists involved in this research have found the interaction of this cosmic

  12. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Hosein

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i Digity; (ii Piparo and (iii Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  13. Measurements of radon and chemical elements: Popocatepetl volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, B.; Reyes, A.V.; Armienta, M.A.; Valdes, C.; Mena, M.; Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Popocatepetl volcano is a higher risk volcano located at 60 Km from Mexico City. Radon measurements on soil in two fixed seasons located in the north slope of volcano were carried out. Moreover the radon content, major chemical elements and tracks in water samples of three springs was studied. The radon of soil was determined with solid detectors of nuclear tracks (DSTN). The radon in subterranean water was evaluated through the liquid scintillation method and it was corroborated with an Alpha Guard equipment. The major chemical elements were determined with conventional chemical methods and the track elements were measured using an Icp-Ms equipment. The radon on soil levels were lower, indicating a moderate diffusion of the gas across the slope of the volcano. The radon in subterranean water shown few changes in relation with the active scene of the volcano. The major chemical elements and tracks showed a stable behavior during the sampling period. (Author)

  14. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M.

    2014-01-01

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region. PMID:25370529

  15. Tsunamis generated by eruptions from mount st. Augustine volcano, alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, J; Kowalik, Z; Murty, T S

    1987-06-12

    During an eruption of the Alaskan volcano Mount St. Augustine in the spring of 1986, there was concern about the possibility that a tsunami might be generated by the collapse of a portion of the volcano into the shallow water of Cook Inlet. A similar edifice collapse of the volcano and ensuing sea wave occurred during an eruption in 1883. Other sea waves resulting in great loss of life and property have been generated by the eruption of coastal volcanos around the world. Although Mount St. Augustine remained intact during this eruptive cycle, a possible recurrence of the 1883 events spurred a numerical simulation of the 1883 sea wave. This simulation, which yielded a forecast of potential wave heights and travel times, was based on a method that could be applied generally to other coastal volcanos.

  16. Mud volcanoes of trinidad as astrobiological analogs for martian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M

    2014-10-13

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil's Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  17. Establishment, test and evaluation of a prototype volcano surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P. L.; Eaton, J. P.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D.; Marquez, D.; Allen, R.

    1973-01-01

    A volcano-surveillance system utilizing 23 multilevel earthquake counters and 6 biaxial borehole tiltmeters is being installed and tested on 15 volcanoes in 4 States and 4 foreign countries. The purpose of this system is to give early warning when apparently dormant volcanoes are becoming active. The data are relayed through the ERTS-Data Collection System to Menlo Park for analysis. Installation was completed in 1972 on the volcanoes St. Augustine and Iliamna in Alaska, Kilauea in Hawaii, Baker, Rainier and St. Helens in Washington, Lassen in California, and at a site near Reykjavik, Iceland. Installation continues and should be completed in April 1973 on the volcanoes Santiaguito, Fuego, Agua and Pacaya in Guatemala, Izalco in El Salvador and San Cristobal, Telica and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua.

  18. Plan Colombia, Consequences for Venezuelan Natonal Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arroyo, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    ...% reduction in cocaine production), and narcotics trafficking groups move into Venezuela, the government will have to commit its Armed Forces but, under unequal military and technological conditions when compared to Colombia...

  19. Bartoneliasis: fiebre verrucosa del guaitara en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Patiño Camargo, Luis

    2011-01-01

    En Colombia, al descubrirla, diósele (1) a esta dolencia los siguientes nombres: Bartonellosis, Fiebre verrucosa del Guaitara y Verruga, análoga a la enfermedad de Carrión, Fiebre de Oroya y Verruga Peruana.

  20. Colombia: More Than Just a Drug Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wynne, Charles E

    2003-01-01

    ... of $45 billion in the year 2000. While estimates vary, most experts agree between 80-90 percent of the cocaine and more than 50 percent of the heroin used in the United States comes from Colombia...

  1. Translating Volcano Hazards Research in the Cascades Into Community Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Driedger, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Research by the science community into volcanic histories and physical processes at Cascade volcanoes in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California has been ongoing for over a century. Eruptions in the 20th century at Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helen demonstrated the active nature of Cascade volcanoes; the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a defining moment in modern volcanology. The first modern volcano hazards assessments were produced by the USGS for some Cascade volcanoes in the 1960s. A rich scientific literature exists, much of which addresses hazards at these active volcanoes. That said community awareness, planning, and preparation for eruptions generally do not occur as a result of a hazard analyses published in scientific papers, but by direct communication with scientists. Relative to other natural hazards, volcanic eruptions (or large earthquakes, or tsunami) are outside common experience, and the public and many public officials are often surprised to learn of the impacts volcanic eruptions could have on their communities. In the 1980s, the USGS recognized that effective hazard communication and preparedness is a multi-faceted, long-term undertaking and began working with federal, state, and local stakeholders to build awareness and foster community action about volcano hazards. Activities included forming volcano-specific workgroups to develop coordination plans for volcano emergencies; a concerted public outreach campaign; curriculum development and teacher training; technical training for emergency managers and first responders; and development of hazard information that is accessible to non-specialists. Outcomes include broader ownership of volcano hazards as evidenced by bi-national exchanges of emergency managers, community planners, and first responders; development by stakeholders of websites focused on volcano hazards mitigation; and execution of table-top and functional exercises, including evacuation drills by local communities.

  2. Barriers to combating human trafficking in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Daniel Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Despite international and domestic policies and programs intended to combat human trafficking, Colombia remains one of the countries with the highest instances of human trafficking in the Western Hemisphere. Factors contributing to human trafficking in Colombia, such as internal violence and displacement, drug trafficking, a weak central government, and widespread corruption, have overpowered what energies the government marshaled agai...

  3. The dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Olga L; Parra, Diana C; González, Silvia A; González-Casanova, Inés; Forero, Ana Y; Garcia, Johnattan

    2014-12-01

    Almost all nutrition policies in Colombia currently focus on either undernutrition or obesity, with the predominant emphasis on undernutrition. It is crucial to assess the prevalence of the dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia to better target programs and policies. The aim was to estimate the national prevalence of the dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia at the individual and household levels in children aged malnutrition was defined as the coexistence of overweight and stunting or anemia in the same person or household. In Colombia, low to high prevalences of overweight and obesity (3.4-51.2%) coexist with moderate to high prevalences of anemia (8.1-27.5%) and stunting (13.2%). The observed prevalence of the dual burden was lower than expected. Approximately 5% of households had at least one stunted child aged malnutrition in Colombia are lower than expected. Despite the independence of the occurrence of these conditions, the fact that the dual burden coexists at the national, household, and intraindividual levels suggests that public policies should address both conditions through multiple strategies. It is imperative to evaluate the current nutrition policies to inform malnutrition prevention efforts in Colombia and to share lessons with other countries at a similar stage of nutritional transition. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Helmintiasis y protozoasis en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Patiño Camargo

    1940-02-01

    Full Text Available Sabre un territorio de más de un millón de kilómetres cuadrados caracrerizado por la multiplicidad de climas y la variedad topográfica de su relieve, habita el pueblo de Colombia de cerca de nueve millones de personas de un tipo humano con caracteres propios en via de eetabilización. El parasitismo intestinal por helmintos y protozoarios es una pandemia de todos los climas colombianos, pera alcanza su intensidad maxima en las zonas extendidas del nivel del mar a 2.000 metros de elevación con temperaturas medias de 32° a 16° grados oentígrados.

  5. Known uraniferous occurrences in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, H.; Aluja, J.A.; Pfeiffer, J.; Cortes, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of an internal report entitled 'Possibilities of Uranium in Colombia' compiled by the author in 1973, and as a result of work done by the foreign companies TOTAL-MINATOME (France) and ENUSA (Spain) using carborne radiometric techniques, ground surveys (plus occasional aerial prospecting) and geochemical methods (sediments and waters), approximately 260 uranium anomalies (in 1973 the figure was 106) have been discovered after covering 30% of the areas considered under priorities I, II and III (321,000 km 2 ), together with 16,000 km of the national road network (+-44,000 km). In addition to supporting the original selection, these results indicate considerable variation in the geological conditions and metallogenic associations, which IAN, MINATOME and ENUSA have now begun to evaluate in the hope of obtaining specific data by the end of 1980. (author)

  6. Las marcas propias en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Felipe Payán Rodríguez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la situación actual de las marcas propias en Colombia, teniendo en cuenta su creciente auge al interior de las grandes superficies. Mediante este tipo de marcas el mismo distribuidor vende productos y servicios con su nombre o recurriendo a una marca de su propiedad, compitiendo con las marcas ya posicionadas en el mercado de los fabricantes. El texto se articula, primero, en una contextualización con base en doctrina comparada respecto de las marcas propias. Luego, se aplican las reglas de dichos conceptos doctrinales a la situación actual colombiana. Por último, se plantean dos problemas jurídicos respecto de las marcas propias, uno, analizado desde la propiedad industrial, y el otro, desde las reglas del Estatuto del Consumidor.

  7. Volcano-ice interactions on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.C.

    1979-01-01

    Central volcanic eruptions beneath terrestrial glaciers have built steep-sided, flat-topped mountains composed of pillow lava, glassy tuff, capping flows, and cones of basalt. Subglacial fissure eruptions produced ridges of similar compostion. In some places the products from a number of subglacial vents have combined to form widespread deposits. The morphologies of these subglacial volcanoes are distinctive enough to allow their recognition at the resolutions characteristic of Viking orbiter imagery. Analogs to terrestrial subglacial volcanoes have been identified on the northern plains and near the south polar cap of Mars. The polar feature provides probable evidence of volcanic eruptions beneath polar ice. A mixed unit of rock and ice is postulated to have overlain portions of the northern plains, with eruptions into this ground ice having produced mountains and ridges analogous to those in Iceland. Subsequent breakdown of this unit due to ice melting revealed the volcanic features. Estimated heights of these landforms indicate that the ice-rich unit once ranged from approximately 100 to 1200 m thick

  8. Colombia - The Quality of Education in Colombia : An Analysis and Options for a Policy Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to analyze student learning in Colombia in order to foster policies to improve education quality that are grounded in research and the Colombian context. In 2006, Colombia participated for the first time in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which provides an imp...

  9. Three-dimensional stochastic adjustment of volcano geodetic network in Arenal volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, C.; van der Laat, R.; Cattin, P.-H.; Del Potro, R.

    2009-04-01

    Volcano geodetic networks are a key instrument to understanding magmatic processes and, thus, forecasting potentially hazardous activity. These networks are extensively used on volcanoes worldwide and generally comprise a number of different traditional and modern geodetic surveying techniques such as levelling, distances, triangulation and GNSS. However, in most cases, data from the different methodologies are surveyed, adjusted and analysed independently. Experience shows that the problem with this procedure is the mismatch between the excellent correlation of position values within a single technique and the low cross-correlation of such values within different techniques or when the same network is surveyed shortly after using the same technique. Moreover one different independent network for each geodetic surveying technique strongly increase logistics and thus the cost of each measurement campaign. It is therefore important to develop geodetic networks which combine the different geodetic surveying technique, and to adjust geodetic data together in order to better quantify the uncertainties associated to the measured displacements. In order to overcome the lack of inter-methodology data integration, the Geomatic Institute of the University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland (HEIG-VD) has developed a methodology which uses a 3D stochastic adjustment software of redundant geodetic networks, TRINET+. The methodology consists of using each geodetic measurement technique for its strengths relative to other methodologies. Also, the combination of the measurements in a single network allows more cost-effective surveying. The geodetic data are thereafter adjusted and analysed in the same referential frame. The adjustment methodology is based on the least mean square method and links the data with the geometry. Trinet+ also allows to run a priori simulations of the network, hence testing the quality and resolution to be expected for a determined network even

  10. Volcano hazards in the San Salvador region, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Sofield, D.J.; Escobar, C.D.; Pullinger, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    San Salvador volcano is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador (figure 1). This volcano, having a volume of about 110 cubic kilometers, towers above San Salvador, the country’s capital and largest city. The city has a population of approximately 2 million, and a population density of about 2100 people per square kilometer. The city of San Salvador and other communities have gradually encroached onto the lower flanks of the volcano, increasing the risk that even small events may have serious societal consequences. San Salvador volcano has not erupted for more than 80 years, but it has a long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions. The volcano is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers, and these remnants are commonly referred to by several names. The central part of the volcano, which contains a large circular crater, is known as El Boquerón, and it rises to an altitude of about 1890 meters. El Picacho, the prominent peak of highest elevation (1960 meters altitude) to the northeast of the crater, and El Jabali, the peak to the northwest of the crater, represent remnants of an older, larger edifice. The volcano has erupted several times during the past 70,000 years from vents central to the volcano as well as from smaller vents and fissures on its flanks [1] (numerals in brackets refer to end notes in the report). In addition, several small cinder cones and explosion craters are located within 10 kilometers of the volcano. Since about 1200 A.D., eruptions have occurred almost exclusively along, or a few kilometers beyond, the northwest flank of the volcano, and have consisted primarily of small explosions and emplacement of lava flows. However, San Salvador volcano has erupted violently and explosively in the past, even as recently as 800 years ago. When such eruptions occur again, substantial population and infrastructure will be at risk. Volcanic eruptions are not the only events that present a risk to local

  11. Chemical compositions of lavas from Myoko volcano group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenaka, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Hayatsu, Kenji.

    1995-01-01

    In the volcanic rocks produced in island arc and continental margin arc, the phenomena of magma mixing is observed considerably generally. The research on these phenomena has been carried out also in Japan, and the periodically refilled magma chamber model has been proposed. In this report, the results of the photon activation analysis for the volcanic rock samples of Myoko volcano, for which the magma chamber model that the supply of basalt magma is periodically received was proposed, and of which the age of eruption and the stratigraphy are clearly known, are shown, and the above model is examined together with the published data of fluorescent X-ray analysis and others. The history of activities and the rate of magma extrusion of Myoko volcano group are described. The modal compositions of the volcanic rock samples of Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, for which photon activation analysis was carried out, are shown and discussed. The results of the analysis of the chemical composition of 39 volcanic rock samples from Myoko, Kurohime and Iizuna volcanos are shown. The primary magma in Myoko volcano group, the crystallization differentiation depth and moisture content of magma in Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, the presumption of Felsic and Mafic end-members in R type andesite in Myoko volcano group, and the change of magma composition with lapse of time are described. (K.I.)

  12. Chemical compositions of lavas from Myoko volcano group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenaka, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Takeyoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science; Hayatsu, Kenji

    1995-08-01

    In the volcanic rocks produced in island arc and continental margin arc, the phenomena of magma mixing is observed considerably generally. The research on these phenomena has been carried out also in Japan, and the periodically refilled magma chamber model has been proposed. In this report, the results of the photon activation analysis for the volcanic rock samples of Myoko volcano, for which the magma chamber model that the supply of basalt magma is periodically received was proposed, and of which the age of eruption and the stratigraphy are clearly known, are shown, and the above model is examined together with the published data of fluorescent X-ray analysis and others. The history of activities and the rate of magma extrusion of Myoko volcano group are described. The modal compositions of the volcanic rock samples of Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, for which photon activation analysis was carried out, are shown and discussed. The results of the analysis of the chemical composition of 39 volcanic rock samples from Myoko, Kurohime and Iizuna volcanos are shown. The primary magma in Myoko volcano group, the crystallization differentiation depth and moisture content of magma in Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, the presumption of Felsic and Mafic end-members in R type andesite in Myoko volcano group, and the change of magma composition with lapse of time are described. (K.I.)

  13. U.S. Support to Plan Colombia: A Heading Check

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buckley, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    .... For some Latin American countries like Colombia these ideals fall quite short of reality. Colombia is plagued by internal problems which restrict its ability to adequately govern its population and territory...

  14. Urban Violence Reduction and Citizen Security in Brazil, Colombia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban Violence Reduction and Citizen Security in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and ... The work will be conducted in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and South Africa, which are ... Minister Bibeau announces appointments of IDRC's President and new ...

  15. SAR interferometry applications on active volcanoes. State of the art and perspectives for volcano monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, G.; Coltelli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Catania (Italy)

    2001-02-01

    In this paper the application of the Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (INSAR) on volcanology is analysed. Since it is not a real novelty among the different applications of INSAR in Earth Observation activities, at the beginning of this paper it is analysed the state of the art of the researches in this field. During the discussion, the point of view of volcanologists is favoured because it is considered that the first applications were often badly aimed. Consequently, the initial INSAR performances in volcanology were overrated with respect to the real capabilities of this technique. This fact lead to discover some unexpected limitations in INSAR usage in volcano monitoring, but, at the same time, spurred on scientists to overcome these drawbacks. The results achieved recently allow to better apply SAR to volcanology; in the paper a possible operative work-plan aimed at introducing INSAR in the volcano monitoring system is presented.

  16. Geologic Map of the Summit Region of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Christina A.; Lockwood, John P.

    2003-01-01

    This report consists of a large map sheet and a pamphlet. The map shows the geology, some photographs, description of map units, and correlation of map units. The pamphlet gives the full text about the geologic map. The area covered by this map includes parts of four U.S. Geological Survey 7.5' topographic quadrangles (Kilauea Crater, Volcano, Ka`u Desert, and Makaopuhi). It encompasses the summit, upper rift zones, and Koa`e Fault System of Kilauea Volcano and a part of the adjacent, southeast flank of Mauna Loa Volcano. The map is dominated by products of eruptions from Kilauea Volcano, the southernmost of the five volcanoes on the Island of Hawai`i and one of the world's most active volcanoes. At its summit (1,243 m) is Kilauea Crater, a 3 km-by-5 km collapse caldera that formed, possibly over several centuries, between about 200 and 500 years ago. Radiating away from the summit caldera are two linear zones of intrusion and eruption, the east and the southwest rift zones. Repeated subaerial eruptions from the summit and rift zones have built a gently sloping, elongate shield volcano covering approximately 1,500 km2. Much of the volcano lies under water; the east rift zone extends 110 km from the summit to a depth of more than 5,000 m below sea level; whereas the southwest rift zone has a more limited submarine continuation. South of the summit caldera, mostly north-facing normal faults and open fractures of the Koa`e Fault System extend between the two rift zones. The Koa`e Fault System is interpreted as a tear-away structure that accommodates southward movement of Kilauea's flank in response to distension of the volcano perpendicular to the rift zones.

  17. GLACIER MONITORING SYSTEM IN COLOMBIA - complementing glaciological measurements with laser-scanning and ground-penetrating radar surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Jorge; Micheletti, Natan; Rabatel, Antoine; Mölg, Nico; Zemp, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Colombia (South America) has six small glaciers (total glacierized area of 45 Km2); their geographical location, close to zero latitude, makes them very sensitive to climate changes. An extensive monitoring program is being performed since 2006 on two glaciers, with international cooperation supports. This presentation summarizes the results of glacier changes in Colombia and includes the latest results obtained within the CATCOS Project - Phase 1 (Capacity Building and Twinning for Climate Observing Systems) signed between Colombia and Switzerland, and within the Joint Mixte Laboratory GREAT-ICE (IRD - France), with the application of LiDAR technology and GPR-based ice thickness measurements at Conejeras Glacier. Conejeras Glacier (Lat. N. 4° 48' 56"; Long. W. 75° 22' 22"; Alt. Max. 4915m.; Alt. Min. 4730m. Area 0.2 Km2) is located on the north-western side of Santa Isabel Volcano. This glacier belongs to global glacier monitoring network of the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS-ID: 2721). The surface mass balance is calculated monthly using the direct glaciological method. Between April 2006 and May 2014, Conejeras Glacier showed a cumulative loss of -21 m w.e. The CATCOS Project allowed to improve the glacier monitoring system in Colombia with two main actions: (1) a terrestrial laser scanner survey (RIEGL VZ-6000 terrestrial laser scanner, property of Universities of Lausanne and Fribourg); and (2) ice thickness measurements (Blue System Integration Ltd. Ice Penetrating Radar of property of IRD). The terrestrial laser-scanning survey allowed to realize an accurate digital terrain model of the glacier surface with 13 million points and a decimetric resolution. Ice thickness measurements showed an average glacier thickness of 22 meters and a maximum of 52 meters.

  18. Mount Meager Volcano, Canada: a Case Study for Landslides on Glaciated Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, G. L.; Ward, B. C.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Falorni, G.; Perotti, L.; Clague, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Mount Meager is a strato-volcano massif in the Northern Cascade Volcanic Arc (Canada) that erupted in 2350 BP, the most recent in Canada. To study the stability of the Massif an international research project between France ( Blaise Pascal University), Italy (University of Turin) and Canada (Simon Fraser University) and private companies (TRE - sensing the planet) has been created. A complex history of glacial loading and unloading, combined with weak, hydrothermally altered rocks has resulted in a long record of catastrophic landslides. The most recent, in 2010 is the third largest (50 x 106 m3) historical landslide in Canada. Mount Meager is a perfect natural laboratory for gravity and topographic processes such as landslide activity, permafrost and glacial dynamics, erosion, alteration and uplift on volcanoes. Research is aided by a rich archive of aerial photos of the Massif (1940s up to 2006): complete coverage approximately every 10 years. This data set has been processed and multi-temporal, high resolution Orthophoto and DSMs (Digital Surface Models) have been produced. On these digital products, with the support on field work, glacial retreat and landslide activity have been tracked and mapped. This has allowed for the inventory of unstable areas, the identification of lava flows and domes, and the general improvement on the geologic knowledge of the massif. InSAR data have been used to monitor the deformation of the pre-2010 failure slope. It will also be used to monitor other unstable slopes that potentially can evolve to catastrophic collapses of up to 1 km3 in volume, endangering local communities downstream the volcano. Mount Meager is definitively an exceptional site for studying the dynamics of a glaciated, uplifted volcano. The methodologies proposed can be applied to other volcanic areas with high erosion rates such as Alaska, Cascades, and the Andes.

  19. 3D electrical conductivity tomography of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soueid Ahmed, A.; Revil, A.; Byrdina, S.; Coperey, A.; Gailler, L.; Grobbe, N.; Viveiros, F.; Silva, C.; Jougnot, D.; Ghorbani, A.; Hogg, C.; Kiyan, D.; Rath, V.; Heap, M. J.; Grandis, H.; Humaida, H.

    2018-05-01

    Electrical conductivity tomography is a well-established galvanometric method for imaging the subsurface electrical conductivity distribution. We characterize the conductivity distribution of a set of volcanic structures that are different in terms of activity and morphology. For that purpose, we developed a large-scale inversion code named ECT-3D aimed at handling complex topographical effects like those encountered in volcanic areas. In addition, ECT-3D offers the possibility of using as input data the two components of the electrical field recorded at independent stations. Without prior information, a Gauss-Newton method with roughness constraints is used to solve the inverse problem. The roughening operator used to impose constraints is computed on unstructured tetrahedral elements to map complex geometries. We first benchmark ECT-3D on two synthetic tests. A first test using the topography of Mt. St Helens volcano (Washington, USA) demonstrates that we can successfully reconstruct the electrical conductivity field of an edifice marked by a strong topography and strong variations in the resistivity distribution. A second case study is used to demonstrate the versatility of the code in using the two components of the electrical field recorded on independent stations along the ground surface. Then, we apply our code to real data sets recorded at (i) a thermally active area of Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming, USA), (ii) a monogenetic dome on Furnas volcano (the Azores, Portugal), and (iii) the upper portion of the caldera of Kīlauea (Hawai'i, USA). The tomographies reveal some of the major structures of these volcanoes as well as identifying alteration associated with high surface conductivities. We also review the petrophysics underlying the interpretation of the electrical conductivity of fresh and altered volcanic rocks and molten rocks to show that electrical conductivity tomography cannot be used as a stand-alone technique due to the non-uniqueness in

  20. Muon imaging of volcanoes with Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Catalano, Osvaldo; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Del Santo, Melania; La Parola, Valentina; La Rosa, Giovanni; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Mineo, Teresa; Pareschi, Giovanni; Sottile, Giuseppe; Zuccarello, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    The quantitative understanding of the inner structure of a volcano is a key feature to model the processes leading to paroxysmal activity and, hence, to mitigate volcanic hazards. To pursue this aim, different geophysical techniques are utilized, that are sensitive to different properties of the rocks (elastic, electrical, density). In most cases, these techniques do not allow to achieve the spatial resolution needed to characterize the shallowest part of the plumbing system and may require dense measurements in active zones, implying a high level of risk. Volcano imaging through cosmic-ray muons is a promising technique that allows to overcome the above shortcomings. Muons constantly bombard the Earth's surface and can travel through large thicknesses of rock, with an energy loss depending on the amount of crossed matter. By measuring the absorption of muons through a solid body, one can deduce the density distribution inside the target. To date, muon imaging of volcanic structures has been mainly achieved with scintillation detectors. They are sensitive to noise sourced from (i) the accidental coincidence of vertical EM shower particles, (ii) the fake tracks initiated from horizontal high-energy electrons and low-energy muons (not crossing the target) and (iii) the flux of upward going muons. A possible alternative to scintillation detectors is given by Cherenkov telescopes. They exploit the Cherenkov light emitted when charged particles (like muons) travel through a dielectric medium, with velocity higher than the speed of light. Cherenkov detectors are not significantly affected by the above noise sources. Furthermore, contrarily to scintillator-based detectors, Cherenkov telescopes permit a measurement of the energy spectrum of the incident muon flux at the installation site, an issue that is indeed relevant for deducing the density distribution inside the target. In 2014, a prototype Cherenkov telescope was installed at the Astrophysical Observatory of Serra

  1. Large-N in Volcano Settings: Volcanosri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, J. M.; Song, W.; Xing, G.; Vick, S.; Phillips, D.

    2014-12-01

    We seek a paradigm shift in the approach we take on volcano monitoring where the compromise from high fidelity to large numbers of sensors is used to increase coverage and resolution. Accessibility, danger and the risk of equipment loss requires that we develop systems that are independent and inexpensive. Furthermore, rather than simply record data on hard disk for later analysis we desire a system that will work autonomously, capitalizing on wireless technology and in field network analysis. To this end we are currently producing a low cost seismic array which will incorporate, at the very basic level, seismological tools for first cut analysis of a volcano in crises mode. At the advanced end we expect to perform tomographic inversions in the network in near real time. Geophone (4 Hz) sensors connected to a low cost recording system will be installed on an active volcano where triggering earthquake location and velocity analysis will take place independent of human interaction. Stations are designed to be inexpensive and possibly disposable. In one of the first implementations the seismic nodes consist of an Arduino Due processor board with an attached Seismic Shield. The Arduino Due processor board contains an Atmel SAM3X8E ARM Cortex-M3 CPU. This 32 bit 84 MHz processor can filter and perform coarse seismic event detection on a 1600 sample signal in fewer than 200 milliseconds. The Seismic Shield contains a GPS module, 900 MHz high power mesh network radio, SD card, seismic amplifier, and 24 bit ADC. External sensors can be attached to either this 24-bit ADC or to the internal multichannel 12 bit ADC contained on the Arduino Due processor board. This allows the node to support attachment of multiple sensors. By utilizing a high-speed 32 bit processor complex signal processing tasks can be performed simultaneously on multiple sensors. Using a 10 W solar panel, second system being developed can run autonomously and collect data on 3 channels at 100Hz for 6 months

  2. Dynamic triggering of volcano drumbeat-like seismicity at the Tatun volcano group in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2017-07-01

    Periodical seismicity during eruptions has been observed at several volcanoes, such as Mount St. Helens and Soufrière Hills. Movement of magma is often considered one of the most important factors in its generation. Without any magma movement, drumbeat-like (or heartbeat-like) periodical seismicity was detected twice beneath one of the strongest fumarole sites (Dayoukeng) among the Tatun volcano group in northern Taiwan in 2015. Both incidences of drumbeat-like seismicity were respectively started after felt earthquakes in Taiwan, and then persisted for 1-2 d afterward with repetition intervals of ∼18 min between any two adjacent events. The phenomena suggest both drumbeat-like (heartbeat-like) seismicity sequences were likely triggered by dynamic waves generated by the two felt earthquakes. Thus, rather than any involvement of magma, a simplified pumping system within a degassing conduit is proposed to explain the generation of drumbeat-like seismicity. The collapsed rocks within the conduit act as a piston, which was repeatedly lifted up by ascending gas from a deeper reservoir and dropped down when the ascending gas was escaping later. These phenomena show that the degassing process is still very strong in the Tatun volcano group in Taiwan, even though it has been dormant for about several thousand years.

  3. Environmental information in Colombia; La informacion ambiental en Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez S, Andres

    2005-07-01

    This article is a chapter from the paper, Elements for the description of an environmental information system, which was written by the author as a requirement for the degree of specialist on environment and Geoinformatics at the school of engineering. Universidad de Antioquia. The original paper attempted a description of the context and development of a particular environmental information system, built at the eastern region of Antioquia by CORNARE (a regional autonomous corporation for the environment and the natural resources). This article refers to the Colombian institutional context for environmental information. With particular emphasis laid on the strategic character that must be conceded to the administration of information. Towards the construction of equitable and sustainable development models under autonomous orientation an efficient and transparent environmental administration as is needed by such models is only attainable through the design and application of environmental information systems committed to the pursuit of collective interests. Here a balance is sought between accomplishments and failures reached during the long standing discussion held in Colombia around the formulation of public policies that acknowledge and strengthen the role of information as a cornerstone of environmental administration, and a contribution towards the goal of human sustainable development.

  4. 77 FR 59064 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Trade Promotion Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Colombia. DATES: Interim...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (``CTPA'' or ``Agreement''), and on June 28, 2007, the Parties signed a...

  5. 75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    .... APHIS-2008-0050] RIN 0579-AC95 Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal and Plant... Colombia and Ecuador into the continental United States. The conditions for the importation of papayas from Colombia and Ecuador include requirements for field sanitation, hot water treatment, and fruit fly trapping...

  6. Deep magma transport at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T.L.; Klein, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    The shallow part of Kilauea's magma system is conceptually well-understood. Long-period and short-period (brittle-failure) earthquake swarms outline a near-vertical magma transport path beneath Kilauea's summit to 20 km depth. A gravity high centered above the magma transport path demonstrates that Kilauea's shallow magma system, established early in the volcano's history, has remained fixed in place. Low seismicity at 4-7 km outlines a storage region from which magma is supplied for eruptions and intrusions. Brittle-failure earthquake swarms shallower than 5 km beneath the rift zones accompany dike emplacement. Sparse earthquakes extend to a decollement at 10-12 km along which the south flank of Kilauea is sliding seaward. This zone below 5 km can sustain aseismic magma transport, consistent with recent tomographic studies. Long-period earthquake clusters deeper than 40 km occur parallel to and offshore of Kilauea's south coast, defining the deepest seismic response to magma transport from the Hawaiian hot spot. A path connecting the shallow and deep long-period earthquakes is defined by mainshock-aftershock locations of brittle-failure earthquakes unique to Kilauea whose hypocenters are deeper than 25 km with magnitudes from 4.4 to 5.2. Separation of deep and shallow long-period clusters occurs as the shallow plumbing moves with the volcanic edifice, while the deep plumbing is centered over the hotspot. Recent GPS data agrees with the volcano-propagation vector from Kauai to Maui, suggesting that Pacific plate motion, azimuth 293.5?? and rate of 7.4 cm/yr, has been constant over Kilauea's lifetime. However, volcano propagation on the island of Hawaii, azimuth 325??, rate 13 cm/yr, requires southwesterly migration of the locus of melting within the broad hotspot. Deep, long-period earthquakes lie west of the extrapolated position of Kilauea backward in time along a plate-motion vector, requiring southwesterly migration of Kilauea's magma source. Assumed ages of 0

  7. Space Radar Image of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a deformation map of the south flank of Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii, centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.25 degrees west longitude. The map was created by combining interferometric radar data -- that is data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle which are then overlayed to obtain elevation information -- acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar during its first flight in April 1994 and its second flight in October 1994. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 80 kilometers (25 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper left of the image. The colors indicate the displacement of the surface in the direction that the radar instrument was pointed (toward the right of the image) in the six months between images. The analysis of ground movement is preliminary, but appears consistent with the motions detected by the Global Positioning System ground receivers that have been used over the past five years. The south flank of the Kilauea volcano is among the most rapidly deforming terrains on Earth. Several regions show motions over the six-month time period. Most obvious is at the base of Hilina Pali, where 10 centimeters (4 inches) or more of crustal deformation can be seen in a concentrated area near the coastline. On a more localized scale, the currently active Pu'u O'o summit also shows about 10 centimeters (4 inches) of change near the vent area. Finally, there are indications of additional movement along the upper southwest rift zone, just below the Kilauea caldera in the image. Deformation of the south flank is believed to be the result of movements along faults deep beneath the surface of the volcano, as well as injections of magma, or molten rock, into the volcano's 'plumbing' system. Detection of ground motions from space has proven to be a unique capability of imaging radar technology. Scientists hope to use deformation data acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR and future imaging

  8. Element fluxes from Copahue Volcano, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    Copahue volcano in Argentina has an active volcano-magmatic hydrothermal system that emits fluids with pH=0.3 that feed a river system. River flux measurements and analytical data provide element flux data from 1997 to 2003, which includes the eruptive period of July to December 2000. The fluids have up to 6.5 percent sulfate, 1 percent Cl and ppm levels of B, As, Cu, Zn and Pb. The hydrothermal system acts as a perfect scrubber for magmatic gases during the periods of passive degassing, although the dissolved magmatic gases are modified through water rock interaction and mineral precipitation. The magmatic SO2 disproportionates into sulfate and liquid elemental sulfur at about 300 C; the sulfate is discharged with the fluids, whereas the liquid sulfur is temporarily retained in the reservoir but ejected during phreatic and hydrothermal eruptions. The intrusion and chemical attack of new magma in the hydrothermal reservoir in early 2000 was indicated by strongly increased Mg concentrations and Mg fluxes, and higher Mg/Cl and Mg/K values. The hydrothermal discharge has acidified a large glacial lake (0.5 km3) to pH=2 and the lake effluents acidify the exiting river. Even more than 100 km downstream, the effects of acid pulses from the lake are evident from red coated boulders and fish die-offs. The river-bound sulfate fluxes from the system range from 70 to 200 kilotonnes/year. The equivalent SO2 output of the whole volcanic system ranges from 150 to 500 tonnes/day, which includes the fraction of native sulfur that formed inside the mountain but does not include the release of SO2 into the atmosphere during the eruptions. Trace element fluxes of the river will be scaled up and compared with global element fluxes from meteoric river waters (subterranean volcanic weathering versus watershed weathering).

  9. Geomechanical rock properties of a basaltic volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N Schaefer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In volcanic regions, reliable estimates of mechanical properties for specific volcanic events such as cyclic inflation-deflation cycles by magmatic intrusions, thermal stressing, and high temperatures are crucial for building accurate models of volcanic phenomena. This study focuses on the challenge of characterizing volcanic materials for the numerical analyses of such events. To do this, we evaluated the physical (porosity, permeability and mechanical (strength properties of basaltic rocks at Pacaya Volcano (Guatemala through a variety of laboratory experiments, including: room temperature, high temperature (935 °C, and cyclically-loaded uniaxial compressive strength tests on as-collected and thermally-treated rock samples. Knowledge of the material response to such varied stressing conditions is necessary to analyze potential hazards at Pacaya, whose persistent activity has led to 13 evacuations of towns near the volcano since 1987. The rocks show a non-linear relationship between permeability and porosity, which relates to the importance of the crack network connecting the vesicles in these rocks. Here we show that strength not only decreases with porosity and permeability, but also with prolonged stressing (i.e., at lower strain rates and upon cooling. Complimentary tests in which cyclic episodes of thermal or load stressing showed no systematic weakening of the material on the scale of our experiments. Most importantly, we show the extremely heterogeneous nature of volcanic edifices that arise from differences in porosity and permeability of the local lithologies, the limited lateral extent of lava flows, and the scars of previous collapse events. Input of these process-specific rock behaviors into slope stability and deformation models can change the resultant hazard analysis. We anticipate that an increased parameterization of rock properties will improve mitigation power.

  10. Ash and Steam, Soufriere Hills Volcano, Monserrat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    International Space Station crew members are regularly alerted to dynamic events on the Earth's surface. On request from scientists on the ground, the ISS crew observed and recorded activity from the summit of Soufriere Hills on March 20, 2002. These two images provide a context view of the island (bottom) and a detailed view of the summit plume (top). When the images were taken, the eastern side of the summit region experienced continued lava growth, and reports posted on the Smithsonian Institution's Weekly Volcanic Activity Report indicate that 'large (50-70 m high), fast-growing, spines developed on the dome's summit. These spines periodically collapsed, producing pyroclastic flows down the volcano's east flank that sometimes reached the Tar River fan. Small ash clouds produced from these events reached roughly 1 km above the volcano and drifted westward over Plymouth and Richmond Hill. Ash predominately fell into the sea. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remained high. Theodolite measurements of the dome taken on March 20 yielded a dome height of 1,039 m.' Other photographs by astronauts of Montserrat have been posted on the Earth Observatory: digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309, taken on July 9, 2001; and a recolored and reprojected version of the same image. Digital photograph numbers ISS004-E-8972 and 8973 were taken 20 March, 2002 from Space Station Alpha and were provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  11. Antarctic volcanoes: A remote but significant hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Adelina; Martí, Alex; Folch, Arnau; Giralt, Santiago

    2017-04-01

    Ash emitted during explosive volcanic eruptions can be dispersed over massive areas of the globe, posing a threat to both human health and infrastructures, such as the air traffic. Some of the last eruptions occurred during this decade (e.g. 14/04/2010 - Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland; 24/05/2011-Grímsvötn, Iceland; 05/06/2011-Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile) have strongly affected the air traffic in different areas of the world, leading to economic losses of billions of euros. From the tens of volcanoes located in Antarctica, at least nine are known to be active and five of them have reported volcanic activity in historical times. However, until now, no attention has been paid to the possible social, economical and environmental consequences of an eruption that would occur on high southern latitudes, perhaps because it is considered that its impacts would be minor or local, and mainly restricted to the practically inhabited Antarctic continent. We show here, as a case study and using climate models, how volcanic ash emitted during a regular eruption of one of the most active volcanoes in Antarctica, Deception Island (South Shetland Islands), could reach the African continent as well as Australia and South America. The volcanic cloud could strongly affect the air traffic not only in the region and at high southern latitudes, but also the flights connecting Africa, South America and Oceania. Results obtained are crucial to understand the patterns of volcanic ash distribution at high southern latitudes with obvious implications for tephrostratigraphical and chronological studies that provide valuable isochrones with which to synchronize palaeoclimate records. This research was partially funded by the MINECO grants VOLCLIMA (CGL2015-72629-EXP)and POSVOLDEC(CTM2016-79617-P)(AEI/FEDER, UE), the Ramón y Cajal research program (RYC-2012-11024) and the NEMOH European project (REA grant 34 agreement n° 289976).

  12. Strategi Counterinsurgency Kolombia terhadap Farc (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias De Colombia) 2010-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia, Yessi; Miranda, Dea

    2014-01-01

    This paper is analysing about counterinsurgency Colombia to against paramilitary group in Colombia to help address the humanitarian crisis that occurred because of civil conflict in Colombia. Conflict in Colombia involving the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionaries de Colombia (FARC) and the Government of Colombia is one example of a threat to human security in this case is a citizen of Colombia. Thousands of people confirmed dead, and hundreds more injured and displaced into the surrounding area. C...

  13. Magma supply, storage, and transport at shield-stage Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 5 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta; Montgomery-Brown, Emily K.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of magma supply, storage, and transport are among the most critical parameters governing volcanic activity, yet they remain largely unconstrained because all three processes are hidden beneath the surface. Hawaiian volcanoes, particularly Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, offer excellent prospects for studying subsurface magmatic processes, owing to their accessibility and frequent eruptive and intrusive activity. In addition, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, founded in 1912, maintains long records of geological, geophysical, and geochemical data. As a result, Hawaiian volcanoes have served as both a model for basaltic volcanism in general and a starting point for many studies of volcanic processes.

  14. One hundred years of volcano monitoring in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauahikaua, Jim; Poland, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In 2012 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), the oldest of five volcano observatories in the United States, is commemorating the 100th anniversary of its founding. HVO's location, on the rim of Kilauea volcano (Figure 1)—one of the most active volcanoes on Earth—has provided an unprecedented opportunity over the past century to study processes associated with active volcanism and develop methods for hazards assessment and mitigation. The scientifically and societally important results that have come from 100 years of HVO's existence are the realization of one man's vision of the best way to protect humanity from natural disasters. That vision was a response to an unusually destructive decade that began the twentieth century, a decade that saw almost 200,000 people killed by the effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

  15. The Active Lava Flows of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    'lahar' is from Indonesia, a country with some of the most active and destructive volcanoes .... tourist-dependent businesses such as airlines, rental car compa- nies, and hotels. ... excellent viewing conditions and photo opportunities. The heat.

  16. Vegetation damage and recovery after Chiginagak Volcano Crater drainage event

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — From August 20 — 23, 2006, I revisited Chiginigak volcano to document vegetation recovery after the crater drainage event that severely damaged vegetation in May of...

  17. Penguin Bank: A Loa-Trend Hawaiian Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Clague, D. A.; Cousens, B.; Frey, F. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes along the Hawaiian Ridge from Molokai Island in the northwest to the Big Island in the southeast, define two parallel trends of volcanoes known as the Loa and Kea spatial trends. In general, lavas erupted along these two trends have distinctive geochemical characteristics that have been used to define the spatial distribution of geochemical heterogeneities in the Hawaiian plume (e.g., Abouchami et al., 2005). These geochemical differences are well established for the volcanoes forming the Big Island. The longevity of the Loa- Kea geochemical differences can be assessed by studying East and West Molokai volcanoes and Penguin Bank which form a volcanic ridge perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trends. Previously we showed that East Molokai volcano (~1.5 Ma) is exclusively Kea-like and that West Molokai volcano (~1.8 Ma) includes lavas that are both Loa- and Kea-like (Xu et al., 2005 and 2007).The submarine Penguin Bank (~2.2 Ma), probably an independent volcano constructed west of West Molokai volcano, should be dominantly Loa-like if the systematic Loa and Kea geochemical differences were present at ~2.2 Ma. We have studied 20 samples from Penguin Bank including both submarine and subaerially-erupted lavas recovered by dive and dredging. All lavas are tholeiitic basalt representing shield-stage lavas. Trace element ratios, such as Sr/Nb and Zr/Nb, and isotopic ratios of Sr and Nd clearly are Loa-like. On an ɛNd-ɛHf plot, Penguin Bank lavas fall within the field defined by Mauna Loa lavas. Pb isotopic data lie near the Loa-Kea boundary line defined by Abouchami et al. (2005). In conclusion, we find that from NE to SW, i.e., perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trend, there is a shift from Kea-like East Molokai lavas to Loa-like Penguin Bank lavas with the intermediate West Molokai volcano having lavas with both Loa- and Kea-like geochemical features. Therefore, the Loa and Kea geochemical dichotomy exhibited by Big Island volcanoes

  18. los pobres de barranquilla (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ramos R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se analizan las características socioeconómicas relevantes que tiene la población pobre del distrito de Barranquilla (Colombia, y se destacan en el análisis las aspiraciones y la percepción que estas personas tienen sobre las instituciones de carácter público que se dedican a atender las demandas sociales. El estudio examina la relación entre los ciudadanos menos favorecidos y la institucionalidad social en sus múltiples manifestaciones y dimensiones, siguiendo los preceptos de la teoría institucional. Metodológicamente el estudio responde a un diseño cualitativocuantitativo, de carácter descriptivo-analítico. Para la interpretación de la información recogida a través de las encuestas se realizó un análisis de correspondencias múltiples.

  19. Nuclear Medicine week in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    During the week of 6-12 October 2003 the IAEA organized a Research Coordination Meeting on 'Relationship between lower Respiratory Tract Infection, Gastroesophageal reflux and bronchial Asthma in children' at Hospital San Ignacio in Bogota. Besides there were four workshops in Bogota; workshops on Bone infection and Bone scan in Pediatric ortopaedics at Hospital Militar and Fundacion CardioInfantil, a workshop for Nuclear Medicine Technologists and a workshop on Sentinel Lymph Node mapping and Surgical Gamma Probe Application at Institute of Oncology. A nuclear cardiology workshop was organized in Medellin, and finally crowning them all was the 9th Congress of the Colombian Association of Nuclear Medicine at Cali from 10-12 October, 2003; probably the largest and best Colombian nuclear medicine congress every held in the country. A workshop was also organized in Cali for nuclear medicine technologists in conjunction with the Annual Convention. It was a mix of IAEA's Technical Cooperation and Regular Budget activities along with the activities of Colombian Association of Nuclear Medicine, bringing in absolute synergy to galvanize the entire nuclear medicine community of the country. The week saw nuclear medicine scientists from more than 20 IAEA Member States converging on Colombia to spread the message of nuclear medicine, share knowledge and to foster International understanding and friendship among the nuclear medicine people of the world

  20. Isotopic meteoric line for Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez N, Cesar O

    2004-01-01

    Isotope analyses from representative rainfall samples taken from different areas in Colombia were processed to yield the meteoric line. Stable isotope composition in precipitation reflects the effects of temperature, altitude and of the continental site, being affected by different sources of atmospheric humidity over the Colombian territory. There is a seasonal variation in isotopic composition of precipitation with grater σ deviation during the rainy season and lower values in the dry season. In coastal areas the variation is smaller and is more pronounced than at continental stations. Correlation between altitude and isotope content led to equations, which indicate, on a regional level, a change in isotopic composition with altitude, of about 0.5 σ units per 200 m, for O 18 and 4 σ units per 200 m for H 2 . Such equations may be used to identify the original altitude of precipitation water, in hydrological surface and groundwater studies. Meteoric line and the concepts derived from the resulting equations presented in this paper may be applied to the interpretation of isotope analysis in future hydrological studies, particularly in areas without available data

  1. Timeline: environmental education in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Adriana Pita-Morales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The environmental education is a process that allows the individual to understand the relations of interdependence with the environment in the one that develops, is like that, since the reality bears biophysics in mind, social, political, economic in this respect it is necessary to generate in the company activities of valuation and respect for the environment. The environmental education is a dynamic and participative process orientated to the formation of critical and reflexive persons with aptitude to understand the environmental problematics of the local, regional and national context. In this frame the need is born of contextualized the labor that has become national in the construction of instruments that allow him the condition to look at the environmental education as a fundamental tool for the care of the natural resources and not as an isolated concept foreign to the community. In the present review their approaches the historical frame of the environmental education in Colombia his challenges, challenges and the way like are opening formative spaces and of projection for the suitable managing of the environment. In conclusion environmental education is a participatory process that must be born of the group in order to give management the natural resources of a region and community where professionals to do is oriental these processes in society.

  2. Volcano-hydrothermal energy research at white Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allis, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the White Island (New Zealand) volcano-hydrothermal research project by the N.Z. DSIR and the Geological Survey of Japan, which is investigating the coupling between magmatic and geothermal systems. The first phase of this investigation is a geophysical survey of the crater floor of the andesite volcano, White Island during 1991/1992, to be followed by drilling from the crater floor into the hydrothermal system. (TEC). 4 figs., 8 refs

  3. Geochemical signatures of tephras from Quaternary Antarctic Peninsula volcanoes

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus,Stefan; Kurbatov,Andrei; Yates,Martin

    2013-01-01

    In the northern Antarctic Peninsula area, at least 12 Late Plelstocene-Holocene volcanic centers could be potential sources of tephra layers in the region. We present unique geochemical fingerprints for ten of these volcanoes using major, trace, rare earth element, and isotope data from 95 samples of tephra and other eruption products. The volcanoes have predominantly basaltic and basaltic andesitic compositions. The Nb/Y ratio proves useful to distinguish between volcanic centers located on ...

  4. Estimates of elastic plate thicknesses beneath large volcanos on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    Megellan radar imaging and topography data are now available for a number of volcanos on Venus greater than 100 km in radius. These data can be examined to reveal evidence of the flexural response of the lithosphere to the volcanic load. On Earth, flexure beneath large hotspot volcanos results in an annual topographic moat that is partially to completely filled in by sedimentation and mass wasting from the volcano's flanks. On Venus, erosion and sediment deposition are considered to be negligible at the resolution of Magellan images. Thus, it may be possible to observe evidence of flexure by the ponding of recent volcanic flows in the moat. We also might expect to find topographic signals from unfilled moats surrounding large volcanos on Venus, although these signals may be partially obscured by regional topography. Also, in the absence of sedimentation, tectonic evidence of deformation around large volcanos should be evident except where buried by very young flows. We use analytic solutions in axisymmetric geometry for deflections and stresses resulting from loading of a plate overlying an inviscid fluid. Solutions for a set of disk loads are superimposed to obtain a solution for a conical volcano. The deflection of the lithosphere produces an annular depression or moat, the extent of which can be estimated by measuring the distance from the volcano's edge to the first zero crossing or to the peak of the flexural arch. Magellan altimetry data records (ARCDRs) from data cycle 1 are processed using the GMT mapping and graphics software to produce topographic contour maps of the volcanos. We then take topographic profiles that cut across the annular and ponded flows seen on the radar images. By comparing the locations of these flows to the predicted moat locations from a range of models, we estimate the elastic plate thickness that best fits the observations, together with the uncertainty in that estimate.

  5. The century of the Petroleum in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1999-01-01

    A recount of the big changes is made with hydrocarbons in Colombia during the X X century. The X X century it meant everything for Colombia in oil matter. In this century it took off and it consolidated their industry of the hydrocarbons and with her great part of the industrialization process and development of the country. It is undeniable that the petroleum was one of the big main characters of the century X X and Colombia has not been unaware to the sways of a highly changing industry. The creation of the OPEC, the warlike conflicts, the times of high and low prices, the technological advances, the processes of energy integration and the mega coalitions are hardly some of the ingredients that seasoned the Oil Industry in the years 1900

  6. Recent Seismicity in the Ceboruco Volcano, Western Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, D.; Chávez-Méndez, M. I.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Sandoval, J. M.; Rodriguez-Ayala, N. A.; Trejo-Gomez, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Ceboruco volcano is the largest (2280 m.a.s.l) of several volcanoes along the Tepic-Zacoalco rift zone in Nayarit state (Mexico). During the last 1000 years, this volcano had effusive-explosive episodes with eight eruptions providing an average of one eruption each 125 years. Since the last eruption occurred in 1870, 147 years ago, a new eruption likelihood is really high and dangerous due to nearby population centers, important roads and lifelines that traverse the volcano's slopes. This hazards indicates the importance of monitoring the seismicity associated with the Ceboruco volcano whose ongoing activity is evidenced by fumaroles and earthquakes. During 2003 and 2008, this region was registered by just one Lennartz Marslite seismograph featuring a Lennartz Le3D sensor (1 Hz) [Rodríguez Uribe et al. (2013)] where they observed that seismicity rates and stresses appear to be increasing indicating higher levels of activity within the volcano. Until July 2017, a semi-permanent network with three Taurus (Nanometrics) and one Q330 Quanterra (Kinemetrics) digitizers with Lennartz 3Dlite sensors of 1 Hz natural frequency was registering in the area. In this study, we present the most recent seismicity obtained by the semi-permanent network and a temporary network of 21 Obsidians 4X and 8X (Kinemetrics) covering an area of 16 km x 16 km with one station every 2.5-3 km recording from November 2016 to July 2017.

  7. Sistema de salud de Colombia The health system of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Guerrero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta una breve descripción de las condiciones de salud de Colombia y una descripción detallada del sistema colombiano de salud. Esta última incluye una descripción de su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, el gasto en salud, los recursos con los que cuenta, quién vigila y evalúa al sector salud y qué herramientas de participación tienen los usuarios. Dentro de las innovaciones más recientes del sistema se incluyen las modificaciones al Plan Obligatorio de Salud y a los montos de la unidad de pago por capitación, la integración vertical entre empresas promotoras de salud y las instituciones prestadoras de servicios, así como el establecimiento de nuevas fuentes de recursos para lograr la universalidad e igualar los planes de beneficios entre los distintos regímenes.This document briefly describes the health conditions of the Colombian population and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Colombian health system. The description of the system includes its structure and coverage; financing sources; expenditure in health; physical material and human resources available; monitoring and evaluation procedures; and mechanisms through which the population participates in the evaluation of the system. Salient among the most recent innovations implemented in the Colombian health system are the modification of the Compulsory Health Plan and the capitation payment unit, the vertical integration of the health promotion enterprises and the institutions in charge of the provision of services and the mobilization of additional resources to meet the objectives of universal coverage and the homologation of health benefits among health regimes.

  8. Petrologic insights into basaltic volcanism at historically active Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 6 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helz, Rosalind L.; Clague, David A.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Thornber, Carl R.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Study of the petrology of Hawaiian volcanoes, in particular the historically active volcanoes on the Island of Hawai‘i, has long been of worldwide scientific interest. When Dr. Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., established the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) in 1912, detailed observations on basaltic activity at Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes increased dramatically. The period from 1912 to 1958 saw a gradual increase in the collection and analysis of samples from the historical eruptions of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa and development of the concepts needed to evaluate them. In a classic 1955 paper, Howard Powers introduced the concepts of magnesia variation diagrams, to display basaltic compositions, and olivine-control lines, to distinguish between possibly comagmatic and clearly distinct basaltic lineages. In particular, he and others recognized that Kīlauea and Mauna Loa basalts must have different sources.

  9. The diversity of mud volcanoes in the landscape of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidov, Tofig

    2014-05-01

    As the natural phenomenon the mud volcanism (mud volcanoes) of Azerbaijan are known from the ancient times. The historical records describing them are since V century. More detail study of this natural phenomenon had started in the second half of XIX century. The term "mud volcano" (or "mud hill") had been given by academician H.W. Abich (1863), more exactly defining this natural phenomenon. All the previous definitions did not give such clear and capacious explanation of it. In comparison with magmatic volcanoes, globally the mud ones are restricted in distribution; they mainly locate within the Alpine-Himalayan, Pacific and Central Asian mobile belts, in more than 30 countries (Columbia, Trinidad Island, Italy, Romania, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Pakistan, Indonesia, Burma, Malaysia, etc.). Besides it, the zones of mud volcanoes development are corresponded to zones of marine accretionary prisms' development. For example, the South-Caspian depression, Barbados Island, Cascadia (N.America), Costa-Rica, Panama, Japan trench. Onshore it is Indonesia, Japan, and Trinidad, Taiwan. The mud volcanism with non-accretionary conditions includes the areas of Black Sea, Alboran Sea, the Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana coast), Salton Sea. But new investigations reveal more new mud volcanoes and in places which were not considered earlier as the traditional places of mud volcanoes development (e.g. West Nile Rive delta). Azerbaijan is the classic region of mud volcanoes development. From over 800 world mud volcanoes there are about 400 onshore and within the South-Caspian basin, which includes the territory of East Azerbaijan (the regions of Shemakha-Gobustan and Low-Kura River, Absheron peninsula), adjacent water area of South Caspian (Baku and Absheron archipelagoes) and SW Turkmenistan and represents an area of great downwarping with thick (over 25 km) sedimentary series. Generally, in the modern relief the mud volcanoes represent more or less large uplifts

  10. Problematic of mining environmental liabilities in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango Aramburo, Marcela; Olaya, Yris

    2012-01-01

    Mining environmental liabilities (PAM from its acronym in Spanish) are areas where there is a need for restoration, mitigation or compensation for environmental damage or unmanaged impact, produced by inactive or abandoned mining that threatens health, quality of life or public or private property. In Colombia the environmental liabilities from mining have not been regulated, but given the age and the prevalence of informality in mining, there is increasing interest in defining, regulating and managing these obligations. In this paper we approach the problem of valuing mining environmental liabilities by examining different management approaches for such liabilities around the world. We also identify key information requirements to manage mining environmental liabilities in Colombia.

  11. Plan para control de Malaria en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Rey

    1943-02-01

    Full Text Available Con motivo de la colaboración de la Oficina de Relaciones Interamericanas en la solución de algunos problemas de Higiene pública en Colombia, el Secretario del Ministerio de Trabajo, Higiene y Previsión Social, doctor Alfonso Orozco, me pidió la elaboración de un breve plan para control de Paludismo en Colombia. El Plan fué presentado al Ministerio por una parte y por otra enviado al doctor Mark F. Boyd de la International Health Division de la Fundación Rockefeller.

  12. Solar energy, architecture and climate in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo B, J.

    1983-01-01

    In Colombia, the climatological conditions are such that with a possible serious appropriate technology to use the solar energy in the cities when the electricity rationing increases, for the illumination, the refrigeration, the electricity production, the heating, etc. The use of the solar energy is also been worth to look for a better adaptation between climate and architecture. In this sense, the article exposes some of the existent possibilities of application of the solar energy for the comfort of the habitat, possibilities of high efficiency and low cost that can be easily applicable in Colombia

  13. Felsic maar-diatreme volcanoes: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pierre-Simon; Carrasco Núñez, Gerardo; Hayman, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Felsic maar-diatreme volcanoes host major ore deposits but have been largely ignored in the volcanology literature, especially for the diatreme portion of the system. Here, we use two Mexican tuff rings as analogs for the maar ejecta ring, new observations from one diatreme, and the economic geology literature on four other mineralized felsic maar-diatremes to produce an integrated picture of this type of volcano. The ejecta rings are up to 50 m+ thick and extend laterally up to ˜1.5 km from the crater edge. In two Mexican examples, the lower part of the ejecta ring is dominated by pyroclastic surge deposits with abundant lithic clasts (up to 80% at Hoya de Estrada). These deposits display low-angle cross-bedding, dune bedforms, undulating beds, channels, bomb sags, and accretionary lapilli and are interpreted as phreatomagmatic. Rhyolitic juvenile clasts at Tepexitl have only 0-25% vesicles in this portion of the ring. The upper parts of the ejecta ring sequences in the Mexican examples have a different character: lithic clasts can be less abundant, the grain size is typically coarser, and the juvenile clasts can be different in character (with some more vesicular fragments). Fragmentation was probably shallower at this stage. The post-eruptive maar crater infill is known at Wau and consists of reworked pyroclastic deposits as well as lacustrine and other sediments. Underneath are bedded upper diatreme deposits, interpreted as pyroclastic surge and fall deposits. The upper diatreme and post-eruptive crater deposits have dips larger than 30° at Wau, with approximately centroclinal attitudes. At still lower structural levels, the diatreme pyroclastic infill is largely unbedded; Montana Tunnels and Kelian are good examples of this. At Cerro de Pasco, the pyroclastic infill seems bedded despite about 500 m of post-eruptive erosion relative to the pre-eruptive surface. The contact between the country rocks and the diatreme is sometimes characterized by country rock

  14. The Powell Volcano Remote Sensing Working Group Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reath, K.; Pritchard, M. E.; Poland, M. P.; Wessels, R. L.; Biggs, J.; Carn, S. A.; Griswold, J. P.; Ogburn, S. E.; Wright, R.; Lundgren, P.; Andrews, B. J.; Wauthier, C.; Lopez, T.; Vaughan, R. G.; Rumpf, M. E.; Webley, P. W.; Loughlin, S.; Meyer, F. J.; Pavolonis, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Hazards from volcanic eruptions pose risks to the lives and livelihood of local populations, with potential global impacts to businesses, agriculture, and air travel. The 2015 Global Assessment of Risk report notes that 800 million people are estimated to live within 100 km of 1400 subaerial volcanoes identified as having eruption potential. However, only 55% of these volcanoes have any type of ground-based monitoring. The only methods currently available to monitor these unmonitored volcanoes are space-based systems that provide a global view. However, with the explosion of data techniques and sensors currently available, taking full advantage of these resources can be challenging. The USGS Powell Center Volcano Remote Sensing Working Group is working with many partners to optimize satellite resources for global detection of volcanic unrest and assessment of potential eruption hazards. In this presentation we will describe our efforts to: 1) work with space agencies to target acquisitions from the international constellation of satellites to collect the right types of data at volcanoes with forecasting potential; 2) collaborate with the scientific community to develop databases of remotely acquired observations of volcanic thermal, degassing, and deformation signals to facilitate change detection and assess how these changes are (or are not) related to eruption; and 3) improve usage of satellite observations by end users at volcano observatories that report to their respective governments. Currently, the group has developed time series plots for 48 Latin American volcanoes that incorporate variations in thermal, degassing, and deformation readings over time. These are compared against eruption timing and ground-based data provided by the Smithsonian Institute Global Volcanism Program. Distinct patterns in unrest and eruption are observed at different volcanoes, illustrating the difficulty in developing generalizations, but highlighting the power of remote sensing

  15. Communication Between Volcanoes: a Possible Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.

    2002-12-01

    The Japan Meteorological Agency installed and operates a network of Sacks-Evertson type borehole strainmeters in south-east Honshu. One of these instruments is on Izu-Oshima, a volcanic island at the northern end of the Izu-Bonin arc. That strainmeter recorded large strain changes associated with the 1986 eruption of Miharayama on the island and, over the period from 1980 to the 1986 eruption, the amplitude of the solid earth tides changed by almost a factor of two. Miyake-jima, about 75 km south of Izu-Oshima, erupted in October 1983. No deformation monitoring was available on Miyake but several changes occurred in the strain record at Izu-Oshima. There was a clear decrease in amplitude of the long-term strain rate. Short period (~hour) events recorded by the strainmeter became much more frequent about 6 months before the Miyake eruption and ceased following the eruption. At the time of the Miyake eruption, the rate of increase of the tidal amplitude also decreased. While all of these changes were observed on a single instrument, they are very different types of change. From a number of independent checks, we can be sure that the strainmeter did not experience any change in performance at that time. Thus it recorded a change in deformation behavior in three very different frequency bands: over very long term, at tidal periods (~day) and at very short periods (~hour). It appears that the distant eruption in 1983 had an effect on the magmatic system under Izu-Oshima. It is likely that these changes were enhanced to the observed level because Izu-Oshima was itself close to eruption failure. More recent tomographic and seismic attenuation work in the Tohoku (northern Honshu) area has shown the existence of a low velocity, high attenuation horizontally elongated structure under the volcanic front. This zone, likely to contain partial melt, is horizontally continuous along the front. If such a structure exists in the similar tectonic setting for these volcanoes, it

  16. Volatile Element Fluxes at Copahue Volcano, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.

    2002-05-01

    Copahue volcano has a crater lake and acid hot springs that discharge into the Rio Agrio river system. These fluids are very concentrated (up to 6 % sulfate), rich in rock-forming elements (up to 2000 ppm Mg) and small spheres of native sulfur float in the crater lake. The stable isotope composition of the waters (delta 18O =-2.1 to + 3.6 per mille; delta D = -49 to -26 per mille) indicates that the hot spring waters are at their most concentrated about 70% volcanic brine and 30 % glacial meltwater. The crater lake waters have similar mixing proportions but added isotope effects from intense evaporation. Further dilution of the waters in the Rio Agrio gives values closer to local meteoric waters (delta 18O = -11 per mille; delta D = -77 per mille), whereas evaporation in closed ponds led to very heavy water (up to delta 18O = +12 per mille). The delta 34S value of dissolved sulfate is +14.2 per mille, whereas the native sulfur has values of -8.2 to -10.5 per mille. The heavy sulfate probably formed when SO2 disproportionated into bisulfate and native sulfur at about 300 C. We measured the sulfate fluxes in the Rio Agrio, which ranged from 20-40 kilotons S/year. The whole system was releasing sulfur at an equivalent rate of about 250-650 tons SO2/day. From the river flux sulfur values and the stochiometry of the disproportionation reaction we calculated the rate of liquid sulfur storage inside the volcano (6000 m3/year). During the eruptions of 1995/2000, large amounts of that stored liquid sulfur were ejected as pyroclastic sulfur. The calculated rate of rock dissolution (from rock- forming element fluxes in the Rio Agrio) suggests that the void space generated by rock dissolution is largely filled by native sulfur and silica. The S/Cl ratio in the hydrothermal fluids is about 2, whereas glass inclusions have S/Cl = 0.2, indicating the strong preferential degassing of sulfur.

  17. Magma Dynamics in Dome-Building Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallée, Y.; Hornby, A. J.; Schaefer, L. N.; Oommen, T.; Di Toro, G.; Hirose, T.

    2014-12-01

    The frequent and, as yet, unpredictable transition from effusive to explosive volcanic behaviour is common to active composite volcanoes, yet our understanding of the processes which control this evolution is poor. The rheology of magma, dictated by its composition, porosity and crystal content, is integral to eruption behaviour and during ascent magma behaves in an increasingly rock-like manner. This behaviour, on short timescales in the upper conduit, provides exceptionally dynamic conditions that favour strain localisation and failure. Seismicity released by this process can be mimicked by damage accumulation that releases acoustic signals on the laboratory scale, showing that the failure of magma is intrinsically strain-rate dependent. This character aids the development of shear zones in the conduit, which commonly fracture seismogenically, producing fault surfaces that control the last hundreds of meters of ascent by frictional slip. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments demonstrate that at ambient temperatures, gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities. At rock-rock interfaces, mechanical work induces comminution of asperities and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting and formation of pseudotachylyte. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma all influence frictional behaviour, which supersedes buoyancy as the controlling factor in magma ascent. In the conduit of dome-building volcanoes, the fracture and slip processes are further complicated: slip-rate along the conduit margin fluctuates. The shear-thinning frictional melt yields a tendency for extremely unstable slip thanks to its pivotal position with regard to the glass transition. This thermo-kinetic transition bestows the viscoelastic melt with the ability to either flow or

  18. Volcano surveillance by ACR silver fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M.C.L.; Mulligair, A.; Douglas, J.; Robinson, J.; Pallister, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Recent growth in the business of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) both in the US and abroad has improved their overall capability, resulting in a reduction in cost, greater reliability and adoption into areas where they had previously not been considered. Uses in coastal and border patrol, forestry and agriculture have recently been evaluated in an effort to expand the observed area and reduce surveillance and reconnaissance costs for information gathering. The scientific community has both contributed and benefited greatly in this development. A larger suite of light-weight miniaturized sensors now exists for a range of applications which in turn has led to an increase in the gathering of information from these autonomous vehicles. In October 2004 the first eruption of Mount St Helens since 1986 caused tremendous interest amoUg people worldwide. Volcanologists at the U.S. Geological Survey rapidly ramped up the level of monitoring using a variety of ground-based sensors deployed in the crater and on the flanks of the volcano using manned helicopters. In order to develop additional unmanned sensing methods that can be used in potentially hazardous and low visibility conditions, a UAV experiment was conducted during the ongoing eruption early in November. The Silver Fox UAV was flown over and inside the crater to perform routine observation and data gathering, thereby demonstrating a technology that could reduce physical risk to scientists and other field operatives. It was demonstrated that UAVs can be flown autonomously at an active volcano and can deliver real time data to a remote location. Although still relatively limited in extent, these initial flights provided information on volcanic activity and thermal conditions within the crater and at the new (2004) lava dome. The flights demonstrated that readily available visual and infrared video sensors mounted in a small and relatively low-cost aerial platform can provide useful data on volcanic phenomena. This was

  19. Advances in volcano monitoring and risk reduction in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCausland, W. A.; White, R. A.; Lockhart, A. B.; Marso, J. N.; Assitance Program, V. D.; Volcano Observatories, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    We describe results of cooperative work that advanced volcanic monitoring and risk reduction. The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) was initiated in 1986 after disastrous lahars during the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz dramatizedthe need to advance international capabilities in volcanic monitoring, eruption forecasting and hazard communication. For the past 28 years, VDAP has worked with our partners to improve observatories, strengthen monitoring networks, and train observatory personnel. We highlight a few of the many accomplishments by Latin American volcano observatories. Advances in monitoring, assessment and communication, and lessons learned from the lahars of the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz eruption and the 1994 Paez earthquake enabled the Servicio Geológico Colombiano to issue timely, life-saving warnings for 3 large syn-eruptive lahars at Nevado del Huila in 2007 and 2008. In Chile, the 2008 eruption of Chaitén prompted SERNAGEOMIN to complete a national volcanic vulnerability assessment that led to a major increase in volcano monitoring. Throughout Latin America improved seismic networks now telemeter data to observatories where the decades-long background rates and types of seismicity have been characterized at over 50 volcanoes. Standardization of the Earthworm data acquisition system has enabled data sharing across international boundaries, of paramount importance during both regional tectonic earthquakes and during volcanic crises when vulnerabilities cross international borders. Sharing of seismic forecasting methods led to the formation of the international organization of Latin American Volcano Seismologists (LAVAS). LAVAS courses and other VDAP training sessions have led to international sharing of methods to forecast eruptions through recognition of precursors and to reduce vulnerabilities from all volcano hazards (flows, falls, surges, gas) through hazard assessment, mapping and modeling. Satellite remote sensing data

  20. Volcano-tectonic interactions at Sabancaya and other Peruvian volcanoes revealed by InSAR and seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, J.; Pritchard, M. E.; Aron, F.; Delgado, F.; Macedo, O.; Aguilar, V.

    2013-12-01

    An InSAR survey of all 13 Holocene volcanoes in the Andean Central Volcanic Zone of Peru reveals previously undocumented surface deformation that is occasionally accompanied by seismic activity. Our survey utilizes SAR data spanning from 1992 to the present from the ERS-1, ERS-2, and Envisat satellites, as well as selected data from the TerraSAR-X satellite. We find that the recent unrest at Sabancaya volcano (heightened seismicity since 22 February 2013 and increased fumarolic output) has been accompanied by surface deformation. We also find two distinct deformation episodes near Sabancaya that are likely associated with an earthquake swarm in February 2013 and a M6 normal fault earthquake that occurred on 17 July 2013. Preliminary modeling suggests that faulting from the observed seismic moment can account for nearly all of the observed deformation and thus we have not yet found clear evidence for recent magma intrusion. We also document an earlier episode of deformation that occurred between December 2002 and September 2003 which may be associated with a M5.3 earthquake that occurred on 13 December 2002 on the Solarpampa fault, a large EW-striking normal fault located about 25 km northwest of Sabancaya volcano. All of the deformation episodes between 2002 and 2013 are spatially distinct from the inflation seen near Sabancaya from 1992 to 1997. In addition to the activity at Sabancaya, we also observe deformation near Coropuna volcano, in the Andagua Valley, and in the region between Ticsani and Tutupaca volcanoes. InSAR images reveal surface deformation that is possibly related to an earthquake swarm near Coropuna and Sabancaya volcanoes in December 2001. We also find persistent deformation in the scoria cone and lava field along the Andagua Valley, located 40 km east of Corpuna. An earthquake swarm near Ticsani volcano in 2005 produced surface deformation centered northwest of the volcano and was accompanied by a north-south elongated subsidence signal to the

  1. SUBMARINE VOLCANO CHARACTERISTICS IN SABANG WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananto Kurnio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to understand the characteristics of a volcano occurred in marine environment, as Weh Island where Sabang City located is still demonstrated its volcanic cone morphology either through satellite imagery or bathymetric map. Methods used were marine geology, marine geophysics and oceanography. Results show that surface volcanism (sea depth less than 50 m take place as fumaroles, solfataras, hot ground, hot spring, hot mud pool and alteration in the vicinities of seafloor and coastal area vents. Seismic records also showed acoustic turbidity in the sea water column due to gas bubblings produced by seafloor fumaroles. Geochemical analyses show that seafloor samples in the vicinities of active and non-active fumarole vent are abundances with rare earth elements (REE. These were interpreted that the fumarole bring along REE through its gases and deposited on the surrounding seafloor surface. Co-existence between active fault of Sumatra and current volcanism produce hydrothermal mineralization in fault zone as observed in Serui and Pria Laot-middle of Weh Island which both are controlled by normal faults and graben.

  2. Energy budget of the volcano Stromboli, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgetchin, T. R.; Chouet, B. A.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the analyses of movies of eruptions at Stromboli, Italy, and other available data are used to discuss the question of its energy partitioning among various energy transport mechanisms. Energy is transported to the surface from active volcanoes in at least eight modes, viz. conduction (and convection) of the heat through the surface, radiative heat transfer from the vent, acoustical radiation in blast and jet noise, seismic radiation, thermal energy of ejected particles, kinetic energy of ejected particles, thermal energy of ejected gas, and kinetic energy of ejected gas. Estimated values of energy flux from Stromboli by these eight mechanisms are tabulated. The energy budget of Stromboli in its normal mode of activity appears to be dominated by heat conduction (and convection) through the ground surface. Heat carried by eruption gases is the most important of the other energy transfer modes. Radiated heat from the open vent and heat carried by ejected lava particles also contribute to the total flux, while seismic energy accounts for about 0.5% of the total. All other modes are trivial by comparison.

  3. Sustainable Colombia : A Comprehensive Colombian Footprint Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brad Ewing

    2010-01-01

    During the past several months, the Ministry of Environment, Housing and Territorial Development of Colombia has been researching potential indicators that would be useful to assess and possibly adopt among which included the ecological footprint. This work was commissioned in order to provide the Ministry with a deeper understanding of the ecological footprint and to train a number of its...

  4. Colombia's Libraries: Modernizing amidst a Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Describes the impact that the war on drugs in Colombia has had on their library services and on the lives of professional librarians. Topics discussed include political, staffing, budget, resource, and physical plant problems; the serious shortage of professional librarians; and extending library service to rural areas. (LRW)

  5. Prevalence of urticaria in Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés Miranda-Machado

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Colombia, there have been studies on the prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Prevalence studies of urticaria in Colombia are scarce. Objective: Our objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of urticaria in Cartagena (Colombia in order to contribute to national epidemiological estimates of disease. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional study in the city of Cartagena was conducted and 547 patients aged 1-58 years treated at the Allergy specialist consultation in care centers selected for this study between April and July 2015 were included, through non-probabilistic sampling. Results: The prevalence of urticaria in the care centers selected of city of Cartagena (Colombia was 7.1 % (4 % children and adults 3.1 %. 3.4 % prevalence of acute urticaria and 3.6 % of chronic urticaria was estimated. Conclusion: 46.1 % reported having a poor quality of life associated with urticaria.

  6. Sequencing: Targeting Insurgents and Drugs in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    p. 73. 24 initiated by previous administrations coupled with declining prices in the late 1990s for coffee and oil—two of Colombia’s major...whose involvement in the illicit drug industry gained them notoriety in the 1970s with the production of cannabis . In the 1980s, Colombia became the

  7. Lifelong Learning in Colombia and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2004-01-01

    The article examines education and learning opportunities in Colombia against the backdrop of Danish modernisation and reform experiences from second half of 20th Century. The article discusses possibilities to learn from Danish experiences in the development of a Colombian lifelong learning policy...

  8. Characterization of cigarrete smuggling distribution in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Llorente

    2018-03-01

    Changes along the distribution chain are bringing new risks and opportunities for an effective control of illicit trade flows. It is necessary to explore interventions that address institutional weaknesses, and the circumstances of vulnerable actors to develop sustainable policies to eliminate illicit trade in Colombia.

  9. Astroparticle physics at the Eastern Colombia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asorey, Hernán; Núñez, Luis A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the emerging panorama of Astroparticle Physics at the Eastern Colombia region, and describe several ongoing projects, most of them related to the Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) Project. This research work is carried out at the Grupo de Investigaciones en Relatividad y Gravitacin of Universidad Industrial de Santander.

  10. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  11. Geomorphological classification of post-caldera volcanoes in the Buyan-Bratan caldera, North Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Mitsuru; Harijoko, Agung; Wayan Warmada, I.; Watanabe, Koichiro; Nakamura, Toshio; Taguchi, Sachihiro; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2017-12-01

    A landform of the post-caldera volcanoes (Lesung, Tapak, Sengayang, Pohen, and Adeng) in the Buyan-Bratan caldera on the island of Bali, Indonesia can be classified by topographic interpretation. The Tapak volcano has three craters, aligned from north to south. Lava effused from the central crater has flowed downward to the northwest, separating the Tamblingan and Buyan Lakes. This lava also covers the tip of the lava flow from the Lesung volcano. Therefore, it is a product of the latest post-caldera volcano eruption. The Lesung volcano also has two craters, with a gully developing on the pyroclastic cone from the northern slope to the western slope. Lava from the south crater has flowed down the western flank, beyond the caldera rim. Lava distributed on the eastern side from the south also surrounds the Sengayang volcano. The Adeng volcano is surrounded by debris avalanche deposits from the Pohen volcano. Based on these topographic relationships, Sengayang volcano appears to be the oldest of the post-caldera volcanoes, followed by the Adeng, Pohen, Lesung, and Tapak volcanoes. Coarse-grained scoria falls around this area are intercalated with two foreign tephras: the Samalas tephra (1257 A.D.) from Lombok Island and the Penelokan tephra (ca. 5.5 kBP) from the Batur caldera. The source of these scoria falls is estimated to be either the Tapak or Lesung volcano, implying that at least two volcanoes have erupted during the Holocene period.

  12. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - El proceso de paz en sala de emergencia

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  13. Volcano related atmospheric toxicants in Hilo and Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Jon-Pierre; Krupitsky, Dmitry; Grove, John S; Anderson, Bruce S

    2005-08-01

    Volcanic fog (vog) from Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawaii includes a variety of chemical species including sulfur compounds and traces of metals such as mercury. The metal species seen tended to be in the nanograms per cubic meter range, whereas oxides of sulfur: SO2 and SO3 and sulfate aerosols, were in the range of micrograms per cubic meter and rarely even as high as a few milligrams per cubic meter of air (nominally ppb to ppm). These sulfur species are being investigated for associations with both acute and chronic changes in human health status. The sulfate aerosols tend to be less than 1 microm in diameter and tend to dominate the mass of this submicron size mode. The sulfur chemistry is dynamic, changing composition from predominantly sulfur dioxide and trioxide gasses near the volcano, to predominantly sulfate aerosols on the west side of the island. Time, concentration and composition characteristics of submicron aerosols and sulfur dioxide are described with respect to the related on-going health studies and public health management concerns. Exposures to sulfur dioxide and particulate matter equal to or less than 1 microm in size were almost always below the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). These standards do not however consider the acidic nature and submicron size of the aerosol, nor the possibility of the aerosol and the sulfur dioxide interacting in their toxicity. Time series plots, histograms and descriptive statistics of hourly averages give the reader a sense of some of the exposures observed.

  14. Tephra compositions from Late Quaternary volcanoes around the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, S.

    2009-12-01

    Crustal extension and rifting processes opened the Bransfield Strait between the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula during the last 4 Ma. Similar processes on the Peninsula's eastern side are responsible for volcanism along Larsen Rift. There are at least 11 volcanic centers with known or suspected Late Pleistocene / Holocene explosive activity (Fig. 1). Fieldwork was carried out on the islands Deception, Penguin, Bridgeman and Paulet, moreover at Melville Peak (King George Is.) and Rezen Peak (Livingston Is.). Of special importance is the second ever reported visit and sampling at Sail Rock, and the work on never before visited outcrops on the northern slopes and at the summit of Cape Purvis volcano (Fig. 1). The new bulk tephra ICP-MS geochemical data provide a reliable framework to distinguish the individual volcanic centers from each other. According to their Mg-number, Melville Peak and Penguin Island represent the most primitive magma source. Nb/Y ratios higher than 0.67 in combination with elevated Th/Yb and Ta/Yb ratios and strongly enriched LREE seem to be diagnostic to distinguish the volcanoes located along the Larsen Rift from those associated with Bransfield Rift. Sr/Y ratios discriminate between the individual Larsen Rift volcanoes, Paulet Island showing considerably higher values than Cape Purvis volcano. Along Bransfield Rift, Bridgeman Island and Melville Peak have notably lower Nb/Y and much higher Th/Nb than Deception Island, Penguin Island and Sail Rock. The latter displays almost double the Th/Yb ratio as compared to Deception Island, and also much higher LREE enrichment but extraordinarily low Ba/Th, discriminating it from Penguin Island. Such extremely low Ba/Th ratios are also typical for Melville Peak, but for none of the other volcanoes. Penguin Island has almost double the Ba/Th and Sr/Y ratios higher than any other investigated volcano. Whereas the volcanoes located in the northern part of Bransfield Strait have Zr

  15. CSM: Profamilia's approach in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, S

    1982-03-01

    Colombia's PROFAMILIA has successfully operated a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) program since 1973. Beginning with 1 salesperson distributing primarily to Cajas de Subsideio, the CSM program is now distributed through 70-80% of the 6000 registered pharmacies in the country, as well as pharmacy counters of several supermakets in urban areas. During 1981, PROFAMILIA's 5 salespersons accountd for commerical sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) to 225,000 couples and sales of barrier methods to another 75,000. Program sales of contraceptives and other products generated approximately US $1.7 million in revenue for the same year. PROFAMILIA's marketing approach is unique in its product and promotinal characteristics. Supplies are obtained directly from local and foreign manufacturers and are resold without any repackaging. While it is generally believed that CSM programs expand the market for contraceptives, data analysis and analysis of PROFAMILIA's distribution system suggests that the PROFAMILIA CSM program has simply absorbed some of the previously existing commerical market. Total commerical market sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) have grown at an annual rate of 3-4% since 1975. During the same period, direct sales of Schering, Wyeth, and other competitors have declined. PROFAMILIA's community-based program operates mainly among urban and semi-rural lower income populations. It sells products through established retail outlets rather than through institutional or non-retail outlets. PROFAMILIA's community-based program in all respects but its use of a staff of 112 salaried "instructoras" is as much a marketing program as PROFAMILIA's sales through pharmacies. Taken together, the 2 program expanded the commerical makert by about 1/2 since 1975. The contraceptive social marketing or pharmacy sales program appears to excel at generation of revenue and delivery of products to higher income clients. The community-based program excels at delivery of information

  16. Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M.L.; Malone, S.D.; Moran, S.C.; Thelen, W.A.; Vidale, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes are an enigmatic type of seismicity occurring near or beneath volcanoes. They are commonly associated with the presence of magma, and found in some cases to correlate with eruptive activity. To more thoroughly understand and characterize DLP occurrence near volcanoes in Washington and Oregon, we systematically searched the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) triggered earthquake catalog for DLPs occurring between 1980 (when PNSN began collecting digital data) and October 2009. Through our analysis we identified 60 DLPs beneath six Cascade volcanic centers. No DLPs were associated with volcanic activity, including the 1980-1986 and 2004-2008 eruptions at Mount St. Helens. More than half of the events occurred near Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greatest among Washington and Oregon volcanoes. The six volcanoes with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Mount Baker (31), Glacier Peak (9), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLPs were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry Volcano, although (except at Hood) that may be due in part to poorer network coverage. In cases where the DLPs do not occur directly beneath the volcanic edifice, the locations coincide with large structural faults that extend into the deep crust. Our observations suggest the occurrence of DLPs in these areas could represent fluid and/or magma transport along pre-existing tectonic structures in the middle crust. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Tremor Source Location at Okmok Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, C. G.; McNutt, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Initial results using an amplitude-based tremor location program have located several active tremor episodes under Cone A, a vent within Okmok volcano's 10 km caldera. Okmok is an andesite volcano occupying the north-eastern half of Umnak Island, in the Aleutian islands. Okmok is defined by a ~2000 y.b.p. caldera that contains multiple cinder cones. Cone A, the youngest of these, extruded lava in 1997 covering the caldera floor. Since April 2003, continuous seismic data have been recorded from eight vertical short-period stations (L4-C's) installed at distances from Cone A ranging from 2 km to 31 km. In 2004 four additional 3- component broadband stations were added, co-located with continuous GPS stations. InSAR and GPS measurements of post-eruption deformation show that Okmok experienced several periods of rapid inflation (Mann and Freymueller, 2002), from the center of the 10 km diameter caldera. While there are few locatable VT earthquakes, there has been nearly continuous low-level tremor with stronger amplitude bursts occurring at variable rates and durations. The character of occurrence remained relatively constant over the course of days to weeks until the signal ceased in mid 2005. Within any day, tremor behavior remains fairly consistent, with bursts closely resembling each other, suggesting a single main process or source location. The tremor is composed of irregular waves with a broad range of frequencies, though most energy resides between ~2 Hz and 6 Hz. Attempts to locate the tremor using traditional arrival time methods fail because the signal is emergent, with envelopes too ragged to correlate on time scales that hold much hope for a location. Instead, focus was shifted to the amplitude ratios at various stations. Candidates for the tremor source include the center of inflation and Cone A, 3 km to the south-west. For all dates on record, data were band pass filtered between 1 and 5 Hz, then evaluated in 20.48 second windows (N=2048, sampling rate

  18. Basaltic cannibalism at Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic assimilation of felsic continental crust is a well-documented, relatively common phenomenon. The extent to which basaltic crust is assimilated by magmas, on the other hand, is not well known. Basaltic cannibalism, or the wholesale incorporation of basaltic crustal material into a basaltic magma, is thought to be uncommon because basalt requires more energy than higher silica rocks to melt. Basaltic materials that are unconsolidated, poorly crystalline, or palagonitized may be more easily ingested than fully crystallized massive basalt, thus allowing basaltic cannibalism to occur. Thrihnukagigur volcano, SW Iceland, offers a unique exposure of a buried cinder cone within its evacuated conduit, 100 m below the main vent. The unconsolidated tephra is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to a vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~4 Ka fissure eruption. Preliminary petrographic and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses indicate that there are two populations of plagioclase present in the system - Population One is stubby (aspect ratio 2.1), subhedral to euhedral, and has much higher Ba/Sr ratios. Population One crystals are observed in the cinder cone, dike, and surface lavas, whereas Population Two crystals are observed only in the dike and surface lavas. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single elongate population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the stubbier population of phenocrysts. This conceptual model for basaltic cannibalism is supported by field observations of large-scale erosion upward into the tephra, which is coated by magma flow-back indicating that magma was involved in the thermal etching. While the unique exposure at Thrihnukagigur makes it an exceptional place to investigate basaltic cannibalism, we suggest that it is not limited to this volcanic system. Rather it is a process that likely

  19. Design of smart sensing components for volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M.; Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Peng, Y.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.; Kiely, A.; Peterson, N.; Ma, A.; Anusuya-Rangappa, L.; Miceli, M.; McBride, D.

    2009-01-01

    In a volcano monitoring application, various geophysical and geochemical sensors generate continuous high-fidelity data, and there is a compelling need for real-time raw data for volcano eruption prediction research. It requires the network to support network synchronized sampling, online configurable sensing and situation awareness, which pose significant challenges on sensing component design. Ideally, the resource usages shall be driven by the environment and node situations, and the data quality is optimized under resource constraints. In this paper, we present our smart sensing component design, including hybrid time synchronization, configurable sensing, and situation awareness. Both design details and evaluation results are presented to show their efficiency. Although the presented design is for a volcano monitoring application, its design philosophy and framework can also apply to other similar applications and platforms. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Postshield stage transitional volcanism on Mahukona Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D.A.; Calvert, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    Age spectra from 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating experiments yield ages of 298??25 ka and 310??31 ka for transitional composition lavas from two cones on submarine Mahukona Volcano, Hawaii. These ages are younger than the inferred end of the tholeiitic shield stage and indicate that the volcano had entered the postshield alkalic stage before going extinct. Previously reported elevated helium isotopic ratios of lavas from one of these cones were incorrectly interpreted to indicate eruption during a preshield alkalic stage. Consequently, high helium isotopic ratios are a poor indicator of eruptive stage, as they occur in preshield, shield, and postshield stage lavas. Loihi Seamount and Kilauea are the only known Hawaiian volcanoes where the volume of preshield alkalic stage lavas can be estimated. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  1. Sutter Buttes-the lone volcano in California's Great Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausback, Brain P.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Clynne, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic spires of the Sutter Buttes tower 2,000 feet above the farms and fields of California's Great Valley, just 50 miles north-northwest of Sacramento and 11 miles northwest of Yuba City. The only volcano within the valley, the Buttes consist of a central core of volcanic domes surrounded by a large apron of fragmental volcanic debris. Eruptions at the Sutter Buttes occurred in early Pleistocene time, 1.6 to 1.4 million years ago. The Sutter Buttes are not part of the Cascade Range of volcanoes to the north, but instead are related to the volcanoes in the Coast Ranges to the west in the vicinity of Clear Lake, Napa Valley, and Sonoma Valley.

  2. Digital Geologic Map Database of Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, D. W.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Felger, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    Medicine Lake volcano, located in the southern Cascades ~55 km east-northeast of Mount Shasta, is a large rear-arc, shield-shaped volcano with an eruptive history spanning nearly 500 k.y. Geologic mapping of Medicine Lake volcano has been digitally compiled as a spatial database in ArcGIS. Within the database, coverage feature classes have been created representing geologic lines (contacts, faults, lava tubes, etc.), geologic unit polygons, and volcanic vent location points. The database can be queried to determine the spatial distributions of different rock types, geologic units, and other geologic and geomorphic features. These data, in turn, can be used to better understand the evolution, growth, and potential hazards of this large, rear-arc Cascades volcano. Queries of the database reveal that the total area covered by lavas of Medicine Lake volcano, which range in composition from basalt through rhyolite, is about 2,200 km2, encompassing all or parts of 27 U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000-scale topographic quadrangles. The maximum extent of these lavas is about 80 km north-south by 45 km east-west. Occupying the center of Medicine Lake volcano is a 7 km by 12 km summit caldera in which nestles its namesake, Medicine Lake. The flanks of the volcano, which are dotted with cinder cones, slope gently upward to the caldera rim, which reaches an elevation of nearly 2,440 m. Approximately 250 geologic units have been mapped, only half a dozen of which are thin surficial units such as alluvium. These volcanic units mostly represent eruptive events, each commonly including a vent (dome, cinder cone, spatter cone, etc.) and its associated lava flow. Some cinder cones have not been matched to lava flows, as the corresponding flows are probably buried, and some flows cannot be correlated with vents. The largest individual units on the map are all basaltic in composition, including the late Pleistocene basalt of Yellowjacket Butte (296 km2 exposed), the largest unit on the

  3. Earth Girl Volcano: An Interactive Game for Disaster Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlow, Isaac

    2017-04-01

    Earth Girl Volcano is an interactive casual strategy game for disaster preparedness. The project is designed for mainstream audiences, particularly for children, as an engaging and fun way to learn about volcano hazards. Earth Girl is a friendly character that kids can easily connect with and she helps players understand how to best minimize volcanic risk. Our previous award-winning game, Earth Girl Tsunami, has seen success on social media, and is available as a free app for both Android and iOS tables and large phones in seven languages: Indonesian, Thai, Tamil, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, French and English. This is the first public viewing of the Earth Girl Volcano new game prototype.

  4. Multiple Active Volcanoes in the Northeast Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Lupton, J. E.; Walker, S. L.; Embley, R. W.; Rubin, K. H.; Buck, N.; de Ronde, C. E.; Arculus, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    The northeast Lau Basin occupies a complex geological area between the Tafua arc front, the E-W trending Tonga Trench, and the Northeast Lau Spreading Center. These boundaries create multiple zones of extension and thus provide abundant opportunities for magma to invade the crust. The 25-km-long chain of “Mata” volcanoes lies near the center of this area, separated from both the arc front and the spreading ridge. In 2008 we discovered hydrothermal venting on the largest and most southerly of these volcanoes, W and E Mata. In 2010 we visited the 7 smaller volcanoes that form a 15-km-long arcuate sweep to the north from W and E Mata (the “North Matas”). We also revisited W and E Mata. Over each volcano we conducted CTD tows to map plumes and collect water samples. Based on the CTD results, camera tows searched for seafloor sources on three volcanoes. The N Mata volcanoes, extending from Mata Taha (1) in the south to Mata Fitu (7) in the north, lie within a prominent gap in the shallow bathymetry along the southern border of the Tonga trench. Northward from E Mata the Mata volcanoes degrade from large symmetrical cones to smaller and blocky volcanic edifices. Summit depths range from 1165 m (W Mata) to 2670 m (Mata Nima (5)). The most active volcano in the chain is the erupting W Mata, with an intense plume that extended 250 m above the summit. Hydrothermal temperature anomalies (Δθ, corrected for hydrographic masking effects) reached ˜1.7°C, with light-scattering values as high as 2-5 ΔNTU. The 2010 surveys now show that 6 of the 7 N Mata volcanoes are also hydrothermally active. Along the N Matas, Δθ and ΔNTU signals ranged from robust to weak, but distinct oxidation-reduction potential (aka Eh) anomalies confirmed active venting in each case. The most concentrated plumes were found near Mata Ua (2) and Mata Fitu (7), with Δθ and ΔNTU maxima of 0.1-0.17°C and 0.3, respectively. Despite the variability in plume strength, however, ΔNTU/Δθ ratios

  5. Determining the stress field in active volcanoes using focal mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Massa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress inversion of seismological datasets became an essential tool to retrieve the stress field of active tectonics and volcanic areas. In particular, in volcanic areas, it is able to put constrains on volcano-tectonics and in general in a better understanding of the volcano dynamics. During the last decades, a wide range of stress inversion techniques has been proposed, some of them specifically conceived to manage seismological datasets. A modern technique of stress inversion, the BRTM, has been applied to seismological datasets available at three different regions of active volcanism: Mt. Somma-Vesuvius (197 Fault Plane Solutions, FPSs, Campi Flegrei (217 FPSs and Long Valley Caldera (38,000 FPSs. The key role of stress inversion techniques in the analysis of the volcano dynamics has been critically discussed. A particular emphasis was devoted to performances of the BRTM applied to volcanic areas.

  6. Inside the volcano: The how and why of Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFemina, Peter; Hudak, Michael; Feineman, Maureen; Geirsson, Halldor; Normandeau, Jim; Furman, Tanya

    2015-04-01

    The Thrihnukagigur volcano, located in the Brennisteinsfjöll fissure swarm on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, offers a unique exposure of the upper magmatic plumbing system of a monogenetic volcano. The volcano formed during a dike-fed strombolian eruption ~3500 BP with flow-back leaving an evacuated conduit, elongated parallel to the regional maximum horizontal stress. At least two vents were formed above the dike, as well as several small hornitos south-southwest of the main vent. In addition to the evacuated conduit, a cave exists 120 m below the vent. The cave exposes stacked lava flows and a buried cinder cone. The unconsolidated tephra of the cone is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to the vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~3500 BP fissure eruption. We present geochemical, petrologic and geologic observations, including a high-resolution three-dimensional scan of the system that indicate the dike intersected, eroded and assimilated unconsolidated tephra from the buried cinder cone, thus excavating a region along the dike, allowing for future slumping and cave formation. Two petrographically distinct populations of plagioclase phenocrysts are present in the system: a population of smaller (maximum length 1 mm) acicular phenocrysts and a population of larger (maximum length 10 mm) tabular phenocrysts that is commonly broken and displays disequilibrium sieve textures. The acicular plagioclase crystals are present in the dike and lavas while the tabular crystals are in these units and the buried tephra. An intrusion that appears not to have interacted with the tephra has only acicular plagioclase. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single acicular population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the tabular population of phenocrysts from the cone. Petrographic thin-sections of lavas sampled near the vent show undigested fragments of tephra from

  7. Plan Colombia: The View from the Presidential Palace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    la violencia , in which liberals and conservatives kill each other in order to seize control of the government. Of course, there have been efforts to...Colombia for some 40 years. I have been in the Colombian Senate for 8 years. I’ve traveled all over Colombia. I’ve been familiar with Colombia’s...country because of la violencia in the early Fifties. Colombia, since the end of that unfortunate turn, has enjoyed a robust democratic system under which

  8. 2004 Deformation of Okmok Volcano,Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, T. J.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2004-12-01

    Okmok Volcano is a basaltic shield volcano with a 10km diameter caldera located on Umnak Island in the Aleutian Arc, Alaska. Okmok has had frequent effusive eruptions, the latest in 1997. In 2002 the Alaska Volcano Observatory installed a seismic network and three continuous GPS stations. Two stations are located in the caldera and one is located at the base of the volcano at Fort Glenn. Because of instrumentation problems the GPS network was not fully operational until August 2003. A fourth GPS site, located on the south flank of the volcano, came online in September 2004. The three continuous GPS instruments captured a rapid inflation event at Okmok Volcano spanning 6 months from March to August 2004. The instruments give a wonderful time-series of the episode but poor spatial coverage. Modeling the deformation is accomplished by supplementing the continuous data with campaign surveys conducted in the summers of 2002, 2003 and 2004. Displacements between the 2002 and 2003 campaigns show a large inflation event between those time periods. The continuous and campaign data suggest that deformation at Okmok is characterized by short-lived rapid inflation interspersed with periods of moderate inflation. Velocities during the 2004 event reached a maximum of 31cm/yr in the vertical direction and 15cm/yr eastward at the station OKCD, compared with the pre-inflation velocities of 4cm/yr in the vertical and 2.5cm/yr southeastward. Using a Mogi point source model both prior to and during the inflation gives a source location in the center of the caldera and a depth of about 3km. The source strength rate is three times larger during the inflation event than the period preceding it. Based on the full time series of campaign and continuous GPS data, it appears that the variation in inflation rate results from changes in the magma supply rate and not from changes in the depth of the source.

  9. Measuring Gases Using Drones at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stix, J.; Alan, A., Jr.; Corrales, E.; D'Arcy, F.; de Moor, M. J.; Diaz, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    We are currently developing a series of drones and associated instrumentation to study Turrialba volcano in Costa Rica. This volcano has shown increasing activity during the last 20 years, and the volcano is currently in a state of heightened unrest as exemplified by recent explosive activity in May-August 2016. The eruptive activity has made the summit area inaccessible to normal gas monitoring activities, prompting development of new techniques to measure gas compositions. We have been using two drones, a DJI Spreading Wings S1000 octocopter and a Turbo Ace Matrix-i quadcopter, to airlift a series of instruments to measure volcanic gases in the plume of the volcano. These instruments comprise optical and electrochemical sensors to measure CO2, SO2, and H2S concentrations which are considered the most significant species to help forecast explosive eruptions and determine the relative proportions of magmatic and hydrothermal components in the volcanic gas. Additionally, cameras and sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, and GPS location are included in the package to provide meteorological and geo-referenced information to complement the concentration data and provide a better picture of the volcano from a remote location. The integrated payloads weigh 1-2 kg, which can typically be flown by the drones in 10-20 minutes at altitudes of 2000-4000 meters. Preliminary tests at Turrialba in May 2016 have been very encouraging, and we are in the process of refining both the drones and the instrumentation packages for future flights. Our broader goals are to map gases in detail with the drones in order to make flux measurements of each species, and to apply this approach at other volcanoes.

  10. Investigation of the Dashigil mud volcano (Azerbaijan) using beryllium-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.J., E-mail: kjkim@kigam.re.kr [Korea Geological Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Baskaran, M.; Jweda, J. [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Feyzullayev, A.A.; Aliyev, C. [Geology Institute of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS), Baku, AZ 1143 (Azerbaijan); Matsuzaki, H. [MALT, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Jull, A.J.T. [NSF Arizona AMS Lab, University of Arizona, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    We collected and analyzed five sediments from three mud volcano (MV) vents and six suspended and bottom sediment samples from the adjoining river near the Dashgil mud volcano in Azerbaijan for {sup 10}Be. These three MV are found among the 190 onshore and >150 offshore MV in this region which correspond to the western flank of the South Caspian depression. These MVs overlie the faulted and petroleum-bearing anticlines. The {sup 10}Be concentrations and {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios are comparable to the values reported for mud volcanoes in Trinidad Island. It appears that the stable Be concentrations in Azerbaijan rivers are not perturbed by anthropogenic effects and are comparable to the much older sediments (mud volcano samples). The {sup 10}Be and {sup 9}Be concentrations in our river sediments are compared to the global data set and show that the {sup 10}Be values found for Kura River are among the lowest of any river for which data exist. We attribute this low {sup 10}Be concentration to the nature of surface minerals which are affected by the residual hydrocarbon compounds that occur commonly in the study area in particular and Azerbaijan at large. The concentrations of {sup 40}K and U-Th-series radionuclides ({sup 234}Th, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 228}Ra) indicate overall homogeneity of the mud volcano samples from the three different sites. Based on the {sup 10}Be concentrations of the mud volcano samples, the age of the mud sediments could be at least as old as 4 myr.

  11. A generic model for the shallow velocity structure of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Philippe; Heap, Michael J.; Kushnir, Alexandra

    2018-05-01

    The knowledge of the structure of volcanoes and of the physical properties of volcanic rocks is of paramount importance to the understanding of volcanic processes and the interpretation of monitoring observations. However, the determination of these structures by geophysical methods suffers limitations including a lack of resolution and poor precision. Laboratory experiments provide complementary information on the physical properties of volcanic materials and their behavior as a function of several parameters including pressure and temperature. Nevertheless combined studies and comparisons of field-based geophysical and laboratory-based physical approaches remain scant in the literature. Here, we present a meta-analysis which compares 44 seismic velocity models of the shallow structure of eleven volcanoes, laboratory velocity measurements on about one hundred rock samples from five volcanoes, and seismic well-logs from deep boreholes at two volcanoes. The comparison of these measurements confirms the strong variability of P- and S-wave velocities, which reflects the diversity of volcanic materials. The values obtained from laboratory experiments are systematically larger than those provided by seismic models. This discrepancy mainly results from scaling problems due to the difference between the sampled volumes. The averages of the seismic models are characterized by very low velocities at the surface and a strong velocity increase at shallow depth. By adjusting analytical functions to these averages, we define a generic model that can describe the variations in P- and S-wave velocities in the first 500 m of andesitic and basaltic volcanoes. This model can be used for volcanoes where no structural information is available. The model can also account for site time correction in hypocenter determination as well as for site and path effects that are commonly observed in volcanic structures.

  12. The 2000 AD eruption of Copahue Volcano, Southern Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo, José Antonio; Polanco, Edmundo

    2004-01-01

    Although all historic eruptions of the Copahue volcano (37°45'S-71°10.2'W, 3,001 m a.s.l.) have been of low magnitude, the largest (VEI=2) and longest eruptive cycle occurred from July to October 2000. Phreatic phases characterized the main events as a former acid crater lake was blown up. Low altitude columns were deviated by low altitude winds in variable directions, but slightly predominant to the NNE. The presence of the El Agrio caldera depression to the east of Copahue volcano may have ...

  13. The recent seismicity of Teide volcano, Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, L.; Albert, G. W.; Calvert, M. M.; Gray, A.; Vidic, C.; Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; García-Hernández, R.; Perez, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Tenerife is an active volcanic island which experienced several eruptions of moderate intensity in historical times, and few explosive eruptions in the Holocene. The increasing population density and the consistent number of tourists are constantly raising the volcanic risk of the island.On 02/10/2016 a remarkable swarm of long-period events was recorded and was interpreted as the effect of a transient massive fluid discharge episode occurring within the deep hydrothermal system of Teide volcano. Actually, since Oct. 2016, the hydrothermal system of the volcano underwent a progressive pressurization, testified by the marked variation of different geochemical parameters. The most striking observation is the increase in the diffuse CO2 emission from the summit crater of Teide volcano which started increasing from a background value of about 20 tons/day and reaching a peak of 175 tons/day in Feb. 2017.The pressurization process has been accompanied by an increase in the volcano-tectonic seismicity of. Teide volcano, recorded by the Red Sísmica Canaria, managed by Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias (INVOLCAN). The network began its full operativity in Nov. 2016 and currently consists of 15 broadband seismic stations. Since Nov. 2016 the network detected more than 100 small magnitude earthquakes, located beneath Teide volcano at depths usually ranging between 5 and 15 km. On January 6th 2017 a M=2.5 earthquake was recorded in the area, being one of the strongest ever recorded since decades. Most of the events show typical features of the microseismicity of hydrothermal systems: high spatial and temporal clustering and similar waveforms of individual events which often are overlapped.We present the spatial and temporal distribution of the seismicity of Teide volcano since Nov. 2016, comparing it also with the past seismicity of the volcano. Furthermore we analyze the statistical properties of the numerous swarms recorded until now with the aid of a template

  14. Magma paths at Piton de la Fournaise Volcano

    OpenAIRE

    Michon , Laurent; Ferrazzini , Valérie; Di Muro , Andrea

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Several patterns of magma paths have been proposed since the 1980s for Piton de la Fournaise volcano. Given the significant differences, which are presented here, we propose a reappraisal of the magma intrusion paths using a 17-years-long database of volcano-tectonic seismic events and a detailed mapping of the scoria cones. At the edifice scale, the magma propagates along two N120 trending rift zones. They are wide, linear, spotted by small to large scoria cones and r...

  15. Geophysical Observations Supporting Research of Magmatic Processes at Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín. S.; Hjaltadóttir, Sigurlaug; Roberts, Matthew J.

    2010-05-01

    Magmatic processes at volcanoes on the boundary between the European and North American plates in Iceland are observed with in-situ multidisciplinary geophysical networks owned by different national, European or American universities and research institutions, but through collaboration mostly operated by the Icelandic Meteorological Office. The terrestrial observations are augmented by space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images of the volcanoes and their surrounding surface. Together this infrastructure can monitor magma movements in several volcanoes from the base of the crust up to the surface. The national seismic network is sensitive enough to detect small scale seismicity deep in the crust under some of the voclanoes. High resolution mapping of this seismicity and its temporal progression has been used to delineate the track of the magma as it migrates upwards in the crust, either to form an intrusion at shallow levels or to reach the surface in an eruption. Broadband recording has also enabled capturing low frequency signals emanating from magmatic movements. In two volcanoes, Eyjafjallajökull and Katla, just east of the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ), seismicity just above the crust-mantle boundary has revealed magma intruding into the crust from the mantle below. As the magma moves to shallower levels, the deformation of the Earth‘s surface is captured by geodetic systems, such as continuous GPS networks, (InSAR) images of the surface and -- even more sensitive to the deformation -- strain meters placed in boreholes around 200 m below the Earth‘s surface. Analysis of these signals can reveal the size and shape of the magma as well as the temporal evolution. At near-by Hekla volcano flanking the SISZ to the north, where only 50% of events are of M>1 compared to 86% of earthquakes in Eyjafjallajökull, the sensitivity of the seismic network is insufficient to detect the smallest seismicity and so the volcano appears less

  16. Monitoring Volcanoes by Use of Air-Dropped Sensor Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, Sharon; Rivellini, Tommaso; Webb, Frank; Blaes, Brent; Bracho, Caroline; Lockhart, Andrew; McGee, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Sensor packages that would be dropped from airplanes have been proposed for pre-eruption monitoring of physical conditions on the flanks of awakening volcanoes. The purpose of such monitoring is to gather data that could contribute to understanding and prediction of the evolution of volcanic systems. Each sensor package, denoted a volcano monitoring system (VMS), would include a housing with a parachute attached at its upper end and a crushable foam impact absorber at its lower end (see figure). The housing would contain survivable low-power instrumentation that would include a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an inclinometer, a seismometer, a barometer, a thermometer, and CO2 and SO2 analyzers. The housing would also contain battery power, control, data-logging, and telecommunication subsystems. The proposal for the development of the VMS calls for the use of commercially available sensor, power, and telecommunication equipment, so that efforts could be focused on integrating all of the equipment into a system that could survive impact and operate thereafter for 30 days, transmitting data on the pre-eruptive state of a target volcano to a monitoring center. In a typical scenario, VMSs would be dropped at strategically chosen locations on the flanks of a volcano once the volcano had been identified as posing a hazard from any of a variety of observations that could include eyewitness reports, scientific observations from positions on the ground, synthetic-aperture-radar scans from aircraft, and/or remote sensing from aboard spacecraft. Once dropped, the VMSs would be operated as a network of in situ sensors that would transmit data to a local monitoring center. This network would provide observations as part of an integrated volcano-hazard assessment strategy that would involve both remote sensing and timely observations from the in situ sensors. A similar strategy that involves the use of portable sensors (but not dropping of sensors from aircraft) is

  17. Pyroclastic sulphur eruption at Poas Volcano, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, P.W.; Thorpe, R.S.; Brown, G.C.; Glasscock, J.

    1980-01-01

    The recent Voyager missions to Jupiter have highlighted the role of sulphur in volcanic processes on io. Although fumarolic sulphur and SO/sub 2/ gas are almost universal in terrestrial active volcanoes, and rare instances of sulphur lava flows have been reported, sulphur in a pyroclastic form has only been described from Poas Volcano, Costa Rica. Here we amplify the original descriptions by Bennett and Raccichini and describe a recent eruption of pyroclastic sulphur scoria and ejected blocks that are characterised by miniature sulphur stalactites and stalagmites.

  18. Cyclic Activity of Mud Volcanoes: Evidences from Trinidad (SE Caribbean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, E.

    2007-12-01

    Fluid and solid transfer in mud volcanoes show different phases of activity, including catastrophic events followed by periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. This can be notably shown by historical data onshore Trinidad. Several authors have evoked a possible link between the frequencies of eruption of some mud volcanoes and seismic activity, but in Trinidad there is no direct correlation between mud eruptions and seisms. It appears that each eruptive mud volcano has its own period of catastrophic activity, and this period is highly variable from one volcano to another. The frequency of activity of mud volcanoes seems essentially controlled by local pressure regime within the sedimentary pile. At the most, a seism can, in some cases, activate an eruption close to its term. The dynamics of expulsion of the mud volcanoes during the quiescence phases has been studied notably from temperature measurements within the mud conduits. The mud temperature is concurrently controlled by, either, the gas flux (endothermic gas depressurizing induces a cooling effect), or by the mud flux (mud is a vector for convective heat transfer). Complex temperature distribution was observed in large conduits and pools. Indeed, especially in the bigger pools, the temperature distribution characterizes convective cells with an upward displacement of mud above the deep outlet, and ring-shaped rolls associated with the burial of the mud on the flanks of the pools. In simple, tube-like shaped, narrow conduits, the temperature is more regular, but we observed different types of profiles, with either downward increasing or decreasing temperatures. If the upward flow of mud would be regular, we should expect increasing temperatures and progressively decreasing gradient with depth within the conduits. However, the variable measured profiles from one place to another, as well as time-variable measured temperatures within the conduits and especially, at the base of the

  19. Hydrocarbon export and production in Colombia. Present time and perspectives; Exportacion y produccion de hidrocarburos en Colombia: Actualidad y perspectiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, Richard [BP Exploration (Colombia)

    1997-07-01

    The present projects of operation of new fields will increase the importance of Colombia as exporter of crude. This paper analyzes the process of operation and oil production in Colombia under three subjects: the transition process in this country, future challenges and the necessary associations between the private sector and the state for the success. A projection is made of the oil production in Colombia from 1980 to 2010, as well as of the reserves and production of gas. [Spanish] Los proyectos actuales de explotacion de nuevos campos aumentaran la importancia de Colombia como exportador de crudo. Este trabajo analiza el proceso de explotacion y produccion de petroleo en Colombia bajo tres temas: el proceso de transicion en este pais, sus retos futuros y las asociaciones entre el sector privado y el estado necesarias para el exito. Se hace una proyeccion de la produccion petrolera en Colombia de 1980 al 2010 asi como de las reservas y produccion de gas.

  20. UREDINALES DE PLANTAS CULTIVADAS DE INTERÉS FLORAL EN COLOMBIA UREDINALES OF CULTIVATED FLOWERS IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Pardo Cardona

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Treinta especies de Uredinales (royas se han registrado en Colombia parasitando a veintiseis especies de plantas cultivadas de interés floral comprendidas en 21 géneros y 15 familias botánicas. Se registra para Colombia y la zona andina de Sudamérica a Puccinia hemerocallidis Thuemen. Se confirma la presencia en Colombia de Puccinia antirrhini Dietel & Holway y Uromyces gladioli P. Hennings.Thirty species of Uredinales (rust fungi are registered in Colombia parasitizing 26 species of cultivated flowers belonging to 21 genera and 15 botanical families. Puccinia hemerocallidis Thuemen is a new record for Colombia and the Andean zone of South America. Puccinia antirrhini Dietel & Holway and Uromyces gladioli P. Hennings are first records for Colombia.

  1. All projects related to Colombia | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL ... by indigenous women based on gender, class and ethnic aspects of their identity. ... Region: Colombia, South America, North and Central America, Spain.

  2. Monitoring quiescent volcanoes by diffuse He degassing: case study Teide volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Melián, Gladys; Asensio-Ramos, María; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Alonso, Mar

    2016-04-01

    Tenerife (2,034 km2), the largest of the Canary Islands, is the only island that has developed a central volcanic complex (Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes), characterized by the eruption of differentiated magmas. This central volcanic complex has been built in the intersection of the three major volcanic rift-zones of Tenerife, where most of the historical volcanic activity has taken place. The existence of a volcanic-hydrothermal system beneath Teide volcano is suggested by the occurrence of a weak fumarolic system, steamy ground and high rates of diffuse CO2 degassing all around the summit cone of Teide (Pérez et al., 2013). Diffuse emission studies of non-reactive and/or highly mobile gases such as helium have recently provided promising results to detect changes in the magmatic gas component at surface related to volcanic unrest episodes (Padrón et al., 2013). The geochemical properties of He minimize the interaction of this noble gas on its movement toward the earth's surface, and its isotopic composition is not affected by subsequent chemical reactions. It is highly mobile, chemically inert, physically stable, non-biogenic, sparingly soluble in water under ambient conditions, almost non-adsorbable, and highly diffusive with a diffusion coefficient ˜10 times that of CO2. As part of the geochemical monitoring program for the volcanic surveillance of Teide volcano, yearly surveys of diffuse He emission through the surface of the summit cone of Teide volcano have been performed since 2006. Soil He emission rate was measured yearly at ˜130 sampling sites selected in the surface environment of the summit cone of Teide volcano (Tenerife, Canary Islands), covering an area of ˜0.5 km2, assuming that He emission is governed by convection and diffusion. The distribution of the sampling sites was carefully chosen to homogeneously cover the target area, allowing the computation of the total He emission by sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs). Nine surveys have been

  3. Multi-parametric investigation of the volcano-hydrothermal system at Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontogianni, S.; Konstantinou, K. I.; Lin, C.-H.

    2012-07-01

    The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located in northern Taiwan near the capital Taipei. In this study we selected and analyzed almost four years (2004-2007) of its seismic activity. The seismic network established around TVG initially consisted of eight three-component seismic stations with this number increasing to twelve by 2007. Local seismicity mainly involved high frequency (HF) earthquakes occurring as isolated events or as part of spasmodic bursts. Mixed and low frequency (LF) events were observed during the same period but more rarely. During the analysis we estimated duration magnitudes for the HF earthquakes and used a probabilistic non-linear method to accurately locate all these events. The complex frequencies of LF events were also analyzed with the Sompi method indicating fluid compositions consistent with a misty or dusty gas. We juxtaposed these results with geochemical/temperature anomalies extracted from fumarole gas and rainfall levels covering a similar period. This comparison is interpreted in the context of a model proposed earlier for the volcano-hydrothermal system of TVG where fluids and magmatic gases ascend from a magma body that lies at around 7-8 km depth. Most HF earthquakes occur as a response to stresses induced by fluid circulation within a dense network of cracks pervading the upper crust at TVG. The largest (ML ~ 3.1) HF event that occurred on 24 April 2006 at a depth of 5-6 km had source characteristics compatible with that of a tensile crack. It was followed by an enrichment in magmatic components of the fumarole gases as well as a fumarole temperature increase, and provides evidence for ascending fluids from a magma body into the shallow hydrothermal system. This detailed analysis and previous physical volcanology observations at TVG suggest that the region is volcanically active and that measures to mitigate potential hazards have to be considered by the local authorities.

  4. Multi-parametric investigation of the volcano-hydrothermal system at Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rontogianni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG is located in northern Taiwan near the capital Taipei. In this study we selected and analyzed almost four years (2004–2007 of its seismic activity. The seismic network established around TVG initially consisted of eight three-component seismic stations with this number increasing to twelve by 2007. Local seismicity mainly involved high frequency (HF earthquakes occurring as isolated events or as part of spasmodic bursts. Mixed and low frequency (LF events were observed during the same period but more rarely. During the analysis we estimated duration magnitudes for the HF earthquakes and used a probabilistic non-linear method to accurately locate all these events. The complex frequencies of LF events were also analyzed with the Sompi method indicating fluid compositions consistent with a misty or dusty gas. We juxtaposed these results with geochemical/temperature anomalies extracted from fumarole gas and rainfall levels covering a similar period. This comparison is interpreted in the context of a model proposed earlier for the volcano-hydrothermal system of TVG where fluids and magmatic gases ascend from a magma body that lies at around 7–8 km depth. Most HF earthquakes occur as a response to stresses induced by fluid circulation within a dense network of cracks pervading the upper crust at TVG. The largest (ML ~ 3.1 HF event that occurred on 24 April 2006 at a depth of 5–6 km had source characteristics compatible with that of a tensile crack. It was followed by an enrichment in magmatic components of the fumarole gases as well as a fumarole temperature increase, and provides evidence for ascending fluids from a magma body into the shallow hydrothermal system. This detailed analysis and previous physical volcanology observations at TVG suggest that the region is volcanically active and that measures to mitigate potential hazards have to be considered by the local authorities.

  5. Sinopsis sobre las Hydrocharitaceae de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Mumm Udo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic family Hydrocharitaceae is actually represented in Colombia by seven genera and seven species (Egeria densa, Apalanthe granatensis, Halophila decipiens, Hydrilla verticillata, Limnobium laevigatum, Thalassia testudinum, Vallisneria americana. A first record of Hydrilla verticillata growing spontaneously in outside conditions is made for this geographical area. A key to genera is presented, with each species briefly commented and illustrated.En Colombia la familia de plantas acuáticas Hydrocharitaceae se encuentra representada por siete géneros y siete especies (Egeria densa, Apalanthe granatensis, Halophila decipiens, Hydrilla verticillata, Limnabium laevigatum, Thalassia testudinum, Vallisneria americana. Para el país se registra por primera vez a Hydrilla verticillata. Adicionalmente se presenta una clave para los géneros, con las especies brevemente comentadas e ilustradas.

  6. Conflict fields of journalistic praxis in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousbeh Legatis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The chronic uncertainty for journalists and editors in carrying out their professional work in Colombia has many sources and has been serious for decades. Currently – besides indicators of extreme physical violence (such as daily attacks, abuse, kidnappings and murders – problem areas are strongly marking journalistic work in Colombia that are often neglected in the international discussion, such as inadequate training offerings, unsatisfactory infrastructure in the workplace, precarious wage situations, lack of independence in relationship to editors and a poorly taught understanding of professional ethics. These structural problems produce qualitative deficiencies – especially in conflict reportage. But instead of stagnation, change is occurring. Colombian journalists are revising their self-image, at the same time developing a problem consciousness in their own work, and are actively trying to correct the deficiencies.

  7. Sinopsis de las Loranthaceae de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dueñas Gómez Hilda del Carmen

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A synopsis ofthe Loranthaceae of Colombia is presented including a synoptic key that combines vegetative and floral characters for the practical identification of the genera. In total, 51 species belonging to 10 genera are cited; it is supplemented with descriptions of the genera and distribution of the species.Se presenta una sinopsis de las Loranthaceae de Colombia incluyendo una clave sinóptica que combina caracteres vegetativos y florales para la identificación práctica de los géneros. En total se hace referencia a 51 especies distribuidas en 10 géneros; se complementa con descripciones de los géneros y distribución de las especies.

  8. Los hongos de Colombia - IV. Bisporella Triseptata and its allies in Colombia Los hongos de Colombia - IV. Bisporella Triseptata and its allies in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter S. E.

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available During the combined mycological explorations of Colombia by the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales (Bogotá, Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (Bogotá and The New York Botanical Garden, many new and interesting fungi have been discovered. Among these, several collections of an apparently rare and poorly known species of Bisporella Sacc. were made, which are worthy of report.During the combined mycological explorations of Colombia by the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales (Bogotá, Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (Bogotá and The New York Botanical Garden, many new and interesting fungi have been discovered. Among these, several collections of an apparently rare and poorly known species of Bisporella Sacc. were made, which are worthy of report.

  9. Sirenomelia: two cases in Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Salcedo-Arellano, Maria Jimena; Ramirez-Cheyne, Julian

    2015-01-30

    We report two cases of sirenomelia, a rare congenital defect with a prevalence rate of 1:100 000 births; both cases were observed in Cali, Colombia. Both pregnant women were referred from Buenaventura, Colombia. The expecting mothers shared multiple adverse sociodemographic factors. Their homes were located in a city where the entire population is of low socioeconomic status living under conditions of extreme poverty. They were uneducated, with nutritional deficiencies and no access to drinking water most of the time. Both were exposed to water and fish from a nearby river contaminated with leachate from a poorly managed landfill. A similar relation was previously reported in Cali in 2005 between environmental factors and sirenomelia. We suggest that there is a common aetiological factor of environmental origin between these two sirenomelia cases and propose that exposure to derivatives from landfills should be included among the factors for this rare defect of multifactorial aetiological origin. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Franchises in Colombia, legal regulations and features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Andrea Camacho Solana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una reflexión sobre el estudio de la franquicia en Colombia y su desarrollo a través de los años. También analiza cómo los abogados sin tener ninguna regulación expresa han podido manejar esta figura, en particular con los Estados Unidos, que ha sido el país que ha tenido más injerencia en la evolución de este contrato en la economía colombiana. Se parte de un análisis de la figura en Colombia, de sus principales características y elementos, ejemplos prácticos de franquicias en el país y riesgos que puede presentar la figura.

  11. The demand of guava in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Alonso-Cifuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, no systematic work have been carried out to determine the demand for fruits beyond descriptive analysis of per capita consumption according to different individual socioeconomic characteristics and much less for a specific product such as guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae. This paper estimates the relationship between guava prices and the demand of guava in Colombia. We found that guava consumption is not affected by its price and its demand is highly correlated to income. While socio-economic characteristics such as income, education and household head labor affect the decision-making for consuming guava, other characteristics such as race and the number of household members determine the quantity of guava consumed in a Colombian household.

  12. Colombia en la guerra de Corea Colombia in Korea ’s war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo León Atehortúa Cruz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se ocupa de cinco aspectos poco explorados con respecto a la Guerra de Corea: la decisión de participar en el conflicto por parte del gobierno colombiano; la selección de los oficiales al frente del Batallón Colombia; la búsqueda de armas para el gobierno de Laureano Gómez; la experiencia obtenida por el Ejército de Colombia, y la influencia norteamericana profundizada con ella.This article refers five aspects scarcely explored on the Korea ’s War: the Colombian decision of participating in the conflict; the selection of the officials in the Battalion Colombia; the search for weapons by Laureano Gómez; the experience obtained by the Colombian Army, and the North American influence established on that period.

  13. The constitutional control system in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz

    2010-01-01

    The system of constitutional control in Colombia designed in the Legislative Act n.º 3 of 1910 is a milestone in a long and fruitful political and constitutional tradition owes much to his Hispanic roots and its American developments. Both the public action of unconstitutionality as the plea of unconstitutionality have clear precedents in the constitutionalism of Spain and the Colony were prepared by a Constituent Assembly acted with knowledge and faithfulness to that tradition and have been ...

  14. Gasohol : un combustible limpio para Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo González, Aquiles

    1998-01-01

    Se describe un estudio sobre las posibilidades reales que tiene Colombia de establecer un programa masivo para utilizar mezclas de etanol y gasolina como combustible automotor, teniendo en cuenta que la materia prima más probable deberá ser la caña de azúcar. Se discuten los efectos ambientales, socioeconómicos y técnicos de dicho programa.

  15. Acarus of agricultural importance in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesa, Nora Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Mite study in Colombia has evidently contributed to the knowledge of the diversity of species. In this field the investigators have also developed studies on evaluation and handling of the phytophagous acarus, the advances have been important in the works on those depredators species. One can affirm that the country has basic and applied information on the acarus, but it is needed to deepen in some topics

  16. Case studies: Managing nuclear information in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oviedo, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    The advances in the managing of nuclear information in Colombia are present, this has allowed recapturing the activities starting from 1999 contributing the INIS the results of the investigations related with the AIEA mission, for benefit of the international scientific community. Thanks to the support of the directive and to my own managing, year after year the efforts are reflected, through a constant increase of the records to the INIS, like in the participation in the RRIAN in Latin America. (author)

  17. Subsidence of Surtsey volcano, 1967-1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Jakobsson, S.; Holmjarn, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Surtsey marine volcano was built on the southern insular shelf of Iceland, along the seaward extension of the east volcanic zone, during episodic explosive and effusive activity from 1963 to 1967. A 1600-m-long, east-west line of 42 bench marks was established across the island shortly after volcanic activity stopped. From 1967 to 1991 a series of leveling surveys measured the relative elevation of the original bench marks, as well as additional bench marks installed in 1979, 1982 and 1985. Concurrent measurements were made of water levels in a pit dug on the north coast, in a drill hole, and along the coastline exposed to the open ocean. These surveys indicate that the dominant vertical movement of Surtsey is a general subsidence of about 1.1??0.3 m during the 24-year period of observations. The rate of subsidence decreased from 15-20 cm/year for 1967-1968 to 1-2 cm/year in 1991. Greatest subsidence is centered about the eastern vent area. Through 1970, subsidence was locally greatest where the lava plain is thinnest, adjacent to the flanks of the eastern tephra cone. From 1982 onward, the region closest to the hydrothermal zone, which is best developed in the vicinity of the eastern vent, began showing less subsidence relative to the rest of the surveyed bench marks. The general subsidence of the island probably results from compaction of the volcanic material comprising Surtsey, compaction of the sea-floor sediments underlying the island, and possibly downwarping of the lithosphere due to the laod of Surtsey. The more localized early downwarping near the eastern tephra cone is apparently due to greater compaction of tephra relative to lava. The later diminished local subsidence near the hydrothermal zone is probably due to a minor volume increase caused by hydrous alteration of glassy tephra. However, this volume increase is concentrated at depth beneath the bottom of the 176-m-deep cased drillhole. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Distribution of the precipitation in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Reyes, Jorge Arturo; Triana Zarate, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    The primary target looks for to determine the distribution of the rain for the national territory using technical geostatistical, for such effect was used the rain data averages multi annual, available in 1027 sites (municipal heads of Colombia, and sites of special interest source IDEAM 1982 -1998. The rain data were analyzed through basic statistical processes like location measures and variability, geostatistical like semi-variogram, and directional influence was analyzed (anisotropy), that the mountainous system of the Andes and the zone of Convergence inter tropical corroborate the influence of the relief through (ZCIT) where converge trade winds as a result of the location of Colombia in the equatorial zone, the result corresponds to a continuous surface that shows to the distribution of the rain in Colombia map 2, generated by means of the interpolation process using the Kriging method, this surface will serve like source of intelligence in thematic general space analyses of level in manifold as agrologic for the advantage of the resource water and ground, also to make analyses correlated with variable like temperature, humidity, solar radiation, potential and real evapo-transpiration

  19. Dengue mortality in Colombia, 1985-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; León-Quevedo, Willian; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos Andrés

    2016-02-11

    Dengue in Colombia is an important public health problem due to the huge economic and social costs it has caused, especially during the disease outbreaks.  To describe the behavior of dengue mortality in Colombia between 1985 and 2012.  We conducted a descriptive study. Information was obtained from mortality and population projection databases provided by the Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE) for the 1985-2012 period. Mortality rates, rate ratios, and case fatality rates were estimated.  A total of 1,990 dengue deaths were registered during this period in Colombia. Dengue mortality rates presented an increasing trend with statistical significance between 1985 and 1998. Higher mortality rates were reported in men both younger than 5 years and older than 65 years. Between 1995 and 2012, category 1 to 4 municipalities reported the highest mortality rates. Case fatality rates varied during the period between 0.01% and 0.39%.  Dengue is an avoidable disease that should disappear from mortality statistics as a cause of death. The event is avoidable if the proposed activities from the Estrategia de Gestión Integrada (EGI)-Dengue are implemented and evaluated. We recommend encouraging the development of an informational culture to contribute to decision making and prioritizing resource allocation.

  20. [Cigarette taxes and demand in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Norman; Llorente, Blanca; Deaza, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Estimate price and income elasticities of aggregate demand for cigarettes in Colombia, by controlling for structural market changes since the late 1990s, to identify policy opportunities for taxes that could improve public health and increase tax revenues. Measurement of aggregate demand for cigarettes using gross income reported on value-added tax returns submitted to Colombia's National Tax and Customs Office (DIAN is the acronym in Spanish) by the tobacco product manufacturing industry, subtracting exports. A quarterly time series was obtained for the period 1994-2014. The econometric estimation using two-stage least squares controls for price endogeneity and uses a set of dummy variables to control for structural changes in the market and in its regulation. Demand is, from a statistical standpoint, sensitive to price and to income. Price elasticity of demand is -0.78 and income elasticity is 0.61. Inelastic demand implies that it is possible, through cigarette excise taxes, to meet public health targets and increase revenues simultaneously. The results also suggest that the considerable increase in household income in Colombia in the first decade of the 21st century increased purchasing power, which, lacking an accompanying tax increase, promoted cigarette consumption, with negative effects on public health, and wasted an opportunity to increase tax revenues.

  1. Aprovechamiento de residuos agroindustriales en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Victoria Peñaranda Gonzalez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, el  Departamento Nacional de Planeación proyectó para el 2018, el 20% en aprovechamiento de residuos que van a los rellenos e incentivar el reciclaje, sin embargo no ha logrado superar el 17%, por lo tanto es prioritario incluir mecanismos de articulación del componente productivo y de investigación científica y tecnológica. En este artículo se  relacionan importantes fuentes de residuos agroindustriales en Colombia, presentando algunas alternativas  de subproductos en las que se aprovechan sus características y propiedades para obtener materiales que pueden ser utilizados en otros procesos como la industria de la construcción, biocombustibles, productos farmacéuticos, cosméticos y  nutricionales;  es el caso del  glicerol, residuos de papa y café tanto de cultivo como procesados, arroz y caña de azúcar en el grupo de las gramíneas, y residuos de frutas y verduras. Se concluye que Colombia debe implementar el desarrollo de diversos procesos y/o productos que sean competitivos y cumplan con las respectivas normas de calidad para incursionar en los mercados del mundo.

  2. Colombia en la guerra de Corea Colombia in Korea ’s war

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo León Atehortúa Cruz

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo se ocupa de cinco aspectos poco explorados con respecto a la Guerra de Corea: la decisión de participar en el conflicto por parte del gobierno colombiano; la selección de los oficiales al frente del Batallón Colombia; la búsqueda de armas para el gobierno de Laureano Gómez; la experiencia obtenida por el Ejército de Colombia, y la influencia norteamericana profundizada con ella.This article refers five aspects scarcely explored on the Korea ’s War: the Colombian decision of part...

  3. Decreasing Magmatic Footprints of Individual Volcanos in a Waning Basaltic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.A> Valentine; F.V. Perry

    2006-06-06

    The distribution and characteristics of individual basaltic volcanoes in the waning Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field provide insight into the changing physical nature of magmatism and the controls on volcano location. During Pliocene-Pleistocene times the volumes of individual volcanoes have decreased by more than one order of magnitude, as have fissure lengths and inferred lava effusion rates. Eruptions evolved from Hawaiian-style eruptions with extensive lavas to eruptions characterized by small pulses of lava and Strombolian to violent Strombolian mechanisms. These trends indicate progressively decreasing partial melting and length scales, or magmatic footprints, of mantle source zones for individual volcanoes. The location of each volcano is determined by the location of its magmatic footprint at depth, and only by shallow structural and topographic features that are within that footprint. The locations of future volcanoes in a waning system are less likely to be determined by large-scale topography or structures than were older, larger volume volcanoes.

  4. Deep structure and origin of active volcanoes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng Zhao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We synthesize significant recent results on the deep structure and origin of the active volcanoes in mainland China. Magmatism in the western Pacific arc and back-arc areas is caused by dehydration of the subducting slab and by corner flow in the mantle wedge, whereas the intraplate magmatism in China has different origins. The active volcanoes in Northeast China (such as the Changbai and Wudalianchi are caused by hot upwelling in the big mantle wedge (BMW above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and deep slab dehydration as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is caused by a similar process in the BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate. The Hainan volcano in southernmost China is a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume which may be associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs’ deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab’s deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which can trigger the upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and may cause the slab–plume interactions.

  5. The first days of the new submarine volcano near Krakatoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umbgrove, J.H.F.

    1926-01-01

    The geological history of the Krakatoa volcano, especially the eruption of 1883, is amply described in the great work “Krakatau” by R. D. M. Verheer (1885), the Report of the Krakatoa Committee (Royal Soc. London 1888) and in the publications of B. G. Escher (Handel. 1e Nederl. Indisch Natuurwet

  6. Stem Cells: A Dormant Volcano Within Our Body?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 3. Stem Cells: A Dormant Volcano Within Our Body? Devaveena Dey Annapoorni Rangarajan. General Article Volume 12 Issue 3 March 2007 pp 27-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Collaborative Monitoring and Hazard Mitigation at Fuego Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J. J.; Bluth, G. J.; Rose, W. I.; Patrick, M.; Johnson, J. B.; Stix, J.

    2007-05-01

    A portable, digital sensor network has been installed to closely monitor changing activity at Fuego volcano, which takes advantage of an international collaborative effort among Guatemala, U.S. and Canadian universities, and the Peace Corps. The goal of this effort is to improve the understanding shallow internal processes, and consequently to more effectively mitigate volcanic hazards. Fuego volcano has had more than 60 historical eruptions and nearly-continuous activity make it an ideal laboratory to study volcanic processes. Close monitoring is needed to identify base-line activity, and rapidly identify and disseminate changes in the activity which might threaten nearby communities. The sensor network is comprised of a miniature DOAS ultraviolet spectrometer fitted with a system for automated plume scans, a digital video camera, and two seismo-acoustic stations and portable dataloggers. These sensors are on loan from scientists who visited Fuego during short field seasons and donated use of their sensors to a resident Peace Corps Masters International student from Michigan Technological University for extended data collection. The sensor network is based around the local volcano observatory maintained by Instituto National de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Metrologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH). INSIVUMEH provides local support and historical knowledge of Fuego activity as well as a secure location for storage of scientific equipment, data processing, and charging of the batteries that power the sensors. The complete sensor network came online in mid-February 2007 and here we present preliminary results from concurrent gas, seismic, and acoustic monitoring of activity from Fuego volcano.

  8. Puffers and Chuggers: Statistical Curiosities in Volcano World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    Several on-going, low level volcanic explosions exhibit background phenomena commonly known as puffing, or in some cases chugging. Recently these events have been scrutinized because of the initiation of infrasonic monitoring, whereas earlier the events may have gone undetected. The activity associated with a puffer at a volcanic vent is generally small in magnitude and is often not observed audibly. The low frequency signals are readily observed on sensitive acoustic instrumentation and they provide a new dimension for our understanding of volcanic processes at volcanoes like Stromboli and Etna that have constant puffing signals. At other volcanoes, like Karymsky volcano in Kamchatka and Sangay Volcano in Ecuador, chugging signals associated with Strombolian style eruptions also provides new insights into the physics of the conduit systems. Here we present a statistical method of event detection, and event cluster association. When multiple vents work in unison it may be difficult to separate out chugging and puffing signals between spatially separated vents. The cluster analysis automatically differentiates between the vents based on waveform characteristics in the acoustic and seismic wavefields. Data examples from May, 2001, at Stromboli and Etna, show extensive periods of puffing (1-5 second frequency) superimposed on a background of vigorous, small-scale explosive activity. At Karymsky and Sangay non-linear, dynamic models explain the fluid flow through vents which gives rise to chugging. Furthermore, the frequency of chugging events appears to be associated with the intensity of lava flows and eruption rate.

  9. Magmagenesis at Soufriere volcano St Vincent, Lesser Antilles Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, E.; Macdonald, R.; Belkin, H.; Hawkesworth, C.; Sigurdsson, Haraldur

    1998-01-01

    Soufriere volcano of St Vincent (3 wt %, whereas various projections onto phase diagrams are more consistent with relatively anhydrous magmas. Primary magmas at Soufriere were generated by around 15% melting of mid-ocean ridge basalt type mantle sources which had been modified by addition of fluids released from the slab containing contributions from subducted sediments and mafic crust.

  10. Topography and Volcanology of the Huangtsuishan Volcano Subgroup, Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ming Lai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the shaded relief topography model and the slope map from the Digital Terrain Model (DTM images, toporaphical map, field occurrences and petrography, the volcanic sequences of the Huangtsuishan Volcano Subgroup (HVS can be constructed. Two types of volcanic centers can be identified in this area. One is the Tachienhou volcanic dome, which may be located in the center of an older caldera. The other is the Huangtsui composite volcano, which is composed of interbedding lava flows and pyroclastic deposits with a volcanic crater named the Huangtsui pond at the summit. Eight lava plateaus radiated from Mts. Huangtsui and Tachienhou to the north and the east can be distinguished based on the DTM images. The volcanic deposits are comprised of four lithofacies, the lava flows, pyroclastic breccias, tuffs and lahars on the base of field occurrences. At least thirteen layers of lava flow, named the H1 to H13 can be recognized in the HVS and can be reconstructed and categorized into four stages. An old and large volcano erupted lava flows to form the products of stages one and two, then collapsed to form a caldera with a dome for the third stage. The latest stage of lava flow was poured out from the Huangtsui volcano, which formed a crater at the summit.

  11. Comparative features of volcanoes on Solar system bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    The bark of many cosmic bodies is in motion because of the displacement of tectonic plates on magma. Pouring molten magma through cracks in the cortex is called a volcanic eruption. There are two main types of volcanoes: basaltic, appearing where a new material of tectonic plates is formed, and andesitic, which located in the places of destruction of these plates.The third type of volcanoes is cryovolcanoes, or ice volcanoes. This type of volcano ejects matter in the form of ice volcanic melts or steam from water, ammonia, methane. After the eruption, the cryomagma at a low temperature condenses to a solid phase. Cryovolcanoes can be formed on such objects as Pluto, Ceres, Titan, Enceladus, Europe, Triton, etc. Potential sources of energy for melting ice in the production of cryovolcanoes are tidal friction and/or radioactive decay. Semi-transparent deposits of frozen materials that can create a subsurface greenhouse effect, with the possibility of accumulating the required heat with subsequent explosive eruption, are another way to start the cryovolcano action. This type of eruption is observed on Mars and Triton. The first and second types of eruptions (basaltic and andesitic) are characteristic of terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars) and for some satellites of the planets of the Solar system.

  12. Stratigraphy of neoproterozoic sedimentary and volcano sedimentary successions of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecoits, E.; Aubet, N.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Sanchez Bettucci, L.

    2004-01-01

    Based on the new data the different characteristics of the Neoproterozoic (volcano) sedimentary succesions of Uruguay are described and discussed. Their stratigraphic tectonics and palaeoclimatic implications are analyzed.The results of the present investigations also allow to define the Maldonado Group which would beintegrated by the Playa Hermosa and Las Ventanas formations.

  13. An Overview of Geodetic Volcano Research in the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José; González, Pablo J.; Camacho, Antonio G.; Prieto, Juan F.; Brú, Guadalupe

    2015-11-01

    The Canary Islands are mostly characterized by diffuse and scattered volcanism affecting a large area, with only one active stratovolcano, the Teide-Pico Viejo complex (Tenerife). More than 2 million people live and work in the 7,447 km2 of the archipelago, resulting in an average population density three times greater than the rest of Spain. This fact, together with the growth of exposure during the past 40 years, increases volcanic risk with respect previous eruptions, as witnessed during the recent 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption. Therefore, in addition to purely scientific reasons there are economic and population-security reasons for developing and maintaining an efficient volcano monitoring system. In this scenario geodetic monitoring represents an important part of the monitoring system. We describe volcano geodetic monitoring research carried out in the Canary Islands and the results obtained. We consider for each epoch the two main existing constraints: the level of volcanic activity in the archipelago, and the limitations of the techniques available at the time. Theoretical and observational aspects are considered, as well as the implications for operational volcano surveillance. Current challenges of and future perspectives in geodetic volcano monitoring in the Canaries are also presented.

  14. Volcano ecology: flourishing on the flanks of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Charlie Crisafulli

    2016-01-01

    Mount St. Helens’ explosive eruption on May 18, 1980, was a pivotal moment in the field of disturbance ecology. The subsequent sustained, integrated research effort has shaped the development of volcano ecology, an emerging field of focused research. Excessive heat, burial, and impact force are some of the disturbance mechanisms following an eruption. They are also...

  15. Airborne VLF survey of Izu-Oshima volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Yutaka; Yukutake, Takeshi

    1988-05-17

    Resistivity distribution in underground indicates anomaly in some cases due to volcanic activity, airborne VLF survey of Izu-Oshima volcano in whole area was carried out by measurement of the anomalous vertical magnetic field. The flight direction was determined with reference to both of the transmitter direction of the VLF waves and the running direction of the geologic formation. The flight altitude and the flight lines spacing were 100 m and 200 m respectively. Typical profiles of four lines of measurement were investigated. The resistivity anomalies were indicated corresponding to the position of known geologic fissure line, the lip of the caldera, the line of the craters and side volcanos. Several anomalous trends were detected by the contour drawing of the Fraser filter output. The detected results were as follow: new volcanos with the resistivity anomaly, the resistivity anomalies spread to the north-northwest from Goshinka jaya, the anomalies due to flowed lava, the anomalies by encroached water from the caldera wall, the effects from side volcanoes and so on. The resistivity anomalies by airborne VLF survey correspond to the known volcanic activities, and they are useful for elucidation of the underground volcanism. (6 figs, 4 refs)

  16. SSMILes: Investigating Various Volcanic Eruptions and Volcano Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Pine, Linda; Keith, Donna Graham

    1994-01-01

    Presents an integrated math/science activity that shows students the differences among the three types of volcanoes using observation, classification, graphing, sorting, problem solving, measurement, averages, pattern relationships, calculators, computers, and research skills. Includes reproducible student worksheet. Lists 13 teacher resources.…

  17. Understanding the Potential for Volcanoes at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NA

    2002-01-01

    By studying the rocks and geologic features of an area, experts can assess whether it is vulnerable to future volcanic eruptions. Scientists have performed extensive studies at and near Yucca Mountain to determine whether future volcanoes could possibly affect the proposed repository for nuclear waste

  18. Seismic instrumentation plan for the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.

    2014-01-01

    The seismic network operated by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is the main source of authoritative data for reporting earthquakes in the State of Hawaii, including those that occur on the State’s six active volcanoes (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, Haleakalā, Lō‘ihi). Of these volcanoes, Kīlauea and Mauna Loa are considered “very high threat” in a report on the rationale for a National Volcanic Early Warning System (NVEWS) (Ewert and others, 2005). This seismic instrumentation plan assesses the current state of HVO’s seismic network with respect to the State’s active volcanoes and calculates the number of stations that are needed to upgrade the current network to provide a seismic early warning capability for forecasting volcanic activity. Further, the report provides proposed priorities for upgrading the seismic network and a cost assessment for both the installation costs and maintenance costs of the improved network that are required to fully realize the potential of the early warning system.

  19. Seismic Activity at Vailulu'u, Samoa's Youngest Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konter, J.; Staudigel, H.; Hart, S.

    2002-12-01

    Submarine volcanic systems, as a product of the Earth's mantle, play an essential role in the Earth's heat budget and in the interaction between the solid Earth and the hydrosphere and biosphere. Their eruptive and intrusive activity exerts an important control on these hydrothermal systems. In March 2000, we deployed an array of five ocean bottom hydrophones (OBH) on the summit region (625-995 m water depth) of Vailulu'u Volcano (14°12.9'S;169°03.5'W); this volcano represents the active end of the Samoan hotspot chain and is one of only a few well-studied intra-plate submarine volcanoes. We monitored seismic activity for up to 12 months at low sample rate (25 Hz), and for shorter times at a higher sample rate (125 Hz). We have begun to catalogue and locate a variety of acoustic events from this network. Ambient ocean noise was filtered out by a 4th-order Butterworth bandpass filter (2.3 - 10 Hz). We distinguish small local earthquakes from teleseismic activity, mostly identified by T- (acoustic) waves, by comparison with a nearby GSN station (AFI). Most of the detected events are T-phases from teleseismic earthquakes, characterized by their emergent coda and high frequency content (up to 30 Hz); the latter distinguishes them from low frequency emergent signals associated with the volcano (e.g. tremor). A second type of event is characterized by impulsive arrivals, with coda lasting a few seconds. The differences in arrival times between stations on the volcano are too small for these events to be T-waves; they are very likely to be local events, since the GSN station in Western Samoa (AFI) shows no arrivals close in time to these events. Preliminary locations show that these small events occur approximately once per day and are located within the volcano (the 95% confidence ellipse is similar to the size of the volcano, due to the small size of the OBH network). Several events are located relatively close to each other (within a km radius) just NW of the crater.

  20. Alaska - Russian Far East connection in volcano research and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbekov, P. E.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Neal, C. A.; Chebrov, V. N.; Girina, O. A.; Demyanchuk, Y. V.; Rybin, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    The Kurile-Kamchatka-Alaska portion of the Pacific Rim of Fire spans for nearly 5400 km. It includes more than 80 active volcanoes and averages 4-6 eruptions per year. Resulting ash clouds travel for hundreds to thousands of kilometers defying political borders. To mitigate volcano hazard to aviation and local communities, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS), in partnership with the Kamchatkan Branch of the Geophysical Survey of the Russian Academy of Sciences (KBGS), have established a collaborative program with three integrated components: (1) volcano monitoring with rapid information exchange, (2) cooperation in research projects at active volcanoes, and (3) volcanological field schools for students and young scientists. Cooperation in volcano monitoring includes dissemination of daily information on the state of volcanic activity in neighboring regions, satellite and visual data exchange, as well as sharing expertise and technologies between AVO and the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT). Collaboration in scientific research is best illustrated by involvement of AVO, IVS, and KBGS faculty and graduate students in mutual international studies. One of the most recent examples is the NSF-funded Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE)-Kamchatka project focusing on multi-disciplinary study of Bezymianny volcano in Kamchatka. This international project is one of many that have been initiated as a direct result of a bi-annual series of meetings known as Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) workshops that we organize together with colleagues from Hokkaido University, Japan. The most recent JKASP meeting was held in August 2011 in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and brought together more than 130 scientists and students from Russia, Japan, and the United States. The key educational component of our collaborative program

  1. Sources of Magmatic Volatiles Discharging from Subduction Zone Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T.

    2001-05-01

    Subduction zones are locations of extensive element transfer from the Earth's mantle to the atmosphere and hydrosphere. This element transfer is significant because it can, in some fashion, instigate melt production in the mantle wedge. Aqueous fluids are thought to be the major agent of element transfer during the subduction zone process. Volatile discharges from passively degassing subduction zone volcanoes should in principle, provide some information on the ultimate source of magmatic volatiles in terms of the mantle, the crust and the subducting slab. The overall flux of volatiles from degassing volcanoes should be balanced by the amount of volatiles released from the mantle wedge, the slab and the crust. Kudryavy Volcano, Kurile Islands, has been passively degassing at 900C fumarole temperatures for at least 40 years. Extensive gas sampling at this basaltic andesite cone and application of CO2/3He, N2/3He systematics in combination with C and N- isotopes indicates that 80% of the CO2 and approximately 60% of the N 2 are contributed from a sedimentary source. The mantle wedge contribution for both volatiles is, with 12% and 17% less significant. Direct volatile flux measurements from the volcano using the COSPEC technique in combination with direct gas sampling allows for the calculation of the 3He flux from the volcano. Since 3He is mainly released from the astenospheric mantle, the amount of mantle supplying the 3He flux can be determined if initial He concentrations of the mantle melts are known. The non-mantle flux of CO2 and N2 can be calculated in similar fashion. The amount of non-mantle CO2 and N2 discharging from Kudryavy is balanced by the amount of CO2 and N2 subducted below Kudryavy assuming a zone of melting constrained by the average spacing of the volcanoes along the Kurile arc. The volatile budget for Kudryavy is balanced because the volatile flux from the volcano is relatively small (75 t/day (416 Mmol/a) SO2, 360 Mmol/a of non-mantle CO2 and

  2. Satellite monitoring of remote volcanoes improves study efforts in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, K.; Servilla, M.; Roach, A.; Foster, B.; Engle, K.

    Satellite monitoring of remote volcanoes is greatly benefitting the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), and last year's eruption of the Okmok Volcano in the Aleutian Islands is a good case in point. The facility was able to issue and refine warnings of the eruption and related activity quickly, something that could not have been done using conventional seismic surveillance techniques, since seismometers have not been installed at these locations.AVO monitors about 100 active volcanoes in the North Pacific (NOPAC) region, but only a handful are observed by costly and logistically complex conventional means. The region is remote and vast, about 5000 × 2500 km, extending from Alaska west to the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia (Figure 1). Warnings are transmitted to local communities and airlines that might be endangered by eruptions. More than 70,000 passenger and cargo flights fly over the region annually, and airborne volcanic ash is a threat to them. Many remote eruptions have been detected shortly after the initial magmatic activity using satellite data, and eruption clouds have been tracked across air traffic routes. Within minutes after eruptions are detected, information is relayed to government agencies, private companies, and the general public using telephone, fax, and e-mail. Monitoring of volcanoes using satellite image data involves direct reception, real-time monitoring, and data analysis. Two satellite data receiving stations, located at the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), are capable of receiving data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar orbiting satellites and from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) equipped satellites.

  3. Volcano geodesy: Challenges and opportunities for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, D.

    2000-01-01

    Intrusions of magma beneath volcanoes deform the surrounding rock and, if the intrusion is large enough, the overlying ground surface. Numerical models generally agree that, for most eruptions, subsurface volume changes are sufficient to produce measurable deformation at the surface. Studying this deformation can help to determine the location, volume, and shape of a subsurface magma body and thus to anticipate the onset and course of an eruption. This approach has been successfully applied at many restless volcanoes, especially basaltic shields and silicic calderas, using various geodetic techniques and sensors. However, its success at many intermediate-composition strato-volcanoes has been limited by generally long repose intervals, steep terrain, and structural influences that complicate the history and shape of surface deformation. These factors have made it difficult to adequately characterize deformation in space and time at many of the world's dangerous volcanoes. Recent technological advances promise to make this task easier by enabling the acquisition of geodetic data of high spatial and temporal resolution from Earth-orbiting satellites. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) can image ground deformation over large areas at metre-scale resolution over time-scales of a month to a few years. Global Positioning System (GPS) stations can provide continuous information on three-dimensional ground displacements at a network of key sites -information that is especially important during volcanic crises. By using InSAR to determine the shape of the displacement field and GPS to monitor temporal changes at key sites, scientists have a much better chance to capture geodetic signals that have so far been elusive at many volcanoes. This approach has the potential to provide longer-term warnings of impending volcanic activity than is possible with other monitoring techniques.

  4. Geologic Mapping of the Olympus Mons Volcano, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Williams, D. A.; Shean, D.; Greeley, R.

    2012-01-01

    We are in the third year of a three-year Mars Data Analysis Program project to map the morphology of the Olympus Mons volcano, Mars, using ArcGIS by ESRI. The final product of this project is to be a 1:1,000,000-scale geologic map. The scientific questions upon which this mapping project is based include understanding the volcanic development and modification by structural, aeolian, and possibly glacial processes. The project s scientific objectives are based upon preliminary mapping by Bleacher et al. [1] along a approx.80-km-wide north-south swath of the volcano corresponding to High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) image h0037. The preliminary project, which covered approx.20% of the volcano s surface, resulted in several significant findings, including: 1) channel-fed lava flow surfaces are areally more abundant than tube-fed surfaces by a ratio of 5:1, 2) channel-fed flows consistently embay tube-fed flows, 3) lava fans appear to be linked to tube-fed flows, 4) no volcanic vents were identified within the map region, and 5) a Hummocky unit surrounds the summit and is likely a combination of non-channelized flows, dust, ash, and/or frozen volatiles. These results led to the suggestion that the volcano had experienced a transition from long-lived tube-forming eruptions to more sporadic and shorter-lived, channel-forming eruptions, as seen at Hawaiian volcanoes between the tholeiitic shield building phase (Kilauea to Mauna Loa) and alkalic capping phase (Hualalai and Mauna Kea).

  5. Trade liberalization and gender effects: a literature review for Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Guillermo lsaza Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review about thegender effects of trade liberalization with emphasisin Colombia. In addition, it reviews sorne theoreticalapproaches about trade and its interrelations withgender, poverty, inequality and labour markets.Based on the existing literature about the socialeffects of trade in Colombia, it concludes with sorneconsiderations for empirical research.

  6. Science and Technology Policy in Colombia: A Comparative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correa-Restrepo, Juan Santiago; Tejada-Gomez, Maria Alejandra; Cayon-Fallon, Edgardo; Ordonez Matamoros, Hector Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to assess the current situation of the science and technology system in Colombia from a comparative perspective of quality indicators in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We analyze the development of the science and technology policy in Colombia form a

  7. 78 FR 60191 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion... States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (``CTPA'' or ``Agreement''), and on June 28, 2007, the Parties...

  8. A Geographical Information System for Malaria in Colombia (SIGMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda, German; Hernandez, Olver; Urquijo, Lenis; Padilla Julio Cesar

    2005-01-01

    A Geographical Information System for Malaria in Colombia (SIGMA) is introduced and its capabilities and modules are described. It allows the interactive visualization of the Colombian Ministry of Social Protection database at national, regional and municipal levels and the analysis of relationships with different environmental and climatic variables. SIGMA is a powerful decision support system for human health intervention and management programs in Colombia

  9. Colombia: A Country Under Constant Threat of Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Hydrological Map Source: El Clima Colombiano, “El Clima Colombiano, Ciclo Anual de Lluvias,” http://pwp.supercabletv.net.co/garcru/colombia/Colombia...a Global Risk Analysis. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications, 2005. El Clima Colombiano. “El Clima Colombiano, Ciclo Anual de Lluvias.” http

  10. A Versatile Time-Lapse Camera System Developed by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory for Use at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Tim R.; Hoblitt, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Volcanoes can be difficult to study up close. Because it may be days, weeks, or even years between important events, direct observation is often impractical. In addition, volcanoes are often inaccessible due to their remote location and (or) harsh environmental conditions. An eruption adds another level of complexity to what already may be a difficult and dangerous situation. For these reasons, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) have, for years, built camera systems to act as surrogate eyes. With the recent advances in digital-camera technology, these eyes are rapidly improving. One type of photographic monitoring involves the use of near-real-time network-enabled cameras installed at permanent sites (Hoblitt and others, in press). Time-lapse camera-systems, on the other hand, provide an inexpensive, easily transportable monitoring option that offers more versatility in site location. While time-lapse systems lack near-real-time capability, they provide higher image resolution and can be rapidly deployed in areas where the use of sophisticated telemetry required by the networked cameras systems is not practical. This report describes the latest generation (as of 2008) time-lapse camera system used by HVO for photograph acquisition in remote and hazardous sites on Kilauea Volcano.

  11. Hyperacid volcano-hydrothermal fluids from Copahue volcano, Argentina: Analogs for "subduction zone fluids"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    Hyperacid concentrated Chlorine-Sulfate brines occur in many young arc volcanoes, with pH values Copahue volcanic system (Argentina) suggest reservoir temperatures of 175-300 oC, whereas the surface fluids do not exceed local boiling temperatures. These fluids are generated at much lower P-T conditions than fluids associated with a dehydrating subducted sediment complex below arc volcanoes, but their fundamental chemical compositions may have similarities. Incompatible trace element, major element concentrations and Pb isotope compositions of the fluids were used to determine the most likely rock protoliths for these fluids. Mean rock- normalized trace element diagrams then indicate which elements are quantitatively extracted from the rocks and which are left behind or precipitated in secondary phases. Most LILE show flat rock-normalized patterns, indicating close to congruent dissolution, whereas Ta-Nb-Ti show strong depletions in the rock-normalized diagrams. These HFSE are either left behind in the altered rock protolith or were precipitated along the way up. The behavior of U and Th is almost identical, suggesting that in these low pH fluids with abundant ligands Th is just as easily transported as U, which is not the case in more dilute, neutral fluids. Most analyzed fluids have steeper LREE patterns than the rocks and have negative Eu anomalies similar to the rocks. Fluids that interacted with newly intruded magma e.g., during the 2000 eruption, have much less pronounced Eu anomalies, which was most likely caused by the preferential dissolution of plagioclase when newly intruded magma interacted with the acid fluids. The fluids show a strong positive correlation between Y and Cd (similar to MORB basalts, Yi et al., JGR, 2000), suggesting that Cd is mainly a rock-derived element that may not show chalcophilic behavior. The fluids are strongly enriched (relative to rock) in As, Zn and Pb, suggesting that these elements were carried with the volcanic gas phase

  12. Situation and perspectives for biofuels in Colombia; Situacion y perspectiva de biocombustibles en Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafarov, Viatcheslav; Ojeda, Karina; Sanchez, Eduardo [Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS/CISYC), Bucaramanga (Colombia). Centro de Investigaciones en Simulacion y Control

    2006-07-01

    The article presents the situation, perspectives and forecasting of biofuel production in Colombia, such as bioethanol and biodiesel, take into account that for the country's development it is necessary improve the efficiency of power generation processes and optimization of fuel consumption in the transportation sectors, ensuring rational use of energy. Also presents the 'Programa Nacional de Alcoholes Carburantes' with its legal aspects.

  13. Volcano-hydrothermal system and activity of Sirung volcano (Pantar Island, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudron, Corentin; Bernard, Alain; Murphy, Sam; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Gunawan, Hendra

    2018-05-01

    Sirung is a frequently active volcano located in the remote parts of Western Timor (Indonesia). Sirung has a crater with several hydrothermal features including a crater lake. We present a timeseries of satellite images of the lake and chemical and isotope data from the hyperacid hydrothermal system. The fluids sampled in the crater present the typical features of hyperacidic systems with high TDS, low pH and δ34SHSO4-δ34SS0 among the highest for such lakes. The cations concentrations are predominantly controlled by the precipitation of alunite, jarosite, silica phases, native sulfur and pyrite which dominate the shallow portions of the hydrothermal system. These minerals may control shallow sealing processes thought to trigger phreatic eruptions elsewhere. Sparse Mg/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios and lake parameters derived from satellite images suggest gradual increase in heat and gas flux, most likely SO2-rich, prior to the 2012 phreatic eruption. An acidic river was sampled 8 km far from the crater and is genetically linked with the fluids rising toward the active crater. This river would therefore be a relevant target for future remote monitoring purposes. Finally, several wells and springs largely exceeded the World Health Organization toxicity limits in total arsenic and fluoride.

  14. Matrix Approach of Seismic Wave Imaging: Application to Erebus Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel, T.; Chaput, J.; Derode, A.; Campillo, M.; Aubry, A.

    2017-12-01

    This work aims at extending to seismic imaging a matrix approach of wave propagation in heterogeneous media, previously developed in acoustics and optics. More specifically, we will apply this approach to the imaging of the Erebus volcano in Antarctica. Volcanoes are actually among the most challenging media to explore seismically in light of highly localized and abrupt variations in density and wave velocity, extreme topography, extensive fractures, and the presence of magma. In this strongly scattering regime, conventional imaging methods suffer from the multiple scattering of waves. Our approach experimentally relies on the measurement of a reflection matrix associated with an array of geophones located at the surface of the volcano. Although these sensors are purely passive, a set of Green's functions can be measured between all pairs of geophones from ice-quake coda cross-correlations (1-10 Hz) and forms the reflection matrix. A set of matrix operations can then be applied for imaging purposes. First, the reflection matrix is projected, at each time of flight, in the ballistic focal plane by applying adaptive focusing at emission and reception. It yields a response matrix associated with an array of virtual geophones located at the ballistic depth. This basis allows us to get rid of most of the multiple scattering contribution by applying a confocal filter to seismic data. Iterative time reversal is then applied to detect and image the strongest scatterers. Mathematically, it consists in performing a singular value decomposition of the reflection matrix. The presence of a potential target is assessed from a statistical analysis of the singular values, while the corresponding eigenvectors yield the corresponding target images. When stacked, the results obtained at each depth give a three-dimensional image of the volcano. While conventional imaging methods lead to a speckle image with no connection to the actual medium's reflectivity, our method enables to

  15. Geochemical and Geophysical Signatures of Poas Volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M.; van Bergen, M.; Fernandez, E.; Takano, B.; Barboza, V.; Saenz, W.

    2007-05-01

    Among many research fields in volcanology, prediction of eruptions is the most important from the hazard- mitigation point of view. Most geophysicists have sought for the best physical parameters for this objective: various kinds of wave signals and geodesic data are two of such parameters. Being able to be remotely monitored gives them advantage over many other practical methods for volcano monitoring. On the other hand, increasing volcanic activity is always accompanied by mass transfer. The most swiftly-moving materials are volcanic gases which are the target geochemists have intensively studied although monitoring gases is rather tedious and limited for active volcanoes hosting crater lakes. A Japanese group lead by Bokuichiro Takano has recently developed an indirect method for monitoring gas injection into volcanic crater lakes. Polythionates are formed when SO2 and H2S are injected into the lake from subaqueous fumaroles. Such polythionates consist of chains of 4 to 6 sulphur atoms, the terminal ones of which are bonded with three oxygen atoms. The general formula for these anions is SxO62- (x= 4 to 6). Important to note is that SO2 input into the lake also depends upon the plumbing system of the volcanoes: conduits, cracks and hydrothermal reservoirs beneath the lake that usually differ from volcano to volcano. Despite such site-specific characters some general statements can be made on the behaviour of these chemical species. For example, at low volcanic activity S6O62- predominates while S4O62- and S5O62- become predominant with increasing SO2 that increases with volcanic activity. At higher SO2 input and high temperature polythionates disappear in the lake through interaction with aqueous SO2 (sulfitolysis). Thus, the ratios of the three polythionates or their absence serve as an indicator for various stages of volcanic activity. Monitoring polythionates is an independent method that can be compared with results from geophysical methods. However, it

  16. [Characterisation of Suicide in Colombia, 2000 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona Arango, Doris; Medina-Pérez, Óscar Adolfo; Cardona Duque, Deisy Viviana

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a serious public health problem worldwide, affecting all population groups, regardless of age, gender, or area of residence. The aim of this investigation was to characterise the recorded suicides in Colombia, between the years 2000 and 2010, according to the variables of the person, time and place. Descriptive quantitative study with information from secondary sources, from the death certificates of deceased people by suicide registered with the National Bureau of Statistics. The behaviour of the deaths and mortality, were determined using the denominator population projections of Colombia and the Amazon, Andean, Atlantic Coast, Eastern Plains and Pacific regions. Descriptive measurements and mortality rates were calculated using these. A total of 24,882 suicides were recorded in the eleven years studied, with a mean of 6.2 people per day, which increased to 8.0 during holidays The mean age of death was 34.5 years (men 36.4, women 27.7), with male deaths (78.1%) and urban areas (66%) predominating. The greatest risk of dying from this cause was recorded in the Eastern Plains, in young adults and seniors, and residents in rural areas. Suicide rates in Colombia show a downward trend, with a mean of 5.3/100,000 inhabitants, and with an increased risk in men (3.7 times the risk in women, in young adults (9/100,000). A higher death rate was recorded in single people in the months of December and January, and at weekends. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Variability of the stratospheric ozone in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristizabal, Gloria Leon

    2002-01-01

    In this study has been examined the causes of ozone variations and the sign that represent in the short-term, seasonal, interannual, decadal and long-term variability. The analysis of NASA satellite data sets, obtained with the total ozone mapping spectrometer toms, for the period 1979-1999, they permit to deduce to the total column ozone that in Colombia, varies among 255 and 267 U.D., and presents synchronous variations with the quasi biennial oscillation (QBO) and in the series not any tendency with the time is recognized

  18. The constitutional control system in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of constitutional control in Colombia designed in the Legislative Act n.º 3 of 1910 is a milestone in a long and fruitful political and constitutional tradition owes much to his Hispanic roots and its American developments. Both the public action of unconstitutionality as the plea of unconstitutionality have clear precedents in the constitutionalism of Spain and the Colony were prepared by a Constituent Assembly acted with knowledge and faithfulness to that tradition and have been and are institutions of our capital social and democratic state of law.

  19. Why does Colombia lack agricultural commodity futures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Moreno-Alemay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons why futures contracts are not traded as an alternative to price hedging for agricultural goods in Colombia. Based on surveys, interviews and statistical analysis, this study identified that conceptual gaps in contract negotiation, lack of consensus in the agricultural sector regarding the use of financial mechanisms and the sector’s infrequent contact with Colombia’s financial institutions, are the main reasons why a futures contracts market has not emerged.

  20. Understanding the security situation in Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, C.O. [Colombia Central Bank (Colombia)

    1997-11-01

    The following aspects influencing Colombia are considered: the causes of security problems, including social, political and criminal violence; the political and economic crises produced by financing of the presidential campaign; coal`s social, economic and cultural environment in Guajira and Cesar; a description of the security situation in the carboniferous region focusing on guerrilla, crime and paramilitary threats; and three possible scenarios in the region`s security future. The government`s strategy of assuring restricted security to carboniferous and petroleum plants has proven expensive for the state and country. A competitive regional economy would bring social and economic benefits in the medium and long terms. 1 tab.

  1. Colombia y el transpacific partnership agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro León, Karen Sofía

    2015-01-01

    Colombia, a partir de 1990, inicia un plan de gobierno enfocado en la apertura económica, con estrategias que propugnaban por un cambio en el modelo económico a través de políticas como la reducción de aranceles a las importaciones y otra serie de medidas proteccionistas, flexibilización laboral, la reducción del papel del Estado para darle protagonismo al sector privado y procesos de privatización de empresas públicas En este entorno internacional se ha adquirido conciencia de que, en un...

  2. Desigualdad y deudas hipotecarias en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero-Pino, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of internal variables of the financial system (FS regarding the economic inequality in Colombia during the 1993 through the 2010 period. It begins with the integration of two perspectives about the inequality induced by financial debts and the social responsibility of the FS. This investigation was done with an auto-regressive and distributed backwardness model, and a Granger Test. The results indicate that the economic inequality grows if the mortgage debt, the real estate dations as payment of debts, and the banking asset interest rates grow. Likewise, if the price of low status housing decreases, the economic inequality increases.

  3. Energy scenarios for Colombia: process and content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ricardo A. [National Univ. of Colombia, Escuela de Geosciencias y Medio Ambiente, Medellin (Colombia); Vesga, Daniel R.A. [Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, Bogota (Colombia); Cadena, Angela I. [Los Andes Univ., School of Engineering, Bogota (Colombia); Boman, Ulf [Kairos Future AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsen, Erik [Cass Business School, London (United Kingdom); Dyner, Isaac [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Energy Inst., Medellin (Colombia)

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents the approach undertaken, and the four energy scenarios that have been developed, to support long term energy policy in Colombia. The scenarios were constructed with emphasis on maximum interaction between stakeholders in the Colombian energy sector. The process directly involved over 120 people. The scenarios were developed as strategic support tools for the Energy and Mining Planning Unit (UPME), which is the Colombian institution in charge of developing the country's energy strategies and National Energy Policy. The methodology employed is presented, followed by a detailed description of each of the four scenarios. (Author)

  4. Percepciones venezolanas sobre la crisis de colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kornblith.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of the Colombian conflict in Venezuela and the perceptions of threat of the country's leading political actors regarding Colombia's security crisis. The author discusses the tangible consequences of the Colombian conflict in Venezuela. Second, the ways in which the security crisis has been perceived and politically maneuvered by the Venezuelan government is explored. Finally, the article traces the interaction been the securitization of security and defense issues in Venezuela, and perceptions about the Colombian security crisis and its effects.

  5. Perfil logístico de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo Maglioni, María Victoria; Lozano Suarez, María Goretty

    2012-01-01

    El presente documento ofrece un estudio del perfil logístico de Colombia con la finalidad de dar a conocer el estado de arte de las ciudades, puertos e infraestructura principal para facilitar la toma de decisiones de los empresarios. Para el desarrollo de este trabajo se determinaron a partir de un análisis competitivo del país; las principales ciudades y puertos; logrando establecer un inventario de maquinaria y equipo e infraestructura logística; enmarcados en retos ya establecidos en las ...

  6. Biology stage of Moniliophthora roreri in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Álvarez, Javier; Castro Martínez, Sergio; Coy, Jairo

    2014-01-01

    La moniliasis es una enfermedad fúngica que ataca el cultivo de cacao, causada por el basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri -- Está presente en la mayoría de los países latinoamericanos y se adapta a diversidad de ambientes -- En Colombia la enfermedad es devastadora y las estrategias de control tradicional han generado resultados colaterales como el fortalecimiento de la resistencia genética de cepas del hongo en algunas regiones -- En esta revisión, se recopilan los aspectos biológicos y agro...

  7. Calidad de los combustibles en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Humberto Arango

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Para conocer el estado actual de los combustibles usados en Colombia y para conocer las necesidades en el marco de los biocombustibles, el Ingeniero Jorge Humberto Arango, gerente de refinados de Ecopetrol, presenta un resumen de la calidad de la gasolina, diesel, biodiesel, y el gas natural, tomando en cuenta aspectos tales como el contenido de azufre, la presencia de aromáticos y la emisión de material particulado. En resumen, se muestra el interesante e importante trabajo de Ecopetrol desde los años 90, relacionado con el cumplimento de los estándares nacionales e internacionales. Por ejemplo, para el caso de diesel, Colombia muestra uno de los contenidos más bajos en azufre con respecto a Latinoamérica, llegando a niveles de 500 ppm para la ciudad de Bogotá. Para el caso de aromáticos en gasolina, Colombia presenta una de las mejores en el mundo en términos de aromáticos, con contenidos de gasolina regular en 20% y en gasolina Premium en 22 %. Por otro lado, la emisión de compuestos azufrados y material particulado no se está reduciendo en la misma proporción que la calidad de los combustibles colombianos, que están siendo mejorados especialmente en parque automotor de trasporte pesado antiguo (mayor de 25 años. / In order to acquire a brief understanding of the state o the fuels in Colombia and then frame the necessities for biofuels, the engineer Jorge Humberto Arango, fuels refining manager at Ecopetrol, displayed a summary regarding the work carried out by Ecopetrol during the last decade to improve the quality of gas, diesel, biodiesel, and natural gas by analyzing aspects such as sulfur and aromatics presence, and particle matter emissions when fueling motors. For example, sulfur concentration for Diesel reaches one of the lowest reported in Latinamerica (500 ppm moreover, the aromatics content in Colombian gasoline projects it as one of the best in world (regular gasoline, 20 % and Premium 22 %. On the other hand, even

  8. Environmental occurrence of arsenic in Colombia: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, David L.; Latorre, Sergio; Castillo, Elianna; Brandão, Pedro F.B.

    2014-01-01

    The international literature on the presence of arsenic (As) in Latin America does not disclose the true magnitude of the presence of As in Colombia. In this paper, we summarize the literature on As occurrence in Colombia. The data reveal that As is present in matrices such as soil, sediments and water and in the food chain. Some of the As concentrations exceed the limits specified by national and international regulations. Arsenic higher concentrations are associated with mining regions (e.g., soils, up to 148 mg/kg; sediments, up to 1400 mg/kg) and agricultural areas (e.g., vegetables, up to 5.40 mg/kg; irrigation water, up to 255 μg/L), and underscore the potential human and environmental risks associated with the presence of As in the country. This review highlights the importance of focusing research on understanding the occurrence, origin and distribution of As in Colombia to better understand its environmental and public health impact. -- Highlights: • Information about arsenic (As) studies in Colombia is provided. • Occurrence of As in Colombia. • Compilation help to increase knowledge of As presence in Latin America. • Need for more research on the occurrence, origin, distribution, speciation and remediation of As in Colombia. -- This review communicates the untold story of arsenic in Colombia and draws attention to the need for more rigorous research on the metalloid. It also contributes to the information available on As in Latin America

  9. Historical tephra-stratigraphy of the Cosiguina Volcano (Western Nicaragua)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hradecky, Petr; Rapprich, Vladislav

    2008-01-01

    New detailed geological field studies and 14 C dating of the Cosiguina Volcano (westernmost Nicaragua) have allowed to reconstruct a geological map of the volcano and to establish a recent stratigraphy, including three historical eruptions. Five major sequences are represented. I: pyroclastic flows around 1500 AD, II: pyroclastic flows, scoria and pumice flows and surges, III: pyroclastic deposits related to a littoral crater, IV: pyroclastic flows related to 1709 AD eruption, and finally, V: pyroclastic deposits corresponding to the cataclysmic 1835 AD phreatic, phreatomagmatic and subplinian eruption, which seems to be relatively small-scale in comparison with the preceding historical eruptions. The pulsating geochemical character of the pyroclastic rocks in the last five centuries has been documented. The beginning of every eruption is marked by increasing contents of silica and Zr. Based on that, regardless of present-day volcanic repose, the entire Cosiguina Peninsula should be considered as a very hazardous volcanic area. (author)

  10. The Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) Project: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The EC FP7 MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) EC-FP7 Project, which started on June 2013, aims to improve the capacity of the scientific institutions, end users and SME forming the project consortium to assess the volcanic hazards at Italian Supersites, i.e. Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. The Project activities will focus on the optimisation and integration of ground and space monitoring systems, the breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes, and on the increase of the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities in the hazard management. The overall goal of the project is to apply the rationale of the Supersites GEO initiative to Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius, considered as cluster of Supersites. For the purpose MED-SUV will integrate long-term observations of ground-based multidisciplinary data available for these volcanoes, i.e. geophysical, geochemical, and volcanological datasets, with Earth Observation (EO) data. Merging of different parameters over a long period will provide better understanding of the volcanic processes. In particular, given the variety of styles and intensities of the volcanic activity observed at these volcanoes, and which make them sort of archetypes for 'closed conduit ' and 'open conduit' volcanic systems, the combination of different data will allow discrimination between peculiar volcano behaviours associated with pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. Indeed, recognition of specific volcano patterns will allow broadening of the spectrum of knowledge of geo-hazards, as well as better parameterisation and modelling of the eruptive phenomena and of the processes occurring in the volcano supply system; thus improving the capability of carrying out volcano surveillance activities. Important impacts on the European industrial sector, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new observation/monitoring sensors/systems, are

  11. Looking inside volcanoes with the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Santo, M.; Catalano, O.; Cusumano, G.; La Parola, V.; La Rosa, G.; Maccarone, M. C.; Mineo, T.; Sottile, G.; Carbone, D.; Zuccarello, L.; Pareschi, G.; Vercellone, S.

    2017-12-01

    Cherenkov light is emitted when charged particles travel through a dielectric medium with velocity higher than the speed of light in the medium. The ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT), dedicated to the very-high energy γ-ray Astrophysics, are based on the detection of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic charged particles in a shower induced by TeV photons interacting with the Earth atmosphere. Usually, an IACT consists of a large segmented mirror which reflects the Cherenkov light onto an array of sensors, placed at the focal plane, equipped by fast electronics. Cherenkov light from muons is imaged by an IACT as a ring, when muon hits the mirror, or as an arc when the impact point is outside the mirror. The Cherenkov ring pattern contains information necessary to assess both direction and energy of the incident muon. Taking advantage of the muon detection capability of IACTs, we present a new application of the Cherenkov technique that can be used to perform the muon radiography of volcanoes. The quantitative understanding of the inner structure of a volcano is a key-point to monitor the stages of the volcano activity, to forecast the next eruptive style and, eventually, to mitigate volcanic hazards. Muon radiography shares the same principle as X-ray radiography: muons are attenuated by higher density regions inside the target so that, by measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. To date, muon imaging of volcanic structures has been mainly achieved with detectors made up of scintillator planes. The advantage of using Cherenkov telescopes is that they are negligibly affected by background noise and allow a consistently improved spatial resolution when compared to the majority of the current detectors.

  12. Multiresolution pattern recognition of small volcanos in Magellan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, P.; Anderson, C. H.; Aubele, J. C.; Crumpler, L. S.

    1992-01-01

    The Magellan data is a treasure-trove for scientific analysis of venusian geology, providing far more detail than was previously available from Pioneer Venus, Venera 15/16, or ground-based radar observations. However, at this point, planetary scientists are being overwhelmed by the sheer quantities of data collected--data analysis technology has not kept pace with our ability to collect and store it. In particular, 'small-shield' volcanos (less than 20 km in diameter) are the most abundant visible geologic feature on the planet. It is estimated, based on extrapolating from previous studies and knowledge of the underlying geologic processes, that there should be on the order of 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 6) of these volcanos visible in the Magellan data. Identifying and studying these volcanos is fundamental to a proper understanding of the geologic evolution of Venus. However, locating and parameterizing them in a manual manner is very time-consuming. Hence, we have undertaken the development of techniques to partially automate this task. The goal is not the unrealistic one of total automation, but rather the development of a useful tool to aid the project scientists. The primary constraints for this particular problem are as follows: (1) the method must be reasonably robust; and (2) the method must be reasonably fast. Unlike most geological features, the small volcanos of Venus can be ascribed to a basic process that produces features with a short list of readily defined characteristics differing significantly from other surface features on Venus. For pattern recognition purposes the relevant criteria include the following: (1) a circular planimetric outline; (2) known diameter frequency distribution from preliminary studies; (3) a limited number of basic morphological shapes; and (4) the common occurrence of a single, circular summit pit at the center of the edifice.

  13. Forecasting deflation, intrusion and eruption at inflating volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Stephen; Cortés, Joaquín A.

    2018-01-01

    A principal goal of volcanology is to successfully forecast the start of volcanic eruptions. This paper introduces a general forecasting method, which relies on a stream of monitoring data and a statistical description of a given threshold criterion for an eruption to start. Specifically we investigate the timing of intrusive and eruptive events at inflating volcanoes. The gradual inflation of the ground surface is a well-known phenomenon at many volcanoes and is attributable to pressurised magma accumulating within a shallow chamber. Inflation usually culminates in a rapid deflation event caused by magma escaping from the chamber to produce a shallow intrusion and, in some cases, a volcanic eruption. We show that the ground elevation during 15 inflation periods at Krafla volcano, Iceland, increased with time towards a limiting value by following a decaying exponential with characteristic timescale τ. The available data for Krafla, Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes show that the duration of inflation (t*) is approximately equal to τ. The distribution of t* / τ values follows a log-logistic distribution in which the central 60% of the data lie between 0.99 deflation event starting during a specified time interval to be estimated. The time window in which there is a specified probability of deflation starting can also be forecast, and forecasts can be updated after each new deformation measurement. The method provides stronger forecasts than one based on the distribution of repose times alone and is transferable to other types of monitoring data and/or other patterns of pre-eruptive unrest.

  14. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory seismic data, January to March 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Jennifer S.; Okubo, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) summary presents seismic data gathered during January–March 2009. The seismic summary offers earthquake hypocenters without interpretation as a source of preliminary data and is complete in that most data for events of M≥1.5 are included. All latitude and longitude references in this report are stated in Old Hawaiian Datum.

  15. Geochemistry of mud volcano fluids in the Taiwan accretionary prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Chenfeng; Gieskes, Joris M.; Lee, Typhoon; Yui Tzenfu; Chen Hsinwen

    2004-01-01

    Taiwan is located at the collision boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Asian Continental Plate and is one of the most active orogenic belts in the world. Fluids sampled from 9 sub-aerial mud volcanoes distributed along two major geological structures in southwestern Taiwan, the Chishan fault and the Gutingkeng anticline, were analyzed to evaluate possible sources of water and the degree of fluid-sediment interaction at depth in an accretionary prism. Overall, the Taiwanese mud volcano fluids are characterized by high Cl contents, up to 347 mM, suggesting a marine origin from actively de-watering sedimentary pore waters along major structures on land. The fluids obtained from the Gutingkeng anticline, as well as from the Coastal Plain area, show high Cl, Na, K, Ca, Mg and NH 4 , but low SO 4 and B concentrations. In contrast, the Chishan fault fluids are much less saline (1/4 seawater value), but show much heavier O isotope compositions (δ 18 O=5.1-6.5 %o). A simplified scenario of mixing between sedimentary pore fluids and waters affected by clay dehydration released at depth can explain several crucial observations including heavy O isotopes, radiogenic Sr contents ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr=0.71136-0.71283), and relatively low salinities in the Chishan fluids. Gases isolated from the mud volcanoes are predominantly CH 4 and CO 2 , where the CH 4 -C isotopic compositions show a thermogenic component of δ 13 C=-38 %o. These results demonstrate that active mud volcano de-watering in Taiwan is a direct product of intense sediment accretion and plate collision in the region

  16. Database for volcanic processes and geology of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Jacqueline; Ramsey, David W.; Thoms, Evan; Waitt, Richard B.; Beget, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Augustine Island (volcano) in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, has erupted repeatedly in late-Holocene and historical times. Eruptions typically beget high-energy volcanic processes. Most notable are bouldery debris avalanches containing immense angular clasts shed from summit domes. Coarse deposits of these avalanches form much of Augustine's lower flanks. This geologic map at 1:25,000 scale depicts these deposits, these processes.

  17. HYPOCENTER DISTRIBUTION OF LOW FREQUENCY EVENT AT PAPANDAYAN VOLCANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mifta Hasan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Papandayan volcano is a stratovolcano with irregular cone-shaped has eight craters around the peak. The most active crater in Papandayan is a Mas crater. Distribution of relocated event calculated using Geiger Adaptive Damping Algorithm (GAD shows that the epicenter of the event centered below Mas crater with maximum rms 0.114. While depth of the hypocenter range between 0-2 km and 5-6 km due to activity of steam and gas.

  18. Ring and Volcano Structures Formed by a Metal Dipyrromethene Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Seung Bae; Hahn, Jae Ryang [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Miao, Qing; Shin, Jiyoung; Dolphin, David [Univ. of British Columbia, Columbia (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Dichloromethane liquid droplets containing a cobalt dipyrromethene trimer deposited on a graphite surface were found to form coffee ring, toroid ring, or volcano dot structures due to the redistribution of the solute during solvent evaporation. The shapes and size distributions of the ring structures depended on the drying temperature. The shape differences were attributed to the fact that the solvent evaporation rate controlled the self-assembly process that yielded the coffee stain and pinhole structures.

  19. Monitoring Active Volcanos Using Aerial Images and the Orthoview Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Marsella; Carla Nardinocchi; Cristina Proietti; Leonardo Daga; Mauro Coltelli

    2014-01-01

    In volcanic areas, where it can be difficult to perform direct surveys, digital photogrammetry techniques are rarely adopted for routine volcano monitoring. Nevertheless, they have remarkable potentialities for observing active volcanic features (e.g., fissures, lava flows) and the connected deformation processes. The ability to obtain accurate quantitative data of definite accuracy in short time spans makes digital photogrammetry a suitable method for controlling the evolution of rapidly cha...

  20. Persistentorganic pollutants in Colombia: quantificationand diagnosisfororganochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto García Ubaque

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet Colombia commitments with Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs, the country carried out identification and quantification of organochlorine pesticide stocks, in order to update and consolidate information on storage sites and contaminated soils. Methodology proposed by the United Nations program for development (UNDP was used and covered the following stages: (a consultation of secondary information available in previous inventories, (b review activities related to these products life cycle, (c location of warehouses and sites of destruction or burial and (d visit a sample of identified sites. Colombia has 159 812 kg of DDT in stock and it was estimated 88 629 m3 of contaminated soil by POPs pesticides. It were unable to identify a vast underreporting quantities of pesticides used and contaminated sites, not only in the country, but in inventories in other countries of the region; reflecting that the reported results are partial and contamination from unidentified sources may occur. It is important to intensify activities of research and innovation not only for wastes and contaminated soils treatment, but for agricultural production and crop protection.

  1. Geografía dulce de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Estrada

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available No sin razón en 1976 Germán Castro Caicedo tituló Colombia amarga a una recopilación de informaciones  periodísticas sobre la situación social de nuestro país, las cuales, sin lugar a dudas, justificaban dicho título. Diez años más tarde (diciembre de 1986, el Instituto Distrital de Cultura y Turismo de Bogotá organiza en el Planetario Distrital una conspicua exposición divulgada bajo el nombre de Geografía Dulce de Colombia. Aun cuando se trata de dos realizaciones diametralmente opuestas, en donde la denominación de la primera posee una validez inobjetable, es nuestra intención, con este comentario, no solamente justificar el acertado nombre asignado a la mencionada exposición, sino también rescatar su valioso contenido como expresión sociocultural de las diferentes regiones geográficas que conforman el territorio colombiano.

  2. Colombia: crusading efforts bring signs of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, S

    1989-01-01

    Colombia, like many developing countries, has not committed resources to fight the AIDS problem. They have used the media for condom promotion and other sexually transmitted diseases. There have been 151 deaths caused by AIDS by the end of 1988; 344 cases are known, and 130 additional have tested positive to the virus. Health officials were reluctant to recognize the problem, thinking it was outside their country and that they would not be affected by it. Since then, they have tried to target high risk groups and educate them and assist with testing and counseling. There is a move to make the new drug zidovudine available, but few could afford its high price. The authorities have put transvestite prostitutes in jail and kept them for AIDS testing, but few woman prostitutes have been tested. Up until 1986, only 30% of the Red Cross blood bank supplies were being tested; now 80% are, although it comprises only about 40% of the total supply. Drugs are used heavily, but mostly smoked, in Colombia, yet there is some concern about increased use of needles. The majority of cases in Columbia have been homosexual and bisexual men, but prostitution among men and women is prevalent in large cities such as Bogota. Health officials state that education is the best deterrent, but must be perpetuated so people will be constantly reminded.

  3. Guerra prolongada, negociaciones inciertas en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available GUERRE PROLONGÉE ET NÉGOCIATIONS DE PAIX INCERTAINES EN COLOMBIE. Cet article s’attache aux transformations de la violence en Colombie au cours des années 1990. Il montre combien les phénomènes de violence sont devenus complexes et inextricables avec des dimensions à la fois nationales et internationales. En dépit de son acuité et de son caractère diffus, il estime que la violence peut trouver une solution pacifique et négociée. Este artículo, destaca las transformaciones de la violencia en Colombia durante la década de los 90s. Muestra lo compleja e inmanejable que se ha vuelto, cómo ha pasado a ser hoy un fenómeno no simplemente nacional sino internacional, y cómo, a pesar de todos los obstáculos, puede ser superada. PROTACTED WAR, NEVER-ENDING NEGOTIATIONS IN COLOMBIA Abstract This chapter assesses how the phenomenon of the violence has changed during the decade of the 1990s. It shows how complex and intractable the violence has become, how it is now an international problem, not simply a national one, and how, despite all the obstacles, it might be overcome. It pays special attention to the psychological and cultural implications of the violence.

  4. Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes, Kamchatka as Planetary Analogue Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimova, N.; Izbekov, P. E.; Krupskaya, V.; Muratov, A.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in Mars studies suggest that volcanic rocks, which dominated Martian surface in the past, have been exposed to alteration processes in a water-bearing environment during Noachian, before 3.7 Gy. Active volcanoes on Earth are natural laboratories, where volcanic processes and their associated products can be studied directly. This is particularly important for studying of alteration of juvenile volcanic products in aqueous environment because of the transient nature of some of the alteration products, as well as the environment itself. Terrestrial analogues help us to better understand processes on Mars; they are particularly useful as a test sites for preparation to future Mars missions. In this presentation we describe planetary analogue sites at Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in Kamchatka, which might be helpful for comparative studies and preparation to future Mars missions. Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes are located 75 km south of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, in the southern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The modern volcanic landscape in the area was shaped in Holocene (recent 10,000 years) through intermittent eruption of magmas ranging in composition from basalts to dacites and rhyodacites, with basaltic andesite lavas dominating in the modern relief. Two localities could be of a particular interest: (1) Mutnovsky NW thermal field featuring processes of active hydrothermal alteration of lavas of basaltic andesite and (2) dry lake at the bottom of Gorely caldera featuring products of mechanical disintegration of basaltic andesite lavas by eolian processes with short seasonal sedimentation in aqueous environment.

  5. Pb-210 and Po-210 from active volcanoes in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komura, K.; Uchida, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Ueno, K.

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of Pb-210 and Po-210 in the surface air of volcanic areas is of considerable interest from the viewpoints of geochemistry, geophysics and also health physics, because these nuclides are the useful tracers for the estimation of the residence time or life time of aerosols, and give the significant radiation dose due to inhalation and ingestion through food stuffs. Since the establishment of Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Kanazawa University, in 1976, the measurement of environmental radioactivity has been one of the main subjects, and the measurement of Pb-210 and Po-210 in the surface air of Kagoshima was begun in 1987 to estimate the contribution from Volcano Sakurajima. In this study, the measurement of Pb-210 and Po-210 in air borne particles collected with air samplers, volcanic ash and lava of volcano Sakurajima of which the age of eruption is known. Moreover, the Po-210 in the volcanic gas and sulfur sublimate in the samples collected in four active volcanoes in Hokkaido was measured. The experiment and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Design of Deformation Monitoring System for Volcano Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islamy, M R F; Salam, R A; Khairurrijal; Munir, M M; Irsyam, M

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia has many active volcanoes that are potentially disastrous. It needs good mitigation systems to prevent victims and to reduce casualties from potential disaster caused by volcanoes eruption. Therefore, the system to monitor the deformation of volcano was built. This system employed telemetry with the combination of Radio Frequency (RF) communications of XBEE and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) communication of SIM900. There are two types of modules in this system, first is the coordinator as a parent and second is the node as a child. Each node was connected to coordinator forming a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) with a star topology and it has an inclinometer based sensor, a Global Positioning System (GPS), and an XBEE module. The coordinator collects data to each node, one a time, to prevent collision data between nodes, save data to SD Card and transmit data to web server via GPRS. Inclinometer was calibrated with self-built in calibrator and tested in high temperature environment to check the durability. The GPS was tested by displaying its position in web server via Google Map Application Protocol Interface (API v.3). It was shown that the coordinator can receive and transmit data from every node to web server very well and the system works well in a high temperature environment. (paper)

  7. Design of Deformation Monitoring System for Volcano Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamy, M. R. F.; Salam, R. A.; Munir, M. M.; Irsyam, M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Indonesia has many active volcanoes that are potentially disastrous. It needs good mitigation systems to prevent victims and to reduce casualties from potential disaster caused by volcanoes eruption. Therefore, the system to monitor the deformation of volcano was built. This system employed telemetry with the combination of Radio Frequency (RF) communications of XBEE and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) communication of SIM900. There are two types of modules in this system, first is the coordinator as a parent and second is the node as a child. Each node was connected to coordinator forming a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) with a star topology and it has an inclinometer based sensor, a Global Positioning System (GPS), and an XBEE module. The coordinator collects data to each node, one a time, to prevent collision data between nodes, save data to SD Card and transmit data to web server via GPRS. Inclinometer was calibrated with self-built in calibrator and tested in high temperature environment to check the durability. The GPS was tested by displaying its position in web server via Google Map Application Protocol Interface (API v.3). It was shown that the coordinator can receive and transmit data from every node to web server very well and the system works well in a high temperature environment.

  8. Vulnerability mapping in kelud volcano based on village information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisbaron, D. R.; Wijayanti, H.; Iffani, M.; Winastuti, R.; Yudinugroho, M.

    2018-04-01

    Kelud Volcano is a basaltic andesitic stratovolcano, situated at 27 km to the east of Kediri, Indonesia. Historically, Kelud Volcano has erupted with return period of 9-75 years, had caused nearly 160,000 people living in Tulungagung, Blitar and Kediri District to be in high-risk areas. This study aims to map vulnerability towards lava flows in Kediri and Malang using detailed scale. There are four major variables, namely demography, asset, hazard, and land use variables. PGIS (Participatory Geographic Information System) is employed to collect data, while ancillary data is derived from statistics information, interpretation of high resolution satellite imagery and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Data were obtained from field checks and some from high resolution satellite imagery and UAVs. The output of this research is village-based vulnerability information that becomes a valuable input for local stakeholders to improve local preparedness in areas prone to improved disaster resilience. The results indicated that the highest vulnerability to lava flood disaster in Kelud Volcano is owned by Kandangan Hamlet, Pandean Hamlet and Kacangan Hamlet, because these two hamlets are in the dominant high vulnerability position of 3 out of 4 scenarios (economic, social and equal).

  9. Climbing in the high volcanoes of central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    A chain of volcanoes extends across central Mexico along the 19th parallel, a line just south of Mexico City. The westernmost of these peaks is Nevado de Colima at 4,636 feet above sea level. A subsidiary summit of Nevado de Colima is Volcan de Colima, locally called Fuego (fire) it still emits sulphurous fumes and an occasional plume of smoke since its disastrous eruption in 1941. Parictuin, now dormant, was born in the fall of 1943 when a cornfield suddenly erupted. Within 18 months, the cone grew more than 1,700 feet. Nevado de Toluca is a 15,433-foot volcanic peak south of the city of Toluca. Just southeast of Mexico City are two high volcanoes that are permanently covered by snow: Iztaccihuatl (17,342 fet) and Popocatepetl (17,887 feet) Further east is the third highest mountain in North America: 18,700-foot Citlateptl, or El Pico de Orizaba. North of these high peaks are two volcanoes, 14, 436-foot La Malinche and Cofre de Perote at 14,048 feet. This range of mountains is known variously as the Cordillera de Anahuac, the Sierra Volcanica Transversal, or the Cordillera Neovolcanica. 

  10. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-10-28

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  11. Peeking Beneath the Caldera: Communicating Subsurface Knowledge of Newberry Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark-Moser, M.; Rose, K.; Schultz, J.; Cameron, E.

    2016-12-01

    "Imaging the Subsurface: Enhanced Geothermal Systems and Exploring Beneath Newberry Volcano" is an interactive website that presents a three-dimensional subsurface model of Newberry Volcano developed at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Created using the Story Maps application by ArcGIS Online, this format's dynamic capabilities provide the user the opportunity for multimedia engagement with the datasets and information used to build the subsurface model. This website allows for an interactive experience that the user dictates, including interactive maps, instructive videos and video capture of the subsurface model, and linked information throughout the text. This Story Map offers a general background on the technology of enhanced geothermal systems and the geologic and development history of Newberry Volcano before presenting NETL's modeling efforts that support the installation of enhanced geothermal systems. The model is driven by multiple geologic and geophysical datasets to compare and contrast results which allow for the targeting of potential EGS sites and the reduction of subsurface uncertainty. This Story Map aims to communicate to a broad audience, and provides a platform to effectively introduce the model to researchers and stakeholders.

  12. Pb-210 and Po-210 from active volcanoes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, K; Uchida, K; Yamamoto, M; Ueno, K [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan)

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of Pb-210 and Po-210 in the surface air of volcanic areas is of considerable interest from the viewpoints of geochemistry, geophysics and also health physics, because these nuclides are the useful tracers for the estimation of the residence time or life time of aerosols, and give the significant radiation dose due to inhalation and ingestion through food stuffs. Since the establishment of Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Kanazawa University, in 1976, the measurement of environmental radioactivity has been one of the main subjects, and the measurement of Pb-210 and Po-210 in the surface air of Kagoshima was begun in 1987 to estimate the contribution from Volcano Sakurajima. In this study, the measurement of Pb-210 and Po-210 in air borne particles collected with air samplers, volcanic ash and lava of volcano Sakurajima of which the age of eruption is known. Moreover, the Po-210 in the volcanic gas and sulfur sublimate in the samples collected in four active volcanoes in Hokkaido was measured. The experiment and the results are reported. (K.I.).

  13. Monitoring Active Volcanos Using Aerial Images and the Orthoview Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marsella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In volcanic areas, where it can be difficult to perform direct surveys, digital photogrammetry techniques are rarely adopted for routine volcano monitoring. Nevertheless, they have remarkable potentialities for observing active volcanic features (e.g., fissures, lava flows and the connected deformation processes. The ability to obtain accurate quantitative data of definite accuracy in short time spans makes digital photogrammetry a suitable method for controlling the evolution of rapidly changing large-area volcanic phenomena. The systematic acquisition of airborne photogrammetric datasets can be adopted for implementing a more effective procedure aimed at long-term volcano monitoring and hazard assessment. In addition, during the volcanic crisis, the frequent acquisition of oblique digital images from helicopter allows for quasi-real-time monitoring to support mitigation actions by civil protection. These images are commonly used to update existing maps through a photo-interpretation approach that provide data of unknown accuracy. This work presents a scientific tool (Orthoview that implements a straightforward photogrammetric approach to generate digital orthophotos from single-view oblique images provided that at least four Ground Control Points (GCP and current Digital Elevation Models (DEM are available. The influence of the view geometry, of sparse and not-signalized GCP and DEM inaccuracies is analyzed for evaluating the performance of the developed tool in comparison with other remote sensing techniques. Results obtained with datasets from Etna and Stromboli volcanoes demonstrate that 2D features measured on the produced orthophotos can reach sub-meter-level accuracy.

  14. Large submarine sand-rubble flow on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornari, D J [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY; Moore, J G; Calk, L

    1979-05-01

    Papa'u seamount on the south submarine slope of Kilauea volcano is a large landslide about 19 km long, 6 km wide, and up to 1 km thick with a volume of about 39 km/sup 3/. Dredge hauls, remote camera photographs, and submersible observations indicate that it is composed primarily of unconsolidated angular glassy basalt sand with scattered basalt blocks up to 1 m in size; no lava flows were seen. Sulfur contents of basalt glass from several places on the sand-rubble flow and nearby areas are low (< 240 ppm), indicating that the clastic basaltic material was all erupted on land. The Papa'u sandrubble flow was emplaced during a single flow event fed from a large near-shore bank of clastic basaltic material which in turn was formed as lava flows from the summit area of Kilauea volcano disintegrated when they entered the sea. The current eruptive output of the volcano suggests that the material in the submarine sand-rubble flow represents about 6000 years of accumulation, and that the flow event occurred several thousand years ago.

  15. A repeatable seismic source for tomography at volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ratdomopurbo

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available One major problem associated with the interpretation of seismic signals on active volcanoes is the lack of knowledge about the internal structure of the volcano. Assuming a 1D or a homogeneous instead of a 3D velocity structure leads to an erroneous localization of seismic events. In order to derive a high resolution 3D velocity model ofMt. Merapi (Java a seismic tomography experiment using active sources is planned as a part of the MERAPI (Mechanism Evaluation, Risk Assessment and Prediction Improvement project. During a pre-site survey in August 1996 we tested a seismic source consisting of a 2.5 l airgun shot in water basins that were constructed in different flanks of the volcano. This special source, which in our case can be fired every two minutes, produces a repeatable, identical source signal. Using this source the number of receiver locations is not limited by the number of seismometers. The seismometers can be moved to various receiver locations while the source reproduces the same source signal. Additionally, at each receiver location we are able to record the identical source signal several times so that the disadvantage of the lower energy compared to an explosion source can be reduced by skipping disturbed signals and stacking several recordings.

  16. Contesting and Contextualising CITES: Wildlife Trafficking in Colombia and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodríguez Goyes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article raises the question of whether recently implemented legislation in Colombia and Brazil (1 provides the necessary tools to prevent the harms of wildlife trafficking (WLT and (2 influences humans’ practices concerning the use of nonhuman animals. These questions are investigated from the dual perspectives of green criminology and public policy. The analysis is based on a qualitative empirical study undertaken in Colombia and Brazil whereby we discuss the function of the legislation in Colombia and Brazil in preventing illegal WLT. We consider the legitimacy of different practices of WLT and evaluate them with respect to species justice and environmental justice.

  17. Volcano monitoring using GPS: Developing data analysis strategies based on the June 2007 Kīlauea Volcano intrusion and eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Poland, Michael; Miklius, Asta

    2010-01-01

    The global positioning system (GPS) is one of the most common techniques, and the current state of the art, used to monitor volcano deformation. In addition to slow (several centimeters per year) displacement rates, GPS can be used to study eruptions and intrusions that result in much larger (tens of centimeters over hours-days) displacements. It is challenging to resolve precise positions using GPS at subdaily time intervals because of error sources such as multipath and atmospheric refraction. In this paper, the impact of errors due to multipath and atmospheric refraction at subdaily periods is examined using data from the GPS network on Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i. Methods for filtering position estimates to enhance precision are both simulated and tested on data collected during the June 2007 intrusion and eruption. Comparisons with tiltmeter records show that GPS instruments can precisely recover the timing of the activity.

  18. Tracking the movement of Hawaiian volcanoes; Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    Most, if not all, volcanic eruptions are preceded by surface movements near the volcano. These ground movements are the response of the shallow crust to the accumulation of the magma or the buildup of magma pressure within a subterranean reservoir beneath the volcano. As the magma reservoir expands, the summit and the flanks of the volcano rise and spread apart. Measurements made at many volcanoes show that slow ground movement may precede an eruption by as many as several years. Sudden increases in the rate of ground movement often precede an eruption by a few hours or days.

  19. 2014 volcanic activity in Alaska: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cheryl E.; Dixon, James P.; Neal, Christina A.; Waythomas, Christopher F.; Schaefer, Janet R.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2017-09-07

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest, and seismic events at 18 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2014. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of intermittent ash eruptions from long-active Cleveland and Shishaldin Volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands, and two eruptive episodes at Pavlof Volcano on the Alaska Peninsula. Semisopochnoi and Akutan volcanoes had seismic swarms, both likely the result of magmatic intrusion. The AVO also installed seismometers and infrasound instruments at Mount Cleveland during 2014.

  20. Geophysical research on structure of partly eroded maar volcanoes: Miocene Hnojnice and Oligocene Rychnov volcanoes (northern Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skácelová, Z.; Rapprich, V.; Valenta, Jan; Hartvich, Filip; Šrámek, J.; Radoň, M.; Gaždová, Renata; Nováková, Lucie; Kolínský, Petr; Pécskay, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2010), s. 299-310 ISSN 1802-6222 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : maar–diatreme volcano * ground magnetometry * ground gravity measurements Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.026, year: 2010 www.jgeosci.org/content/jgeosci.072_2010_4_skacelova.pdf

  1. Body Wave and Ambient Noise Tomography of Makushin Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, F.; Thurber, C. H.; Syracuse, E. M.; Ghosh, A.; LI, B.; Power, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Located in the eastern portion of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone, Makushin Volcano is among the most active volcanoes in the United States and has been classified as high threat based on eruptive history and proximity to the City of Unalaska and international air routes. In 2015, five individual seismic stations and three mini seismic arrays of 15 stations each were deployed on Unalaska island to supplement the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) permanent seismic network. This temporary array was operational for one year. Taking advantage of the increased azimuthal coverage and the array's increased earthquake detection capability, we developed body-wave Vp and Vp/Vs seismic images of the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Body-wave tomography results show a complex structure with the upper 5 km of the crust dominated by both positive and negative Vp anomalies. The shallow high-Vp features possibly delineate remnant magma pathways or conduits. Low-Vp regions are found east of the caldera at approximately 6-9 km depth. This is in agreement with previous tomographic work and geodetic models, obtained using InSAR data, which had identified this region as a possible long-term source of magma. We also observe a high Vp/Vs feature extending between 7 and 12 km depth below the caldera, possibly indicating partial melting, although the resolution is diminished at these depths. The distributed stations allow us to further complement body-wave tomography with ambient noise imaging and to obtain higher quality of Vs images. Our data processing includes single station data preparation and station-pair cross-correlation steps (Bensen et al., 2007), and the use of the phase weighted stacking method (Schimmel and Gallart, 2007) to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the cross-correlations. We will show surface-wave dispersion curves, group velocity maps, and ultimately a 3D Vs image. By performing both body wave and ambient noise tomography, we provide a high

  2. Geologic Mapping, Volcanic Stages and Magmatic Processes in Hawaiian Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    The concept of volcanic stages arose from geologic mapping of Hawaiian volcanoes. Subaerial Hawaiian lava successions can be divided generally into three constructional phases: an early (shield) stage dominated by thin-bedded basaltic lava flows commonly associated with a caldera; a later (postshield) stage with much thicker bedded, generally lighter colored lava flows commonly containing clinopyroxene; calderas are absent in this later stage. Following periods of quiescence of a half million years or more, some Hawaiian volcanoes have experienced renewed (rejuvenated) volcanism. Geological and petrographic relations irrespective of chemical composition led to the identification of mappable units on Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui and Hawaii, which form the basis for this 3-fold division of volcanic activity. Chemical data have complicated the picture. There is a growing tendency to assign volcanic stage based on lava chemistry, principally alkalicity, into tholeiitic shield, alkalic postshield, and silica undersaturated rejuvenation, despite the evidence for interbedded tholeiitic and alkalic basalts in many shield formations, and the presence of mildly tholeiitic lavas in some postshield and rejuvenation formations. A consistent characteristic of lava compositions from most postshield formations is evidence for post-melting evolution at moderately high pressures (3-7 kb). Thus, the mapped shield to postshield transitions primarily reflect the disappearance of shallow magma chambers (and associated calderas) in Hawaiian volcanoes, not the earlier (~100 ka earlier in Waianae Volcano) decline in partial melting that leads to the formation of alkalic parental magmas. Petrological signatures of high-pressure evolution are high-temperature crystallization of clinopyroxene and delayed crystallization of plagioclase, commonly to <3 % MgO. Petrologic modeling using pMELTS and MELTS algorithms allows for quantification of the melting and fractionation conditions giving

  3. Update of the volcanic risk map of Colima volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Nuñez Cornu, F. J.; Marquez-Azua, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Colima volcano, located in western Mexico (19° 30.696 N, 103° 37.026 W) began its current eruptive process in February 10, 1999. This event was the basis for the development of two volcanic hazard maps: one for ballistics (rock fall) lahars, and another one for ash fall. During the period of 2003 to 2008 this volcano has had an intense effusive-explosive activity, similar to the one that took place during the period of 1890 through 1900. Intense pre-Plinian eruption in January 20, 1913, generated little economic losses in the lower parts of the volcano thanks to the low population density and low socio-economic activities at the time The current volcanic activity has triggered ballistic projections, pyroclastic and ash flows, and lahars, all have exceeded the maps limits established in 1999. Vulnerable elements within these areas have gradually changed due to the expansion of the agricultural frontier on the east and southeast sides of the Colima volcano. On the slopes of the northwest side, new blue agave Tequilana weber and avocado orchard crops have emerged along with important production of greenhouse tomato, alfalfa and fruit (citrus) crops that will eventually be processed and dried for exportation to the United States and Europe. Also, in addition to the above, large expanses of corn and sugar cane have been planted on the slopes of the volcano since the nineteenth century. The increased agricultural activity has had a direct impact in the reduction of the available forest land area. Coinciding with this increased activity, the 0.8% growth population during the period of 2000 - 2005, - due to the construction of the Guadalajara-Colima highway-, also increased this impact. The growth in vulnerability changed the level of risk with respect to the one identified in the year 1999 (Suarez, 2000), thus motivating us to perform an update to the risk map at 1:25,000 using vector models of the INEGI, SPOT images of different dates, and fieldwork done in order

  4. Mechanism of the 1996-97 non-eruptive volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm at Iliamna Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, D.C.; Power, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A significant number of volcano-tectonic(VT) earthquake swarms, some of which are accompanied by ground deformation and/or volcanic gas emissions, do not culminate in an eruption.These swarms are often thought to represent stalled intrusions of magma into the mid- or shallow-level crust.Real-time assessment of the likelihood that a VTswarm will culminate in an eruption is one of the key challenges of volcano monitoring, and retrospective analysis of non-eruptive swarms provides an important framework for future assessments. Here we explore models for a non-eruptive VT earthquake swarm located beneath Iliamna Volcano, Alaska, in May 1996-June 1997 through calculation and inversion of fault-plane solutions for swarm and background periods, and through Coulomb stress modeling of faulting types and hypocenter locations observed during the swarm. Through a comparison of models of deep and shallow intrusions to swarm observations,we aim to test the hypothesis that the 1996-97 swarm represented a shallow intrusion, or "failed" eruption.Observations of the 1996-97 swarm are found to be consistent with several scenarios including both shallow and deep intrusion, most likely involving a relatively small volume of intruded magma and/or a low degree of magma pressurization corresponding to a relatively low likelihood of eruption. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Embedded ARM system for volcano monitoring in remote areas: application to the active volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-02

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.

  6. Embedded ARM System for Volcano Monitoring in Remote Areas: Application to the Active Volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Peci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARMTM processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (DebianTM as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.

  7. Situation and perspectives for biofuels in Colombia; Situacion y perspectiva de biocombustibles en Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafarov, Viatcheslav; Ojeda, Karina; Sanchez, Eduardo [Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS/CISYC), Bucaramanga (Colombia). Centro de Investigaciones en Simulacion y Control

    2006-07-01

    The article presents the situation, perspectives and forecasting of biofuel production in Colombia, such as bioethanol and biodiesel, take into account that for the country's development it is necessary improve the efficiency of power generation processes and optimization of fuel consumption in the transportation sectors, ensuring rational use of energy. Also presents the 'Programa Nacional de Alcoholes Carburantes' with its legal aspects.

  8. Late Holocene volcanism at Medicine Lake Volcano, northern California Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Champion, Duane E.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2016-05-23

    Late Holocene volcanism at Medicine Lake volcano in the southern Cascades arc exhibited widespread and compositionally diverse magmatism ranging from basalt to rhyolite. Nine well-characterized eruptions have taken place at this very large rear-arc volcano since 5,200 years ago, an eruptive frequency greater than nearly all other Cascade volcanoes. The lavas are widely distributed, scattered over an area of ~300 km2 across the >2,000-km2 volcano. The eruptions are radiocarbon dated and the ages are also constrained by paleomagnetic data that provide strong evidence that the volcanic activity occurred in three distinct episodes at ~1 ka, ~3 ka, and ~5 ka. The ~1-ka final episode produced a variety of compositions including west- and north-flank mafic flows interspersed in time with fissure rhyolites erupted tangential to the volcano’s central caldera, including the youngest and most spectacular lava flow at the volcano, the ~950-yr-old compositionally zoned Glass Mountain flow. At ~3 ka, a north-flank basalt eruption was followed by an andesite eruption 27 km farther south that contains quenched basalt inclusions. The ~5-ka episode produced two caldera-focused dacitic eruptions. Quenched magmatic inclusions record evidence of intrusions that did not independently reach the surface. The inclusions are present in five andesitic, dacitic, and rhyolitic host lavas, and were erupted in each of the three episodes. Compositional and mineralogic evidence from mafic lavas and inclusions indicate that both tholeiitic (dry) and calcalkaline (wet) parental magmas were present. Petrologic evidence records the operation of complex, multi-stage processes including fractional crystallization, crustal assimilation, and magma mixing. Experimental evidence suggests that magmas were stored at 3 to 6 km depth prior to eruption, and that both wet and dry parental magmas were involved in generating the more silicic magmas. The broad distribution of eruptive events and the relative

  9. Automatic readout for nuclear emulsions in muon radiography of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, A.; Bozza, C.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Kose, U.; Lauria, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Miyamoto, S.; Montesi, C.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Russo, A.; Sirignano, C.; Stellacci, S. M.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear emulsions are an effective choice in many scenarios of volcano radiography by cosmic-ray muons. They are cheap and emulsion-based detectors require no on-site power supply. Nuclear emulsion films provide sub-micrometric tracking precision and intrinsic angular accuracy better than 1 mrad. Imaging the inner structure of a volcano requires that the cosmic-ray absorption map be measured on wide angular range. High-absorption directions can be probed by allowing for large statistics, which implies a large overall flux, i.e. wide surface for the detector. A total area of the order of a few m2 is nowadays typical, thanks to the automatic readout tools originally developed for high-energy physics experiments such as CHORUS, PEANUT, OPERA. The European Scanning System is now being used to read out nuclear emulsion films exposed to cosmic rays on the side of volcanoes. The structure of the system is described in detail with respect to both hardware and software. Its present scanning speed of 20 cm2/h/side/microscope is suitable to fulfil the needs of the current exposures of nuclear emulsion films for muon radiograph, but it is worth to notice that applications in volcano imaging are among the driving forces pushing to increase the performances of the system. Preliminary results for the Unzen volcano of a joint effort by research groups in Italy and Japan show that the current system is already able to provide signal/background ratio in the range 100÷10000:1, depending on the quality cuts set in the off-line data analysis. The size of the smallest detectable structures in that experimental setup is constrained by the available statistics in the region of highest absorption to about 50 mrad, or 22 m under the top of the mountain. Another exposure is currently taking data at the Stromboli volcano. Readout of the exposed films is expected to begin in March 2012, and preliminary results will be available soon after. An effort by several universities and INFN has

  10. Colombia: Gateway to Defeating Transnational Hell in the Western Hemisphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiler, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    .... These transnational threats cannot be neutralized without U.S. assistance. The United States has a national interest in Colombia because the illicit drugs from there are destroying large numbers of U.S...

  11. War Without Borders: The Colombia-Ecuador Crisis of 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcella, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    .... For Colombia, the attack demonstrated the new professionalism of its armed forces and police and the continuing success of the strategy of democratic security enunciated by President Alvaro Uribe...

  12. Colombia's Conflicts: The Spillover Effects of a Wider War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millett, Richard

    2002-01-01

    ...." This similar but different series begins a transition of focus from Colombia's specific crises to broader regional and global security concerns, and the upcoming conference in March 2003 entitled...

  13. All projects related to Colombia | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Colombia, South America, Far East Asia, Indonesia, Nepal, Sudan, El Salvador, ... SECTOR, PUBLIC SECTOR, POLICY MAKING, RESEARCH NETWORKS ... Topic: WATER CONSUMPTION, POPULATION GROWTH, ECONOMIC ... and drug trafficking in urban centres in three Latin American countries: Brazil (Rio ...

  14. All projects related to Colombia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, ... Violence in three Latin American cities: A comparative study between Bogota, Lima, ... Topic: Natural disasters, CLIMATOLOGY, Economic and social development, ... SOCIAL STRATIFICATION, CASE STUDIES, RESEARCH NETWORKS, ...

  15. Drugs and Insurgents in Colombia: A Regional Conundrum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Drug trafficking and political insurgency in Colombia could well confront the United States with the most serious security challenge in the Western Hemisphere since the Central American wars of the 1980s...

  16. All projects related to Colombia | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Most research on armed conflict in Colombia has focused on the narcotics trade. ... Topic: METHODOLOGY, Evaluation, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, HEALTH ... Open business is a different way of doing business related to information, ...

  17. Delegation of Externado University Of Colombia Visits China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Invited by the CPAFFC, a 67-member delegation orga- nized and sent by the Externado University of Colombia visited Beijing, Xi’an, Shanghai, Suzhou, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong from June 29 to July 16. In

  18. All projects related to colombia | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ongoing trade reforms and economic restructuring in Latin America have implications for gender ... Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, North and Central America, Uruguay. Program: Employment and Growth.

  19. Colombia's laptop warrior — connectivity for peace and progress ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-03

    Feb 3, 2011 ... Vilma Almendra, a 23-year-old Paez Indian from Colombia, seems to fit ... not live on reserves administered under the Indian Act. "Our people are all over .... donor agencies, and human rights and environmental organizations.

  20. All projects related to Colombia | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Brazil, South America, Colombia, Haiti, North and Central America, Mexico ... complex knowledge economy demands economic, social and environmental data ... The research network on global administrative law (GAL network) was ...

  1. All projects related to Colombia | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... knowledge and culture, in which intellectual property does not play the role of ... Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, North and ... This project aims to facilitate poor people's access to insurance products and ...

  2. Understanding Maternal Mortality in Colombia : the Influence of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding Maternal Mortality in Colombia : the Influence of Health Insurance ... a mandatory social insurance program based on contributions from employees ... of maternal mortality such as socioeconomic status, physical access to care, ...

  3. All projects related to colombia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to study the impacts of reforms to increase participation ... The coastal area of Cartagena, an important tourist destination in Colombia, ... Exploring the Political Economy of Violence in the Border Regions of Latin America.

  4. Healthier, more nutritious potatoes improve food security in Colombia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... Healthier, more nutritious potatoes improve food security in Colombia ... farmers, have high commercial potential, and are popular with consumers. ... children and adolescents is an alarming trend throughout the Caribbean.

  5. Unlocking the Future of Education in Colombia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will address the problem in Colombia by supporting research that helps scale up educational innovations to improve teaching and learning. ... In the last decade, a number of innovations based on information and communication ...

  6. Land holds promise of peace in Colombia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-11-08

    Nov 8, 2011 ... Land Seizures in Northern Colombia and their Effect on the Peasant Movement ... demand attention and a meaningful response from the society around them. ... With funding from IDRC, the Historical Memory Group's work on ...

  7. El Sistema de patentes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viana Barceló

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se realiza un análisis económico del Sistema de Patentes de Colombia. Para ello, se establece el efecto que tienen las patentes concedidas a los inventores foráneos sobre la Inversión Extranjera Directa y el Producto Interno Bruto Nacional, a través de la técnica de regresión de data panel. De igual manera, se identifican los sectores económicos que registran mayores tasas de innovación por parte de los inventores nacionales y extranjeros. Se muestra que el sistema nacional de propiedad intelectual tiene un grado de fortaleza acorde con el resto de países latinoamericanos; para ello, se construye un índice de grado de fortalecimiento de sistema de patente nacional que luego será comparado con el de otros países latinos.Palabras Clave: Sistema de Patentes; Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual; Inversión Directa extranjera; Producto Interno Bruto e innovación tecnológica. The system of patents in ColombiaAbstractIn this document an economic analysis of the System of Patents of Colombia is made. For it, the effect that has the patents granted to the foreign inventors on the Direct Foreign Investment and the Internal Product Gross National, through the technique of regression of data settles down panel. Of equal way, the economic sectors are identified that register greater rates of innovation on the part of the national and foreign inventors.Sample that the national system of intellectual property has a degree of agreed strength with the rest of Latin American countries; for it, an index of degree of fortification of system of national patent is constructed that soon will be compared with the one of other Latin countries.Keywords: System Patent; Rights of Intellectual Property; Foreign Direct Investment; Gross Domestic Product and Technology Innovation.

  8. LA NEUROCIRUGÍA EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rosselli Cock

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available He leído con atención el artículo titulado “Perfil de la neurocirugía en Colombia: 2015”, aparecido en su edición 111. En esta publicación, el autor hace un amplio recorrido por campos de la demografía, la historia, la dinámica social y las ciencias administrativas (lamentablemente sin citar sus bases documentales. Cuando aterriza su tema en la neurocirugía en Colombia, afirma que en 2002 había 324 neurocirujanos en el país. Ese número de neurocirujanos fue justamente el que se encontró en el estudio de oferta y demanda de médicos especialistas (proyecto MEDEA que yo dirigí en 2000 y que publicamos en 2001 (1. Desde ese momento era clara la problemática de la especialidad. Ya decía entonces nuestro estudio: “La tasa de neurocirujanos en Colombia es similar a la de Canadá, Suiza y Australia, y el triple de la del Reino Unido. En el contexto de un país en desarrollo, con una red hospitalaria deficiente, esta tasa es claramente excesiva” (2. Alertábamos también sobre el número creciente de nuevos especialistas, muchos de ellos formados fuera del país. La preocupación por el futuro de la neurocirugía ocurre también en otras latitudes. Una encuesta a una muestra de 783 miembros de la Asociación Americana de Neurocirujanos (AANS mostró que 52 % creían que su ejercicio profesional estaba empeorando, mientras que 57 % cumplían criterios de agotamiento (“burnout”. Cabe agregar que la principal de las preocupaciones de este grupo de neurocirujanos era la búsqueda de un equilibrio entre su trabajo y la vida por fuera del hospital (3.

  9. Impuestos y demanda de cigarrillos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Maldonado

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivo Estimar elasticidades precio e ingreso de la demanda agregada de cigarrillos para Colombia mediante el control de cambios estructurales en el mercado desde finales de los años 90, para identificar espacios de política de impuestos que mejoren la salud pública y aumenten los recaudos fiscales. Métodos La medición de la demanda agregada de cigarrillos utiliza los ingresos brutos reportados en la declaración del impuesto al valor agregado (IVA a la Dirección de Impuestos y Aduanas Nacionales de Colombia (DIAN por la industria de fabricación de productos de tabaco, con descuento de las exportaciones. Se obtuvo una serie de tiempo trimestral para el período 1994–2014. La estimación econométrica por mínimos cuadrados en dos etapas (2SLS controla por la endogeneidad del precio y utiliza un conjunto de variables dummy para controlar por cambios estructurales en el mercado y en su regulación. Resultados La demanda es, desde el punto de vista estadístico, sensible al precio y al ingreso. La elasticidad precio de la demanda es -0,78 y la elasticidad ingreso es 0,61. Conclusiones La demanda inelástica implica que es posible, a través de impuestos al consumo de cigarrillo, alcanzar metas de salud pública y aumentar el recaudo de manera simultánea. Los resultados también sugieren que el aumento considerable del ingreso de los hogares de Colombia en la primera década del siglo xxi generó aumento del poder de compra. Este, al no ir acompañado de un aumento en el impuesto, impulsó el consumo de cigarrillo, con efectos negativos en salud pública, y se desperdició una oportunidad para aumentar el recaudo fiscal.

  10. La Tragedia de Armero, Colombia, Agrega una Nueva Patología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Albornoz Plata

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Geofagia Masiva Imperiosa

    Homenaje a un gran amigo, médico excepcional:

    Dr. Carlos Reussi
    Buenos Aires, Sbre/93

    Summary

    The town of Armero, Colombia S.A. In November 13/1985 was destroyed in 15 minutes, due to the eruption ofthe volcano “Nevado del Ruiz”. Armero had 28.000 in habitants, and 25.000 died and 3.000 survivied: many of these were forced to swallow great amounts of mud and lahar, and this mixture produced an acute abdomen with clinical picture of colonic obstruction.

    Herewith are descrived 7 cases with the new pathology of obstruction because to “Imperative massive Geophagia”.

    The treatment is medical with evacuating enemas. From these 7cases one died beca use of Extraintestinal causes (infection, trauma, etc..

    The others 6 survivied; the three first cases were laparotomized with the presumption of rupture of any viscus, but at surgery was found only the obstruction of the colon. All were medically treated with sucess.

    Sumario
    La ciudad de Armero en Colombia S.A., el 13 de noviembre de 1985, por explosión del volcán Nevado del Ruiz, sucumbió en su totalidad en 15 minutos.

    De 28.000 habitantes sólo hubo 3.000 sobrevivientes. Muchos se vieron forzados, para sobrevivir, a ingerir gran cantidad de lodo lahar, lo cual ocasionó una obstrucción de colon.

    Se describen 7 casos con esta modalidad de obstrucción por GEOFAGIA MASIVA IMPERIOSA.

    El tratamiento es médico por enemas evacuadores. 6 de los pacientes curaron totalmente y uno murió por causas extraintestinales (infección, trauma, etc. los tres primeros fueron laparotomizados con la presunción de ruptura visceral, pero la cirugía mostró solamente la obstrucción del colon. El tratamiento médico fue exitoso...

  11. Bayesian estimation of magma supply, storage, and eruption rates using a multiphysical volcano model: Kīlauea Volcano, 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kyle R.; Poland, Michael P.

    2016-08-01

    Estimating rates of magma supply to the world's volcanoes remains one of the most fundamental aims of volcanology. Yet, supply rates can be difficult to estimate even at well-monitored volcanoes, in part because observations are noisy and are usually considered independently rather than as part of a holistic system. In this work we demonstrate a technique for probabilistically estimating time-variable rates of magma supply to a volcano through probabilistic constraint on storage and eruption rates. This approach utilizes Bayesian joint inversion of diverse datasets using predictions from a multiphysical volcano model, and independent prior information derived from previous geophysical, geochemical, and geological studies. The solution to the inverse problem takes the form of a probability density function which takes into account uncertainties in observations and prior information, and which we sample using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Applying the technique to Kīlauea Volcano, we develop a model which relates magma flow rates with deformation of the volcano's surface, sulfur dioxide emission rates, lava flow field volumes, and composition of the volcano's basaltic magma. This model accounts for effects and processes mostly neglected in previous supply rate estimates at Kīlauea, including magma compressibility, loss of sulfur to the hydrothermal system, and potential magma storage in the volcano's deep rift zones. We jointly invert data and prior information to estimate rates of supply, storage, and eruption during three recent quasi-steady-state periods at the volcano. Results shed new light on the time-variability of magma supply to Kīlauea, which we find to have increased by 35-100% between 2001 and 2006 (from 0.11-0.17 to 0.18-0.28 km3/yr), before subsequently decreasing to 0.08-0.12 km3/yr by 2012. Changes in supply rate directly impact hazard at the volcano, and were largely responsible for an increase in eruption rate of 60-150% between 2001 and

  12. Bayesian estimation of magma supply, storage, and eruption rates using a multiphysical volcano model: Kīlauea Volcano, 2000–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kyle R.; Poland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Estimating rates of magma supply to the world's volcanoes remains one of the most fundamental aims of volcanology. Yet, supply rates can be difficult to estimate even at well-monitored volcanoes, in part because observations are noisy and are usually considered independently rather than as part of a holistic system. In this work we demonstrate a technique for probabilistically estimating time-variable rates of magma supply to a volcano through probabilistic constraint on storage and eruption rates. This approach utilizes Bayesian joint inversion of diverse datasets using predictions from a multiphysical volcano model, and independent prior information derived from previous geophysical, geochemical, and geological studies. The solution to the inverse problem takes the form of a probability density function which takes into account uncertainties in observations and prior information, and which we sample using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Applying the technique to Kīlauea Volcano, we develop a model which relates magma flow rates with deformation of the volcano's surface, sulfur dioxide emission rates, lava flow field volumes, and composition of the volcano's basaltic magma. This model accounts for effects and processes mostly neglected in previous supply rate estimates at Kīlauea, including magma compressibility, loss of sulfur to the hydrothermal system, and potential magma storage in the volcano's deep rift zones. We jointly invert data and prior information to estimate rates of supply, storage, and eruption during three recent quasi-steady-state periods at the volcano. Results shed new light on the time-variability of magma supply to Kīlauea, which we find to have increased by 35–100% between 2001 and 2006 (from 0.11–0.17 to 0.18–0.28 km3/yr), before subsequently decreasing to 0.08–0.12 km3/yr by 2012. Changes in supply rate directly impact hazard at the volcano, and were largely responsible for an increase in eruption rate of 60–150% between

  13. A NEW SPECIES OF ACAMPTOPOEUM FROM COLOMBIA (HYMENOPTERA: ANDRENIDAE: PANURGINAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONZÁLEZ VÍCTOR H.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the panurginae bee genus Acamptopoeum (Andrenidae:Calliopsini, from a xeric highland area in the Eastern Andes of Colombia is describedand illustrated. Acamptopoeum fernandezi sp. nov., can be recognized by the blackintegument without blue or green reflections and the short, sparse white pubescenceon the body, not forming apical bands of setae on metasoma. A. prinii is alsoreported for the first time for Colombia.

  14. DERECHO PROCESAL CONSTITUCIONAL Y DERECHO PROBATORIO CONSTITUCIONAL EN COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nisimblat, Nattan

    2012-01-01

    El presente documento da cuenta del desarrollo actual del Derecho Procesal Constitucional en Colombia, determina la aplicabilidad de los principios generales del proceso y de la prueba en los procesos contenciosos subjetivos, y resuelve sobre la existencia de un derecho probatorio constitucional. This document reports on the current development of the Constitutional Procedural Law in Colombia, determines the applicability of generalprinciples of the process and the evidence in subjective c...

  15. How Military Actions Affected Citizen Security During Plan Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    of Colombia) CERAC Centro de Recursos para el Análisis de Conflictos (Resource Center for Conflict Analysis) CINEPP/PPP Centro de Investigación... Humanos y el Desplazamiento (Consultancy for Human Rights and Displacement) ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean ELN...cuantitativa” [Demobilized groups and forced displacement in Colombia: A quantitative approximation], Consultoría para los Derechos Humanos y el Desplazamiento

  16. Amendment of the Foreign lnvestment Juridical regime in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vargas Guzman

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia, integrated in the Andean Group, is now going through a period of economic and institutional modernization and has initiated a serie of modifications, specially of its international trade, finantial, tax, exchange and labour regimes. These have involved some changes which guarantee legislative stability to investors and thus set the grounds for the foreign participation in the economic modernization and internationalization process in Colombia. These facilities need the support of developed countries to achieve its aims.

  17. Territorial perspective of agricultural extension policies in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Juan Patricio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a historic perspective of agricultural extension in Colombia and highlights its scope in relationship to regional development. Four periods are identified, which show that policies have evolved towards a territorial and decentralized agricultural extension. However, this trend has not been consolidated in recent years. It is suggested that Colombia should recover an approach of agricultural extension that integrates the productive dimension with a territorial perspective.

  18. State of the knowledge of flora of hepaticas of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe M, Jaime; Gradstein, S Rob

    1999-01-01

    The Colombian hepatic flora is a very rich one. About 60% of all the species of tropical America and one sixth of the world's hepaticas occur in Colombia. The country has more species than the whole of Africa south of the Sahara and almost twice as many as Europe. The new catalogue of the hepaticas of Colombia accepts 840 species (in 36 families and 136 genera): 832 species of Hepaticae and 8 species of Anthocerotae

  19. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MYRRHINIUM ATROPURPUREUM VAR. OCTANDRUM (MYRTACEAE: MYRTINAE EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARRA-O. CARLOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se documenta el redescubrimiento de Myrrhinium atropurpureum var. octandrum(Myrteae DC., Myrtaceae, taxón prácticamente desconocido en Colombia. Se presentala descripción del taxón, así como notas sobre su distribución en Colombia, elhábitat en que se desarrolla y su posible estatus dentro de las categorías de la ListaRoja de la UICN.

  20. Determining rainfall thresholds that trigger landslides in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayorga Marquez, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    Considering that rainfall is the natural event that more often triggers landslides, it is important to study the relationship between this phenomenon and the occurrence of earth mass movements, by determining rainfall thresholds that trigger landslides in different zones of Colombia. The research presents a methodology that allows proposing rainfall thresholds that trigger landslides in Colombia, by means of a relationship between the accumulated rain in the soil (antecedent rainfall) and the rain that falls the day of the landslide occurrence (event rainfall)

  1. Modeling volcano growth on the Island of Hawaii: deep-water perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent ocean-bottom geophysical surveys, dredging, and dives, which complement surface data and scientific drilling at the Island of Hawaii, document that evolutionary stages during volcano growth are more diverse than previously described. Based on combining available composition, isotopic age, and geologically constrained volume data for each of the component volcanoes, this overview provides the first integrated models for overall growth of any Hawaiian island. In contrast to prior morphologic models for volcano evolution (preshield, shield, postshield), growth increasingly can be tracked by age and volume (magma supply), defining waxing alkalic, sustained tholeiitic, and waning alkalic stages. Data and estimates for individual volcanoes are used to model changing magma supply during successive compositional stages, to place limits on volcano life spans, and to interpret composite assembly of the island. Volcano volumes vary by an order of magnitude; peak magma supply also varies sizably among edifices but is challenging to quantify because of uncertainty about volcano life spans. Three alternative models are compared: (1) near-constant volcano propagation, (2) near-equal volcano durations, (3) high peak-tholeiite magma supply. These models define inconsistencies with prior geodynamic models, indicate that composite growth at Hawaii peaked ca. 800–400 ka, and demonstrate a lower current rate. Recent age determinations for Kilauea and Kohala define a volcano propagation rate of 8.6 cm/yr that yields plausible inception ages for other volcanoes of the Kea trend. In contrast, a similar propagation rate for the less-constrained Loa trend would require inception of Loihi Seamount in the future and ages that become implausibly large for the older volcanoes. An alternative rate of 10.6 cm/yr for Loa-trend volcanoes is reasonably consistent with ages and volcano spacing, but younger Loa volcanoes are offset from the Kea trend in age-distance plots. Variable magma flux

  2. Geoheritage value of the UNESCO site at Leon Viejo and Momotombo volcano, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Navarro, Martha; Espinoza, Eveling; Delgado, Hugo

    2017-04-01

    The Momotombo volcano has a special place in the history of Nicaragua. It is perfectly visible from the Capital, Managua, and from the major city of Leon. The old capital "Leon Viejo", founded in 1524 was abandoned in 1610, after a series of earthquakes and some major eruptions from Momotombo. The site was subsequently covered by Momotombo ash. A major geothermal power plant stands at the base of the volcano. Momotombo had been dormant for a hundred years, but had maintained high fumarole temperatures (900°C), indicating magma had been close to the surface for decades. In recent years, seismic activity has increased around the volcano. In December 2015, after a short ash eruption phase the volcano erupted lava, then a string of Vulcanian explosions. The volcano is now in a phase of small Vulcanian explosions and degassing. The Leon Viejo World Heritage site is at risk to mainly ash fall from the volcano, but the abandonment of the old city was primarily due to earthquakes. Additional risks come from high rainfall during hurricanes. There is an obvious link between the cultural site (inscribed under UNESCO cultural criteria) and the geological environment. First, the reactivation of Momotombo volcano makes it more important to revise the hazard of the site. At the same time, Leon Viejo can provide a portal for outreach related to the volcano and for geological risk in general. To maximise this, we provide a geosite inventory of the main features of Momotombo, and it's environs, that can be used as the first base for such studies. The volcano was visited by many adventure tourists before the 2015/2016 eruption, but is out of bounds at present. Alternative routes, around the volcano could be made, to adapt to the new situation and to show to visitors more of the geodiversity of this fascinating volcano-tectonic and cultural area.

  3. Analysis of Distribution of Volcanoes around the Korean Peninsula and the Potential Effects on Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-kyeong; Kim, Sung-wook

    2017-04-01

    Since the scale and disaster characteristics of volcanic eruptions are determined by their geological features, it is important not only to grasp the current states of the volcanoes in neighboring countries around the Korean Peninsula, but also to analyze the tectonic settings, tectonic regions, geological features, volcanic types, and eruption histories of these volcanoes. Volcanic data were based on the volcano information registered with the Global Volcanism Program at the Smithsonian Institute. We created a database of 289 volcanoes around Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan, and the Kamchatka area in Russia, and then identified a high-risk group of 29 volcanoes that are highly likely to affect the region, based on conditions such as volcanic activity, types of rock at risk of eruption, distance from Seoul, and volcanoes having Plinian eruption history with volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of 4 or more. We selected 29 hazardous volcanoes, including Baekdusan, Ulleungdo, and 27 Japanese volcanoes that can cause widespread ashfall on the Korean peninsula by potentially explosive eruptions. In addition, we identified ten volcanoes that should be given the highest priority, through an analysis of data available in literature, such as volcanic ash dispersion results from previous Japanese eruptions, the definition of a large-scale volcano used by Japan's Cabinet Office, and examination of cumulative magma layer volumes from Japan's quaternary volcanoes. We expect that predicting the extent of the spread of ash caused by this hazardous activity and analyzing its impact on the Korean peninsula will be help to predict volcanic ash damage as well as provide direction for hazard mitigation research. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant [MPSS-NH-2015-81] through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.

  4. Long-term changes in explosive and effusive behaviour at andesitic arc volcanoes: Chronostratigraphy of the Centre Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coussens, Maya; Cassidy, Michael; Watt, Sebastian F. L.; Jutzeler, Martin; Talling, Peter J.; Barfod, Dan; Gernon, Thomas M.; Taylor, Rex; Hatter, Stuart J.; Palmer, Martin R.; Montserrat Volcano Observatory

    2017-03-01

    Volcanism on Montserrat (Lesser Antilles arc) has migrated southwards since the formation of the Silver Hills 2.5 Ma, and has formed three successively active volcanic centres. The Centre Hills volcano was the focus of volcanism from 1-0.4 Ma, before activity commenced at the currently active Soufrière Hills volcano. The history of activity at these two volcanoes provides an opportunity to investigate the pattern of volcano behaviour on an andesitic arc island over the lifetime of individual volcanoes. Here, we describe the pyroclastic stratigraphy of subaerial exposures around central Montserrat; identifying 11 thick (> 1 m) pumiceous units derived from sustained explosive eruptions of Centre Hills from 0.8-0.4 Ma. Over 10 other, less well- exposed pumiceous units have also been identified. The pumice-rich units are interbedded with andesite lava breccias derived from effusive, dome-forming eruptions of Centre Hills. The stratigraphy indicates that large (up to magnitude 5) explosive eruptions occurred throughout the history of Centre Hills, alongside effusive activity. This behaviour at Centre Hills contrasts with Soufrière Hills, where deposits from sustained explosive eruptions are much less common and restricted to early stages of activity at the volcano, from 175-130 ka. Subsequent eruptions at Soufriere Hills have been dominated by andesitic effusive eruptions. The bulk composition, petrography and mineral chemistry of volcanic rocks from Centre Hills and Soufrière Hills are similar throughout the history of both volcanoes, except for occasional, transient departures to different magma compositions, which mark shifts in vent location or dominant eruption style. For example, the final recorded eruption of Centre Hills, before the initiation of activity at Soufrière Hills, was more silicic than any other identified eruption on Montserrat; and the basaltic South Soufrière Hills episode marked the transition to the current stage of predominantly effusive

  5. Detection, Source Location, and Analysis of Volcano Infrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Kathleen F.

    The study of volcano infrasound focuses on low frequency sound from volcanoes, how volcanic processes produce it, and the path it travels from the source to our receivers. In this dissertation we focus on detecting, locating, and analyzing infrasound from a number of different volcanoes using a variety of analysis techniques. These works will help inform future volcano monitoring using infrasound with respect to infrasonic source location, signal characterization, volatile flux estimation, and back-azimuth to source determination. Source location is an important component of the study of volcano infrasound and in its application to volcano monitoring. Semblance is a forward grid search technique and common source location method in infrasound studies as well as seismology. We evaluated the effectiveness of semblance in the presence of significant topographic features for explosions of Sakurajima Volcano, Japan, while taking into account temperature and wind variations. We show that topographic obstacles at Sakurajima cause a semblance source location offset of 360-420 m to the northeast of the actual source location. In addition, we found despite the consistent offset in source location semblance can still be a useful tool for determining periods of volcanic activity. Infrasonic signal characterization follows signal detection and source location in volcano monitoring in that it informs us of the type of volcanic activity detected. In large volcanic eruptions the lowermost portion of the eruption column is momentum-driven and termed the volcanic jet or gas-thrust zone. This turbulent fluid-flow perturbs the atmosphere and produces a sound similar to that of jet and rocket engines, known as jet noise. We deployed an array of infrasound sensors near an accessible, less hazardous, fumarolic jet at Aso Volcano, Japan as an analogue to large, violent volcanic eruption jets. We recorded volcanic jet noise at 57.6° from vertical, a recording angle not normally feasible

  6. Marantáceas Nuevas de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Lyman B.

    1948-06-01

    Full Text Available Identificando numeroso material botánico en el United States National Herbarium, hemos hallado varias especies de la familia Marantaceae, especialmente de Colombia, que todavía no han sido descritas. No intentamos tratar sobre todas ellas en el presente trabajo, sino que nos limitamos a describir las más notables, dejando las demás para un estudio posterior, cuando se disponga de material más completo. Para poder entender con exactitud la estructura de las brácteas menores, así como de los pétalos y el androceo de estas plantas, no obstante lo mucho que se puede averiguar con ejemplares secos de herbario, es necesario que las observaciones se hagan sobre material vivo. La necesidad de estudiar en vivo las Marantáceas es mayor que En la gran mayoría de las familias que componen las Fanerógamas.

  7. Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Toro Calderón

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA in Colombia constitutes the primary tool for making decisions with respect to projects, works and activities (PWA with potential for significant environmental impacts. In the case of the infrastructure of the PWA, the EIA is mandatory and determines the environmental license (EL for construction and operation. This paper analyzes the methods used to assess the environmental impact of the PWA that have applied for licenses with the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. It was found that the method most frequently used is the qualitative proposal by Conesa, with modifications that reduce the effectiveness of the EIA and favor the subjectivity and bias of the evaluator. Finally a series of recom­mendations to improve the process in the country are proposed.

  8. Nueva prospectiva para la paz de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Vargas Velásquez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone explicar la evolucion y las causas de la violencia en Colombia, la cual tiene en el conflicto armado una forma de expresión. Sobre este se analizan los factores que han permitido la permanencia del movimiento guerrillero en el país, a lo largo de cuatro décadas, antes y después de la guerra fría. Asimismo, se exploran los factores que incidieron en la ruptura del proceso de paz, entre el gobierno nacional del presidente Andrés Pastrana y las Farc. Finalmente, se reflexiona sobre las posibilidades de una nueva negociación con las guerrillas bajo el mandato del presidente Uribe y sobre las dificultades históricas comunes a los procesos de paz en el país, eventos en los cuales ha prevalecido una falta de coordinación entre los funcionarios civiles y militares.

  9. Etnic background and academic performance in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Sanchez-Jabba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, students from an ethnic group have a lower academic achievement with respect totheir non-ethnic peers in standardized test scores on math and language. This gap is persistentat a state level, especially in high ethnic density states. Using information from the state academictest (SABER 11, this study corroborates the existence of an academic gap between ethnicand non-ethnic students and, additionally, decomposes it in factors related to observable characteristics,such as family and school; and non-observable factors. The methodology proposed byBlinder and Oaxaca applied to quantile regression is used in order to determine the existence oftest score gaps throughout the distribution of academic performance. Results indicate that forstates where there is a statistically significant gap, a sizeable portion of it is attributed to nonobservablefactors. Nonetheless, at distinct levels of academic performance, the gap size and theextent to which it can be attributed non-observable factors vary according to the state

  10. Energy scenarios for Colombia - Environmental Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Ricardo A; Vesga A, Daniel R; Boman, Ulf

    2000-01-01

    The planning unit of the Colombian ministry of energy -UPME -has done an energy scenario project for Colombia with a 20-year horizon (vision year 2020) in this project the scenario methodology was used in a systemic way involving a great number of local and international energy experts. As a result four energy scenarios were designed and in all of them the possible evolution of all energy was analyzed. In this article a description of the used methodology is presented with the developed scenarios. Also a discussion of the long-range future environmental considerations in the energy sector, taking into account the developed scenarios, is presented. Finally some conclusions and recommendations are presented

  11. Income inequality and health in Colombia

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    Sandra Rodríguez Acosta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to examine independent of the individual socioeconomic status, the effect of the contextual economic conditions on the self-rated health and, second, to explore region-level mechanisms that could explain the influence of the structural economic conditions on the low self-rated health status. For this, we use a multilevel analysis that allows us to distinguish between the individual and the contextual factors influencing the self-rated health. The results show that the socioeconomic status is an important determinant of the self-rated health of population in Colombia. However, significant differences remain in the health perception, even after controlling for individual wealth, education level and ethnicity. These differences only disappear when controlling for income inequality in the analysis.

  12. psicólogo en Colombia

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    Víctor Hugo Charria Ortiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, en Colombia, ha crecido el interés por la identificación y evaluación de las competencias como elemento de formación y posterior desarrollo profesional. Es de interés de este artículo, abordar el concepto de competencia a partir de múltiples definiciones y posturas teóricas del concepto, y que dan cuenta al lector acerca de la pluralidad que entrañan según sea su utilización. También se mostrarán diferentes clasificaciones que los estudiosos del constructo atribuyen a la competencia y, finalmente, se describirán algunos estudios y posiciones que se han desarrollado sobre las competencias del psicólogo profesional, con énfasis en el caso colombiano.

  13. Women, truth, justice and reparation in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Ibarra Melo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper account for the main collective actions undertaken by two women networks in Colombia: Women’s Peace Route and the Colombian Women Initiative for Peace, during transition justice process and the implementation of the Justice and Peace Law (2004-2009. From a sociological approach to the political process and the gender category, this paper discusses how gender ideologies inform new ways of mobilization affecting discourses, purposes and repertoires of those claiming identities and defending human rights. The main conclusion here is that the feminist influence in redistribution and acknowledgement claims for victims from the armed conflict have encouraged collective actions that begin to modify their relationship to the State. This is proved by their achievements at Court and social acknowledgement victims have gained as social actors.

  14. Imaginaries of Judicial Practices in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Buchely

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the emotions of users and functionaries involved in the justice system and the administration of justice in Cali, Colombia. The analysis presented argues that the state not only employs a bureaucratic rational language but also invokes emotions and feelings. In this sense, it is not only the central imaginaries of the state justice system and judicial processes but also the idea of justice itself that is marked by tediousness, delay and chaos, imaginaries of the system that were identified by the users and the officials involved in the administration of the system. There is no justice if it is not a process that is tedious, marked by ritual, mysticism, disorder and difficulties. These findings demonstrate that, against liberal discourses that emphasize the order, unity and rationality of public actions, that the power of the state actually operates through the disaggregated, the irrational and the emotional, a much wider and inexplicable framework.

  15. Measuring illicit cigarette trade in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Norman; Llorente, Blanca Amalia; Iglesias, Roberto Magno; Escobar, Diego

    2018-03-14

    By 2016, tobacco industry provided the only illicit trade estimates in Colombia and used these to discourage tax increases since the 1990s. To establish the viability of a threefold hike in the excise tax, policy makers needed unbiased estimates of the illicit cigarette. To estimate the size of illicit cigarette trade in five Colombian cities (63% of the market), analyse characteristics of smokers of illicit cigarettes and compare market share results with one industry-funded survey. Street cross-sectional survey with smokers' self-report on consumption pattern, last purchase information and direct observation of smoker's packs. Sampling frame: smokers, men and women, 12 years old or older, all income levels, resident in five Colombian cities (Bogotá, Medellín, Cali, Cartagena and Cúcuta) with 1 733 316 smokers in 2013. Sample size 1697, simple random sample by city, sampling weights based on age groups and cities. Confidence level 95%, margin of error 3.5% for Bogotá and Medellín and 5% for the other three cities. Data collection period: 24 August-14 September 2016. Illicit cigarettes represent 3.5% of consumption in the five cities, a much lower estimate than the industry data. There are significant differences across cities, with Bogotá at the bottom (1.5%) and Cúcuta at the top (22.8%). The low overall penetration of illicit cigarettes in Colombia indicates that the industry's warnings against tax increases are not justified. The limited importance of tax levels as determinant of consumption of illicit cigarettes is also suggested by the differences across cities, all of them with the same tax regime. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Models of Hawaiian volcano growth and plume structure: Implications of results from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    OpenAIRE

    DePaolo, D. J.; Stolper, E. M.

    1996-01-01

    The shapes of typical Hawaiian volcanoes are simply parameterized, and a relationship is derived for the dependence of lava accumulation rates on volcano volume and volumetric growth rate. The dependence of lava accumulation rate on time is derived by estimating the eruption rate of a volcano as it traverses the Hawaiian plume, with the eruption rate determined from a specified radial dependence of magma generation in the plume and assuming that a volcano captures melt from a circular area ce...

  17. Constructing a reference tephrochronology for Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Kristi; Coombs, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in Alaska's populous Cook Inlet region. Past on-island work on pre-historic tephra deposits mainly focused on using tephra layers as markers to help distinguish among prevalent debris-avalanche deposits on the island (Waitt and Beget, 2009, USGS Prof Paper 1762), or as source material for petrogenetic studies. No comprehensive reference study of tephra fall from Augustine Volcano previously existed. Numerous workers have identified Holocene-age tephra layers in the region surrounding Augustine Island, but without well-characterized reference deposits, correlation back to the source volcano is difficult. The purpose of this detailed tephra study is to provide a record of eruption frequency and magnitude, as well as to elucidate physical and chemical characteristics for use as reference standards for comparison with regionally distributed Augustine tephra layers. Whole rock major- and trace-element geochemistry, deposit componentry, and field context are used to correlate tephra units on the island where deposits are coarse grained. Major-element glass geochemistry was collected for use in correlating to unknown regional tephra. Due to the small size of the volcanic island (9 by 11 km in diameter) and frequent eruptive activity, on-island exposures of tephra deposits older than a couple thousand years are sparse, and the lettered Tephras B, M, C, H, I, and G of Waitt and Beget (2009) range in age from 370-2200 yrs B.P. There are, however, a few exposures on the south side of the volcano, within about 2 km of the vent, where stratigraphic sections that extend back to the late Pleistocene glaciation include coarse pumice-fall deposits. We have linked the letter-named tephras from the coast to these higher exposures on the south side using physical and chemical characteristics of the deposits. In addition, these exposures preserve at least 5 older major post-glacial eruptions of Augustine. These ultra

  18. Increased Melting of Glaciers during Cotopaxi volcano awakening in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Patricio; Vallejo, Silvia; Almeida, Marco; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Caceres, Bolivar

    2016-04-01

    Cotopaxi (5897 m), located about 50 km south of Quito (Ecuador), is one of the most active volcanoes in the Andes and its historical eruptions have caused a great impact on the population by the generation of lahars along its three main drainages (N, S, E). Starting on April 2015 the seismic monitoring networks and the SO2 gas detection network in May 2015 showed a significant increase from their background values, in June a geodetic instrument located in the NE flank started to record inflation; all this indicated the beginning of a new period of unrest. On August 14, five small phreatic explosions occurred, accompanied by large gas and ash emissions, ash falls were reported to the W of the volcano and to the S of Quito capital city. Three new episodes of ash and gas emissions occurred afterwards and towards the end of November 2015, the different monitoring parameters indicated a progressive reduction in the activity of the volcano. Since August 18 almost weekly overflights were made in order to conduct thermal (FLIR camera), visual and SO2 gas monitoring. Towards the end of August thermal measurements showed for the first time the presence of new thermal anomalies (13.5 to 16.3 °C) located in the crevices of the N glaciers, at the same time fumarolic gases were observed coming out from those fractures. On a flight made on September 3, the presence of water coming out from the basal fronts of the northern glaciers was clearly observed and the formation of narrow streams of water running downslope, while it was evident the appearance of countless new crevices in the majority of glacier ends, but also new cracks and rockslides on the upper flanks. All this led to the conclusion that an abnormal process was producing the melting of the glaciers around the volcano. Starting on September it was possible to observe the presence of small secondary lahars descending several streams and we estimated that many of them are due to increased glacier melting. Later

  19. Catalogue of satellite photography of the active volcanoes of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiken, G.

    1976-01-01

    A catalogue is presented of active volcanoes as viewed from Earth-orbiting satellites. The listing was prepared of photographs, which have been screened for quality, selected from the earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) and Skylab, Apollo and Gemini spacecraft. There is photography of nearly every active volcano in the world; the photographs are particularly useful for regional studies of volcanic fields.

  20. Rifts of deeply eroded Hawaiian basaltic shields: A structural analog for large Martian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Michael D.; Walker, G. P. L.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Rowland, Scott K.

    1988-01-01

    Recently derived morphologic evidence suggests that intrusive events have not only influenced the growth of young shield volcanoes on Mars but also the distribution of volatiles surrounding these volcanoes: in addition to rift zones and flank eruptions on Arsia Mons and Pavonis Mons, melt water channels were identified to the northwest of Hecates Tholus, to the south of Hadriaca Patera, and to the SE of Olympus Mons. Melt water release could be the surface expression of tectonic deformation of the region or, potentially, intrusive events associated with dike emplacement from each of these volcanoes. In this study the structural properties of Hawaiian shield volcanoes were studied where subaerial erosion has removed a sufficient amount of the surface to enable a direct investigation of the internal structure of the volcanoes. The field investigation of dike morphology and magma flow characteristics for several volcanoes in Hawaii is reported. A comprehensive investigation was made of the Koolau dike complex that passes through the summit caldera. A study of two other dissected Hawaiian volcanoes, namely Waianae and East Molokai, was commenced. The goal is not only to understand the emplacement process and magma flow within these terrestrial dikes, but also to explore the possible role that intrusive events may have played in volcano growth and the distribution of melt water release on Mars.