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Sample records for galega silage quality

  1. Silage quality, dry matter intake and digestibility by West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silage quality, dry matter intake and digestibility by West African dwarf sheep of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum cv Ntchisi) harvested at 4 and 12 week. ... Grass mixtures were subjected to silage for 42 days. Quality and chemical composition of the silage was assessed. Silage was also fed to WAD sheep to determine the ...

  2. SILAGE QUALITY OF CORN AND SORGHUM ADDED WITH FORAGE PEANUTS

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    WALKÍRIA GUIMARÃES CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn and sorghum are standard silage crops because of their fermentative characteristics. While corn and sorghum silages have lower crude protein (CP contents than other crops, intercropping with legumes can increase CP content. Furthermore, one way to increase CP content is the addition of legumes to silage. Consequently, the research objective was to evaluate the fermentative and bromatological characteristics of corn (Zea mays and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor silages added with forage peanuts (Arachis pintoi. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The treatments consisted of corn silage, sorghum silage, forage peanut silage, corn silage with 30% forage peanut, and sorghum silage with 30% forage peanut. The results showed that the corn and sorghum added with peanut helped to improve the silage fermentative and bromatological characteristics, proving to be an efficient technique for silage quality. The forage peanut silage had lower fermentative characteristics than the corn and sorghum silages. However, the forage peanut silage had a greater CP content, which increased the protein contents of the corn and sorghum silages when intercropped with forage peanuts.

  3. Storage quality and marketability potential of bagged silage for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bagged sole maize and maize–cowpea silages in three bag sizes were assessed at 42 and 282 d post-ensiling for sensory and chemical quality. A survey of dairy farmers on silage use and preferences was conducted in the Chikwaka communal area and Marirangwe small-scale commercial farming area. Only silage ...

  4. Quality of Vegetable Waste Silages Treated with Various Carbohydrate Sources

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    R. Ridwan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of vegetable waste silages, using rice bran, onggok (cassava flour waste and pollard as carbohydrate sources. Vegetable waste was collected from local traditional market, consisted of corn husk, chinese cabbage and cabbage. Research was held in randomized block design consisted of six treatments with 3 replications. Treatments were (T1 vegetable waste + rice bran, (T2 vegetable waste + rice bran + rice straw, (T3 vegetable waste + onggok, (T4 vegetable waste + onggok + rice straw, (T5 vegetable waste + pollard, (T6 vegetable waste + pollard + rice straw. Lactobacillus plantarum 1A-2 was used as innoculant. The quality of silages was evaluated by measuring pH, temperature, population of lactic acid bacteria and lactic acid production. Nutrient characteristic was determined by proximate and fiber analysis. Results showed that pH of silages were not affected by treatments, but silage treated with rice bran, with or without rice straw addition, had higher temperature compared with others (29 oC or 28.3 oC. The highest population of lactic acid bacteria (1.65 x 109 cfu/g was found in silage using rice straw and onggok (T4, but the highest lactic acid production (0.41% was measured in silage using rice straw and rice bran (T2. In general, the use of rice bran as carbohydrate sources gave the highest lactic acid production followed by pollard and onggok. Different carbohydrate source gave different nutrients characteristic. Although the result was not significantly different, silage with highest protein content was measured in silage with pollard as carbohydrate source, followed with rice bran and onggok. The result showed that all carbohydrate sources used in this experiment can be used as silage ingredient resulting in good vegetable waste silage.

  5. THE QUALITY OF MAIZE SILAGES FROM WEST REGION OF SLOVAKIA

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    Miroslav Juráček

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the quality of maize silages from Western Slovak Region analyzed in 2009 and 2010 on the Department of animal nutrition, Faculty of agrobiology and food resources, Slovak university of agriculture in Nitra, Slovakia. Maize silages were evaluated on the base of nutritional value, the result of fermentation process and silage quality according to Regulation of the Government of Slovak Republic no. 439/2006, appendix no.7, part C – Silage. We found in maize silages the average dry matter content 357.87 g.kg-1 (2009 and 340.00 g.kg-1 (2010 while only in 2010 samples had got 15.4 % of dry matter content below 300 g.kg-1. Content of crude fiber was lower than 260 g.kg-1 of dry matter in all samples. Higher content of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber had maize silages from 2010. The average value of net energy of lactation was 6.32 MJ.kg-1 of dry matter (2009 and 6.27 MJ.kg-1 of dry matter (2010. Only in one sample from 2010 we found a lower lactic acid content than 10 g.kg-1 of original matter. Content of acetic acid was lower in silages from 2009 (24.33 g.kg-1 of dry matter in comparison with silages from 2010 (28.92 g.kg-1 of dry matter. Undesirable butyric acid was not found in maize silages. The value of pH fluctuated from 3.52 to 3.80 (2009 and from 3.58 to 4.14 (2010. Only 17 % of evaluated samples satisfied the criteria for silage of I. class in 2009 and 23 % in 2010 mainly because of the higher acetic acid content.

  6. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw. PMID:27429981

  7. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage

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    Yusuff Oladosu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  8. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Rafii, Mohd Y; Abdullah, Norhani; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  9. Fungi isolated from phyllosphere of fodder galega (Galega orientalis

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    Bożena Cwalina-Ambrozik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the experiment was fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam. cultivated in 2001-2003 as field crop on three plots: 1. without fertilization, 2. 40 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 80 kg K2O × ha-1, 3. 80 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 160 kg K2O × ha-1. During the dry and warm vegetation season of 2002 almost two times fewer isolates were obtained from the leaves than in 2003 that was the most abundant in fungi. Yeasts-like fungi (30% of the total number of isolates and saprotrophic fungi with dominated species: Acremonium strictum (8.5%, genus Epicoccum (7.8%, Humicola (9.5% and Penicillium (18.9% were the fungi most frequently populating the leaves of galega. The share of pathogens in the total number of isolates obtained from the phyllosphere was 10.6%. They were represented by fungi of Ascochyta spp., Botrytis cinerea, genus Fusarium, Phoma medicaginis and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Reduction by 1.9 to 4.6% in the number of fungi isolated from the phyllosphere of galega without fertilization as compared to galega cultivated in combinations with fertilization was recorded. Generally, the smallest number of pathogens was recovered from galega fertilized with 40 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 80 kg K2O × ha-1. B. cinerea most frequently populated galega in combination without fertilization, genus Fusarium fungi in combination without fertilization and with fertilization with 80 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 160 kg K2O × ha-1, while Ascochyta spp. were isolated from galega with fertilization only.

  10. Biogenic amines and hygienic quality of lucerne silage

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    Mlejnkova Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment examined the influence of two different silage additives of biological (Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, enzyme xylanase and chemical (43% formic acid, 30% ammonium formate, 10% propionic acid, 2% benzoic acid types on biogenic amines concentration, nutrient content, fermentation process, and microbiologic indicators in lucerne (Medicago sativa silage after 90 days of fermentation. The biological additive significantly (P < 0.05 increased putrescine (+51%, lactic acid (+11% and protein content (+11% in comparison with control silage. It significantly decreased cadaverine (−29%, histamine (−57%, spermidine (−15%, spermine (−55%, acetic acid (−40%, ethanol (−55%, ammonium (−25% and ash (−9%. After the chemical-additive treatment, greater amounts of histamine and tyramine were recorded. Significant decrease was observed in the concentrations of putrescine (−18%, cadaverine (−55%, spermidine (−47%, spermine (−45%, lactic acid (−16%, acetic acid (−46%, ammonium (−59%, ash (−13% and fat (−24%. Populations of bacteria associated with lactic acid fermentation, moulds, yeasts, enterobacteria and total microorganisms count were also influenced. Both biological and chemical additives can be highly recommended for producing high-quality silages meeting hygienic requirements. In lucerne silage, the chemical preservative showed a stronger effect in achieving the health safety of silage compared to the biological inoculant.

  11. Effects of Silo Type on Silage Quality and Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine how storage structure affects alfalfa silage dry matter losses and quality. A study was conducted for two consecutive years. Each year, second cutting alfalfa was ensiled in one bunker silo (4.9 x 21 x 3.5 m), one pressed bag silo (2.4 x 52 m) and one oxygen-limiting s...

  12. The effect silage aditives supplementation on dynamic fermentation process, quality and aerobic stability of corn silage

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    Václav Pyrochta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment, the effect of additives supplementation on the fermentation quality of corn silage was examined, compared with the untreated control (K. The aditive „A“ contained bacterial component of (Propionibactrium acidipropionici – MA126/4U 3*1010 and Lactobacillus plantarum – MA18/5U. The effective substances of bacterial inoculants „B“, selected were bacterial strains of (Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus LC – 705 DSM 7061 4*1011, Propionibacterium freudenreichii spp. shermanii JS DSM 6067 2-4*1011. There were used as effective substances of bacterial inoculants „C“ lactic bacteria and enzyme (Lactobacillus plantarum CCM 3769 1.67*1010, Lactococcus lactis CCM 4754 1.67*1010, Enterococcus faecium CCM 6226 1.67*1010, Pediococcus pentosaceus CCM 3770 1,67*1010, cellulase, hemicellulase, sodium benzoate. They were applied in the dose of prescript by producer. At conservations with all aditivum were statistically significant (P < 0.01 increase of lactic acid formation from 55.31±9.72 g/kg DM of control silage to 59.60±10.84 g/kg DM aditivum „A“, 59.36±10.04 g/ kg DM aditivum „B“ rather to 60.74±9.90 g/kg DM aditivum „C“. Aditives „A“ and „B“ were statistically significant (P < 0.01 increase propoinic acid and total fermentation acid content in silages occured. The fermentation characteristics in the microbial aditivum silages by us were more favourable. The date of fermentation was statistically significant (P < 0.01 increase the contents of acetic acid from 45.49±2.83 g/kg DM of 4st day to 63.07±4.25 g/kg DM of 32ndday rather to 67.70±2.94 g/kg DM of 64st day. There were statistically significant (P < 0.01 increase contents of acetic acid and total acid content. The date of fermentation was statistically significant (P < 0.01 degressive of pH.

  13. Microbiological Quality of Panicum maximum Grass Silage with Addition of Lactobacillus sp. as Starter

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    Sumarsih, S.; Sulistiyanto, B.; Utama, C. S.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate microbiological quality of Panicum maximum grass silage with addition Lactobacillus sp as starter. The completely randomized design was been used on this research with 4 treaments and 3 replications. The treatments were P0 ( Panicum maximum grass silage without addition Lactobacillus sp ), P1 ( Panicum maximum grass silage with 2% addition Lactobacillus sp), P2 (Panicum maximum grass silage with 4% addition Lactobacillus sp) and P3 (Panicum maximum grass silage with 6% addition Lactobacillus sp).The parameters were microbial populations of Panicum maximum grass silage (total lactic acid bacteria, total bacteria, total fungi, and Coliform bacteria. The data obtained were analyzed variance (ANOVA) and further tests performed Duncan’s Multiple Areas. The population of lactic acid bacteria was higher (PMicrobiological quality of Panicum maximum grass silage with addition Lactobacillus sp was better than no addition Lactobacillus sp.

  14. Feeding value of low quality grass silage supplemented with maize silage for sheep

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    M. VRANIC

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of interactions between low quality grass silage (GS dominated by orchardgrass and maize silage (MS on ad libitum intake, digestibility and nitrogen retention in wether sheep. The study consisted of four feeding treatments involving GS and MS alone and GS and MS mixtures in a ratio of 67:33 or 33:67 (dry matter (DM basis fed twice daily. The GS was high in DM (463 g kg–1, neutral detergent fibre (715 g kg–1DM and acid detergent fibre (429 g kg–1DM while low in crude protein (90.1 g kg–1DM. The DM content (g kg–1 and starch concentration (g kg–1DM of MS were 264 and 211, respectively. The inclusion of MS into diet had positive linear effects on fresh matter ad libitum intake (kg d–1 and g kg–1M0.75d–1 (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001 respectively, digestibility of DM (P < 0.01, organic matter (P < 0.01, acid detergent fibre (P < 0.05, starch (P < 0.001, digestibility of organic matter in DM (D-value (P < 0.001, nitrogen intake (P < 0.01 and nitrogen output in faeces (P < 0.01. A positive associative effect of low quality GS and MS was observed for ad libitum intake (kg d–1 and g kg–1M0.75d–1 of fresh matter (quadratic, P < 0.01, DM (quadratic, P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 respectively and organic matter (P < 0.001, for digestibility of DM, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, crude protein, starch and D-value (quadratic, P < 0.01, digestibility of organic matter (quadratic, P < 0.05, nitrogen intake (quadratic, P < 0.001 and nitrogen balance (quadratic, P < 0.05. It was concluded that differences between low quality GS and MS resulted in positive associative responses of GS and MS for all parameters measured (intake, digestibility and nitrogen retention.;

  15. THE QUALITY OF CORN SILAGE PRODUCT FROM TECHNOPARK OF BANYUMULEK LOMBOK, WEST NUSA TENGGARA

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    Nurul Fitri Sari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available West Nusa Tenggara province is one potential area for farming of cattle and has been chosen as location for developing a Technopark in Banyumulek. Forage preservation as silage is a program to support the sustainability of forage for beef cattle. Silage was made using whole corn crop and additives of rice bran and Lactobacillus plantarum 1A-2 as inoculum under a block randomized design. Three treatments were given and 10 replications of each month. Evaluation of silage quality, based on chemical and microbiological analysis, showed that silage making during 3 months in Technopark Banyumulek is good and stable.

  16. The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.

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    Ávila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

    2014-02-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40 t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutritive value of maize silage in relation to dairy cow performance and milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang; Ali, Mubarak; Cone, John W; Hendriks, Wouter H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298620936

    Maize silage has become the major forage component in the ration of dairy cows over the last few decades. This review provides information on the mean content and variability in chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) profile and ensiling quality of maize silages, and discusses the major factors which

  18. Additives effect on chemical composition and quality of sisal co-product silage

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    Luiz Gustavo Neves Brandão

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation profile and nutritional value of sisal co-product silage (SC subjected to seven treatments (additives, were evaluated. The SC was ensiled in natura and added with: soy meal, urea, wheat meal, palm kernel cake, A. sisalana dust, licuri cake and cottonseed cake. Experimental silos with capacity for approximately 15 kg of silage, were used. The silos were opened 60 days after ensilage process. It was used a completely randomized design with three replications. The SC in natura present low values of dry mater (DM 12.3% and the additives increased dry matter silages, exception for urea. The SC silage additivated with soybean meal (pH 4.9 and palm kernel cake (butyric acid = 0.07% DM differed, respectively, for pH and butyric acid, compared with in natura SC silage (pH = 4.1 and butyric acid = 0.03% DM. The addition of soybean meal, urea, cottonseed meal, wheat bran and palm kernel, increased crude protein (CP of in natura SC silage. The NDF in silage increased with addition of cottonseed meal or palm kernel cake (60.1 and 66.2% DM in relation in natura SC silage (42.9% DM. The in natura and additivated silages of SC were considered as good or excellent quality.

  19. Fermentation quality and nutritive value of rice crop residue based silage ensiled with addition of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria

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    B Santoso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Silage is the feedstuff resulted from the preservation of forages through lactic acid fermentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritive value, fermentation characteristics and nutrients digestibility of rice crop residue based silage ensiled with epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB. The mixture of rice crop residue (RC, soybean curd residue (SC and cassava waste (CW in a 90: 5: 5 (on dry matter basis ratio was used as silage material. Three treatments silage were (A RC + SC + CW as a control; (B RC + SC + CW + LAB inoculums from rice crop residue; (C RC + SC + CW + LAB inoculums from king grass. Silage materials were packed into plastic silo (1.5 kg capacity and stored for 30 days. The results showed that crude protein content in B and C silage was higher than that of silage A, but NDF content in silages B and C was lower than that of silage A. Lactic acid concentration was higher (P < 0.01 in silage C compared to silage B and A, thus pH value of silage C was lower (P < 0.01 than silage B and A. Silage C had the highest Fleigh point than that of other silages. Dry matter and organic matter digestibilities were higher in silages B and C (P < 0.01 than that of control silage. It was concluded that the addition of LAB inoculums from king grass to rice crop residue based silage resulted a better fermentation quality compared to LAB inoculums from rice crop residue.

  20. Growth rate, carcass characteristics and meat quality of growing lambs fed buckwheat or maize silage

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    Gurhan Keles

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated inclusion of buckwheat silage to the diet of growing lambs in terms of meat quality as compared to maize silage. Methods Buckwheat, rich in total phenols (TP, 33 g/kg dry matter [DM], was harvested at the end of the milk stage and ensiled in 40 kg plastic bags after wilting (294 g/kg silage DM. A total of 18 growing lambs (21.6±1.2 were individually fed isonitrogenous and isoenergetic total mixed rations (TMR for 75 d that either contained buckwheat or maize silage at DM proportions of 0.50. At the end of feeding trail all lambs were slaughtered to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. Results Buckwheat silage increased (p0.05 on live weight gain and feed efficiency. Carcass weight, dressing percentage, meat pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force (kg/cm2, and total viable bacteria count of meat did not differ (p>0.05 between the treatments. However, TP content of meat increased (p<0.001 by feeding buckwheat TMR. Feeding buckwheat TMR also decreased (p<0.05 the b* values of meat. Conclusion The results provide that buckwheat silage is palatable and could successfully include TMR of growing lambs with no adverse effects on performance, carcass and meat quality. Additionally, feeding buckwheat silage to lambs offers increased TP in meat.

  1. Silage quality of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars ensiled with different levels of millet meal

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    K.A.P Costa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The silage quality of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars ensiled with different levels of millet meal was evaluated. The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications in a factorial 3 x 4, with three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha: marandu, xaraés, and piatã and four levels of millet meal 0, 5, 10, and 15%. The addition of millet meal improved the quality of B. brizantha silage. The inclusion of the additive at 15% provided the best nutritional values. The piatã silage had the lowest contents of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin and the highest content of total digestible nutrients, being a better quality silage as compared to those of xaraés and marandu grasses.

  2. Effects of absorbens supplementation on the fermentation quality of brewers' grains silage

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    Petr Doležal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment was the effect of absorbens supplementation on the fermentation quality of brewers´ grains silage by comparing with the untreated control. As effective substance of experimental groups were barleygroats and malt sprouts. The addition of malt sprouts „B“ and barleygroats „C“ in our experiment conditions increased statistically significantly (P<0.01 the content of DM in silage. The addition of malt sprouts decreased pH value in experimental silage (4.29±0.007 in comparison with control silage (4.43±0.049. The malt sprouts increased significantly (P<0.01 the contents of lactic acid (67.15±2.796 g/kg DM, sum of acids (84.30±2.97 g/kg DM and decreased (P<0.01 in the trial the ethanol content (0.51±0.102 g/kg DM and acetic acid content (17.15±0.227 g/kg DM. Silage with malt sprouts has the highest (P<0.01 ammonia content from all silages in trial (966,67±33,33 mg/kg DM. The use of absorbens inhibited significantly (P<0.01 in comparison with control silage (without absorbens the content of propionic and butyric acid production. Brewers´grain silage with malt sprouts and barleygroats addition were free of butyric and propionic acid, but had higher lactic acid content. These results indicate that malt sprouts addition in the ensiling process may improve the fermentation quality of the brewers´grain silage.

  3. Corn plant arrangement and its effect on silage quality

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    Fernando Reimann Skonieski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of the row spacing between corn plants on silage quality. Different spacing between corn rows (40, 60, and 80 cm was used, but the population of plants was maintained around 65,000/ha in all treatments. Analysis of variance was carried out and means were compared by Tukey's test at 5% of probability. A reduction in row spacing provided better spatial distribution of plants, but did not alter morphological composition or dry matter production. The corn with most equidistant spatial distribution (lowest row spacing showed an increase in lignin concentration, neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates, and showed a decrease in total digestible nutrients when compared with 80 cm row spacing. However, the organic digestibility matter was not affected by the treatments. The content and quality of protein were higher for 80 cm row spacing compared with the other levels; also, protein content was reduced as the spacing between rows became smaller. The only mineral affected was calcium, which had the lowest value at higher levels of spacing. Although differences were detected for many variables, the most appropriate spacing between rows should also take into account economic and practical aspects when choosing the best plant arrangement.

  4. Nutritive value and fermentation quality of palisadegrass and stylo mixed silages.

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    da Silva, Juliana S; Ribeiro, Karina G; Pereira, Odilon G; Mantovani, Hilário C; Cecon, Paulo R; Pereira, Rosana C; Silva, Janaina de L

    2018-01-01

    The nutritive value and fermentation quality of palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraes) and stylo (Stylosanthes capitata × S. macrocephala cv. Campo Grande) mixed silages were evaluated. The experiment was analyzed in a factorial scheme (5 × 2) in a completely randomized design using increasing levels of stylo (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% on a fresh matter basis) on palisadegrass silages, with and without microbial inoculants (MI). With the increased ratio of stylo in mixed silages, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and lignin content increased in silages. The presence of MI promoted lower DM content, and higher neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, ADF and lignin content. The acid detergent insoluble nitrogen content and the lactic acid bacteria populations were not affected by treatments. The in vitroDM digestibility was affected by the interaction of levels of the stylo and MI. The pH, NH 3 -N/total nitrogen and butyric acid concentrations decreased with increasing levels of stylo. Better nutritive value and quality of fermentation was found in the silage containing higher proportions of this stylo mixed with palisadegrass. The microbial inoculant evaluated did not alter the nutritive value or quality of the fermentation of the silages in this experiment. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. The quality of silage of corn grain and spent P. ostreatus mushroom substrate

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    Adamović Milan J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, fermentation quality, mycological and mycotoxicological analyses of silage mixture, made of ground corn grain and spent P. ostreatus mushroom substrate, were investigated in this paper. Dry matter content in high moisture ground corn, at the time of ensiling was 70%, and in the spent substrate (on the Salt Cedar wood shaving basis was 52.7%. Corn grain to spent substrate ratio in trials was: 100:0% (I, 90:10% (II, 80:20% (III and 70:30% (IV respectively. Content of the lignocellulose fractions in silage was slightly increased, and protein content was slightly decreased with the increase of spent substrate content. Contents of the VFA (volatile fatty acids in silage, pH value, and NH3-N content were for the silage of very good quality. In the spent substrate 9 mold species were found, from which the most frequent were genus Penicillium, Paecilomyces variotii, and Trichoderma harzianum. In ground corn grain silage (I presence of the yeasts was dominant (90.000/g. In combined trials (II-IV only Penicillium (P. brevicompactum and P. echinulatum mold species were found. Presence of molds and yeasts in investigated trials was within tolerated values for ensiled feedstuffs. Mycotoxin presence in silage was not determined.

  6. Silage quality of sorghum and Urochloa brizantha cultivars monocropped or intercropped in different planting systems

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    Matheus Gonçalves Ribeiro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently it has emerged a technique for silage production of intercropping systems of annual crop with forage through crop-livestock integration, aiming to reduce the deficit forage in the offseason. The study was conducted to evaluate the fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of silage of sorghum and Urochloa brizantha cultivars monocropped or intercropped in different planting systems. The experiment was a randomized block design, with three replications, in a 3x2+4 factorial arrangement, with three cultivars of Urochloa brizantha (Marandu; Xaraes and Piata intercropped with grain sorghum in two planting systems (row and between rows and four monocrops (Sorghum, Marandu palisadegrass, Xaraes palisadegrass and Piata palisadegrass. The planting system of intercropping systems did not interfere with fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of silages. The same was found for Urochloa cultivars. Silages from intercropping sorghum with Urochloa brizantha cultivars had lower pH values, buffering capacity, acetic and butyric acids and higher values of lactic acid, besides showed superior quality, as for the parameters dry matter, ether extract and total digestible nutrient than silages from grasses produced in monocropping system. Therefore, silages of intercropping systems ensure fermentation and nutritional quality, providing interesting supplementary bulky options to be used in the offseason for feeding animals.

  7. Effect of grape pomace on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of sweet sorghum silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Shen, Yixin; You, Minghong; Zhang, Yu; Yan, Jiajun; Li, Daxue; Bai, Shiqie

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grape pomace (GP) with different adding levels (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%, fresh matter basis), alone (GP-LAB) or in combine with an inoculant LAB (GP+LAB), on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of sweet sorghum silage. After 90 days of ensiling in vacuumized mini-silos, silages were subject to a 7-day aerobic stability test, in which chemical, microbial and polyphenol composition were measured. In the GP-LAB group, adding GP decreased (P butyric acid in silage. In the GP+LAB group, adding GP increased (P butyric acid concentration in silage. Polyphenol level was reduced (P fermentation. During aerobic exposure, the fungi count, pH value and silage temperature increased (P fermentation products, microbial counts, chemical and polyphenol composition were considered, the use of 10% GP+LAB at ensiling could provide a valuable source for improved fermentation quality and aerobic stability of sweet sorghum silage. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. The quality of silage of different sorghum genotypes

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    Daniella Cangussú Tolentino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to select from among 24 sorghum genotypes the superior ones for silage production. The study was conducted in the experimental field of Embrapa Maize & Sorghum, in the municipality of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State. It used 24 forage sorghum genotypes, 21 being hybrids from the crossing of grain sorghum females and forage males (12F38019, 12F38006, 12F40006, 12F40005, 12F40019, 12F37016, 12F37005, 12F37043, 12F39006, 12F39005, 12F39019, 12F38005, 12F38007, 12F37007, 12F39007, 12F40007, 12F38014, 12F37014, 12F39014, 12F40014 e 12F38009 and three witnesses: BRS 610, BRS 655 and Volumax. It estimated productivity per area, in vitro dry matter digestibility, and assessed the bromatological and fermentation characteristics of sorghum silage. In vitro dry matter digestibility, unavailable protein in neutral detergent, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ashes and protein, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose and lignin differed as to the genotypes tested. The pH and the ammoniacal nitrogen of the silage also showed differences between genotypes. Most of the genotypes tested are favorable for silage production, except the hybrid with higher lignin content 12F370014, and the hybrids 12F37007 and 12F370014, which showed the highest NDFap values.

  9. Influence of diets with silage from forage plants adapted to the semi-arid conditions on lamb quality and sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, F S; Carvalho, G G P; Santos, E M; Araújo, G G L; Gois, G C; Rebouças, R A; Leão, A G; Santos, S A; Oliveira, J S; Leite, L C; Araújo, M L G M L; Cirne, L G A; Silva, R R; Carvalho, B M A

    2017-02-01

    Quality and sensory attributes of meat from 32 mixed-breed Santa Inês lambs fed diets composed of four silages with old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lind), buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium), and Pornunça (Manihot sp.) were evaluated. Meat from lambs fed diet containing old man saltbush silage (P0.05). However, the silages led to differences (Pbuffelgrass silage. Diets formulated with buffelgrass silage for sheep reduce meat production. Based on the results for carcass weight and meat quality, old man saltbush and pornunça are better silages for finishing sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro methane production and quality of corn silage treated with maleic acid

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    Kanber Kara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of maleic acid (MA addition to corn at ensiling on silage quality and in vitro methane and total gas production, metabolisable energy (ME, and organic matter digestibility (OMD parameters by using in vitro gas production techniques. Forage corn was ensiled either without (control group: MA 0 or with three different dosages of maleic acid, 0.5% (MA 0.5, 1.0% (MA 1.0, and 1.5% (MA 1.5 w/w of the fresh material for 60 days. As a result of this study, neutral detergent fibre level was decreased in the MA 1.5 group (P<0.05. The 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% addition of maleic acid to forage corn at ensiling increased lactic acid concentration (P<0.05 in silage and reduced propionic acid (P<0.05. Iso-valeric acid concentration in the organic acids of the silage was decreased with maleic acid addition (P<0.05. The maleic acid addition decreased in vitro ruminal methane production (P<0.01. The silage pH value, and acetic, butyric and isobutyric acid concentrations and in vitro total gas production, OMD, and ME values did not change by MA addition (P>0.05. It was concluded that MA addition could reduce methane emission without any negative effects on silage nutrient composition or in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters.

  11. Effects of different fertilizers on quantity and quality of silage corn

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    A. Di Francia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Different fertilizers, ammonia sulfate and urea (MIN, Fertil 12.5 (ORG and Azoslow (ORG-MIN were compared in a silage corn crop. Total biomass yield was above 55.0 t ha-1 for all fertilizers. Azoslow showed the highest dry matter content (40.8%. No differences among the fertilizers were found in protein content (4.9% on average at waxy ripening, with the control showing the lowest value (3.9%. There were also no differences in silage quality among the fertilizers. The N budget was estimated in order to quantify the residual nitrogen amounts at harvest and the efficiency of fertilizers.

  12. Effect of Different Silage Storing Conditions on the Oxygen Concentration in the Silo and Fermentation Quality of Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uegaki, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kazuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Yamamura, Kohji

    2017-06-21

    We investigated the effects of different silage storing conditions on the oxygen concentration in the silo and fermentation quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Forage rice was ensiled in bottles (with or without space at the bottlemouth, with solid or pinhole cap, and with oxygen scavenger, ethanol transpiration agent, oxygen scavenger and ethanol transpiration agent, or no adjuvant) and stored for 57 days. The oxygen concentration decreased with the addition of the oxygen scavenger and increased with that of the ethanol transpiration agent. The oxygen scavenger facilitated silage fermentation and fungus generation, whereas the ethanol transpiration agent suppressed silage fermentation and fungus generation. However, the combined use of the oxygen scavenger and ethanol transpiration agent facilitated silage fermentation and also suppressed fungus generation. Overall, this study revealed the negative effects of oxygen on the internal silo and the positive effects of the combined use of the oxygen scavenger and ethanol transpiration agent on silage fermentation quality.

  13. Adding sweet potato vines improve the quality of rice straw silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Ji, Shuren; Wang, Qian; Qin, Mengzhen; Hou, Chen; Shen, Yixin

    2017-04-01

    Rice straw and sweet potato vines are the main by-products of agricultural crops, and their disposal creates problems for the environment in the south of China. In order to establish an easy method for making rice straw silage successfully, experiments were conduct to evaluate fermentation quality and nutritive value of rice straw silages ensiled with or without sweet potato vine. Paddy rice straw (PR) and upland rice straw (UP) were ensiled alone or with sweet potato vines (SP) by a ratio of 1:1 (fresh matter basis), over 3 years. Compared with rice straw silages ensiled alone, the mixed-material silages (PR + SP, UR + SP) showed higher fermentation quality with lower propionic acid content and NH 3 -N ratio of total N, and higher (P sweet potato vines in the regions where rice and sweet potato are harvested at same season, and the sweet potato vines have the potential to improve rice straw fermentation quality with low water soluble carbohydrate content in south of China. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. MEAT QUALITY FROM CHAROLAIS BULLS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN SILAGE INCLUSION

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    G. Cozzi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 6 intensive beef farms was selected according to the feeding plan adopted during the fattening period of Charolais bulls. Two farms did not include any corn silage in the diet (CS0, while corn silage represented 22% of the dietary DM in the second group of 2 farms (CS22, and it raised up to 44% of the dietary DM in the last 2 farms (CS44. Five bulls were randomly selected from each farm to be slaughtered in the same abattoir. Bulls age was similar across treatments but the CS44 bulls had a lower carcass weight (396 kg than the other two treatments (436 and 446 kg for CS0 and CS22, respectively. Carcass fleshiness (SEUROP and fatness scores were not affected by the level of corn silage in the diet. Meat quality was evaluated on a joint sample of the m. Longissimus thoracis, excised from the 5th to the 9th rib of each right half carcass 24 h post-mortem, after an ageing period of 10 d vacuum packaged at 4°C. Meat chemical analysis showed no variations in pH, DM, intramuscular fat and protein content due to the different silage inclusion in the diet. Only the cholesterol content was progressively reduced in the meat of bulls fed increasing quantities of corn silage according to a significant negative linear trend. Meat colour, cooking losses and shear force values were not affected by the diet. Therefore, based on these findings there are no substantial arguments against the use of a large amount of corn silage in the fattening diets of Charolais bulls.

  15. [Effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tibetan Plateau on silage fermentation quality of Elms nutans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Ke, Wencan; Jing, Peixin; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Ming; Yu, Yingwen; Guo, Xusheng

    2015-10-04

    In order to detect the effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tibetan Plateau on silage fermentation quality of Elms nutans. We used 3 isolated lactic acid bacteria with better growth at low temperatures of 10 and 15 degrees C at ensiling of Elymus nutans. Subsequently, effects of the selected lactic acid bacteria on fermentation profiles of Elymus nutans silages stored at 15 and 25 degrees C were evaluated by using the same species of commercial inoculants as the control. PP-6 isolated from Tibetan Plateau could ferment raffinose, lactose, sorbitol, melibiose and sucrose, and LS-5 could ferment cottonseed sugar, laetrile, rhamnose, lactose, sorbitol, xylose, arabinose, melibiose and sucrose, but the same species of commercial strains could not use these sugars. Inoculation of these three strains into Elymus nutans at 15 and 25 degrees C ensiled for 50 d, we found that LS-5 significantly reduced silage pH, propionic acid concentration and ratio of ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen at 15 degrees C (P lactic acid concentration (P < 0.05), resulting in a lower ratio of ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen, saved more crude protein and significantly reduced neutral detergent fiber content (P < 0.05) as compared with the commercial strains. The three isolated strains can improve silage quality of Elymus nutans growing on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau at low temperature, but these strains have no obvious advantages at 25 degrees C in comparison with the commercial inoculants.

  16. Evaluation of the Galega-Rhizobium galegae system for the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suominen, L.; Jussila, M.M.; Makelainen, K.; Lindstrom, K. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology; Romantschuk, M. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Biosciences

    2000-07-01

    The bioremediation potential of a nitrogen-fixing leguminous plant, Galega orientalis, and its microsymbiont Rhizobium galegae was evaluated in BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene)-contaminated soils in microcosm and mesocosm scale. To measure the intrinsic tolerance of the organisms to m-toluate, a model compound representing BTX, G. orientalis and R. galegae were cultivated under increasing concentrations of m-toluate alone and in association with Pseudomonas putida pWWO, a bacterial strain able to degrade toluene-derived compounds. The test plants and rhizobia remained viable in m-toluate concentrations as high as 3000 ppm. Plant growth was inhibited in concentrations higher than 500 ppm, but restituted when plants were transferred into m-toluate-free medium. Nodulation was blocked under the influence of m-toluate, but was restored after the plants were transferred into the non-contaminated media. In the mesocosm assay the Galega plants showed good growth, modulation and nitrogen fixation, and developed a strong rhizosphere in soils contaminated with oil or spiked with 2000 ppm m-toluate. Thus, this legume system has good potential for use on oil-contaminated sites. (author)

  17. Effects of chemical additives on the fermentation quality and N distribution of alfalfa silage in south of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Ji, Shuren; Hou, Chen; Tang, Haiyang; Wang, Qian; Shen, Yixin

    2016-12-01

    In order to better utilize the last cut alfalfa harvested before killing frost in a high moisture environment, the effects of chemical additives on the quality of alfalfa silage were studied in south of China. The alfalfa was freshly harvested at branching stage, and wilted by dry matter content of about 300 g/kg (fresh matter basis). Silage was prepared by using a small-scale silage fermentation system, where sucrose, potassium citrate, sodium carbonate, formic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid were used as silage additives, and no additives served as control. These silos were stored at ambient temperature (5-20°C), and the silage qualities were analyzed after 120 days of fermentation. All additive treatments affected the chemical composition and N distribution, increased the water-soluble content and crude protein contents, decreased non-protein nitrogen (NPN) content, and enhanced the in vitro ruminal dry matter digestibility (except for sodium carbonate). Silages treated with organic acids were preserved with significantly (P acids resulted in high quality of alfalfa silage ensiled before killing frost, with formic acid having the best effect. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Use of principal factor analysis to generate a corn silage fermentative quality index to rank well- or poorly preserved forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Bruschi, Sara; Fortunati, Paola; Masoero, Francesco

    2016-03-30

    To investigate corn silage fermentative quality, a principal factor analysis was carried out on a database consisting of 196 corn silages sampled from the core, lateral and apical parts of silo feed-out face and characterised by 36 variables. Eleven principal factor components (PCs) were retained and interpreted. Two PCs were related to chemical and digestibility variables; four PCs were characterised by end-products associated with clostridia, heterolactic, homolactic or aerobic fermentations; two PCs were associated with mycotoxins produced by Penicillium roqueforti or by Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium spp., while three PCs explained ensiling procedures adopted to store corn silages. Lower (P forages. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effects of different diets on milk yield and quality of lactating buffaloes: maize versus sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borghese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided in two groups homogeneous for parity, lactation stage, milk yield and weight. The diets assigned to two groups, based on maize silage (M group and sorghum silage (S group, had the same energy-protein level (0.90 Milk FU/kg DM and 155 g/kg DM of crude protein. Five records of milk yield and quality during lactation were carried out. The physical-chemical characteristics (pH, fat, protein, lactose and urea, somatic cell count, coagulation properties and nutritional parameters (cholesterol, alfa tocopherol, 13 cis and trans retinol and 13 cis/trans retinol ratio were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed using a factorial model. The average daily milk yield during experimental period was similar: 9.29 and 9.55 kg respectively in M and S groups. Fat and protein content were not different, while the urea content was significantly different varying from 39.13 mg/dl in M group to 45.55 mg/dl in S group. The coagulation properties, the estimated Mozzarella yield, somatic cell count and the nutritional parameters analysed were not different between the two groups. These results indicate that the sorghum silage diet utilised did not affect the milk yield and quality, then it could be adopted in lactating buffaloes.

  20. Effects of Maturity Stages on the Nutritive Composition and Silage Quality of Whole Crop Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. Xie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The changes in yields and nutritive composition of whole crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L. during maturation and effects of maturity stage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB inoculants on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability were investigated under laboratory conditions. Whole crop wheat harvested at three maturation stages: flowering stage, milk stage and dough stage. Two strains of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum: LAB1, Lactobacillus parafarraqinis: LAB2 were inoculated for wheat ensiling at 1.0×105 colony forming units per gram of fresh forage. The results indicated that wheat had higher dry matter yields at the milk and dough stages. The highest water-soluble carbohydrates content, crude protein yields and relative feed value of wheat were obtained at the milk stage, while contents of crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were the lowest, compared to the flowering and dough stages. Lactic acid contents of wheat silage significantly decreased with maturity. Inoculating homofermentative LAB1 markedly reduced pH values and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N content (p<0.05 of silages at three maturity stages compared with their corresponding controls. Inoculating heterofermentative LAB2 did not significantly influence pH values, whereas it notably lowered lactic acid and NH3-N content (p<0.05 and effectively improved the aerobic stability of silages. In conclusion, considering both yields and nutritive value, whole crop wheat as forage should be harvested at the milk stage. Inoculating LAB1 improved the fermentation quality, while inoculating LAB2 enhanced the aerobic stability of wheat silages at different maturity stages.

  1. Determination of region-specific data of yield and quality of alternatives to silage maize in fodder crops – field trails with forage gras and clover grass mixtures, Sorghum as well as whole plant silage of grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wosnitza, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project should generate current regional results over a period of three years about the parameter yield and quality of alternative fodder crops to maize; this includes grass and clover grass mixtures, silage maize, varieties of Sorghum/millets and whole plant silages of wheat, rye and triticale. The tested silage maize showed the highest and most reliable average dry matter yield with 23 tons per hectare, with a very low variance. The Sorghum and millet varieties had dry matter yields of 3 to 5 tons per hectare below the silage maize yield but with individual values fluctuating in a broad range within years and locations. With values far below 28% the dry matter contents were not suitable for ensiling. The grass and clover grass mixtures are good, stable and established alternatives to maize for silage. They achieved high yields comparable with these of Sorghum but stable and with a highly suitable dry matter content for ensiling. The yield of the whole plant silages was up to 22% lower compared with maize. So none of the alternative crops can compete with the high level yield of silage maize in its favoured region, therefore would be a combination of two crops recommended. But some individual locally adapted mixtures or varieties of the alternative crops reached nearly 80% of the maize yield. Silage maize showed the highest level of the net energy content for lactation (NEL, followed by the values of the fodder crops and the whole plant silages. The Sorghum varieties showed the lowest NEL value of all tested cultures. The highest crude protein showed the fodder crops contents. Silage maize, Sorghum and the whole plant silages had values lying nearly around the 50% mark of the fodder crops.

  2. Silage Quality of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides Treated with Epiphytic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Tannin of Acacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the silage quality of king grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides treated with addition of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB prepared from fermented grass extract (FGE or combined with tannin of acacia. Experiment was arranged to a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications. Treatments were (A king grass without additive as a control; (B king grass + 3% (v/w of FGE; (C king grass + 3% (v/w of FGE + 10 ml of acacia extract (50 g/100 ml; (D king grass + 3% of FGE (v/w + 10 ml of acacia extract (50 g/75 ml; (E king grass + 3% of FGE (v/w + 10 ml of acacia extract (50 g/50 ml, and (F king grass + 3% of FGE (v/w + 10 ml of acacia extract (50 g/25 ml. About 250 g of silage materials were ensiled in 400 ml bottle silos at room temperatures (approximately 28 °C for 30 days. Variables measured were characteristics of FGE, fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of silage. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and the significance differences among means were tested by the Duncan’s multiple range test. Results showed that the number of lactic acid bacteria in FGE increased from 0.8 × 107 cfu/ml to 2.9 × 107 cfu/ml after 2 days anaerobic incubation. Concentration of lactic acid in silages with addition of FGE or combined with tannin of acacia (B, C, D, E, and F were higher (P<0.01 than that of silage A (control. Silages with addition of FGE combined with tannin of acacia (C, D, E, and F had lower pH value than that of silages A and B. Concentrations of NH3-N decreased with increasing concentration of tannin. Butyric acid concentration decreased in silages B, C, D, E, and F as compared to that in silage A. Addition of FGE combined with tannin prepared from acacia leaf improved fermentation quality of king grass silage.

  3. Effects of Lactobacillus formosensis S215Tand Lactobacillus buchneri on quality and in vitro ruminal biological activity of condensed tannins in sweet potato vines silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangwe, M C; Rangubhet, K T; Mlambo, V; Yu, B; Chiang, H I

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of two microbial inoculants; Lactobacillus formosensis and Lactobacillus buchneri on fermentation quality, chemical composition, aerobic stability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of condensed tannins in sweet potato vines silage. Sweet potato vines were ensiled for 28 and 60 days; without inoculant (CON), with Lact. buchneri (LB) or with Lact. formosensis (LF), both inoculants applied to achieve 1 × 10 6  CFU g -1 fresh forage. Lactobacillus formosensis silage had lower pH and higher lactic acid than all treatments. Yeasts and moulds were not detected in LB silage after ensiling. Lactobacillus buchneri silage was more aerobically stable than all treatments, whereas LF was more stable than CON silage. In vitro ruminal biological activity of condensed tannins was lower in microbial-inoculated silages than CON after ensiling. Lactobacillus formosensis improved fermentability by reducing silage pH and improved aerobic stability by producing more propionate, which inhibited yeast activity. Lactobacillus buchneri improved aerobic stability of the silage by producing more acetate. Both strains effectively reduced the antinutritional effect of condensed tannins after ensiling. Lactobacillus formosensis has the potential to be used as a silage inoculant because of its ability to improve fermentability and aerobic stability in sweet potato vines silage. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on broiler production, nutrient digestibility and meat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Karlsson, Anders H.; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broil...... on broiler growth and positively influenced bird welfare in terms of mortality and foot pad health. Therefore, the addition of 15% CKMS to maize-based diets is considered an advantageous feeding strategy in broiler production....

  5. Potential of the Galega – Rhizobium galegae System for Bioremediation of Oil-Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna M. Jussila

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation potential of the nitrogen-fixing leguminous plant Galega orientalis Lam. and its microsymbiont Rhizobium galegae was evaluated in microcosm and mesocosm scale in oil and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene contaminated soils, with m-toluate serving as a model for the latter group. G. orientalis and Rhizobium galegae remained viable in m-toluate fractions up to 3000 ppm. Plant growth and nodulation were inhibited in 500 ppm m-toluate, but were restored when plants were transferred to clean medium. In soil, G. orientalis nodulated and showed good growth in 2000 ppm m-toluate as well as in diesel-contaminated soil in the field, where the plant was stimulating bacterial growth in the rhizosphere. A collection of 52 indigenous m-toluate-tolerating bacteria isolated from oil-contaminated rhizosphere of G. orientalis was characterised and identified by classical and molecular biological methods. 16SrDNA PCR-RFLP and (GTG5-PCR genomic fingerprinting combined with partial sequencing indicated the presence of five major lineages of the Bacteria domain. A TOL plasmid-specific xylE-PCR was developed in order to detect both active and potential degraders of m-toluate. The ability to degrade m-toluate in the presence of the gene xylE was detected only within the genus Pseudomonas. The isolates were tested for capacity to grow on m-toluate as their sole carbon and energy source. In laboratory experiments, the best rhizosphere isolates performed equally well to the positive control strain and are good candidates for inoculant production in the future. They have been tagged with marker genes for further studies on colonisation and persistence.

  6. Effects of addition of malic or citric acids on fermentation quality and chemical characteristics of alfalfa silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, W C; Ding, W R; Xu, D M; Ding, L M; Zhang, P; Li, F D; Guo, X S

    2017-11-01

    We studied the effects on alfalfa preservation and chemical composition of the addition of different levels of malic acid and citric acid at ensiling as well as the utilization efficiency of these 2 organic acids after fermentation. Alfalfa was harvested at early bloom stage. After wilting to a dry matter content of approximately 40%, the alfalfa was chopped into 1- to 2-cm pieces for ensiling. Four levels (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1% of fresh weight) of malic acid or citric acid were applied to chopped alfalfa at ensiling with 4 replicates for each treatment, and the treated alfalfa forages were ensiled for 60 d in vacuum-sealed polyethylene bags (dimensions: 200 mm × 300 mm) packed with 200 to 230 g of fresh alfalfa per mini silo and an initial density of 0.534 g/cm 3 . The application of malic or citric acids at ensiling for 60 d led to lower silage pH than was observed in the control silage (0% of malic or citric acids). Application of the 2 organic acids led to higher lactic acid concentration in alfalfa silage than in the control silage except with the application rate of 1% of fresh weight. Silages treated with both organic acids had lower nonprotein nitrogen concentrations than the control silages, and the nonprotein nitrogen concentrations in ensiled forages decreased with the increase in malic or citric acid application rates. The application of the 2 organic acid additives led to lower saturated fatty acid proportions and higher polyunsaturated fatty acid proportions in ensiled alfalfa than in the control silage. The amount of malic and citric acids degraded during ensiling of alfalfa was 1.45 and 0.63 g, respectively. At the application rate of 0.5% of fresh weight, residues of malic acid and citric acid in alfalfa silage were 11.1 and 13.6 g/kg of dry matter. These results indicate that including malic or citric acids at the ensiling of alfalfa effectively improved silage fermentation quality, limited proteolysis, improved fatty acid composition of the

  7. Effect of Different Moisture Absorbents on Silage Fermentation Quality of Wet Potato Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Alipour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Using agricultural-industrial waste is one way to overcome the shortage of animal feed. Potato is one of the most important products in the world after rice, wheat and maize. Potato pulp is a by-product which remains after extraction of starch, and can be used as animal feed. Because of the high moisture content of the potato pulp, silage is the best way to maintain it. However, its high moisture content leads to inappropriate ensilage. Adding of moisture absorbents (MA not only reduce the effluents, but also improve the silage quality. Materials with high content of cell wall are suitable candidates to be used as MA. Agro-industrial co-products including raisin wastes and pomegranate seed pulp have high cell wall and no report was found for their usage as MA. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different absorbents on potato pulp silage fermentation quality. Materials and Methods Fresh potato pulp was obtained from Alvand potato processing company (Hamedan, Iran. After transfer, the potato pulps were immediately ensiled with MAs including wheat bran, raisin pedicles, rejected raisins, pomegranate peel, wheat straw and raisin rachis. The treatments were: 100% potato pulp (control, 80% potato pulp and 20% wheat bran, 80% potato pulp and 20% raisin pedicles, 71% potato pulp and 29% rejected raisin, 80% potato pulp and 20% pomegranate peel, 80% potato pulp and 20% wheat straw and 80% potato pulp and 20% rachis. After 74 days, the silos were opened for investigation. Chemical composition (i.e., dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, Fleig point, pH and lactic acid concentration were determined. In vitro gas production was used to assess fermentation parameters of treatments. Therefore, volume of gas production after 24 hours of incubation, rate of gas production, asymptotic gas production, lag phase, organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy, partitioning factor, microbial

  8. Forage quality on family farms in Croatia corn silage quality on family farms

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    Marina Vranić

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the applied research project: “Forage evaluation by NIR spectroscopy” was to monitor the nutritive value of grass silage, corn silage and hay on family farms in Croatia over 6-month feeding (from November 2003 to May 2004. In this paper the nutritive value of corn silage on 19 dairy family farms from 5 counties was investigated. Extension service staff recommended dairy nutrition based on monthly silage analysis by NIRS instrument (Foss, Model 6500. Scottish calibration models had been applied and determined: dry matter corrected (DM, organic matter (OM crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, metabolizable energy (ME, pH value, fermented ME in ME (FME/ME, starch and digestibility of OM in DM (D-value. The results show high DM (391.78 g kg-1, starch (335.13 g kg-1ST and NDF (425.33 g kg-1ST content. In average the silage was stabile (pH 3.7, had suitable FME/ME content (0.81 and good digestibility (D-value 71.6%, but of low CP content (65.19 g kg-1. Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 were observed for DM, OM, CP, NDF, pH, starch and FME/ME.

  9. Forage quality on family farms in Croatia grass silage quality on family farms

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    Marina Vranić

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the applied research project: “Forage evaluation by NIR spectroscopy” was to monitor the nutritive value of grass silage, corn silage and hay on family farms in Croatia over 6-month feeding (from November 2003 to May 2004 Over last 15 years, grass silage become of the same importance in dairy cows nutrition as other traditionally conserved forage in Croatia. In this paper the nutritive value of grass silage on 19 dairy family farms from 5 counties was investigated. Extension service staff recommended dairy nutrition based on monthly silage analysis by NIRS instrument (Foss, Model 6500. Scottish calibration models were applied and following parameters are estimated: dry matter corrected (DM, crude protein (CP, degradable crude protein (DCP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, metabolizable energy (ME, pH value, ammonia nitrogen, sugar, digestibility of organic matter in dry matter (D-value and intake factor by cattle (IF. The results show big variations in the average nutritive values of all the investigated parameters. The biggest variations were observed in DM (from 166-785 g kg-1, CP (60-220 g kg-1DM, NDF (300-605 g kg-1DM and NH3-N (61-530 g N kg-1 of total N. Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 were observed for DM, NDF, ME, sugar content and D-value.

  10. Effects of lactic acid bacteria and molasses additives on the microbial community and fermentation quality of soybean silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuikui; Wang, Fangfang; Zhu, Baoge; Yang, Junxiang; Zhou, Guoan; Pan, Yi; Tao, Yong; Zhong, Jin

    2017-08-01

    The objective was to study effects of lactic acid bacteria (L) and molasses (M) on the microbial community and fermentation quality of soybean silage. Soybean was ensiled with no additive control (C), 0.5% molasses (0.5%M), 0.5%M+L (0.5%ML), 2%M, 2%M+L (2%ML) for 7, 14, 30 and 60days. The M-treated silages could increase the content of lactic acid and decrease butyric acid than control. Besides, higher crude protein was also observed in M-treated silages. With prolonged ensiling time, there was a reduction of the ratio of lactic acid/acetic acid in the 2%M-treated and 2%ML-treated silages. The combined addition of L and 2%M could enhance the account of desirable Lactobacillus and inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganism such as Clostridia and Enterobacter. In summary, the silage quality of soybean was improved with the addition of L and M. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fermentation quality and in vitro methane production of sorghum silage prepared with cellulase and lactic acid bacteria.

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    Khota, Waroon; Pholsen, Suradej; Higgs, David; Cai, Yimin

    2017-11-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and cellulase enzyme on fermentation quality, microorganism population, chemical composition and in vitro gas production of sorghum silages were studied. Commercial inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso 1 (CH), local selected strain Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) TH 14 and Acremonium cellulase (AC) were used as additives in sorghum silage preparation. Prior to ensiling Sorghum contained 104 LAB and 106 cfu/g fresh matter coliform bacteria. The chemical compositions of sorghum was 26.6% dry matter (DM), 5.2% crude protein (CP), and 69.7% DM for neutral detergent fiber. At 30 days of fermentation after ensiling, the LAB counts increased to a dominant population; the coliform bacteria and molds decreased to below detectable level. All sorghum silages were good quality with a low pH (66.9 g/kg DM). When silage was inoculated with TH14, the pH value was significantly (p<0.05) lower and the CP content significantly (p<0.05) higher compared to control, CH and AC-treatments. The ratio of in vitro methane production to total gas production and DM in TH 14 and TH 14+AC treatments were significantly (p<0.05) reduced compared with other treatments while in vitro dry matter digestibility and gas production did not differ among treatments. The results confirmed that L. casei TH14 could improve sorghum silage fermentation, inhibit protein degradation and decrease methane production.

  12. Fermentation Quality and in Vitro Nutrient Digestibility of Fresh Rice Straw-Based Silage Treated with Lactic Acid Bacteria

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    B. Santoso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to evaluate fermentation characteristics and in vitro nutrient digestibility of fresh rice straw-based silage ensiled with addition of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB inoculant. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The first factor was the ratio of fresh rice straw (FRS, tofu waste (TW and cassava waste (CW consisted of two levels i.e., 40 : 20 : 40 and 40 : 25 : 35, on dry matter (DM basis. The second factor was the level of LAB inoculant with two levels ie., 0 and 20 mL/kg FM. The treatments were (A FRS + TW + CW with the ratio of 40 : 20 : 40, without LAB inoculant; (B FRS + TW + CW with the ratio of 40 : 20 : 40 + LAB inoculant; (C FRS + TW + CW with the ratio of 40 : 25 : 35, without LAB inoculant; (D FRS + TW + CW with ratio of 40 : 25 : 35 + LAB inoculant. Results showed that addition of LAB inoculant in silage increased lactic acid concentration (P0.05 on chemical composition, fermentation quality of silage and in vitro digestibility. It was concluded that mixture silage with ratio of 40 : 20 : 40 with the addition of LAB inoculant had the best fermentation quality and nutrient digestibility than other silages.

  13. Effect of seed inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense and nitrogen fertilization rates on maize plant yield and silage quality

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    Fernando Reimann Skonieski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Azospirillum brasilense inoculation and different nitrogen (N rates applied as topdressing on the productivity of a maize crop and the nutritional value of maize silage. Two experiments were conducted in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 harvests. Treatments were distributed in a randomized block design in a factorial arrangement, which consisted of two maize hybrids (AS 1572 and Defender coupled with nitrogen rates (0, 60, 120, 240, and 480 kg ha-1, inoculated or uninoculated with A. brasilense. Inoculated seeds were treated with the A. brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6. Inoculation with A. brasilense showed interaction with the hybrids, agricultural years, and nitrogen rates for the maize plant yield. In the 2012/2013 agricultural year, inoculation increased the AS 1572 hybrid silage yield by 6.16% and, in the 2013/2014 harvest, A. brasilense inoculation produced an increase of 16.15% for the Defender hybrid. Nitrogen fertilization applied at 0, 60, and 120 kg ha-1 N benefited the plants inoculated with A. brasilense. The statistical equations revealed that N rates between 0 and 184 kg ha-1 in A. brasilense inoculated plants raised the plant productivity for silage when compared with the control plants. Regarding the nutritional value of the silage, inoculation with A. brasilense increased the ether extract levels and total digestible nutrients and reduced the amount of acid detergent fiber. For all this, positive results with inoculation for silage yield are dependent on nitrogen fertilization rate. Inoculation with A. brasilense can promote changes in the maize silage quality, but with obtained results it is not possible to definitely conclude upon nutritive value of maize silage.

  14. Effects of hybrid and bacterial inoculation on fermentation quality and fatty acid profile of barley silage.

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    Kim, Dong Hyeon; Amanullah, Sadar M; Lee, Hyuk Jun; Joo, Young Ho; Han, Ouk Kyu; Adesogan, Adegbola T; Kim, Sam Churl

    2018-01-01

    This study estimated the effects of hybrid and bacterial inoculant on fermentation quality and fatty acid profile of barley silages. Yuyeon (Silkless) and Youngyang (Silking) barley hybrids were harvested at 24.9 and 27.1% dry matter, respectively, and chopped to 10 cm lengths. Each hybrid was treated with or without an inoculant (2 × 10 4  colony-forming units/g of Lactobacillus plantarum). A total of 48 silos were prepared in an experiment with a 2 × 2 (hybrid × inoculant) treatment arrangement with four replications and three ensiling durations (2, 7 and 100 days). After 100 days of ensiling, Yuyeon silage had higher (P hybrids and increased (P hybrid might have better potential benefits on animal performances due to its smooth awn and silkless nature, and higher in vitro dry matter digestibility. Its higher C18:3n-3 would be better for improving fatty acid profile of meat or milk than Youngyang hybrid. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Effects of chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole on fermentation quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage inoculated with or without Lactobacillus plantarum LP.

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    Zhang, Qing; Yu, Zhu; Wang, Xianguo; Na, Risu

    2017-03-01

    The effects of pesticides and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) on fermentation quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage were investigated. Chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole were sprayed on the surface of alfalfa plants at 658.6 and 45.0 g active ingredient/ha, respectively. Alfalfa plants were harvested on day 5 post-application and ensiled with or without LP. Chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole decreased the yeast count of alfalfa material (P butyric acid content of alfalfa silage (P butyric acid content, and increased lactic acid and short-chain fatty acid contents of alfalfa silage treated with pesticides (P fermentation of alfalfa silage and affected the fermentation process, whereas LP improved the fermentation quality of pesticides-contaminated alfalfa silage and slowed down the dissipation of chlorpyrifos. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Silage preparation and fermentation quality of natural grasses treated with lactic acid bacteria and cellulase in meadow steppe and typical steppe

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    Meiling Hou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective In order to improve fermentation quality of natural grasses, their silage preparation and fermentation quality in meadow steppe (MS and typical steppe (TS were studied. Methods The small-scale silages and round bale silages of mixed natural grasses in both steppes were prepared using the commercial lactic acid bacteria (LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum and cellulase enzyme (AC, Acremonium cellulase as additives. Results MS and TS contained 33 and 9 species of natural grasses, respectively. Stipa baicalensis in MS and Stipa grandi in TS were the dominant grasses with the highest dry matter (DM yield. The crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber and water-soluble carbohydrate of the mixed natural grasses in both steppes were 8.02% to 9.03%, 66.75% to 69.47%, and 2.02% to 2.20% on a DM basis, respectively. All silages treated with LAB and cellulase were well preserved with lower pH, butyric acid and ammonia-N content, and higher lactic acid and CP content than those of control in four kinds of silages. Compared with CH- or AC-treated silages, the CH+ AC-treated silages had higher lactic acid content. Conclusion The results confirmed that combination with LAB and cellulase may result in beneficial effects by improving the natural grass silage fermentation in both grasslands.

  17. Qualidade de silagens de sorgo com aditivos Quality of sorghum silages with additives

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    F.A.P. Vieira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, foi utilizado para avaliar os efeitos da adição de 0,5% de uréia, de 0,5% de carbonato de cálcio (CaCO3, de 0,5% de uréia mais 0,5% de CaCO3 e de inoculante bacteriano sobre o pH, teores de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, hemicelulose, celulose, lignina, carboidratos solúveis, ácido lático e ácido acético sobre a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS de silagens de quatro híbridos de sorgo (BR700, BR701, BR601 e AG2002. Os híbridos ensilados sem a adição de aditivos constituíram o grupo-controle. De cada genótipo foram coletadas três amostras do material original (MOR. Foram utilizados 60 silos de PVC com 10cm de diâmetro interno e 50cm de comprimento, sendo três por tratamento. A abertura dos silos ocorreu depois de 56 dias de fermentação. As silagens contendo CaCO3 e inoculante bacteriano apresentaram, em geral, características muito semelhantes às do controle. A adição de uréia e de uréia mais CaCO3 às silagens resultou em aumento (PA completely randomized design with three replicates was used to evaluate the addition effects of 0.5% urea, 0.5% calcium carbonate, 0.5% urea plus 0.5% calcium carbonate, and bacteria culture (according to producer recommendations on quality of four hybrids sorghum silages (BR700, BR701, BR601 e AG2002. All hybrids ensiled with no additives were used as the control group. The pH and the contents of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, soluble carbohydrates, lactic and acetic acids, and the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD values were determined. Three samples of each original material (MOR were collected and analyzed. Sixty "PVC" experimental silos with 10cm of internal diameter and 50cm of length, three by treatment, were used. The silos were

  18. IMPROVEMENT OF THE SILAGE QUALITY AND MILK PRODUCTIVITY OF CATTLE BY THE USE OF A NEW LIOPHYLIZED BIOLOGICAL PRESERVATIVE

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    P. I. Baryshnikov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of new biological preservative representing the mix of liophylized lactobacteria strains Lactobacillus plantarum VKPM V-4173; Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis VKPM V-2092, and Propionibacterium acidipropionici VKPMV-5723 (at a ratio of 40:40:20 on the quality of a maize silage has been studied. The total bacteria content in the preparation was 1´1011 CFU/g. Different variants of a silage conservation have been accesses under laboratory conditions using laboratory vessels; the variants included a preservative-free (control variant and the dosages of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g per a ton of conserved maize green mass. The evaluation of the dynamical changes in the ammonia content, pH, organic acid content and their ratio, and the analysis of the chemical composition of a silage performed at the 7th, 21st, and 60th days after the filling showed the dosage of 3.0 g/ton provided the best results. An industrial testing of the studied preservative (3.0 g/ton showed that, comparing to the preservative-free silage, the use of the new preservative during the filling of a maize sillage provided the better preservation of nutrients and more optimal pH and ratio of organic acids in the silage mass. The industrial evaluation of the effect of the preservative addition to the silage on the productivity of milk cattle (n = 12 showed that the maximum average daily yield of milk of the basis fat content was obtained from cows of the experimental group, which ration included maize silage prepared with the use of the studied preservative. This yield made 28.86 kg that exceeds the same value of the control group by 4.0%. The feeding of cows with the silage prepared with the use of the new preservative provided an increase of the volatile fatty acid content and bacteria amount in the rumen contents and simultaneously decreased the ammonia content that evidenced the improvement of the digestion processes. The digestibility of nutrients of the whole ration of cows

  19. Effects of Different Cutting Height on Nutritional Quality of Whole Crop Barley Silage and Feed Value on Hanwoo Heifers.

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    Kim, Dong Hyeon; Amanullah, Sardar M; Lee, Hyuk Jun; Joo, Young Ho; Han, Ouk Kyu; Adesogan, Adegbola T; Kim, Sam Churl

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of different cutting height on nutritive value, fermentation quality, in vitro and in vivo digestibility of whole crop barley silage. Whole crop barley forage (Yuyeon hybrid) was harvested at height of 5, 10, and 15 cm from the ground level. Each cutting height was rolled to make round bale and ensiled for 100 days. After 100 days of ensiling, pH of silage was lower (pcutting height. The content of lactate and lactate to acetate ratio were increased (pcutting height, whereas the acetate content was higher (pcutting height. Aerobic stability was greater (pcutting height. Three total mixed rations (TMR) were formulated with silages from the three different cutting heights (TMR5, TMR10, and TMR15) incorporated as forage at 70:30 ratio with concentrate (dry matter [DM] basis). In vitro dry matter digestibility was higher (pcutting height. The digestibility of DM and neutral detergent fiber were highest (pcutting height, at least up to 10 to 15 cm, of whole crop barley forage at harvest (Yuyeon) may be beneficial for making silage for TMR formulation and increasing digestibility of DM and NDF.

  20. Evaluation of Drying and Storage Conditions on Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Dried Galega Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. Acephala

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    Ana C. Araújo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of the air-drying temperature and vacuum packaging on quality and nutritional compounds of dehydrated galega kale, previously steam blanched, during 5 months of storage. When compared with the vacuum packaged kale, the packaging without vacuum yielded improved nutritional features, in general. This approach combined with a drying temperature of 40°C resulted in retention percentages of 62, 38, 92, and 48% for vitamin C, total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, and chlorophylls, respectively. The acceptance of the dried product by the consumer was assessed through a focus group. The participants classified the product as a practical and convenient alternative to cook healthier dishes. The appearance of dried galega kale was described as being fragile and being with nice smell, natural colour, and flavour similar to the fresh product. In conclusion, the herein presented product was addressed as an innovation with multiple possible applications in several recipes.

  1. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

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    Chen, Lei; Guo, Gang; Yuan, Xianjun; Shimojo, Masataka; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM) was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control), molasses (M), propionic acid (P), and molasses+propionic acid (PM), in laboratory silos (250 mL) and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN), and high lactic acid (LA) content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p105 cfu/g FM), however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage. PMID:25049961

  2. FERMENTATION QUALITY OF KING GRASS SILAGE TREATED WITH LIQUID OR DRIED INOCULANT OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

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    B. Santoso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value and fermentation characteristic of king grass silage treated with addition of liquid or dried lactic acid bacteria (LAB inoculant. Experiment was arranged to a completely randomized design with four treatments and three replications. Four treatments as follows (A king grass without LAB inoculant as the control; (B king grass + 30 ml of liquid of epiphytic LAB inoculant/kg of fresh forage; (C king grass + 30 g of freeze-dried powder of LAB inoculant/kg of fresh forage; (D king grass + 30 g of centrifuged powder of LAB inoculant/kg of fresh forage. The liquid LAB inoculant was sprayed on the top of grass and then mannualy mixed by hand. The intial LAB concentration in all inoculants were 1.0 × 106 cfu/g. About 500 g of silage materials were ensiled into plastic silos and stored at room temperatures (approximately 28oC for 30 days. Results showed that pH value, concentrations of lactic acid, N-amonia (NH3-N, butyric acid and total volatile fatty acids (VFA as well as Fleigh Point were affected by treatment of LAB inoculant. Silage treated with liquid or dried of LAB inoculant had lower (P<0.01 pH value compared to the control silage. Concentrations of NH3-N and butyric acid significantly decreased (P<0.01 in silage treated with LAB inoculants. Silage treated with centrifuged powder of LAB inoculant had the highest (P<0.05 Fleigh Point than other silage. In vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05 in silage treated with LAB inoculant compared to the control silage.

  3. Characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolates and their effect on the fermentation quality of Napier grass silage at three high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulfam, Ali; Guo, Gang; Tajebe, Seare; Chen, Lei; Liu, Qinhua; Yuan, Xianjun; Bai, Yunfeng; Saho, Tao

    2017-04-01

    The poor fermentation quality of silage is an important issue for silage production during the high temperatures of summer. Pediococcus acidilactici GG13 (GG13) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG26 (GG26) isolated from Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) silage were characterised by morphological and physiological tests and 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and their effects, along with those of a commercial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant (CB), on the fermentation quality of facultative halophyte Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) ensiled at 30 °C, 40 °C and 50 °C were studied, respectively. The strains GG13 and GG26 grew well at 50 °C and pH 3.5, and were tolerant to 6.5% NaCl. After ensiling for 50 days, the strains GG13 and GG26 and the CB decreased (P fermentation quality at 50 °C, whereas both isolated strains improved the fermentation quality of Napier grass silage as indicated by the lower (P butyric acid and ammonia-N contents and higher (P fermentation quality of Napier grass silage. The results of this study suggested that strain GG13 is a good LAB inoculant for producing well-fermented silages during the high temperatures of summer times. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Selection for silage yield and composition did not affect genomic diversity within the Wisconsin Quality Synthetic maize population.

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    Lorenz, Aaron J; Beissinger, Timothy M; Silva, Renato Rodrigues; de Leon, Natalia

    2015-02-02

    Maize silage is forage of high quality and yield, and represents the second most important use of maize in the United States. The Wisconsin Quality Synthetic (WQS) maize population has undergone five cycles of recurrent selection for silage yield and composition, resulting in a genetically improved population. The application of high-density molecular markers allows breeders and geneticists to identify important loci through association analysis and selection mapping, as well as to monitor changes in the distribution of genetic diversity across the genome. The objectives of this study were to identify loci controlling variation for maize silage traits through association analysis and the assessment of selection signatures and to describe changes in the genomic distribution of gene diversity through selection and genetic drift in the WQS recurrent selection program. We failed to find any significant marker-trait associations using the historical phenotypic data from WQS breeding trials combined with 17,719 high-quality, informative single nucleotide polymorphisms. Likewise, no strong genomic signatures were left by selection on silage yield and quality in the WQS despite genetic gain for these traits. These results could be due to the genetic complexity underlying these traits, or the role of selection on standing genetic variation. Variation in loss of diversity through drift was observed across the genome. Some large regions experienced much greater loss in diversity than what is expected, suggesting limited recombination combined with small populations in recurrent selection programs could easily lead to fixation of large swaths of the genome. Copyright © 2015 Lorenz et al.

  5. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

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    Lei Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control, molasses (M, propionic acid (P, and molasses+propionic acid (PM, in laboratory silos (250 mL and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN, and high lactic acid (LA content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p105 cfu/g FM, however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM (p<0.05 and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage.

  6. Production, Nutritional Quality and Methane Production from Grass Harvested at Different Maturities and Preserved as Hay or Silage

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    G. O. Ribeiro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Andropogon gayanus is an important grass due to its high biomass production, drought tolerance and favorable growth on low fertility acidic soils. Currently, there is little research on the impact of growth stage on the nutritional quality or the degree of CH4 production that may arise from this forage during ruminal fermentation. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of regrowth stage of A. gayanus on its chemical composition, in vitro production of gas and CH4, as well as in vitro dry matter (DM digestibility when grown under tropical Brazilian conditions and conserved as hay or as silage. The nutritional value of A. gayanus grass declined with increasing maturity; however digestible DM yield linearly increased. After 112 d of regrowth, A. gayanus produced higher quality silage (higher lactate and lower pH and butyrate content and higher DM yield. However, the low levels of crude protein at this time would make protein supplementation a necessity for proper rumen fermentation. No differences in CH4 kinetic parameters were found with advancing maturity or preservation method (hay or silage.

  7. Effect of level of lactic acid bacteria inoculant from fermented grass extract on fermentation quality of king grass silage

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    M.A Antaribaba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling is a method of preserving moist forage based on natural fermentation where lactic acid bacteria (LAB ferment water soluble carbohydrate into organic acids mainly lactic acid under anaerobic condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of king grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides ensiled with addition of LAB prepared from fermented grass extract (LBFG. Four treatment were (G0 king grass without additive; (G1 king grass with 2% (v/w of LBFG; (G2 king grass with 3% (v/w of LBFG; (G3 king grass with 4% (v/w of LBFG. Ensiling was conducted in bottle silos of 225 g capacity at room temperatures (27.0 ± 0.20C for 30 days. The results showed that crude protein content in silage G1, G2 and G3 were relatively higher than that in silage G0. The pH value, butyric acid, total VFA and NH3-N concentrations decreased linearly with increasing level of LBFG addition, while lactic acid concentration increased linearly with LBFG addition. It was concluded that addition of 3% (v/w of LBFG resulting a better fermentation quality of king grass silage than 2% and 4% (v/w of LBFG.

  8. Fermentation quality and nutritive value of a total mixed ration silage containing coffee grounds at ten or twenty percent of dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C C; Cai, Y; Zhang, J G; Ogawa, M

    2007-04-01

    Six wethers were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square to study the fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages that included wet coffee grounds (WCG). The TMR were prepared using a commercial compound feed, timothy hay, alfalfa hay, dried beet pulp, and a vitamin-mineral supplement in a ratio of 36.5:30:20:12:1.5, respectively, on a DM basis, with timothy hay and alfalfa hay being replaced by WCG at 0, 10, or 20%. All TMR silages, irrespective of WCG addition, were well preserved, with a low pH and ammonia-N content and a high lactic acid content. Intakes by wethers of TMR silages containing 0 and 10% WCG were 96.6 and 94.8 g/kg of BW(0.75), and did not differ (P > 0.05). Intake of TMR silage containing 20% WCG was 76.8 g/kg of BW(0.75), which was equal to 80% of that of the TMR silage with no WCG (quadratic: P < 0.01). Increasing concentrations of WCG in the rations decreased the digestibility of DM, CP, ADF, NDF, and energy, and increased that of ether extract (P < 0.05). The TDN and DE contents of the TMR silages with 0 and 10% WCG were similar, but the TMR silage with 20% WCG was lower (P < 0.05). With progressive increases in WCG concentrations, N intake did not differ, but fecal and urinary N increased linearly (P < 0.001), and retained N decreased linearly (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the proportion of WCG to be incorporated into TMR silages should not exceed 10% of the DM.

  9. Effects of Different Cutting Height on Nutritional Quality of Whole Crop Barley Silage and Feed Value on Hanwoo Heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyeon; Amanullah, Sardar M.; Lee, Hyuk Jun; Joo, Young Ho; Han, Ouk Kyu; Adesogan, Adegbola T.; Kim, Sam Churl

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of different cutting height on nutritive value, fermentation quality, in vitro and in vivo digestibility of whole crop barley silage. Whole crop barley forage (Yuyeon hybrid) was harvested at height of 5, 10, and 15 cm from the ground level. Each cutting height was rolled to make round bale and ensiled for 100 days. After 100 days of ensiling, pH of silage was lower (p<0.05) in 5 cm, but no difference between 10 and 15 cm of cutting height. The content of lactate and lactate to acetate ratio were increased (p<0.05) in 5 cm of cutting height, whereas the acetate content was higher (p<0.05) in 10 and 15 cm than that of 5 cm cutting height. Aerobic stability was greater (p<0.05) in silages of 10 and 15 cm of cutting height. Three total mixed rations (TMR) were formulated with silages from the three different cutting heights (TMR5, TMR10, and TMR15) incorporated as forage at 70:30 ratio with concentrate (dry matter [DM] basis). In vitro dry matter digestibility was higher (p<0.05) in the TMR5 and TMR10 than that in TMR15, whereas in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility was higher (p<0.05) in the TMR10 and TMR15 than that in TMR5. Concentration of NH3-N was highest (p<0.05) in the TMR10 followed by TMR15 and TMR5. Total volatile fatty acid was decreased (p<0.05) with increased cutting height. The digestibility of DM and neutral detergent fiber were highest (p<0.05) in TMR15, than those in TMR5 and TMR10, whereas acid detergent fiber digestibility was higher (p<0.05) in TMR5 than that in TMR10. The results showed that increasing cutting height, at least up to 10 to 15 cm, of whole crop barley forage at harvest (Yuyeon) may be beneficial for making silage for TMR formulation and increasing digestibility of DM and NDF. PMID:27165022

  10. The effect of nitrogen fertilization on the quality of Kikuyu silage. | M ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small-scale laboratory silos were used to study the fermentation process of Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst) silage prepared from grass grown at three nitrogen fertilizer levels (300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha/year). Kikuyu grass was cut at three and six weeks growth stages. High nitrogen levels appeared to improve ...

  11. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on broiler production, nutrient digestibility and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, S; Karlsson, A H; Petersen, M A; Bredie, W L P; Petersen, J S; Engberg, R M

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers was carried out from 21 to 25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), maize-based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize-based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). Compared with MBF, the dry matter (DM) intakes of broilers receiving CKMS-15 and CKMS-30, respectively, were numerically 7.5 and 6.2% higher and feed conversion ratio 6 and 12% poorer (significant for 30% CKMS), although there were no significant differences in AME content between the three diets. At 37 d, the body weight of birds receiving 15% CKMS was similar to birds fed with MBF. However, the inclusion of 30% CKMS decreased broiler growth. Dietary supplementation with CKMS significantly reduced the apparent digestibility of phosphorus. The fat digestibility was significantly lower for CKMS-30 than for the other three diets. Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize-based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed with CKMS-30. An improved litter quality in terms of DM content and a lower frequency of foot pad lesions was observed with broilers supplemented with both dietary levels of CKMS. The addition of CKMS to maize-based diets increased juiciness, tenderness and crumbliness of the meat. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of 15% CKMS had no negative effect on broiler growth and positively influenced bird welfare in terms of mortality and foot pad health. Therefore, the addition of 15% CKMS to maize-based diets is considered an advantageous feeding

  12. Fermentation characteristics and nutritional quality of elephant grass silage added the buriti fruit peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Ribeiro Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluated the inclusion of buriti fruit peel as additive on the fermentation profile, losses, chemical composition and degradability of elephant grass silage. We used a completely randomized design with five levels of buriti fruit peel (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 g kg-1. The silos were opened after 28 days of storage. In situ degradability monitoring was conducted using a split-plot design in which four animals represented the blocks and silage supplemented with five levels of buriti fruit peel represented the treatments. The use of the additive in elephant silage increased dry matter (DM (P < 0.001, ether extract (EE (P < 0.001, ash (P < 0.001, neutral detergent fiber (NDF (P < 0.001 and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P= 0.0000. The pH (P= 0.0000, N-NH3 (P = 0.024 and there was a decrease in gas losses (P < 0.001, effluent losses and dry matter recovery (P = 0.218 not were influenced by the addition of buriti fruit peel. The inclusion of buriti fruit peel linearly reduced the ruminal degradability DM of soluble fraction (a (P < 0.001 and potentially degradable insoluble fraction (b (P < 0.001. The DM content increase with the addition of the buriti fruit peel to the elephant grass silage promotes improvements in the fermentation process, reduces losses of nutrients and ruminal disappearance of dry matter and does not significantly change the chemical composition with the inclusion of 166.7 g kg-1 of the buriti fruit peel.

  13. Fungi colonising the above-ground parts of fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam. cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (Bromus inermis Leyss.

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    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in 1999-2001 in the experimental field in Knopin near Dobre Miasto to determine the intensity of fodder galega diseases cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (the Hillstrand and Auld' s modified scale, 1982. The fungi colonising the phyllosphere of fodder galega were analysed in a laboratory (Chruoeciak , 1974. The following symptoms were observed in fodder galega: ascochyta blight (Ascochyta sp., gray mould (Botrytis cinerea and plant wilting (Fusarium oxysporum.. The climatic conditions had an effect on the development of diseases. The greatest intensity of gray mould (Ii = 24.3% and plant wilting (17.9% of plants with the disease symptoms were observed in 2001. Ascochyta blight occurred with the lowest intensity and the highest infection index in 1999 in the cultivation of fodder galega mixed with smooth brome-grass was only 12.1%. The type of cultivation also modified fodder galega disease intensity. Gray mould and plant wilting developed better in pure sowing than in mixed sowing with smooth brome-grass. Throughout the entire experiment period the average infection index was 22.8% and 15.9% of plants with the wilt symptoms. Ascochyta blight found better conditions for development in plants cultivated in a mix with smooth brome-grass (average infection index - 10.0%. The fodder galega phyllosphere provided 4149 fungal isolates represented by 17 species and yeast-like fungi. Yeast-like fungi dominated (75.6% of the total isolates. The following species were less numerous: Botrytis cinerea, Humicola brevis, Acremonium strictum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. From the leaves of fodder galega cultivated in pure sowing, 3.8% more fungi were obtained than from the leaves of plants cultivated with a mix of smooth brome-grass, including more frequently isolated pathogenic fungi representing the genera of Fusarium and the species of Botrytis cinerea.

  14. Verteerbaarheid en voederwaarde van diverse kwaliteiten graskuil en van CCM bij biologische zeugen = Digestibility and nutritive value of several qualities of grass silage and of CCM in organic housed gestating sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Diepen, van J.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition, digestibility and energy value of five qualities of grass silage and of CCM (Corn cob mix) were investigated in organic housed gestating sows. The dry matter content of the five grass silages varied between 21.3 and 24.9%. The energy value per kg dry matter varied between

  15. The effect of a mixture of Lactobacillus strains on silage quality and nutritive value of grass harvested at four growth stages and ensiled for two periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan De Boever

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available   The effect of adding an inoculant containing Lactobacillus buchneri, L. plantarum and L. casei to wilted perennial ryegrass, harvested at four growth stages and ensiled for either 60 or 150 d on silage fermentation quality, chemical composition, rumen degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF and organic matter (OM and in vitro OM digestibility (OMd was studied. Compared to the control silage, more sugars were fermented to lactic and acetic acid with the inoculant, resulting in a lower pH, less dry matter losses and protein degradation and a better aerobic stability. The effects of the additive on fermentation quality were more pronounced after 150 than after 60 d of ensiling, because the quality of the control silage was worse after long ensiling period. The treatment lowered NDF content of grass harvested at the first two growth stages by degrading cell walls to complex sugars, but had no effect on NDF degradability of the silage. The inoculant had no effect on rumen OM degradability nor on OMd after the short ensiling period, but increased the rumen OM degradability for the first two growth stages and OMd for all growth stages after long ensiling period.

  16. Improvement of Fermentation and Nutritive Quality of Straw-grass Silage by Inclusion of Wet Hulless-barley Distillers’ Grains in Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xianjun; Yu, Chengqun; Shimojo, M.; Shao, Tao

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop methods that would enlarge the feed resources in Tibet, mixtures of hulless-barley straw and tall fescue were ensiled with four levels (0, 10%, 20%, and 30% of fresh weight) of wet hulless-barley distillers’ grains (WHDG). The silos were opened after 7, 14 or 30 d of ensiling, and the fermentation characteristics and nutritive quality of the silages were analyzed. WHDG addition significantly improved fermentation quality, as indicated by the faster decline of pH, rapid accumulation of lactic acid (LA) (p<0.05), and lower butyric acid content and ammonia-N/total N (p<0.05) as compared with the control. These results indicated that WHDG additions not only effectively inhibited the activity of aerobic bacteria, but also resulted in faster and greatly enhanced LA production and pH value decline, which restricted activity of undesirable bacteria, resulting in more residual water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in the silages. The protein content of WHDG-containing silages were significantly higher (p<0.05) higher than that of the control. In conclusion, the addition of WHDG increased the fermentation and nutritive quality of straw-grass silage, and this effect was more marked when the inclusion rate of WHDG was greater than 20%. PMID:25049588

  17. Round-Bale Silage Harvesting and Processing Effects on Overwintering Ability, Dry Matter Yield, Fermentation Quality, and Palatability of Dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Fukagawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Round-bale silage harvesting and processing methods were assessed to evaluate overwintering ability and dry matter (DM yield, fermentation quality and palatability of overwintered dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach in the two years following establishment in Nagasaki, Japan, in May 2013 using rooted tillers with a density of 2 plants/m2. In 2014, harvesting methods under no-wilting treatment were compared for flail-type harvesting with a round-baler (Flail/baler plot and mower conditioning with a round-baler (Mower/baler plot, which is common for beef-calf–producing farmers in the region. In 2015, the effect of ensilage with wilting was investigated only in the Mower/baler plot. Dwarf Napiergrass was cut twice, in early August (summer and late November (late autumn, each year. The winter survival rate was greater than 96% in May both years. The DM yield in the Mower/baler plot did not differ significantly for the first summer cutting or the annual total from the Flail/baler plot, but did show inferior yield for the second cutting. The fermentation quality of the second-cut plants, estimated using the V2-score, was higher in the Flail/baler plot than in the Mower/baler plot, possibly because of higher air-tightness, and the second-cut silage tended to have better fermentation quality than the first-cut silage in both harvesting plots. Wilting improved the fermentation quality of dwarf Napiergrass silage in summer, but not in autumn. The palatability of the silage, as estimated by alternative and voluntary intake trials using Japanese Black beef cattle, did not differ significantly between plots. The results suggest that dwarf Napiergrass can be better harvested using a mower conditioner with processing by a round-baler, an approach common to beef-calf–producing farmers, than with the flail/baler system, without reducing the persistence, yield, or palatability of the silage. Moreover, wilting treatment improved the fermentation

  18. Forage quality on family farms in Croatia: monitoring corn silage quality over the two winter feeding seasons of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the applied research project: “Forage evaluation by NIR spectroscopy” was to monitor the nutritive value of grass silage, corn silage and hay on family farms in Croatia over 6-month feeding in each of the two investigation years (from November 2003 to May 2004 and from November 2004 to May 2005. The aim of this paper was to determine the nutritive value of corn silage in the second year and to compare the results with the first year of the investigation. Extension service staff recommended dairy nutrition based on monthly silage analysis by NIRS instrument (Foss, Model 6500. The following parameters were determined: dry matter (DM, dry matter corrected (CDM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, metabolic energy (ME, pH value, fermented ME in ME (FME/ME, starch and OM digestibility in DM (D-value. The results show desirable DM (352.99 g kg-1, high starch (339.86 g kg-1ST and high NDF (422.65 g kg-1ST content. In average, the silage was stabile (pH 3.65 with suitable FME/ME (79% and D-value ( 71.6%, but with low CP content (58.96 g kg-1ST. Statistically significant differences among family farms were observed for CDM (P<0.05, D-value (P<0.05, NDF (P<0.05, pH (P<0.05, starch (P<0.05, ME (P<0.05 and OM (P<0.05. The samples from the second year of the investigation had significantly lower CDM (P<0.01, CP (P<0.01 and FME/ME (P<0.01.

  19. Adding distiller's grains and molasses on fermentation quality of rice straw silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XianJun Yuan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ensilage is a simple and low-cost strategy to enable long term preservation and environmentally friendly utilization of agricultural by-products, such as straws and distiller's grains (DG for ruminants. Effect of mixing different proportions of DG and rice straw (i.e. 0, 10, 20 or 30% of DG with or without 5% molasses addition on fermentation and chemical variables of silages was evaluated. The study was conducted as a randomized blocks design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three replications, using laboratory silos of 1L capacity (n=24. Despite a significant interaction (P<0.01 between DG and molasses addition was observed for most variables, in general the increased addition of DG linearly decreased the pH value, acetic acid (AA, butyric acid (BA and ammonia N concentration (P<0.01, and increased the lactic acid (LA concentration (P<0.01. Exception was the propionic acid concentration which linearly decreased without molasses addition and linearly increased with molasses addition at increased proportion of DG (P<0.01. In both silages with or without molasses the addition of DG increased the dry matter, water soluble carbohydrates and crude protein (P<0.01, and decreased the NDF content (P<0.01. Based on the perspective of maximum utilization of rice straw, the mixture of 10% of DG associated to 5% molasses at ensilage process is recommended.

  20. Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains for effectiveness on silage quality at low temperatures on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siran; Yuan, Xianjun; Dong, Zhihao; Li, Junfeng; Shao, Tao

    2017-11-01

    Four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from straw silages on the Tibetan Plateau were characterized, and their effects on the fermentation quality of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) at different temperatures (10°C, 15°C and 25°C) were studied. These LAB isolates were evaluated using the acids production ability test, morphological observation, Gram staining, physiological, biochemical and acid tolerance tests. All the isolates (M1, LM8, LO7 and LOG9) could grow at 5-20°C, pH 3.5-7.0 and NaCl (3.0%, 6.5%). Strains M1, LM8, LO7 and LOG9 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. coryniformis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and P. acidilactici, respectively, by sequencing 16S ribosomal DNA. The four isolates were added to Italian ryegrass for ensiling for 30 days at various temperatures. Compared with the corresponding control, inoculating with isolates M1, LM8 and LO7 could improve the silage quality of Italian ryegrass at low temperatures, indicated by significantly (P lactic acid (LA) contents and ratios of lactic acid/acetic acid (LA/AA), and significantly (P < 0.05) lower pH and ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen (AN/TN). Compared with other isolates, LM8 performed better at 10°C and 15°C, indicated by the higher (P < 0.05) LA content and ratio of LA/AA, and the lower (P < 0.05) pH and AN/TN. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Fermentation Quality of Round-Bale Silage as Affected by Additives and Ensiling Seasons in Dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Fukagawa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation quality of dwarf napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach was estimated for additives lactic acid bacteria and Acremonium cellulase (LAB + AC, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB, and a no-additive control in 2006 via two ensiling methods—round-bale and vinyl-bag methods in 2006—and via two ensiling seasons—summer and autumn of 2013. Fermentation quality of dwarf napiergrass ensiled in the summer season was improved by the input of additives, with the highest quality in LAB + AC, followed by FJLB; the lactic acid content was higher, and the pH and sum of the butyric, caproic, and valeric acid contents were lower, resulting in an increase in the V-score value by each additive. The ensiling method in autumn without additives affected fermentation quality, mainly due to the airtightness, which was higher for round-bale processing than in vinyl bags, even with the satisfactory V-score of 72. Fermentation in round bales without additives had a higher quality in autumn than in summer, possibly due to the higher concentration of mono- and oligo-saccharides. Thus, it was concluded that dwarf napiergrass can be produced to satisfactory-quality silage by adding LAB + AC or FJLB in summer and even in the absence of additives in autumn.

  2. Biotechnology of olive fermentation of ‘Galega' Portuguese variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, Manuela

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘Galega' is the main Portuguese olive variety providing the greatest percentage of table olive production from homemade and industrial methods. In this work a better understanding of the fermentation involved in both methods is intended. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB constitute the microflora acting in olive fermentation, with Pichia membranaefaciens being the dominant yeast specie present throughout the process. LAB develop their activity mainly along the second fermentation stage where Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus were isolated and identified, as well as Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Results of a chemical analysis have shown the effectiveness of both homemade and industrial fermentation methods. Nevertheless, the chemical composition of the brines from homemade samples was more similar than those from the industrial ones. Remarkable differences were found in the phenolic compound profile mainly on the final fermentation stage. The amount of volatile compounds has enhanced on the same phase in both methods and some differences were found between them. Sensorial analysis has shown the best results obtained through the homemade method.La variedad de aceitunas más importante en Portugal es la ‘Galega', que representa un gran porcentaje de la producción de aceitunas de mesa portuguesas por métodos caseros ó industriales. La fermentación se produce por una compleja flora microbiana, principalmente levaduras y bacterias del ácido láctico (LAB, siendo la especie Pichia membranaefaciens la que domina en todo el proceso. Las LAB desarrollan su actividad a lo largo de la segunda fase de la fermentación, en donde Lactobacillus plantarum y Lactobacillus pentosus fueran aislados y identificados, así como Leuconostoc pentosaceus. Los resultados de los análisis químicos muestran la mejor eficiencia del método casero. Además, la composición química de la salmuera es más parecida

  3. Assessment of dietary ratios of red clover and corn silages on milk production and milk quality in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorby, J M; Ellis, N M; Davies, D R

    2016-10-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, and whole-body N and P partitioning. Three dietary treatments with ad libitum access to 1 of 3 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4kg/d dairy concentrates were offered. The 3 treatment forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) R10: 90% corn silage and 10% red clover silage, (2) R50: 50% corn silage and 50% red clover silage, and (3) R90: 10% corn silage and 90% red clover silage. In each of 3 experimental periods, there were 21d for adaptation to diets, and 7d for measurements. Diet crude protein intakes increased, and starch intakes decreased, as the silage mixture changed from 90% corn to 90% red clover, although the highest forage DM intakes and milk yields were achieved on diet R50. Although milk fat yields were unaffected by diet, milk protein yields were highest with the R 0250 diet. Whole-body partitioning of N was measured in a subset of cows (n=9), and both the daily amount and proportion of N consumed that was excreted in feces and urine increased as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased. However, the apparent efficiency of utilization of feed N for milk protein production decreased from 0.33g/g for diet R10 to 0.25g/g for diet R90. The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (sum of allantoin and uric acid) tended to increase, suggesting greater flow of microbial protein from the rumen, as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased, and urinary creatinine excretion was affected by diet. Fecal shedding of E. coli was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, even though microbial protein flow may have been greatest from the R 0450 diet, optimum feed intakes and milk yields were achieved on a diet that contained a

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF SILAGE ADDITIVES FOR QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF CLOVER-GRASS SILAGES

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    F LÁD

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We observed the infl uence of silage additives for choice qualitative parameters at 109 samples of clovergrass silages in working conditions. We evaluated total classifi cation and categorization to quality classes according to fermentation process. It has been found out positive effect of the silage additives for fermentation class and for total silage quality of silages. This positive effec t has been more considerable at classifi cation to the fermentation classes at clover-grass silages. The high content of crude fi bre decreased fermentation results and total silage quality at test clover-grass silages. The greatest (deterioration infl uence for clasifi cation to total quality class has crude fi bre content. It is see from correlation coefi cient at clover-grass silages – r = 0,75 (P < 0,05. The weak dependence r = 0,37 (P < 0,05 was detected between fermentation class and acetic acid content. It was detected large dependence between fermentation class and butyric acid content r = 0,73 (P < 0,05.

  5. Effects of whey and molasses as silage additives on potato hash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of whey or molasses on the fermentation quality when added to potato hash silage. In addition, lamb performance, digestibility and feed intake of diets containing potato hash silage were compared with a diet containing maize silage (MSd). Potato hash silage.

  6. Silage preparation and fermentation quality of kudzu, sugarcane top and their mixture treated with lactic acid bacteria, molasses and cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinzhu; Li, Wenyang; Gao, Chengfang; Zhang, Xiaopei; Weng, Boqi; Cai, Yimin

    2017-11-01

    We studied silage fermentation of kudzu (KZ), sugarcane top (ST) and their mixtures treated with additives to be able to effectively use available local feed resources. The silages were prepared using KZ, ST, KZ 90% + ST 10%, KZ 80% + ST 20%, KZ 70% + ST 30% and KZ 60% + ST 40%, based on fresh matter (FM). These silages were treated with 10 8  colony-forming units/g epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB), 5% molasses and 0.02% cellulase of FM. The KZ contained higher crude protein (CP; 14.52%) content and lower levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 62.15%) than those of ST (6.84% CP and 64.93% NDF) based on dry matter (DM). The KZ 60% + ST 40% silage fermented well with a higher (P < 0.05) lactic acid content and lower (P < 0.05) pH than those of the other mixed silages. Silages treated with molasses had lower (P < 0.05) ammonia-N, NDF, acid detergent fiber, and hemi-cellulose contents as well as pH, but higher (P < 0.05) DM, water-soluble carbohydrate, and lactic acid contents, than those of the control, LAB and cellulase treatments. The results confirmed that KZ 60% + ST 40% was the best mixing ratio to prepare silage, and molasses improved silage fermentation and fiber degradation. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Corn silage with and without enzyme-bacteria inoculants on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in feedlot finished crossbred bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Fugita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two height cuttings of corn silage with or without enzyme inoculants were evaluated for 68 days on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and chemical composition of the Longissimus muscle in crossbred bulls (F1 - ½ Nellore vs. ½ Angus finished in feedlot. Thirty-two 20-month-old bulls, with initial average weight of 374±25 kg, were kept in individual pens (10 m². Diets consisted of 50% roughage and 50% concentrate, with an expected 1.80 kg/day weight gain. The experimental design with four diets and eight replications was completely randomized. Different cutting heights, low (25 cm and high (45 cm, with or without enzyme inoculants, were studied. Live weight, average daily gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, carcass characteristics, muscle, fat and bone percentages at the 11th and 12th ribs, chemical composition of the Longissimus muscle, sum of saturated, mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, n-6 fatty acids, and the poly-unsaturated:saturated and n-6:n-3 relations were determined. Cutting height of silage corn and the use of inoculants did not affect final live weight, average daily gain, feed intake, alimentary efficiency of dry matter, carcass characteristics, meat quality, chemical composition of the Longissimus muscle or fatty acid profile. High cutting of silage corn (45 cm above the ground and the use of inoculants are not necessary in the case of cattle finished in feedlot, with 1.8 kg daily gain.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF ADDITIVES FOR QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SILAGE FEEDS

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    F. LÁD

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We observed the influence of silage additives for choice qualitative parameters at clover-grass silages in working conditions. We evaluated total classification and categorization to quality classes according to fermentative process. It has been found out positive effect of the silage additives for fermentative class and for total silage quality of silages. This positive effect has been more considerable at the classification to the fermentative classes at clover-grass silages. The high content of crude fibre decreased fermentative results and total silage quality at test clovergrass silages. The greatest (deterioration influence for clasification to total quality class has crude fibre content. It is see from correlation coefficient at clover-grass silages r = 0.75 (P < 0.05. The weak dependence r = 0.37 (P < 0.05 was detected between fermentative class and acetic acid content. It was detected large dependence between fermentative class and butyric acid content r = 0.73 (P < 0.05. The silages with additives had better degree of proteolysis and higher value of lactic acid. The additive improved fermentative quality. The result of better fermentative process was reduction of crude fibre values with maintainance of energy content.

  9. Analytical characteristics of olive oils produced by two different extraction techniques, in Portuguese olive variety 'Galega Vulgar'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz-Freire, Luís

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A metal hammer-decanter (HD olive processing line was compared to a traditional metal hammer-press (HP line, a discontinuous method which, when properly used, yields high-quality virgin olive oils. Galega olives (traditional Portuguese variety were used. Olives were picked at a predetermined maturation stage and plagues and oil content were evaluated before processing. Years, extraction technology, data replicates, and years*extraction, were taken into account and compared using statistical treatment. In spite of significant differences among the results obtained, only acidity was statistically significant and sufficient for classifying the produced olive oil into a lampante category.Se han comparado dos líneas de procesamiento de aceite, utilizando un sistema de prensas (SP o un decantador centrífugo (DC. El procesamiento que recurre al sistema de prensas es un sistema discontinuo que, sin embargo permite obtener aceites vírgenes de gran calidad. Para este estudio se ha utilizado la variedad Portuguesa Galega común. Las aceitunas fueron tratadas contra el ataque de plagas, y recogidas en un punto de maduración predeterminado. Del mismo modo, se evaluó el porcentaje de aceite obtenido de la cosecha. Se han considerado los resultados analíticos teniendo en cuenta la determinación de la influencia de la extracción en el producto final. Este punto ha sido evaluado por medio de un tratamiento estadístico. Aunque se han observado diferencias significativas entre los resultados de algunos de los parámetros analizados, sólo las diferencias verificadas en el grado de acidez son susceptibles de modificar la clasificación final del aceite, situándolo en la categoría lampante.

  10. Corn silage hybrid type and quality of alfalfa hay affect dietary nitrogen utilization by early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, M S; Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; Nestor, K E

    2013-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage (CS) hybrids and quality of alfalfa hay (AH) in high-forage dairy diets on N utilization, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by early-lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The 8 cows (average days in milk = 23 ± 11.2) were surgically fitted with ruminal cannula, and the 2 squares were conducted simultaneously. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets: conventional CS (CCS) or brown midrib CS (BMR) was combined with fair-quality AH [FAH: 46.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 18.4% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH: 39.2% NDF and 20.7% CP) to form 4 treatments: CCS with FAH, CCS with HAH, BMR with FAH, and BMR with HAH. Diets were isonitrogenous across treatments, averaging 15.9% CP. Each period lasted a total of 21 d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 7d for data collection and sampling. Intake of DM and milk yield did not differ in response to CS hybrids or AH quality. Although feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N output by 24%, it did not affect fecal N output. Feeding HAH decreased urinary N output by 15% but increased fecal N output by 20%. Nitrogen efficiency [milk N (g/d)/intake N (g/d)] tended to increase for BMR treatments. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lower for cows fed BMR-based diets than for those fed CCS-based diets but was not affected by quality of AH. Feeding BMR-based diets or HAH decreased milk urea N concentration by 23 or 15%, respectively, compared with CCS-based diets or FAH. Total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with HAH but was not influenced by CS hybrids. Feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N-to-fecal N ratio (UN:FN), and it was further reduced by feeding HAH. Although cows fed the BMR-based diets tended to increase milk N-to-manure N ratio, the

  11. Effect of cumin essential oil usage on fermentation quality, aerobic stability and in vitro digetibility of alfalfa silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Aslı; Önenç, Sibel Soycan

    2018-03-02

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of cumin essential oil on the silage fermentation, aerobic stability and in vitro digestibility of alfalfa silages. Alfalfa was harvested at early bloom (5 th cutting) stage in October and wilted for about 3 hours. The research was carried out at three groups which were the control group where no additive control was done (CON), cumin essential oil (CMN3) with 300 mg/kg and CMN5 with 500 mg/kg cumin essential oil addition. Alfalfa was ensiled in plastic bags. The packages were stored at 8±2 °C under laboratory conditions. All groups were sampled for physical, chemical and microbiological analysis 120th day after ensiling. At the end of the ensiling period, all silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 7 days. In addition, enzimatic solubility of organic matter (ESOM), metabolizable energy (ME) and relative feed value (RFV) of these silages were determined. pH level decreased in the cumin groups compared to CON (P<0.05), thus inhibiting proteolytic enzymes from breaking down proteins into ammonia. In addition, it increased ESOM amount, and concordantly provided an increase of ME contents. Similarly, dry matter intake (DMI) and RFV ratio increased. After opening the silage, it kept its aerobic stability for three days. Cumin essential oil improved fermentation, and affected chemical and microbiological characteristics of silages. Especially the addition of 300 mg/kg cumin provided cell wall fractionation through stimulating the activities of enzymes responsible. It also increased the number and activity of lactic acid bacteri (LAB) through providing a development of LAB.

  12. Effects of lactic acid bacteria silage inoculation on methane emission and productivity of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.; Hindrichsen, I.K.; Klop, G.; Kinley, R.D.; Milora, N.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.

    2016-01-01

    Inoculants of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used to improve silage quality and prevent spoilage via increased production of lactic acid and other organic acids and a rapid decline in silage pH. The addition of LAB inoculants to silage has been associated with increases in silage digestibility,

  13. Interactive effects of molasses by homofermentative and heterofermentative inoculants on fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation, nutritive value and aerobic stability of wilted alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Taghizadeh, A; Kargar, S; Yang, W Z

    2014-04-01

    The effect of adding molasses (0, UM or 50 g/kg on DM basis, M) and two types of inoculant including homofermentative (HO) and a combination of homofermentative and propionate-producing bacterial (HOPAB) inoculants on silage fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation and aerobic stability of pre-bloom, wilted alfalfa (AS) was determined in laboratory silos. The HOPAB inoculant was more effective than HO in reducing the alfalfa silage pH but increased propionate content in the absence of M (p alfalfa crop with M and HOPAB improved aerobic stability by increasing the concentration of acetate and propionate of AS respectively. Adding M tended (p < 0.10) to increase short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cumulative gas production (CGP). HOPAB alone increased DM disappearance at 24 h post-incubation and effective degradability assuming outflow rate of 8%/h relative to untreated AS (p < 0.05). It was concluded that adding M had no pronounced effects on AS fermentation quality, but increased aerobic stability. HOPAB-inoculated AS with no addition of M improved fermentation quality and increased DM degradability compared with HO. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Aerobic deterioration influences the fermentative, microbiological and nutritional quality of maize and sorghum silages on farm in high quality milk and cheese production chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Borreani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Maize and sorghum silages are good sources of energy for lactating dairy cows that produce milk destined for fresh and matured cheeses. Silages are usually stored in horizontal silos with or without side walls on commercial farms throughout the world. The main microbiological and nutritional quality problems are related to harvesting time, ensiling technology, and management practices during filling and feed-out. Aerobic deterioration is a key point that must avoided on farms in order to improve the hygienic, chemical and sensorial quality of milk and cheeses. Aerobic deterioration causes large losses of dry matter (DM and quality, and it can cause health problems for animals and humans through the transfer of pathogens and mycotoxins from feed and livestock to food products. The objectives of the present work were to overview management practices connected to the storage of maize and sorghum in horizontal silos on farms producing milk for make Protected Designation of Origin (PDO hard ripened cheese, to define good management practices that should be applied as the basis for safe silage production and to reduce the extent of aerobic deterioration.As silagens de milho e de sorgo são importantes fontes de energia em rações utilizadas na bovinocultura leiteira, sendo que a estocagem desses volumosos é realizada em silos horizontais com ou sem a presença de paredes laterais (trincheira ou superfície, respectivamente, os quais são atrativos em razão do baixo custo de armazenamento, porém suas conformações determinam grande superfície de exposição, o que torna as silagens mais susceptíveis a deterioração aeróbia. Os maiores problemas envolvendo a qualidade microbiológica e nutricional em silagens, estão relacionados às práticas de manejo na colheita, no abastecimento e compactação da massa, na vedação e, principalmente, durante o desabastecimento do silo. O controle da deterioração aeróbia em silagens pode ser o principal

  15. Replacing grass silage with pea-barley intercrop silage in the feeding of the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. PURSIAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing wilted grass silage (GS with pea-barley intercrop silage (PBS on feed intake, diet digestibility and milk production was studied with 8 multiparous Ayrshire-cows in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Proportion of PBS was 0 (PBS0, 33 (PBS33, 67 (PBS67 or 100 (PBS100 % of silage dry matter (DM. The DM content was 559 and 255 g kg-1 for GS and PBS. Crude protein content was 131 and 170 g kg-1 DM, respectively. Pea-barley silage was more extensively fermented than GS with total fermentation acid content of 120 vs. 12 g kg-1 DM. Silage was fed for ad libitum intake and supplemented with on the average 13 kg concentrate per day. Silage DM intake was 9.2 (PBS0, 9.7 (PBS33, 9.0 (PBS67 and 7.1 (PBS100 kg per day (Pquadr. < 0.05. The energy corrected milk yield [30.3 (PBS0, 29.8 (PBS33, 30.3 (PBS67, 31.3 (PBS100 kg per day] was not significantly affected by the treatment. Milk protein concentration decreased linearly (P < 0.05 in response to feeding PBS. It is concluded that PBS can replace up to two thirds of wilted, moderate quality GS in the feeding of dairy cows because in this experiment pure pea-barley silage reduced silage intake.

  16. Silage quality of pearl millet cultivars produced in different cutting agesQualidade da silagem de cultivares de milheto produzidas em diferentes idades de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welma Santos Cruvinel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The millet has being prominent in recent years, especially with the arrival of early genotypes with high nutritional value and productive potential, coming from breeding. As these genotypes are new, little information exists about them. Thus, it is important to obtain technical information, supported by scientific studies about the behavior of these materials considering the nutritional value and harvest for silage production. The objective of this research was to evaluate the silage quality of pearl millet genotypes grown in different cuts age. The experiment was carried out on the campus of the Agronomy, of the Rio Verde University. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications in a 5 x 3 factorial, with five genotypes of millet: ARD 500, ADR 7010, LAB 0730, LAB 0731 and LAB 0732 and three cuts ages: 57, 65 and 73 days after sowing (DAS. The results showed that silages produced by millet, regardless of genotype, could be considered of nutritional value. Since this is a precocious material the best age that provided the best quality of these silages was when the materials were harvested at 57 DAS.O milheto vem ganhando destaque nos últimos anos, principalmente com a chegada de genótipos precoces e de alto valor nutritivo e potencial produtivo, oriundos do melhoramento genético. Por se tratarem de materiais novos, existem poucas informações sobre esses genótipos. Nesse sentido, é importante obter informações técnicas, apoiadas em estudos científicos, sobre o comportamento desses materiais em relação ao valor nutritivo e época de colheita para a produção de silagens. Diante disso, objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade de silagem de genótipos de milheto produzidas em diferentes idades de cortes. O experimento foi conduzido no Campus da Faculdade de Agronomia da Universidade de Rio Verde. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, sendo, cinco

  17. EFFECT OF ALKALINE STABILIZED DOMESTIC WASTEWATER ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND YIELD, QUALITY AND NUTRITION OF SILAGE MAIZE

    OpenAIRE

    BÜRÜN, Betül; TUNA, A. Levent; YOKAŞ, İbrahim; ÖZKUL, Hülya

    2012-01-01

    Reuse of domestic wastewater that does not contain heavy metals or pathogenic microorganisms, as irrigation water is a significant method in terms of water conservation all around the world. In this field trial which was conducted over two years, the domestic wastewater (DW) of Muğla City after being alkaline stabilized was used to irrigate maize plant for silage and the interaction of soil and water was also controlled during the trial. Alkaline stabilized domestic wastewater (ASDW) was appl...

  18. Dairy Replacement Performance Fed Various Recipes of Pangola (Digitaria eriantha) Silage Ensiled with Irradiated Silage Innoculant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanpanich, Somkiert; Boon-ek, Lerchart; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    Various kinds of Pangola silage ensiled with molasses and 2 types of silage innoculant (wild and mutant types). There were 6 recipes consisting of Treatment 1 : Pangola silage, Treatment 2: Pangola ensiled with molasses 4 % w/w, Treatment 3 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu wild type innoculant /gm Pangola, Treatment 4 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu mutant type innoculant/gm Pangola, Treatment 5 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu wild type innoculant/gm Pangola and molasses 4 % w/w, Treatment 6 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu mutant type innoculant/gm Pangola and molasses 4 % w/w. After 21 days of fermentation, silage sample was taken for nutritive value analysis. Preference testing on all silage recipes was studied using 18 dairy yearlings, aged 10-12 months old and weighed 200-300 kg, at 6 treatments with 3 animals each for 21 days in a Complete Randomized Design. The results did show that Treatment 1 had higher dry matter intake than those consisted of silage innoculant. However, when taking body weight changes and blood metabolites into account, Treatment 4 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu mutant type innoculant/gm Pangola, has an advantage on the ease of making process. Then, it is concluded that Treatment 4 is the most appropriate method to improve silage quality.

  19. Produção e qualidade do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com silagens de grama estrela (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst = Production and quality of milk from Holstein cows fed stargrass silages (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho e a qualidade do leite produzido por vacas da raça Holandesa no terço final da lactação, alimentadas com silagens de grama estrela com aplicação de inoculante ou uréia em relação à silagem de milho. Foram avaliadas silagens de grama estrela com aplicação de aditivo enzimo-bacteriano na dosagem de 80 g deinoculante/tonelada, uréia na dosagem de 7 kg t-1 e silagem de milho. Para avaliação do desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade foram utilizadas seis vacas da raça Holandesas com peso médio de 480 kg distribuídas em delineamento (duplo quadrado latino (3 x 3. Asdigestibilidades da MS, PB e FDN foram maiores para a silagem de milho. O fornecimento de silagens de grama estrela com aditivo e com uréia não interferiu na produção e qualidade do leite, mostrando-se como alternativa para sistemas de produção animal com base emvolumosos conservados mediante a análise econômica da substituição da silagem de milho.The study aimed to evaluate animal performance and quality of milk from Holstein cows during the final third period of lactation fed stargrass silages supplied with inoculant or urea in relation to corn silage. Stargrass silages with enzymatic-bacterial inoculant (80 g of additive/ton of silage, urea supply (7 kg t-1 and corn silage were evaluated. Six Holstein cows with an average body weight of 480 kg were allocated in a double Latin square design (3 x 3. Corn silagepresented the highest values of DM, CP and NDF digestibility when compared to stargrass silages. Supplying Holstein cows with stargrass silages with additive and urea did not promote any effect on production and milk quality. Thus, it can be an alternative in animalproduction systems based on conserved roughage, depending on economical analysis for the replacement of corn silage.

  20. Alfalfa silage ratios and full fat extruded soybeans on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... in milk fat and performance of dairy cows. ... increased the ether extract in diets and content of conjugated linoleic acids in milk, but it had no effect ... corn silage with alfalfa silage for dairy cows adding plant extracts, animal fats or their blends in diets. High quality AS was found essentially equal in energy ...

  1. Qualidade da silagem de resíduo de manga com diferentes aditivos Quality of mango residue silage with different additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristovão Colombo de Carvalho Couto Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade da silagem de resíduo de manga (Mangifera indica L. em mistura com diferentes aditivos, em níveis crescentes de adição, foi conduzido este estudo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em um esquema fatorial do tipo (4 x 3 + 1, sendo quatro aditivos (milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo (MDPS, palha de feijão (PF, sabugo de milho (SM e casca de café (CC em três níveis de adição (10, 20 e 30% e um tratamento testemunha (resíduo de manga puro ensilado. O material experimental foi ensilado em silos de PVC adaptados com válvula tipo "Bunsen" com capacidade para aproximadamente 3 kg cada. Todos os aditivos utilizados elevaram os teores de MS. À medida que se aumentou os níveis de adição dos aditivos, houve uma redução nos valores de poder tampão (PT. Os valores de pH e nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3 /%N total mantiveram-se dentro dos padrões indicativos de um bom processo fermentativo. O padrão de fermentação das silagens aditivadas foi satisfatório, sem haver comprometimento na qualidade destas. Os aditivos milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo, palha de feijão ou casca de café podem ser adicionados ao processo de ensilagem do resíduo de manga nos níveis de adição de 20 ou 30%, melhorando seu padrão fermentativo.With the objective to evaluate the quality of mango (Mangifera indica L. residue silage in mixture with different additives at growing levels of addition, this study was undertaken. The experimental design utilized was the completely randomized, with three replicates. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme (4 x 3 + 1 type and the additives being four (ground ears with husks (GEWH, bean straw (BS, corn cob (CC and coffee hull (CH at three levels of addition (10, 20 and 30% and a control treatment (ensiled unmixed mango residue. The experimental material was ensiled in PVC silos

  2. Effect of cassava chips on quality of silage from fresh forage sorghum plus Cavalcade forage legume hay mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suradej Pholsen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En el campo experimental de la Universidad Khon Kaen, Tailandia, se realizaron sendos experimentos para evaluar el efecto de la adición de trozos (chips de yuca (Manihot esculenta en la calidad del ensilaje de una mezcla de sorgo forrajero con heno de la leguminosa forrajera Centrosema pascuorum cv. Cavalcade, este último en una proporción de 15% del peso verde del sorgo en la mezcla. Los chips se agregaron en proporciones de 0, 5, 10 y 15% del peso fresco del sorgo picado. En un primer ensayo se utilizaron sorgo y cv. Cavalcade de la primera cosecha (material de plantas previamente no cortadas y en el segundo, material proveniente de plantas rebrotadas después de un primer corte. El porcentaje de materia seca (MS de las mezclas tanto al momento de ensilar como del ensilaje ya listo para consumo, aumentó (P<0.05 en la medida que en ambos ensayos los niveles de chips de yuca en la mezcla aumentaron. No obstante, los porcentajes de proteína cruda (PC y fibra detergente neutra disminuyeron (P<0.05. La degradabilidad de la MS aumentó (P<0.05 con el incremento del nivel de chips (hasta el nivel 10% en ambos experimentos. Las energías digestible y metabolizable de ambos ensilajes aumentaron (P<0.05 con el incremento del nivel de chips hasta el nivel 10% en el primer ensayo y 15% en el segundo. Mientras que la adición de chips de yuca mejoró la digestibilidad y el contenido de energía del ensilaje, redujo la concentración de PC. Se sugiere estudiar si el uso de material fresco de la leguminosa en lugar de heno incrementa las concentraciones de PC en el ensilaje. Además se sugiere conducir estudios con animales para evaluar la aceptabilidad de los ensilajes y su efecto sobre la producción animal.Keywords: DMD, CP, sorghum silage, grass-legume silage, Centrosema pascuorum, silage additives.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2262-270

  3. Effect of spring versus autumn grass/clover silage and rapeseed supplementation on milk production, composition and quality in Jersey cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Vogdanou, Stefania; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2016-01-01

    of C16 : 0, riboflavin and α-tocopherol were decreased with autumn silage. The majority of C18 FAs in milk and α-tocopherol concentration increased with rapeseed whereas C11 : 0 to C16 : 0 FA were reduced. Autumn silage reduced biohydrogenation of C18 : 2n6, whereas rapeseed increased biohydrogenation...

  4. Effect of spring versus autumn grass/clover silage and rapeseed supplementation on milk production, composition and quality in Jersey cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Vogdanou, Stefania; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2016-01-01

    of milk fat. Rapeseed supplementation is expected to increase milk production and to increase all C18 fatty acids in milk fat. An interaction between rapeseed and silage type is expected, as hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids in rapeseed is expected to be less when low fibre silage is fed. Thirty...... supplementation. Dry matter intake and milk production was higher for autumn than for spring silage. Rapeseed supplementation did not affect dry matter intake, but increased milk production. The concentrations of C18 : 1cis9, C18 : 2n6 and β-carotene and C18 : 3n3 in milk were increased whereas the concentrations...... of C16 : 0, riboflavin and α-tocopherol were decreased with autumn silage. The majority of C18 FAs in milk and α-tocopherol concentration increased with rapeseed whereas C11 : 0 to C16 : 0 FA were reduced. Autumn silage reduced biohydrogenation of C18 : 2n6, whereas rapeseed increased biohydrogenation...

  5. Moisture Concentration Variation of Silages Produced on Commercial Farms in the South-Central USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Han

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of forage crops as silage offers opportunity to avoid the high risk of rain-damaged hay in the humid south-central USA. Recent developments with baled silage or baleage make silage a less expensive option than typical chopped silage. Silage has been important in the region primarily for dairy production, but baleage has become an option for the more extensive beef cattle industry in the region. Silage samples submitted to the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center Forage Quality Lab from 2006 through 2013 were assessed for dry matter (DM and forage nutritive characteristics of chopped silage and baleage of the different forage types from commercial farms primarily in Louisiana and Mississippi. Of the 1,308 silage samples submitted, 1,065 were annual ryegrass (AR with small grains (SG, the warm-season annual (WA grasses, sorghums and pearl millet, and the warm-season perennial (WP grasses, bermudagrass and bahiagrass, providing the remaining samples. Concentration of DM was used to indicate an effective ensiling opportunity, and AR silage was more frequently within the target DM range than was the WA forage group. The AR samples also indicated a high-quality forage with average crude protein (CP of 130 g/kg and total digestible nutrient (TDN near 600 g/kg. The cooler winter weather at harvest apparently complicated harvest of SG silage with chopped SG silage lower in both CP and TDN (104 and 553 g/kg, respectively than either AR silage or baleage of SG (137 and 624 g/kg for CP and TDN, respectively. The hot, humid summer weather along with large stems and large forage quantities of the WA grasses and the inherently higher fiber concentration of WP grasses at harvest stage indicate that preservation of these forage types as silage will be challenging, although successful commercial silage samples of each forage type and preservation approach were included among samples of silages produced in the region.

  6. [Silymarin/galega administration in term and preterm mothers to sustain breast feeding: an observational study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoldi, F; Pivetti, V; Moiraghi, L; Marangione, P; Lista, G

    2014-10-01

    Breastfeeding is considered the most important source of nutrition both in the first year of life for term and preterm infants, because of its well-known positive effects on short and long-term outcome. Unfortunately not all the mothers can begin or maintain an adequate milk secretion. Premature delivery and prolonged length of stay in the hospital can influence maternal milk production due to maternal anxiety and/ or neonatal pathologies related to prematurity. A variety of herbal and pharmaceutical products have been recommended as galactogogues, substances that promote lactation. In this observational study, the authors compared the effect on breast milk production of an oral maternal supplementation of two galactogogues (sylimarine and galega-Lutein latte®) in a term and preterm mothers group (preterm infants recovered in neonatal intensive care unit-NICU). The breast milk production significantly reduced at start in preterm mothers (N.=16) versus term mothers (N.=16) (P<0.08), after sylimarine and galega supplementation was the same in both groups within two months of life (P=NS). This galactogogues supplementation could be recommended to maintain an adequate lactation in premature mothers, especially when their infants are still recovered in the NICU.

  7. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (Pdiets v. the SS diet further increased (Pdiets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  8. Effects of different irrigation methods and plant densities on silage quality parameters of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn cultivar (Zea mays L. var. indentata [Sturtev.] L.H. Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Karasahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The yield and quality of corn silage is related to genotype as well as factors such as climate, soil conditions, altitude, planting time, plant density, irrigation, and harvesting time. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation methods (drip, subsoil drip, and subsoil capillary and different plant densities (102 040, 119 040, and 142 850 plant ha-1 on silage quality parameters of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn (Zea mays L. var. indentata [Sturtev.] L.H. Bailey in 2011 and 2012 under ecological conditions in Eskipazar-Karabuk, Turkey. Plant densities were significantly different on fresh ear ratio and plant crude protein (CP yield in both years under study. The highest fresh ear ratio values were obtained with 102 040 and 119 040 plant ha-1 densities and the highest plant CP yield with 142 850 plant ha-1. While the irrigation method x plant density interactions were significant for silage CP ratio in the first year, they were significant on fresh ear ratio in the second year. The highest fresh ear ratio values were obtained from subsoil capillary x 119 040 plant ha-1 and drip x 119 040 plant ha-1 interactions; the highest plant and silage CP ratio values were obtained from subsoil capillary x 142 850 plant ha-1 and subsoil drip x 102 040 plant ha-1 interactions. As a result of the research, high Flieg scores were obtained from each irrigation method and plant density. When plant CP yield is taken into consideration, the 142 850 plant ha-1 density is more important.

  9. Qualidade da silagem de cana-de-açúcar inoculada com uma cepa de Lactobacillus buchneri = Effect of addition of a bacteria isolated from sugarcane silage on the quality of the silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Simile Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de um inoculante bacteriano sobre as características químicas e microbiológicas da silagem de cana-de-açúcar. Os tratamentos foram silagem sem inoculante e silagem inoculada com uma cepa identificada como sendo da espécie Lactobacillus buchneri. Para a avaliação do perfil de fermentação das silagens, os silos experimentais de PVC foram abertos com 0, 10, 32 e 70 dias de fermentação; retiraram-se amostras para determinação dos teores de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e hemicelulose, para avaliação da população de bactérias do ácido lático (BAL, de leveduras e para determinação dos valores de pH. Foi observada redução nos teores de MS de 33,02 para 25,99%, e aumento nos teores de FDN e FDA de 48,78 para 60,14% e de 28,42 para 38,61%, respectivamente, com a fermentação. A população de BAL foi maior para a silagem inoculada, e a população média de leveduras e os valores de pH foram menores. Recomenda-se a aplicação de Lactobacillus buchneri (4 log ufc g-1 de forragem na ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar.Evaluating the effect of an inoculant containing a strain isolated from sugarcane silage on the chemical and microbiological characteristics of the silage of this forage was aimed. The treatments were silage without an inoculant and the strain identified as being of the species Lactobacillus buchneri. The forage was compacted in PVC silos. For the evaluation of the fermentation profile of the silages, the silos were opened with 0, 10, 32 and 70 days of fermentation and samples removed for determination of the content of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose and for evaluation of the population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and of yeasts for determination of pH. A reduction of DM contents from 33.02 to 25.99% and increased contents of NDF and ADF from

  10. Bagaço de mandioca na ensilagem do capim-elefante: qualidade das silagens e digestibilidade dos nutrientes Cassava bagasse in elephant grass ensilage: quality of the silage and digestibility of the nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F. Silva

    2007-06-01

    silage with four different levels of cassava bagasse plus balanced concentrate, with four repetitions per treatment. Silages quality, diet nutrients intake and nutrients digestibility of the silages and total diets were evaluated. Cassava bagasse increased the dry matter (DM content, of the silages preserving them with a pH varying from 3.85 to 4.07 and N-NH3/NT ratio from 6.2 to 7.85. Daily dry matter and crude protein (CP mean intakes did not differ among the treatments (P>0.05. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF mean intakes showed a decreasing linear behavior (P0.05 for DM (DMD, NDF (NDFD and ADF digestibility (ADFD. The total digestible nutrients (TDN of the silages were similar in all the treatments. The CP (CPD, ether extract (EED and non-fiber carbohydrates digestibility (NFCD of the silages decreased linearly (P0.05 in DMD, CPD, NDFD, ADFD, EED, NFCD and TDN among the experimental diets. The 5% cassava bagasse addition to its elephant grass silage was satisfactory to preservation resulting in good digestibility of the elephant grass silage.

  11. Microbial population, chemical composition and silage fermentation of cassava residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napasirth, Viengsakoun; Napasirth, Pattaya; Sulinthone, Tue; Phommachanh, Kham; Cai, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    In order to effectively use the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) residues, including cassava leaves, peel and pulp for livestock diets, the chemical and microbiological composition, silage preparation and the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on silage fermentation of cassava residues were studied. These residues contained 10(4) to 10(5) LAB and yeasts, 10(3) to 10(4) coliform bacteria and 10(4) aerobic bacteria in colony forming units (cfu) on a fresh matter (FM) basis. The molds were consistently at or below the detectable level (10(2) cfu of FM) in three kinds of cassava residues. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of cassava residues were 17.50-30.95%, 1.30-16.41% and 25.40-52.90% on a DM basis, respectively. The silage treatments were designed as control silage without additive (CO) or with LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and Snow Lacto (SN, Lactobacillus rhamnosus) at a rate of 5 mg/kg of FM basis. All silages were well preserved with a low pH (below 4.0) value and when cassava residues silage treated with inoculants CH and SN improved fermentation quality with a lower pH, butyric acid and higher lactic acid than control silage. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Milk Production of Lactating Cows Fed Pangola Silage Ensiled with Irradiated Silage Innoculant and Fresh Cut Pangola Grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanpanich, Somkiert; Buaphan, Sirirat; Boon-ek, Lertchatand; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    Ten crossbred Holstein lactating cows of mid-lactation and similar body score condition were balanced across the 2 treatments containing Group 1: 5 cows given fresh cut Pangola grass and Group 2: 5 cows fed Pangola silage ensiled with silage innoculant, under Group Comparison Design. They were also provided with an exact amount of 1 kg meal concentrate to 1 kg of milk produced. Mineral supplement and water were supplied free choice. The results did show that the cows in Group 1 had significantly higher (P<0.05) roughage and total dry matter intake than did the cows in Group 2. However, milk production in Group 2 appeared to have a non-significant higher amount, the concentrations of Blood urea nitrogen, Blood glucose and Triiodothyronine were not significant different between groups. The body weight change increased in both groups. It can concluded that cows fed Pangola silage ensiled with silage innoculant seemed to have higher Digestibility Co-efficiency due to the high efficiency of silage innoculant fermentation. Then, silage quality would be improved by mean of silage innoculant application.

  13. Replacing conventional or brown-mid rib corn silage with brown-mid rib sudangrass silage in the diets of lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forages that use less water, but are high in digestibility, are sought as alternatives to traditional forages such as corn silage. Brown mid-rib (BMR) sudangrass is a possible alternative that can provide high-quality forage as a replacement for corn silage. The objective of this study was to evalua...

  14. Effects of utilization of local food by-products as total mixed ration silage materials on fermentation quality and intake, digestibility, rumen condition and nitrogen availability in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yani, Srita; Ishida, Kyohei; Goda, Shuzo; Azumai, Shigeyoshi; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Okano, Kanji; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2015-02-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate in vivo digestibility of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products for dairy cows, and the ruminal condition and nitrogen (N) balance were examined. Five by-products (i.e. potato waste, noodle waste, soybean curd residue, soy sauce cake and green tea waste) were obtained. Four types of TMR silage were used: control (C) containing roughage and commercial concentrate, T1:20% and T1:40% containing the five by-products replacing 20% and 40% of the commercial concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively, and T2:40% containing three by-products (potato waste, noodle waste and soybean curd residue) replacing 40% of the commercial concentrate on a DM basis. The ingredients were mixed and preserved in oil drum silos for 4 months. The TMR silages showed 4.02-4.44% and 1.75-2.19% for pH and lactic acid contents, respectively. The digestibility of DM and neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient content were higher (P nitrogen excretion tended to be lower (P = 0.07) for T2:40% than for C. The results suggested 40% replacing of commercial concentrate by using the three food by-products can be most suitable for TMR silage. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Chemical composition of corn and sorghum silage with inclusion of whole-plant soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Laion Antunes Stella; Vanessa Peripolli; Ênio Rosa Prates; Júlio Otávio Jardim Barcellos

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical and fermentation quality of corn and sorghum silage enriched with whole-plant soybeans. Whole soybean proportions of 75%, 50% and 25% were used for ensiling corn or sorghum. The increasing inclusion levels of whole-plant soybeans resulted in a linear increase in the dietary protein content of corn and sorghum silage and in an increase in acid detergent fiber of corn silage, while a decrease was observed in the energy content of corn silage and in neutral dete...

  16. Efeito de diferentes aditivos sobre a qualidade fermentativa da silagem de resíduo de maracujá amarelo Effects of different additives on the quality of yellow passion fruit residue silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Prata Neiva Júnior

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da inclusão de resíduos em diferentes níveis, sobre a qualidade fermentativa da silagem do resíduo de maracujá amarelo, foi conduzido este estudo. Os resíduos foram ensilados em silos experimentais de PVC, adaptados com válvula tipo Bünsen e com capacidade para aproximadamente 3 kg cada. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de três aditivos (bagaço de cana (BC, casca de café (CC e sabugo de milho (SM, em quatro níveis (10, 15, 20 e 25% mais um tratamento testemunha, sem aditivos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, constituindo um esquema fatorial com tratamento adicional [(3 x 4 + 1] com 4 repetições. As silagens em que se adicionou BC e as silagens com 100% de resíduo do fruto de maracujá apresentaram teor de MS inferior aos recomendados para uma silagem. O aditivo CC foi o único que aumentou o teor protéico das silagens. Todas as silagens apresentaram valores de pH e N-NH3(%N total de acordo com os padrões que caracterizam uma fermentação adequada, sendo os valores de pH inferiores a 4,2 e N-NH3(%N total menores que 10%. As silagens com 100% de resíduo do fruto de maracujá, e as com BC ou CC adicionados nos diferentes níveis, apresentaram valores de MS, PB, pH e N-NH3 que caracterizam uma silagem de adequada qualidade fermentativa.Aiming to evaluate the effect the addition of residues in different levels on the quality of passion fruit residue silage, this study was undertaken. The residues were ensiled in experimental PVC silos, fitted with Bunsen-type valves with a capacity of about 3 kg each. The treatments consisted of three additives (sugar-cane bagasse (SCB, coffee hulls (CH and corn cob (CC at four levels (10, 15, 20 and 25% plus a control treatment without additive. The experimental design used was the completely randomized, in a factorial scheme with an additional treatment [(3 x 4 + 1] with four replicates. The silages in which SCB was added and

  17. Effects of whey and molasses as silage additives on potato hash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato hash silage (treated with no additive, or whey, or molasses) and MS were produced in 210 L drums for 90 days and the fermentation quality of the silages was determined thereafter. Diets were formulated and fed ad libitum to 32 South African Dorper lambs (23.5 ± 0.873 kg live weight) for 63 days. A digestibility study ...

  18. Effects of restriction of silage fermentation with formic acid on milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. JAAKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of silage fermentation quality and type of supplementation on milk production. Thirty two Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with four 21-day experimental periods and 4 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Silage fermentation was modified with formic acid (FA, which was applied at the rates equivalent to 0 (FA0, 2 (FA2, 4 (FA4 or 6 (FA6 litres t-1 grass of pure formic acid (as 100% FA. Dietary treatments consisted of four silages, a protein supplementation (no supplement or rapeseed meal 1.8 kg d-1 and a glucogenic substrate (no supplement or propylene glycol 225 g d-1. Increasing the application rate of FA restricted silage fermentation curvilinearly, as evidenced by higher concentrations of ammonia N and butyric acid in FA4 than FA2 silage. Similarly the use of FA resulted in curvilinear changes in the silage dry matter intake and milk yield. The highest milk and protein yields were achieved with FA6, while the milk yield with FA2 was higher than with FA4. Interactions were observed between silage type and supplementation. Rapeseed meal increased milk yield irrespective of the extent of silage fermentation, but the magnitude of response was variable. Propylene glycol was most beneficial with restrictively fermented silages FA4 and FA6. In conclusion, restriction of silage fermentation with a high rate of formic acid is beneficial in milk production. Interactions between silage composition and concentrate types suggest that the responses to supplementary feeding depend on silage fermentation characteristics.;

  19. Genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jussila, Minna M.; Jurgens, German; Lindstroem, Kristina; Suominen, Leena

    2006-01-01

    A collection of 50 indigenous meta-toluate tolerating bacteria isolated from oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis on selective medium was characterized and identified by classical and molecular methods. 16S rDNA partial sequencing showed the presence of five major lineages of the Bacteria domain. Gram-positive Rhodococcus, Bacillus and Arthrobacter and gram-negative Pseudomonas were the most abundant genera. Only one-fifth of the strains that tolerated m-toluate also degraded m-toluate. The inoculum Pseudomonas putida PaW85 was not found in the rhizosphere samples. The ability to degrade m-toluate by the TOL plasmid was detected only in species of the genus Pseudomonas. However, a few Rhodococcus erythropolis strains were found which were able to degrade m-toluate. A new finding was that Pseudomonas migulae strains and a few P. oryzihabitans strains were able to grow on m-toluate and most likely contained the TOL plasmid. Because strain specific differences in degradation abilities were found for P. oryzihabitans, separation at the strain level was important. For strain specific separation (GTG) 5 fingerprinting was the best method. A combination of the single locus ribotyping and the whole genomic fingerprinting techniques with the selective partial sequencing formed a practical molecular toolbox for studying genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere. - Bacterial diversity during rhizoremediation in oil-contaminated soil is characterized by a combination of molecular methods

  20. Analysis of effect of harvest corn plant in different stages of reproductive and processing of grain on the quality of silage

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    Fabiano Marafon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the Department of Animal Production (NUPRAN State University Midwest (UNICENTRO, with the objective of evaluate the effect of harvesting the maize plant at different reproductive stages and with different grains process on dry matter digestibility, neutral detergent fiber digestibility and animal performance. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and four replications, where each replication consisted of a pen with two steers, totaling sixteen experimental units. During the silage confection, homogeneous and representative samples from processed plants were collected, part intended for chemical analyses and inserted part in “bags” silo, putting these in the profile of each bunker silo, being considered as experimental units. The experiment lasted 84 days after opining de bunker silos, being 14 days for adaption, followed by 4 periods of 21 days. Thus, silage harvested at dough stage showed higher values of in vitro digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber. The use of corn silage harvested at R5 stage facilitated better animal performance with consequent transformation of dry matter consumed in daily weight gain.

  1. The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation

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    Smerjai Bureenok

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB, molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05 than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05 in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N, volatile fatty acid (VFA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.

  2. Dynamics Associated with Prolonged Ensiling and Aerobic Deterioration of Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Whole Crop Corn

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    Huili Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the dynamics associated with prolonged ensiling and aerobic deterioration of whole crop corn (WCC silages and total mixed ration (TMR silages containing WCC (C-TMR silages to clarify the differences that account for the enhanced aerobic stability of TMR silages. Laboratory-scale barrel silos were randomly opened after 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of ensiling and were subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, microbial and temperature dynamics during aerobic exposure. WCC and C-TMR silages were both well preserved and microorganisms were inhibited with prolonged ensiling, including lactic acid bacteria. Yeast were inhibited to below the detection limit of 500 cfu/g fresh matter within 28 d of ensiling. Aerobic stability of both silages was enhanced with prolonged ensiling, whereas C-TMR silages were more aerobically stable than WCC silages for the same ensiling period. Besides the high moisture content, the weak aerobic stability of WCC silage is likely attributable to the higher lactic acid content and yeast count, which result from the high water-soluble carbohydrates content in WCC. After silo opening, yeast were the first to propagate and the increase in yeast levels is greater than that of other microorganisms in silages before deterioration. Besides, increased levels of aerobic bacteria were also detected before heating of WCC silages. The temperature dynamics also indicated that yeast are closely associated with the onset of the aerobic deterioration of C-TMR silage, whereas for WCC silages, besides yeast, aerobic bacteria also function in the aerobic deterioration. Therefore, the inclusion of WCC might contribute to the survival of yeast during ensiling but not influence the role of yeast in deterioration of C-TMR silages.

  3. Silage fermentation and ruminal degradation of stylo prepared with lactic acid bacteria and cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao; Zhou, Hanlin; Zi, Xuejuan; Cai, Yimin

    2017-10-01

    In order to improve the silage fermentation of stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis) in tropical areas, stylo silages were prepared with commercial additives Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso-1 (CH1), L. rhamnasus Snow Lact L (SN), Acremonium cellulase (CE) and their combination as SN+CE or CH1 + CE, and the fermentation quality, chemical composition and ruminal degradation of these silages were studied. Stylo silages treated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or cellulase, the pH value and NH 3 -N ⁄ total-N were significantly (P fermentation and ruminal degradation than SN+CE treatment. The results confirmed that LAB or LAB plus cellulase treatment could improve the fermentation quality, chemical composition and ruminal degradation of stylo silage. Moreover, the combined treatment with LAB and cellulase may have beneficial synergistic effects on ruminal degradation. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Round baled grass silage as food for reindeer in winter

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    Tove H. Aagnes

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Round baled silage of mixed grasses was tested as emergency food for reindeer in winter. The silage was made of leaf rich regrowth of Phleum pratense, Agrostis tenuis and Poa spp. It contained 33-3% dry matter (DM, and 14.8 % crude protein, 24.5% cellulose and 26.7% hemicellulose on a DM basis. Palatability, food intake, digestion, rumen fermentation, body mass (BM, carcass weight and gastrointestinal (GI anatomy were investigated. A group of adult female reindeer (n = 38, were taken from natural winter pasture and fed grass silage ad libitum. The majority (78% of the animals were eating silage after two days and 95% of the animals ate silage after five days. Five reindeer calves were taken from natural winter pasture and fed lichens ad libitum for 14 days after which they were starved for two days before being offered silage adlibitum. The median daily DM food intake was 370 g (range 250-610 g on the first day increasing to 810 g (range 530-1100 g at days 16 to 20. Median apparent digestibility coefficient (DC of DM was 64.3% (range 62.4-66.2%. The median in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD of the silage after 72 h of microbial digestion was 68.3 % (range 66.6-71.3 % (Ws=30, n,=5, n2=4, P<0.01. Median ruminal VFA concentration and pH were 48.2 mM (range 38.4-52.5 mM and 7.0 (range 6.95-7.17, respectively, in the reindeer calves (n=5. BM initially increased when the reindeer calves were fed silage, but stabilised after 11 days. The increased BM may have been due to an increased recticulo-rumen digesta load, which amounted to 19.6-23.7 % of BM (n=3. The carcass weight of the reindeer calves was 42.6-44.2% of the BM (n=3 after 47 days of silage feeding. The results indicate that although the round bale silage of mixed grasses of medium quality was highly palatable to reindeer it was apparantly of only limited value as an emergency food for the reindeer calves, as indicated by low DC of DM and low ruminal VFA concentration.

  5. Physiochemical Characteristics and Molecular Structures for Digestible Carbohydrates of Silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Basim; Prates, Luciana L; Khan, Nazir A; Lei, Yaogeng; Christensen, David A; McKinnon, John J; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-10-18

    The main objectives of this study were (1) to assess the magnitude of differences among new barley silage varieties (BS) selected for varying rates of in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (ivNDFD; Cowboy BS with higher ivNDFD, Copeland BS with intermediate ivNDFD, and Xena BS with lower ivNDFD) with regard to their carbohydrate (CHO) molecular makeup, CHO chemical fractions, and rumen degradability in dairy cows in comparison with a new corn silage hybrid (Pioneer 7213R) and (2) to quantify the strength and pattern of association between the molecular structures and digestibility of carbohydrates. The carbohydrate-related molecular structure spectral data was measured using advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy (FT/IR). In comparison to BS, corn silage showed a significantly (P carbohydrates were significantly (P carbohydrate content of the silages. In conclusion, the univariate approach with only one-factor consideration (ivNDFD) might not be a satisfactory method for evaluating and ranking BS quality. FT/IR molecular spectroscopy can be used to evaluate silage quality rapidly, particularly the digestible fiber content.

  6. Presence of Listeria monocytogenes in silage products of Shahrekord city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sharifzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in the silage samples. Methods: Silage samples obtained from 150 different farms in Shahrekord city (Iran and after DNA extraction, all samples were analyzed by PCR technique using one pair of primers for presence of this pathogen. The amplified products were detected on 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: Listeria monocytogenes was isolated in 4 (2% of the 150 samples. The detection of this bacterium from silage samples in Shahrekord city indicated that these products could create a serious risk in public health of animal and human. The findings showed that in positive silage samples for Listeria monocytogenes, the pH value was about five and it was due to bacterial activity in these products. Conclusions: The quality of silage and hygiene parameters and good herd health management play an important role in the microbiological quality of herd and farm. Considering the high specificity and sensitivity of the employed PCR technique, it is recommended to be useful technique for identification of Listeria monocytogenes.

  7. Fermentative profile and bacterial diversity of corn silages inoculated with new tropical lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A O; Ávila, C L S; Pinto, J C; Carvalho, B F; Dias, D R; Schwan, R F

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of inoculation of strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugarcane grown in a Brazil on the quality of corn silage. Three strains of Lactobacillus buchneri (UFLA SLM11, UFLA SLM103 and UFLA SLM108), five strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (UFLA SLM08, UFLA SLM41, UFLA SLM45, UFLA SLM46 and UFLA SLM105), and one strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides (UFLA SLM06) were evaluated at 0, 10, 30, 60 and 90 day after inoculating corn forage. The inoculation of the LAB strains did not influence the chemical composition of the silage, but pH, acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol were affected by treatment. The silages inoculated with UFLA SLM11 and SLM108 contained the lowest yeast and filamentous fungi counts during fermentation. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family, Clostridium genus were detected in the silages inoculated with Lact. buchneri UFLA SLM 11, 103 and 108, as shown by DGGE analysis. Silages inoculated with Lact. buchneri UFLA SLM 11 showed higher aerobic stability. The Lact. buchneri UFLA SLM11 strain was considered promising as a starter culture or inoculant for corn silages. The selection of microbial inoculants for each crop promotes improvement of silage quality. Studies on the chemical and microbiological characteristics of silage provide useful information for improving ensiling techniques. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. A Mesa Galega na Bahia: a alimentação dos imigrantes galegos e descendentes em Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, Fabiana Paixão

    2016-01-01

    Desde as últimas décadas do século XIX Salvador foi o destino escolhido por muitos galegos que cruzaram o Oceano Atlântico em busca do sonho de “conquistar a América”. Na capital baiana estes imigrantes sentiram as diferenças entre a sociedade galega e a soteropolitana, principalmente em relação a língua, aos hábitos alimentares e ao tratamento hostil e preconceituoso dispensado, bilateralmente, entre os imigrantes galegos e os soteropolitanos. Os galegos se destacaram nos setores do comércio...

  9. ‘Shrink’ losses in commercially sized corn silage piles: Quantifying total losses and where they occur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.H.; Swanepoel, N.; Heguy, J.M.; Price, T.; Meyer, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Silage ‘shrink’ (i.e., loss of fresh chopped crop between ensiling and feedout) represents a nutrient loss which can degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds, degrade surface waterways due to seepage, or degrade aquifers due to seepage. Virtually no research has documented shrink in large silage piles. The term ‘shrink’ is often ill defined, but can be expressed as losses of wet weight (WW), oven dry matter (oDM), and oDM corrected for volatiles lost in the drying oven (vcoDM). Corn silage piles (4 wedge, 2 rollover/wedge, 1 bunker) from 950 to 12,204 tonnes as built, on concrete (4), soil (2) and a combination (1) in California's San Joaquin Valley, using a bacterial inoculant, covered within 24 h with an oxygen barrier inner film and black/white outer plastic, fed out using large front end loaders through an electronic feed tracking system, and from the 2013 crop year, were used. Shrink as WW, oDM and vcoDM were 90 ± 17, 68 ± 18 and 28 ± 21 g/kg, suggesting that much WW shrink is water and much oDM shrink is volatiles lost during analytical oven drying. Most shrink occurred in the silage mass with losses from exposed silage faces, as well as between exposed face silage removal and the total mixed ration mixer, being low. Silage bulk density, exposed silage face management and face use rate did not have obvious impacts on any shrink measure, but age of the silage pile during silage feedout impacted shrink losses (‘older’ silage piles being higher), but most strongly for WW shrink. Real shrink losses (i.e., vcoDM) of large well managed corn silage piles are low, the exposed silage face is a small portion of losses, and many proposed shrink mitigations appeared ineffective, possibly because shrink was low overall and they are largely directed at the exposed silage face. - Highlights: • Corn silage piles were used to measure ‘shrink’ from construction to feedout • Shrink was wet weight, dry weight (oDM) and oDM volatiles corrected

  10. ‘Shrink’ losses in commercially sized corn silage piles: Quantifying total losses and where they occur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P.H.; Swanepoel, N.; Heguy, J.M.; Price, T.; Meyer, D.M., E-mail: phrobinson@ucdavis.edu [Department of Animal Science, UCCE Stanislaus, San Joaquin & Merced Counties, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Silage ‘shrink’ (i.e., loss of fresh chopped crop between ensiling and feedout) represents a nutrient loss which can degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds, degrade surface waterways due to seepage, or degrade aquifers due to seepage. Virtually no research has documented shrink in large silage piles. The term ‘shrink’ is often ill defined, but can be expressed as losses of wet weight (WW), oven dry matter (oDM), and oDM corrected for volatiles lost in the drying oven (vcoDM). Corn silage piles (4 wedge, 2 rollover/wedge, 1 bunker) from 950 to 12,204 tonnes as built, on concrete (4), soil (2) and a combination (1) in California's San Joaquin Valley, using a bacterial inoculant, covered within 24 h with an oxygen barrier inner film and black/white outer plastic, fed out using large front end loaders through an electronic feed tracking system, and from the 2013 crop year, were used. Shrink as WW, oDM and vcoDM were 90 ± 17, 68 ± 18 and 28 ± 21 g/kg, suggesting that much WW shrink is water and much oDM shrink is volatiles lost during analytical oven drying. Most shrink occurred in the silage mass with losses from exposed silage faces, as well as between exposed face silage removal and the total mixed ration mixer, being low. Silage bulk density, exposed silage face management and face use rate did not have obvious impacts on any shrink measure, but age of the silage pile during silage feedout impacted shrink losses (‘older’ silage piles being higher), but most strongly for WW shrink. Real shrink losses (i.e., vcoDM) of large well managed corn silage piles are low, the exposed silage face is a small portion of losses, and many proposed shrink mitigations appeared ineffective, possibly because shrink was low overall and they are largely directed at the exposed silage face. - Highlights: • Corn silage piles were used to measure ‘shrink’ from construction to feedout • Shrink was wet weight, dry weight (oDM) and oDM volatiles corrected

  11. Fermentation Characteristics and Lactic Acid Bacteria Succession of Total Mixed Ration Silages Formulated with Peach Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB. The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages.

  12. Fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of tanzania grass silage containing additives

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    M. J. A. F. Melo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of Tanzania grass silage containing additives. The following treatments were applied: silage without additive (SWA; silage treated with 2.17% limestones (SLS; silage treated with 2.17% urea (SUR, and silage treated with a combination of additives: 7.5% corn meal, 5.3% molasses powder, 1.1% urea and 1.1% limestone (SA1, and 10% corn meal, 2.93% molasses powder, 1.1% urea and 0.97% limestone (SA2. All silages containing additives exhibited a higher mean pH than SWA, but this did not negatively affect their fermentation quality. The titratable acidity of SWA (7.84 was higher than that of SUR (3.28, SLS (4.80, SA1 (3.30 and SA2 (3.80. The mean ammoniacal nitrogen was 10% lower in relation to total nitrogen in all silages, except for SUR, indicating a good fermentation profile. Effluent loss was lower for silages containing additives (P<0.005, with losses of 22.5, 12.1, 12.3 and 7.85 kg/t for SLS, SUR, SA1 and SA2, respectively, compared to SWA (46.1 kg/t. Dry matter content, total digestible nutrients and non-fibrous carbohydrates increased with inclusion of the additives, while neutral detergent fiber and hemicellulose content decreased. Dry matter digestibility was higher in SA1 and SA2 (45.8% and 44.4%, respectively compared to the other silages, while SA2 did not differ from SWA (43.4%. The combination of chemical and organic additives had a positive synergistic effect to reduce effluent losses, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber and to increase dry matter digestibility, thus increasing nutrient availability. These silages therefore represent a good-quality final product.

  13. Brown Midrib forage sorghum silage for the dairy cow: nutritive value and comparison with corn silage in the diet

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    Matteo Crovetto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rumen dry matter and fibre digestibility of brown midrib (BMR sorghum forage silage (SF in comparison to corn silage (CS was determined in situ using 3 fistulated dry cows. The effect of replacing CS with SF on milk production was studied in a change-over design with 58 lactating Italian Friesian cows fed two diets with similar composition. CS had a higher (P<0.001 rapidly degradable dry matter (DM fraction than SF (33.1 vs. 23.7, respectively, whilst the slowly degradable fraction was not different (46.3 vs. 48.7. Overall, the extent of DM rumen degradability was higher for CS. Rumen digestion rate of neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom tended to be higher (P=0.06 for SF than CS (3.08 vs. 2.49 %/h, respectively; however, effective rumen degradability of fibre was not different between silages. Neither milk yield (kg/d and 4%-fat corrected milk nor milk protein and fat contents were affected by treatment. Cows fed CS diet had lower (P<0.05 milk urea content compared with their SF counterparts (19.9 vs. 21.5 mg/dL, suggesting a better nitrogen utilization at the rumen level. In conclusion, feeding a BMR sorghum forage resulted in milk yield and quality similar to corn silage. However, to obtain comparable milk production as corn silage, the SF-based diet had to be supplemented with more starch from corn meal.

  14. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage concentrat...

  15. Physical properties and fermentation profile of maize silage on large farms in Croatia

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    Dora Zurak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize silage is the main forage for ruminant livestock in Croatia. Production of substances determines quality of ensiling during the process and, therefore, has an impact on nutritive value, consumption, and health of cattle. Since in Croatia there is no systematic research of ensiling quality, this study aimed to determine quality parameters values of maize silage from large farms in continental Croatia during the spring of 2016. In total 33 samples of maize silage were representatively sampled by taking silage from the entire cross-section of the silo. Selected quality parameters included dry matter (DM and ash contents, pH and titratable acidity, water holding capacity, particle size of the whole silage and separated grains, and aroma according to the "Sil-All for corn silage" (Danstar Ferment Ag, Switzerland. Nearly half of the analyzed samples had DM content outside the optimal range (300 – 400 g*kg-1. The pH value of silages was within the optimal range (3.5 – 4.2 which indicated that the active phase of ensiling was properly done. However, two-thirds of samples had an undesirable aroma which indicated changes of fermentation products occurred during the stable phase. Titratable acidity of tested silages, with a range from 11.61 to 128.93 meqv. NaOH*100 g-1 DM, indicated their different buffering properties in the rumen. Water holding capacity varied from 4.4 to 8.57 g*g-1 DM and this range implied variable fiber content in analyzed samples. Grain content in silages ranged from 23.86 to 45.05% whereas its geometric particle size was in a range from 2.15 to 4.3 mm. When considering particle distribution of whole silage on PSPS (Penn State Forage Particle Separator sieves, a half or more than half samples had content on individual sieves outside the optimal ranges. In conclusion, maize silages on large dairy and fattening farms in continental Croatia are very variable in quality and, in many parameters, of lower quality than the

  16. Effects of microbial enzymes on starch and hemicellulose degradation in total mixed ration silages

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    Tingting Ning

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the association of enzyme-producing microbes and their enzymes with starch and hemicellulose degradation during fermentation of total mixed ration (TMR silage. Methods The TMRs were prepared with soybean curd residue, alfalfa hay (ATMR or Leymus chinensis hay (LTMR, corn meal, soybean meal, vitamin-mineral supplements, and salt at a ratio of 25:40:30:4:0.5:0.5 on a dry matter basis. Laboratory-scale bag silos were randomly opened after 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 days of ensiling and subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, carbohydrates loss, microbial amylase and hemicellulase activities, succession of dominant amylolytic or hemicellulolytic microbes, and their microbial and enzymatic properties. Results Both ATMR and LTMR silages were well preserved, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. In addition to the substantial loss of water soluble carbohydrates, loss of starch and hemicellulose was also observed in both TMR silages with prolonged ensiling. The microbial amylase activity remained detectable throughout the ensiling in both TMR silages, whereas the microbial hemicellulase activity progressively decreased until it was inactive at day 14 post-ensiling in both TMR silages. During the early stage of fermentation, the main amylase-producing microbes were Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis in ATMR silage and B. flexus, B. licheniformis, and Paenibacillus xylanexedens (P. xylanexedens in LTMR silage, whereas Enterococcus faecium was closely associated with starch hydrolysis at the later stage of fermentation in both TMR silages. B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis and B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, and P. xylanexedens were the main source of microbial hemicellulase during the early stage of fermentation in ATMR and LTMR silages, respectively. Conclusion The microbial amylase contributes to starch hydrolysis during the

  17. Qualidade e valor nutritivo de silagens de capim-marandu (B. brizantha cv. Marandu produzidas com aditivos ou forragem emurchecida Quality and nutritive value of marandugrass (Brachiaria brizanthia, cv. Marandu silage prepared with additive or wilting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernando Bergamaschine

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a qualidade e o valor nutritivo de silagens de capim-marandu produzidas com polpa cítrica (PC peletizada, com aditivo enzimático-bacteriano (ABE ou com forragem emuchercida (E: T1 - forragem sem tratamento (controle; T2 - 10% de polpa cítrica peletizada (PC; T3 - aditivo enzimático bacteriano (AEB - SIL-ALL-C4 da Alltech, à base de 5 g/L de água/t de forragem; T4 - forragem picada grosseiramente emurchecida por 4 horas ao sol. O capim foi colhido aos 60 dias de rebrota (24% MS. Para avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade das silagens, foram utilizados 16 novilhos mestiços com 200 kg de PV, que receberam, além das silagens, 1,0 kg de concentrado/animal/dia. O AEB não afetou a composição da silagem, mas a PC e o E aumentaram o teor de MS de 24% para 31 e 48%, respectivamente, e reduziram o pH e os teores de N-NH3 das silagens, que foram, respectivamente, de 4,17 e 4,58 e 6,78 e 7,99% NT. A PC diminuiu os teores de FDN e FDA em 12 e 4 unidades percentuais. O consumo de MS da silagem produzida com capim emurchecido foi superior (111,8 g MS/PV0,75 ao das silagens controle ou com AEB, mas não diferiu do obtido para a silagem com PC, que também não diferiu das demais. Os tratamentos não afetaram a digestibilidade, cujas médias para MS, PB, CT, FDN, FDA e NDT foram 67,0; 65,4; 68,8; 63,0; 62,5; e 65,6%, respectivamente. A PC e o E reduziram a proteólise e estimularam o consumo. A PC, o E e o AEB não melhoraram o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-marandu colhido com 24% MS.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the quality and nutritive value of marandugrass silages. It was evaluated the followings treatments: T1- forage without treatment (control; T2 - 10% of pelleted citric pulp (CiP; T3 - enzymatic bacterial additive (EBA (SIL-ALL-C4 of Alltech applied at 5 g/L of water/t of forage; T4 - Coarse chopped forage wilted for 4 hours under the sun. The grass was harvested with 60 days of regrowth (24% DM. The intake

  18. Effects of adding urea on fermentation quality of pruned persimmon branch silage and its digestibility, preference, nitrogen balance and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Zang, Yanqing; Lv, Renlong; Takahashi, Toshiyoshi; Yoshida, Norio; Yang, Huanmin

    2014-03-01

    Four cattle were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to study digestibility, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen retention and preference of ensiling pruned persimmon branch (PPB) chips treated with urea. After 60 days of ensiling, urea-treated PPB showed higher (P excretion as well as nitrogen retention in cattle fed urea-treated PPB were higher (P ruminal ammonia-N levels in cattle fed urea-treated PPB were higher (P ruminal pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, and the acetic : propionic acid ratio of rumen content were unaffected by diets. The rank order of preference was rice straw > low-urea > no-urea > high-urea. The results suggested that urea treatment of PPB inhibited growth of mold and yeast during silage storage, enhanced its digestibility and had nutritive value almost equivalent to that of rice straw. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Effects of nitrogen fertilisation rate and maturity of grass silage on methane emission by lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, D.; Hatew, B.; Podesta, S.C.; Klop, G.; Gastelen, van S.; Laar, van H.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    Grass silage is typically fed to dairy cows in temperate regions. However, in vivo information on methane (CH4) emission from grass silage of varying quality is limited. We evaluated the effect of two rates of nitrogen (N) fertilisation of grassland (low fertilisation (LF), 65 kg of N/ha; and high

  20. Qualidade da carne de cordeiros criados em creep feeding com silagem de grãos úmidos de milho Meat quality of lambs fed with high moisture corn silage in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2004-08-01

    measures were taken on longissimus dorsi surface: maximum width; minimal depth; minimal fat depth and maximum fat depth and loin eye area. Loins were dessecated to determine muscle, fat and bone proportions, chemical composition and shear force. Results showed that replacing levels did not affect shear force and loin measures, except for loin eye area, according to quadratic regression with higher values observed in rations with high moisture corn silage. Chemical composition analysis showed that replacing levels just influenced loin fat content, that increased linearly according to silage adding. There was no effect on muscle, bone and fat proportions, considering corn replacing levels. It was concluded that is possible replace dry corn by high moisture corn silage in creep feeding rations to finish lambs, keeping good quality meat.

  1. Using Gamma Radiation for the Improvement of Silage Inoculant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongwicharn, Aporn; Ljinakakr, Nongpanga; Piadang, Patharakorn

    2006-09-01

    A total of 117 acid producing baceria were isolated from grass and silage samples. Almost all isolates, 115 isolates posses homfermentative fermentation. All isolates produced lactic acid in a range of 0.36-2.05%. From their growth and their ability in producing lactic acid, two isolates, a coccus (T3-2-02) and a rod (T3-0-01) were selected for a mixed wild type strains for silage inoculant. After irradiation the wild type strains with gama ray, 51 and 58 isolates of high acid producer were selected from T3-2-02 and T3-0-01 strains, respectively. After testing the growht characteristics and the acid productivity, a coccus strain, MC08 and a rod stain, MR4 were choosen as a mixed irradiated starter culture strains for grass silage fermentation using a 50 dats old Pangola grass (Digitaria eriantha). The experiment was divided into 6 treatments. Treatmet I was the control. Treatmment 2, 4% molasses was added ro the grass. Treatment 3, a mixed wild type strains (T3-2-02+ T3-0-01) was inoculated into the grass. Treatment 4, a mixed irradiated strains (MC08+ MR04) was used. Treatment 5, A mixed wild tpye strains was used and supplemented with 4% molasses. Treatnebt 6, A mixed irradiated strain was assed and supplemented with 4% molasses. The results showed that a qualified silage can be obtained within a week from either the treatment inoculated with starter culture together with4% molasses (T5 and T6) or the treatment supplemented with 4% molasses alone (T2). further more, Silage of the treatments that using starter culture supplemented with 4% molasses gave volatile acid in a requred quantity. Silage of the treatments that inoculated either with a wild type pr a mixed irradiated starter culture posses bether quality than the control treatment. Further more silage that used irradiated starter culture showed a faster ffermentation and higher lactic acid production tha silage that uses wild type starter culture.

  2. Effects of replacing conventional corn silage with BMR corn silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has shown that the (lignin reducing) brown mid-rib mutation in corn silage, which increases in vitro fiber digestibility, does not always improve fiber digestibility when fed as part of a TMR; however, feed intake and milk production are increased. The objectives of this experiment...

  3. Kinnow madarin (Citrus nobilis lour × Citrus deliciosa tenora) fruit waste silage as potential feed for small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, B A; Rastogi, A; Sharma, R K; Ishfaq, A; Farooq, And J

    2015-01-01

    Study was conducted to ascertain the quality of Kinnow mandarin waste (KMW) silage and its utilization by adult male goats. KMW was collected, dried to 30% dry matter level and ensiled in silo pit after addition of disodium hydrogen orthophosphate as source of phosphorus as KMW is deficient in phosphorus. Oat was collected at milking stage, chopped finely and ensiled in a silo pit for 2 months. Twelve nondescript local adult male goats of about 8-10 months age and mean body weight of 23.00±0.90 kg were selected. The goats were randomly allotted on body weight as per randomized block design into two equal groups, six animals in each group (n=6) namely "oat silage (OS)" and "Kinnow silage." Goats were offered weighed quantities of respective silage on ad libitum basis. The silages were evaluated for proximate principles and silage quality attributes. Differences were found between chemical composition of both silages with higher organic matter, ether extracts, nitrogen free extract (p0.05 for CP) and possess comparable (2.23 vs. 2.06; p>0.05) calcium content. The pH, ammonia nitrogen (percent of total nitrogen) and soluble carbohydrate content were lower (4.20 vs. 3.30; 4.14 vs. 3.80; 2.73 vs. 1.86; p0.05) among the two dietary groups. It can be concluded that KMW can be used to prepare good quality silage for feeding of goats.

  4. Effects of lactic acid bacteria silage inoculation on methane emission and productivity of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J L; Hindrichsen, I K; Klop, G; Kinley, R D; Milora, N; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-09-01

    Inoculants of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used to improve silage quality and prevent spoilage via increased production of lactic acid and other organic acids and a rapid decline in silage pH. The addition of LAB inoculants to silage has been associated with increases in silage digestibility, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk yield. Given the potential change in silage and rumen fermentation conditions accompanying these silage additives, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LAB silage inoculants on DMI, digestibility, milk yield, milk composition, and methane (CH4) production from dairy cows in vivo. Eight mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were grouped into 2 blocks of 4 cows (multiparous and primiparous) and used in a 4×4 double Latin square design with 21-d periods. Methane emissions were measured by indirect calorimetry. Treatments were grass silage (mainly ryegrass) with no inoculant (GS), with a long-term inoculant (applied at harvest; GS+L), with a short-term inoculant (applied 16h before feeding; GS+S), or with both long and short-term inoculants (GS+L+S). All diets consisted of grass silage and concentrate (75:25 on a dry matter basis). The long-term inoculant consisted of a 10:20:70 mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, and Lactobacillus buchneri, and the short-term inoculant was a preparation of Lc. lactis. Dry matter intake was not affected by long-term or short-term silage inoculation, nor was dietary neutral detergent fiber or fat digestibility, or N or energy balance. Milk composition (except milk urea) and fat and protein-corrected milk yield were not affected by long- or short-term silage inoculation, nor was milk microbial count. However, milk yield tended to be greater with long-term silage inoculation. Methane expressed in units of grams per day, grams per kilogram of DMI, grams per kilogram of milk, or grams per kilogram of fat and protein-corrected milk yield was not affected by long- or short

  5. Qualidade bromatológica das silagens de capim-elefante aditivadas com raspa de batata Bromatologic qualities of elephant grass silages added with potato scrapings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A raspa de batata foi misturada ao capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. na ensilagem. A colheita do capim-elefante foi realizada manualmente após 80 dias do corte de uniformização a uma altura de 10 cm da superfície do solo. As misturas capim-elefante e raspa de batata foram feitas nas seguintes proporções de matéria verde: 100 e 0%, 93 e 7%; 86 e 14%; 79 e 21%; 72 e 28% de capim e raspa de batata, respectivamente. As plantas foram picadas em partículas de 2,0 a 3,0 cm de tamanho, ensiladas por 30 dias, em silos de "PVC" de dez centímetros de diâmetro e quarenta centímetros de altura. Foram avaliadas as porcentagens de matéria seca (MS, valores de pH, perda de gases, perda de efluentes, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, das silagens. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Concluiu-se que as silagens de capim-elefante com raspa de batata apresentaram maiores porcentagens de MS, PB, valores de pH e DIVMS e menor porcentagem de perda de gases, perda de efluentes, FDN e FDA na matéria seca com o aumento dos níveis de adição.Potato scrapings were mixed with elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum in silage. Elephant grass was harvested manually on the 80th day after leveling mowing had been done at a height of 10 cm from the soil surface. The mixtures of elephant grass and potato scrapings were made in the in the following ratios of green matter: 100% and 0%; 93% and 7%; 86% and 14%; 79% and 21%; and 72% and 28% of grass and potato scrapings, respectively. The plants were chopped in 2-3 cm particles and ensiled for 30 days in 10 cm wide x 40 cm high "PVC" silos. The following variables of the silage were evaluated: percentage of dry matter (DM, pH values, loss of gases, and of efluent, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, and in

  6. Effects of four short-chain fatty acids or salts on fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xian J; Wen, Ai Y; Wang, Jian; Desta, Seare T; Dong, Zhi H; Shao, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of four chemicals on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage. Wilted alfalfa was ensiled without additive (control), or with formic acid (FA), potassium diformate (KDF), sodium diacetate (SDA) or calcium propionate (CAP). After 60 days of ensiling, the pH values in FA, KDF and SDA silages were lower (P < 0.05) compared to that of control and CAP silages, and chemicals (P < 0.05) decreased butyric acid and ammonia N concentrations and populations of aerobic bacteria and yeasts compared to the control. The SDA and CAP silages had a higher (P < 0.05) lactic acid bacteria content compared to the FA and KDF silages. The SDA and CAP silages had higher (P < 0.05) acetic and propionic acid contents compared to the other silages, respectively. The ammonia N concentrations in the FA and KDF silages were lower compared to the other silages during the first 5 days of aerobic exposure, and then increased sharply to 105 and 100 g kg -1 total N, respectively, which was higher (P < 0.05) than that of the SDA and CAP silages on day 9 of aerobic exposure. Yeasts and aerobic bacteria counts in SDA silage slowly increased and remained at lower levels compared to the other silages after 7 days of aerobic exposure. Additives prolonged the aerobic stability duration compared to the control, and the SDA and CAP silages remained stable for more than 216 h, followed by the KDF and FA silages (202 and 196 h, respectively). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF SILAGE OF PIATÃ GRASS MONOCROP AND INTERCROPING WITH SORGHUM FOR FORAGE AND GRAZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia da Cruz Quintino

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the time of cutting on the nutritive value of Piatã silage grass in monocrop and intercropping with sorghum for cutting and grazing. We used a randomized block design with four replications. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design, with systems as plots (Piata grass, sorghum for cutting and grazing, and intercropping, cutting ages as sublots (70, 90, and 110 days after sowing. The minisilos were opened at 46 days to evaluate silage crude protein (CP, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total digestible nutrients (TDN, ammonia nitrogen, lignin, and pH. We observed significant interaction between system and age on the variables CP, ADF, NDF, lignin and pH. With the advancement of age, there was a linear reduction in crude protein content of 0.12, 0.08, and 0.16 percentage units for each day after sowing in sorghum silage, sorghum grass and grass + Piata, respectively. There was a linear increase in the pH value of sorghum silage + grass due to the advancement of age of 0.03 units for each day after sowing. In sorghum silage and monocrop grass, the pH did not vary with the cutting age, with values of 4.63 and 5.20, respectively. Sorghum systems showed potential for the production of good quality silage at 70 days of age. Keywords: cutting age; minisilo; silage; tropical grass.

  8. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  9. Fermentation Characteristics and Microbial Diversity of Tropical Grass-legumes Silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Ridwan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Calliandra calothyrsus preserved in silage is an alternative method for improving the crude protein content of feeds for sustainable ruminant production. The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of silage which contained different levels of C. calothyrsus by examining the fermentation characteristics and microbial diversity. Silage was made in a completely randomized design consisting of five treatments with three replications i.e.: R0, Pennisetum purpureum 100%; R1, P. purpureum 75%+C. calothyrsus 25%;, R2, P. purpureum 50%+C. calothyrsus 50%; R3, P. purpureum 25%+C. calothyrsus 75%; and R4, C. calothyrsus 100%. All silages were prepared using plastic jar silos (600 g and incubated at room temperature for 30 days. Silages were analyzed for fermentation characteristics and microbial diversity. Increased levels of C. calothyrsus in silage had a significant effect (p<0.01 on the fermentation characteristics. The microbial diversity index decreased and activity was inhibited with increasing levels of C. calothyrsus. The microbial community indicated that there was a population of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. casei, L. brevis, Lactococcus lactis, Chryseobacterium sp., and uncultured bacteria. The result confirmed that silage with a combination of grass and C. calothyrsus had good fermentation characteristics and microbial communities were dominated by L. plantarum.

  10. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  11. Fruit agribusiness waste as an additive in elephant grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cardoso de Azevedo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential use of fruticulture waste as an additive in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum cultivar Napier silage at different densities, defining the effect of fermentative quality, microbiological characteristics and bromatological composition. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications in a 4 x 3 factorial scheme, comprising a control, banana waste (BW, mango waste (MW, and passion fruit waste (PFW at three densities (400, 500 and 600 kg green matter [GM] m-3. The effect of ensiling density was greatest in the exclusively elephant grass silage, where a compaction of 600 kg GM m-3 contributed to improvements in fermentation and microbiological processes. The addition of banana waste to the elephant grass silage promoted improvements only in bromatological composition, raising the dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC content and reducing fiber components (neutral detergent fiber [NDFap] and acid detergent fiber [ADFap] corrected for ash and protein, but the addition of banana waste did not favor the fermentative or microbiological processes. The addition of passion fruit and mango by-products promoted increased DM and favored the fermentative, microbiological, and bromatological silage processes, regardless of density.

  12. Biogenic amines and mycotoxins concentrations in baled silage from organic and conventional farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jovaišienė

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the current study was to investigate biogenic amines and mycotoxins concentrations in baled silage (mainly Poaceae family grasses prepared in organic and conventional farms and to relate these parameters to fermentative parameters. The mean dry matter (DM content was 364.10±93.31 and 424.70±95.93g/kg in the silage from organic and conventional farms respectively. The silage samples from organic farms had 17.00% higher (P≤ 0.05 tyramine (TY than the silage from conventional farms. Conventional farm samples were characterized by 46.00% higher histamine (HIS (P≤ 0.05, 9.80% higher putrescine (PUT (P≤ 0.05, 17.30% higher cadaverine (CAD (P≤ 0.05. Aflatoxins (AFL (total and zearalenone (ZEN, T-2/HT-2 concentrations were higher respectively 16.00% (P≤ 0.05 and 13.40% (P≤ 0.05, 1.80% (P≤ 0.05 in the silage prepared in organic farms. Deoxynivalenol (DON concentration was higher 42.40% (P≤ 0.05 in silage from conventional farms. Volatile fatty acids (VFA, lactic acid, ethanol, pH and ammonia nitrogen showed that the silage samples from organic and conventional farms were of good quality. Our study suggests differences in biogenic amine formation or mycotoxins content in silage from organic and conventional farming, but, overall, the measured values are too low to be relevant for animal health. Furthermore, these differences might as well be due to the difference in dry matter content and plant maturity between the organic and conventional silage samples.

  13. Fermentative characteristics of coffee pulp silage with different proportions of coffee hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Ferreira Barcelos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of the coffee pulp silages with different proportions of coffee hulls. The material was ensiled in PVC with 150 mm diameter by 750 mm high, according to the treatments: coffee pulp (CoP, CoP + 20% of coffee hulls (CH, CoP + 40% of CH and CoP + 60% CH in a completely randomized design with six replications. The silos were opened 60 days after closing, when samples were taken for determination of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin, cellulose, pH, N-NH3, caffeine, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P and in vitro digestibility of dry matter. We also determined gas production and effluent. There was a linear increase in DM content and pH, and a linear decrease of CP, NDF and ADF, lignin, cellulose, caffeine, Ca and P. This reduction occurs because the coffee hulls have lower levels than pulp to CP, NDF, ADF, caffeine, Ca and P. There was also a linear reduction in N-NH3 values, and only the highest percentage of silage with coffee hulls obtained below 10%, considered as the limit for good quality silage. Effluent production was higher for silage shelled coffee pulp and do not get any production in silage with 60% coffee hull. There was no significant difference in vitro digestibility of dry matter among treatments. The coffee hulls was effective in increasing DM content of CoP silage and to reduce NDF, ADF, N-NH3, providing nutritional value of silage satisfactory for cattle feed, creating an alternative for recovery of such waste. When considering the DM content found in silages, the amount of bark best coffee to be added to coffee pulp for the production of silage is between 30% and 35%.

  14. Evaluation of silage diets offered to reindeer calves intended for slaughter. II. Feeding of silage and concentrate from January to March

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    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment involving 56 male reindeer calves, with a mean initial live weight of 39 kg (SD=4.6, was undertaken to evaluate the effect of the concentrate:silage ratio on the performance during feeding to slaughter. Forty four of the calves were divided in four groups, two groups each being allotted to diets with low, 60% (LC, or high, 80% (HC proportions of a commercial pelleted feed. The remaining twelve calves were slaughtered at the start of the experiment. The experimenral period lasted from January to March. The proportions of concentrate to silage were based on the dry matter (DM content. The silage, 44% DM, was made from the primary growth of a predominantly grass sward preserved as plastic-wrapped big bales. Animal health was good throughour the experimenr. Small amounts of lichens were mixed into the diets during the first rwo weeks of feeding and may have contributed to the lack of adapta-tionai problems. The mean daily intakes of DM and metabolisable energy were higher (P<0.01 for calves offered the HC-diet. Despite the higher feed intakes, the increased proportion of concentrate in the diet did not significantly alter live weight gains or carcass weight gains. However, the greater fat deposition (P<0.05 and better carcass gradings indicated a better condition of the animals at slaughtet when less silage was fed. This experiment was the the final part of a three year study of silage based diets for reindeer intended for slaughter and the general conclusion is that the best role of grass silage of this quality is as a limited part of the ration. The silage may, however, play an important role during the adaptation period and further detailed studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of silage as a part of the diet to reindeer.

  15. Corn yield for silage and grains in different integrated crop-livestock systems

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    Laíse da Silveira Pontes

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the objective was to assess the influence of two doses of N (90 and 180 kg N ha-1, added to the winter pastures, two integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS, with and without trees and five positions between the tree rows, on the corn (Zea mays L. quality and productivity, for silage and grain. Adopting the complete randomized block design, the treatments included three replicates. In 2006, following the 14 x 3 m spacing (currently with 158 trees ha-1 the trees were planted in 6 out of the 12 paddocks. While the corn was implemented during summer of 2013/2014, cattle grazing on the annual pasture was done during the prior winter, in both ICLS. Corn for silage was reaped at the R5 phenological stage, whereas for grains it was done at 176 days post seeding. For silage, the corn plants were grinded and then stocked in the experimental mini PVC silos. The silage varied slightly in quality along the positions between the tree rows. The differences observed between N levels in the dry matter, crude protein (CP and grain productivity are expressions of the residual effects of the winter fertilization. Silage quality was improved by the shade effect which minimized the acid detergent fiber and raised the CP, although it reduced the corn production for silage and grains by 52%. Some feasible techniques to reduce these losses are discussed.

  16. Effects of different corn silage: Alfalfa silage ratios and full fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full fat extruded soybeans addition increased the ether extract in diets and content of conjugated linoleic acids in milk, but it had no effect on fat, protein and lactose content in milk. Milk fat and lactose were not affected by replacing corn silage with alfalfa silage in diets. Increasing alfalfa silage content in the diets increased ...

  17. Silage extracts used to study the mode of action of silage inoculants in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa and two corn crops were ensiled with and without Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 silage inoculant and fermented for 4 or 60 d to assess the effect of the inoculant on in vitro rumen fermentation of the resulting silages. Water and 80% ethanol extracts of the silages with added glucose were als...

  18. Letras galegas "María Mariño". Unha análise da recepción da obra da poeta

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    Montse Penas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cada 17 de maio dende 1963 (coincidindo co centenario da publicación de Cantares gallegos de Rosalía de Castro a literatura galega celebra o Día das Letras Galegas, homenaxeando a un escritor ou escritora que xa finara (aínda que polo momento só foron tres as mulleres honradas con esta distinción. 2007 foi a quenda da terceira autora: María Mariño. Tal distinción non estivo exenta dunha certa polémica, por dous motivos ben diferentes: o cuestionamento que a celebración está a vivir nos últimos anos e, sobre todo, a sombra das dúbidas que aínda se cernen ao redor da propia María Mariño. Este artigo céntrase neste segundo factor, analizando a produción crítica que se xerou en torno á poeta, tentando dilucidar en qué medida a enxurrada de publicacións que se lle dedicaron dende que a Real Academia Galega anunciara o 2007 como o “seu” ano supuxo non só un avance cuantitativo, senón tamén e, sobre todo, unha mellora cualitativa no coñecemento da súa obra.

  19. Conservation Characteristics and Nutritive Value of Sunflower Silages as Affected by The Maturity Stages and Fibrolytic Enzymes

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    Sibel Erdoğan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Silage quality and nutritive value of sunflower silages ensiled with different level of fibrolytic enzymes at blooming, milk and dough stages were investigated. Fibrolytic enzyme complex (Viscozyme® L, V2010 Sigma Novozyme was applied 0, 1, 1.5 and 2.5 ml/kgDM at ensiling. The dry matter (DM yield increased with each increment of the maturity stage. Dry matter (DM, ether extract (EE and crude cellulose (CC contents of silages increased also in each delay in harvesting, while crude protein (CP, NDF and ADF contents of silages were the highest in blooming stage. The pH was higher in sunflower silage harvested at dough stage when compared to blooming stage, while acetic, propionic and butyric acid concentrations were all higher in blooming stage, although there were no differences in lactic acid concentrations among harvesting periods. Although silage structural carbohydrate composition was not significantly affected by any enzyme dose, Dose III enzyme treatment at the dough was associated with the highest concentration of lactic acid. Overall, there was no profound effect of enzyme supplementation on nutritive value and silage characteristics of sunflower silage.

  20. Chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of potato-wheat straw silage treated with molasses and lactic acid bacteria and corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeinasab, Y; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H; Rezaei, J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of molasses and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of an ensiled potato-wheat straw mixture in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates. Wheat straw was harvested at full maturity and potato tuber when the leaves turned yellowish. The potato-wheat straw (57:43 ratio, DM basis) mixture was treated with molasses, LAB, or a combination. Lalsil Fresh LB (Lallemand, France; containing NCIMB 40788) or Lalsil MS01 (Lallemand, France; containing MA18/5U and MA126/4U) were each applied at a rate of 3 × 10 cfu/g of fresh material. Treatments were mixed potato-wheat straw silage (PWSS) without additive, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01, PWSS + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01 + 5% molasses, and corn silage (CS). The compaction densities of PWSS treatments and CS were approximately 850 and 980 kg wet matter/m, respectively. After anaerobic storage for 90 d, chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, in vitro gas production (GP), estimated OM disappearance (OMD), ammonia-N, VFA, microbial CP (MCP) production, and cellulolytic bacteria count were determined. Compared to CS, PWSS had greater ( butyric acids concentrations. When PWSS was treated with molasses, LAB, or both, the contents of CP and lactic and acetic acids increased, whereas NDFom, ammonia-N, and butyric acid decreased ( fermentation quality of PWSS was lesser than that of CS. However, addition of molasses and molasses + LAB improved fermentation quality of PWSS.

  1. Ensiling quality of maize as influenced by the addition of wet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each treatment was sampled for chemical composition and silage fermentation parameters. There was a steady decrease in dry matter (DM) concentration of silage ... be ensiled effectively with maize plants without compromising silage quality. Keywords: Acetic acid, butyric acid, fermentation, lactic acid, preservation, silage ...

  2. Effects of potassium sorbate and Lactobacillus plantarum MTD1 on production of ethanol and other volatile organic compounds in corn silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Windle, Michelle; Merrill, Caitlyn

    2015-01-01

    was to evaluate the effect of additives on production of nine silage VOC in corn silage, including compounds thought to contribute to poor air quality or affect feed intake (alcohols: methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol; esters: methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate; and aldehydes: acetaldehyde, valeraldehyde....... These results provide additional evidence that potassium sorbate is an effective additive for reducing production of ethanol and ethyl esters in corn silage. Combining potassium sorbate with L. plantarum may provide additional benefits, although the persistence of this effect for silages with higher VOC...

  3. Comparação de azeites obtidos da cultivar portuguesa Galega Vulgar utilizando dois métodos de extracção Comparison of olive oil from Portuguese cultivar Galega Vulgar with two different methods of oil extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Torres Vaz-Freire

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção do azeite é uma das actividades agrícolas mais características da região mediterrânea e de importância relevante para a sua economia. O objectivo do trabalho foi o estudo da influência dos métodos da extracção na qualidade do azeite obtido. Incidiu principalmente sobre uma das cultivares recomendadas para os azeites de denominação origem protegida (DOP no Alentejo. Foi extraída azeite da variedade portuguesa, Galega Vulgar (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea, colhida na região de Elvas nas campanhas de 2001 a 2004. Utilizou-se uma prensa hidráulica (extracção descontínua, Vieirinox, Portugal; e um “decanter” centrífugo de duas fases (extracção contínua, Oliomio, Itália. Nas azeitonas determinou-se o índice de maturação, fez-se o controle de pragas e avaliou-se o Índice de gordura (RMN. No azeite para além das análises químicas de controlo foi realizada a análise Sensorial com painel treinado e uma detecção electrónica de aromas (Alpha Mos Fox 3000. Os resultados preliminares mostram haver diferenças significativas para alguns dos parâmetros analisados no caso dos azeites. De todos os parâmetros em que se detectaram diferenças significativas apenas a acidez demonstrou alterações suficientes para classificar o azeite em outra categoria considerando a classificação estabelecida pelo Regulamento (CE N.º 1989/2003 de 6 de Novembro. Estudos como este são importantes na adaptação da tecnologia à variedade com o intuito de aumentar a eficiência de determinado processo tecnológico.Olive oil production is one of the important agricultural activities on the Mediterranean region and has a real impact on local economies. The objective of this work was the study of extraction methods impact on olive oil final quality. The variety studied is one of the varieties allowed for olive oil with Protected Origin Denomination (DOP production in Alentejo. The Portuguese variety extracted was Galega Vulgar

  4. Effects of sodium diacetate on the fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa silage

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    XianJun Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium diacetate (SDA on fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. silage. Methods Fresh alfalfa was ensiled with various concentrations of SDA (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 g/kg of fresh forage. After 60 days of the ensiling, the samples were collected to examine the fermentative quality, chemical composition and aerobic stability. Results The application of SDA significantly (p<0.05 decreased silage pH with the lowest value in silage with 7 g/kg of SDA. The proliferations of enterobacteria, yeasts, molds and clostridia were inhibited by SDA, resulted in lower ethanol, propionic and butyric acid concentrations and dry matter loss in SDA treated silages than control. The increasing SDA linearly decreased free amino acid N (p<0.001, ammonia N (p = 0.018 and non-protein N (p<0.001, while linearly increased water soluble carbohydrate (p<0.001 and peptide N (p<0.001. It is speculated that SDA accelerated the shift from homofermentative to heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria during the silage fermentation, indicated by lower lactic acid production in SDA-9 than SDA-7 silages after 60 days of ensiling. Alfalfa silages treated with SDA at 7 g/kg had highest Flieg’s point and remained stable more than 9 d during aerobic exposure under humid and hot conditions in southern China. Conclusion SDA may be used as an additive for alfalfa silages at a level of 7 g/kg.

  5. Produtividade e qualidade da silagem de milho e sorgo em função da época de semeadura Productivity and quality of the silage of corn and sorghum influenced by the time of sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Garcia Von Pinho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de diferentes épocas de semeadura na produtividade e qualidade de cultivares de milho e sorgo para silagem e também verificar a possibilidade de substituição do milho pelo sorgo para produção de silagem, foram instalados experimentos em três épocas de semeadura, em área do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras, no ano agrícola 2002/2003. Foram avaliados três grupos de cultivares - três cultivares de sorgo duplo propósito, três de sorgo forrageiro e três de milho, em três épocas de semeadura - 19/11/2002, 19/12/2002 e 18/1/2003. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 (grupos de cultivares x 3 (épocas de semeadura, com quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se produtividade de matéria seca (MS, participação de panícula ou espiga na MS, e as porcentagens de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e lignina. Observou-se efeito significativo para cultivares e épocas de semeadura para todas as características avaliadas. Constatou-se a presença de interação cultivares*épocas para a produtividade de matéria seca (MS, participação de panícula ou espiga na MS e porcentagem de proteína bruta. Independentemente de época semeadura, com o milho se tem silagem com menor teor de fibra do que com qualquer tipo de sorgo e produtividade de matéria seca semelhante à do sorgo forrageiro e maior do que o sorgo duplo propósito. A maior produção de matéria seca de milho e sorgo, para forragem, é obtida na semeadura em novembro. Silagem de milho e sorgo de maior valor nutritivo é obtida na semeadura de janeiro. Do ponto de vista de produção e de qualidade nutricional da forragem, não é viável a substituição da silagem de milho pela de sorgo.With the objective to evaluate the influence of different times of sowing in the productivity and silage quality of corn and sorghum cultivars and

  6. Fermentative characteristics and nutritional value of elephant grass silage added with dehydrated banana peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maria Santos Brant

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentative losses and nutritional value of elephant grass silages with the increasing of inclusion levels of dehydrated banana peel. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and four replications, being the silage exclusively from elephant grass, and five levels of inclusion of banana peel to the elephant grass silage, as the following - 5; 10; 15; 20 and 25%, being added based on natural matter. The addition of the banana peel in the silage reduced linearly (p < 0.05 the pH, the ammoniacal nitrogen and the losses of the fermentative process. In addition, the inclusion of banana peel increased linearly (p < 0.05 the dry matter and non-fibrous carbohydrates. On the other hand, the neutral detergent fiber and the acid detergent fiber were linearly reduced with the inclusion of the banana peel (p < 0.05, but there was no change in the dry matter digestibility in situ. The inclusion of dehydrated banana peel in elephant grass silage reduces the losses of the fermentation process with more consistent results at the 25% inclusion level, however, it reduces the silage nutritional value due to fibrous and protein quality.

  7. Effects of Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition and Fermentation Characteristics of Barley Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah, S. M.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, H. J.; Joo, Y. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of bacterial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation indices of barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at 24% dry matter (DM) and wilted to 47.9% DM. The wilted barley forage was chopped to 3–5 cm length and applied with no inoculant (CON), L. plantarum (1×1010 cfu/g, LP) or Effective Microorganisms (0.5×109 cfu/g, EM). Then the forages were ensiled in four replications for each treatment in 20 L mini silos and stored for 100 days. The contents of crude protein and ether extract were higher in CON silage ensiled for 100-d, while the contents of DM and crude ash were higher in EM silage (p0.05). The pH, ammonia-N concentration and lactate to acetate ratio were higher (p<0.05) in CON silage, while lactate concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in CON and LP silage. Acetate concentration and lactic acid bacteria was increased (p<0.05) by both inoculants (LP and EM), but propionate concentration and yeast was increased (p<0.05) by EM and LP, respectively. These results indicated that the fermentation quality of barley silage was improved by the application of bacterial inoculants. PMID:25049981

  8. Effects of adding food by-products mainly including noodle waste to total mixed ration silage on fermentation quality, feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization and ruminal fermentation in wethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kyohei; Yani, Srita; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2012-11-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the applicability of two types of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products. Four food by-products (i.e., potato waste, soy sauce cake, soybean curd residue and noodle waste) were obtained and mixed with commercial concentrate (CC) as TMR silage. The two types of TMR silage, T1 and T2, each contained CC, in addition to all by-products for T1 (TRE1), and soy sauce cake and noodle waste for T2 (TRE2) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The silage was well-fermented with low pH values and high lactic acid concentration. As the experimental treatments, T1, T2 and CC (CTL) were fed with a basal diet. The result showed that the digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) were higher for T1 than for CC (P < 0.05), while crude protein digestibility was not significantly different among T1, T2 and CC. The retained nitrogen was not affected by inclusion of food by-products. Ruminal pH in TRE1 and TRE2 immediately decreased compared to that in CTL. The study suggested that the two types of TMR silage, including food by-products, might be used as a substitute for commercial concentrate. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Effect of ambient temperature on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep fed brown-midrib maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorniak, Tobias; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine the impact of heat stress on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep fed silages differing in fibre quality. The digestibility trial was conducted at three different ambient temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C for 24 h/d). The tested brown-midrib maize (Bm) silage had a higher nutrient digestibility, except for ether extract (EE) and a higher metabolisable energy (ME) content than the control maize (Con) silage. Nitrogen (N) excretion with faeces was higher but N excretion with urine was lower for sheep fed Bm silage, subsequently N balance did not differ between the two silages. Temperature had no effect on nutrient digestibility, except for crude protein (CP), but N excretion with urine was lower at elevated temperatures. A diet by temperature interaction was found for dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility. When the ambient temperature increased from 15°C to 25°C, the DM and OM digestibility increased in animals fed Con silage, but decreased in animals fed Bm silage. Concomitantly, ME estimated from digestible nutrients was higher for Bm than for Con at 15°C, but no differences were found at 25°C and 35°C. Effects of diet by temperature interaction, furthermore, were observed for EE and CP digestibility. Therefore, forage quality has to be considered when feeding heat-stressed animals.

  10. Lessons from silage adoption studies in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Reiber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, silage adoption has been low in the tropics, particularly under smallholder conditions. Innovation and adoption processes of silage technologies were promoted in drought-constrained areas of Honduras using a flexible, site-specific and participatory research and extension approach. A total of about 250 farmers participated in training workshops and field days conducted in 13 locations. Smallholders successfully ensiled maize, sorghum and/or Pennisetum spp., mainly in heap and earth silos, while adoption of little bag silage (LBS was low. LBS proved useful as a demonstration, experimentation and learning tool. A ‘silage boom’ occurred in 5 locations, where favorable adoption conditions included the presence of demonstration farms and involvement of key innovators, lack of alternative dry season feeds, perceived benefits of silage feeding, a favorable milk market and both extension continuity and intensity. The lack of chopping equipment was the main reason for non-adoption by poor smallholders. The study showed that, when targeting production system needs and farmer demands, silage promotion can lead to significant adoption, including at smallholder level, in the tropics. This experience could contribute to an increase in effectiveness and sustainability of silage extension in similar situations elsewhere.

  11. Sugar cane tip silage with cassava agroindustry residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odnei Francisco Gargantini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effects of adding levels of 0; 5; 10; 15 and 20% of cassava natural matter, peel dried in the sun or bran scan cassava over the nutritional value of sugarcane tip silage. To reach the proposal, 36 experimental silos were used. They were weighed at closing and after 60 days of fermentation, before opening to obtain the gas and effluent losses. Samples were collected for pH determination and chemical composition. Values of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, mineral matter and total digestible nutrients were determined. There were differences between silages for all variables, except for crude protein when cassava peel or cassava bran scan was used. The pH values and effluent production were not affected by the use of the residues. However, the gas losses were lower when cassava peel was added. To improve the quality of sugar cane tip silage, it is recommended the use of cassava peel dried in the sun or cassava bran scan at the level of 20% in natural matter, upon ensilage.

  12. Study on evaluation of silage from pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit residue as livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Nisarani Kollurappa Shivakumar; Vallesha, Naglapura Chandrashekara; Awachat, Vaibhav Bhagvan; Anandan, Samireddypalli; Pal, Din Taran; Prasad, Cadaba Srinivasa

    2015-03-01

    Pineapple is a commercially important fruit crop grown in Asian and African countries. Pineapple fruit residue (PFR) accounts for more than 65% of the processed fruits, and its disposal is a major problem due to its high moisture and sugar content predisposing it to fungal growth and spoilage. Silage technique was adopted to address this problem, and the PFR silage was evaluated for its feeding value. It was observed that on 15th day, the pH of PFR silage was 4.2-4.3 and lactic acid content was 6-8% (DM basis). Combination of 4 parts leafy crown and 1 part peels/pomace was found very ideal to achieve moisture content of 65-70% and produced a good quality silage with minimum fungal count (Feeding trial in two groups of sheep with 10 numbers in each group fed total mixed ration (TMR) comprising 62% PFR/maize silage and 48% concentrate mixture (DM basis) for 75-day period did not show any adverse effects on nutrient utilization (DM, CP, NDF, ADF), serum biochemical (total protein, creatinine, urea nitrogen, SGOT, SGPT), and mineral profile (Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn) and supported a daily growth rate of 140 g. The overall performance was similar to those sheep fed TMR with maize green fodder silage. Feeding PFR silage replacing hybrid napier green fodder in two groups of cows with eight in each group showed an improvement in average daily milk yield by 3.0 lit per cow and fat content by 0.6 U fed PFR silage-based TMR as compared to cows fed hybrid napier green fodder-based TMR. In both studies (sheep or cows), there was no evidence of metabolic or health-related disorders indicating that PFR silage was effectively utilized. Pineapple fruit residue that was hitherto wasted was successfully converted to silage and was found to be a valuable alternative to conventional green fodder. Ensiling of PFR not only improved the economics of feeding but also helped in overcoming the disposal problem.

  13. Anticipación de la estación reproductiva en ovejas de la raza Churra Galega Bragançana. Inseminación artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Valentim, Ramiro; Fernandes, Mónica; Azevedo, Jorge; Mendonça, Álvaro; Almeida, José Carlos; Velasco, Helena; Simões, João; Fontes, Paulo; Maurício, Raimundo; Cardoso, Manuel; Correia, Teresa Montenegro

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo tuvo como principal objetivo evaluar la eficacia de la aplicación de dos tratamientos hormonales distintos en la anticipación de la estación reproductiva – progestágenos + eCG vs. melatonina + progestágenos + eCG –, en ovejas de la raza Churra Galega Bragançana. Adicionalmente, por primera vez en esta raza portuguesa, se valoró el uso de la técnica de inseminación artificial (IA) cervical en relación a la monta natural (MN). De acuerdo con los resultados alcanzados, a finales del...

  14. Characterization, identification and application of lactic Acid bacteria isolated from forage paddy rice silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuikui; Wang, Yanping; Li, Dongxia; Cai, Yimin; Pang, Huili

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing interest to develop forage rice as a new feed resource for livestock. This study was to characterize the natural population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and select potentially excellent strains for paddy rice silage preparation in China. One hundred and twenty-six strains were isolated and screened from paddy rice silage prepared using a small-scale fermentation system, and ninety-nine of these isolates were considered to be LAB based on their Gram-positive and catalase-negative morphology and the production of most of their metabolic products as lactic acid. These isolates were divided into eight groups (A-H) on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. The Group A to H strains were identified as Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum subsp. plantarum (species ratio: 8.1%), L. casei (5.1%), Leuconostoc (Ln.) pseudomesenteroides (11.1%), Pediococcus (P.) pentosaceus (24.2%), Enterococcus (E.) mundtii (12.1%), Lactococcus (Lc.) garvieae (15.2%), E. faecium (9.1%) and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis (15.2%) based on sequence analyses of their 16S rRNA and recA genes. P. pentosaceus was the most abundant member of the LAB population in the paddy rice silage. A selected strain, namely L. casei R 465, was found to be able to grow under low pH conditions and to improve the silage quality with low pH and a relatively high content of lactic acid. This study demonstrated that forage paddy rice silage contains abundant LAB species and its silage can be well preserved by inoculation with LAB, and that strain R 465 can be a potentially excellent inoculant for paddy rice silage.

  15. Effects of Cutting Time, Ensiling Duration and Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition of Alfalfa Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Delavar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of daytime cutting management (p.m. vs. a.m. cut, ensiling duration and adding microbial inoculants on chemical composition of alfalfa silage. For this, Second growth Alfalfa harvested at the early bud stage of development after a sunny day at sundown (about 1900 h; PM alfalfa, whereas the second half was cut next day at sunup (about 0800 h; AM alfalfa. After cutting, alfalfa Forage was chopped by using a chopper to a length of 8 to10 cm, and then ensiled without or with microbial additive as factorial experiment (2×2 with repeated measurement design. Silages were provided in laboratory silos (6 repeats in every treatment lined with two layers of plastic, after air exclusion. Silos were opened at 3, 10 and 30 day for determination of pH and other chemical analysis. The numerically lower pH of PM vs. AM silages indicates that the former forage was more extensively fermented possibly because of its increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC concentration. Shifting alfalfa harvesting from sun up to sundown significantly decreased NDF% and ADF%, because of the dilution effect associated with increased concentrations of TNC in the former forage. The NPN content and N-NH3 concentration of the silages treated in the afternoon was lower compared with AM group. CP content decreased, but NDF, ADF, NPN and N-NH3 concentration increased during ensiling time. Silage pH decreased by using of microbial additive and ensiling time. Dry matter and nitrogen losses were lower in silages treated by microbial inoculants, and, increased with increasing fermentation time. It can be concluded that microbial additives and time of cutting can be used as proper way to improve fermentation situation and silage quality.

  16. Kinnow madarin (Citrus nobilis lour × Citrus deliciosa tenora fruit waste silage as potential feed for small ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Malla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Study was conducted to ascertain the quality of Kinnow mandarin waste (KMW silage and its utilization by adult male goats. Materials and Methods: KMW was collected, dried to 30% dry matter level and ensiled in silo pit after addition of disodium hydrogen orthophosphate as source of phosphorus as KMW is deficient in phosphorus. Oat was collected at milking stage, chopped finely and ensiled in a silo pit for 2 months. Twelve nondescript local adult male goats of about 8-10 months age and mean body weight of 23.00±0.90 kg were selected. The goats were randomly allotted on body weight as per randomized block design into two equal groups, six animals in each group (n=6 namely “oat silage (OS” and “Kinnow silage.” Goats were offered weighed quantities of respective silage on ad libitum basis. The silages were evaluated for proximate principles and silage quality attributes. Results: Differences were found between chemical composition of both silages with higher organic matter, ether extracts, nitrogen free extract (p0.05 for CP and possess comparable (2.23 vs. 2.06; p>0.05 calcium content. The pH, ammonia nitrogen (percent of total nitrogen and soluble carbohydrate content were lower (4.20 vs. 3.30; 4.14 vs. 3.80; 2.73 vs. 1.86; p0.05 among the two dietary groups. Conclusion: It can be concluded that KMW can be used to prepare good quality silage for feeding of goats.

  17. Kinnow madarin (Citrus nobilis lour × Citrus deliciosa tenora) fruit waste silage as potential feed for small ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, B. A.; Rastogi, A.; Sharma, R. K.; Ishfaq, A.; Farooq, and J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Study was conducted to ascertain the quality of Kinnow mandarin waste (KMW) silage and its utilization by adult male goats. Materials and Methods: KMW was collected, dried to 30% dry matter level and ensiled in silo pit after addition of disodium hydrogen orthophosphate as source of phosphorus as KMW is deficient in phosphorus. Oat was collected at milking stage, chopped finely and ensiled in a silo pit for 2 months. Twelve nondescript local adult male goats of about 8-10 months age and mean body weight of 23.00±0.90 kg were selected. The goats were randomly allotted on body weight as per randomized block design into two equal groups, six animals in each group (n=6) namely “oat silage (OS)” and “Kinnow silage.” Goats were offered weighed quantities of respective silage on ad libitum basis. The silages were evaluated for proximate principles and silage quality attributes. Results: Differences were found between chemical composition of both silages with higher organic matter, ether extracts, nitrogen free extract (p0.05 for CP) and possess comparable (2.23 vs. 2.06; p>0.05) calcium content. The pH, ammonia nitrogen (percent of total nitrogen) and soluble carbohydrate content were lower (4.20 vs. 3.30; 4.14 vs. 3.80; 2.73 vs. 1.86; p0.05) among the two dietary groups. Conclusion: It can be concluded that KMW can be used to prepare good quality silage for feeding of goats. PMID:27046989

  18. Inhibition of Clostridium activities in silage and cheese using anticlostridial Lactobacillus Isolated from Danish semi-hard cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia

    and are of importance when selecting a mixture of the anticlostridial Lactobacillus strains for adjunct cultures to be used in silage and cheese. Heat resistance of nine anticlostridial Lb. paracasei strains was investigated using a submerged-coil apparatus. Seven of the nine strains survived pasteurisation (73¿C, 15...... of anticlostridial Lactobacillus strains in grass silage was evaluated in model scale using three different mixed adjunct cultures of anticlostridial Lb. paracasei strains. It was shown by using species specific PCR analysis that the added anticlostridial Lb. paracasei were able to grow and survive in grass silage......-hard cheeses of high quality, as protective adjunct cultures against clostridia activities in silage and cheese. Screening for anticlostridial activity among non-starter Lactobacillus isolates against selected Clostridium strains showed that almost half (44%) of the naturally occurring non...

  19. Silage of white oat under nitrogen fertilization and pre-wilting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Zamarchi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The forage conservation as silage is a way to provide good quality forage during grazing scarcity periods, in this way, the objective was to evaluate the effect of pre-wilting and nitrogen fertilization on the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of white oat silage, in two harvest stages. The experiment was conducted in 2011 at UTFPR, Dois Vizinhos-PR, Brazil. The experimental design was in a randomized blocks with two factorial arrangement and three replicates. The main treatments were six nitrogen doses: 0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg ha-1, and secondary the stages of cutting for silage: early flowering with and without pre-wilting, and at blooming without pre-wilting. It was observed that nitrogen fertilization promoted a reduction in pH and mineral content of the silage, reducing fiber content and increasing crude protein content (CP, when made at oat early flowering. The effect of pre-wilting in early flowering inhibits the production of effluents and has higher levels of CP, without any effect on the fermentation and nutritional value. The silage at blooming stage features better standards of fermentation, with lower pH and buffering capacity, but with lower nutritional value.

  20. Development of a new lactic acid bacterial inoculant for fresh rice straw silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Geun Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Effects of newly isolated Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation and chemical composition of fresh rice straw silage was evaluated in this study. Methods Lactic acid bacteria (LAB from good crop silage were screened by growing them in MRS broth and a minimal medium with low carbohydrate content. Selected LAB (LAB 1821 were Gram-positive, rods, catalase negative, and were identified to be Lactobacillus plantarum based on their biochemical characteristics and a 16S rRNA analysis. Fresh rice straw was ensiled with two isolated LAB (1821 and 1841, two commercial inoculants (HM/F and P1132 and no additive as a control. Results After 2 months of storage at ambient temperature, rice straw silages treated with additives were well-preserved, the pH values and butyric and acetic acid contents were lower, and the lactic acid content and lactic/acetic acid ratio were higher than those in the control (p0.05 effect on acid detergent fiber or neutral detergent fiber contents. Crude protein (CP content and in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD increased after inoculation of LAB 1821 (p<0.05. Conclusion LAB 1821 increased the CP, IVDMD, lactic acid content and ratio of lactic acid to acetic acid in rice straw silage and decreased the pH, acetic acid, NH3-N, and butyric acid contents. Therefore, adding LAB 1821 improved the fermentation quality and feed value of rice straw silage.

  1. The Effects of Freezing and Supplementation of Molasses and Inoculants on Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Sunflower Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konca, Y.; Beyzi, S. Buyukkilic; Ayaşan, T.; Kaliber, M.; Kiraz, A. Bozkurt

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of freezing and supplementation of molasses (M), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and LAB+enzyme mixture on chemical and nutritional composition of sunflower silage (SF). Sunflower crops were harvested (at about 29.2%±1.2% dry matter) and half of fresh sunflower was ensiled alone and half was frozen (F) at −20°C for 7 days. Silage additives were admixed into frozen SF material. All samples were ensiled in glass jars with six replicates for 90 days. The treatments were as follows: i) positive control (non-frozen and no additives, NF), ii) negative control (frozen, no additives, F), iii) F+5% molasses (FM), iv) F+LAB (1.5 g/tons, Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium, FLAB); v) F+LAB+enzyme (2 g/tons Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium and cellulase and amylase enzymes, FLEN). Freezing silage increased dry matter, crude ash, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin. The organic matter, total digestible nutrient, non-fiber carbohydrate, metabolizable energy and in vitro dry matter digestibility were negatively influenced by freezing treatments (pensiling may negatively affect silage quality, while molasses supplementation improved some quality traits of frozen silage. Lactic acid bacteria and LAB+enzyme inoculations did not effectively compensate the negative impacts of freezing on sunflower silage. PMID:26954197

  2. Determination of the Use of Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii Application on Fermentation Profile and Chemical Composition of Corn Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norafizah Abdul Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn was inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii either independently or as a mixture at ensiling, in order to determine the effect of bacterial additives on corn silage quality. Grain corn was harvested at 32–37% of dry matter and ensiled in a 4 L laboratory silo. Forage was treated as follows: bacterial types: B0 (without bacteria-control, B1 (L. plantarum, B2 (P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, and B3 (combination of L. plantarum and P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii. Each 2 kg of chopped forage was treated with 10 mL of bacterial culture and allowed to ferment for 27 days. The first experiment determined the most suitable wavelength for detection of bacteria (490 nm and 419 nm for B1 and B2, resp. and the preferable inoculation size (1 × 105 cfu/g. The second experiment analysed the effect of B1 and B2 applied singly or as a mixture on the fermentation characteristics and quality of corn silage. L. plantarum alone increased crude protein (CP and reduced pH rapidly. In a mixture with P. freudenreichii, the final pH was the lowest compared to other treatments. As a mixture, inclusion of bacteria resulted in silage with lower digestibility than control. Corn silage treated with L. plantarum or P. freudenreichii either alone or mixed together produced desirable silage properties; however, this was not significantly better than untreated silage.

  3. Effects of graded levels of liquid brewer's yeast on chemical composition and fermentation quality in cassava pulp and rice straw-based total mixed ration silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphayae, Sukanya; Kumagai, Hajime; Bureenok, Smerjai; Narmseelee, Ramphrai; Butcha, Patima

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of liquid brewer's yeast (LBY) addition on chemical composition and fermentation quality of mixture of LBY and cassava pulp (CVP) with rice straw (RS) in different ratios during preservation periods. Four mixtures of LBY, CVP and RS were made, that is mixture ratio of LBY : CVP : RS of 0% LBY, 20% LBY, 35% LBY and 50% LBY were 0:70:30, 20:50:30, 35:35:30 and 50:20:30 as fresh matter, respectively. The bags were opened at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 after storage. The contents of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber ranged 36.4-40.0, 88.9-90.8, 4.0-12.0, 1.1-1.3, 58.8-61.6 and 37.6-40.0, respectively, and the contents of CP and EE increased and the other components decreased in proportion to LBY inclusion (P butyric acid contents were 0.01% or lower in each mixture and storage period. There were rapid pH decrease and NH 3 -N/TN increase during the first week of the storage period. The increases of NH 3 -N/TN and acetic acid content and decreases of pH, lactic acid content and V-score during the preservation were more drastic as LBY inclusion increased. Although higher proportion of LBY produced higher CP and lower fiber contents in the mixture, attention should be paid for the reduction of fermentation quality during longer storage periods. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Effects of sodium diacetate on the fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, XianJun; Wen, AiYou; Desta, Seare T.; Wang, Jian; Shao, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium diacetate (SDA) on fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage. Methods Fresh alfalfa was ensiled with various concentrations of SDA (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 g/kg of fresh forage). After 60 days of the ensiling, the samples were collected to examine the fermentative quality, chemical composition and aerobic stability. Results The application of SDA significantly (pensiling. Alfalfa silages treated with SDA at 7 g/kg had highest Flieg’s point and remained stable more than 9 d during aerobic exposure under humid and hot conditions in southern China. Conclusion SDA may be used as an additive for alfalfa silages at a level of 7 g/kg. PMID:28111451

  5. Synergistic action of enzyme preparations towards recalcitrant corn silage polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumüller, K.G.; Streekstra, H.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Corn silage, its water unextractable solids (WUS) and enzyme recalcitrant solids (ErCS) and an industrial corn silage-based anaerobic fermentation residue (AFR) represent corn substrates with different levels of recalcitrance. Compositional analysis reveals different levels of arabinoxylan

  6. Silage fermentation attributes and certain rumen parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neither species nor maturity stage had a significant effect on silage ammonia nitrogen, or lactic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. For P. maximum silage total N was higher at full bloom than at the boot stage. D. eriantha had a higher total nitrogen content than P. maximum silage at the boot stage. Rumen pH was lower ...

  7. Short communication. Effects of adding different protein and carbohydrates sources on chemical composition and in vitro gas production of corn stover silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Mejía-Uribe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of protein-rich by-products based in swine manure (SM, poultry waste (PW or chemicals compounds as urea (U, as well as energy products like molasses (M and bakery by-product (BB, is a viable method to produce good quality silage. In addition, the use of a bacterial additive can improve the fermentation characteristics of silage. The objective of this study was to determine chemical composition, in vitro gas production (GP and dry matter disappearance (DMd, using different sources of protein and energy in silage. The silages were made using SM, PW or U as protein sources and M or BB as energy source, with corn stover and with or without a bacterial additive. The organic matter (OM content was higher (p < 0.001 in silages with UBB, UM and SMBB compared with the rest of the treatments; meanwhile crude protein content was higher (p < 0.001 in silages with U. The addition of a bacterial additive increased (p < 0.05 OM content and decreased (p < 0.05 fiber content. Total GP was higher (p < 0.05 in silages containing BB, but DMd was higher (p < 0.05 in silages with U and SMBB. The inclusion of a bacterial additive decreased (p < 0.05 GP and DMd. The use of alternative sources of protein such as poultry and swine manure or urea, and of by-products of sugar industry and bakery is an alternative for silages based on corn stover. The results show that when properly formulated, the silages can provide more than 16% of crude protein and have DMd values above 60%.

  8. A Compound Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Packing Density and Moisture Content of Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Delun; Meng, Fanjia; Sun, Wei; Deng, Shuang

    2017-12-28

    Packing density and moisture content are important factors in investigating the ensiling quality. Low packing density is a major cause of loss of sugar content. The moisture content also plays a determinant role in biomass degradation. To comprehensively evaluate the ensiling quality, this study focused on developing a compound sensor. In it, moisture electrodes and strain gauges were embedded into an ASABE Standard small cone for the simultaneous measurements of the penetration resistance (PR) and moisture content (MC) of silage. In order to evaluate the performance of the designed sensor and the theoretical analysis being used, relevant calibration and validation tests were conducted. The determination coefficients are 0.996 and 0.992 for PR calibration and 0.934 for MC calibration. The validation indicated that this measurement technique could determine the packing density and moisture content of the silage simultaneously and eliminate the influence of the friction between the penetration shaft and silage. In this study, we not only design a compound sensor but also provide an alternative way to investigate the ensiling quality which would be useful for further silage research.

  9. Replacing alfalfa silage with tannin-containing birdsfoot trefoil silage in total mixed rations for lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lactation trials were conducted to assess the feeding value of silage made from populations of birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) that had been selected for low (BFTL), medium (BFTM), and high (BFTH) levels of condensed tannins (CT). These silages were compared to an alfalfa silage (...

  10. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis, and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively: a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw, a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake, and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage. The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10 to increase the average daily gain (27% and feed efficiency (18% of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05. Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1+ and 1++ appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups. In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle.

  11. Recent information on nutritive values of maize silage and its importance in beef cattle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the latest scientific accomplishments in selection of silage hybrids with a special regard to digestibility as a quality parameter of the maize plant. The most important quality parameters, necessary in silage maize hybrid selection with the aim of completely defining their nutritive values, are presented in the case of the most demanded MRI hybrids of all maturity groups and encompass the following: the whole plant DM yield, the share of ears in DM yield, NDF, ADF and ADL content, and especially in vitro DM digestibility according to the Tilley and Terry method. Hybrids can be compared by the use of the exact values for the stated criteria and at the same time it is possible to make actual recommendations for certain production. The importance of the whole maize plant silage is manifested in beef cattle feeding, as the use of 3-12 kg silage day-1 with the appropriate feed concentrate significantly contributes to the more economic production of beef for which the demand in our country is realistic.

  12. Effect of inclusion of citrus pulp inxaraés grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnior Issamu Yasuoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of different levels of pelleted citrus pulp (PCP on the quality of xaraés grass silage. Xaraés grass was ensiled at 54 days of growth with 0, 10, 20 and 30% PCP and divided into 20 experimental silos (five repetitions/treatment. A completely randomized design was adopted. The silos were opened after 67 days for the determination of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, pH, and titratable acidity of the silages. The inclusion of PCP did not influence DM content, but reduced CP content. NDF and ADF content decreased with the addition of citrus pulp. Regarding pH, a significant difference was only observed for the inclusion of 30% PCP. Titratable acidity in the silage was lower in the absence of PCP (0% compared to the treatment with 30% (P<0.05. The inclusion of 30% PCP in xaraés grass silage is indicated since it improves the quality of the fibrous fraction, while maintaining acceptable pH values.

  13. Efeito da adição de níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica sobre a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante Effect of increasing levels of citrus pulp on the fermentation quality and nutritive value of elephantgrass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2005-08-01

    taken for the analysis of silages organic acids and chemical components. Silage dry matter concentration increased linearly with level of citrus pulp. The same effect was observed for the water soluble carbohydrate concentration and the "in vitro" dry matter digestibility. However, ammoniacal nitrogen and neutral detergent fiber levels decreased linearly with citrus pulp addition. The response was quadratic for organic acids (acetic, lactic and butyric and ethanol. The maximum point for lactic acid was observed with 5.8% and the minimal point for acetic, butyric and ethanol was observed with 7.8%, 7.2% and - 3.7% of citrus pulp inclusion, respectively. Citrus pulp did influence neither pH, nor lignin and propionic acid levels. Inclusions of 4.7 to 7.6% of citrus pulp (fresh matter basis are enough to improve the elephantgrass silage quality.

  14. Determination of gross energy of silages

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    G. Meineri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The gross energy (GE of forage is not directly used in rationing systems, but its evaluation is the starting point for an estimate of the digestible, metabolisable and net energy. As far as grass silages are concerned, their GE is 4 to 10% higher that of the grass source.

  15. Fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of silage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    silage made from different ratios of cattle manure and maize residues were investigated. Manure (fresh) ... mixtures were analysed for: in vitro dry matter digestibility,. aCid-detergent fibre, neutral-detergent fibre, ... discovery that it was readily consumed and used by cattle after it had been ensiled with ground hay in a ratio of ...

  16. Qualidade bromatológica das silagens de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. aditivadas com raspa de batata Bromatologic quality of sugarcane (Sacharum officinarum L. silages added with potato scrapings

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    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A raspa de batata foi misturada à cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. na ensilagem. A colheita da cana-de-açúcar de ano foi realizada manualmente a uma altura de 10 cm da superfície do solo. As misturas cana-de-açúcar e raspa de batata foram feitas nas seguintes proporções de matéria natural: 100 e 0%, 93 e 7%; 86 e 14%; 79 e 21%; 72 e 28% de cana-de-açúcar e raspa de batata, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As plantas foram picadas em partículas de 2,0 a 3,0 cm de tamanho, ensiladas por 30 dias, em silos de "PVC" de dez centímetros de diâmetro e quarenta centímetros de altura. Foram avaliadas as porcentagens de matéria seca (MS, valores de pH, perda de gases, perda de efluentes, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. As silagens de cana-de-açúcar aditivadas com raspa de batata apresentaram maiores porcentagens de MS, PB, valores de pH e DIVMS e menor porcentagem de perda de gases, perda de efluentes, FDN e FDA na matéria seca com o aumento dos níveis de substituição. Conclui-se que raspa de batata seca moída adicionada à cana-de-açúcar na ensilagem melhorou as características químicas e nutricionais das silagens.Potato scrapings were mixed with sugarcane (Sacharum officinarum L. in the silage. Sugarcane was havested manually after a leveling cut had been done at a height of 10 cm from the soil surface. The mixtures of sugarcane and potato scrapings were made in the following ratios of natural matter: 100% and 0%; 93% and 7%; 86% and 14%; 79% and 21%; and 72% and 28% of sugarcane and potato scrapings, respectively. The plants were chopped into 2-3 cm particles and ensiled for 30 days in 10 cm wide x 40 cm high "PVC" silos. The following variables of the silage were evaluated: percentage of dry matter (DM, pH values, gas lossses

  17. Biogas from grass silage - Measurements and modeling with ADM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Konrad; Lübken, Manfred; Gehring, Tito; Wichern, Marc; Horn, Harald

    2010-11-01

    Mono fermentation of grass silage without the addition of manure was performed over a period of 345days under mesophilic conditions (38 degrees C). A simulation study based on the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was done in order to show its applicability to lignocellulosic biomass. Therefore, the influent was fractioned by established fodder analysis (Weender analysis and van Soest method). ADM1 was modified with a separate compound of inert decay products similar to the approach of Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1). Furthermore, a function, which described the influence of solids on the process of hydrolysis, has been integrated to reproduce reliable ammonium concentrations. The model was calibrated by using the modified Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient to evaluate simulation quality. It was possible to fit observed data by changing only hydrogen inhibition constants and the maximum acetate uptake rate. The extended ADM1 model showed good agreement with measurements and was suitable for modeling anaerobic digestion of grass silage. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Modern Diagnostic Methods for Technological Discipline Assessment of Maize Silage

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    Gálik Roman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the analysis of compliance with the technological discipline in silage quality assessment based on sampling the silage wall using thermal imaging and penetrometer method for silage compaction. Experimental measurements were done in a selected company, which has built a silage trough with a capacity of 6,624 m3, in which the maize (hybrid KWS – KALIFF FAO 440 with a 36% solids content was ensiled. A thermal camera ThermoPro TM TP8S IR and cone penetrometer Eijkelkamp were used for measurements. The results obtained suggest that also undesirable heating was found in the sampling area, since the maximum temperature at some places in the depth of 0.5 m reached a temperature of 36.4 °C. According to regression and correlation analysis, we found direct linear relationship between penetration resistance and penetration depth in a 6 m and 1.5 m height (R = 0.938 respectively R = 0.970.

  19. Dynamics of change in fermentation and fatty acid profiles in high moisture alfalfa silage during ensiling at different temperatures

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    Qinhua Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of present study was to investigate the dynamics of change in fermentation and fatty acid profiles in high moisture (DM=232g/kg FW alfalfa silages during ensiling at 45°C, 30°C and 15°C. After ensiling for 1, 3, 7, 21, 39 and 65 days, silages was sampled and examined. Lactic fermentation changing into butyric fermentation in silage ensiled at 30°C and 45°C occurred on ensiling for 21 and 65 days, respectively, as accompanied with high ammonia-N content ( >150g/kg N, which subsequently resulted in a sudden increase of pH (P < 0.05. In contrast, the increase of lactic acid content was observed in silage ensiled at 15°C during ensiling for 65 days (P<0.05. As the ensiling temperature rose, considerable losses in total FA, C18:2n6 and C18:3n3 increased after ensiling for 1 day as compared with alfalfa before ensiling (P < 0.05 mainly due to thermolability of polyunsaturated FA and multiplication of lactic acid bacteria. Contents of total FA, C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 fluctuated in silage stored at 30°C and 45°C during ensiling from 3 to 65 days (P < 0.05, but decreased at 15°C due to the intervention of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and lipoxygenase. Therefore, after ensiling for 65 days, high moisture alfalfa silage ensiling at 15°C had better fermentation quality than at 30°C and 45°C. Temperature had significant influence on dynamics of change in FA profile in alfalfa silage during ensiling.

  20. Qualidade da silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. emurchecido ou acrescido de farelo de mandioca Quality of elephantgrass silage (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. wilted or adding cassava meal

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    Evaldo Ferrari Júnior

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento para avaliar a silagem de capim-elefante cv. Taiwan A-146, submetida a seis tratamentos e quatro repetições: A - capim-elefante emurchecido ao sol por 8 horas; B - capim-elefante sem emurchecimento; C - capim-elefante (98% mais farelo de mandioca (2%; D - capim-elefante (96% mais farelo de mandioca (4%; E - capim-elefante (92% mais farelo de mandioca (8% e F - capim-elefante (88% mais farelo de mandioca (12%. A adição de 12% de farelo de mandioca mostrou-se mais eficiente que o emurchecimento em aumentar o teor de matéria seca da silagem. A adição de farelo de mandioca promoveu decréscimo no teor de proteína bruta, matéria orgânica, fibra em detergente neutro e hemicelulose de forma linear, porém aumentou os teores de extrativo não nitrogenado, matéria mineral e carboidratos solúveis das silagens. Os teores de ácido lático mostraram-se baixos, indicando que o farelo de mandioca não foi utilizado de forma eficiente pelos lactobacilos. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre as porcentagens dos ácidos acético, propiônico, butírico e lático nas silagens. O emurchecimento e a adição de farelo de mandioca podem ser utilizados como alternativas para aumentar o teor de matéria seca da silagem.Silage evaluation of elephantgrass cv. Taiwan A146 was done at Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia - UNESP-Botucatu. Six treatments were used with four replications as follows: A - elephantgrass with eight hours of wilting under the sun; B - elephantgrass; C - elephantgrass (98% plus cassava meal (2%; D - elephantgrass (96% plus cassava meal (4%; E - elephantgrass (92% plus cassava meal (8%; F - elephantgrass (88% plus cassava meal (12%. The efficiency meal (12% was greater than wilting in increasing total dry matter content. The addition of cassava led to a linear decrease in CP, OM, NDF and hemicellulose content, at the same time it increased the NFE, ASH and soluble carbohidrates

  1. Calidad y nuevas tecnologías como ejes del proceso de modernización de la Administración pública: el enfoque integrado de la Escola Galega de Administración Pública

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    Moneyba González Medina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En la última década, se ha ido configurando un marco normativo y político que pone el acento en la introducción de sistemas de calidad y el uso intensivo de las TIC en la gestión pública, convirtiéndolas en dos líneas de transformación clave de los procesos de modernización administrativa en un contexto de gobernanza. Por ello, con el objetivo de adaptarse a las necesidades de una sociedad abierta y compleja, la Escola Galega de Administración Pública ha puesto en marcha una estrategia de modernización a partir de un enfoque integrado en el que las dimensiones de calidad e introducción de las nuevas tecnologías se refuerzan mutuamente, convirtiéndose en los ejes de cambio de su modelo de gestión. Así, se describirá cómo la combinación de estas dos dimensiones se encuentra presente en cada uno de los proyectos a través de los que la EGAP despliega dicha estrategia, contribuyendo, desde una orientación hacia la mejora continua, no sólo a la satisfacción de las expectativas de sus usuarios/as y a la provisión de servicios de máxima calidad, sino también a un proceso más amplio de transformación hacia una Administración pública más transparente, participativa, responsable y eficiente. Over the last decade a new political and regulatory framework has taken shape emphasizing the introduction of quality systems and intensive usage of ICT in the public management sector. These two concepts are key in the process of modernizing public administration within the context of governance. In response to an open society and it´s complex needs, the Galician School of Public Administration has launched a new strategy to modernize management in the public sector. This strategy focuses on the alignment of new technologies and quality procedures that become the axis on which change management models are developed. It will be described how the combination of these two key concepts can be found in every single project launched by the

  2. Avaliação da qualidade nutricional da silagem de cana-de-açúcar com aditivos microbianos e enriquecida com resíduo da colheita de soja Evaluation of the nutritional quality of sugarcane silage treated with microbial additives and soybean crop residue

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    Acyr Wanderley de Paula Freitas

    2006-02-01

    soybean crop residue based on sugarcane fresh weight. The variety RB855536 harvested at 16 months of age was used in a completely randomized design with tree repetitions. Addition of soybean crop residue reduced 33% of DM losses and 60% of ammonia-N (% total N although final silage pH increased. Use of inoculants reduced silage pH only in association with soybean crop residue with no significant effects on the remaining variables. For all treatments, silages had higher contents of fiber and lower DM levels than the material before ensiling. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD was significantly higher (P<0.05 on treatments with soybean crop residue compared to the other treatments. Moreover, compared with the material used for ensiling, reduction in digestibility was higher for treatments without soybean crop residue (24.3% vs. 9.3%. Combination of soybean crop residue with sugarcane improved nutritional quality and reduced DM and soluble carbohydrates losses, mainly in the form of gases, diluting the proportion of cell wall components and preventing losses in forage IVDMD. The use of the inoculants L. plantarum and L. buchneri during ensiling of sugarcane is not recommended because no improvement was observed on the chemical composition or fermentation profile of silages.

  3. Qualidade das silagens de três híbridos de sorgo ensilados em cinco diferentes estádios de maturação Silage quality of three hybrids of sorghum ensiled at five different maturation stages

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    V.L. Araújo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as silagens de três híbridos de sorgo de média altura (BR700, BR701 e MASSA 03. Os híbridos foram cortados em cinco diferentes estádios de maturação. Foram avaliados os teores de matéria seca total, pH, teores de nitrogênio amoniacal em porcentagem de nitrogênio total, porcentagem de proteína bruta, frações fibrosas, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca e teores de ácidos orgânicos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos inteiramente ao acaso com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 5x3 (estádio de maturação ´ híbrido. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste SNK (PThree hybrids of sorghum with medium height (BR700, BR701 e MASSA 03 for silage production were evaluated. Hybrids were harvest at five different maturation stages. Dry matter content, pH, ammonia nitrogen, crude protein, fibrous fractions, in vitro dry matter digestibility and organic acids were determined in silage. A completely randomized block design with three replicates was used. The treatments consisted in a factorial arrangement 5x3 (maturation stages x hybrids. The means were compared by SNK test (P<0.05. Dry matter content and pH values increased with the maturation stage; pH values were always lower than 4.09. No effects of maturation stage of the plant on ammonia nitrogen, fibrous fractions and in vitro dry matter digestibility were found. Organic acids contents suggested that the fermentation inside the silo was enough for preservation of the forage.

  4. Characterization of silage made from sweet potato vines using corn meal as additive

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    A. A. Corrêa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the fermentative and nutritional characteristics of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas vine silage using different levels of corn meal as additive. A completely randomized design consisting of seven levels of the additive (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% corn meal and four replicates was used, totaling 28 laboratory mini-silos (experimental units. The different levels of additive in sweet potato vine silage exerted quadratic effects on the content of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent insoluble protein (NDIP, acid detergent insoluble protein (ADIP, and total carbohydrates. There was an increase in DM content with inclusion of the additive and CP was reduced from 11.23% (no additive to 9.46% (30% additive in sweet potato vine silage. NDIP and ADIP content was lower in sweet potato vine silage containing 30% additive (1.15% and 0.70%, respectively. No significant differences in organic matter, ashes, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, or total digestible nutrients were observed between the different levels of additive. Regarding fermentative parameters, a quadratic effect of sweet potato vine silage containing different additive levels was observed on pH, ammoniacal nitrogen as a percentage of total nitrogen [N-NH3 (%NT], and losses from gases and effluent. A lower pH was observed at a level of the additive of 15% (3.31 and higher values at levels of 20%, 25% and 30% (3.88, 3.89 and 3.88, respectively. The  N-NH3 values (%NT ranged from 2.84% (no additive to 3.59% (15% additive, and the lowest loss from gases and effluents was 2.38% DM and 199 kg/t in sweet potato vine silages containing 30% and 10% additive, respectively. Sweet potato vine is a good-quality roughage alternative that can be stored as silage, as along as a water-absorbing additive such as corn meal is used at a level no less than 20%.

  5. A simple method for determining maize silage density on farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Krüger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several methodologies have been tested to evaluate silage density, with direct methods most popular, whereas indirect methods that can be used under field conditions are still in development and improvement stages. This study aimed to establish relationships between estimates of maize silage density determined using a direct and an indirect method, in an endeavor to provide an alternative to direct measurement for use in the field. Measurements were performed on maize silage in 14 silos. The direct method involved the use of a metal cylinder with a saw-tooth cutting edge attached to a chainsaw to extract a core of silage. Density of the silage was determined taking into consideration the cylinder volume and dry matter weight of silage removed at 5 points on the silage face. With the indirect method, a digital penetrometer was used to estimate silage density by measuring the penetration resistance at 2 points adjacent to the spots where the silage cores were taken, i.e. 10 readings per silo. Values of penetration resistance (measured in MPa were correlated with the values of silage mass (kg/m3 obtained by direct measurement through polynomial regression analysis. A positive quadratic relationship was observed between penetration resistance and silage density for both natural matter and dry matter (R² = 0.57 and R² = 0.80, respectively, showing that the penetrometer was a reasonably reliable and simple indirect method to determine the density of dry matter in maize silage. Further testing of the machine on other silos is needed to verify these results. Keywords: Ensiled matter, penetrometer, resistance, silos evaluation.

  6. Consórcio capim-braquiária e soja, produtividade das culturas e características qualitativas das silagens Intercropping of signal grass and soybean: productive performance of the crops and nutritional characteristics and quality of silage

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    Fernando de Paula Leonel

    2008-11-01

    evaluate the culture of signal grass and soybean intercropping or in single cultures on the production of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP and total digestible nutrients (TDN per ha. It was evaluate, also, contents of CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, lignin (LIG, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, NDT, butyric acid and lactic acid, ammonia nitrogen, the content of DM and pH of these silage cultures harvested in two phenological stages (R6 and R7 of the soybean plants. The production of DM was greater in signal grass in single culture, regardless of the vegetative stage. The DM content of signal grass silage in single culture was low in both vegetative stages (19.55 and 19.49%. In silages from signal grass and soybean intercropping and soybean in single culture, the content of DM was higher in the R7 vegetative stage. Regardless of the vegetative stage, soybean in single culture produced higher content of CP, NFC, LIG, TDN and higher amount of CP, followed by signal grass and soybean intercropping and signal grass in single culture, which showed inverse behavior for NDF content. The amount of TDN obtained in signal grass and soybean intercropping and soybean in single culture increased from the R6 to R7 vegetative stage, whereas in signal grass in single culture, decreased with advancing of the crop maturities. In all silages, harvested in the two vegetation stages, the values of pH and butyric acid were high and the values of lactic acid were low. In the R7 stage, ammonia nitrogen level of the silages was lower than the R6. It is feasible to use the signal grass and soybean intercropping for silage production, being recommended to harvesting the crops in R7 vegetative stage of the soybean plants.

  7. Subclinical Ketosis on Dairy Cows in Transition Period in Farms with Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents in Silages

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    Fernando Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2=0.56; P<0.05. As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake.

  8. Subclinical ketosis on dairy cows in transition period in farms with contrasting butyric acid contents in silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Fernando; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2=0.56; P<0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake).

  9. Feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in goats fed whole corn plant silage and Napier grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaing, K.T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage and inconsistent quality of forage in developing countries are the major constraints to the development of ruminant sector. To overcome these problems, feeding of ruminants with conserved forages is an important feeding strategy to ensure the success of ruminant production in the third world countries. The use of whole corn plant as silage has drawn many attention due to high protein efficiency, relatively high digestible energy and total digestible nutrients. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine feed intake, growth performance and nutrients digestibility in goats fed different inclusion level of whole corn plant silage to Napier grass based diets. Fifteen male Boer cross goats around six months old and approximately 18.54 ? 1.83 kg of body weight were used as experimental animals. The goats were assigned into five treatment groups consisted of different proportions of Napier grass (G and whole plant corn silage (CS ?T1:100/0 G/CS; T2:75/25 G/CS; T3:50/50 G/CS; T4:25/75 G/CS and T5:0/100 G/CS. The increase of corn silage to Napier grass proportion demonstrates increase in dry matter intake and growth performance in the goats. The highest nutrient digestibility was observed in T5:0/100 G/CS and T3:50/50 G/CS. It can be concluded that high proportion of corn silage to grass diets had resulted in increases in feed intake and growth performance of goats. Feeding the animals with T5 and T3 resulted in high nutrient utilization compared to other treatments. However, the highest growth performance was observed in animals that were fed with T5 diets.

  10. Ensiling Characteristics and the Nutrient Degradability of a By-product Feed-based Silage

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    Y. I. Kim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the ensiling characteristics and the in situ degradability of a by-product feed (BF-based silage. Before ensilation, the BF-based mixture was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial inoculant on a wet basis and ensiled for up to 4 weeks. The BF-based silage contained on average 39.3% moisture, 13.4% crude protein (CP, and 52.2% neutral detergent fiber (NDF, 49% total digestible nutrient, and 37.8% physically effective NDF1.18 on a dry matter (DM basis. Ensiling the BF-based silage for up to 4 weeks affected (p<0.01 the chemical composition to a small extent, increased (p<0.05 the lactic acid and NH3-N content, and decreased (p<0.05 both the total bacterial and lactic acid bacterial counts from 109 to 108 cfu/g when compared to that before ensiling. These parameters indicated that the silage was fermented and stored well during the 4-week ensiling period. Compared with rice or ryegrass straws, the BF-based silage had a higher (p<0.05 water-soluble and filterable fraction, a lower insoluble degradable DM and CP fraction (p<0.05, a lower digestible NDF (p<0.05 fraction, a higher (p<0.05 DM and CP disappearance and degradability rate, and a lower (p<0.05 NDF disappearance and degradability rate. These results indicated that cheap, good-quality BF-based roughage could be produced by ensiling SMS, RPB, rice bran, and a minimal amount of straw.

  11. Determination of the Use ofLactobacillus plantarumandPropionibacterium freudenreichiiApplication on Fermentation Profile and Chemical Composition of Corn Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahman, Norafizah; Abd Halim, Mohd Ridzwan; Mahawi, Noraniza; Hasnudin, Hazira; Al-Obaidi, Jameel R; Abdullah, Norhani

    2017-01-01

    Corn was inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii either independently or as a mixture at ensiling, in order to determine the effect of bacterial additives on corn silage quality. Grain corn was harvested at 32-37% of dry matter and ensiled in a 4 L laboratory silo. Forage was treated as follows: bacterial types: B0 (without bacteria-control), B1 (L. plantarum) , B2 ( P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii ), and B3 (combination of L. plantarum and P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii ). Each 2 kg of chopped forage was treated with 10 mL of bacterial culture and allowed to ferment for 27 days. The first experiment determined the most suitable wavelength for detection of bacteria (490 nm and 419 nm for B1 and B2, resp.) and the preferable inoculation size (1 × 10 5  cfu/g). The second experiment analysed the effect of B1 and B2 applied singly or as a mixture on the fermentation characteristics and quality of corn silage. L. plantarum alone increased crude protein (CP) and reduced pH rapidly. In a mixture with P. freudenreichii , the final pH was the lowest compared to other treatments. As a mixture, inclusion of bacteria resulted in silage with lower digestibility than control. Corn silage treated with L. plantarum or P. freudenreichii either alone or mixed together produced desirable silage properties; however, this was not significantly better than untreated silage.

  12. Propanol in maize silage at Danish dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence maize silage containing propanol, the seasonal variation in propanol content of maize silage, and correlations between propanol and other fermentation products in maize silage collected from 20 randomly selected Danish dairy farms...... farms, the maize silage had ≥5 g propanol/kg DM. The present study indicates that dairy cows in Denmark are commonly exposed to propanol and that approximately 20% of the dairy cows will have an intake in the range of 75-100 g propanol/d under common feeding conditions....

  13. Effect of digestibility of grass-clover silage and concentrate to forage ratio on methane emission from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    the principles for indirect calorimetry The air flow was measured continuously, and the concentration of methane, oxygen and carbon dioxide were measured in ingoing and outgoing air from the chambers every twelve and half minute. The cows were milked and feed twice daily, and yield and intake were registered......That methane emission from dairy cows is affected by concentrate to forage ratio is well known, whereas the effect of the quality of grass-clover silage is not well described. Besides this the purpose of the present study also was to test our new facilities for measuring methane emission from dairy...... and D, respectively. TMR forage DM consisted of 2/3 of one of the respective grass-clover silages and 1/3 maize silage, and concentrate (soya meal and wheat) proportion of DM was 20% (low) or 50% (high). Methane emissions from the cows were measured 20-22 hours in one of four chambers working after...

  14. Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

  15. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  16. Mechanically processed corn silage digestibility and intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Franco da Silveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry matter content increase due to the extension of the harversted period beginning and the kind of hybrid used can affect the starch digestibility and voluntary intake of ruminants. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the best corn hybrid and processing type of silage corn, and evaluate the possible effects on starch digestibility and voluntary intake of lambs. It was used 24 Santa Inês lambs with average age of three months and average initial weight of 25.0 kg. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2 factorial design (dent and flint hybrids; crushed and not crushed. The processing of the dent hybrid resulted in less dry matter intake (0.583 kg/day associated to higher total digestibility of dry matter and starch, 68.21 and 95.33% respectively. Thus, the processing of corn plants used for silage should be performed on hybrids with the dent grain texture to provide the best digestibility of silage to lambs.

  17. Effect of temperature and duration of ensiling on in vitro degradation of maize silages in rumen fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.; Cone, J.W.; Khan, N.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of ensiling temperature and duration of ensiling on the feeding quality of whole-crop maize (Zea mays L.) silages were investigated. Samples of one cultivar of maize plants were collected from two different fields, grown in different years on sandy soils. Samples were collected when the

  18. Natural lactic acid bacteria population of tropical grasses and their fermentation factor analysis of silage prepared with cellulase and inoculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khota, Waroon; Pholsen, Suradej; Higgs, David; Cai, Yimin

    2016-12-01

    Natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations in tropical grasses and their fermentation characteristics on silage prepared with cellulase enzyme and LAB inoculants were studied. A commercial inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso 1 (CH), a local selected strain Lactobacillus casei TH14 (TH14), and 2 cellulases, Acremonium cellulase (AC) and Maicelase (MC; Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), were used as additives to silage preparation with fresh and wilted (6 h) Guinea grass and Napier grass. Silage was prepared using a laboratory-scale fermentation system. Treatments were CH, TH14, AC at 0.01% fresh matter, AC 0.1%, MC 0.01%, MC 0.1%, CH+AC 0.01%, CH+AC 0.1%, CH+MC 0.01%, CH+MC 0.1%, TH14+AC 0.1%, TH14+AC 0.01%, TH14+MC 0.1%, and TH14+MC 0.01%. Microorganism counts of Guinea grass and Napier grass before ensiling were 10 2 LAB and 10 6 aerobic bacteria; these increased during wilting. Based on morphological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, natural strains from both grasses were identified as L. plantarum, L. casei, Lactobacillus acidipiscis, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc garlicum, Weissella confusa, and Lactococcus lactis. Lactobacillus plantarum and L. casei are the dominant species and could grow at lower pH and produce more lactic acid than the other isolates. Crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were 5.8 and 83.7% of dry matter (DM) for Guinea grass, and 7.5 and 77.1% of DM for Napier grass. Guinea grass had a low level of water-soluble carbohydrates (0.39% of DM). Guinea grass silage treated with cellulase had a lower pH and higher lactic acid content than control and LAB treatments. The 0.1% AC and MC treatments had the best result for fermentation quality. All high water-soluble carbohydrate (2.38% DM) Napier grass silages showed good fermentation quality. Compared with control and LAB-inoculated silage, the cellulase-treated silages had significantly higher crude protein content and

  19. Evaluation of silage diets offered to reindeer calves intended for slaughter. I. Feeding of silage and barley from September to March

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment involving 75 male reindeer calves (mean initial live weight 39.6 kg, SD=3.7 intended for slaughter was undertaken to study the effect of proporrion of barley to silage in the diets on animal performance. The calves were alloted to five groups including one group slaughtered at the start of the experiment in September. The remaining groups were offered diets containing either, 30% (LB, or 60% (HB rolled barley, based on the dry matter (DM content, until slaughter in November (LB and HB or in March (HB. The silage (43% DM was made from the primary growth of a predominantly grass sward preserved as plastic-wrapped big bales. Small amounts of lichens were mixed with the rations during rhe first two weeks of the experiment and the calves adapted well to the experimental diets. However, health problems and deaths occurred on borh rarions after five weeks of feeding. Since the animals fed the LB diet lost live weight and condition the experimental feeding of these calves were interrupted at the slaughter in November. Calves fed the LB diet had significantly lower daily DM intake (P<0.01. They also had lower live weighr gain (not significant, greater losses of carcass weight and fat in the abdominal cavity relative to those offered the HB diet. During the second period of the study the remaining animals offered the HB diet showed no signs of ill-health and increased live weight, carcass weighr, and fat in the abdominal cavity. The results of the presenr experiment indicate that when silage of the investigated quality is fed to reindeer calves rhe proportion of silage should not exceed 40% of the DM.

  20. Use of calcium and boron in the production of grain and sunflower silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Newton Martin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Boron and calcium are related to many physiological processes of the plant, which are affected by its deficiency, such as sugar transport, synthesis and cell wall structure, carbohydrate metabolism and plasma membrane integrity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of boron and calcium application via leaf and soil on the yield components in silage quality and content of macronutrients in leaves of sunflower. The experiment was conducted at Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR, Campus Dois Vizinhos, from September 2008 to April 2009, in a randomized block design with four replications, using the genotype Agrobel - La Tijereta. Morphological characteristics of the plants, the yield components (grain yield and weight of hundred grains, silage quality and content of nutrient uptake were evaluated. The sunflower crop did not respond to application of boron and calcium, to effects on yield components in silage quality and content of nutrients absorbed by plants. However, it was found increases in the partition dry grain and plant height.

  1. Colour of fat, and colour, fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of muscle from heifers offered alternative forages to grass silage in a finishing ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, A P; Mooney, M T; Kerry, J P; Stanton, C; O'Kiely, P

    2013-11-01

    The effect of type of silage offered to beef heifers during the finishing period on aspects of beef quality was determined. In two experiments, a diet based on grass silage (GS) was compared with a diet based on maize silage (MS) or whole-crop wheat silage (WCW). Compared to the GS-based diet, increasing the amount of MS linearly increased fat whiteness while the increase in fat whiteness due to WCW was dependent on the stage of crop maturity at harvesting. There was no effect of diet on muscle colour or on muscle pH measured at 48h post-mortem, drip loss, taste panel traits after 14days ageing or shear force values at 2, 7 or 14days ageing. The alternative silages decreased the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion and increased the linoleic:linolenic acid ratio in intramuscular lipid. It is concluded that type of silage affects fat colour and fatty acid composition of muscle but not the other muscle characteristics examined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Maize silage as a finisher feed for Merino lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hannes

    2013-09-08

    Sep 8, 2013 ... Forage conservation plays an important role in animal production systems in South Africa. Large parts ... used in sheep production systems. European .... more lean growth. Table 2 Mean (±SE) growth parameters of Merino lambs fed four diets, differing in silage content. Maize silage inclusion level. P-Value.

  3. CONTINUOUS STALL FEEDING OF PINEAPPLE SILAGE AS THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feeding as the only form of roughage. Previous results have shown that pineapple plant material can be used effectively as silage for cattle. (Henke, Willett & Maruyama, 1945; Bishop, Gradwell, Nell. & Bradfield, 1965; Bishop, van Niekerk, Nell & Smith,. 1967). This silage is cheap, being a waste product from old pineries.

  4. Influence of wheat bran as a silage additive on chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of wheat bran (WB) as a silage additive on chemical composition, in situ degradability and in vitro gas production of citrus pulp silage (CPS) was investigated. The whole fresh citrus pulp was manually chopped and used as untreated or treated with 6, 12, or 18 g WB/kg fresh citrus pulp for ensiling. The data were ...

  5. Effect of feeding silages or carrots as supplements to laying hens on production performance, nutrient digestibility, gut structure, gut microflora and feather pecking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenfeldt, S; Kjaer, J B; Engberg, R M

    2007-08-01

    than the other two groups. The dietary supplements had a minor effect on the composition of the intestinal microflora of the hens. 5. Access to all three types of supplements decreased damaging pecking in general (to feathers as well as skin/cloaca), reduced severe feather pecking behaviour and improved the quality of the plumage at 54 weeks of age. 6. In conclusion, access to different types of foraging material such as silages and carrots improved animal welfare.

  6. Dry matter and nutritional losses during aerobic deterioration of corn and sorghum silages as influenced by different lactic acid bacteria inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacco, E; Righi, F; Quarantelli, A; Borreani, G

    2011-03-01

    The economic damage that results from aerobic deterioration of silage is a significant problem for farm profitability and feed quality. This paper quantifies the dry matter (DM) and nutritional losses that occur during the exposure of corn and sorghum silages to air over 14 d and assesses the possibility of enhancing the aerobic stability of silages through inoculation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The trial was carried out in Northern Italy on corn (50% milk line) and grain sorghum (early dough stage) silages. The crops were ensiled in 30-L jars, without a LAB inoculant (C), with a Lactobacillus plantarum inoculum (LP), and with a Lactobacillus buchneri inoculum (LB; theoretical rate of 1 × 10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage). The pre-ensiled material, the silage at silo opening, and the aerobically exposed silage were analyzed for DM content, fermentative profiles, yeast and mold count, starch, crude protein, ash, fiber components, 24-h and 48-h DM digestibility and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability. The yield and nutrient analysis data of the corn and sorghum silages were used as input for Milk2006 to estimate the total digestible nutrients, net energy of lactation, and milk production per Mg of DM. The DM fermentation and respiration losses were also calculated. The inocula influenced the in vitro NDF digestibility at 24h, the net energy for lactation (NE(L)), and the predicted milk yield per megagram of DM, whereas the length of time of air exposure influenced DM digestibility at 24 and 48 h, the NE(L), and the predicted milk yield per megagram of DM in the corn silages. The inocula only influenced the milk yield per megagram of DM and the air exposure affected the DM digestibility at 24h, the NE(L), and the milk yield per megagram of DM in the sorghum silages. The milk yield, after 14 d of air exposure, decreased to 1,442, 1,418, and 1,277 kg/Mg of DM for C, LB, and LP corn silages, respectively, compared with an average value of 1,568 kg of silage at

  7. Efeito do tratamento com aditivos químicos e inoculantes bacterianos nas perdas e na qualidade de silagens de cana-de-açúcar Effect of chemical and bacterial additives on losses and quality of sugar cane silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Faria Pedroso

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia de aditivos químicos e inoculantes bacterianos na inibição da produção de etanol, na diminuição das perdas de MS e na melhoria da digestibilidade in vitro de silagens de cana-de-açúcar. Foram testados os seguintes tratamentos (doses com base na matéria natural: sem aditivos - controle; UR - uréia (0,5; 1,0; 1,5%; NaOH - hidróxido de sódio (1,0; 2,0; 3,0%; PROP - propionato de cálcio (0,05; 0,1; 0,2%; BENZ - benzoato de sódio (0,05; 0,1; 0,2%; SORB - sorbato de potássio (0,015; 0,03; 0,045%; PLA - Lactobacillus plantarum (1 x 10(6 ufc/g; BUCH - Lactobacillus buchneri (3,64 x 10(5 ufc/g; PLA/UR 0,5% - L. plantarum combinado com 0,5% de uréia; PLA/UR 1,0% - L. plantarum combinado com 1,0% de uréia. A ensilagem foi realizada em baldes plásticos de 20 L adaptados com válvulas para eliminação de gases e dispositivo para coleta de efluentes. Os dados foram coletados aos 90 e aos 180 dias após a ensilagem. Nenhum dos aditivos foi capaz de reduzir a concentração de etanol nas silagens. Os tratamentos PROP 0,1% e PLA causaram aumento no teor de álcool em relação à silagem controle (4,8 e 12,5% vs 3,8% da MS, respectivamente. Os tratamentos UR, NaOH, SORB-0,03%, BUCH, PLA/UR 0,5% e PLA/UR 1,0% reduziram a perda total de MS. As silagens tratadas com uréia, hidróxido de sódio, benzoato de sódio e sorbato de potássio 0,045% apresentaram maior digestibilidade in vitro da MS em comparação à silagem controle.The objective of this trial was to evaluate chemical and bacterial additives on inhibition of ethanol production, reduction of DM losses and on in vitro digestibility improvement of sugar cane silages. Treatments were (wet basis: without additive - control; urea - UR - (0.5; 1.0; 1.5%, NaOH (1; 2; 3%, calcium propionate - PROP - (0.05; 0.1; 0.2%, sodium benzoate - BENZ - (0.05; 0.1; 0.2%, potassium sorbate - SORB - (0.015; 0.03; 0.045%, Lactobacillus plantarum - PLA - (1 x 10(6 cfu

  8. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny E. Alba-Mejía

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1 without additives, used as a control; 2 with bacterial inoculants; and 3 with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013 influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA and acetic acid (AA in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2% in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process.

  9. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Mejía, J.E.; Skladanka, J.; Hilger-Delgado, A.; Klíma, M.; Knot, P.; Doležal, P.; Horky, P.

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1) without additives, used as a control; 2) with bacterial inoculants; and 3) with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013) influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2%) in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process. (Author)

  10. Effect of grass silage chop length on chewing activity and digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garmo, T.H.; Randby, Å.T.; Eknæs, M.

    2008-01-01

    ad libitum and supplemented with 6 kg concentrate. Early harvested silage significantly decreased total ration eating (ET), rumination (RT) and chewing time (CT) per kg silage DM compared with normal harvested silage (CT = 38 vs. 46 min kg-1 DM). Chopping of silage reduced CT significantly, mainly...

  11. Napier Grass and Legume Silage for Smallholder Farmers in Coastal Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muinga, R.W.; Mambo, L.C.; Bimbuzi, S.

    1999-01-01

    Inadequate feed during the dry season is a major cause of low dairy productivity in Kenya. Napier grass is grown by smallholder dairy farmers due to its high biomass yield especially during the rainy season when it can be ensiled to ensure feed available in the dry season.The objective of the study was to determine the silage quality of mixtures of Napier grass and Legume forages. Maize bran was used as the main source of readily available carbohydrates replacing molasses. The mixtures were compared to the conventional Napier grass/legume has higher nutritive value than silage made from Napier grass only and that maize bran could replace molasses as a source of readily available carbohydrates

  12. Performance of dairy cows fed conventional sorghum or corn silages compared to brown midrib sorghum silage: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the effects of feeding dairy cows conventional sorghum (CSS) or corn silages (CCS) vs. brown midrib sorghum silage (BMRSS) on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and milk composition. Data from nine published articles (1984-2015) were used to contrast CSS (7...

  13. Feed Value of Cactus and Cactus Silage

    OpenAIRE

    ÇÜREK, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The nutrient composition, and feed value of cactus were evaluated through total collection and nylon bag techniques. In the first trial conducted with 3 Chios rams, digestion coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extracts, crude fiber and nitrogen-free extracts of cactus leaves (cladodes) and cactus silage were found to be 57.57, 79.20, 72.69, 79.13, 27.95 and 84.14%; 57.32, 69.40, 33.21, 90.10, 13.08 and 78.45%, respectively. The contents of digestible protein, eth...

  14. Characteristics of Lactobacillus parafarraginis ZH1 and its role in improving the aerobic stability of silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q H; Yang, F Y; Zhang, J G; Shao, T

    2014-08-01

    Lactobacillus parafarraginis ZH1 isolated from silage was characterized, and the effects of inoculating ZH1 and Lact. buchneri (LB) on the aerobic stability of sweet corn stalk (SCS) silage and whole-plant oat (WPO) silage ensiled at 15 and 30°C were studied. After ensiling of SCS or WPO in plastic bottle silo for 45 days, silos were opened, and aerobic stability was studied by monitoring temperature change with thermo recorders in silage for 6 days. SCS silage and WPO silage were well conserved naturally at both storage temperatures. However, silages were prone to aerobic deterioration due to the presence of residual yeasts. ZH1 inoculated silages ensiled at both temperatures, LB inoculated silages ensiled at 30°C had better aerobic stability than the uninoculated silages and the LB-inoculated silage at 15°C. Strain ZH1 improved the aerobic stability of SCS silage and WPO silage ensiled at both 15 and 30°C, while LB improved the aerobic stability of silage only ensiled at the high temperature of 30°C. The new strain ZH1 can be used as an effective inhibitor for aerobic deterioration of silage maintained from 15 to 30°C. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Consórcio capim-braquiária e milho: produtividade das culturas e características qualitativas das silagens feitas com plantas em diferentes idades Signal grass and corn intercropping: culture production and quality characteristics of silage made with plants in different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Paula Leonel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este estudo com o objetivo de avaliar a silagem de capim-braquiária cultivado em consórcio com milho ou em cultivo exclusivo colhido aos 100; 120; 140 e 160 dias pós-plantio. Avaliaram-se as produções de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT e as características qualitativas (teores de PB, NDT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, nitrogênio amoniacal, ácido butírico; ácido lático e pH, na MS, dessas silagens. O teor de MS nas forrageiras, independentemente da forma de cultivo, foi maior aos 140 e 160 dias após o plantio. Os dois tratamentos (consórcio ou cultivo exclusivo diferiram quanto à produção de MS apenas aos 120 dias pós-plantio. O cultivo simultâneo de milho com duas fileiras de capim-braquiária nas entrelinhas (consórcio foi superior ao cultivo exclusivo de capim-braquiária. Independentemente da idade das culturas, a forragem obtida do consórcio de capim-braquiária e milho apresentou maior quantidade de NDT/ha e resultou em silagens com maiores teores de NDT e ácido lático na MS e menores teores de FDN, lignina, nitrogênio amoniacal e ácido butírico e menor pH.The objective of this work was to evaluate the silage produced from signal grass intercropping with corn or in exclusive culture and harvesting at 100, 120, 140 and 160 days after sowing. Productions of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and total digestible nutrients (TDN were evaluated. It was also evaluated, the quality characteristics as contents (%DM of CP, NDT, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, ammonia nitrogen, butyric acid, lactic acid and pH, these silages. DM content was higher in the forages, regardless of intercropping with corn or in exclusive culture was higher at 140 and 160 days after sowing. Intercropping exclusive culture differed in DM production only at 120 days after sowing. Simultaneous cultivation of corn with two rows of

  16. FERMENTATION PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT MAIZE SILAGE HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bíro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the fermentation process differences in different hybrid maize silage. We conserved in laboratory conditions hybrids of whole maize plants with different length of the vegetative period (FAO number. Maize hybrids for silage were harvested in the vegetation stage of the milk-wax maturity of corn and the content of dry matter was from 377.7 to 422.8 g.kg-1. The highest content of dry matter was typical for silages made from the hybrids with FAO number 310 (400.0 g.kg-1 and FAO 300a (400.4 g.kg-1. The content of desirable lactic acid ranged from 23.7 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 350 to 58.9 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 420. We detected the occurrence of undesirable butyric acid in silages from hybrids FAO 250, 300b, 310 and 380. The highest content of total alcohols we found in silages made from hybrid with FAO number 240 (25.2 g.kg-1 of dry matter. Ammonia contents were in tested silages from 0.153 (FAO 270 to 0.223 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 240. The lowest value of silage titration acidity we analyzed in silage made from hybrid FAO 420 (3.66. We observed in maize silages with different length of plant maturity tested in the experiment differences in content of lactic acid, total alcohols, titration acidity, pH and content of fermentation products.

  17. Spineless cactus associated with Tifton hay or sugarcane bagasse may replace corn silage in sheep diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Sacramento Ribeiro, Julimar; Santos, Luana Lira; de Lima Júnior, Dorgival Morais; de Albuquerque Mariz, Tobyas Maia; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; de Azevedo, Paulo Sérgio; Lima, Carolyny Batista; Dos Santos Silva, Maria Josilaine Matos

    2017-06-01

    The effect of the replacement of corn silage with spineless cactus associated with Tifton 85 hay or sugarcane bagasse was evaluated on the performance, body weight components and sheep meat quality. Twenty-one Santa Inês male sheep with initial body weight of 22.9 ± 2.9 kg were used. They were confined in individual stalls for 74 days receiving the following diets: corn silage + concentrate (CS); spineless cactus + Tifton 85 hay + concentrate (TH); spineless cactus + sugarcane bagasse + concentrate (SB). After the feedlot period, the animals were slaughtered and their body components were weighed and sampled. Data were submitted to Tukey's test at 5% probability. The average daily gain (0.25 vs 0.14 kg), cold carcass weight (13.3 vs 13.7 kg), loin muscularity (0.6 vs 0.4 kg) and liver weight (0.7 vs. 0.5 kg) were higher (P  0.05) by the treatments and presented about 20.1% of crude protein, 6.1% of crude fat and shear force of 2.0 kgf/cm 2 . In complete diets for sheep, Tifton 85 hay associated with spineless cactus provides greater weight gain, cold carcass muscularity and organ weight when compared to those for animals fed with corn silage as exclusive roughage. Sugarcane bagasse associated with spineless cactus may replace corn silage in complete diets for sheep.

  18. Feasibility of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Maize Silage for Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The potential of maize silage as a feedstock to produce bioethanol was evaluated in the present study. The hydrothermal pretreatment with five different pretreatment severity factors (PSF) was employed to pretreat the maize silage and compared in terms of sugar recovery, toxic test, and ethanol...... the liquors from the five conditions were not toxic to the Baker’s yeast. Pretreatment under 195°C for 7 min had the similar PSF with that of 185°C for 15 min, and both gave the higher ethanol concentration of 19.92 and 19.98 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration from untreated maize silage was only 7...

  19. Rumen microflora counts in milking buffalo cows fed maize silage and sorghum silage based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pacelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available 4 cannulated buffalo milking cows were administered two different diets with the same energy and protein content based on maize silage (diet G1 and sorghum silage (diet G2. Total viable bacteria, cellulolytic and xilanolytic bacteria, fungi, protozoa and pH were determined on whole rumen content samples. Total viable bacteria, xilanolytic bacteria, fungi, protozoa counts and pH values did not show any significant difference between the two diets. Only the values regarding cellulolytic bacteria showed the tendency (P≤0,10 to be higher in diet G2 in comparison with diet G1. This fact was probably due to a lower content of indigestible fiber in diet G2 with respect to diet G1 (ADF 15.6 vs. 22.4 respectively.

  20. Characterization of carbohydrate fractions and fermentation quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of adding fast-sile (FS), previous fermented juice (PFJ), sucrose (S) or fast-sile + sucrose (FS + S) on the fermentation characteristics and carbohydrates fractions of alfalfa silages by the Cornell net carbohydrates and proteins systems (CNCPS). Silages quality were well ...

  1. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  2. Preserving elephantgrass and energycane biomass as silage for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, K.R.; Prine, G.M.; Bates, D.B.; Chynoweth, D.P. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences)

    1991-01-01

    Elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) and energycane (Saccharum sp.) are being evaluated in the colder subtropics of Florida, USA, as biomass energy crops. At one location near Gainesville, annual dry biomass yields of elephantgrass (full-season growth) in excess of 45 Mg ha{sup -1} have been reported. Our objective was to determine if these prolific bunchgrasses could be stored as silage. Three elephantgrasses (two 'tall' and one 'dwarf') and a tall energycane were harvested one, two, and three times per year and ensiled (directcut) during 1986 and 1987. Mean pH values ranged from 3.8 to 4.0 for tall elephantgrass silages made from plants harvested at the different frequencies. Highest pH values were obtained from silages made from immature dwarf elephantgrass plants harvested three times per year (2-year mean was 4.3). Lactic acid was the major end-product of fermentation in most silages with the exception of those made from immature dwarf elephantgrass and energycane plants, where lactic and acetic acids were both major fermentation components. Dry matter (DM) recoveries for all silages ranged from 843 to 984 g kg{sup -1} of DM ensiled. The ease with which elephantgrass and energycane were preserved as silage was attributed to adequate levels of water-soluble carbohydrates and the inherently low buffering capacities in standing forages. (author).

  3. New inoculants on maize silage fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia Giovana do Val de Assis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bacterial inoculants at two inoculation rates on chemical and biological characteristics of maize silage. The treatments consisted of two inoculating rates (5 and 6 log cfu g-1 of forage for each strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB identified as Lactobacillus buchneri, L. hilgardii, or L. plantarum. The maize was ensiled in experimental PVC silos. Samples were taken for the determination of the contents of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC, organic acids and alcohols, for the evaluation of the populations of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi, and for the determination of pH values during ensilage and after 30 or 90 days of fermentation. The doses of inoculants did not promote significant differences on the evaluated characteristics. There was effect of inoculants on acetic acid, 1.2-propanediol, LAB population, filamentous fungi, and pH value. No significant influence of the treatments with inoculants was observed in the variables DM, WSC, CP, lactic acid concentrations, or ethanol. The maximum temperature, i.e., the time to achieve the maximum temperature (TMT and aerobic stability (AS, was not influencied by treatments. However, a decrease in maximum temperature, an increase in TMT, and improvement in the AS were observed after 90 days of fermentation. These results proved the advantage of microbial inoculation. The treatments influenced LAB populations and filamentous fungi, but no effect was observed on the yeast population. The best inoculation dose is 6 cfu g-1 of forage because it provides higher reduction of filamentous fungi in maize silage, thereby decreasing the aerobic deterioration by these microorganisms.

  4. Fermentation characteristics of different purpose sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Behling Neto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum stands out among other plants recommended for ensiling due to its forage composition, its resistance to drought, and its planting range. New cultivars of grain and sweet sorghum that can be used for silage production are available, but there is little information regarding their ensiling characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentation characteristics at the ensiling of different purpose sorghum cultivars, at two crop periods. The trial was carried out at the Plant Production Department of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, Colorado do Oeste campus, Rondônia, Brazil, and chemical analyses were performed at the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, at the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá campus, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The experimental design used was a randomized block, in split-plot design, with four replicates. The plot treatments consisted of six sorghum cultivars grown for different purposes (grain sorghum: BRS 308 and BRS 310; forage sorghum: BR 655 and BRS 610; sweet sorghum: BRS 506 and CMSXS 647. Split-plot treatments consisted of two cropping seasons (first crop and second crop. The grain sorghum cultivar BRS 310 was the only one that had suitable dry matter content for ensiling; however, it was also the only one that did not show ideal water soluble carbohydrate content for ensiling. Nevertheless, all treatments presented pH below than 4.2 and ammonia nitrogen lower than 12% of total N, which indicates that the fermentation inside the silo had proceeded well. For sweet sorghum cultivars, higher ethanol and butyric acid content were observed for the first crop than for the second crop. All evaluated sorghum cultivars can be used for silage production, but the use of sweet sorghum is recommended at the second crop.

  5. Effect of increasing plant maturity in timothy-dominated grass silage on the performance of growing/finishing Norweigan Red bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, Åshild T.; Nørgaard, Peder; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2010-01-01

    of carcass fat more for H1 (0•163) than for H2 (0•134) but the same amount of energy was retained in the carcass per MJ net energy growth intake for these two groups. It is concluded that, apart from milk and concentrate fed to calves during the first months, an intensive beef production with NRF bulls......An investigation was made of the potential for attaining high daily live weight (LW) gain, high feeding efficiency and carcass quality in Norwegian Red (NRF) bulls fed grass silage harvested at early stages of maturity, supplemented with minimal amounts of concentrates. Roundbale silage...... and a formic acid-based additive applied. All silages were preserved with restricted fermentation. Silage DOMD values were 0•747, 0•70 and 0•647 for harvesting time (H) 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Silages were fed ad libitum as sole feed, or supplemented with 2-4 kg concentrate at increasing LW, to six bulls per...

  6. Effect of feeding buckwheat and chicory silages on fatty acid profile and cheese-making properties of milk from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2013-02-01

    Fresh buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) had been shown to have the potential to improve certain milk quality traits when fed as forages to dairy cows. However, the process of ensiling might alter these properties. In the present study, two silages, prepared from mixtures of buckwheat or chicory and ryegrass, were compared with pure ryegrass silage (Lolium multiflorum) by feeding to 3 × 6 late-lactating cows. The dietary dry matter proportions realised for buckwheat and chicory were 0.46 and 0.34 accounting also for 2 kg/d of concentrate. Data and samples were collected from days 10 to 15 of treatment feeding. Buckwheat silage was richest in condensed tannins. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-linoleic acid in total fatty acids (FA) were highest in the ryegrass silage. Feed intake, milk yield and milk gross composition did not differ among the groups. Feeding buckwheat resulted in the highest milk fat concentrations (g/kg) of linoleic acid (15.7) and total PUFA (40.5; both P milk fat was similar across treatments, but its apparent recovery in milk relative to the amounts ingested was highest with buckwheat. The same was true for the occurrence of FA biohydrogenation products in milk relative to α-linolenic acid intake. Recovery of dietary linoleic acid in milk remained unaffected. Feeding buckwheat silage shortened rennet coagulation time by 26% and tended (P milk and to contribute to improved cheese-making properties.

  7. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, Stig

    2012-01-01

    interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley...... silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut....... Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone...

  8. Silage produces biofuel for local consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Hiroko K; Horita, Mitsuo; Cai, Yimin; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Sakaki, Keiji

    2011-11-01

    In the normal process of bioethanol production, biomass is transported to integrated large factories for degradation to sugar, fermentation, and recovery of ethanol by distillation. Biomass nutrient loss occurs during preservation and degradation. Our aim was to develop a decentralized ethanol production system appropriate for farm or co-operative level production that uses a solid-state fermentation method for producing bio-ethanol from whole crops, provides cattle feed, and produces no wastes. The idea is to incorporate traditional silage methods with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Harvested, fresh biomass is ensiled with biomass-degrading enzymes and yeast. Multiple parallel reactions for biomass degradation and ethanol and lactic acid production are induced in solid culture in hermetically sealed containers at a ranch. After fermentation, ethanol is collected on site from the vapor from heated fermented products. The parallel reactions of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were induced efficiently in the model fermentation system. In a laboratory-scale feasibility study of the process, 250 g of freshly harvested forage rice with 62% moisture was treated with 0.86 filter paper units/g dry matter (DM) of cellulase and 0.32 U/g DM of glucoamylase. After 20 days of incubation at 28°C, 6.4 wt.% of ethanol in fresh matter (equivalent to 169 g/kg DM) was produced. When the 46 wt.% moisture was gathered as vapor from the fermented product, 74% of the produced ethanol was collected. Organic cellular contents (such as the amylase and pronase degradable fractions) were decreased by 63% and organic cell wall (fiber) content by 7% compared to silage prepared from the same material. We confirmed that efficient ethanol production is induced in nonsterilized whole rice plants in a laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation system. For practical use of the method, further study is needed to scale-up the fermentation volume, develop an efficient

  9. Silage produces biofuel for local consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitamoto Hiroko K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the normal process of bioethanol production, biomass is transported to integrated large factories for degradation to sugar, fermentation, and recovery of ethanol by distillation. Biomass nutrient loss occurs during preservation and degradation. Our aim was to develop a decentralized ethanol production system appropriate for farm or co-operative level production that uses a solid-state fermentation method for producing bio-ethanol from whole crops, provides cattle feed, and produces no wastes. The idea is to incorporate traditional silage methods with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Harvested, fresh biomass is ensiled with biomass-degrading enzymes and yeast. Multiple parallel reactions for biomass degradation and ethanol and lactic acid production are induced in solid culture in hermetically sealed containers at a ranch. After fermentation, ethanol is collected on site from the vapor from heated fermented products. Results The parallel reactions of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were induced efficiently in the model fermentation system. In a laboratory-scale feasibility study of the process, 250 g of freshly harvested forage rice with 62% moisture was treated with 0.86 filter paper units/g dry matter (DM of cellulase and 0.32 U/g DM of glucoamylase. After 20 days of incubation at 28°C, 6.4 wt.% of ethanol in fresh matter (equivalent to 169 g/kg DM was produced. When the 46 wt.% moisture was gathered as vapor from the fermented product, 74% of the produced ethanol was collected. Organic cellular contents (such as the amylase and pronase degradable fractions were decreased by 63% and organic cell wall (fiber content by 7% compared to silage prepared from the same material. Conclusions We confirmed that efficient ethanol production is induced in nonsterilized whole rice plants in a laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation system. For practical use of the method, further study is needed to

  10. Effect of using different levels of pistachio by-products silage on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of using different levels of pistachio by-products silage on composition and blood parameters of Holstein dairy cows. ... The goal of this research was to study about the effect of using pistachio hulls silage in cow's nutrition. The initial ... Key words: Dairy cattle's, milk production, pistachio by-product, silage, tannin.

  11. Monitoring and Modeling Temperature Variations Inside Silage Stack Using Novel Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Shahrak Nadimi, Esmaeil; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: By monitoring silage temperature at different locations inside silage stacks, it is possible to detect any significant increases in temperature occurring during silage decomposition. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop novel noninvasive wireless sensor nodes for measuring ...

  12. Monitoring and modeling temperature variations inside silage stacks using novel wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, O.; Nadimi, E.S.; Blanes-Vidal, V.

    2009-01-01

    By monitoring silage temperature at different locations inside silage stacks, it is possible to detect any significant increases in temperature occurring during silage decomposition. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop novel noninvasive wireless sensor nodes for measuring the temper...

  13. Identification of lactic acid bacteria in the rumen and feces of dairy cows fed total mixed ration silage to assess the survival of silage bacteria in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H; Ogata, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Nagao, S; Nishino, N

    2014-09-01

    The survival of silage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the gut of dairy cows was evaluated by examining the LAB communities of silage and gut contents. Samples were collected at 2 different research institutes (Mie and Okayama) that offered total mixed ration (TMR) silage throughout the year. Silage and feces were sampled in August, October, and November at the Mie institute, whereas silage, rumen fluid, and feces were sampled in June and August at the Okayama institute. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis using Lactobacillus-specific primers was performed to detect LAB species in the samples. The selected bands were purified for species identification and the band patterns were used for principal component analysis. Lactic acid was the predominant fermentation product in all the TMR silages analyzed, and the lactic acid level tended to be constant regardless of the sampling time and region. A total of 14 LAB species were detected in the TMR silage samples, of which 5 (Lactobacillus acetotolerans, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus suebicus, and Lactobacillus plantarum) were detected in the dairy cow feces. Most of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands for the feces samples were also detected in the rumen fluid, suggesting that any elimination of silage LAB occurred in the rumen and not in the postruminal gut segments. The principal component analysis indicated that the LAB communities in the silage, rumen fluid, and feces were separately grouped; hence, the survival of silage LAB in the cow rumen and lower gut was deemed difficult. It was concluded that, although the gut LAB community is robust and not easily affected by the silage conditions, several LAB species can inhabit both silage and feces, which suggests the potential of using silage as a vehicle for conveying probiotics. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tannin treated lucerne silage in dairy cow feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rapetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of tannins to lucerne silage were investigated. At ensiling, chestnut hydrolyzable tannins were added to lucerne forage (T=tannins treated lucerne silage vs C=control lucerne silage. Fifty lactating Holstein cows, fed two diets different for lucerne silage treatment (C or T, were used in a cross-over design. In situ rumen soluble protein fraction (%CP was higher for C (67.9 vs 59.4; P<0.01, whereas potentially rumen degradable protein (%CP was lower (24.5 vs 32.1 for C and T; P<0.01. Intestinal rumen escape protein digestibility (% was numerically higher for T (48.3 vs 54.3. Dry matter intake (21.5 kg/d for both diets and milk yield (29.8 and 30.2 kg/d for C and T were not affected by dietary treatment, whereas FCM was slightly higher for T diet (27.5 vs 27.9 kg/d for C and T; P<0.10. Adding tannins to lucerne silage is effective in shifting part of N utilization from the rumen to the intestine, leading to similar productive performance in lactating cows.

  15. The effect of silage cutting height on the nutritive value of a normal corn silage hybrid compared with brown midrib corn silage fed to lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, L; Moulder, B M; Mulrooney, C M; Teller, R S; Schmidt, R J

    2008-04-01

    A brown midrib (BMR) hybrid and a silage-specific non-BMR (7511FQ) hybrid were harvested at a normal cut height leaving 10 to 15 cm of stalk in the field. The non-BMR hybrid was also cut at a greater height leaving 45 to 50 cm of stalk. Cutting high increased the concentrations of dry matter (+4%), crude protein (+5%), net energy for lactation (+3%), and starch (+7%), but decreased the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (-9%), neutral detergent fiber (-8%), and acid detergent lignin (-13%) for 7511FQ. As expected, the BMR corn silage was 30% lower in lignin concentration than 7511FQ. After 30 h of in vitro ruminal fermentation, the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber for normal cut 7511FQ, the same hybrid cut high, and the normal cut BMR hybrid were 51.7, 51.4, and 63.5%, respectively. Twenty-seven multiparous lactating cows were fed a total mixed ration composed of the respective silages (45% of dry matter) with alfalfa haylage (5%), alfalfa hay (5%), and concentrate (45%) (to make the TMR isocaloric and isonitrogenous) in a study with a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Milk production was greater for cows fed the BMR hybrid (48.8 kg/d) compared with those fed the normal cut 7511FQ (46.8 kg/d) or cut high (47.7 kg/d). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Feed efficiency for cows fed the BMR silage (1.83) was greater than for those fed high-cut 7511FQ (1.75), but was not different from cows fed the normal cut 7511FQ (1.77). Cows fed the BMR silage had milk with greater concentrations of lactose but lower milk urea nitrogen than cows on other treatments. Harvesting a silage-specific, non-BMR corn hybrid at a high harvest height improved its nutritive content, but the improvement in feeding value was not equivalent to that found when cows were fed BMR corn silage.

  16. Produção e qualidade de silagens de híbridos de milho (Zea mays e de híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor Forage production and quality of corn (Zea mays and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor hybrids silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Moraes Genro

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a produção e a qualidade de cinco híbridos de milho (Zea mays e três híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor, foi conduzido um experimento no Departamento de Zootecnia, UFSM. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram: híbridos de milho - Pioneer 3072 (P 3072, Agroceres 211 (AG 211, Cargill 525 (C 525, Pioneer 3232 (P 3232 e Agroceres 213 (AG 213; sorgo -todos os híbridos foram da Agroceres: AG 2004E, AG 2002 e AG 2005E. A população estabelecida foi de 50.000 e 160.000 plantas/ha para milho e o sorgo, respectivamente. As plantas foram cortadas a 15cm do solo, quando atingiram o estádio de grão farináceo. Posteriormente, os híbridos foram picados e ensilados em vidros vedados, colocados em tubos de concreto e tapados com o material verde restante. Com relação à produção de Matéria Seca, o híbrido P 3072 destacou-se em relação aos demais, sendo superior (PA trial was conducted to evaluate forage production and quality of fíve comercial com hybrids (Zea mays and three sorghum hybrids (Sorghum bicolor. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replicates. The five com hybrids were: Pioneer 3072 (P 3072, Agroceres 211 (AG 211, Cargill 525 (C 525, Pioneer 3232 (P 3232 and Agroceres 213 (AG 213 and the three sorghum hybrids were: Agroceres 2004 E, 2002 and 2005 E (AG 2004 E, AG 2002 and AG 2005 E, respectively. Plant population was about 50.000 and 160,000 plants/ha for com and sorghum, respectively. The crops were havested at a height of 15cm of soil surface, at grain powdering stage. After the harvested, the forage were ensiled in glass recipients, wich were conserved in a higher silum. The dry matter production of the P 3072 was higher than AG 213 and the three sorghum hybrids. Although all mean value results were adequate for silage conservation and quality, there was only significant difference for pH. The digestibility estimatives

  17. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2014-01-01

    studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy...... supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments...... VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich to replace barley and SHW as a major energy supplement for milk production. The environmental impact, expressed as methane emissions...

  18. STORAGE TIME OF THE EVALUATION AND COMPOSITION OF SILAGE OF COLOSTRUM TWO DAIRY BREEDS : GIROLANDO AND JERSEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Batista

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the colostrum and colostrum silage of two dairy breeds cows and the quality during storage. We used 5 samples Gir cows and 5 of the Jersey breed harvested in the first milking and evaluated at 0 and 15 days of storage. Were determined in the samples pH, temperature, acidity in lactic acid, acidity, lactose, glucose, total fat, total nitrogen (TN, non-protein nitrogen (NPN, casein, molds, yeasts and enterobacteria. Statistical analysis of these variables was used analysis of variance (ANOVA at 5% significance level. There were significant differences between the races in pH parameters at day 0, crude fat on day 0, total nitrogen and crude protein on days 0 and 15 and casein on days 0 and 15. In the other parameters no significant differences were observed between the races . Therefore, the results obtained indicate that there were significant nutritional difference between silage colostrum races Girolando and Jersey.

  19. Effect of digestibility of grass-clover silage and concentrate to forage ratio on methane emission from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    That methane emission from dairy cows is affected by concentrate to forage ratio is well known, whereas the effect of the quality of grass-clover silage is not well described. Besides this the purpose of the present study also was to test our new facilities for measuring methane emission from dairy...... the principles for indirect calorimetry The air flow was measured continuously, and the concentration of methane, oxygen and carbon dioxide were measured in ingoing and outgoing air from the chambers every twelve and half minute. The cows were milked and feed twice daily, and yield and intake were registered....... The experiment was analyzed as a 2*4 factorial design with parity as block effect. The methane emissions as total emission and per kg milk yield were significantly affected by concentrate proportion, but not by silage type. Cows on the high concentrate diets produced in average 617 liters of methane and cows...

  20. Replacing alfalfa silage with tannin-containing birdsfoot trefoil silage in total mixed rations for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, G A; Grabber, J H; Muck, R E; Hymes-Fecht, U C

    2017-05-01

    Two lactation trials were conducted comparing the feeding value of silages made from birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) that had been selected for low (BFTL), medium (BFTM), and high (BFTH) levels of condensed tannins (CT) to an alfalfa silage (AS) when fed as the principal forage in total mixed rations. Diets also included corn silage, high-moisture shelled corn, soybean meal, soy hulls, and supplemental fat. In trial 1, 32 lactating Holstein cows were blocked by days in milk, assigned to treatment sequences in 8 balanced 4 × 4 Latin squares, and fed 50% dietary dry matter from AS or 1 of 3 BFT silages containing 0.6, 1.2, or 1.7% CT. Diets averaged 17.5 to 19.5% crude protein and 26% neutral detergent fiber on a dry matter basis. Data were collected over the last 2 wk of each 4-wk period. Intakes were 1.3 to 2.8 kg of dry matter/d greater on BFT than on AS and cows gained 0.5 kg of body weight/d on BFT diets while losing 0.14 kg of body weight/d on the AS diet; this resulted in greater milk per dry matter intake (DMI) on AS. Linear effects indicated true protein yield and milk urea nitrogen declined with increasing CT concentration and quadratic effects indicated DMI, energy-corrected milk, and fat yield were increased at intermediate CT concentration. True protein yield and apparent N-efficiency were greater, and milk urea nitrogen lower, on all BFT diets than on AS. In trial 2, 50 lactating Holstein cows were fed a covariate AS diet for 2 wk and then blocked by parity and days in milk and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 diets that were fed continuously for 12 wk. Diets contained (dry matter basis) 48% AS, 16% AS plus 32% of 1 of 3 BFT silages with 0.5, 0.8, or 1.5% CT, or 48% of an equal mixture of each BFT silage. Diets averaged 16.5% crude protein and 30% neutral detergent fiber. Intake and milk yield tended to be lower on AS than BFT, but body weight gains averaged 0.6 kg/d on all diets. Cows fed any of the BFT silages had reduced milk urea nitrogen

  1. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Qu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05. Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05. The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  2. The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J. Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake,...

  3. THE EFFECTS OF INOCULANT LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ON THE FERMENTATION AND AEROBIC STABILITY OF SUNFLOWER SILAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisun Koc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of actic acid bacterial inoculant on the fermentation and aerobic stability of sunflower silages. Sunflower was harvested at the milk stage. Inoculant-1174 (Pioneer®,USA was used as homofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. Inoculant was applied 6.00 log10 cfu/g silage levels. Silages with no additive served as controls. After treatment, the chopped sunflower was ensiled in the PVC type laboratory silos. Three silos for each group were sampled for chemical and microbiological analysis on days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 after ensiling. At the end of the ensiling period, all silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 14 days. Neither inoculant improved the fermentation parameters of sunflower silages. At the end of the ensiling period, inoculant increased lactic acid bacteria (LAB and decreased yeast and mould numbers of silages. Inoculant treatment did not affect aerobic stability of silages.

  4. Evaluation of anaerobic degradation, biogas and digestate production of cereal silages using nylon-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Marco; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco; Bocchi, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the degradation efficiency and the biogas and digestate production during anaerobic digestion were evaluated for the cereal silages most used to feed biogas plants. To this purpose, silages of: maize from the whole plant, maize from the ear, triticale and wheat were digested, inside of nylon bags, in laboratory scale digesters, for 75days. Overall, the test involved 288 nylon bags. After 75days of digestion, the maize ear silage shows the highest degradation efficiency (about 98%) while wheat silage the lowest (about 83%). The biogas production ranges from 438 to 852Nm(3)/t of dry matter for wheat and ear maize silage, respectively. For all the cereal silages, the degradation as well as the biogas production are faster at the beginning of the digestion time. Digestate mass, expressed as percentage of the fresh matter, ranges from 38% to 84% for wheat and maize ear silage, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of wheat bran as a silage additive on chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dear User!

    2012-06-22

    Jun 22, 2012 ... CPS with 5% DM sugar beet pulp had lower ADF, and higher NDF and CP concentration, compared with control group. Moreover, they showed that the addition of sugar beet pulp to CPS had no effect on silage pH. Chaudhry and Naseer (2006) added a mixture of poultry litter and corn forage to fresh citrus ...

  6. Ensiling characteristics and feeding value of silage made from cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this investigation, silage made from cattle waste being ensiled with maize residues (ECW), was evaluated with respect to ensiling characteristics and feeding value. Cattle waste was obtained from cows that were fin- ished on a high-concentrate (80%) diet. It was collected together with maize residues which served as ...

  7. Fermentative attributes of wilted vs. unwilted Digitaria eriantha silage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silages made from directly cut or wilted Digitaria eriantha treated with or without molasses were evaluated to determine fermentative characteristics. The grass was harvested at the boot stage of growth and the material was ensiled in 1 kg mini-silos. Treatments were arranged in a factorial design of two moisture levels ...

  8. Effects of feeding corn silage, pelleted, ensiled, or pelleted and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of corn silage (CS) and alfalfa (pelleted (AP), haylage (AH), or combination (APH)) on lamb growth and carcass characteristics. The objective of Experiment 1 (Exp. 1) was to compare AH to CS in lamb feedlot diets on lamb growth and carcass characteristics.

  9. Nutritional potential of post extraction residues and silage from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional potential of post extraction residues and silage from leaves of five local cassava varieties cultivated in south west Nigeria namely Ilaro, Oko-iyawo, Mafamipa, Odongbo, Idileru as feed for ruminants, was evaluated using chemical composition and in - vitro dry matter digestibility as indices. Chemical ...

  10. In vitro cytotoxicity of fungi spoiling maize silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2011-01-01

    production and in vitro cytotoxicity have been determined for fungal agar and silage extracts. All 8 fungal species significantly affected Caco-2 cell viability in the resazurin assay, with large variations for each species and growth medium. The 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of the major P...

  11. Bromatological characteristics and ruminal digestibility of grain corn hybrids with different vitreousness in silage maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandrei Santos Rossi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate vitreousness in commercial corn hybrids with flint and dent grains and to study the effect of this characteristic on agronomic behavior, nutritional value, and ruminal degradability of grains harvested in silage maturity. Twelve commercial corn hybrids were evaluated. They were divided in two groups (six with flint grains and six with dent grains. The experiments were conducted in two municipalities represented by Guarapuava and Laranjeiras do Sul, both in Paraná State. The harvest for the grain quality analysis was performed at ¾ of the milk line stage in the grain. The following characteristics were evaluated: grain yield, grain yield in silage maturity, vitreousness, ruminal digestibility of grain, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude protein. The grains in the group of dent hybrids exhibited better degradability associated with lower vitreousness than the group of flint hybrids. The group of dent hybrids exhibited better ruminal digestibility of the grains associated with lower vitreousness versus the group of flint hybrids. There is a negative correlation between vitreousness and the digestibility of the grain; thus, vitreousness can be a criterion for selecting genotypes for forage production.

  12. Effects of Three Different Additives and Two Different Bulk Densities on Maize Silage Characteristics, Temperature Profiles, CO2 and O2–Dynamics in Small Scale Silos during Aerobic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Helena Jungbluth

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Silage quality and aerobic stability are sometimes insufficient. If management requirements are not met, or to improve silage quality, additives are often used. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of different factors on silage during aerobic conditions. Whole-crop forage maize was harvested and 24 buckets (65 L were filled and assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1 control (no treatment; (2 chemical additive (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sodium acetate; (3 a mixed biological inoculant containing Lactobacillus buchneri, L. plantarum, and Pediococcus acidilacti; and (4 a mixed biological inoculant containing L. buchneri, L. plantarum, and L. rhamnosus. An untreated variation was also ensiled. Two different densities were adjusted during ensiling. After opening, the temperature was measured for seven days and O2 and CO2 concentrations were analysed. The findings show that the chemical additive very effectively prevented silage from reheating and deteriorating. Aerobic reheating of silage was also successfully inhibited through biological additives and high density.

  13. Evolution of fungal population and mycotoxins in sorghum silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Palacio, Agustina; Mionetto, Ana; Bettucci, Lina; Pan, Dinorah

    2016-12-01

    Silage, one of the most important feed sources for cattle, is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage moulds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of this study was to identify the mycobiota of sorghum silages, to determine the presence of aflatoxins and fumonisins, and to correlate these results with physical parameters of the silage. A total of 275 samples of sorghum were collected from dairy farms in the south-west region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The presence of fungi was observed in all of the sorghum samples with values varying from 0.2 × 10 4 to 4085 × 10 4 UFC g -1 . Significant difference were detected in the total number of fungi during the storage period; at six months there is a high risk of fungal spoilage. The most frequent genera isolated from sorghum samples were Penicillium (70%), Aspergillus (65%), Absidia (40%), Fusarium (35%), Paecilomyces (35%) and Alternaria, Cladosporium, Gliocadium and Mucor (30%). The toxigenic species most frequently found were Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium nygamai. Only two samples were contaminated by AFB1 with levels of 1 and 14 µg kg -1 . Fumonisin was detected in 40% of freshly harvest samples with levels ranged from 533 µg kg -1 to 933 µg kg -1 . The use of silo bags seems to be an effective tool to store sorghum. However, the presence of toxigenic fungi show that regular screening for mycotoxins levels in silages must be performed to avoid the exposure of animals to contaminated feed and the introduction of these compounds into the food chain.

  14. Juice-extracted grass pellets and sodium bicarbonate for cows in midlactation fed timothy grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Hernandez, J R; Brisson, G J; Girard, V

    1994-12-01

    Eighteen midlactation Holstein cows, averaging 80 to 125 d of lactation, were used in a trial of switchback design to evaluate two timothy silages, wilted or direct-cut and treated with formic acid, and three treatments, control, NaHCO3 added at 2% of DM, or juice-extracted grass pellets replacing 30% silage DM. Cows fed direct-cut silage that had been treated with formic acid consumed more DM (19.8 vs. 18.6 kg/d) than those fed wilted silage. The DMI was also increased with NaHCO3 and grass pellet treatments. However, NaHCO3 reduced digestibility of most nutrients without affecting pH of rumen fluid or degradation of DM and NDF. Compared with wilted silage, direct-cut silage that had been treated with formic acid contained more degradable NDF (86 vs. 84.5%). Milk yield (24.9 vs. 23.6 kg/d) was higher for cows fed direct-cut than wilted silage, but 4% FCM yield remained unchanged. Addition of NaHCO3 tended to increase yields of milk and 4% FCM. Treatments did not affect milk composition. Serum urea N was higher for cows fed the direct-cut silage than for cows fed wilted silage. Silage type had more impact on feed intake and performance than did NaHCO3 or juice-extracted grass pellets.

  15. Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Methods Whole crop corn (WCC silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencing analyses of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain. Characteristics (assimilation and tolerance of the yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration were investigated. Results In addition to species of Candida glabrata and Pichia kudriavzevii (P. kudriavzevii previously isolated in WCC and TMR, Pichia manshurica (P. manshurica, Candida ethanolica (C. ethanolica, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (Z. bailii isolated at great frequency during deterioration, were capable of assimilating lactic or acetic acid and tolerant to acetic acid and might function more in deteriorating TMR silages at early fermentation (7 d and 14 d. With ensiling prolonged to 28 d, silages became more (p<0.01 stable when exposed to air, coinciding with the inhibition of yeast to below the detection limit. Species of P. manshurica that were predominant in deteriorating WCC silages were not detectable in TMR silages. In addition, the predominant yeast species of Z. bailii in deteriorating TMR silages at later fermentation (28 d and 56 d were not observed in both WCC and WCC silages. Conclusion The inhibition of yeasts, particularly P. kudriavzevii, probably account for the improved aerobic stability of TMR silages at later fermentation. Fewer species seemed to be involved in aerobic deterioration of silages at later fermentation and Z. bailii was most likely to initiate the aerobic deterioration of TMR silages at later fermentation. The use of WCC in TMR might not influence the predominant

  16. Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huili; Hao, Wei; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Methods Whole crop corn (WCC) silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencing analyses of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain. Characteristics (assimilation and tolerance) of the yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration were investigated. Results In addition to species of Candida glabrata and Pichia kudriavzevii (P. kudriavzevii) previously isolated in WCC and TMR, Pichia manshurica (P. manshurica), Candida ethanolica (C. ethanolica), and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (Z. bailii) isolated at great frequency during deterioration, were capable of assimilating lactic or acetic acid and tolerant to acetic acid and might function more in deteriorating TMR silages at early fermentation (7 d and 14 d). With ensiling prolonged to 28 d, silages became more (p<0.01) stable when exposed to air, coinciding with the inhibition of yeast to below the detection limit. Species of P. manshurica that were predominant in deteriorating WCC silages were not detectable in TMR silages. In addition, the predominant yeast species of Z. bailii in deteriorating TMR silages at later fermentation (28 d and 56 d) were not observed in both WCC and WCC silages. Conclusion The inhibition of yeasts, particularly P. kudriavzevii, probably account for the improved aerobic stability of TMR silages at later fermentation. Fewer species seemed to be involved in aerobic deterioration of silages at later fermentation and Z. bailii was most likely to initiate the aerobic deterioration of TMR silages at later fermentation. The use of WCC in TMR might not influence the predominant yeast

  17. The effects of three silage inoculants on aerobic stability in grass, clover-grass, lucerne and maize silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Jatkauskas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of homofermentative and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB inoculants on fermentation and aerobic stability in a variety of crops and dry matter concentrations. The experiments were conducted with lucerne, ryegrass, ryegrass-timothy, red clover-ryegrass and whole crop maize using three additives in laboratory scale conditions. Each treatment and crop was replicated 5 five times when determining the chemical composition and aerobic stability in the silage. The data were statistically analyzed as a randomized complete block by using the GLM procedure of SAS. Additive application reduced pH and formation of butyric acid, alcohols and ammonia-N in all crops compared with the untreated silage (p < 0.05. The use of additives increased the content of lactic acid except heterofermentative LAB in maize with 276 g kg-1 DM and increased the content of acetic acid except homofermentative LAB in ryegrass-timothy and maize with 276 g kg-1 DM compared with the untreated silage (p < 0.05. It was observed that the aerobic stability of silages was improved significantly (p < 0.05 by using homofermentative and heterofermentative LAB inoculants.

  18. Relative partitioning of N from alfalfa silage, corn silage, corn grain and soybean meal into milk, urine, and feces, using stable 15N isotope

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative partitioning of nitrogen (N) in alfalfa silage (AS), corn silage (CS), corn grain (CG) and soybean meal (SBM) in milk, urinary and fecal N in lactating dairy cows. For eleven days, twelve multiparous late-lactation Holstein cows (means ± SD; ...

  19. Effect of replacing dietary lucerne silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage containing different levels of condensed tannin on production of lactating dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive degradation of crude protein (CP) in ensiled legumes impairs N utilization when these silages are fed to dairy cattle. Previously, we reported that feeding birdsfoot trefoil (BFT; Lotus corniculatus) with elevated levels of condensed tannin (CT) reduced silage nonprotein N and was associat...

  20. Evaluation of the transfer of immunoglobulin from colostrum anaerobic fermentation (colostrum silage) to newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, Mara H; Pereira, Daniela I B; Borchardt, Jessica L; Sturbelle, Regis T; Rosa, Matheus C; Guedes, Marcio C; Gularte, Marcia A; Leite, Fábio P Leivas

    2014-11-01

    Colostrum silage is an anaerobic fermentation methodology of excess farm colostrum used to conserve and provide as milk replacement for calves. The present study aimed to evaluate the levels of immunoglobulins present in bovine colostrum silage and its absorption by newborn calves. The concentration of immunoglobulins was determined in fresh colostrum and colostrum silage stored for 12 months. The absorption of immunoglobulins by calves was assessed immediately after birth and 24 h after colostrum silage intake. The immunoglobulin levels were evaluated by ELISA. The results highlighted that colostrum silage kept similar levels of immunoglobulins as the ones in colostrum in natura, and can be transferred to newborn calves with similar amounts to calves fed with colostrum in natura. It is concluded that colostrum silage keeps viable immunoglobulins, and is able to transfer passive immunity to newborn calves. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Comparison of the fermentation quality and nutritive value of silage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 10-month-old leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit.) grown in Japan and 52-day-old regrowth of guinea grass (Panicum maximum var. maximum cv. Gatton) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench cv. FS40IR), were chopped up to 3-5 cm lengths and ensiled in laboratory silos of 1.4-1.5 kg capacity.

  2. Assessment of silage quality and acceptability of Spondias mombin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scarce forages and low digestibility are major challenges of dry season feeding for ruminants in the tropics. This can be overcome by excess forage conservation in times of abundance by ensiling with cheap and locally available materials containing high fermentable carbohydrates as additives. A study was conducted to ...

  3. Dynamics in the microbiology of maize silage during whole-season storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Ida Marie Lindhardt Drejer; Kristensen, N.B.; Raun, B.M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To monitor seasonal variations in the microbiology of maize silage and to determine whether the risk of fungal spoilage varies during whole-year storage. Methods and Results: A continuous survey of 20 maize silage stacks was conducted over a period from three to 11 months after ensiling...... variations in the microbiology of maize silage over a whole storage season. The risk of fungal spoilage was highest 5-7 months after ensiling and lowest after 11 months. Significance and Impact of the Study: This information is valuable in the assessment of health risks connected with spoiled maize silage...

  4. A process-based emission model of volatile organic compounds from silage sources on farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonifacio, H. F.; Rotz, C. A.; Hafner, S. D.

    2017-01-01

    such as those from dairy farms. A process-based model for predicting VOC emissions from silage was developed and incorporated into the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM, v. 4.3), a whole-farm simulation of crop, dairy, and beef production systems. The performance of the IFSM silage VOC emission model...... performance, economics, and environmental impacts of farm production. As a component of IFSM, the silage VOC emission model was used to simulate a representative dairy farm in central California. The simulation showed most silage VOC emissions were from feed lying in feed lanes and not from the exposed face...

  5. Replacing alfalfa or red clover silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage in total mixed rations increases production of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymes-Fecht, U C; Broderick, G A; Muck, R E; Grabber, J H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare milk production and nutrient utilization in dairy cattle fed silage made from alfalfa (AL) or red clover (RC) versus birdsfoot trefoil (BFT) selected for low, normal, and high levels of condensed tannins. Condensed tannin contents of the 3 BFT silages were 8, 12, and 16 g/kg of DM by butanol-HCl assay. Twenty-five multiparous Holstein cows (5 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were blocked by days in milk and randomly assigned within blocks to incomplete 5×5 Latin squares. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] about 60% AL, 50% RC, or 60% of 1 of the 3 BFT; the balance of dietary DM was largely from high-moisture corn plus supplemental crude protein from soybean meal. Diets were balanced to approximately 17% crude protein and fed for four 3-wk periods; 2 wk were allowed for adaptation and production data were collected during the last week of each period. No differences existed in DM intake or milk composition due to silage source, except that milk protein content was lowest for RC. Yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat were greater for the 3 BFT diets than for diets containing AL or RC. Feeding BFT with the highest condensed tannin content increased yield of milk, protein, and solids-not-fat compared with BFT containing the lowest amount of condensed tannin. Moreover, milk-N/N-intake was higher, and milk urea nitrogen concentration and urinary urea-N excretion were lower for diets with normal levels of BFT than for AL or RC diets. Feeding RC resulted in the highest apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and hemicellulose and lowest ruminal concentrations of ammonia and free amino acids. Ruminal branched-chain volatile fatty acid levels were lowest for RC diets and diets with high levels of BFT and highest for the AL diet. Overall, diets containing BFT silage supported greater production than diets containing silage from AL or RC

  6. Research note: The silage characteristics of two varieties of forage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the dough stage the GS had higher neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) contents than FS (592g kg-1 and 379g kg-1 vs. 533g kg-1 and 339g kg-1 DM, respectively). In the silage harvested at milk stage, the pH of FS alone decreased most slowly, whereas at the dough stage the pH of the GS ...

  7. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used.

  8. Identification of lactic acid bacteria in the feces of dairy cows fed whole crop maize silage to assess the survival of silage bacteria in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongyan; Wang, Chao; Li, Yanbing; Yu, Zhu; Xu, Qingfang; Li, Guangpeng; Minh, Tang Thuy; Nishino, Naoki

    2018-01-01

    In order to assess the survival of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in whole crop maize silage in the gut of dairy cows, one representative silage sample and three different feces samples were collected from dairy cows on three dairy farms in Hua Bei, China and three dairy farms in Kyushu, Japan. The composition of the bacterial community was examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lactobacillus acetotolerans was detected in all bunker-made maize silage samples, regardless of the dairy farm or sampling region from which they were sourced. A total of eight LAB species were detected in the maize silage samples, of which three (L. acetotolerans, L. pontis and L. casei) appeared to survive digestion. The populations of L. acetotolerans in silage and feces were 10 6-7 and 10 3-4 copies/g, respectively, indicating that, even for the LAB species showing potential survival in the gut, competition in this niche may be harsh and the population may substantially decrease during the digestion process. It may be difficult for silage LAB to survive in the gut of silage-fed dairy cows, because marked decrease in population can take place during the digestion process, even for surviving species. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of the perirenal fat of bulls fattened on grass silage and maize silage supplemented with tannins, garlic, maca and lupines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staerfl, S M; Soliva, C R; Leiber, F; Kreuzer, M

    2011-09-01

    Carcass fat composition of cattle fed a forage-based diet might be inferior with maize silage compared to grass-silage based systems. This was quantified using complete diets with concentrate. To test whether supplements may influence carcass fat properties as well, the maize-silage diet was additionally supplemented either with Acacia mearnsii tannins, garlic, maca or lupines, feeds rich in secondary metabolites. The perirenal fat of 6×6 bulls fed these six diets was analysed for fatty acid profile and shelf life. The n-6/ n-3 ratio was always higher than 11 with the maize silage treatments and 2 with grass silage. The supplements did not affect the occurrence of biohydrogenation intermediates, including rumenic acid. Shelf life, being twice as long with maize compared to grass silage, was either unaffected or tended to be impaired, especially with supplementary garlic. Overall, supplementation was not efficient in improving carcass fat properties of maize-silage fed bulls. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Emission of volatile organic compounds from silage: Compounds, sources, and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Howard, Cody; Muck, Richard E.; Franco, Roberta B.; Montes, Felipe; Green, Peter G.; Mitloehner, Frank; Trabue, Steven L.; Rotz, C. Alan

    2013-10-01

    Silage, fermented cattle feed, has recently been identified as a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. A small number of studies have measured VOC emission from silage, but not enough is known about the processes involved to accurately quantify emission rates and identify practices that could reduce emissions. Through a literature review, we have focused on identifying the most important compounds emitted from corn silage (the most common type of silage in the US) and the sources of these compounds by quantifying their production and emission potential in silage and describing production pathways. We reviewed measurements of VOC emission from silage and assessed the importance of individual silage VOCs through a quantitative analysis of VOC concentrations within silage. Measurements of VOC emission from silage and VOCs present within silage indicated that alcohols generally make the largest contribution to emission from corn silage, in terms of mass emitted and potential ozone formation. Ethanol is the dominant alcohol in corn silage; excluding acids, it makes up more than half of the mean mass of VOCs present. Acids, primarily acetic acid, may be important when emission is high and all VOCs are nearly depleted by emission. Aldehydes and esters, which are more volatile than acids and alcohols, are important when exposure is short, limiting emission of more abundant but less volatile compounds. Variability in silage VOC concentrations is very high; for most alcohols and acids, tolerance intervals indicate that 25% of silages have concentrations a factor of two away from median values, and possibly much further. This observation suggests that management practices can significantly influence VOC concentrations. Variability also makes prediction of emissions difficult. The most important acids, alcohols, and aldehydes present in silage are probably produced by bacteria (and, in the case of ethanol, yeasts) during fermentation and

  11. Natural Lactic Acid Bacteria Population and Silage Fermentation of Whole-crop Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuikui; Wang, Yanping; Cai, Yimin; Pang, Huili

    2015-01-01

    Winter wheat is a suitable crop to be ensiled for animal feed and China has the largest planting area of this crop in the world. During the ensiling process, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play the most important role in the fermentation. We investigated the natural population of LAB in whole-crop wheat (WCW) and examined the quality of whole-crop wheat silage (WCWS) with and without LAB inoculants. Two Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum strains, Zhengzhou University 1 (ZZU 1) selected from corn and forage and grass 1 (FG 1) from a commercial inoculant, were used as additives. The silages inoculated with LAB strains (ZZU 1 and FG 1) were better preserved than the control, with lower pH values (3.5 and 3.6, respectively) (p<0.05) and higher contents of lactic acid (37.5 and 34.0 g/kg of fresh matter (FM), respectively) (p<0.05) than the control. Sixty LAB strains were isolated from fresh material and WCWS without any LAB inoculation. These LAB strains were divided into the following four genera and six species based on their phenotypic, biochemical and phylogenetic characteristics: Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc citreum, Weissella cibaria, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus buchneri, and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum. However, the prevalent LAB, which was predominantly heterofermentative (66.7%), consisted of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc citreum, Weissella cibaria, and Lactobacillus buchneri. This study revealed that most of isolated LAB strains from control WCWS were heterofermentative and could not grow well at low pH condition; the selective inoculants of Lactobacillus strains, especially ZZU 1, could improve WCWS quality significantly. PMID:26104520

  12. Comparison between grass-silages of different dry matter content fed to reindeer during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of whether the dry matter content of silage influenced performance when 17-month-old male reindeer were fed solely silage outdoor during winter. Two kinds of round-baled silages with different wilting times were offered to the animals; low dry matter (LDM silage with a mean of 39% DM, or high dry matter (HDM silage with a mean of 53% DM. The 115 reindeer were allotted to slaughter at the start of the experiment in October or to be fed until slaughter in January or March. During the first three weeks of the experiment small amounts of lichens were mixed with the silages and the reindeer adapted to the feeding without problems. The daily intake of DM did not differ significantly between reindeer fed the LDM or the HDM silage despite a highly significant difference in daily silage intake. This resulted in small but significantly higher gains in live weight for animals fed the LDM silage, caused by increased weight of the rumen content. All groups of reindeer either retained or lost carcass weight during the experiment, and no improvements or differences were obtained between the kinds of silages in carcass assessment or gains in fat in the abdominal cavity. Animals slaughtered in January had a lower carcass weight and dressing percentage than reindeer slaughtered in October and March. Environmental conditions during the experiment were good but nonetheless mobbing and illness still occurred. The present results concur with those of earlier studies suggesting that it seems to be the bulk of the ration rather than the dry matter content of the silage that limits the intake.

  13. Browse silage as potential feed for captive wild ungulates in southern Africa: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanyisile R. Mbatha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the review was to assess the potential of indigenous browse trees as sustainable feed supplement in the form of silage for captive wild ungulates. Several attempts to use silage as feed in zoos in temperate regions have been conducted with success. Information on silage from the indigenous browse trees preferred by wild ungulates in southern Africa is scanty. The use of silage from the browse trees is of interest as it has potential to reduce or replace expensive feed sources (pellets, fruits and farm produce currently offered in southern African zoos, game farms and reserves, especially during the cold-dry season. Considerable leaf biomass from the indigenous browse trees can be produced for silage making. High nutrient content and minerals from indigenous browsable trees are highly recognised. Indigenous browse trees have low water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC that render them undesirable for fermentation. Techniques such as wilting browse leaves, mixing cereal crops with browse leaves, and use of additives such as urea and enzymes have been studied extensively to increase WSC of silage from the indigenous browse trees. Anti-nutritional factors from the indigenous browse preferred by the wild ungulates have also been studied extensively. Indigenous browse silages are a potential feed resource for the captive wild ungulates. If the browse trees are used to make silage, they are likely to improve performance of wild ungulates in captivity, especially during the cold-dry season when browse is scarce. Research is needed to assess the feasibility of sustainable production and the effective use of silage from indigenous browse trees in southern Africa. Improving intake and nutrient utilisation and reducing the concentrations of anti-nutritional compounds in silage from the indigenous browse trees of southern Africa should be the focus for animal nutrition research that need further investigation. Keywords: Anti-nutritional factors

  14. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Byskov, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    (Lolium perenne), red clover (Trifolium pratense) and white clover (Trifolium repens) was harvested in 2009 on May 9 (early) and 25 (late), and both cuts were conserved as silage and hay. The early silage, early hay, late silage and late hay contained dry matter (DM) of 454, 842, 250 and 828 g/kg, and NDF...

  15. Snijmaïs met beperkt kunstmest fosfaat = Silage maize with limited phosphate fertiliser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schooten, van H.A.; Riel, van J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 and 2010 field research was carried out on sandy soil with different forms of starter fertilisation in silage maize at different fertilisation levels of nitrogen and phosphate. No differences were found in yield and composition of the silage maize among the forms of starter fertilisation

  16. Gastrointestinal metabolism of phytoestrogens in lactating dairy cows fed silages with different botanical composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njåstad, K. M.; Adler, S. A.; Hansen-Møller, J.

    2014-01-01

    fed silages with different botanical composition. Four lactating rumen cannulated Norwegian Red cattle were assigned to a 4. ×. 4 Latin square with 1 cow per treatment period of 3 wk. The 4 treatment silages were prepared from grasslands with different botanical compositions: organically managed short...

  17. Occurrence of Pre- and Post-Harvest Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Danish Maize Silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Ida Marie Lindhardt Drejer; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2014-01-01

    Maize silage is a widely used feed product for cattle worldwide, which may be contaminated with mycotoxins, pre- and post-harvest. This concerns both farmers and consumers. To assess the exposure of Danish cattle to mycotoxins from maize silage, 99 samples of whole-crop maize (ensiled and un-ensiled...

  18. Effects of N application on agronomic and environmental parameters in silage maize production on sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Neeteson, J.J.; Withagen, J.C.M.; Noy, I.G.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The current nitrogen (N) use in silage maize production can lead to considerable N losses to the environment. Maize growers fear that a reduction of N inputs needed to minimize N losses might depress yields. The objective of this study was therefore to quantify: (1) the response of silage maize dry

  19. Effect of silage maize hybrid (dry down vs. stay green) on dairy cow performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Schooten, van H.A.; Laar, van H.

    2008-01-01

    A randomized block design experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two contrasting silage maize hybrids (DD: dry down vs. SG: stay green) harvested at 33% dry matter (DM) on in situ degradation and dairy cow performance. Thirty-eight Red-HF cows were assigned to two silage treatments and

  20. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, S; Hansen-Møller, J; Martinsson, K; Steinshamn, H; Gustavsson, A-M

    2012-08-01

    Phytoestrogens are hormone-like substances in plants that can substantially influence human health (positively or negatively), and when fed to dairy cows are partly transferred to their milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of varying the botanical composition and regrowth interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut red clover-grass silage diet (1,494 μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low. Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone concentration than the other diets (226 μg/kg of milk). Lengthening the regrowth interval increased the intake of secoisolariciresinol and decreased the recovery of lignans. Feeding long-term ley silage resulted in higher milk lignan concentrations but lower milk isoflavone concentrations than feeding short-term ley silage. The apparent recovery of all phytoestrogens except prunetin was highest on the 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet. No effect of α-tocopherol supplementation

  1. In situ degrability of dry matter of sheep fed with corn silage with or without Bt gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Memari Trava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Silage corn is a food widely used, composing the bulk of feed for ruminants, because its present high nutritional value. Since the release by CNTBio seeds of modified genetically corn, many of it began to use transgenic silage corn, which was inserted into genetic code the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis gene that expresses a toxic protein to caterpillar pests of corn, so occurs the reduction of production costs and pesticide use. Due to rapid expansion of transgenic maize and your wide use in animal feed by producers, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degrability in situ in animal rumen, in order to estimate the nutritional value of silage corn with and without the Bt gene. The experiment was conducted at the Institute of Animal Science Nova Odessa-SP. Were used four rumen fistulated sheep housed in individual pens for 56 days, including four periods. The animals were fed with silage with two varieties of plant corn to silage - DKB and AG, and their isogenic counterparts with the Bt gene, comprising four treatments. The degradability determination of dry matter (DM digestibility of silage corn treatments was determined by means of nylon bag in situ. After removal, the bags were washed and incubated, then placed in forced-circulation at 55°C to constant weight to determine the DM concentration. Data from in situ degradation of DM was adjusted in the mathematical model proposed by Ørskov and McDonald (1979. For the degradability of DM, the fraction “a” showed the interaction (p <0.05, where the variety DKB do not showed difference (p> 0.05 for the gene insertion. For AG, showed a slight decrease (p <0.05 when compared to its isogenic counterpart with the gene (35.68% and 37.85% respectively, means that the Bt gene reduced the solubility of DM of this fraction for AG range. The fact of the variety AG with and without the gene have suffered lower solubility of DM when compared the DKB with and without the gene is due to the fact of being

  2. Improving the productivity of imported dairy cattle on small-holder farms in Morocco through supplementation with fish silage blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerouali, A.

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 ± 11 to 420 ± 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 ± 0.13 to 1.91 ± 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)

  3. N, P or K doses on the dry matter and crude protein yield in maize and sorghum for silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnior Melo Damian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize and sorghum are the main raw materials in the production of silage for animal feed, with mineral fertilization being worthy of note when the goal is to increase gains in the amount and quality of the forage. This study aimed at evaluating the contribution of N, P or K doses to the dry matter and crude protein yield in maize and sorghum grown for silage. The experiments were carried out in a randomized block design, with four replications, during five successive crops of maize (three summer seasons and sorghum (two off-season. Five doses of N (0 kg ha-1, 50 kg ha-1, 100 kg ha-1, 150 kg ha-1 and 200 kg ha-1, five doses of P2O5 (0 kg ha-1, 40 kg ha-1, 80 kg ha-1, 120 kg ha-1 and 160 kg ha-1 and five doses of K2O (0 kg ha-1, 30 kg ha-1, 60 kg ha-1, 90 kg ha-1 and 120 kg ha-1 were applied to each crop in the same experimental area. The N doses contributed to an increase in the crude protein yield in the five successive crops of maize and sorghum, together with an increase in dry matter and/or protein concentration. Crude protein increased 59.5-312.9 % for both crops. The soils used for the succession cropping system of maize and sorghum for silage had "very high" levels of P and K. Therefore, the P fertilization had no effect on the dry matter or crude protein yield in the first year of cultivation, similarly to the K fertilization during the five successive crop seasons.

  4. Effect of different levels of corn steep liquor addition on fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of fresh rice straw silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to determine the proper mixing ratio of fresh rice straw to corn steep liquor (CSL to obtain a high protein content silage feed. The following experimental silages were generated: the control (C1, composed of fresh rice straw without CSL additive, mixed with CSL in the ratios of 4:1 (C4, 3:1 (C3 and 2:1 (C2. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB inoculant was applied at the rate of 50 mL/kg (fresh basis of forage to achieve a final application rate of 1 × 106 cfu/g of fresh matter (FM. Duplicate silos for each treatment were opened after 0, 3, 7, 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 d for microbiological and chemical analysis. The results showed that the addition of CSL significantly increased crude protein (CP contents, and decreased neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF contents of treatments after 60 d of ensiling (P < 0.05. The lactic acid contents in C4 and C3 were significantly higher than that in C1 (P < 0.05. In summary, mixing fresh rice straw with CSL at addition levels of 4:1 (C4 and 3:1 (C3 can improve the fermentation quality and nutrient composition of fresh rice straw silage. However, a large proportion of CSL (C3 had a negative impact on the aerobic stability of fresh rice straw.

  5. Efeito de aditivos biológicos comerciais na silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum Effect of commercial biological additives on elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.L. Patrizi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o pH e a composição bromatológica de silagens de capim-elefante var. Napier, sem e com três aditivos biológicos comerciais (B, C e D em duas concentrações de diluição, a recomendada pelo fabricante (concentração 1 ou com o dobro (concentração 2, feitas em microsilos de PVC. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e seis repetições por tratamento. Apenas o aditivo B em ambas as concentrações (3,73; 4,07 foi eficiente em reduzir (PA completely randomized design with seven treatments and six replicates per treatment was conducted to study the effect of three commercial biological additives (B, C and D, in two concentrations (manufacturer’s recommended dose - concentration 1 or double dose -concentration 2 on pH and chemical composition of elephantgrass (var. Napier silage. A lower pH (P<0.05 was observed in silage with additive B at concentrations 1 (pH=3.73 and concentration 2 (pH=4.07, when compared to the control treatment (pH=5.01. Silage dry matter (% increased (P<0.05 with the use of additive B at concentrations 1 and 2 (29.9% and 31.3 %, respectively and additives C and D at concentration 2 (26.8% and 25.7%, respectively in comparison to the control treatment (24.0%. Silage with additive B had higher crude protein levels than the control treatment (6.6% at concentrations 1 (13.4% and 2 (12.1%. Lignin and neutral detergent fiber levels were lower (P<0.05 for treatments with additive B. The use of doble level of additive B did not increase its efficiency. All additives increased calcium concentration, but not phosphorus concentration. These results indicated that additive B (Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici improved elephantgrass silage fermentation process and its nutritional value. Increasing commercial biological additives above the manufacturer’s recommended level did not improve (P<0.05 silage quality.

  6. Growth and Survival of Genetically Manipulated Lactobacillus plantarum in Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R; O'donnell, A G; Gilbert, H G; Hazlewood, G P

    1992-08-01

    The growth and persistence of two genetically manipulated forms of Lactobacillus plantarum NCDO (National Collection of Dairy Organisms) 1193 have been monitored in grass silage. Both recombinants contained pSA3, a shuttle vector for gram-positive organisms that encodes erythromycin resistance. In one of the recombinants, pSA3 was integrated onto the chromosome, whereas in the other, a pSA3 derivative designated pM25, which contains a Clostridium thermocellum cellulase gene cloned into pSA3, was maintained as an extrachromosomal element. This extrachromosomal element is a plasmid. Rifampin-resistant mutants were selected for the recombinants and the parent strain. When applied to minisilos at a rate of 10 CFU/g of grass, both the recombinants and the parent strain proliferated to dominate the epiphytic microflora and induced an increase in the decline in pH compared with that of the noninoculated silos. The presence of extra genetic material did not appear to disadvantage the bacterium in comparison with the parent strain. The selective recovery of both strains by using rifampin and erythromycin was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Interestingly, the free plasmid (pM25) appeared more stable in silage than was expected from studies in MRS broth. The plasmid was retained by 85% of the rifampin-resistant L. plantarum colonies isolated from a day 30 silo. These data answer an important question by showing that genetically manipulated recombinants of L. plantarum can proliferate and compete with epiphytic lactic acid bacteria in silage.

  7. Comparison of Chemical and Degradability Characteristics of Green Forage and Silage of Sorghums Varieties with Corn Using In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hedayatipour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and fermentative parameters of three fresh forages and silages of sorghum including Sweet, Pegah and Speedfeed varieties were compared with corn using in vitro method, also degradability coefficients of forages and silages were determined by in situ method. Forages were planted in the same condition and harvested in soft dough stage, then ensilaged in four replicates for each time of 30, 60 and 90 days of preservation in mini silos. Buffering capacity in green Sweet sorghum was lower than corn and Speedfeed, and acid detergent fiber and water soluble carbohydrates respectively were significantly highest and lowest in fresh forage of Speedfeed sorghum. In time of 60 days, percent of acid detergent lignin of corn silage was lower than Sweet and Speedfeed sorghum silages; similarly, residual water soluble carbohydrate was lowest in corn silage. The lactate Concentration in corn and Pegah sorghums was higher than Sweet and Speedfeed silages. In corn and Sweet sorghum silages, Contents of acetic acid and ammonium nitrogen were highest and lowest, respectively. In nylon bag experiment, Degradation rate of corn and Pegah sorghum forages were significantly higher than Sweet and Speedfeed sorghums that cause to more effective degradability with passage rate of 0.08 in this forages. Also, the slowly degradation coefficient of corn silage was higher than sorghums silages. In conclusion, Speedfeed sorghum forage is not suitable for making silage in comparison others, and corn silage had more potential of degradability.

  8. Adaptation of Methanogenic Inocula to Anaerobic Digestion of Maize Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Wojcieszak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A well-balanced microbial consortium is crucial for efficient biogas production. In turn, one of a major factor that influence on the structure of anaerobic digestion (AD consortium is a source of microorganisms which are used as an inoculum. This study evaluated the influence of inoculum sources (with various origin on adaptation of a biogas community and the efficiency of the biomethanization of maize silage. As initial inocula for AD of maize silage the samples from: (i an agricultural biogas plant (ABP which utilizes maize silage as a main substrate, (ii cattle slurry (CS, which contain elevated levels of lignocelluloses materials, and (iii raw sewage sludge (RSS with low content of plant origin materials were used. The adaptation of methanogenic consortia was monitored during a series of passages, and the functionality of the adapted consortia was verified through start-up operation of AD in two-stage reactors. During the first stages of the adaptation phase, methanogenic consortia occurred very slowly, and only after several passages did the microbial community adapts to allow production of biogas with high methane content. The ABP consortium revealed highest biogas production in the adaptation and in the start-up process. The biodiversity dynamics monitored during adaptation and start-up process showed that community profile changed in a similar direction in three studied consortia. Native communities were very distinct to each other, while at the end of the Phase II of the start-up process microbial diversity profile was similar in all consortia. All adopted bacterial communities were dominated by representatives of Porphyromonadaceae, Rikenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Synergistaceae. A shift from low acetate-preferring acetoclastic Methanosaetaceae (ABP and RSS and/or hydrogenotrophic Archaea, e.g., Methanomicrobiaceae (CS prevailing in the inoculum samples to larger populations of high acetate-preferring acetoclastic

  9. Growth and Survival of Genetically Manipulated Lactobacillus plantarum in Silage

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, R.; O'Donnell, A. G.; Gilbert, H. G.; Hazlewood, G. P.

    1992-01-01

    The growth and persistence of two genetically manipulated forms of Lactobacillus plantarum NCDO (National Collection of Dairy Organisms) 1193 have been monitored in grass silage. Both recombinants contained pSA3, a shuttle vector for gram-positive organisms that encodes erythromycin resistance. In one of the recombinants, pSA3 was integrated onto the chromosome, whereas in the other, a pSA3 derivative designated pM25, which contains a Clostridium thermocellum cellulase gene cloned into pSA3, ...

  10. Co-digestion of ley crop silage, straw and manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Aa.; Edstroem, M. [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of ley crop silage, wheat straw and liquid manure with liquid recirculation was investigated in laboratory- and pilot scale. An organic loading rate of 6.0 g Vs L{sup -1} d{sup -1} was obtained when 20% of liquid manure (TS-basis) was added, whereas an organic loading rate of 2.5 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} was obtained when the manure was replaced with a trace element solution. The methane yield varied between 0.28 and 0.32 L g VS{sup -1}, with the value being lowest for a mixture containing 60% silage, 20% straw and 20% manure (TS-basis), and highest for 100% ley crop silage. The concentration of ammonia-N was maintained at ca 2 g L{sup -1} by adjusting the C:N-ratio with straw. To achieve good mixing characteristics with a reasonable energy input at TS-concentrations around 10%, the particle sizes of straw and silage had to be reduced with a meat mincer. The digester effluent was dewatered, resulting in a solid phase that could be composted without having to add amendments or bulking agents, and a liquid phase containing 7-8% TS (mainly soluble and suspended solids). The liquid phase, which should be used as an organic fertilizer, contained up to 90% of the N and 74% of the P present in the residues. Calculations of the costs for a full-scale plant showed that a biogas price of SEK 0.125 MJ{sup -1} (0.45 k Wh{sup -1}) is necessary to balance the costs of a 1-MW plant. An increase in plant size to 4 MW together with an increase in compost price from SEK 100 tonnes{sup -1} to SEK 370 tonnes{sup -1} and a 20% rise in the methane yield through post-digestion (20%) would decrease the price to SEK 0.061 MJ{sup -1} (0.22 kWh{sup -1}). (au) 15 refs.

  11. Desenvolvimento de borregos inteiros e com tratamentos escrotais da raça Churra Galega Bragançana até aos 40 e 75% do seu peso adulto: I. Secreção de testosterona e ganho médio diário de peso

    OpenAIRE

    Valentim, Ramiro; Teixeira, A.; Azevedo, Jorge; Correia, Teresa Montenegro; Regino, Manuel João

    1996-01-01

    Este ensaio foi realizado com o objectivo de estudar a acção de diferentes tratamentos escrotais sobre a secreção de testosterona e sobre o aumento médio diário de peso dos borregos Churros Bragançanos. Assim, um lote de 40 borregos da raça Churra Galega Bragançana foi dividido, aleatoriamente, em quatro grupos (I, EC25%, EC50% e C) de 10 animais cada: Grupo I, composto por animais inteiros, Grupo EC25% em que foi colocado um anel de borracha a cerca de 1/4 do comprimento do escroto, relativa...

  12. Quality keeping and upgrading technique on delivery of raw fodder and so forth by using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Ryoei; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Osamu; Ando, Sada; Akiyama, Fumiaki; Yamada, Akio

    2000-01-01

    Silage was prepared by alfalfa added with mixing bean curd refuse and brewers grains at various ratios. After irradiation of them, the effects on taste, chemical components and microflora were studied. When silage was prepared by alfalfa only and gamma ray irradiated, almost microorganism of silage were not indicated and lactic acid content in the materials decreased. If silage was prepared by brewers grains or bean curd refuse, change of microorganism number was same as alfalfa, but lactic acid content was large after storage. Increase of lipid peroxide by gamma ray irradiation was not observed. The gamma ray irradiation method made clear to be useful for production method of storage silage with high quality. (S.Y.)

  13. Effect of fibrolytic enzymes on the fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, and digestibility of bermudagrass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D B; Adesogan, A T; Krueger, N; Littell, R C

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the nutritive value and aerobic stability of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silage could be improved by addition of proprietary, exogenous cellulase/hemicellulase enzyme preparations at ensiling. A 5-wk regrowth of Tifton 85 bermudagrass was conserved without treatment (control) or after treatment with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes including Promote NET (Pr), Biocellulase X-20 (X20), Biocellulase A-20 (A20), and Enzyme CT. The respective enzymes were applied at half the recommended rate, the recommended rate, or twice the recommended rate corresponding to 0.65, 1.3, and 2.6 g/kg of DM, 7.3, 14.5, and 29 mg/kg of DM, at 7.3, 14.4, and 29 mg/kg of DM, and 89, 178, and 356 mg/kg of DM, for Pr, X20, A20, and CT, respectively. The enzymes were sprayed on the bermudagrass at ensiling (not added at feeding as suggested by the manufacturers) to test the objectives of the study. Six 1-kg replicates of chopped (5 cm) forage were ensiled for 145 d in 2.8-L mini silos. Three silos per treatment were used for chemical analysis and 3 for aerobic stability monitoring. The silage juice was analyzed for organic acids, pH, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), ammonia-N, and soluble N. Freeze-dried samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF). In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD), NDF (IVNDFD), and ADF (IVADFD) were determined after digesting the silages in buffered rumen fluid for 6 or 48 h in 2 ANKOM(II) Daisy Incubators. Compared with the other silages, those treated with Pr had lower DM losses, and lower pH and ammonia-N concentration than control silages. Residual WSC concentration was greater in Pr- and CT-treated silages than in control silages and greater in Pr-treated silages than CT-treated silages. Compared with control silages, NDF concentration was lower in silages treated with Pr, X20, and CT, and ADF concentration was lower in silages treated with Pr, X20, and A20

  14. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Wilted and Additive-Treated Grass Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, TM; Tham, WA

    2003-01-01

    Grass was field-dried to 3 different dry matter (DM) levels (200, 430 and 540 g/kg) and inoculated with 106–107 cfu/g of a Listeria monocytogenes strain sharing a phagovar occasionally involved in food-borne outbreaks of listeriosis. Formic acid (3 ml/kg) or lactic acid bacteria (8·105/g) with cellulolytic enzymes were applied only to forages with low and intermediate DM levels. Forages were ensiled in laboratory silos (1700 ml) and were stored at 25°C for 30 or 90 days. After 90 days of storage, L. monocytogenes could not be detected in any silo, except one with the high dry matter grass without additive. After 30 days of storage, between 102 and 106 cfu L. monocytogenes/g silage were isolated from the untreated silages. Increasing the DM content from 200 to 540 g/kg did not reduce listeria counts possibly because of the lower production of fermentation acids (higher pH). In silages treated with additives, counts of L. monocytogenes were always lower than in silages without additive. In wet silages (DM 200 g/kg) both additives were effective, but in the wilted silages (DM 430 g/kg) only the bacterial additive reduced listeria counts below detection level. Listeria counts were highly correlated to silage pH (r = 0.92), the concentration of lactic acid (r = -0.80) and the pooled amount of undissociated acids (r = -0.83). PMID:14650546

  15. Nutritional value of grass silage of mombasa associated with additives agroindustrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of grass silage-mombasa associated with different additives in four times of opening the silo. The experiment was conducted in UFGD. After harvesting the forage, biomass in natura crushed, was taken to the lab, homogenized and enriched on the basis of natural mass, with the following additives: 5% wheat bran, 5% of waste (broken grain and soy ice cream cone of soybean, 5% urea in natural matter and the witness (without additive.The silos were opened after (unprocessed material, 15, 30 and 45 days, for the analysis of chemical composition. The data obtained were analyzed through the statistical programme SISVAR and averages were compared to 5% of probability, by Skott-Knot. The grass silage- mombasa without additive presented major (P0.05 of grass silage- mombasa associated with 5 of urea in 15 days and 45 of silage. The grass silage-mombasa with 5% urea showed the highest crude protein content at time 0 and differed from other treatments. The silage of mombasa associated with 5% urea provided greater in vitro digestibility of dry matter to 15 days of silage.

  16. Co-Digestion of Sugar Beet Silage Increases Biogas Yield from Fibrous Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfalt, Daniel; Kazda, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the easily degradable carbohydrates of the sugar beet silage (S) will improve the anaerobic digestion of grass silage (G) more profoundly compared to co-digestion of sugar beet silage with maize silage (M). M : S and G : S mixtures were tested in two continuous laboratory-scale AD experiments at volatile solid ratios of 1 : 0, 6 : 1, 3 : 1, and 1 : 3 at organic loading rates of 1.5 kgVS m−3 day−1. While the sugar beet effects in mixtures with maize silage were negligible, co-digestion with grass silage showed a beneficial performance. There, the specific methane production rate was 0.27 lN kg−1VS h−1at G : S ratio of 6 : 1 compared to G : S 1 : 0 with 0.14 lN kg−1VS h−1. In comparison to G : S 1 : 0, about 44% and 62% higher biogas yields were obtained at G : S 6 : 1 and 3 : 1, respectively. Also, the highest methane concentration was found in G : S at ratio of 1 : 3. Synergistic increase of methane yield was found in co-digestion in both experiments, but higher effect was realized in G : S, independently of the amount of sugar beet silage. The findings of this study emphasize the improvement of AD of grass silage by even low addition of sugar beet silage. PMID:27807538

  17. Short-term effects of silage volatile compounds on feed intake and digestion in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J L P; Amaral, R C; Goulart, R S; Zopollatto, M; Santos, V P; Toledo Filho, S G; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Lima, J R; Santos, M C; Nussio, L G

    2013-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate whether fermentation end products in silage affect intake and digestion in beef cattle. Six rumen-cannulated Nellore steers were randomly assigned to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Each period consisted of 9 d for adaptation and 5 d for sample collection. Steers were housed in a tie-stall barn and individually fed once daily at 0800 h. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were as follows: 60% corn silage plus 40% concentrate (CON), 60% corn silage with added ethanol (2.8% on a DM basis) and 40% concentrate (ET), and 60% corn silage with added lactic acid (5.4% on a DM basis) and 40% concentrate (LA). The DMI was similar (P = 0.41) across treatments (average 11.7 kg/d); however, the LA treatment increased the ruminal pH (P = 0.01) and decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (P distillation. The treatments in Exp. 2 were as follows: 75% sugarcane silage with no volatile fraction (oven dried at 60°C and rehydrated) and 25% concentrate (75D), 75% sugarcane silage (original moisture content) and 25% concentrate (75W), and 40% sugarcane silage and 60% concentrate (40W). Approximately 21% of the DM content of sugarcane silage consisted of volatile compounds. The presence of these compounds did not alter the DMI (P = 0.36) but did increase both the acetate:propionate ratio (P fractional absorption rates of valerate (P distillation. In this short-term study, volatile compounds did not inhibit the DMI or the digestion process of the animals. On the contrary, volatile compounds contributed to the energy content of the silage, composing up to 10% of the energy value as determined by digestibility. Due to the short experimental periods, the results from this study should be interpreted with caution.

  18. Use of additives and pre-wilting in Tifton 85 bermudagrass silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Abbado Neres

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of tropical grasses silage has become common in ruminant feed. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the fermentation characteristics, nutritional value, pH, fermentative capacity, ammonia nitrogen / total nitrogen (NH3N/total N of Tifton 85 bermudagrass grass silage with different additives and wilting. The treatments were: pre-drying in the sun for two hours before silage, use of inoculant-enzymatic addition of soybean hulls, corn grits addition and use of salt in the surface layer of the silo. The experimental design was completely randomized with 6 treatments and 4 replications. Plants of Tifton 85 bermudagrass with 38 days of growth were ensiled in experimental silos with Bunsen valve type with packing densities of 236 kg of silage per m³ for Tifton 85 bermudagrass pre-dried in the sun and 294 kg of silage per m³ for the other treatments. The proportions of soybean hulls and corn grits added to the silage were calculated based on the initial DM content of Tifton 85 bermudagrass order to obtain MS 320 g kg-1 for the material to be ensiled. The buffering capacity did not differ between treatments in getting 29.56 (meqHCl/100gMS. It was found that the concentration of ammonia nitrogen did not differ between silages and remained low (3.22 g kg-1, the pH after silo opening was also similar with an average of 4.09 getting above 4.2 only in Tifton 85 bermudagrass silage without pre-treatment. The crude protein was higher in silages Tifton 85 bermudagrass and Tifton 85 bermudagrass with soybean hulls (17.48 g kg-1. The use corn grits caused a reduction in the values of NDF. The use of salt on the surface the layer reduced the production of latic and acetic acid.

  19. A process-based emission model of volatile organic compounds from silage sources on farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, H. F.; Rotz, C. A.; Hafner, S. D.; Montes, F.; Cohen, M.; Mitloehner, F. M.

    2017-03-01

    Silage on dairy farms can emit large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a precursor in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Because of the challenges associated with direct measurements, process-based modeling is another approach for estimating emissions of air pollutants from sources such as those from dairy farms. A process-based model for predicting VOC emissions from silage was developed and incorporated into the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM, v. 4.3), a whole-farm simulation of crop, dairy, and beef production systems. The performance of the IFSM silage VOC emission model was evaluated using ethanol and methanol emissions measured from conventional silage piles (CSP), silage bags (SB), total mixed rations (TMR), and loose corn silage (LCS) at a commercial dairy farm in central California. With transport coefficients for ethanol refined using experimental data from our previous studies, the model performed well in simulating ethanol emission from CSP, TMR, and LCS; its lower performance for SB could be attributed to possible changes in face conditions of SB after silage removal that are not represented in the current model. For methanol emission, lack of experimental data for refinement likely caused the underprediction for CSP and SB whereas the overprediction observed for TMR can be explained as uncertainty in measurements. Despite these limitations, the model is a valuable tool for comparing silage management options and evaluating their relative effects on the overall performance, economics, and environmental impacts of farm production. As a component of IFSM, the silage VOC emission model was used to simulate a representative dairy farm in central California. The simulation showed most silage VOC emissions were from feed lying in feed lanes and not from the exposed face of silage storages. This suggests that mitigation efforts, particularly in areas prone to ozone non-attainment status, should focus on reducing emissions during feeding. For

  20. Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghua Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For silage production, high bulk density (BD is critical to minimize aerobic deterioration facilitated by oxygen intrusion. To precisely assess packing quality for bunker silos, there is a desire to visualize the BD distribution within the silage. In this study, a penetrometer-based mapping system was developed. The data processing included filtering of the penetration friction component (PFC out of the penetration resistance (PR, transfer of the corrected penetration resistance (PRc to BD, incorporation of Kriged interpolation for data expansion and map generation. The experiment was conducted in a maize bunker silo (width: 8 m, middle height: 3 m. The BD distributions near the bunker silo face were represented using two map groups, one related to horizontal- and the other to vertical-density distribution patterns. We also presented a comparison between the map-based BD results and core sampling data. Agreement between the two measurement approaches (RMSE = 19.175 kg·m−3 demonstrates that the developed penetrometer mapping system may be beneficial for rapid assessment of aerobic deterioration potential in bunker silos.

  1. Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H; Sun, Yurui; Cheng, Qiang; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Lin, Jianhui; Zhou, Haiyang; Wang, Zhongyi

    2016-07-05

    For silage production, high bulk density (BD) is critical to minimize aerobic deterioration facilitated by oxygen intrusion. To precisely assess packing quality for bunker silos, there is a desire to visualize the BD distribution within the silage. In this study, a penetrometer-based mapping system was developed. The data processing included filtering of the penetration friction component (PFC) out of the penetration resistance (PR), transfer of the corrected penetration resistance (PRc) to BD, incorporation of Kriged interpolation for data expansion and map generation. The experiment was conducted in a maize bunker silo (width: 8 m, middle height: 3 m). The BD distributions near the bunker silo face were represented using two map groups, one related to horizontal- and the other to vertical-density distribution patterns. We also presented a comparison between the map-based BD results and core sampling data. Agreement between the two measurement approaches (RMSE = 19.175 kg·m(-3)) demonstrates that the developed penetrometer mapping system may be beneficial for rapid assessment of aerobic deterioration potential in bunker silos.

  2. Functionally redundant but dissimilar microbial communities within biogas reactors treating maize silage in co-fermentation with sugar beet silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Susanne G; Ahmed, Sharif; Einfalt, Daniel; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Kazda, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Numerous observations indicate a high flexibility of microbial communities in different biogas reactors during anaerobic digestion. Here, we describe the functional redundancy and structural changes of involved microbial communities in four lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs, 39°C, 12 L volume) supplied with different mixtures of maize silage (MS) and sugar beet silage (SBS) over 80 days. Continuously stirred tank reactors were fed with mixtures of MS and SBS in volatile solid ratios of 1:0 (Continuous Fermenter (CF) 1), 6:1 (CF2), 3:1 (CF3), 1:3 (CF4) with equal organic loading rates (OLR 1.25 kgVS m−3 d−1) and showed similar biogas production rates in all reactors. The compositions of bacterial and archaeal communities were analysed by 454 amplicon sequencing approach based on 16S rRNA genes. Both bacterial and archaeal communities shifted with increasing amounts of SBS. Especially pronounced were changes in the archaeal composition towards Methanosarcina with increasing proportion of SBS, while Methanosaeta declined simultaneously. Compositional shifts within the microbial communities did not influence the respective biogas production rates indicating that these communities adapted to environmental conditions induced by different feedstock mixtures. The diverse microbial communities optimized their metabolism in a way that ensured efficient biogas production. PMID:26200922

  3. Parâmetros bromatológicos e fermentativos das silagens de milho e girassol Bromatological and fermentative parameters of corn and sunflower silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Aparecida Possenti

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido no Instituto de Zootecnia, Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios (APTA, São Paulo um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar quimicamente a qualidade das silagens e a degradação ruminal da matéria seca (MS, fibra detergente neutra (FDN e proteína bruta (PB das silagens de milho e girassol. Na avaliação químico-bromatológica das silagens, utilizou-se delineamento estatístico inteiramente ao acaso com nove repetições por tratamento (silagem de milho ou girassol e, para a degradação in situ, utilizou-se delineamento em parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. A silagem de girassol apresentou maiores concentrações de proteína bruta (11,6 vs 9,4%, extrato etéreo (10,1 vs 3,2%, fibra detergente ácida (42,7 vs 31,9%e lignina (9,4 vs 3,7%, e menores teores de MS (22,0 vs 34,6% que a silagem de milho, respectivamente. Apresentou também maiores teores de nitrogênio amoniacal (10,7 vs 5,8 % e ácido acético (3,0 vs 0,79% e menores concentrações de ácido lático (3,7 vs 11,3% que a silagem de milho. As taxas de degradação efetiva da MS, FDN e PB da silagem de girassol foram menores do que as da silagem de milho. A silagem de milho apresentou características mais favoráveis ao processo de ensilagem.At the Instituto de Zootecnia, APTA, São Paulo State-Brazil, it was carried out an experiment to evaluated the chemical quality and ruminal degradation for dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and protein (CP of sunflower and corn silages. For chemical evaluation of the silages, a total randomized design with nine replicates was used. For in situ degradability was used a split-plot design with three replicates, in which the plots were the times of incubation and the subplot the silage. Sunflower silage showed higher concentration of crude protein (11.6 vs 9.4%, ether extract (10.1 vs 3.2%, acid detergent fiber (42.7 vs 31.9% and lignin (9.4 vs 3.7%, and lower concentration of dry matter than

  4. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okine Abdul Razak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC, which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27 with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively, and their silages (n = 81. These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus, a root tuber source (potato pulp, a fruit source (apple pomace and a cereal source (brewer’s grain, respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3. Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01, with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76 between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship.

  5. Consórcio capim-braquiária e milho: comportamento produtivo das culturas e características nutricionais e qualitativas das silagens The intercrop between signal grass and corn: productive performance of the cultures, nutritional characteristics and silage quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Paula Leonel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa, o objetivo foi avaliar as diferenças entre silagens de culturas exclusivas ou do consórcio de milho e capim-braquiária, além de dois arranjos de semeadura do consórcio (duas fileiras de capim-braquiária nas entrelinhas do milho; e semeadura de capim-braquiária a lanço nas entrelinhas do milho. Avaliaram-se as produções de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT por área e as características qualitativas das silagens (teores de PB, NDT, FDN, lignina e carboidratos não-fibrosos, nitrogênio amoniacal, ácidos butírico e lático e o pH. O milho em cultivo exclusivo, semeadura de duas fileiras do capim-braquiária nas entrelinhas do milho e semeadura do capim-braquiária a lanço nas entrelinhas do milho não diferiram com relação à produção de MS, PB e NDT, e nem com relação a variáveis qualitativas como teores de PB, NDT, FDN, lignina, pH, nitrogênio amoniacal, ácidos lático e butírico na MS das silagens, mostrando-se melhores desempenhos que o capim-braquiária em cultivo exclusivo quanto a essas variáveis. Porém, a recuperação do dossel forrageiro na área, após a colheita do material, foi mais rápida no arranjo com duas fileiras do capim-braquiária nas entrelinhas do milho.The objective of this work was to evaluate differences between silages produced from exclusive cultures or intercropped with corn and signal grass cultures in different sowing arrangements (two lines of signal grass in the corn inter-lines and hand-sowed signal grass in the corn inter-lines The production of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and total digestible nutrients (TDN for area was evaluated, as well as the qualitative variables of DM in the silages including CP, TDN, NDF, LIG, NFC, NH3, butyric and lactic acids and pH. The corn in exclusive culture, signal grass in two lines and hand-sowed signal grass did not differ in relation to the DM, CP and TDN production or the qualitative

  6. Quality keeping and upgrading technique on delivery of raw fodder and so forth by using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Ryoei; Tanaka, Osamu; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ando, Sada; Akiyama, Fumiaki; Yamada, Akio [National Grassland Research Inst., Nishinasuno, Tochigi (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    As most of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic spore bacteria, molds and yeasts died owing to 8 to 16 kGy of {gamma}-ray irradiation, it was found that butyric acid fermentation and aerobic putrefaction in silage did not form. As the lactobacilli bringing good fermentation quality died as well at such radiation dose, on a case of a mixed silage using the dregs, in which lactic acid was present, quality of its fermentation was good. And, many informations on changes in fatty quality and yeast activity in the silage formed by irradiation could also be obtained. As the dregs had a large difference in physical and chemical components, quality after preparation of the silage was not uniform. Materials suitable for {gamma}-ray irradiation and radiation dose suitable for each material was found to be clarified. (G.K.)

  7. Quality keeping and upgrading technique on delivery of raw fodder and so forth by using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Ryoei; Tanaka, Osamu; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ando, Sada; Akiyama, Fumiaki; Yamada, Akio

    1998-01-01

    As most of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic spore bacteria, molds and yeasts died owing to 8 to 16 kGy of γ-ray irradiation, it was found that butyric acid fermentation and aerobic putrefaction in silage did not form. As the lactobacilli bringing good fermentation quality died as well at such radiation dose, on a case of a mixed silage using the dregs, in which lactic acid was present, quality of its fermentation was good. And, many informations on changes in fatty quality and yeast activity in the silage formed by irradiation could also be obtained. As the dregs had a large difference in physical and chemical components, quality after preparation of the silage was not uniform. Materials suitable for γ-ray irradiation and radiation dose suitable for each material was found to be clarified. (G.K.)

  8. Evaluation of Ratana grass (Ischaemum indicum Houtt. silage with three different kinds additives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Boschini-Figueroa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work, was to evaluate the characteristics of the fermentation process of Ratana Grass (Ischaemum indicum Houtt. and the quality of the ensilage produced, when three different additives were added. The experiment was carried out at Limón, Costa Rica, between the months of July and December, at an area located 249 m.a.s.l., with a mean temperature of 24.5 °C and 4577.2 mm of rain distributed mainly between May and December. A randomized complete block design, with four repetitions and nine treatments was used with the following additives: soilage with molasses, ground corn or dehydrated citrus pulp on three orthogonal levels of addition. Molasses and dehydrated citrus pulp produced the most important losses (p<0.05 with fresh matter reductions of 13.27% and 14.42% respectively; while the treatments with ground corn reported 11.68% of fresh matter losses. No differences were obtained (p>0.05 for dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose and ashes percentages on any treatment. Crude protein (CP, cellulose and ether extract (EE differed according to the amount of additive used (p<0.05. pH levels found were statistically lower for the molasses treatments (4.84, compared to the ground corn (5.10 or dehydrated citrus pulp (5.02 treatments. Finally, all analyzed treatments showed organoleptic characteristics corresponding to good quality silages.

  9. Silage feed advice for pig farmers: Farmers Weekly report on ICOPP feeding trial at FAI Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    A trial is conducted at FAI Farms, as part of the Core Organic II ICOPP project, to assess the use of alternative sources of protein (peas and beans) as part of a lucerne-silage based ration for pigs.

  10. Trichoderma longibrachiatum acetyl xylan esterase 1 enhances hemicellulolytic preparations to degrade corn silage polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumüller, K.G.; Streekstra, H.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Supplementation of a Trichoderma longibrachiatum preparation to an industrial Aspergillus niger/Talaromyces emersonii enzyme mixture demonstrated synergy for the saccharification of corn silage water-unextractable solids (WUS). Sub-fractions of the crude T. longibrachiatum preparation obtained after

  11. Mycotoxin occurrence on baled and pit silages collected in Co. Meath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElhinney C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of baled silages produced in Ireland have identified considerable filamentous fungal contamination. Many of these fungi are toxigenic, capable of producing secondary metabolites, namely mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are potentially detrimental to livestock health and some can pose a risk to consumers of animal products. Baled (n=20 and pit (n=18 silages from a sample of farms (n=38 in Co. Meath were examined to assess the occurrence of mycotoxins and ascertain whether sampling position within the pit silos (feed face vs. 3 m behind the feed face has an effect on mycotoxin content or other chemical compositional variables. Of the 20 mycotoxins assayed, baled silages contained [mean of positive values (no. of values in mean] mycotoxin concentrations (μg/kg dry matter of beauvericin 36 (2, enniatin (enn. A 9.3 (3, enn. A1 54 (8, enn. B 351 (9, enn. B1 136 (10, mycophenolic acid (MPA 11,157 (8 and roquefortine C (Roq. C 1037 (8 and pit silages contained beauvericin 25 (2 enn. A1 18 (2, enn. B 194 (9, enn. B1 57 (3, MPA 287 (6, Roq. C 3649 (6 and zearalenone 76 (1. There was no difference (P>0.05 observed in the mycotoxin concentrations between baled and pit silages, and 11 of the 20 mycotoxins assayed were below the limits of detection. The position of sampling had no effect on the mycotoxin concentration detected in pit silages. It is concluded that mycotoxin concentrations detected in these pit and baled silages in Co. Meath did not exceed EU regulation or guidance limits, and that similar chemical composition and mycotoxin concentration values occurred at the pit silage feed face and 3 m behind this feed face.

  12. Faecal particle-size distribution from ewes fed grass silages harvested at different stages of maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of maturity stage of grass at harvest on particle size in faeces from ewes fed grass silage ad libitum. Eighteen pregnant Swedish ewes bearing two foetuses were given one of three treatments as their only feed. The treatments were early (ECS...... pore size. The proportions of particles in the B, C, D, S and O fractions were affected by cutting time of the silaage (P ewes fed grass silages....

  13. Methane production and energy partition in sheep fed timothy silage- or hay-based diets

    OpenAIRE

    B Santoso; B Mwenya; C Sar; J Takahashi

    2007-01-01

    Methane is produced as a result of anaerobic fermentation of the soluble and structural carbohydrates by methanogens in the rumen of ruminant animals. Removal of methane from rumen represents a loss of approximately 7.22% of gross energy intake. Four ruminally fistulated Cheviot wethers were used in a crossover design to determine methane production and energy partition in sheep fed timothy silage- or hay-based diets. The experimental diets consisted of either timothy silage or timothy hay a...

  14. Nutritional evaluation of elephant-grass silages with byproduct of annato

    OpenAIRE

    Rêgo,Margareth Maria Teles; Neiva,José Neuman Miranda; Rêgo,Aníbal Coutinho do; Cândido,Magno José Duarte; Clementino,Rossana Herculano; Restle,João

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the nutritional value of elephant-grass silages containing annato byproduct. Twenty intact rams were distributed in a complete randomized block design with five diets (0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% annato byproduct in the silage) and four replications and used to estimate the intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, content of total digestible nutrients and nitrogen balance. The addition of annato byproduct raised the intakes of dry matter (DM), organi...

  15. INFLUENCE OF SILAGE ADDITIVES ON FERMENTATION OF HIGH MOISTURE CRIMPED CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Gálik

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to find influence of different silage additives on silages fermentation and nutritional value made from high moisture crimped corn, which were conserved in semi experimental conditions. Three variants were examined, untreated control (C, and two experimental variants conserved by biological (variant A and chemical (variant B additives. The maize crimped corn was hermetically filled into plastic bins with the capacity 50 dm3. In silage conserved by additives was lower content of crude fibre (significantly in both experimental variants and higher content of nitrogen free extract, starch and total sugars (significantly in variant A established. In silages form both experimental variants we found significantly lower content of lactic acid. The highest concent we detected in silage conserved without additives. In silage conserved by biological inoculant we found lower content of acetic acid and higher content of butyric acid, but their content was generally very low. Additives used in the experiment decreased content of amonia (0.074 g.kg-1 in variant A and 0.095 g.kg-1 of dry matter in variant B and alcohols too.

  16. Qualitative parameters of sugarcane silages treated with urea and calcium oxide

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    Susi Cristina dos Santos Guimarães Martins

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the fermentation parameters, chemical composition and fractionation of carbohydrates of sugarcane silages treated with urea and calcium oxide (CaO. Upon ensiling, the treatments applied to the sugarcane were: 1% urea; 0.5% urea + 0.5% CaO; and 1% CaO, in relation to a control silage, without additive. The chemical additives (urea and CaO were added at ensiling, in an amount calculated based on the fresh matter (as is. A completely randomized design consisting of four treatments (silages and nine replicates was adopted. The material was conditioned in PVC mini-silos for five months. At the end of the storage period, silos were weighed again and samples were collected to quantify the losses caused by fermentation, dry matter recovery, pH, and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 of the silages and to evaluate the chemical composition and fractionation of carbohydrates. The silage with 1% CaO showed the highest recovery of dry matter, and in terms of carbohydrate fractionation, it showed the highest levels of soluble and potentially soluble carbohydrates. Addition of 1% CaO during ensiling reduces the fermentation losses of sugarcane silages.

  17. Nutritional value of sorghum silage of different purposes

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    Arthur Behling Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sorghum is a crop that stands out as an alternative to corn due to lower soil fertility demand and increased tolerance to drought. Lack of information about the qualitative behaviour of sorghum hinders the recommendation of different purpose sorghum cultivars. The goal was to evaluate the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of different purpose sorghum cultivar silages, at two cropping seasons. The trial was conducted at the Plant Production Department, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, Colorado do Oeste campus, and chemical analyses and in vitro incubation were performed at the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá campus. The experimental design was a randomized block with a split-plot arrangement and four replications. Plot treatments consisted of six different purpose sorghum cultivars (BRS 308 and BRS 310, grain sorghum; BR 655 and BRS 610, forage sorghum; and BRS 506 and CMSXS 647, sweet sorghum. Split-plot treatments consisted of two cropping periods (first crop and second crop. Forage sorghum cultivar BRS 655 demonstrated higher non-fiber carbohydrate content and lower potentially digestible fibre content than the other cultivars did. Sweet sorghum cultivars had higher levels of water soluble carbohydrates and non-protein nitrogen based on protein, lower indigestible neutral detergent fibre content at second crop, and higher in vitro dry matter digestibility than the other cultivars. The silages of sweet sorghum cultivars BRS 506 and CMSXS 647, and forage sorghum cultivar BRS 655 presented higher nutritional values.

  18. Intake, digestibility, nitrogen efficiency, and animal performance of growing and finishing beef cattle fed warm-season legume (Stylosanthes capitata plus Stylosanthes macrocephala) silage replacing corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, W F; Pereira, O G; Ribeiro, K G; Santos, S A; Valadares Filho, S C

    2014-09-01

    It was hypothesized that Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande (ES) silage could be used as the single source of dietary forage for beef cattle and that performance on ES would be similar to corn silage (CS) at a 50:50 forage:concentrate. The objectives of this study were to evaluate intake, total and partial digestibility of nutrients, ruminal pH, ruminal ammonia, and productive performance in growing beef cattle fed diets with varying proportions of ES silage replacing CS. Treatments consisted of diets with ratios of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0% ES:CS. Two experiments were conducted simultaneously. In the first experiment, 10 crossbred Holstein-Zebu bulls with an average initial weight of 272 ± 86 kg were used. The bulls were rumen and abomasums fistulated. An experimental design of two 5 × 5 Latin squares (Exp. 1) was used. The second experiment used 40 Nellore bulls with an average BW of 386 ± 30 kg in a completely randomized design (Exp. 2). Results showed a linear increase in CP intake (P Nitrogen balance, excretion of urinary urea, and plasma urea nitrogen did not respond to the inclusion of ES in the diet (P > 0.05). There was also no effect (P > 0.05) of ES inclusion on animal performance. Ruminal pH was not affected by an increased proportion of ES in the diet (P > 0.05), but ruminal pH was affected (P interaction (P nitrogen concentration. It can be concluded that ES silage can be used as a source of roughage in the diet of beef cattle during the growing and finishing phases at a proportion of 50% of DM in the total diet. Therefore, ES silage is a promising alternative dietary ingredient and the use of this alternative source of silage will depend on availability and economic factors.

  19. Características fermentativas de silagens de capim-elefante emurchecido ou com adição de farelo de cacau Fermentation characteristics of silage of elephantgrass wilted or with addition of cocoa meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G.P. Carvalho

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar as características fermentativas da silagem de capim-elefante emurchecido ou adicionado de diferentes níveis de farelo de cacau. O capim-elefante utilizado foi colhido aos 50 dias de rebrota após o corte de uniformização e submetido aos seguintes tratamentos na ensilagem: capim-elefante emurchecido ao sol por oito horas e capim-elefante sem emurchecimento adicionado de 0, 7, 14, 21 e 28% de farelo de cacau (% da matéria natural. Foram utilizadas quatro repetições por tratamento. O material foi acondicionado em silos de PVC com 0,15m de diâmetro e 0,3m de altura, adotando-se compactação de 500kg/m³. O pH reduziu e os carboidratos solúveis (CHO S aumentaram de forma linear (PThe experiment was carried out to evaluate the fermentation characteristics of eight hours sun light wilted elephant grass silage in comparison to no sun light exposed silage added by 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28% of cocoa meal during the ensilage process. PVC silos, measuring 0.15m diameter x 0.30m height, were used to ensilage the elephantgrass using a compacting pressure of 500kg/m³. Soluble carbohydrates decreased but pH and N-NH3 increased (P<0.05 as the cocoa meal level increased in the silage. No difference between wilted and no wilted elephantgrass silages was observed for organic acid content. Addition of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28% of cocoa meal caused an increase of 2.23, 2.48, 3.14, 3.49, and 3.87% of lactic acid contents. Addition of cocoa meal during the ensilage process enhanced fermentation quality of elephantgrass silage.

  20. A survey of fermentation products and bacterial communities in corn silage produced in a bunker silo in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Han, Hongyan; Gu, Xueying; Yu, Zhu; Nishino, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the current practice of corn silage management in China, samples of bunker-made silage were collected from 14 farms within a 500-km radius of Beijing for the analysis of fermentation products and bacterial communities. Mean values for dry matter (DM) content were as low as 250 g/kg in both corn stover (St) and whole crop corn (Wc) silages, and pH values averaged 4.48 and 3.73, respectively. Only three of the 14 silages exhibited a lactic-to-acetic acid ratio > 1.0, indicating that the presence of acetic acid was predominant in fermentation. Although 1,2-propanediol content was marginal in most cases ( 25 g/kg DM. In contrast, 3 St silages had large amounts (> 10 g/kg DM) of butyric acid, and two of the three butyrate silages also had high concentrations of 1-propanol. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that the bacterial community appeared similar in 10 out of the 14 silage samples. Bands indicating Lactobacillus buchneri, L. acetotolerans and Acetobacter pasteurianus were found in both the St and Wc silages, accounting for the high acetic acid content found across silage samples. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Chemical composition and nutrient degradability in elephant grass silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis isolated from the rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE J. FERREIRA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the chemical and bromatological composition and in situ degradability of elephant grass silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis isolated from cattle rumen. A complete randomized design was used with four treatments and six replications: elephant grass silage, elephant grass silage inoculated with 106 CFU/g Streptococcus bovis JB1 strains; elephant grass silage inoculated with 106 CFU/g Streptococcus bovis HC5 strains; elephant grass silage inoculated with 106 CFU/g Enterococcus faecium with six replications each. The pH and ammoniacal nitrogen values were lower (P<0.05 for the silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5, respectively. The silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis had a higher crude protein content (P<0.05 and there were no differences for the fiber contents in the silage. The (asoluble fraction degradability, especially in the silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5, had higher values, 30.77 and 29.97%, for dry matter and 31.01 and 36.66% for crude protein, respectively. Inoculation with Streptococcus bovis improved the fermentation profile, protein value and rumen degradability of the nutrients.

  2. Effect of Microbial and Chemical Combo Additives on Nutritive Value and Fermentation Characteristic of Whole Crop Barley Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyeon; Amanullah, Sardar M.; Lee, Hyuk Jun; Joo, Young Ho; Kim, Sam Churl

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of microbial and chemical combo additives on nutritive values, fermentation indices and aerobic stability of whole crop barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at about 30% dry matter (DM) by treatments, chopped to 5 cm length and treated with distilled water only (CON), Lactobacillus plantarum (INO), propionic acid (PRO) or an equal mixture of INO and PRO (MIX). Barley forages were ensiled in 4 replications for 0, 2, 7, and 100 days. On 100 days of ensiling, MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) in vitro DM digestibility than CON silage, but lower (p<0.05) acid detergent fiber concentration. The pH in all treated silages was lower (p<0.05) than CON silage. The MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) lactate concentration and lactate to acetate ratio than in CON, but lower (p<0.05) yeast count. Aerobic stability in CON, PRO, and MIX silages were higher (p<0.05) than in INO silage. It is concluded that microbial and chemical combo additives using L. plantarum and propionic acid could efficiently improve nutritive values of barley silage in terms of increased in vitro DM digestibility compared to other treatments. In addition, all treatments except CON reduced yeast count which is the initiate microorganism of aerobic spoilage. PMID:26323517

  3. The influence of covering methods on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating dairy cows

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    Rafael Camargo do Amaral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of covering methods on the nutritive value of corn silage and performance of dairy cows. Whole-plant corn was harvested at 340 g/kg of dry matter (DM and ensiled for 135 d in horizontal silos covered with one of the following methods: oxygen barrier film (45-µm thick + white-on-black polyethylene film (200-µm thick over the oxygen barrier film (OB+WB; white-on-black polyethylene film (200-µm thick (WB; black polyethylene film (200-µm thick (B; or recycled black polyethylene film (200-µm thick covered with a layer of 10 cm of sugarcane bagasse (RB+SB. Nutrient composition, fermentation profile, and yeast and mold counts in edible silages were similar across treatments. Silage temperature during the storage period was 24.6, 28.7, 28.4 and 33.1 °C for RB+SB, OB+WB, WB and B, respectively, and the proportion of spoiled silage ranged from 28.7 (for the RB+SB treatment to 74.2 g/kg DM (for the B treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments and averaged 21.9 kg/d. Milk production was higher for cows fed corn silage covered with RB+SB (34.4 kg/d compared with those fed corn silage covered with B (30.4 kg/d, resulting in higher feed efficiency for RB+SB treatment. Silages covered with OB+WB and WB had intermediate values. In vivo digestibility of organic matter was higher for cows fed corn silage covered with RB+SB compared with those fed corn silage covered with WB and B, but were similar to those fed corn silage covered with OB+WB. The utilization of oxygen barrier films and the protection of polyethylene film with sugarcane bagasse are effective strategies to increase the recovery of digestible nutrients and, consequently, to enhance production efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

  4. Impact of agricultural practices on microbiology of hay, silage and flour on Finnish and French farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboux, Gabriel; Reiman, Marjut; Roussel, Sandrine; Taattola, Kirsti; Millon, Laurence; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Piarroux, Renaud

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to microorganisms in farm environments may cause respiratory disorders, e.g. asthma, organic dust toxic syndrome and allergic alveolitis. By reducing microbiological deterioration of organic materials, some agricultural practices have a protective effect. Microbiological analyses were carried out on hay, silage and flour samples (n=107) from farms in Finland and France (n=23) that use different methods of haymaking. High concentrations of Absidia corymbifera were found in approximately 35 % of French hay samples and only 10 % of Finnish hay samples. Concentrations of Eurotium spp. were found in 20 % of hay samples from both regions. High concentrations of Wallemia sebi typified Finnish hay (38 %) more than French hay (8 %). Rhodotorula yeast was frequently and abundantly found in Finland, but never in France. The method used to make hay appeared to be the main factor affecting the microbiology of the hay. A. corymbifera and Eurotium spp. concentrations were smaller in low-density square bales than in others. In conclusion, our results emphasize the importance of good agricultural practice in the microbiological quality of fodder.

  5. Inhibition of Clostridium activities in silage and cheese using anticlostridial Lactobacillus Isolated from Danish semi-hard cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia

    -hard cheeses of high quality, as protective adjunct cultures against clostridia activities in silage and cheese. Screening for anticlostridial activity among non-starter Lactobacillus isolates against selected Clostridium strains showed that almost half (44%) of the naturally occurring non......-starter Lactobacillus in Danish semi-hard cheeses possessed anticlostridial activities and 10% possessed a broad anticlostridial activity, and these were selected for further investigations. Antagonistic antimicrobial interactions between some of the selected anticlostridial Lactobacillus strains were demonstrated...... sec) at low numbers in UHT (Ultra High Temperature) whole fat milk, and identity of the strains was successfully confirmed using repetitive-PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis. The potential of Lb. paracasei strains to survive pasteurisation of cheese milk was demonstrated. The behaviour...

  6. Concentration of mycotoxins and chemical composition of corn silage: a farm survey using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, P; Novinski, C O; Junges, D; Almeida, R; de Souza, C M

    2015-09-01

    This work evaluated the chemical composition and mycotoxin incidence in corn silage from 5 Brazilian dairy-producing regions: Castro, in central-eastern Paraná State (n=32); Toledo, in southwestern Paraná (n=20); southeastern Goiás (n=14); southern Minas Gerais (n=23); and western Santa Catarina (n=20). On each dairy farm, an infrared thermography camera was used to identify 3 sampling sites that exhibited the highest temperature, a moderate temperature, and the lowest temperature on the silo face, and 1 sample was collected from each site. The chemical composition and concentrations of mycotoxins were evaluated, including the levels of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2; zearalenone; ochratoxin A; deoxynivalenol; and fumonisins B1 and B2. The corn silage showed a highly variable chemical composition, containing, on average, 7.1±1.1%, 52.5±5.4%, and 65.2±3.6% crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients, respectively. Mycotoxins were found in more than 91% of the samples, with zearalenone being the most prevalent (72.8%). All samples from the Castro region contained zearalenone at a high average concentration (334±374µg/kg), even in well-preserved silage. The incidence of aflatoxin B1 was low (0.92%). Silage temperature and the presence of mycotoxins were not correlated; similarly, differences were not observed in the concentration or incidence of mycotoxins across silage locations with different temperatures. Infrared thermography is an accurate tool for identifying heat sites, but temperature cannot be used to predict the chemical composition or the incidence of mycotoxins that have been analyzed, within the silage. The pre-harvest phase of the ensiling process is most likely the main source of mycotoxins in silage. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Real-time dry matter content of corn silage by a microwave sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Perricone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Daily dry matter (DM intake in dairy cow is a central point to meet nutritional requirements and optimal performance, reducing the incidence of metabolic diseases. DM content of some forages, such as silages, can undergo huge variations during storing, affecting the total daily DM consumed. Reference laboratory method is time consuming and cannot be applied to daily changes in diet composition. Currently, new promising real-time technologies are available to monitor the DM content of feeds. The aim of the study was to test and calibrate a portable microwave sensor (MS for DM content in corn silage samples. Twenty-two samples were collected from a corn silage front; sampling procedure was optimized to collect as much as DM content variability as possible within the samples. MS readings were performed with 3 different methods for each samples: 1 directly on the silage front, 2 with the MS over the collected sample and 3 with MS placed under the sample. After the first MS reading, a correspondent silage sample was obtained by a silage corer for readings 2 and 3 and the laboratory DM content assay. A simple regression analysis was performed (JMP, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, 2015 over obtained data. Results evidences as the best MS reading method is represented by the probe burdening on the sample (R2=0.75 with respect to the other methods. The obtained results outlined as, with a correct reading method, MS can be valuable tool to determine DM content of corn silage directly at farm level.

  8. Intake and digestibility of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench silages with different tannin contents in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex de Matos Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the voluntary intake and digestibility of three sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench hybrid silages in sheep. The hybrids used were H1 -BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R, with tannin; H2 -(ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R, without tannin; and H3 -BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R, without tannin. The intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and crude protein (CP were measured. Eighteen crossbred sheep weighing 59.4 kg (±8.3 were used in the trial. A completely randomized design with three treatments (hybrids and six repetitions (sheep was used. There were no differences in the DM intake or apparent digestibility among the hybrids. Silage of hybrid BRS 610 displayed higher digestibility coefficients for CP, NDF, ADF, and GE compared with the other silages, which did not differ from each other. The neutral detergent fiber, ADF and digestible energy (DE intakes were similar among the hybrids silages. All of the hybrids resulted in a positive N balance in sheep. The levels of DE were superior in hybrid silage BRS 610 in comparison with the other hybrids. Sorghum hybrid BRS 610 silage exhibited superior nutritional value compared with the other hybrids, which is most likely in part due to the absence of tannins. Sorghum silage made with hybrid BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R presents superior gross energy, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility coefficients, as well as greater digestible energy levels than BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R and (ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R.

  9. Microbial inoculant effects on silage and in vitro ruminal fermentation, and microbial biomass estimation for alfalfa, bmr corn, and corn silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Third cut alfalfa, brown mid-rib (bmr) corn, and corn were chopped and inoculated with one of four different strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Uninoculated silage was the control treatment. For each crop, four mini-silos 1-L glass jars were ensiled per treatment. All silos were fermented for 60...

  10. Ruminal degradability and carbohydrates and proteins fractioning of triticale silages in singular culture or in mixtures with oat and/or legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Bumbieris Junior, Valter Harry; Jobim, Cloves Cabreira; Emile, Jean Claude; Rossi, Robson; Calixto Junior, Moyses; Branco, Antonio Ferriani

    2011-01-01

    It was aimed to evaluate the ruminal degradability, and the fractioning of carbohydrates, as well as of the nitrogen fractions of triticale silages in singular culture or in mixtures with oats and/or legumes. The treatments had been: triticale silage (X. Triticosecale Wittimack) (ST); triticale silage + forage pea (Pisum arvense) (STE); triticale silage + oats (Avena strigosa Scheb) + forage pea + vetch (Vicia sativa) (STAE). Three castrated bovine Prim’Holstein males had been used, with aver...

  11. Impact of NDF degradability of corn silage on the milk yield potential of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Spanghero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability of corn silage samples, measured in vitro (ivNDFd by a filter bag system, was used to examine (i the relationship between the ivNDFd and that calculated from acid detergent lignin (L content (NDFd and (ii the impact of ivNDFd variations on the predicted milk yield (MY of dairy cows fed corn silage based diets. A total of 173 samples of corn silage were collected during a period of three years (2001-03 in different dairy farms of the Po Valley (Northern Italy. Each sample was analysed for chemical composition and was also tested in triplicate for the ivNDFd using the DaisyII incubator (Ankom, Tech. Co., Fairport, NY, USA with incubation time of 48hs. Moreover, the NDFd of samples was calculated from the L contents, while the measured ivNDFd values were used to estimate the NEl, the potential dry matter intakes (DMI and to predict the MY of cows. Corn silage samples of the three years were similar for NDF and starch contents (44.2 and 30.7% DM, on average, respectively while samples from 2003, in comparison with 2001 and 2002, had lower crude protein (6.9 vs 8.3-8.4% DM, P<0.01 and L contents (3.3 vs 3.6-3.9% DM, P<0.01 and higher ivNDFd values (53.3 vs 45.6-47.8%, P<0.01. The relationship between ivNDFd and NDFd was weak (R2=0.09, not significant. The MY predicted from the NEl content and DMI of corn silage (5.5 MJ/kg DM and 8.9 kg/d minus the maintenance energy costs, was 11.5 kg/d on average (coefficient of variation 20%. Our simulations indicate that a variation of ivNDFd by +1.0% changes the NEl of corn silage to have an expected variation in milk yield of +0.15 kg/d. If the ivNDFd is also used to predict the corn silage DMI then a +1.0% variation in ivNDFd of corn silage produces an overall +0.23 kg/d MY variation. The present results indicate that ivNDFd is highly variable in corn silage populations and differences in this nutritional parameter have an appreciable impact on the predicted milk

  12. Fermentation profile and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts of rehydrated corn kernel silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, B F; Ávila, C L S; Bernardes, T F; Pereira, M N; Santos, C; Schwan, R F

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical and microbiological characteristics and to identify the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts involved in rehydrated corn kernel silage. Four replicates for each fermentation time: 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 150, 210 and 280 days were prepared. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PCR-based identification were utilized to identify LAB and yeasts. Eighteen bacteria and four yeast species were identified. The bacteria population reached maximum growth after 15 days and moulds were detected up to this time. The highest dry matter (DM) loss was 7·6% after 280 days. The low concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (20 g kg -1 of DM) was not limiting for fermentation, although the reduction in pH and acid production occurred slowly. Storage of the rehydrated corn kernel silage increased digestibility up to day 280. This silage was dominated by LAB but showed a slow decrease in pH values. This technique of corn storage on farms increased the DM digestibility. This study was the first to evaluate the rehydrated corn kernel silage fermentation dynamics and our findings are relevant to optimization of this silage fermentation. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Chemical composition, fermentation profile and apparent digestibility of sugarcane silage treated with chemical additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Pedroso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the indication of an additive for the ensilage of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.. In a laboratory trial, nine treatments were applied (g of additive/kg of fresh forage - FF to the sugarcane (RB867515, before ensiling in minisilos (15 x 30 cm PVC tubes during 78 days: untreated; urea (5 + sodium benzoate (0.5; urea (7.5 + benzoate (0.5; urea (5 + benzoate (0.75; urea (7.5 + benzoate (0.75; sodium propionate (1, 2 and 4; calcium hydroxide (10. Urea + benzoate in the lowest doses, propionate in the higher concentration and calcium hydroxide were selected, considering the ethanol content (26.5, 27.2 and 7.4 g/kg DM, respectively, total DM loss (88, 46 and 58 g/kg DM, respectively and digestibility (541, 496 and 516 g/kg DM, respectively of the silages. Silages treated with these doses of additives and the untreated silage (80 d of storage were fed (nine + seven d to 16 castrated male sheep (Santa Inês housed in metabolic cages. The silage with calcium hydroxide presented coefficients of apparent digestibility of DM (0.44, of NDF (0.4 and DM intake (20 g/kg live weight in the higher levels. Calcium hydroxide was superior to propionate and urea + benzoate, considering alcoholic fermentation control and reduction of losses in the silage and the forage’s nutritional value.

  14. Effect of microbial inoculants on the nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarloiy, M; Yansari, A Teimouri

    2008-04-15

    This study investigated the effect of a new microbial inoculant product on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage in big silo over one year that used beef cattle. Six Holstein beef steer (BW = 225 +/- 17) were allotted to 2 x 2 repeated Latin square design at two 21 days periods (adaptation, 14 days and sample collection, 7 days) for evaluation the effect of microbial inoculation on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle. Two treatments, forages were untreated or treated at ensiling with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici silage inoculants. After 45 days from ensiling, the ration that contained 94.5 and 5, 0.2, 0.2, 0.1% of DM silage and ground barely, mineral-vitamin, dicalcium phosphate, salt, respectively, were offered for free choice consumption. Treatment with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici inoculant increased daily dry matter intake and subsequently NDF, ether extract, crude protein and ash. Apparent digestibility of DM and nutrients were significantly increased by microbial inoculation. Microbial inoculation can improve the nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle.

  15. An Assessment of Three Different In Situ Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Silage Production and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Guilin; Sun, Yurui; Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Schütt, Kai-Benjamin; Boeker, Peter; Lammers, Peter Schulze; Zhou, Haiyang; Cheng, Qiang; Ma, Daokun

    2016-01-14

    Oxygen (O₂) concentration inside the substrate is an important measurement for silage-research and-practical management. In the laboratory gas chromatography is commonly employed for O₂ measurement. Among sensor-based techniques, accurate and reliable in situ measurement is rare because of high levels of carbon dioxide (CO₂) generated by the introduction of O₂ in the silage. The presented study focused on assessing three types of commercial O₂ sensors, including Clark oxygen electrodes (COE), galvanic oxygen cell (GOC) sensors and the Dräger chip measurement system (DCMS). Laboratory cross calibration of O₂ versus CO₂ (each 0-15 vol.%) was made for the COE and the GOC sensors. All calibration results verified that O₂ measurements for both sensors were insensitive to CO₂. For the O₂ in situ measurement in silage, all O₂ sensors were first tested in two sealed barrels (diameter 35.7 cm; height: 60 cm) to monitor the O₂ depletion with respect to the ensiling process (Test-A). The second test (Test-B) simulated the silage unloading process by recording the O₂ penetration dynamics in three additional barrels, two covered by dry ice (0.6 kg or 1.2 kg of each) on the top surface and one without. Based on a general comparison of the experimental data, we conclude that each of these in situ sensor monitoring techniques for O₂ concentration in silage exhibit individual advantages and limitations.

  16. Occurrence of Pre- and Post-Harvest Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Danish Maize Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Ida M. L. Drejer; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2014-01-01

    Maize silage is a widely used feed product for cattle worldwide, which may be contaminated with mycotoxins, pre- and post-harvest. This concerns both farmers and consumers. To assess the exposure of Danish cattle to mycotoxins from maize silage, 99 samples of whole-crop maize (ensiled and un-ensiled) were analyzed for their contents of 27 mycotoxins and other secondary fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method specifically targets the majority of common pre- and post-harvest fungi associated with maize silage in Denmark. Sixty-one samples contained one or more of the 27 analytes in detectable concentrations. The most common mycotoxins were zearalenone, enniatin B nivalenol and andrastin A, found in 34%, 28%, 16% and 15% of the samples, respectively. None of the samples contained mycotoxins above the EU recommended maximum concentrations for Fusarium toxins in cereal-based roughage. Thus, the present study does not indicate that Danish maize silage in general is a cause of acute single mycotoxin intoxications in cattle. However, 31 of the samples contained multiple analytes; two samples as much as seven different fungal metabolites. Feed rations with maize silage may therefore contain complex mixtures of fungal secondary metabolites with unknown biological activity. This emphasizes the need for a thorough examination of the effects of chronic exposure and possible synergistic effects. PMID:25089350

  17. Comparison of harvesting and transport issues when biomass crops are handled as hay vs silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, J.W. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering; Cundiff, J.S. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering

    1996-04-01

    Because of frequent rainfall, hay making is problematic in central Florida. High biomass yields can be produced, but the crops must be handled as silage. Because of the long available harvest season, the cost of making silage should be less here than in other regions. Harvest of silage in central Florida with two different systems, standard (35-55 Mg/ha yield) and high-capacity (based on a hypothesized forage chopper expected to handle 55-75 Mg/ha yield), was simulated. Simulated harvest and transport cost for three versions of the standard system ranged from $108.10/dry Mg, when juice was expressed prior to ensiling in 320-Mg silage bags, to $114.15, when the chopped material was directly ensiled in an above-ground pile. Total cost was $101.70 for the high-capacity system. These costs compare to $57.25/dry Mg for hay. It appears that silage is not competitive with hay for cellulose feedstock, even in the advantageous climate of central Florida. (Author)

  18. Effect of Replacing Alfalfa Hay with Alfalfa Silage in High Performance Dairy Cattle Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nabi allah aghaziarati farahani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Four-handed fifty lactating Holstein cows with mean body weight of, 597± 40 and 50±20 and days in milk body Condi from sure of 3.1±0.4 were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 3 treatments. Each treatment had 3 pens and each pen had 50 cows. The experiment lasted for 60 days (10 days adaptation and 50 days collection period. Concentrate to forage ratio was 60 to 40 and alfalfa hay replaced with alfalfa silage. Dry mater intake, milk yield and composition did not changed significantly due to complete replacement of alfalfa hay with alfalfa silage. Milk urea nitrogen increased significantly (15.85 vs 14.69 mg/dl when alfalfa silage was replaced with alfalfa hay. Rumen pH were similar in all treatments and higher than 6.0 of alfalfa silage diet. The result of this experiment indicated that in TMR based ration alfalfa hay can replaced completely with the alfalfa silage.

  19. Effect of additives on the physical and chemical characteristics of sugar cane silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia do Rosario Rodrigues

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the efficiency of different additives on chemical composition, pH, ethanol production, content of volatile fatty acids (VFAs, nutritional losses during fermentation, and changes in fibrous fractions, in the levels of non-fibrous and total carbohydrates during the sugar cane silage fermentation process with different additives. The treatments consisted of control (no additive; corn meal, at 10% of natural matter; molasses, at 10% of natural matter; urea, at 2% of natural matter; and microbial inoculant for sugarcane silage (Lactobacillus plantarum, Kera-Sil® in a proportion of 2 g L-1 of water using a 2 liter solution per ton of ensilage. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replications. The urea treatment provided the best preparation of silage, taking into account the pH and bromatological composition when compared to silages made with the other tested additives, and the control. The sugarcane silage showed a loss of 5.86% on average of dry matter, not differing from others additives used. There was an increase in crude protein content when urea was used. There was no difference between the treatment for fiber losses in neutral detergent and total digestible nutrients.

  20. An Assessment of Three Different In Situ Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Silage Production and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Guilin; Sun, Yurui; Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H.; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Schütt, Kai-Benjamin; Boeker, Peter; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Zhou, Haiyang; Cheng, Qiang; Ma, Daokun

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) concentration inside the substrate is an important measurement for silage-research and-practical management. In the laboratory gas chromatography is commonly employed for O2 measurement. Among sensor-based techniques, accurate and reliable in situ measurement is rare because of high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) generated by the introduction of O2 in the silage. The presented study focused on assessing three types of commercial O2 sensors, including Clark oxygen electrodes (COE), galvanic oxygen cell (GOC) sensors and the Dräger chip measurement system (DCMS). Laboratory cross calibration of O2 versus CO2 (each 0–15 vol.%) was made for the COE and the GOC sensors. All calibration results verified that O2 measurements for both sensors were insensitive to CO2. For the O2 in situ measurement in silage, all O2 sensors were first tested in two sealed barrels (diameter 35.7 cm; height: 60 cm) to monitor the O2 depletion with respect to the ensiling process (Test-A). The second test (Test-B) simulated the silage unloading process by recording the O2 penetration dynamics in three additional barrels, two covered by dry ice (0.6 kg or 1.2 kg of each) on the top surface and one without. Based on a general comparison of the experimental data, we conclude that each of these in situ sensor monitoring techniques for O2 concentration in silage exhibit individual advantages and limitations. PMID:26784194

  1. Utilization of Cacao Pod Husk Silage as Cattle Ration Mixture at Taluditi, Pohuwatu Regency, Gorontalo Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, M.; Pratama, H. Y.; Martono, E.

    2018-02-01

    Cacao plantation produces cacao pod husks (CPHs) by-products during the harvest period. This research aimed to make benefits the CPH, preserved with silage technology as cattle ration mixture, investigate the adequacy of nutrient for the cattle after treated with addition of CPH silage, and investigate the quota of cattle treated with CPH silage addition. The research design was conducted by giving extension and field observation that was carried out at Taluditi on July to August 2015 during the activity of Student Community Service (KKN PPM UGM Unit Gorontalo 02). The secondary data was gathered from the Department of Agriculture and Plantation Pohuwatu Regency, and also supporting references. The number of respondents in each location was about 30 - 40 people. The research results showed that the silage preservation technology can be well received by the farmers. There was improvement of cattle ration nutrient supplemented with CPH compared to that of ration nutrient which was usually be used by the farmers or standard ration nutrient. The research also resulted in fresh CPH production 2,625.741 tons/year, CPH silage production 2,140.549 tons/year and load capacity + 575 heads/day weight 250-300 kg.

  2. Relationships between the addition rates of cellulase or glucose and silage fermentation at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Kawamoto, Hidenori; Cai, Yi-Min

    2010-06-01

    The influence of the application rates of cellulase preparation and glucose on silage fermentation at different temperatures was studied with the straw of naked barley (Hordeum vulgare L. emand Lam) and guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq.). Addition rate of cellulase and glucose, temperature and their interaction had significant effects on pH value, lactic acid content, butyric acid content and propionic acid content of naked barley straw silage and significant effects on all the parameters of guineagrass silage (P 0.05). Under all the temperatures, the pH values of barley straw and guineagrass silages were reduced by cellulase and glucose addition even at the lowest rate (P butyric acid production varied with their application rates and silage storage temperature. The addition rate of restricting butyric acid fermentation was lower at 20 degrees C than that at 30 degrees C, and it was the lowest at 40 degrees C where cellulase and glucose addition restricted butyric acid fermentation even at 0.1 g/kg and 10 g/kg, respectively, when compared to the control. While the addition rate was lower than the above level, cellulase and glucose addition also promoted butyric acid fermentation.

  3. In situ degradability of dry matter and fibrous fraction of sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Ferreira Costa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate in situ degradability and degradation kinetics of DM, NDF and ADF of silage, with or without tannin in the grains. Two isogenic lines of grain sorghum (CMS-XS 114 with tannin and CMS-XS 165 without tannin and two sorghum hybrids (BR-700 dual purpose with tannin and BR-601 forage without tannin were ensiled; dried and ground silage samples were placed in nylon bags and introduced through the fistulas. After incubation for 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, bags were taken for subsequent analysis of fibrous fractions. The experimental design was completely randomized with 4 replicates and 4 treatments and means compared by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. As for the DM degradation rate, silage of CMSXS165without tannin was superior. Silages of genotypes BR700 and CMSXS 114 with tannin showed the highest values of indigestible ADF (59.54 and 43.09%. Regarding the NDF, the potential degradation of silage of CMSXS165 line without tannin was superior. Tannin can reduce ruminal degradability of the dry matter and fibrous fractions.

  4. The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (pNapier grass.

  5. Soybean milk residue ensiled with peanut hulls: fermentation acids, cell wall composition, and silage utilization by mixed ruminal microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C-M J

    2005-08-01

    Preservation of soybean milk residue (SMR) by ensiling with peanut hulls (PEH) and subsequent utilization of silage by mixed ruminal microorganisms were investigated. Treatments were combinations of SMR with PEH at the following ratios: 100:0, 78:22, 71:29, and 60:40 (fresh weight basis). After eight weeks of ensiling, silage lactic acid, crude protein, ether extract, and non-fiber carbohydrates were highest when SMR was ensiled alone and reduced as amounts of SMR decreased. Similar trends were observed for silage in vitro dry matter digestibility, and gas and volatile fatty acid production by ruminal microorganisms. Conversely, silage pH, dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose, and lignin increased accordingly. The ensiling treatment appeared to alter silage cell wall composition. In particular, silage treated with PEH at the low level (78:22) resulted in reduced fiber contents and lignification. The silage (SMR:PEH=78:22) had enhanced efficiency of both silage fermentation and in vitro ruminal fermentation pattern.

  6. Effect of corn silage harvest maturity and concentrate type on milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Tewoldebrhan, T.A.; Zom, R.L.G.; Cone, J.W.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The variation in maturity at harvest during grain filling has a major effect on the carbohydrate composition (starch:NDF ratio) and fatty acid (FA) content of corn silages, and can alter the FA composition of milk fat in dairy cows. This study evaluated the effect of silage corn (cv. Atrium)

  7. Sorghum silage production system in Cariri, Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebson Pereira Cândido

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the sorghum farming and ensiling systems in the Cariri region of Paraíba State (Brazil, and to identify different groups of producers based on productive characteristics using frequency distributions, and principal component and cluster analyses. A total of 100 milk producers in the Caturité and Boqueirão municipalities in the dairy region of Cariri, Paraíba, were selected to fill out a questionnaire comprised of 32 questions to collect data on both qualitative and quantitative variables. Of the 100 properties studied, 88% cultivated sorghum as silage forage for feeding dairy cows, demonstrating the importance of this cultural practice in the region of Cariri. Statistical analyses based on the variables studied identified four groups, composed of 35, 8, 6, and 39 farmers. The sorghum cultivation and ensiling production system in Cariri can be improved through the evaluation and improvement of soil fertility to obtain higher forage production, application of weed control using herbicides, and implementation of mechanized planting and harvesting to improve efficiency and reduce costs associated with manpower.

  8. Components of genetic variability of ear length of silage maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate following parameters of the ear length of silage maize: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids, superior-parent heterosis and genetic components of variability and habitability on the basis of a diallel set. The analysis of genetic variance shows that the additive component (D was lower than the dominant (H1 and H2 genetic variances, while the frequency of dominant genes (u for this trait was greater than the frequency of recessive genes (v Furthermore, this is also confirmed by the dominant to recessive genes ratio in parental inbreeds for the ear length (Kd/Kr> 1, which is greater than unity during both investigation years. The calculated value of the average degree of dominance √H1/D is greater than unity, pointing out to superdominance in inheritance of this trait in both years of investigation, which is also confirmed by the results of Vr/Wr regression analysis of inheritance of the ear length. As a presence of the non-allelic interaction was established it is necessary to study effects of epitasis as it can have a greater significance in certain hybrids. A greater value of dominant than additive variance resulted in high broad-sense habitability for ear length in both investigation years.

  9. Effect of legume–grass silages and α-tocopherol supplementation on fatty acid composition and α-tocopherol, β-carotene and retinol concentrations in organically produced bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Martinsson, K

    2012-01-01

    - or three-cut red clover–grass silages (R2 and R3, respectively) or two-cut birdsfoot trefoil–grass silage (B2). In Exp. 2, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover (S3) or long-term ley silage with white clover (L3) in combination with the supplementation of RRR...

  10. Avaliação da silagem de bagaço de laranja e silagem de milho em diferentes períodos de armazenamento = Ensilage evaluation of orange peel and corn silages in different storage times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Pereira Pinto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar alguns parâmetros de qualidade da silagem de bagaço de laranja e silagem de milho em diferentes períodos de armazenamento dos silos. Foram preparados minisilos, com capacidade para 3,6 kg, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 2 x 6, sendo dois tipos de silagem(bagaço de laranja ou milho e seis períodos de armazenamento (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 e 110 dias, com três repetições. Determinaram-se as características químicas, parâmetros de fermentação e digestibilidade in vitro (DIV. O teor médio de matéria seca (MS da silagemde bagaço de laranja (SBL foi de 26,5%. Apesar de a SBL apresentar maior capacidade tampão do que a silagem de milho (SM, houve maior produção de ácido lático nas SBL. A SBL e SM apresentaram pH de 3,5 e 3,9, respectivamente, com dez dias de ensilagem. A SBL apresentou maior DIV, quando comparado à silagem de milho. Conclui-se que asilagem de bagaço de laranja apresentou bom padrão de fermentação, quando os teores de MS estavam ao redor de 26%, podendo ser utilizada a partir de dez dias de ensilagem. A SBL possui elevada DIV, sendo boa alternativa nos períodos de escassez de alimentos.This study evaluated quality parameters of orange peel and corn silages in different silo storage times. Experimental mini-silos, with capacity for 3.6 kg were prepared in a completely randomized design, distributed in a 2 x 6 factorial arrangement, consistingof two silages (orange peel or corn and six opening times (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 110 days, with three replications. The chemical characteristics, fermentation parameters and in vitro digestibility (IVD were determined. The dry matter (DM average of orange peel silage (OPS was 26.5%. Even though OPS presented higher buffering capacity than corn silage (CS, there was greater lactic acid production in OPS. Orange peel silage and corn silage presented pH after ten days of ensilage of 3.5 and 3

  11. Effects of feeding Mediterranean buffalo sorghum silage versus maize silage on the rumen microbiota and milk fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann Huws, Sharon; Chiariotti, Antonella; Sarubbi, Fiorella; Carfì, Francesca; Pace, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    Sorghum presents a sustainable feedstock for Mediterranean buffaloes due to its reduced water and nitrogen requirements compared with maize, which is currently fed primarily. We investigated the effects of feeding sorghum as opposed to maize on Mediterranean buffalo rumen microbial diversity and milk fatty acid content. Four cannulated lactating Mediterranean buffalo cows were fed a basal diet for one month before switching either to maize or sorghum-silage based diets for a 3-month period. Buffaloes were then changed over to the contrasting diet for a further one month. Rumen and milk samples were collected at the end of each month. DGGE- and T-RFLP-based dendrograms generated from rumen samples did not show an effect of diet on rumen bacterial diversity. Milk samples also did not differ in terms of their fatty acid content post sorghum feeding as compared with maize feeding. Thus, sorghum provides an environmentally beneficial alternative to maize for feeding Mediterranean buffalo with little effect on rumen microbial diversity or milk fatty acid composition compared with maize feeding.

  12. Supply of nutrients and productive responses in dairy cows given diets based on restrictively fermented silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HUHTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to review research which has evaluated the feeding of dairy cows with diets containing large proportions of grass silage. In Finland, milk production systems evolved are based on the use of restrictively fermented silages. Higher potential yields, smaller production risks than with cereal grains, short grazing period and high digestibility of grasses grown in northern latitudes have facilitated this development. Factors affecting nutrient supply from these diets are discussed. Digestibility is determined mainly by the stage of maturity at harvesting and it is not markedly affected by the level of energy and protein supplementation. Intake of grass silage is influenced both by digestibility and fermentation characteristics. Efficiency of microbial synthesis is high in animals given diets based on restrictively fermented silage but rumen fermentation pattern is characterised by low molar proportions of propionate. Production responses to additional concentrate are relatively small, especially when the amount of concentrate exceeds 10 kg day-1. High substitution of silage dry matter (DM, negative associative effects on digestion and partitioning of energy towards body tissues account for small production responses. Protein supplementation has consistently increased milk protein yield but responses do not appear to be related to the level of milk production, silage crude protein content, amount of concentrate or stage of lactation. The new protein evaluation system provides an accurate prediction of protein yield with the typical Finnish dairy cow diets. The high slopes (ca. 0.5 between protein supply and milk protein yield within experiments suggest that protein supply is suboptimal and protein supplements are used with a high efficiency.;

  13. Digestibility, fermentation and microbiological characteristics of Calotropis procera silage with different quantities of grape pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clérison dos Santos Belém

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preserving forage plants adapted to a semi-arid climate as silage may minimize the animal feed deficit during drought. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different quantities of grape pomace added to Calotropis procera silage on its fermentation, in vitro digestibility, total digestible nutrients and microbiology. A completely randomized experimental design was used with four treatments (0, 10, 20 and 40% fresh matter and four replicates. The silos were opened after 90 days of ensilage, and the soluble carbohydrate, ethanol, organic acid and ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations; pH; fermentation loss; dry matter (DM recovery; DM density, and microbial populations were determined. The pH (3.96-3.87 was adequate for ensiling in all silage samples. The soluble carbohydrate concentration decreased (p<0.05, and the ethanol concentration increased with increasing quantities of grape pomace. The lactic acid concentration decreased (p<0.05 from 5.3 to 1.94% DM, and the acetic, propionic and butyric acid concentrations increased with increasing quantities of grape pomace. The lactic acid bacteria decreased linearly (p <0.05, varying from 6.43 to 5.82 log CFU/g silage. The mold and yeast population variations fit best using a third-order polynomial equation (p <0.05. Enterobacteria and Clostridium spp were not observed. Adding grape pomace to the silage increased the effluent and gas loss; the latter varied from 5.35 to 14.4%. The total digestible nutrient (TDN variation fit best using a second-order polynomial equation, and the maximum value was estimated at 82.95% DM with 3.5% grape pomace using the regression equation. The percent digestibility decreased linearly (p<0.05 with increasing quantities of grape pomace. We show that Calotropis procera has potential as silage even without adding grape pomace.

  14. Methane production and energy partition in sheep fed timothy silage- or hay-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Santoso

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Methane is produced as a result of anaerobic fermentation of the soluble and structural carbohydrates by methanogens in the rumen of ruminant animals. Removal of methane from rumen represents a loss of approximately 7.22% of gross energy intake. Four ruminally fistulated Cheviot wethers were used in a crossover design to determine methane production and energy partition in sheep fed timothy silage- or hay-based diets. The experimental diets consisted of either timothy silage or timothy hay and a commercial concentrate (85:15, on DM basis. Variables measured were nutrients digestibility, energy balance and methane production. Apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05 on sheep fed silage-based diet than those fed hay-based diet. Sheep fed silage-based diet had greater (P<0.01 urinary energy loss, methane and heat production, but lower (P<0.05 fecal energy loss. Methane production, either expressed as g kg-1 dry matter intake or g day-1 was markedly lower (P<0.05 in hay-based diet as compared to silage-based diet. There was a strong relationship between methane production (g day-1 and NDF digested (g day-1 (R2 = 88.4%, P<0.001. Methane production expressed as g kg-1 NDF digested in silage-based diet was higher (P<0.05 than in hay-based diet (66.44 vs 62.70. These results indicate that methane release by sheep increased with increasing NDF digested.

  15. Effects of ensiling density on nutritive value of maize and sorghum silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekin Sucu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies were conducted to determine the effects of different ensiling densities on fermentation, aerobic stability, and nutritive value of maize and sorghum silages. Maize and sorghum were harvested at dough (363 g/kg and milk stages (275 g/kg, respectively. Herbages were chopped approximately 1.5 cm after harvest and then ensiled in mini silos at high and low-bulk densities for 8.5 weeks. Different bulk densities were achieved by ensiling different weights of herbage in the fixed-volume mini silos (1.5-L anaerobic jars, Weck, Germany. The obtained dry matter (DM densities were 168 and 216 kg of DM/m3 for maize forage and 132 and 178 kg of DM/m3 for sorghum forage. Fermentation kinetics, the rate of aerobic deterioration upon aerobic exposure, and nutrient digestibility were followed during the periods of ensiling (on days 2, 4, 8, 15, and 60. In all cases, increased packing density resulted in silages with lower acetate content, ammonium N levels, and fermentation losses, but lactate content did not differ. Butyrate was detected in appreciable amounts only in sorghum silage. Propionate was not detected in any silage. Tightly packed silages remained stable upon exposure to air. Tight packing increases the digestibly of nutrients and improves the energy content of silages. These data show that high density limits air infiltration and reduces the oxidation loss during storage and feed-out. As a consequence, more dry matter is recovered and more energy is preserved.

  16. Effects of wilting and molasses addition on fermentation and bacterial community in guinea grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, N; Li, Y; Wang, C; Parvin, S

    2012-03-01

    Acetic acid is considered an important preservative in tropical grass ensiling. The objective of the current experiments was to follow the ensiling fermentation of low dry matter (DM) tropical grass as a model to study changes in bacterial communities during acetic acid fermentation. Direct-cut and wilted guinea grass silage was prepared with and without molasses. A high acetic acid level was observed during the fermentation of direct-cut silage, and long storage increased the butyric acid and ethanol content if molasses was not added. The lactic acid production in wilted silage was greater than the acetic acid production, but prolonged ensiling decreased the lactic to acetic acid ratio regardless of molasses addition. Adding molasses enhanced the lactic acid content in both direct-cut and wilted silage. The bacterial community, identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, was affected by wilting and molasses addition. Bands for Pantoea sp. and Morganella sp. became faint when acetic acid fermentation was suppressed, and those for Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactococcus garvieae were detected when lactic acid fermentation was enhanced by wilting and molasses addition. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis were found throughout the ensiling process in all silage types. Distinct changes occurred in the bacterial community in guinea grass silage because of wilting and molasses addition. These changes could explain how lactic acid fermentation was enhanced but could not help determine which bacteria were associated with enhanced acetic acid fermentation. The study reveals the effects of wilting and molasses during ensiling of low DM tropical grasses and the associated bacteria. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Chemical and microbiological characteristics of sugar cane silages treated with microbial inoculants Características químicas e microbiológicas de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculantes microbianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Luiza da Silva Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of microbial additives containing heterofermentative or homofermentative bacteria on the chemical and microbiological characteristics of sugar cane (Saccharum spp silages. Sugar cane was inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum, L. paracasei, L. brevis or L. buchneri previously isolated from sugar cane silages or commercial inoculants containing L. buchneri or L. plantarum. Silages were produced in laboratory silos (10 × 60 cm PVC tubes and evaluated 90 days after ensiling. A randomized complete design was used with eight treatments (seven inoculants and control - without inoculant and three replications. The inoculation with bacteria affected lactic acid bacteria, yeast populations, volatile fatty acids and ethanol contents in the silages. Inoculation with different strains of the same species of bacteria result in silages with different chemical and microbiological characteristics. Two of the L. buchneri strains show the best results in relation to silage quality.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de aditivos microbianos contendo bactérias heterofermentativas ou homofermentativas sobre as características químicas e microbiológicas de silagens de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp.. A cana-de-açúcar foi inoculada com Lactobacillus plantarum, L. paracasei, L. brevis ou L. buchneri, previamente isolados de silagens de cana-de-açúcar, ou inoculantes comerciais contendo L. buchneri ou L. plantarum. As silagens foram produzidas em silos laboratoriais (tubos de PVC - 10 × 60 cm e avaliadas 90 dias após a ensilagem. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com oito tratamentos (sete inoculantes e um controle, sem inoculante e três repetições. A inoculação influenciou as populações de bactérias ácido-láticas e leveduras e também as concentrações de ácidos graxos voláteis, ácido lático e etanol nas silagens. A inoculação com cepas diferentes da mesma espécie de bact

  18. Real Academia Galega. Pasado e presente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreiro Fernández, Xosé Ramón

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Not available.La RAG, fundada por las colectividades de la emigración gallega en América, se constituye en el año 1906 bajo la presidencia de Manuel Murguía, marido de Rosalía de Castro. A partir de 1983 experimentó una profunda remodelación. Encargada por el Parlamento Gallego de la tutela del idioma gallego, orientó sus actividades a los estudios de lexicografía y sociolingüística del gallego. Ha publicado el Atlas Sociolingüístico de Galicia, varios diccionarios, generales y sistemáticos y prepara otro de 50.000 entradas. La biblioteca es la más importante de Galicia en temática gallega. Tiene sede propia, un palacio del siglo XVIII que perteneció a Emilia Pardo Bazán y tutela el museo que lleva su nombre.

  19. Multi-mycotoxin analysis of maize silage by LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Storm, Ida Marie Lindhardt Drejer; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determination of 27 mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites in maize silage. The method focuses on analytes which are known to be produced by common maize and maize-silage contaminants. A simple pH-buffered sample extraction was developed on the basis of a very...... fast and simple method for analysis of multiple pesticide residues in food known as QuEChERS. The buffering effectively ensured a stable pH in samples of both well-ensiled maize (pH7). No further clean-up was performed before analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method...

  20. Nutritive value, fermentation characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of sorghum silage treated with inoculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M E; Foster, J L; McCuistion, K C; Redmon, L A; Jessup, R W

    2013-01-01

    Fibrolytic enzymes and microbial inoculants have the potential to improve the value of sorghum feedstuff and feedstock. An experiment was conducted to determine nutritive value, ensiling characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of 4 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) silage varieties: Dairy Master BMR (DBMR; brown midrib; Richardson Seed, Vega, TX), PS 747 (PS; photoperiod sensitive; Pogue Seed, Kenedy, TX), Silo 700D (S700D; conventional forage type; Richardson Seed), and MMR 381/73 (MMR; conventional forage type; Richardson Seed) pretreated with fibrolytic enzyme (xylanase plus cellulase, XC; 50:50 mixture of Cellulase Plus and Xylanase Plus; Dyadic, Juniper, FL) or microbial [Promote ASB (Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum); Cargill Animal Nutrition, Indianapolis, IN; PRO] inoculants. The greatest yield was for cultivar PS and the least for MMR. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration was least for XC-treated silage, and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentration was least for XC- and PRO-treated silage. When silage was treated with XC, concentrations of NDF concentrations decreased, on average, 4.81% across all cultivars and ADF concentrations decreased, on average, 3.23% in all cultivars except MMR. Inoculant PRO reduced the NDF concentration of DBMR by 6.47%. The ADF concentrations of DBMR and PS treated with PRO were decreased by 3.25%. Treating sorghum silage with XC or PRO reduced the NDF and ADF fractions, which increased cell wall degradability. In vitro true digestibility was greatest for PRO-treated DBMR, whereas acid detergent lignin was least for PRO-treated DBMR. Aerobic stability was not improved by PRO; however, aerobic stability of XC-treated MMR was 63 h greater than that of the control. Acetate concentrations were greatest for XC-treated MMR, which explains the 63-h improvement in aerobic stability due to the inhibition of fungi. However, inoculant PRO did not improve yeast and mold counts or aerobic stability of sorghum

  1. Comparative microbiota assessment of wilted Italian ryegrass, whole crop corn, and wilted alfalfa silage using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuikui; Minh, Tang Thuy; Tu, Tran Thi Minh; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Pang, Huili; Nishino, Naoki

    2017-02-01

    The microbiota of pre-ensiled crop and silage were examined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Wilted Italian ryegrass (IR), whole crop corn (WC), and wilted alfalfa (AL) silages stored for 2 months were examined. All silages contained lactic acid as a predominant fermentation product. Across the three crop species, DGGE detected 36 and 28 bands, and NGS identified 253 and 259 genera in the pre-ensiled crops and silages, respectively. The NGS demonstrated that, although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) became prevalent in all silages after 2 months of storage, the major groups were different between crops: Leuconostoc spp. and Pediococcus spp. for IR silage, Lactobacillus spp. for WC silage, and Enterococcus spp. for AL silage. The predominant silage LAB genera were also detected by DGGE, but the presence of diverse non-LAB species in pre-ensiled crops was far better detected by NGS. Likewise, good survival of Agrobacterium spp., Methylobacterium spp., and Sphingomonas spp. in IR and AL silages was demonstrated by NGS. The diversity of the microbiota described by principal coordinate analysis was similar between DGGE and NGS. Our finding that analysis of pre-ensiled crop microbiota did not help predict silage microbiota was true for both DGGE and NGS.

  2. The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 or Lactobacillus plantarum MTD-1 on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silages ensiled at two dry matter contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W; Schmidt, R J; McDonell, E E; Klingerman, C M; Kung, L

    2009-08-01

    Whole-plant corn was harvested at 33 (normal) and 41% (moderately high) dry matter (DM) and ensiled in quadruplicate 20-L laboratory silos to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 (LB) or L. plantarum MTD-1 (LP) alone, or in combination, on the fermentation and aerobic stability of the resulting silage. Aerobic stability was defined as the amount of time after exposure to air for the silage temperature to reach 2 degrees C above ambient temperature. The chopped forage was used in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: normal and moderately high DM contents, LB at 0 (untreated) or 4 x 10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage, and LP at 0 or 1 x 10(5) cfu/g. After 240 d of ensiling, corn silage harvested at the moderately high DM had higher pH, higher concentrations of ethanol, and more yeasts compared with the silage ensiled at the normal DM content. Inoculation with LB did not affect the concentration of lactic acid in silages with a moderately high DM, but decreased the concentration of lactic acid in the silage with normal DM. Higher concentrations of acetic acid were found in the silage treated with LB compared with those not treated with this organism. Inoculation with LP increased the concentration of lactic acid only in the silage with the normal DM content. The concentration of acetic acid was lower in silage treated with LP with a moderately high DM content, but greater in the silage treated with LP with the normal DM content when compared with silages without this inoculant. Appreciable amounts of 1,2-propanediol (average 1.65%, DM basis) were found in all silages treated with LB regardless of the DM content. The addition of L. buchneri increased the concentration of NH(3)-N in silages but the addition of L. plantarum decreased it. Aerobic stability was improved in all silages treated with LB, with greater aerobic stability occurring in the silage with moderately high DM compared with silage with normal DM content. Inoculation with LP had no

  3. Effects of applying oil-extracted microalgae on the fermentation quality, feed-nutritive value and aerobic stability of ensiled sweet sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Yuan, Xianjun; Li, Junfeng; Dong, Zhihao; Shao, Tao

    2018-02-19

    A laboratory-silo study was conducted to evaluate the fermentation quality, feed-nutritive value and aerobic stability of sweet sorghum silage with or without oil-extracted microalgae supplementation. Sweet sorghum was mixed with four microalgae levels (0%, 1%, 2% and 3% on a dry matter basis; Control, M1, M2 and M3, respectively) and ensiled for 45 d. Further, the four experimental silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test lasting 7 d. All the silages except M3 silage had good fermentative characteristics with low pH and ammonia nitrogen concentrations, and high lactic acid concentrations and favorable microbial parameters. Meanwhile, oil-extracted microalgae supplementation improved the feed-nutritional value of sweet sorghum silage. Fibre (neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, acid detergent lignin and cellulose) and acid detergent insoluble protein concentrations decreased (P sweet sorghum silage by 43.8 and more than 143%, respectively, and decreased the clostridia spore counts during the stage of air exposure. Sweet sorghum silage produced with 2% oil-extracted microalgae addition was the most suitable for animal use due to the optimal balance of fermentation quality, feed-nutritional value and aerobic stability, which is merit further in vivo studies using grazing ruminants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Maintenance and improvement of dairy feed quality by radiation for distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Ryoei; Kawamoto, Hidenori; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Osamu; Ando, Sada; Akiyama, Noriaki; Yamada, Akio

    1997-01-01

    With an aim to improve the quality of crude feed and its maintenance, γ-ray radiation was carried out during the steps of preparation and storage of feed and the effects on the fermentation of silage crude feed and mixed feed were investigated. Of the γ-ray radiation significant effects on general constituents in the silage were not observed immediately after the radiation, but it was clear that the contents of fibrous components were apt to increase one month later. The ratio, VBN/TN in the silage decreased with the elevation of radiation dose. Further it was found that radiation at 16 Gy or more is needed to prevent butyric acid fermentation in the silage and aerobic deterioration. In addition, the amount of peroxide lipids was not increased by the γ-radiation, suggesting that no adverse effects on the quality of the feed in silage might be caused by radiation. Thus, it was concluded that γ-radiation in appropriate conditions has favorable influence on silage fermentation. (M.N.)

  5. The effects of feeding mixed cereal-tree forage legume silages on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of feeding mixed cereal-tree forage legume silages on mild yield and composition in lactating. BZ Mugweni, M titterton, BV Maasdorp, JF Mupangwa, F Gandiya. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Characterization and application of lactic acid bacteria for tropical silage preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholsen, Suradej; Khota, Waroon; Pang, Huili; Higgs, David; Cai, Yimin

    2016-10-01

    Strains TH 14, TH 21 and TH 64 were isolated from tropical silages, namely corn stover, sugar cane top and rice straw, respectively, prepared in Thailand. These strains were selected by low pH growth range and high lactic acid-producing ability, similar to some commercial inoculants. Based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence and DNA-DNA relatedness, strain TH 14 was identified as Lactobacillus casei, and strains TH 21 and TH 64 were identified as L. plantarum. Strains TH 14, TH 21, TH 64 and two commercial inoculants, CH (L. plantarum) and SN (L. rhamnosus), were used as additives to fresh and wilted purple Guinea and sorghum silages prepared using a small-scale fermentation method. The number of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the forages before ensilage was relatively low but the numbers of coliform and aerobic bacteria were higher. Sorghum silages at 30 days of fermentation were all well preserved with low pH (3.56) and high lactic acid production (72.86 g/kg dry matter). Purple Guinea silage inoculated with LAB exhibited reduced count levels of aerobic and coliform bacteria, lower pH, butyric acid and ammonia nitrogen and increased lactic acid concentration, compared with the control. Strain TH 14 more effectively improved lactic acid production compared with inoculants and other strains. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Grain, silage and forage sorghum hybrid resistance to insect and bird damage, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 32 grain and 30 forage type sorghum hybrids were evaluated for resistance to insect, disease, and bird damage in Tifton, Georgia. These hybrids plus 33 silage type and 5 pearl millet hybrids also were evaluated for sugarcane aphid resistance near Griffin, Georgia. A total of 10 insect pes...

  8. Effects of cover crops on the nitrogen fluxes in a silage maize production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Dijk, van W.; Groot, de W.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Rye and grass cover crops can potentially intercept residual soil mineral nitrogen (SMN), reduce overwinter leaching, transfer SMN to next growing seasons and reduce the fertilizer need of subsequent crops. These aspects were studied for 6 years in continuous silage maize cv. LG 2080 production

  9. The use of urea by lactating dairy cows when fed maize silage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein nitrogen. Comad & Hibbs (1968) found that an intake of 0,4-0,5 g NPN/kg bodymass coincided with decreased feed intakes. The levels of NPN in the maize silage used in the experiment was 46010of the crude protein in Experiment B and ...

  10. Increasing harvest maturity of whole-plant corn silage reduces methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Bannink, A.; Laar, van H.; Jonge, de L.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing maturity of whole-plant corn at harvest on CH4 emissions by dairy cows consuming corn silage (CS) based diets. Whole-plant corn was harvested at a very early [25% dry matter (DM); CS25], early (28% DM; CS28), medium (32% DM;

  11. Regression-kriged soil organic carbon stock changes in manured corn silage-alfalfa production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurately measuring soil organic C (SOC) stock changes over time is essential for verifying agronomic management effects on C sequestration. This study quantified the spatial and temporal changes in SOC stocks on adjacent 65-ha corn silage-alfalfa production fields receiving liquid dairy manure in...

  12. Potential of feeding beef cattle with whole corn crop silage and rice straw in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazli, Muhamad Hazim; Halim, Ridzwan Abdul; Abdullah, Amin Mahir; Hussin, Ghazali; Samsudin, Anjas Asmara

    2018-02-17

    The potential of using whole corn crop silage and rice straw as an alternative feed for the beef cattle based on the intake and growth performance were evaluated. Using randomised completely block design, nine adult Mafriwal cattle were blocked intro three groups and treated with three different forage diets supplemented with 20% pelleted palm kernel cake on dry matter basis. The treatments were 100% rice straw (RS), 100% corn silage (CS) and an equal mixture of rice straw and corn silage (MIX) fed ad libitum. The animals were housed in individual pens, and the feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks with 2 weeks of adaptation period. The results showed that CS had the best feed nutritive composition with the lowest concentration of highly indigestible fibre and the highest concentration of organic matter and energy. The CS also had the highest intake, and the corn silage inclusion in MIX managed to improve the intake on par with CS in terms of the dry matter intake of body weight (DMI of BW), voluntary intake (VI) and crude protein (CP) intake. Cattle fed with CS gave the highest and most stable BW gain with an average daily gain (ADG) of 808 g/day rivalling cross-bred cattle fed with high amount of concentrates. The all straw diet (RS) supplemented with PKC recorded a positive ADG of 133 g/day while the MIX gave 383 g/day matching total Napier grass diet.

  13. FEEDING BROWN MIDRIB FORAGE SORGHUM SILAGE AND CORN GLUTEN FEED TO LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown midrib (BMR) forage sorghum contains less lignin , resulting in increased NDF digestibility compared to conventional sorghum . An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of BMR forage sorghum silage in diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF). The objective was to determine the e...

  14. Dry matter losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in bunker silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Koehler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient feed management is important for a sustainable and economic agricultural production. One of the main points for improving the efficiency is the reduction of feed losses. In the present investigation the dry matter (DM losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in farm scaled bunker silos were analysed. The method of determining DM losses was the total-in versus total-out DM mass flow of the silos, including the determination of DM content and other silage parameters via manual sampling. The results taken from 48 silos showed on average for all investigated crops 9–12% of DM losses. Density and feed out rate showed a negative correlation to DM losses in maize silages. According to the applied method for determining DM losses on farm scale, a guideline of 8% can be suggested for maximum DM losses in bunker silos for grass and maize silages. The described method seems to be applicable for improving the feed management by using largely automated measurements on the harvest and feeding side.

  15. maize silage and/or eragrostis curvula hay for wintering pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    end of mating and the rate of conception. As the body mass of the cows at the end of the breeding season decreased from 435 kg (silage) to 378 kg (veld) reconception de- creased from 87,5 %to 25%(Table I). This tends to substan- tiate the fmdings of Lamond (1970), who refers to a criti- calor target mass before conception.

  16. Role of ammonia and biogenic amines in intake of grass silage by ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van M.

    1997-01-01

    In Northern- and Western-Europe, grass silage is a major component in winter feeding rations for ruminants. The intake of ensiled grass is often lower than the intake of hay or the fresh grass of similar digestibility. This intake depression is attributed to the fermentation products

  17. A short communication on complete maize silage diets for dairy cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A short communication on complete maize silage diets for dairy cows. H.E. Smit. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  18. Vohrntary intake of hay and silage: The role of intake related nrmen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to examine the difference in in- take between hay and silage made from lucerne (Medicago sativa) and whether these differences could be accounted for in terms of physical rumen characteristics. Voluntary intake was lowest on lucerne hay ensiled with molasses (16% on a. DM basis) and ...

  19. Changes in amino acid profile of alfalfa silage preserved by chemical and biological additives during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Michálková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in amino acid profile of alfalfa silage preserved with chemical or biological additives were studied in fresh and wilted silage. The chemical additive was formic acid and the biological additive consisted of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. buchneri and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Second cut alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. was harvested at the bloom stage, ensiled in mini silos (15 dm3 and fermented at 20–23 °C for 12 weeks. The dry matter of the fresh silage was 228 g . kg−1 and 281.6 g . kg−1 for the wilted before ensiling. The amino acid content was estimated by using an automatic amino acid analyzer AAA (INGOS Prague. The results of the experiments indicated that amino acid breakdown was inhibited by increased dry matter and the use of chemical and biological additive. Additionally, the content of amino acids was found to change in relation to the degree of wilting and formic acid treatment yielded the lowest amino acid breakdown. The amino acid breakdown was also reduced by biological preservative especially in the silage with a higher level of dry matter content.

  20. Lactic acid bacteria active during the fermentation of wheat silage in small scale silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, N.J.; Parker, J.A.; Moon, L.C.; Ely, L.O.

    1981-01-01

    Wheat was ensiled and periodically analyzed for lactic acid bacteria present. Initially Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus cellobiosus and Streptococcus lactis predominated. After two to four days enterococci including S. faecium and S. bovis were present in high populations as well as Lactobacillus plantarum. It was concluded that mixed populations of enterococci and L. plantarum are active in the successful fermentation of wheat silage.

  1. In vivo efficacy of chicory silage against parasitic nematodes in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Desrues, Oliver; Williams, A.

    . Spadona) was ensiled and fermented for 5-12 weeks. 15 Jersey male calves (2-4 months) were stratified by live weight and randomly allocated to 2 groups: chicory (CHI, n=9) and control (CON, n=6). CHI and CON calves were fed with chicory silage and hay ad libitum, resp., for 8 weeks. Daily intake...

  2. Microbiological and molecular determination of mycobiota in fresh and ensiled maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, M A; Kuldau, G A

    2007-01-01

    The mycobiota of fresh and ensiled maize was studied with culturing techniques and a DNA sequence-based approach. Freshly chopped and ensiled maize were collected for 2 y from 12 farms in Pennsylvania. Samples were plated on selective media and isolates identified by morphology and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA, 800-900 bp of the 5' end of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene and a portion of the rodA gene (Aspergillus fumigatus only). ITS regions were amplified from total silage DNA, cloned, sequenced and compared to fungal ITS sequences in GenBank with the BLAST-N algorithm. For samples analyzed by both methods, the molecular technique detected a greater number of species than selective plating. Plating recovered several Penicillium and Fusarium species and Aspergillus fumigatus, while molecular analysis detected Alternaria, Penicillium and Fusarium species. Data from both methods found that Fusarium and Penicillium were the dominant mycotoxigenic fungi in silage, while yeast made up the majority all fungi recovered or detected. Known mycotoxigenic species often accounted for 50% or more of the total number of species isolated or detected at each site. Viable Fusaria were not isolated from or detected in ensiled maize, suggesting that Fusarium species do not survive the ensiling process. Results from this study suggest that given the numerous species of fungi present in silage with mycotoxin producing ability, there is a strong possibility that silage may be contaminated with multiple toxins simultaneously.

  3. The formation of volatile N-nitrosamines in kikuYl grass silage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ter content of 3090 without any additives. After fermenta- tion a silage sample was macerated in a Waring blender in aqueous soiution. The fibrous material was filtered off and lead acetate and sulphamic acid were added to the extract to prevent the formation of artifacts (Van Broekhoven &. Davies, 1980). The extract was ...

  4. THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF CACTI (Opuntia ficus indica)-LEGUME MIXED SILAGE

    OpenAIRE

    J. GUSHA; S. KATSANDE; P.I. ZVINOROVA; S. NCUBE

    2013-01-01

    The potential of making silage using dry browse legume hay (Acacia angustissima, Leucaena leucocephala, Calliandra callothrysus and Macroptilium Atropurpureum) mixed with fresh cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) for winter supplementation of veld grass was evaluated using the proximate, tannins and the pH analyses. Chemical analysis revealed that N values were significantly increased (P

  5. Effects of various inulin levels on in vitro digestibility of corn silage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various inulin levels on in vitro true dry matter digestibility (IVTDDM) and in vitro neutral detergent fibre digestibility (IVTDNDF) of corn silage (CS), perennial ryegrass (PR), and common vetch/oat hay (VO). Inulin was added to the fermenter at concentrations of 0 (CSC, ...

  6. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina del Palacio

    Full Text Available Abstract Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43% and Aspergillus (36%, with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3 µg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000 µg/kg and 12,400 µg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage.

  7. Nitrous oxide emissions from silage maize fields under different mineral nitrogen fertilizer and slurry applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van J.W.; Kasper, G.J.; Velthof, G.L.; Pol-van Dasselaar, van den A.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Intensive dairy farming systems are a large source of emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), because of high nitrogen (N) application rates to grasslands and silage maize fields. The objective of this study was to compare measured N2O emissions from two different soils to default N2O

  8. Prohexadione-calcium rate and timing effects on alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohexadione-Ca (PHD) can enhance establishment of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, L.) interseeded into silage corn (Zea mays, L.), but optimal application rates and timing for this growth regulator are unknown. Two experiments examined how single or split applications of 0.25 to 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 of PHD o...

  9. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can enhance productivity and soil and water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa and corn silage are widely planted for dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA, accounting for about 0.8 and 1.9 million hectares per year, respectively. Much of this area could benefit from strategies to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses. Because the...

  10. Dietary effect of silage type and combination with camelina seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... Dietary effect of silage type and combination with camelina seed on milk fatty acid profile and antioxidant capacity of sheep milk. D Mierlita, S Vicas ... Feeding the MS diets increased net energy for lactation (NEL) intake, raw milk yield and fat, protein and lactose yields. Feeding ...

  11. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Jesus Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P<0.05 for the consumption of dry matter with maximum point value estimated at adding 23.25% additive. Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour were significant (P<0.05, by quadratic behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P<0.05, showing quadratic behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P<0.05 by the adding of brewery residue in marandu grass silage in quadratic way, with maximum value estimated of 1.57 g DM/bolus chewed in inclusion of 24.72% additive in grass silage. The conclusion is that intermediary levels adding of 20 to 25% dehydrated brewery residue affects certain parameters of ingestive behavior.

  12. Characterization of linoleic acid (C18:2) concentration in commercial corn silage and grain hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldin, M; Ying, Y; Fan, Y; Roth, G; Casper, D P; Harvatine, K J

    2018-01-01

    Corn silage and high-moisture corn grain are commonly recognized as risk factors for biohydrogenation-induced milk fat depression and may be due to the high concentration of linoleic acid (C18:2) in corn. Corn silage and corn grain have a low concentration of fatty acids (FA), but due to their high inclusion rate in diets they contribute substantially to unsaturated FA intake. The first objective of this study was to characterize the contribution of individual plant parts to total FA in whole-plant chopped corn. The second objective was to characterize the variation in FA profile in commercial silage and grain hybrids and evaluate the relationship between FA profile and other nutrients. To determine the location of FA in the corn plant, 4 stalks from 4 different commercial hybrids were separated into stalk, husk and shank, leaves, cob, and kernels. On a dry matter basis, 80.5% of total FA were in the kernels, 11.8% in the leaves, 5.1% in the stalk, 1.7% in the cob, and 1.0% in the husk and shank. More than 96% of the oleic acid (C18:1) and 92.5% of the C18:2 was in the kernels, whereas 71.0% of the linolenic acid (C18:3) was in the leaves. Next, the FA composition of fresh whole-plant chopped corn from 124 silage hybrids and grain from 72 grain hybrids was determined over 2 yr from test plots in Pennsylvania. Last, to extend the characterization, FA composition of whole-plant corn silage from 45 hybrids grown in test plots in South Dakota were characterized. In the fresh whole-plant chopped corn from PA test plots, C18:2 as a percentage of total FA averaged from 48.7% in 2013 (percentiles: 10th = 45.2, 90th = 52.2) and 48.0% in 2014 (percentiles: 10th = 44.1, 90th = 49.4). Concentration of C18:2 in corn grain averaged 57.5% in the 2013 (percentiles: 10th = 53.4, 90th = 60.8) and 56.1% in 2014 (percentiles: 10th = 53.5, 90th = 59.4). In the corn silage from South Dakota, the concentration of C18:2 as percentage of total FA averaged 45.4% (percentiles: 10th = 39

  13. Citrus pulp pellets as an additive for orange bagasse silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Grizotto

    2017-03-01

    efficiently conserved as silage if the initial DM content is at least 25%. The inclusion of 20% (in relation to orange bagasse weight citrus pulp pellets as moisture-absorbing additive is recommended to guarantee adequate fermentation and to reduce losses inherent to the ensiling process.

  14. An Assessment of Three Different In Situ Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Silage Production and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Shan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen (O2 concentration inside the substrate is an important measurement for silage-research and-practical management. In the laboratory gas chromatography is commonly employed for O2 measurement. Among sensor-based techniques, accurate and reliable in situ measurement is rare because of high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2 generated by the introduction of O2 in the silage. The presented study focused on assessing three types of commercial O2 sensors, including Clark oxygen electrodes (COE, galvanic oxygen cell (GOC sensors and the Dräger chip measurement system (DCMS. Laboratory cross calibration of O2 versus CO2 (each 0–15 vol.% was made for the COE and the GOC sensors. All calibration results verified that O2 measurements for both sensors were insensitive to CO2. For the O2 in situ measurement in silage, all O2 sensors were first tested in two sealed barrels (diameter 35.7 cm; height: 60 cm to monitor the O2 depletion with respect to the ensiling process (Test-A. The second test (Test-B simulated the silage unloading process by recording the O2 penetration dynamics in three additional barrels, two covered by dry ice (0.6 kg or 1.2 kg of each on the top surface and one without. Based on a general comparison of the experimental data, we conclude that each of these in situ sensor monitoring techniques for O2 concentration in silage exhibit individual advantages and limitations.

  15. Nutritional evaluation of safflower silage and biomass, seed and oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Possenti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The  objective  of  this study  was  to evaluate the nutritional value of safflower biomass  (Carthamus tinctorium L. ensiled in three treatments. An apparent nutrient digestibility assay was conducted using sheep and the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DM were determined in the biomass and silages obtained. The production of DM, seeds and crude oil per hectare safflower crop was also quantified and was 12.4±4.9, 2.9±1.5 and 0.7 ±0.2 t/ha, respectively. The following ensiling treatments  were applied: FS = freshly ensiled safflower; WS = wilted safflower (sun exposure for 2 hours; SCP = safflower + 5% citrus pulp. The chemical composition of the FS, WS and SCP silages, respectively, was 10.8, 11.15 and 10.07% crude protein, 55.22, 55.4 and 52.2% neutral detergent fiber, and 55.6, 53.45 and 57.87% in vitro DM digestibility. A randomized complete block design with animal weight as blocks was used. The apparent DM digestibility of the silages was 55.96, 55.54 and 57.94% and total digestible nutrients were 57.62, 57.49 and 57.87% for FS, WS and SCP, respectively. The results  indicate  the use  of  safflower conserved  as  silage  in ruminant diets as an alternative to roughage. However, the biomass ensiling treatments showed no differences in terms of physicochemical parameters, intake or nutrient digestibility of the silages that would justify their application.

  16. Effects of cutting height and maturity on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylon, J M; Kung, L

    2003-06-01

    We studied the effect of increasing the cutting height of whole-plant corn at the time of harvest from 12.7 (NC) to 45.7 (HC) cm on yield and nutritive value of silage for dairy cows. Three leafy corn silage hybrids were harvested at NC and HC at about 34% dry matter (E) and 41% DM (L) and ensiled in laboratory silos. Increasing the height of cutting lowered yields of harvested DM/ha. In addition, the concentrations of DM and starch were higher but the concentrations of lactic acid, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber were lower in HC than in NC. The concentration of acid detergent lignin was also lower in HC, but only in corn harvested at E. In vitro digestion (30 h) of NDF was greater in HC (50.7%) than NC (48.3%). Calculated yield of milk per tonne of forage DM was greater for HC than for NC at E but not at L. In a lactation experiment, increasing the height of cutting of another leafy corn silage hybrid, TMF29400, in general also resulted in similar changes in nutrient composition as just described. When fed to lactating dairy cows, HC corn silage resulted in tendencies for greater NDF digestion in the total tract, higher milk production and improved feed efficiency, but there were no differences in 3.5% fat corrected milk between treatments. Results of this study suggest that increasing the cutting height of whole plant corn at harvest can improve the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating dairy cows.

  17. Características fermentativas da silagem do capim Marandu manejado em diferentes alturas de dossel Marandu grass silage fermentative characteristic managed under different sward heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Jamir Gonçalves Mota

    2011-06-01

    were opened again at precisely 56 days after ensiling. Moments before opening the silos after the 56 days of storage, these silos were first weighted to measure any weight loss due to the production of gasses during fermentation, and then opened to remove the silage and to quantificate of the effluent losses. The pH, ammonia and acids levels were then measured, along with the levels of organic (lactic, acetic, butyric and dry matter. The data collected were subjected to variance analysis and when any significant average of treatment was found, a regression study was done. The grass silage measuring up to 30 and 45 cm resulted in silages with better fermentation characteristics. It presented higher lactic acid content, lower butyric acid and ammoniacal nitrogen contents and lower losses during fermentation. The grass silage measuring up to 60 and 75cm presented a totally inadequate fermentation process for the conservation of fodder, been classified as being of poor quality. It is concluded that the Marandu grass with height of 30 and 45cm showed the best silage fermentation characteristics when compared to other evaluated heights, but did not reach a level of quality desired.

  18. Substituição da silagem de milho por silagem de girassol na dieta de novilhos em confinamento: comportamento ingestivo Corn silage substituted by sunflower silage in the diet of fedlot steers: ingestive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro da Silva Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos da substituição na dieta da silagem de milho por silagem de girassol (0, 33 e 66% MS no comportamento ingestivo de novilhos em confinamento. Utilizaram-se nove novilhos castrados com peso vivo e idade média inicial de 288 kg e 20 meses, respectivamente, pertencentes aos grupos genéticos Nelore, 21/32Charolês (C 11/32Nelore (N e 21/32N 11/32C. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições por tratamento. As dietas testadas foram: 100 % de silagem de milho e 0 % de silagem de girassol; 70,94% de silagem de milho e 29,06 % de silagem de girassol; 38,27 % de silagem de milho e 61,73 % de silagem de girassol, todas com relação volumoso:concentrado 60:40. O tempo destinado ao ócio deitado foi maior para os novilhos que consumiram apenas silagem de milho como volumoso em relação aos que consumiram silagem de girassol. O tempo despendido em ócio em pé foi semelhante entre as dietas com 33 (1,84 hora e 66 % de silagem de girassol (1,96 hora e menor para aquela sem silagem de girassol (1,62 hora. O tempo em ruminação dos animais aumentou com a inclusão da silagem de girassol na dieta e correspondeu a 8,61; 8,76 e 9,45 horas, respectivamente, para 0; 33 e 66 % de silagem de girassol. Animais alimentados somente com silagem de milho apresentam maior eficiência de ruminação da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente neutro. O tempo despendido por refeição diminui com o aumento da participação da silagem de girassol.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn silage with sunflower silage (0, 33 e 66% DM on the ingestive behavior of fedlot steers. Nine castrated steers were used, with average 288 kg initial live weight and 20 month old from the Nellore (N, 21/32Charolais (C 11/32N and 21/32N 11/32C genetic groups. A randomized complete block experimental design was used, with three replications per treatment. The tested diets were: 100% corn

  19. Effects of fish silage on growth and biochemical characteristics of fresh water microalga Scenedesmus sp. MB 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Kaippilliparambil Abdulsamad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scenedesmus sp. MB 23 was cultivated in fish silage to study the effects of different concentrations on the growth and biochemical characteristics, particularly the protein, carbohydrate and lipid properties. Fish silage with 12% concentration was most effective for the growth and biomass production of Scenedesmus sp. The microalga reached maximum cell density (2433.89 × 104 cells/mL, chlorophyll-a concentration (2.766 μg/mL, specific growth rate (0.48/d and biomass (2.73 g/L on this medium. In mass culture, enhanced production of protein (123.87 mg/g dry weight of alga, carbohydrate (44.904 mg/g dry weight of alga and lipid (84.21 mg/g dry weight of alga was found using 9% fish silage. The effective reduction (up to 90% in the concentrations of nitrate, phosphorus and ammonia in the final fish silage medium proved the removal efficiency of Scenedesmus sp. The enhanced production of Scenedesmus sp. MB 23 indicated that effective bioremediation of fish waste can be conducted using algal mass production in fish silage. The study also proved that microalgae grown in fish silage have great industrial potential and can be used as a source of feed and biofuel.

  20. Aerobic stability of sugar cane silages with a novel strain of Lactobacillus sp. isolated from sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Luiza da Silva Ávila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the addition of two Lactobacillus strains on the aerobic stability of the sugar cane (Saccharum spp. silages. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replicates in split-plot in time scheme, so that the treatments (silages without inoculant and with novel strain or commercial inoculants were randomized on plot and in times of aerobic evaluation of the silages (zero, two, four, and six days after the opening of the silos as subplots. The loss of stability of silages was continuous during the time of aerobic exposure. Inoculants influenced the changes in populations of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and in the ammoniacal nitrogen, acetic acid and ethanol concentrations. The dry matter, crude protein, soluble carbohydrates contents and pH values showed similar changes in all three silages studied. A linear increase in crude protein content and pH values and decrease in the soluble carbohydrates content were observed. The dry matter contents increased to a maximum of 335 g/kg on fresh matter at four days, followed by reduction after six days. The results showed that the use of inoculants is recommended because it promoted higher production of acetic and propionic acids, reducing the population of yeast and, therefore, improving the aerobic stability of silages.

  1. Effects of Streptococcus bovis Isolated from Bovine Rumen on the Fermentation Characteristics and Nutritive Value of Tanzania Grass Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Moura Zanine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Streptococcus bovis on the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of Tanzania grass silage. Tanzania grass was chopped and left untreated (U or treated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 at 1 × 106 colony-forming units per gram (cfu/g of fresh forage or Streptococcus bovis HC5 at 1 × 106 cfu/g of fresh forage and packed into sixtuplicate laboratory silos. The largest number of enterobacteria, molds and yeast (M&Y occurred in untreated silages and the smallest populations of enterobacteria and M&Y and the largest numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, at 9.81 and 9.87 log cfu/g, were observed in Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5, respectively (P<0.05. Silages treated with JB1 and HC5 had lower (P<0.05 silage pHs and concentrations of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N than untreated silages. The application of Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 resulted in fewer losses through gases and effluents (P<0.05, which resulted in greater dry matter recovery (DMR and crude protein recovery (CPR (P<0.05. Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 improved the fermentative profile and increased the concentration of crude protein and DMR and CPR in Tanzania grass silage.

  2. Changes in methane emission, rumen fermentation, and methanogenic community in response to silage and dry cornstalk diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Liu; Zhuping, Zhu; Tongjun, Guo; Yongming, Luo; Hongmin, Dong

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of silage or dry cornstalk diets on methane emission, rumen fermentation, and methanogenic community, and reveal whether the change of methanogenic compositions was related to the methane production. A total of 39 sheep were divided into four groups, fed diets of different concentrate level based on silage or dry cornstalk roughage for 40 days. It was found that, at 20% concentrate level, the sheep fed silage could suppress methanogenesis significantly in contrast with the silage diet (p sheep significantly lower than 3.78 in the dry cornstalk-fed sheep (p methane output was related to roughage types. Furthermore, the methanogens was found to be significantly lower abundance (p sheep. Compared with dry cornstalk diet, silage diet of 20% concentrate reduced methane production, decreased methanogenic abundance, and induced change of Methanobrevibacter composition at strain levels. This study showed variation of methanogenic compositions at strain level and its probable relationship with methane production, and provided microbial information to explain the low methane output when the animals were fed silage. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The Effect of King Grass Silage on the Nitrogen Balance and Hematological Profile of Ettawa Grade Male Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunarso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research was to study the nutritional value of ensiled King Grass (Pennisetum purpuphoides to be applied for goat. Twelve Ettawa grade male (PE, + 10 months old, and with average body weight of 19.45 + 3.03 kg were used to determine the voluntary intake, balance nitrogen and their hematological profile. All of the animals were randomly allotted at individual pens. Data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance, based on completely randomized design arrangement with four treatments (level of King Grass silage and three replicates. Treatment means were compared using Duncan multiple range test. The result showed that increasing level of King Grass silage within ration significantly increased the average dry matter (DM intake per metabolic body weight. In fact, the daily DM intake, nitrogen balance, blood hemoglobin and blood hematocrit of the experimental animals were not affected by level of King Grass silage feed. Experiment had no bad effect on healthy condition of the treated goat, so it implies that conserving grass as silage and then feeding grass silage to goat might be implemented by farmers to secure the continuous supply of green forage to keep the goat production sustainability all year round. [Keywords: silage, nitrogen balance, haemoglobin, haematocryt, goat

  4. Improvement of Nutritive Value and Ruminal Fermentation of Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Phesatcha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM and the second was urea (U supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1% silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also

  5. Nota técnica: Producción de leche con ensilaje de hollejo de cítrico Technical note: Milk production with citrus pulp silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L Montejo

    2008-06-01

    of the animals was not observed either during the whole experiment. It is concluded that the addition of bagasse allowed to preserve the citrus pulp in the form of good quality silage (CP 6,5% and pH 3,7 and the milk production was 6 kg/cow/day.

  6. Evaluation of silage diets offered to reindeer calves intended for slaughter. I. Feeding of silage and barley from September to March

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Nilsson; Ingemar Olsson; Per Lingvall

    1996-01-01

    An experiment involving 75 male reindeer calves (mean initial live weight 39.6 kg, SD=3.7) intended for slaughter was undertaken to study the effect of proporrion of barley to silage in the diets on animal performance. The calves were alloted to five groups including one group slaughtered at the start of the experiment in September. The remaining groups were offered diets containing either, 30% (LB), or 60% (HB) rolled barley, based on the dry matter (DM) content, until slaughter in November ...

  7. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Soybean Curd Residue: Their Isolation, Identification and Ability to Inhibit Aerobic Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wang, F.; Nishino, N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing soybean curd residue (SC-TMR silage). The SC-TMR materials were ensiled in laboratory silos for 14 or 56 days. LAB predominant in SC-TMR silage were identified (Exp. 1). Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum) and Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis) were found in the untreated materials, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (L. pseudomesenteroides) in 14-day silage and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) in all silages. Pediococcus acidilactici (P. acidilactici), Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei), and Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) formed more than 90% of the isolates in 56-day silage. Italian ryegrass and whole crop maize were inoculated with P. acidilactici and L. brevis isolates and the fermentation and aerobic stability determined (Exp. 2). Inoculation with P. acidilactici and L. brevis alone or combined improved the fermentation products in ryegrass silage and markedly enhanced its aerobic stability. In maize silage, P. acidilactici and L. brevis inoculation caused no changes and suppressed deterioration when combined with increases in acetic acid content. The results indicate that P. acidilactici and L. brevis may produce a synergistic effect to inhibit SC-TMR silage deterioration. Further studies are needed to identify the inhibitory substances, which may be useful for developing potential antifungal agents. PMID:26949952

  8. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Soybean Curd Residue: Their Isolation, Identification and Ability to Inhibit Aerobic Deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB on the fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR silage containing soybean curd residue (SC-TMR silage. The SC-TMR materials were ensiled in laboratory silos for 14 or 56 days. LAB predominant in SC-TMR silage were identified (Exp. 1. Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum and Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis were found in the untreated materials, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (L. pseudomesenteroides in 14-day silage and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum in all silages. Pediococcus acidilactici (P. acidilactici, Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei, and Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis formed more than 90% of the isolates in 56-day silage. Italian ryegrass and whole crop maize were inoculated with P. acidilactici and L. brevis isolates and the fermentation and aerobic stability determined (Exp. 2. Inoculation with P. acidilactici and L. brevis alone or combined improved the fermentation products in ryegrass silage and markedly enhanced its aerobic stability. In maize silage, P. acidilactici and L. brevis inoculation caused no changes and suppressed deterioration when combined with increases in acetic acid content. The results indicate that P. acidilactici and L. brevis may produce a synergistic effect to inhibit SC-TMR silage deterioration. Further studies are needed to identify the inhibitory substances, which may be useful for developing potential antifungal agents.

  9. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and hydrolytic enzymes on fermentation and ruminal degradability of orange pulp silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Akbar; Paya, Hamid; Lashkari, Saman

    2015-01-01

    The current study was carried out to examine the effect of inoculants, enzymes and mixtures of them on the fermentation, degradability and nutrient value of orange pulp silage. Orange pulp was treated with water (control), inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum), enzymes (multiple enzyme) or inoculants...... observed for I+E (p effective degradability of DM (EDDM) was observed for E and I+E treatments. These results indicated that the bacterial inoculants and combination of enzyme and bacterial...... + enzymes prior to ensiling (denoted C, I, E and I+E). For ensiled orange pulp, 84 kg of orange pulp were mixed with 16 kg of wheat straw as an absorbent. Three mini-silos were prepared for each treatment and ensiled for 90 days. Data of each silo within each silage treatment was averaged and used...

  10. Effect of enzyme addition to forage at ensiling on silage chemical composition and NDF degradation characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different exogenous fibrolytic enzymes added to forages at ensiling was examined for effect on chemical composition and in vitro NDF degradability characteristics of the resulting silage. Maize stover and lucerne were used to study effect on chemical composition in experiment 1, and......; NDF, neutral detergent fibre; iNDF, indigestible NDF; CP, crude protein; OM, organic matter; ED, effective degradability; c, fractional rate of degradation......The effect of different exogenous fibrolytic enzymes added to forages at ensiling was examined for effect on chemical composition and in vitro NDF degradability characteristics of the resulting silage. Maize stover and lucerne were used to study effect on chemical composition in experiment 1...... with treatment with individual enzymes. Enzyme mix with xylanase, glucanase and β-glucanase activities was effective for maize stover, whereas a mix containing pectinase activity was most effective for reducing pH in lucerne. Data from this study suggest that adding fibrolytic enzymes to forages at ensiling can...

  11. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Ferreira, Daniele; de Moura Zanine, Anderson; de Paula Lana, Rogério; Lima de Souza, Alexandre; Divino Ribeiro, Marinaldo; Mattos Negrão, Fagton; Castro, Wanderson José Rodrigues; Nunes Parente, Henrique; Valério Geron, Luiz Juliano; de Azevedo Câmara, Larissa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour) were significant (P behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P ingestive behavior.

  12. Demonstrating the Effect of Forage Source on the Carbon Footprint of a Canadian Dairy Farm Using Whole-Systems Analysis and the Holos Model: Alfalfa Silage vs. Corn Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannan M. Little

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Before recommending a feeding strategy for greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation, it is important to conduct a holistic assessment of all related emissions, including from those arising from feed production, digestion of these feeds, managing the resulting manure, and other on-farm production processes and inputs. Using a whole-systems approach, the Holos model, and experimentally measured data, this study compares the effects of alfalfa silage- versus corn silage-based diets on GHG estimates in a simulated Canadian dairy production system. When all emissions and sources are accounted for, the differences between the two forage systems in terms of overall net GHG emissions were minimal. Utilizing the functional units of milk, meat, and total energy in food products generated by the system, the comparison demonstrates very little difference between the two silage production systems. However, the corn silage system generated 8% fewer emissions per kg of protein in food products as compared to the alfalfa silage system. Exploratory analysis of the impact of the two silage systems on soil carbon showed alfalfa silage has greater potential to store carbon in the soil. This study reinforces the need to utilize a whole-systems approach to investigate the interrelated effects of management choices. Reported GHG reduction factors cannot be simply combined additively because the interwoven effects of management choices cascade through the entire system, sometimes with counter-intuitive outcomes. It is necessary to apply this whole-systems approach before implementing changes in management intended to reduce GHG emissions and improve sustainability.

  13. Faecal particle-size distribution from ewes fed grass silages harvested at different stages of maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.

    2008-01-01

    , 47 and 44 g kg-1 h-1 and DM intake was 2.5, 2.1 and 1.5 kg d-1 for ECS, MCS and LCS silage, respectively. Faeces samples were collected during four days, washed in nylon bags, freeze dried and sieved into six sieving fractions; bottom bowl (B), 0.106 (C), 0.212 (D), 0.5 (S), 1.0 (M) and 2.36 (O) mm...

  14. Lactic acid bacteria active during the fermentation of wheat silage in small scale silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, N.J.; Moon, L.C.; Ely, L.O.; Parker, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Wheat was ensiled and periodically analyzed for lactic acid bacteria present. Initially Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus cellobiosus and Streptococcus lactis predominated. After two to four days enterococci including S. faecium and S. bovis were present in high populations as well as Lactobacillus plantarum. It was concluded that mixed populations of enterococci and L. plantarum are active in the successful fermentation of wheat silage. (Refs. 5).

  15. Isolation and microencapsulation of Lactobacillus spp. from corn silage for probiotic application

    OpenAIRE

    Kasra ? Kermanshahi, R; Fooladi, J; Peymanfar, S

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Probiotics including strains of Lactobacillus spp. are living microorganisms including which are beneficial to human and animals health. In this study, Lactobacillus has been isolated from corn silage in a cold region of Iran by anaerobic culture."nMaterials and Methods: The bacteriological and biochemical standard methods were used for identification and phenotypic characterization of isolated organism. To increase the stability of organism in the environment, we u...

  16. Effect of corn silage particle size and level of soybean oil on ruminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the effects of two corn silage particle size (coarse particle with geometric mean of 5.83 ± 2.47 mm and fine particle with geometric mean of 4.74 ± 2.74 mm) and two levels of soybean oil (0 and 4% of DM) on ruminal mat composition, distribution and consistency, four two years fistulated ruminant Zel ewes (BW ...

  17. EFFECT OF INOCULANT PIONEER 1188 IN MAIZE SILAGE ON COW MILKING CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zimmer

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available First investigation part, started on 1 September 2001 by feeding 473 cows (401 dairy and 72 dry and finished on 13 November by feeding 474 cows (409 dairy and 65 dry, was characterized by the main ration consisting of maize silage without inoculant. This period was known for a maximum number of housed cows being 490 (423 dairy and 67 dry and minimum 469 (395 dairy and 74 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 17.06 l with 3.48% of lactic fat on the average. Second part of the investigation, started on 14 November 2001 by feeding 474 cows (411 dairy and 63 dry and finished on 31 March 2002 by feeding 464 cows (395 dairy and 69 dry, was known for the basic ration contained maize silage enriched by inoculant Pioneer 1188.This period was characterized by a maximum number of housed cows being 482 (404 dairy and 57 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 18.67 l and 3.58% of lactic fat. The main ration was composed of silage maize, highly wet maize, pearl barley, stock meal, sunflower cake, hay, salt and VAM. Inoculant Pioneer contained 6 strains of lactic-sour fermentation selected bacteria whose viability is basis of a successful product. In fact, it is a micro-granulated product added, by Gandy doser, to amount of 0.5 kg per green mass/t. Inoculant Pioneer 1188 was in this research added in a dose of 0.436 kg t-1 silage maize. Daily average of stable milk production increased by 1.61l i.e. 9.4% and lactic fat from 3.48% to 3.58% i.e. 2.9%.

  18. Chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels of dehydrated cashew bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo Glaydson Farias Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels dried cashew bagasse (DCB. Our experiment used a randomized design replicated four times, each replicate consisting of the following five treatments: 100% elephant grass; 95% elephant grass + 5% DCB; 90% elephant grass + 10% DCB; 85% elephant grass + 15% DCB; and 80% elephant grass + 20% DCB. The elephant grass was cut manually to a residual height of 5 cm at 80 days of age, and cashew bagasse was obtained from the processing of cashew stalks used in fruit pulp manufacturing in Mossoró/RN. Plastic buckets were used as experimental silos, and 90 days after ensiling the experimental silos were opened and the contents analyzed. The addition of dried cashew bagasse to silage linearly increased the levels of dried matter and crude protein by 0.59% and 0.13%, respectively, for each 1% addition (P < 0.05. The neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent content of the silages was reduced by 0.22% and 0.09%, respectively, for each 1% addition of the bagasse. The total carbohydrate content was not influenced by the bagasse addition (P > 0.05, and averaged 82.29%. The levels of non-fiber carbohydrate showed linear growth (P < 0.05 as the dehydrated cashew bagasse was added, and pH and ammoniacal nitrogen levels were reduced. The addition of the dehydrated bagasse to elephant grass silage improves its chemical composition, and it can be effectively added up to the level of 20%.

  19. Accuracy, precision and robustness of different methods to obtain samples from silages in fermentation studies

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    Rodrigo da Costa Gomes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate accuracy, precision and robustness of two methods to obtain silage samples, in comparison with extraction of liquor by manual screw-press. Wet brewery residue alone or combined with soybean hulls and citrus pulp were ensiled in laboratory silos. Liquor was extracted by a manual screw-press and a 2-mL aliquot was fixed with 0.4 mL formic acid. Two 10-g silage samples from each silo were diluted in 20 mL deionized water or 17% formic acid solution (alternative methods. Aliquots obtained by the three methods were used to determine the silage contents of fermentation end-products. The accuracy of the alternative methods was evaluated by comparing mean bias of estimates obtained by manual screw-press and by alternative methods, whereas precision was assessed by the root mean square prediction error and the residual error. Robustness was determined by studying the interaction between bias and chemical components, pH, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and buffer capacity. The 17% formic acid method was more accurate for estimating acetic, butyric and lactic acids, although it resulted in low overestimates of propionic acid and underestimates of ethanol. The deionized water method overestimated acetic and propionic acids and slightly underestimated ethanol. The 17% formic acid method was more precise than deionized water for estimating all organic acids and ethanol. The robustness of each method with respect to variation in the silage chemical composition, IVDMD and pH is dependent on the fermentation end-product at evaluation. The robustness of the alternative methods seems to be critical at the determination of lactic acid and ethanol contents.

  20. Conservation and chemical composition of Leucaena Leucocephala plus fresh or wilted Pennisetum purpureum mixed silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Santana P

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Quantify the effects of mixing Leucaena (L with King grass forage, fresh (K or wilted (Kp, on the fermentation process and chemical composition of mixed silages. Materials and methods. Silos were produced mixing several proportions (kg:kg K:L and Kp:L (100:0; 75:25; 60:40; 50:50; 40:60 and 0:100 of both types of plants, under a completely randomized design of four replications. The quantity of organic acids (butyric, acetic, lactic, pH, ammonia nitrogen percent and some of the typical bromatologic nutrients of the forage before and after ensiling were measured. The treatment effects were evaluated through variance and regression analysis. Results. The results clearly proved the differences (p<0.05 between King grass and Leucaena which promote its mixing and wilting: better legume contents of crude protein (24 vs. 7%, dry matter (33.77 vs. 22.05% and crude fiber (26.53 vs. 32.5%. Clear benefits on the conservation process of mixed silages were also measured: higher lactic productions and less butyric, acceptable pH (4.02-4.8 and protein degradation (<8%. In addition, a positive effect on the chemical composition of the aforementioned silages was quantified (crude protein, dry matter and crude fiber progressive improvement. Conclusions. Mixed K+L silages are better than pure K if L is included below 25% in KL and up to 40% when K has been wilted. Higher inclusions of L will worsen the conservation process and will limit its elaboration.

  1. Failure of cellulolysis in the rumen of reindeer fed timothy silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica A. Olsen

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Three male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus calves were brought from mountain pastures in April and fed regrowth timothy (Phleum pratense silage with 76% leaves and 24.0% dry matter (DM ad libitum. The silage contained (on DM basis 25.4% cellulose, 12.0% crude protein and 19-6% water soluble carbohydrates. After an initial period of 11 days the daily silage intake rose to almost similar values for all animals, but independently of food intake, body mass (BM increased by as much as 13.3 kg for animal R3 during the first 21 days, compared to 4.4 kg and 2.8 kg for Rl and R2, respectively. At slaughter the wet weight of the rumen contents of animal R3 constituted 30.2% of the total BM, compared to 18.5% and 19.1% in animals Rl and R2, respectively. A reduced ability of the rumen micro-biota to ferment pure cellulose in vitro was observed in R3. The ruminal pH was 7.07 and the concentration of volatile fatty acids was only 50.0 mM in R3, indicating a low rate of fermentation. The initial rates of in vitro dry matter digestibility of timothy silage and standard hay were also affected by the rumen fermentation failure in animal R3. Depressed rumen cellulolysis, which may be related to natural periods of starvation prior to the feeding experiment, could have caused the low rate of fermentation and the large rumen size observed in this animal.

  2. Bromatological and fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silages with the addition of annato by-product

    OpenAIRE

    Rêgo,Margareth Maria Teles; Neiva,José Neuman Miranda; Cavalcante,Maria Andréa Borges; Cândido,Magno José Duarte; Clementino,Rossana Herculano; Restle,João

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the nutritional value of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum.) silages with the addition of 0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% of the by-product from SPU annato (Bixa orellana, L.) based on natural matter. A complete random design was used with four replications. The nutritional composition, pH, ammonical nitrogen and lactic, acetic, propyonic and butyric acids were determined. Levels of annato by-product had an increasingly linear effect on content...

  3. Nutritive value of brewers’ grain and maize silage for fattening rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guermah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific knowledge of the nutritive value of raw materials is fundamental to formulate balanced diets for rabbits and allows greater use of by-products and non-conventional feedstuffs. This paper examines the feeding value of sun-dried brewers’ grain and maize silage (whole plant for fattening rabbits. Twenty-four individually caged 8-wk-old rabbits were used to determine the digestibility. Both wet products were sun-dried and ground before being incorporated into a basal diet. The inclusion level at the expense of all basal ingredients amounted to 30%. Basal diet and both experimental diets were fed ad libitum to 8 rabbits during the 4-d balance trial. The determined digestibility of protein, fat, crude fibre and neutral detergent fibre digestibility amounted to 76.2 and 77.2%; 86.5 and 99.1%; 8.1 and 8.3% and 28.0 and 13.5%, respectively, for brewers’ grain and maize silage. The digestible energy content amounted to 11.66 MJ/kg dry matter (DM (brewers’ grain and 11.10 MJ/kg DM (maize silage. Both by-products have potential as alternative feedstuff in rabbit diets. However, further experiments are necessary to determine the effect of ensilaging the whole maize plant, as a significantly lower (P<0.001 feed intake was observed.

  4. Elephant grass silage with the addition of crambe bran conjugated to different specific mass

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    Arilson Moraes Cardoso

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of inclusion of crambe bran concentrations (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. with different specific masses in elephant grass silage (Penninsetum purpureum Schum.. For that, the bromatological and microbiological compositions of the experimental silages were determined. We used 48 mini silos distributed in a completely randomized design, arranged in a factorial 4 × 3, four levels of inclusion of crambe bran (0; 10; 20 and 30% and three specific masses (400; 500 and 600 kg MN m-3, with four replications. After 240 days of fermentation the silos were opened. It was observed linear effect on DM, CP, NDFap, ADFap, HEM, LIG, NFC, TC and population of bacteria that produce lactic acid with the addition of crambe meal. There was interaction between the crambe bran factors and specific masses on the values of pH and N-NH3. For MM variables and yeast count there was a negative linear effect due to the evaluated specific mass. The inclusion of crambe bran helps to increase the fermentative profile and the bromatological composition of elephant grass silages studied, and the best results were obtained with the addition of 30% of this coproduct, based on the natural matter.

  5. Enteric and manure-derived methane emissions and biogas yield of slurry from dairy cows fed grass silage or maize silage with and without supplementation of rapeseed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    to parity and days in milk. Two diets were based on maize silage with (MS+) or without (MS−) supplementation of crushed rapeseed, and the third diet was based on late cut grass silage without supplementation of crushed rapeseed (GS−). Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition were measured. Enteric......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different dietary strategies on milk production and composition, enteric CH4 emissions, slurry storage losses of CH4 and total emissions of CH4 with and without biogas production. Fifty-four cows were allocated to three diets according......±standard deviation) was 25.3±2.5, 26.8±3.3 and 29.0±4.2 L CH4/kg ECM if manure was stored at 10 °C, 15 °C or 20 °C, respectively. When the slurry was digested in a laboratory scale biogas plant, the lowest total CH4 emissions per kg ECM were observed for MS+ (20.5 L CH4/ECM) and the highest for GS− (24.3 L CH4/ECM...

  6. Performance and milk composition of dairy goats as affected by the dietary level of stoned olive cake silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurhan Keles

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study compared the effects of dietary levels of two phase stoned olive cake (OC in form of silage (OCS on milk production and quality of Saanen goats. Methods The OCS included in total mixed ration (TMR at dry matter proportions of 0.0 (OC0, 0.10 (OC10, and 0.20 (OC20. The TMR were fed to a total of 18 goats in a completely randomized design for a period of 5 weeks. Results Dietary treatments had no effect on the milk yield of Saanen goats, but the daily milk fat production was greater (p<0.05 at feeding OC20. The total phenolic (TP compounds contents increased (p<0.01 in each increment of OCS in TMR and this was also reflected in the TP contents of milk. The C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, and C14:0 saturated fatty acids (FAs in milk fat decreased (p<0.01 with increasing dietary level of OCS, but the decrease (p<0.001 in C16:0 and the increase (p<0.01 in C18:0 in milk fat occurred similarly at each inclusion level of OCS. Only OC20 reduced (p<0.05 the total saturated FA, yet the reduction (p<0.01 in n6/n3 ratio and atherogenicity index occurred in both OC10 and OC20. Conclusion Two phase stoned OCS increases milk quality not only through modifying the milk FA composition, but also by increasing the milk TP content. These favorable changes in milk quality are closely associated with the dietary level of OCS.

  7. Effects of ensiling processes and antioxidants on fatty acid concentrations and compositions in corn silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Corn silage is the main dietary component used for ruminant breeding in China and is an important dietary source of fatty acids for these animals. However, little is known regarding effective means to protect the fatty acid (FA) contents in silages. In this study, we examined the changes in FA contents and compositions during corn ensiling and screened several antioxidants for their inhibition of lipid oxidation during corn ensiling. Methods We conducted two different experiments. In Experiment 1, corn was ensiled in 30 polyethylene bottles (bottle volume: 1 L, silage density: 600 g/dm3) and three bottles were opened at 0.5 d, 1 d, 1.5 d, 2 d, 2.5 d, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d after ensiling. In Experiment 2, corn was treated with various antioxidants: (1) No additives (CK); (2) BHA (Butylated hydroxyanisole); (3) TBHQ (Tertiary butyl hydroquinone); (4) TPP (Tea polyphenols); and (5) VE (Vitamin E). These treatments were applied at 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of fresh weight with each treatment replicated 3 times. Results During ensiling in Experiment 1, saturated fatty acids (SFA; C16:0 and C18:0) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents tended to increase, whereas unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) tended to decrease. However, these changes were only significant on the first 2 days of ensiling. In Experiment 2, all of the antioxidants tested affected the total FA contents and those of unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) and MDA. The effects of TBHQ and TPP were greater than those of the other antioxidants. Conclusions The reduced total FA contents in corn silages were due to unsaturated fatty acids’ oxidation during the early stages of ensiling. Adding an antioxidant could prevent fatty acids’ oxidation in corn silages. PMID:24304647

  8. Methane production, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, and milk production of dairy cows fed conventional or brown midrib corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Benchaar, C

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of replacing conventional corn silage (CCS) with brown midrib corn silage (BMCS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH 4 emission, nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and N excretion. Sixteen rumen-cannulated lactating cows used in a crossover design (35-d periods) were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio = 65:35, dry matter basis) based (59% dry matter) on either CCS or BMCS. Dry matter intake and milk yield increased when cows were fed BMCS instead of CCS. Of the milk components, only milk fat content slightly decreased when cows were fed the BMCS-based diet compared with when fed the CCS-based diet (3.81 vs. 3.92%). Compared with CCS, feeding BMCS to cows increased yields of milk protein and milk fat. Ruminal pH, protozoa numbers, total VFA concentration, and molar proportions of acetate and propionate were similar between cows fed BMCS and those fed CCS. Daily enteric CH 4 emission (g/d) was unaffected by dietary treatments, but CH 4 production expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake or on milk yield basis was lower for cows fed the BMCS-based diet than for cows fed the CCS-based diet. A decline in manure N excretion and a shift in N excretion from urine to feces were observed when BMCS replaced CCS in the diet, suggesting reduced potential of manure N volatilization. Results from this study show that improving fiber quality of corn silage in dairy cow diets through using brown midrib trait cultivar can reduce enteric CH 4 emissions as well as potential emissions of NH 3 and N 2 O from manure. However, CH 4 emissions during manure storage may increase due to excretion of degradable OM when BMCS diet is fed, which merits further investigation. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.

    1993-01-01

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  10. Perfil de fermentação das silagens de capim-tanzânia com aditivos teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e ph Profile of fermentation of tanzaniagrass silage with additives ammonia-n and ph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Luiza da Silva Ávila

    2003-10-01

    of the silage. Thus, it is indispensable to adopt procedures which modify this picture such as the use of additives. This work aimed to evaluate the fermentation of Tanzania grass silages with additives in relation to the ammonia-N content and pH, and among these additives, to determine which of them and what dose confers the best qualities to the produced silage. The experiment was carried out in the Animal Science Department of UFLA by utilizing tanzaniagrass (Panicum maxium Jacq. cv. Tanzania I established in a Clayey Dusky red Latosol and harvested at 60-65 days of growth. The forage was ensiled in experimental PVC silos, adapted with valves type Bunsen with capacity of about 3 kg each. The treatments consisted of three additives (citrus pulp, wheat meal and corn meal in four doses (3, 6, 9 and 12% plus one without additives and 8 times of silo opening (0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. The experimental design utilized was randomized blocks, constituing a factorial scheme with additional treatment [(3x4 + 1] x 8 with 3 replicates. The addition of citrus pulp, wheat meal and corn meal improves the fermentative characteristics of the tanzaniagrass silage. The silages without additives present values of pH and ammonia-N characteristics of a satisfactory quality silage but the use of additives is recommended to prevent losses.

  11. Ensiling Characteristics and the In situ Nutrient Degradability of a By-product Feed-based Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. I.; Oh, Y. K.; Park, K. K.; Kwak, W. S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the ensiling characteristics and the in situ degradability of a by-product feed (BF)-based silage. Before ensilation, the BF-based mixture was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial inoculant on a wet basis and ensiled for up to 4 weeks. The BF-based silage contained on average 39.3% moisture, 13.4% crude protein (CP), and 52.2% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 49% total digestible nutrient, and 37.8% physically effective NDF1.18 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Ensiling the BF-based silage for up to 4 weeks affected (pensiling. These parameters indicated that the silage was fermented and stored well during the 4-week ensiling period. Compared with rice or ryegrass straws, the BF-based silage had a higher (pensiling SMS, RPB, rice bran, and a minimal amount of straw. PMID:25049944

  12. Amino acid profile of metabolisable protein in lactating dairy cows is affected by dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    Our previous study showed that supply of metabolisable protein (MP) to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage. The aim of this study was to examine how amino acid (AA) profile of MP was affected by silage DM concentration. Eight grass-c...

  13. The effects of and interactions between the maturity of grass silage and concentrate starch source when offered as total mixed rations on the performance of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahir, M.N.; Lund, Peter; Hetta, M.

    2013-01-01

    experimental periods. The experimental diets consisted of four total mixed rations (TMR) consisting of early-cut grass silage (EGS) supplemented with either barley- or maize-based concentrate and late-cut grass silage (LGS) supplemented with either barley- or maize-based concentrate. All TMR contained...

  14. Correcting the dry matter content of sugar beet silages as a substrate for biogas production; Die Korrektur des Trockensubstanzgehaltes von Zuckerruebensilagen als Substrat fuer Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strubelt, Cornelia [Blgg Deutschland GmbH (Germany). Analytiklabor fuer Landwirtschaft und Umwelt; Weissbach, Friedrich

    2008-11-15

    During the process of determining DM content in silages, volatile compounds (fermentation acids and alcohols) are lost. Therefore, the DM content measured in the conventional way has to be corrected afterwards. If that is not done, calculations on nutrient contents, as well as specific biogas yields will be false, causing experimental data to be misleading. Up to half of the organic matter of sugar beet silages can consist of volatile fermentation products. Without exact knowledge of the respective fermentation acid and alcohol content, conclusions about the substrate specific gas yield cannot be drawn. After equations to correct the dry matter content of maize silages and grass silage, an equation for DM correction for ensiled sugar beets silage is recommended here. (orig.)

  15. Effect of dietary inclusion of whole ear corn silage on stomach development and gastric mucosa integrity of heavy pigs at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Federico; Pascotto, Ernesto; Zanfi, Cristina; Spanghero, Mauro

    2013-12-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of whole ear corn silage on stomach development and on the incidence of gastric lesions was studied in heavy pigs. Three groups of 14 castrated male pigs were fed a control cereal-based diet and two diets containing whole ear corn silage (15% or 30% DM) from 90 kg bodyweight to slaughter at 170 kg. The diets with whole ear corn silage increased the amount of neutral detergent fibre in the stomach contents, the weight of the organs and the area of the pyloric region. Follicular gastritis was significantly lower and gastritis less severe in pigs fed the whole ear corn silage diets than pigs fed the control diet. The inclusion of whole ear corn silage in the diet influenced the development of the stomach and reduced the incidence of gastritis in heavy pigs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of silage additives on ruminal and intestinal microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensiling is the preservation of forage for livestock through microbial fermentation. Although ensiling of plant material by its associated surface microbial community alone is possible, the cost of an uncontrolled fermentation can include dry matter loss, decreased quality, and spoilage. While prope...

  17. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a......NDFom concentration and aNDFom digestibility are key determinants of the nutritive value of a diet. Therefore, the importance of maize silage aNDFom digestibility on nutritive value, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and milk production was investigated in a literature review across a wide range of studies varying...

  18. Sorghum silage supplemented with crambe meal improves dry matter intake and milk production in crossbred Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo Araújo, Saulo Alberto; Bicalho, Guilherme Pires; da Silva Rocha, Norberto; Bento, Cláudia Braga Pereira; Ortêncio, Marluci Olício

    2018-01-01

    We studied the feed intake and milk production of Holstein × Zebu crossbred cows fed sorghum silage diets and concentrates, with and without the addition of crambe meal. Using a change-over design for a total of 120 days, eight cows were fed two diets (concentrates + silages with and without crambe meal) in four 30-day periods, with four replications (animals). The crambe meal diet increased (P dry matter intake (DMI), crude protein intake (CPI), and non-fibrous carbohydrates intake (NFCI) as well as milk production (4.3%). No difference was noted (P > 0.05) for the milk composition between the treatments. Crambe meal as an additive in sorghum silage (100 g/kg in natural matter) showed a great potential for introduction in dairy farming as it substantially increases CP intake, does not reduce food intake, raises animal productivity, and does not affect milk composition.

  19. Microbial status, aerobic stability and fermentation of maize silage sealed with an oxygen barrier film or standard polyethylene film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Orosz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to compare a bunker silo sealing system comprising an oxygen barrier film (OB: 45μm thickness with protective woven polypropylene with one comprising standard black polyethylene film (S; 125μm thickness with protective tyres. Analysis of samples taken to 30 cm depth after 365 days of storage showed no differences in pH or lactic acid between the two sealing systems. There were no differences in aerobic bacterial count between silages. Whilst 2.56 log10 CFU moulds g-1 fresh weight were found in samples of silage sealed with S, no moulds were found in samples of silage sealed with OB. Aerobic stability, averaged 249 hours and 184 hours for OB and S, respectively. The OB system probably inhibited the development of the micro-organisms responsible for the initiation of aerobic deterioration to a greater extent than the standard silo sealing system.  

  20. Effects of stage of maturity at harvest, wilting and LAB inoculant on aerobic stability of wheat silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinberg, Z.G.; Khanal, Prabhat; Chen, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to study effects of cultivar, stage of maturity at harvest, wilting, and addition of lactic acid bacterial (LAB) inoculant at ensiling, and their interactions, on the aerobic stability of wheat silages. Wheat of two cultivars, harvested at the flowering or the milk stage...... of maturity were ensiled in mini-silos, either directly after cutting (DC) or after wilting (W). After 2-7 months of storage, silages were subjected to a 7-day aerobic stability test during which changes in chemical composition, dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) digestibility, and temperature...... to the results with cultivar, stage of maturity, wilting and inoculant as main effects, as well as their interactions. Cultivar and LAB inoculant had effects on silage composition and aerobic stability, with stage of maturity having an effect on aerobic losses, whereas wilting did not have effects on aerobic...

  1. Methane emissions changed nonlinearly with graded substitution of alfalfa silage with corn silage and corn grain in the diet of sheep and relation with rumen fermentation characteristics in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, A; Lowe, K; Kittelmann, S; Janssen, P H; Ledgard, S; Pacheco, D

    2016-08-01

    Feeding grain and corn silage have been proposed as practices to reduce enteric methane (CH) emissions per unit of intake from ruminants, but the inclusion level required in the diet is normally not specified. The objectives of the current study were to determine the CH emission factor (g/kg DMI) of sheep fed alfalfa silage substituted with increasing levels of corn silage or corn grain at a fixed DMI level (2% of BW) and determine its relationship with rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial community composition and with in vitro fermentation characteristics of the same diets incubated using a standard laboratory method. Romney ewe hoggets (approximately 14 mo old; = 64) were randomly allocated to 8 dietary treatments, which included chaffed alfalfa silage alone or substituted with either 25, 50, 75 or 100% corn silage or 25, 50 or 65% rolled corn grain on a DM basis. After acclimatization to the diet, DMI and CH emissions were measured from individual sheep for 2 consecutive days in open-circuit respiration chambers and a rumen sample was collected at 3 h after feeding. The same diets were also incubated in an automated in vitro gas production system for 48 h using rumen liquid of fistulated nonlactating dairy cows grazing pasture. Increasing the substitution of alfalfa silage with corn silage or corn grain in the diet of sheep resulted in a quadratic response ( alfalfa silage. The ratio of acetate + butyrate to propionate + valerate and the propionate proportion alone in rumen liquid were the strongest single predictors for CH/DMI in the overall data set and explained 37.1 and 32.5%, respectively, of the variation in CH/DMI. Methanogens of (21.1% of total methanogens; = 0.247) and (10.7% of total methanogens; = -0.411) clades had weak to moderate correlations with in vivo CH/DMI. There was a weak quadratic relationship ( alfalfa forage diet when fed at 2% of BW to sheep; however, implications on predicting its influence on greenhouse gas emissions per

  2. Effects of Ensiling Fermentation and Aerobic Deterioration on the Bacterial Community in Italian Ryegrass, Guinea Grass, and Whole-crop Maize Silages Stored at High Moisture Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbing Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of storage period and aerobic deterioration on the bacterial community were examined in Italian ryegrass (IR, guinea grass (GG, and whole-crop maize (WM silages. Direct-cut forages were stored in a laboratory silo for 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 120 d without any additives; live counts, content of fermentation products, and characteristics of the bacterial community were determined. 2,3-Butanediol, acetic acid, and lactic acid were the dominant fermentation products in the IR, GG, and WM silages, respectively. The acetic acid content increased as a result of prolonged ensiling, regardless of the type of silage crop, and the changes were distinctively visible from the beginning of GG ensiling. Pantoea agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis, and Enterobacter sp. were the major bacteria in the IR silage, indicating that alcoholic fermentation may be due to the activity of enterobacteria. Staphylococcus sciuri and Bacillus pumilus were detected when IR silage was spoiled, whereas between aerobically stable and unstable silages, no differences were seen in the bacterial community at silo opening. Lactococcus lactis was a representative bacterium, although acetic acid was the major fermentation product in the GG silage. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Morganella morganii were suggested to be associated with the increase in acetic acid due to prolonged storage. Enterobacter cloacae appeared when the GG silage was spoiled. In the WM silage, no distinctive changes due to prolonged ensiling were seen in the bacterial community. Throughout the ensiling, Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella confusa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were present in addition to L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. lactis. Upon deterioration, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Klebsiella variicola, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Bacillus gibsonii were detected. These results demonstrate the diverse bacterial community that evolves during ensiling and aerobic spoilage of IR, GG

  3. Digestion and ruminal fermentation of cocoa pod silage based ration enriched by gliricidia and calliandra leaves on goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puastuti W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In term of availability, cacao pod is potential for ruminant feed. According to its nutrients content, cacao pod can be used as feed fiber source. Protein sources materials must be added when cacao pod was ensilaged due to low protein content of this material. The aim of this study was to investigate digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation of goat fed grass or cacao pod based ration. Randomized block design and 20 heads of lambs (16.95±2.36 kg to evaluated 5 type of rations: R (50% grass + 50% concentrate; S (50% cacao pod silage + 50% concentrate; SG (50% cacao pod-gliricidia silage + 50% concentrate; SK (50% cacao pod-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate dan SC (50% cacao pod-mixture of gliricidia-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate. Feeding trial was conducted for over 15 weeks. Measurements were taken on feed digestibility and rumen-fermentation end-products after 3 weeks of treatments. Results shows that nutrients digestibility was different significantly among the groups of treatments (P<0.05. Digestibillity of organic matter, NDF and energy of R ration was those of higher significantly (P<0.05 than those of other groups. N-ammonia of rumen from goat feed R ration was higher (P<0.05 than other groups. Total VFA and each component were different among the groups (P<0.05, however the value was similar among the groups of cacao pod silage rations. It is concluded that cacao pod silaged based rations enriched by Gliricidia and Calliandra leaves did not produce similar digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation with grass based ration.

  4. The effect of partial replacement of corn silage on rumen degradability, milk production and composition in lactating primiparous dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Biricik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of corn silage with long alfalfa hay and/or coarse chopped wheat straw on neutral detergent fibre (NDF rumen degradability, milk yield and composition in late lactating dairy cows fed diets with 50% forage on dry matter basis. Twelve late lactating Holstein primiparous cows including four cows equipped with a rumen cannula, averaging 210 ± 20 d in milk and weighing 575 ± 50 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design. During each of four 21-d periods, cows were fed 4 total mixed diets that were varied in the forage sources: 1 50% corn silage (CS, 2 35% corn silage + 15% wheat straw (CSW, 3 35% corn silage + 15% alfalfa hay (CSA, 4 25% corn silage + 10% wheat straw + 15% alfalfa hay (CSWA. The production of milk averaged 18.55, 20.41 and 20.06 kg/d for unadjusted milk production, 4% fat corrected milk and solid corrected milk, respectively, and was not affected by treatments. Likewise, milk composition or production of milk components was not affected by diets and averaged 4.69% fat, 3.66% protein, 4.51% lactose, 866 g/d fat, 665 g/d protein, 824 g/d lactose. Treatments had no effect on in situ NDF soluble, degradable and potential degradability of all diets, whereas the effective degradability (ED of NDF was greater for cows fed CS diet than for cows fed CSW, CSA and CSWA diets (P<0.05. These values suggested that the partial replacement of corn silage with alfalfa hay and/or wheat straw has no unfavourable effect on the productive parameters.

  5. Identification and Antimicrobial Activity Detection of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Corn Stover Silage

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    Dongxia Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 59 lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains were isolated from corn stover silage. According to phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA sequences and recA gene polymerase chain reaction amplification, these LAB isolates were identified as five species: Lactobacillus (L. plantarum subsp. plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Enterococcus mundtii, Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, respectively. Those strains were also screened for antimicrobial activity using a dual-culture agar plate assay. Based on excluding the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide, two L. plantarum subsp. plantarum strains ZZU 203 and 204, which strongly inhibited Salmonella enterica ATCC 43971T, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698T and Escherichia coli ATCC 11775T were selected for further research on sensitivity of the antimicrobial substance to heat, pH and protease. Cell-free culture supernatants of the two strains exhibited strong heat stability (60 min at 100°C, but the antimicrobial activity was eliminated after treatment at 121°C for 15 min. The antimicrobial substance remained active under acidic condition (pH 2.0 to 6.0, but became inactive under neutral and alkaline condition (pH 7.0 to 9.0. In addition, the antimicrobial activities of these two strains decreased remarkably after digestion by protease K. These results preliminarily suggest that the desirable antimicrobial activity of strains ZZU 203 and 204 is the result of the production of a bacteriocin-like substance, and these two strains with antimicrobial activity could be used as silage additives to inhibit proliferation of unwanted microorganism during ensiling and preserve nutrients of silage. The nature of the antimicrobial substances is being investigated in our laboratory.

  6. Recovery of Phenolic Acid and Enzyme Production from Corn Silage Biologically Treated by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucić-Kojić, Ana; Šelo, Gordana; Zelić, Bruno; Planinić, Mirela; Tišma, Marina

    2017-03-01

    Corn silage is used as high-energy forage for dairy cows and more recently for biogas production in a process of anaerobic co-digestion with cow manure. In this work, fresh corn silage after the harvest was used as a substrate in solid-state fermentations with T. versicolor with the aim of phenolic acid recovery and enzyme (laccase and manganese peroxidase) production. During 20 days of fermentation, 10.4-, 3.4-, 3.0-, and 1.8-fold increments in extraction yield of syringic acid, vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and caffeic acid, respectively, were reached when compared to biologically untreated corn silage. Maximal laccase activity was gained on the 4th day of fermentation (V.A. = 180.2 U/dm 3 ), and manganese peroxidase activity was obtained after the 3rd day of fermentation (V.A. = 30.1 U/dm 3 ). The addition of copper(II) sulfate as inducer during solid state fermentation resulted in 8.5- and 7-fold enhancement of laccase and manganese peroxidase activities, respectively. Furthermore, the influence of pH and temperature on enzyme activities was investigated. Maximal activity of laccase was obtained at T = 50 °C and pH = 3.0, while manganese peroxidase is active at temperature range T = 45-70 °C with the maximal activity at pH = 4.5.

  7. Anti-Fusarium moniliforme activity and fumonisin biodegradation by corn and silage microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone B. Camilo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to isolate microorganisms from corn and silage screened for their ability to inhibit F. moniliforme growth (strain 113F in association with fumonisin detoxification. Among 150 isolates four Gram-positive bacilli and one yeast with inhibitory activity were selected. The inhibition zone ranged from 50 to 72.5 mm using cultures, and from 25 to 52.5mm for crude alcoholic extract. The isolates S9, S10, S69 (sporulated bacilli and SE3071 (yeast degraded 43, 48, 83 and 57% of the initial FB1 concentration, respectively. The pH increased gradually in the medium during incubation for biodegradation process.

  8. Ethanol production from maize silage as lignocellulosic biomass in anaerobically digested and wet-oxidized manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Lisiecki, P.; Holm-Nielsen, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    was investigated using 2 1 bioreactors. Wet oxidation performed for 20 min at 121 degrees C was found as the most suitable pretreatment conditions for AD manure. High ammonia concentration and significant amount of macro- and micro-nutrients in the AD manure had a positive influence on the ethanol fermentation....... No extra nitrogen source was needed in the fermentation broth. It was shown that the AD manure could successfully substitute process water in SSF of pretreated lignocellulosic fibres. Theoretical ethanol yields of 82% were achieved, giving 30.8 kg ethanol per 100 kg dry mass of maize silage. (C) 2007...

  9. Characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolates and their effect on silage fermentation of fruit residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinsong; Tan, Haisheng; Cai, Yimin

    2016-07-01

    The natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population, chemical composition, and silage fermentation of fruit residues were studied. Eighty-two strains of LAB were isolated from fruit residues such as banana leaf and stem, pineapple peel, and papaya peel. All strains were gram-positive and catalase-negative bacteria, and they were divided into 7 groups (A-G) according to morphological and biochemical characters. Strains in groups A to F were rods, and group G was cocci. Group F produced gas from glucose; other groups did not. Groups A to C and F formed dl-lactic acid, whereas groups D, E, and G formed l-lactic acid. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, groups A to G strains were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (54.9% of the total isolates), Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3.6%), Lactobacillus nagelii (8.5%), Lactobacillus perolens (4.9%), Lactobacillus casei (11.0%), Lactobacillus fermentum (9.8%), and Enterococcus gallinarum (7.3%), respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei are the most frequently isolated from fruit residues as a dominant species, and they could grow at a lower pH conditions and produce more lactic acid than other isolates. Pineapple and papaya peels contained higher crude protein (11.5-13.8%) and water-soluble carbohydrate (16.8-22.4%), but lower acid detergent fiber contents (21.2 to 26.4%) than banana stems and leaves (8.2% crude protein, 42.8% acid detergent fiber, and 5.1% water-soluble carbohydrate). Compared with banana stem and leaf silages, the pineapple and papaya peel silages were well preserved with a lower pH and higher lactate content. The study suggests that the fruit residues contain excellent LAB species and abundant feed nutrients, and that they can be preserved as silage to be potential food resources for livestock. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Replacing Alfalfa Hay with Alfalfa Silage in High Performance Dairy Cattle Diets

    OpenAIRE

    nabi allah aghaziarati farahani; Hamid Amanlou; ََA. Mostafa Tehrani

    2014-01-01

    Four-handed fifty lactating Holstein cows with mean body weight of, 597± 40 and 50±20 and days in milk body Condi from sure of 3.1±0.4 were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 3 treatments. Each treatment had 3 pens and each pen had 50 cows. The experiment lasted for 60 days (10 days adaptation and 50 days collection period). Concentrate to forage ratio was 60 to 40 and alfalfa hay replaced with alfalfa silage. Dry mater intake, milk yield and composition did not changed significantly ...

  11. Exploring the Feasibility of Using Silage-Based Feed with Alternative Sources of Protein in Organic Pig Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth C. Clements

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Current regulations for organic pig and poultry production systems permit feed ingredients of non-organic origin at an inclusion rate of up to 5 per cent. This is primarily due to concerns that there is an insufficient supply of organic protein on the European Union market, in terms of quality and quantity, to meet the nutritional requirements of pigs and poultry raised on organic farms. However, 100 per cent organic diets for monogastric livestock will become compulsory in the EU from 1 January 2018, and there is therefore a need to develop sustainable feeding strategies based on organic feeds. This feed trial conducted in the UK explores the feasibility of using a silage-based feeding system for Gloucester Old Spot pigs, and compares the inclusion of soya, beans and peas as protein sources in terms of pig growth performance. No significant difference in the pen mean daily live weight gain was observed during the grower phase (pen mean age of 11-14 weeks between the diet groups. However, during the finisher phase (pen mean age of 15-22 weeks, pigs on the soya and pea rations had significantly faster growth rates than pigs fed the bean ration. It is speculated that the slight shortfall in growth rate observed in the pigs fed the bean ration may be offset by the lower cost of production of beans in the UK. This feasibility trial demonstrates that a 100 per cent organic diet for pigs using alternative, locally-grown sources of protein as part of a forage-based ration can provide a viable alternative to a soya-based diet.

  12. Composição bromatológica da silagem de quatro genótipos de girassol, ensilados em cinco diferentes idades de corte Bromatological composition of silage of four sunflower genotypes ensiled at different harvesting ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P.S. Souza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se a composição bromatológica do material original e das silagens de quatro genótipos de girassol (M742, MG4, PM92007 e VDH483 utilizados para produção de grãos, ensilados em diferentes idades de corte após o plantio e aos 90, 97, 104, 111, e 118 dias, e o melhor momento de colheita desses cultivares para ensilagem. Os teores de matéria seca variaram entre as idades e cultivares, sendo observados valores de 12,7% a 42,2% no material original e 11,1% e 40,2% na silagem. Os valores de proteína bruta variaram de 8,3% a 12,6% no material original e de 9,4% a 12,9% na silagem. Foi observada diminuição (PThe bromatological composition of four sunflower genotypes (M742, MG4, PM92007 and VDH483 used for producing seed, ensiled at different harvest ages (90, 97, 104, 111 and 118 days after sowing, was used to determine the best time to ensile. Differences among ages and cultivars were found for dry matter of the genotypes. The crude protein values varied from 8.3 to 12.6% for the original sample and from 9.4 to 12.9% for the silage. A decrease (P<0.05 in the soluble carbohydrate values for the ensiled genotypes was observed. The ether extract values varied from 2.2 to 13.3% for the original sample and from 3.0 to 17.9% for the silage. The values of hemicellulose and lignin decreased with the ensiling process, suggesting the fibrous fractions contributed, as additional substrate source, for fermentation. The lactic acid values decreased with the plant maturity stage. The dry matter in vitro digestibility decreased with the plant maturity. The best time to ensile, based on the quality of the sunflower genotype M742, MG4 and VDH483 silage, was at 104 days of age and for the genotype PM92007 silage was at 111 days of age.

  13. Utilização de farinha de silagem de pescado em dietas para o jundiá na fase juvenil Use of fish silage flour in diets for the jundiá in the juvenile phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariane Beatriz Schoffen Enke

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram avaliados o desempenho e o rendimento de carcaça em juvenis de jundiá Rhamdia quelen, alimentados com farinha de silagem química de rejeitos de pescado em substituição à levedura de cana, em dietas à base de ingredientes vegetais (dieta controle. Os 135 animais (peso médio inicial de 48,11±5,54g foram distribuídos em cinco tratamentos com três repetições ao acaso. Cada unidade de observação foi composta por um tanque circular (1000 litros abastecido com 200 litros de água, com temperatura controlada, em um sistema fechado de criação contendo nove animais cada. Os peixes foram alimentados durante 75 dias, duas vezes ao dia, na proporção de 10% da biomassa total. Foram testadas dietas contendo: 0, 12,5, 25, 37,5 e 50% de farinha de silagem. Os resultados indicaram um efeito quadrático (PThis study evaluated the productive performance and carcass yield of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen fed with different fish dregs chemical silage flour concentrations in substitution to the sugar cane yeast in a diet based on vegetable ingredients (control diet. Animals with initial weight of 48.11±5.54g were distributed in 5 treatments with 3 replicates, in a completely randomized design. Each observation unit consisted of a 1,000 liter polipropilene tank, with 200 liters of water, with 9 animals, in a thermo-regulated system with water recirculation. During 75 days, twice daily (9h and 17h the following diets were offered, in the proportion of 7% total biomass: 0% (control, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5% and 50% of silage flour. Results showed a quadratic effect (P<0.05 for inclusion levels of fish silage flour on final weight, weight gain, total length and specific growth rate. The inclusion of 30-35% of fish dregs chemical silage flour in the diet, results in better production performance of jundiá juveniles without affecting the survival and the water quality.

  14. Effects of a bacterial inoculant on potato hash silage quality, growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nkosi

    Corresponding author: Jonas.Chipa@Gauteng.gov.za. Introduction. Fattening of calf though out the feedlot is intensive method. The feed cost of feedlotting animals is approximate 70 - 80% of the total cost (Henning, 1999). Protein concentrations mostly ...

  15. Ensiling characteristics of silages of Stylo legume (Stylosanthes guianensis), Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and their mixture, treated with fermented juice of lactic bacteria, and feed intake and digestibility in goats of rations based on these silages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bureenok, S.; Sisaath, K.; Yuangklang, C.; Vasupen, K.; Schonewille, J. Th.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the ensiling characteristics of silages prepared from Guinea grass, Stylo legume or Stylo legume mixed with Guinea grass (50:50 w/w). Guinea grass and Stylo legume were harvested 45 and 60 days after regrowth, respectively and treated with a fermented

  16. Intake and performance of feedlot cattle fed diets based on high and low Brix sugar cane with or without calcium oxide and corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antunes Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate low and high Brix diets, treated or not with 5 g of calcium oxide per kg of natural matter, and corn silage on intake, digestibility and performance of beef cattle. Forty cattle with initial body weight (BW of 350 kg were used: five composed the control group, 30 were distributed into random blocks (control and the other five were distributed in a 5 × 5 incomplete Latin square, with the objective of determining digestibility. The 30 animals evaluated for performance were slaughtered and empty body weight (EPW, carcass dressing and meat cuts were determined. The diet with corn silage (CS presented the best intake of the other ingredients and the best weight gain, except for neutral detergent fiber intake in g/kg of BW. Only carcass dressing, in relation to BW and EBW, was not affected by the treatments, and the others were greater for animals fed diets with sugar cane silage. Animals fed diets with high brix sugar cane silage and treated high brix sugar cane silage presented lower intake of indigestible neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (g/kg of BW in relation to diets with low and high brix sugar cane silage, respectively. Animals fed diets with corn silage presented higher digestibility, except for crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Animals subjected to diets with corn silage presented low excretion of nitrogen compounds and higher microbial crude protein synthesis. Animals fed sugar cane silage present greater intake, performance and digestibility. The use of lime during 15 or 20º Brix sugar cane ensilage does not alter intake, digestibility or performance of beef cattle.

  17. Green biorefinery: separation of lactic acid from grass silage juice by chromatography using neutral polymeric resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Vu Hong; Novalin, Senad

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was to recover lactic acid in undissociated form from grass silage juice. For this aim, chromatographic separation using neutral polymeric resin Amberlite XAD1600 was investigated. Up to now, there is no hint in the literatures about using neutral polymeric resin for lactic acid separation from a mixture. Important factors (flow-rate, concentration of feed and loaded volume) that affect separation performance were firstly investigated with model solutions. The obtained results showed that lactic acid solutions with the purity varying from 93.2% to 99.9% could be obtained at the recovery yields over 99.4%. After that, trials with silage juice were carried out. Due to the complex composition of the feed, the purity of products decreased to 94% at a recovery yield of 97%. Although 99% of inorganic salts and sugars were separated from lactic acid organic acids in general and acetic acid in particular caused a purity problem. It seems that organic acids could not be separated from lactic acid by neutral resin Amberlite XAD1600. Besides the organic acid problem, some amino acids were remained in the products as impurities.

  18. Nutrient transport within three vegetative treatment areas receiving silage bunker runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Joshua W; Zhang, Wei; Geohring, Larry D; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2011-03-01

    Silage bunker runoff can be a very polluting substance and is increasingly being treated by vegetative treatment areas (VTAs), but little information exists regarding nutrient removal performance of systems receiving this wastewater. Nutrient transport through the shallow subsurface of three VTAs (i.e. one VTA at Farm WNY and two VTAs at Farm CNY) in glaciated soils containing a restrictive layer (i.e., fragipan) was assessed using a mass balance approach. At Farm WNY, the mass removal of ammonium was 63%, nitrate was 0%, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was 39%. At Farm CNY, the mass removal of ammonium was 79% in the West VTA, but nitrate and SRP increased by 200% and 533%, respectively. Mass removal of ammonium was 67% in the East VTA at Farm CNY; nitrate removal was 86% and SRP removal was 88%. The East VTA received a much higher nutrient loading, which was attributed to a malfunctioning low-flow collection apparatus within the settling basin. Results demonstrate that nutrient reduction mechanisms other than vegetative uptake can be significant within VTAs. Even though increases in nitrate mass were observed, concentrations in 1.65m deep wells indicated that groundwater impairment from leaching of nitrate was not likely. These results offer one of the first evaluations of VTAs treating silage bunker runoff, and highlight the importance of capturing concentrated low flows in VTA systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mycological Survey and Total Aflatoxin Analyze in Silage from Qaemshahr City (Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hashemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 42 samples of silage were collected in Qaemshahr city in Iran during fall 2011. Samples were tested by competitive ELISA for total aflatoxins. Seven samples (16.7% (Mean±se:1.24 from 42 silage samples were positive with total aflatoxin (1.1-27.3 ppb in Nov., Dec. and Oct. The highest contamination was observed in Oct., three samples (21.4% from 14 samples were contaminated with total aflatoxin by 22.2 ppb, 25.6 and 27.3 ppb. The culture results of samples showed that the most toxinigenic fungi among 57 colonies were Aspergillus sp. with fifteen (% 31.5, Fusarium sp. With thirteen (% 22.8, Alternaria spp. With twelve (21.05%, Penicillium spp. with nine (%15.78 and Acremonium sp. with five (8.77% and also the most nontoxigenic fungi were cladosporium spp. with fifteen (% 37.5, Rhizopus spp. with nine (% 22.5, Mucor spp. with six (15%, yeast with six (15% and Scopulariopsis spp. with four (10% colonies isolated in culture medium among 40 colonies of nontoxigenic fungi.

  20. Transfer of near infrared spectrometric models for silage crude protein detection between different instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Han, L J; Yang, Z L

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to distinguish different collected spectra from near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for silages using different configurations and types of NIRS, and how well the different techniques for transferring NIRS calibrations perform for silage crude protein detection. In the study, 2 Fourier transform instruments and 1 scanning grating instrument were involved. Five correction and transfer methods were tested and evaluated: slope/bias, local centering, orthogonal signal correction, direct standardization, and piecewise direct standardization. We concluded that the spectra obtained with 3 instruments were different and not solely due to the differences in offset. All of the methods for calibration transferring between 2 Fourier transform instruments and 1 Fourier transform instrument versus 1 scanning grating instrument could improve the predictions, but not all of the results could be accepted. The slope/bias, orthogonal signal correction, and local centering techniques were successful for calibration transferring of 2 Fourier transform instruments, considering their good performance. The best result was given for orthogonal signal correction ahead of the other 4 techniques for transferring calibrations between instruments of Fourier transform and scanning grating, and it was evaluated as moderately useful. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets containing silage of different genotypes of sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci Marcos Alves Suassuna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-five feedlot lambs (without defined breed, aged between 5 and 7 months, with average live weight of 17.7±3.7 kg were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of diets containing different genotypes of sorghum on morphometric measurements and qualitative characteristics of carcass and yields of primal cuts. The animals stayed in individual indoor pens for 42 days and slaughtered at an average weight of 26.24 kg. No significant differences were observed on morphometric measurements, hot (11.67 kg and cold (11.39 kg carcass weight, hot (44.46% and cold (43.37% carcass yields, biological yield and on cooling losses. There was also no significant effect of silages of different genotypes of sorghum on the weights and yields of retail cuts (neck, shoulder, rib, loin and leg and on the subjective evaluation of carcasses. It is possible to finish sheep without defined breed feeding them diets based on silages of sorghum, resulting in carcasses with high yield and good conformation.

  2. The effect of ammonium ferric hexacyanoferrate on reducing radiocaesium transfer from grass silage to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. PAASIKALLIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to examine the effect of ammonium ferric hexacyanoferrate (AFCF on the transfer of radiocaesium from grass silage to the tissues of male lambs. During ensiling, a formic acid based additive and AFCF were sprayed on grass contaminated with 134Cs and the mixture was allowed to incubate for 45 days. A dose of 21 mg AFCF d-1, fed to sheep offered contaminated silage for fourteen days, reduced 134Cs transfer to muscle by 45% compared to that of control sheep. An equivalent dose of AFCF administered in a capsule reduced transfer by only 3%. In another experiment, AFCF intake of 50, 100 and 150 mg d-1 for ten days reduced 134Cs transfer to sheep muscle by 75, 82 and 86%, respectively. In control lambs, of average live weight 38 and 47 kg, the feed to muscle 134Cs transfer coefficient averaged 0.15 d kg-1, but equilibrium between tissue and feed 134Cs had probably not been reached due to the short feeding period. Increasing doses of AFCF from 0 to 150 mg d-1 increased the faecal/urinary 134Cs ratio from 2 to 42.;

  3. Diurnal behavior of dairy cows on alfalfa pastures supplemented with corn silage and concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Peres Netto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal ingestive behavior of dairy cows on alfalfa pastures supplemented with corn silage and concentrate was evaluated. Sixteen Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were used in a randomized block design. The treatments were partial replacement of corn silage for limited alfalfa grazing time (LGT or unlimited grazing time (UGT. Rotational alfalfa grazing was used and the amount of concentrate fed was the same in both treatments. Behavioral activities observed were time spent grazing, rumination and idleness, during four days, from 8:00 AM to 7:00 PM. From 2:00 to 5:00 PM grazing was intermittent and short-lasting on UGT, whereas on LGT grazing activity was longer than UGT in the morning and at the end of the afternoon. Restriction in available grazing time clearly influenced the distribution of time spent with grazing, rumination and idleness throughout the day. However, this effect was not observed in the total time spent in these activities.

  4. Características fermentativas e nutricionais da silagem de capim elefante com a inclusão de casca de café - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2151 Fermentative and nutritional traits of elephantgrass silage added with increasing proportions of coffee hulls - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2151

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Valmir Feitosa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de casca de café (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% e 20% na matéria natural nas características fermentativas e nutricionais da silagem de capim-elefante usando sacos plásticos como silos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. A inclusão da casca de café aumentou os teores de matéria seca (MS das silagens linearmente e alterou os componentes da fibra. A inclusão de 10% de casca de café aumentou os teores de lactato e diminuiu os de acetato das silagens. A digestibilidade e a degradabilidade da MS das silagens diminuíram com a inclusão de casca de café acima de 10%. A inclusão de 5% a 10% de casca de café ao capim proporcionou silagens com melhor padrão fermentativo e qualidade nutricional.This trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of coffee hulls inclusion (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%; natural basis on fermentation and nutritional traits of elephantgrass silage. A completely randomized design with four replications was used to compare treatments average, while plastic bags were used as experimental silos. Coffee hulls inclusion increased DM contents linearly and changed the fiber compounds profile. Including 10% of coffee hulls increased the contents of silage lactate and reduced acetate contents. DM digestibility and ruminal degradability of the silages decreased with the inclusion of more than 10% of coffee hulls. The amounts from 5% to 10% of coffee hulls were considered best levels to make elephantgrass silage with adequate fermentation pattern and nutritional quality.

  5. Apparent digestibility coefficients and consumption of corn silage with and without Bt gene in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Memari Trava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn silage is the most important preserved food for ruminants. The transgenic corn was inserted into the genetic code Bt gene (Bacillus thuringiensis that expresses a toxic protein to caterpillars pests of maize, reducing production costs. To evaluate the varieties of plant corn silage DKB and AG with or without the Bt gene on the voluntary intake of DM (g/day and apparent digestibility coefficients (CDA of nutrients in sheep, the experiment was conducted at the Institute of Animal Science Nova Odessa-SP. Were used 20 sheep and the experimental design was randomized blocks in scheme factorial type 2x2 (two varieties of plant corn to silage, with the presence or absence of Bt gene, with five animals per treatment. These animals were housed in metabolism cages, with collector and separator feces and urine for 21 days, comprising 8 days for diet adaptation and 7 days for determination of intake, followed by 6 days of collection of feces, to measure DMI (g/day, CDA DM, CP and NDF. Samples of feed offered, leftovers and feces were identified and placed in a circulating air oven maintained at 55°C to constant weight. The analyses were performed in Bromatological Analysis Laboratory of the Institute of Animal Science. To CTMS (g/day was interaction effect (p<0.05 than in the variety AG (779.36 was greater than DKB (637.52, because the DM content of the sheet AG (31.09 was superior to DKB (29.17. The AG (779.36 was higher than your counterpart isogenic without the gene (575.15 p<0.05. The DKB without the gene (637.52 did not differ (p>0.05 from your counterpart DKBBt with the gene (590.78. The lowest total DM intake in g/day was observed for varieties with Bt gene insertion (genetically modified organism - GMO and a possible explanation is the higher value of NDF in the silages of variety with the Bt gene in relation to their isogenic counterparts without the gene. The CDA, DM and NDF no had interaction effect between varieties factors and GMO (p>0

  6. Co-digestion of manure with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge using nutrient additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelqvist, Alina; Granström, Karin

    2016-08-01

    There is an increasing worldwide demand for biogas. Anaerobic co-digestion involves the treatment of different substrates with the aim of improving the production of biogas and the stability of the process. This study evaluates how methane production is affected by the co-digestion of pig and dairy manure with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge and assesses whether methane production is affected by factors other than nutrient deficiency, low buffering capacity, inadequate dilution, and an insufficient activity and amount of microorganism culture. Anaerobic digestion was performed in batch reactors under mesophilic conditions for 20 days. The season of grass silage and manure collection proved to be an important factor affecting methane production. Spring grass silage produced a maximum of 250 mL/VSadded and spring manure 150 mL/VSadded, whereas autumn grass silage produced at most 140 ml/VSadded and autumn manure 45 mL/VSadded. The pulp mill sludge used is comprised of both primary and secondary sludge and produced at most 50 mL/VSadded regardless of season; this substrate benefitted most from co-digestion.

  7. The effect of maize silage as co-substrate for swine manure on the bacterial community structure in biogas plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fliegerová, Kateřina; Mrázek, Jakub; Kajan, M.; Podmirseg, S.M.; Insam, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2012), s. 281-284 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP503/10/P394; GA MZe QI92A286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : biogas * maize silage * swine manure Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 0.791, year: 2012

  8. Impact of dietary starch concentration formulated with two types corn silage on the performance of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study explored the effect of feeding different starch concentrations and conventional or brown midrib corn silage on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Forty-eight Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets using a randomized complete block design with a 2-wk covariate period followed by...

  9. Effect of delayed wrapping and wrapping source on nitrogen balance and blood urea nitrogen in gestating sheep offered alfalfa silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposing ensiled forage to oxygen can result in DM deterioration and reduce silage intake by animals. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 different wrapping sources and time intervals between baling and wrapping on N balance and blood urea N in gestating sheep offered alfalfa si...

  10. Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huyen, N.T.; Desrues, O; Alferink, S.J.J

    2016-01-01

    (DM) of the CON diet was exchanged for sainfoin silage. The cows were adapted to 95% of ad libitum feed intake for a 21-d period before being housed in climate-controlled respiration chambers for 4 d, during which time feed intake, apparent total-tract digestibility, N and energy balance, and CH4...... (BW(0.75)) of 132.5±3.6kg were randomly assigned to either a control (CON) or a sainfoin (SAIN)-based diet over 2 experimental periods of 25 d each in a crossover design. The CON diet was a mixture of grass silage, corn silage, concentrate, and linseed. In the SAIN diet, 50% of grass silage dry matter...... production was determined. Data were analyzed using a mixed model procedure. Total daily DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber intake did not differ between the 2 diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were, respectively, 5.7, 4...

  11. Chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids from blue mussel, starfish, and fish silage in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jens Vinther; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Tørring, Ditte Bruunshøj

    2015-01-01

    fish silage from farmed salmon was also included in theexperiment. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids(AA) was evaluated in a Latin square design with pigs (initial weight 39.3 kg) fitted with asimple T-cannula in the terminal ileum. Diets contained 131...

  12. THE EFFECTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE SILAGE ON THE CONTENTS OF FATTY ACIDS IN BODY TISSUES OF LAMBS

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    Ewa SIMINSKA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of fatty acids contents in meat and selected offal in lambs fed a diet containing silage of whole plants of genetically modified maize (Bt MON 810 line. The material consisted of 14 Polish Merino lambs of mean start body weight 24 kg. There were two feeding groups selected of 7 lambs each. In the control group (K the lambs were fed isogenic maize silage, which in the second group (GMO was substituted with the modified maize silage (Bt MON 810 line. After 70 days of feeding (feed portions were standardised according to the DLG system the lambs were slaughtered and dissected. The results were evaluated statistically and the significance of differences was calculated with the two factor variation analysis (nutrition, tissue. Feeding genetically modified maize silage did not change, in a statistically significant way, the contents of any main fatty acids in the pool of all acids nor the contents of the totals and their proportions, while the factor causing clear differences was the tissue. Differences for the majority of the results were statistically significant. Statistically significant interactions noted (nutrition x tissue are probably due to different values of these traits in the analysed tissues.

  13. Spatiotemporal soil organic carbon dynamics in irrigated corn silage-alfalfa production systems receiving liquid dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurately measuring soil organic C (SOC) stock changes over time is essential for verifying agronomic management effects on C sequestration. This study quantified the spatial and temporal changes in SOC stocks on adjacent 65-ha corn silage-alfalfa production fields receiving liquid dairy manure in...

  14. Effects of microbial inoculants on corn silage fermentation, microbial contents, aerobic stability, and milk production under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sloth, Karen Helle; Højberg, Ole

    2010-01-01

    , and 80 ± 8 h for control, Lactisil, and Lalsil Fresh, respectively. The effect of Lalsil Fresh on aerobic stability tended to differ between sampling times, indicating a reduced difference between treatments in samples collected in April. Lalsil Fresh inoculation increased silage pH and contents...

  15. Prediction of the nutritive value of maize silage using in vitro and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS techniques

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    G. Galassi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize silage is by far the most used forage in the diets for dairy cows and beef cattle in a large part of the Po plain, Italy. However, its chemical composition and its nutritive value range widely according to the genotype and to the climatic and agronomic conditions, particularly with regards to the plant maturity at harvest.

  16. Impact of dietary starch concentration formulated with two types of corn silage on methane and ammonia emissions in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions of lactating dairy cows fed different starch level and corn silage type. After the completion of an 8-wk production study, 48 Holstein cows were allocated to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers (2 cows/chamber) for...

  17. Effects of an exogenous protease on the fermentation and nutritive value of corn silage harvested at different dry matter contents and ensiled for various lengths of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, M C; Walker, N; Kung, L

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of adding an experimental protease to corn plants harvested at different maturities on silage fermentation and in vitro ruminal starch digestibility (IVSD). Corn plants were harvested at maturities resulting in plants with 31 or 40% dry matter (DM). Plants were chopped, kernel processed, and treated with (1) only a 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 5.5, 5% vol/wt of fresh forage), (2) buffer with protease to obtain a final concentration of 20mg of protease/kg of