WorldWideScience

Sample records for galaxy power spectrum

  1. COSMIC EMULATION: FAST PREDICTIONS FOR THE GALAXY POWER SPECTRUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Juliana; Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman; Frontiere, Nicholas; Pope, Adrian [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Department of Physics, Yale University, 260 Whitney Ave., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lawrence, Earl [Statistical Sciences, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The halo occupation distribution (HOD) approach has proven to be an effective method for modeling galaxy clustering and bias. In this approach, galaxies of a given type are probabilistically assigned to individual halos in N-body simulations. In this paper, we present a fast emulator for predicting the fully nonlinear galaxy–galaxy auto and galaxy–dark matter cross power spectrum and correlation function over a range of freely specifiable HOD modeling parameters. The emulator is constructed using results from 100 HOD models run on a large ΛCDM N-body simulation, with Gaussian Process interpolation applied to a PCA-based representation of the galaxy power spectrum. The total error is currently ∼1% in the auto correlations and ∼2% in the cross correlations from z = 1 to z = 0, over the considered parameter range. We use the emulator to investigate the accuracy of various analytic prescriptions for the galaxy power spectrum, parametric dependencies in the HOD model, and the behavior of galaxy bias as a function of HOD parameters. Additionally, we obtain fully nonlinear predictions for tangential shear correlations induced by galaxy–galaxy lensing from our galaxy–dark matter cross power spectrum emulator. All emulation products are publicly available at http://www.hep.anl.gov/cosmology/CosmicEmu/emu.html.

  2. Angular power spectrum of galaxies in the 2MASS Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2018-02-01

    We present the measurement and interpretation of the angular power spectrum of nearby galaxies in the 2MASS Redshift Survey catalogue with spectroscopic redshifts up to z ≈ 0.1. We detect the angular power spectrum up to a multipole of ℓ ≈ 1000. We find that the measured power spectrum is dominated by galaxies living inside nearby galaxy clusters and groups. We use the halo occupation distribution (HOD) formalism to model the power spectrum, obtaining a fit with reasonable parameters. These HOD parameters are in agreement with the 2MASS galaxy distribution we measure towards the known nearby galaxy clusters, confirming validity of our analysis.

  3. Unbiased contaminant removal for 3D galaxy power spectrum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalus, B.; Percival, W. J.; Bacon, D. J.; Samushia, L.

    2016-11-01

    We assess and develop techniques to remove contaminants when calculating the 3D galaxy power spectrum. We separate the process into three separate stages: (I) removing the contaminant signal, (II) estimating the uncontaminated cosmological power spectrum and (III) debiasing the resulting estimates. For (I), we show that removing the best-fitting contaminant (mode subtraction) and setting the contaminated components of the covariance to be infinite (mode deprojection) are mathematically equivalent. For (II), performing a quadratic maximum likelihood (QML) estimate after mode deprojection gives an optimal unbiased solution, although it requires the manipulation of large N_mode^2 matrices (Nmode being the total number of modes), which is unfeasible for recent 3D galaxy surveys. Measuring a binned average of the modes for (II) as proposed by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (FKP) is faster and simpler, but is sub-optimal and gives rise to a biased solution. We present a method to debias the resulting FKP measurements that does not require any large matrix calculations. We argue that the sub-optimality of the FKP estimator compared with the QML estimator, caused by contaminants, is less severe than that commonly ignored due to the survey window.

  4. All-sky analysis of the general relativistic galaxy power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jaiyul; Desjacques, Vincent

    2013-07-01

    We perform an all-sky analysis of the general relativistic galaxy power spectrum using the well-developed spherical Fourier decomposition. Spherical Fourier analysis expresses the observed galaxy fluctuation in terms of the spherical harmonics and spherical Bessel functions that are angular and radial eigenfunctions of the Helmholtz equation, providing a natural orthogonal basis for all-sky analysis of the large-scale mode measurements. Accounting for all the relativistic effects in galaxy clustering, we compute the spherical power spectrum and its covariance matrix and compare it to the standard three-dimensional power spectrum to establish a connection. The spherical power spectrum recovers the three-dimensional power spectrum at each wave number k with its angular dependence μk encoded in angular multipole l, and the contributions of the line-of-sight projection to galaxy clustering such as the gravitational lensing effect can be readily accommodated in the spherical Fourier analysis. A complete list of formulas for computing the relativistic spherical galaxy power spectrum is also presented.

  5. The 3D Power Spectrum from Angular Clustering of Galaxies in Early SDSS Data

    CERN Document Server

    Dodelson, Scott; Tegmark, Max; Scranton, Ryan; Budavari, Tamas; Connolly, Andrew; Csabai, Istvan; Eisenstein, Daniel; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Hui, Lam; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Johnston, David; Kent, Stephen M.; Loveday, Jon; Nichol, Robert C.; O'Connell, Liam; Scoccimarro, Roman; Sheth, Ravi K.; Stebbins, Albert; Strauss, Michael A.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, Istvan; Vogeley, Michael S.; Zehavi, Idit; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.; Brinkman, Jon; Doi, Mamoru; Fukugita, Masataka; Hennessy, Greg; Ivezic, Zeljko; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kunszt, Peter; Lamb, Don Q.; Lee, Brian C.; Lupton, Robert H.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Peoples, John; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Rockosi, Constance; Schlegel, David; Stoughton, Christopher; Tucker, Douglas L.; Yanny, Brian; York, Donald G.; Dodelson, Scott; Narayanan, Vijay K.; Tegmark, Max; Scranton, Ryan; Budavari, Tamas; Connolly, Andrew; Csabai, Istvan; Eisenstein, Daniel; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Hui, Lam; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Johnston, David; Kent, Stephen; Loveday, Jon; Nichol, Robert C.; Connell, Liam O'; Scoccimarro, Roman; Sheth, Ravi K.; Stebbins, Albert; Strauss, Michael A.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, Istv\\'an; Vogeley, Michael S.; Zehavi, Idit

    2001-01-01

    Early photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) contain angular positions for 1.5 million galaxies. In companion papers, the angular correlation function $w(\\theta)$ and 2D power spectrum $C_l$ of these galaxies are presented. Here we invert Limber's equation to extract the 3D power spectrum from the angular results. We accomplish this using an estimate of $dn/dz$, the redshift distribution of galaxies in four different magnitude slices in the SDSS photometric catalog. The resulting 3D power spectrum estimates from $w(\\theta)$ and $C_l$ agree with each other and with previous estimates over a range in wavenumbers $0.03 < k/{\\rm h Mpc}^{-1} < 1$. The galaxies in the faintest magnitude bin ($21 < \\rstar < 22$, which have median redshift $z_m=0.43$) are less clustered than the galaxies in the brightest magnitude bin ($18 < \\rstar < 19$ with $z_m=0.17$), especially on scales where nonlinearities are important. The derived power spectrum agrees with that of Szalay et al. (2001) wh...

  6. Power spectrum tomography of dark matter annihilation with local galaxy distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Shin' ichiro, E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl [GRAPPA Institute, University of Amsterdam, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-10-01

    Cross-correlating the gamma-ray background with local galaxy catalogs potentially gives stringent constraints on dark matter annihilation. We provide updated theoretical estimates of sensitivities to the annihilation cross section from gamma-ray data with Fermi telescope and 2MASS galaxy catalogs, by elaborating the galaxy power spectrum and astrophysical backgrounds, and adopting the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we show that taking tomographic approach by dividing the galaxy catalogs into more than one redshift slice will improve the sensitivity by a factor of a few to several. If dark matter halos contain lots of bright substructures, yielding a large annihilation boost (e.g., a factor of ∼100 for galaxy-size halos), then one may be able to probe the canonical annihilation cross section for thermal production mechanism up to masses of ∼700 GeV. Even with modest substructure boost (e.g., a factor of ∼10 for galaxy-size halos), on the other hand, the sensitivities could still reach a factor of three larger than the canonical cross section for dark matter masses of tens to a few hundreds of GeV.

  7. Imprint of DESI fiber assignment on the anisotropic power spectrum of emission line galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinol, Lucas [Département de Physique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris (France); Cahn, Robert N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Hand, Nick [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, California (United States); Seljak, Uroš; White, Martin, E-mail: lucas.pinol@ens.fr, E-mail: rncahn@lbl.gov, E-mail: nhand@berkeley.edu, E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu, E-mail: mwhite@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), a multiplexed fiber-fed spectrograph, is a Stage-IV ground-based dark energy experiment aiming to measure redshifts for 29 million Emission-Line Galaxies (ELG), 4 million Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG), and 2 million Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSO). The survey design includes a pattern of tiling on the sky, the locations of the fiber positioners in the focal plane of the telescope, and an observation strategy determined by a fiber assignment algorithm that optimizes the allocation of fibers to targets. This strategy allows a given region to be covered on average five times for a five-year survey, with a typical variation of about 1.5 about the mean, which imprints a spatially-dependent pattern on the galaxy clustering. We investigate the systematic effects of the fiber assignment coverage on the anisotropic galaxy clustering of ELGs and show that, in the absence of any corrections, it leads to discrepancies of order ten percent on large scales for the power spectrum multipoles. We introduce a method where objects in a random catalog are assigned a coverage, and the mean density is separately computed for each coverage factor. We show that this method reduces, but does not eliminate the effect. We next investigate the angular dependence of the contaminated signal, arguing that it is mostly localized to purely transverse modes. We demonstrate that the cleanest way to remove the contaminating signal is to perform an analysis of the anisotropic power spectrum P ( k ,μ) and remove the lowest μ bin, leaving μ > 0 modes accurate at the few-percent level. Here, μ is the cosine of the angle between the line-of-sight and the direction of k-vector . We also investigate two alternative definitions of the random catalog and show that they are comparable but less effective than the coverage randoms method.

  8. Galaxy power-spectrum responses and redshift-space super-sample effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Schmittfull, Marcel; Seljak, Uroš

    2018-02-01

    As a major source of cosmological information, galaxy clustering is susceptible to long-wavelength density and tidal fluctuations. These long modes modulate the growth and expansion rate of local structures, shifting them in both amplitude and scale. These effects are often named the growth and dilation effects, respectively. In particular the dilation shifts the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak and breaks the assumption of the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test. This cannot be removed with reconstruction techniques because the effect originates from long modes outside the survey. In redshift space, the long modes generate a large-scale radial peculiar velocity that affects the redshift-space distortion (RSD) signal. We compute the redshift-space response functions of the galaxy power spectrum to long density and tidal modes at leading order in perturbation theory, including both the growth and dilation terms. We validate these response functions against measurements from simulated galaxy mock catalogs. As one application, long density and tidal modes beyond the scale of a survey correlate various observables leading to an excess error known as the super-sample covariance, and thus weaken their constraining power. We quantify the super-sample effect on BAO, AP, and RSD measurements, and study its impact on current and future surveys.

  9. Maximal compression of the redshift-space galaxy power spectrum and bispectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi, Davide; Manera, Marc; Joachimi, Benjamin; Lahav, Ofer

    2018-05-01

    We explore two methods of compressing the redshift-space galaxy power spectrum and bispectrum with respect to a chosen set of cosmological parameters. Both methods involve reducing the dimension of the original data vector (e.g. 1000 elements) to the number of cosmological parameters considered (e.g. seven ) using the Karhunen-Loève algorithm. In the first case, we run MCMC sampling on the compressed data vector in order to recover the 1D and 2D posterior distributions. The second option, approximately 2000 times faster, works by orthogonalizing the parameter space through diagonalization of the Fisher information matrix before the compression, obtaining the posterior distributions without the need of MCMC sampling. Using these methods for future spectroscopic redshift surveys like DESI, Euclid, and PFS would drastically reduce the number of simulations needed to compute accurate covariance matrices with minimal loss of constraining power. We consider a redshift bin of a DESI-like experiment. Using the power spectrum combined with the bispectrum as a data vector, both compression methods on average recover the 68 {per cent} credible regions to within 0.7 {per cent} and 2 {per cent} of those resulting from standard MCMC sampling, respectively. These confidence intervals are also smaller than the ones obtained using only the power spectrum by 81 per cent, 80 per cent, and 82 per cent respectively, for the bias parameter b1, the growth rate f, and the scalar amplitude parameter As.

  10. LOFAR insights into the epoch of reionization from the cross-power spectrum of 21 cm emission and galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, R. P. C.; Ciardi, B.; Thomas, R. M.; Harker, G. J. A.; Zaroubi, S.; Bernardi, G.; Brentjens, M.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Daiboo, S.; Jelic, V.; Kazemi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Labropoulos, P.; Martinez, O.; Offringa, A.; Pandey, V. N.; Schaye, J.; Veligatla, V.; Vedantham, H.; Yatawatta, S.; Mellema, G.

    2013-01-01

    Using a combination of N-body simulations, semi-analytic models and radiative transfer calculations, we have estimated the theoretical cross-power spectrum between galaxies and the 21 cm emission from neutral hydrogen during the epoch of reionization. In accordance with previous studies, we find

  11. An optimally weighted estimator of the linear power spectrum disentangling the growth of density perturbations across galaxy surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorini, D.

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the clustering of galaxies from surveys allows us to estimate the power spectrum of matter density fluctuations, thus constraining cosmological models. This requires careful modelling of observational effects to avoid misinterpretation of data. In particular, signals coming from different distances encode information from different epochs. This is known as ''light-cone effect'' and is going to have a higher impact as upcoming galaxy surveys probe larger redshift ranges. Generalising the method by Feldman, Kaiser and Peacock (1994) [1], I define a minimum-variance estimator of the linear power spectrum at a fixed time, properly taking into account the light-cone effect. An analytic expression for the estimator is provided, and that is consistent with the findings of previous works in the literature. I test the method within the context of the Halofit model, assuming Planck 2014 cosmological parameters [2]. I show that the estimator presented recovers the fiducial linear power spectrum at present time within 5% accuracy up to k ∼ 0.80 h Mpc −1 and within 10% up to k ∼ 0.94 h Mpc −1 , well into the non-linear regime of the growth of density perturbations. As such, the method could be useful in the analysis of the data from future large-scale surveys, like Euclid.

  12. KL Estimation of the Power Spectrum Parameters from the Angular Distribution of Galaxies in Early SDSS Data

    CERN Document Server

    Szalay, Alexander S.; Matsubara, Takahiko; Scranton, Ryan; Vogeley, Michael S.; Connolly, Andrew; Dodelson, Scott; Eisenstein, Daniel; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Hui, Lam; Johnston, David; Kent, Stephen M.; Kerscher, Martin; Loveday, Jon; Meiksin, Avery; Narayanan, Vijay; Nichol, Robert C.; O'Connell, Liam; Pope, Adrian; Scoccimarro, Roman; Sheth, Ravi K.; Stebbins, Albert; Strauss, Michael A.; Szapudi, Istvan; Tegmark, Max; Zehavi, Idit; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.; Brinkmann, Jon; Csabai, Istvan; Fukugita, Masataka; Hennessy, Greg; Hogg, David W.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kunszt, Peter Z.; Lamb, Don Q.; Lee, Brian C.; Lupton, Robert H.; Munn, Jeffrey R.; Peoples, John; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Rockosi, Constance; Schlegel, David; Stoughton, Christopher; Tucker, Douglas L.; Yanny, Brian; York, Donald G.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Matsubara, Takahiko; Scranton, Ryan; Vogeley, Michael S.; Connolly, Andrew; Dodelson, Scott; Eisenstein, Daniel; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Hui, Lam; Johnston, David; Kent, Stephen; Kerscher, Martin; Loveday, Jon; Meiksin, Avery; Narayanan, Vijay; Nichol, Robert C.; Connell, Liam O'; Pope, Adrian; Scoccimarro, Roman; Sheth, Ravi K.; Stebbins, Albert; Strauss, Michael A.; Szapudi, Istvan; Tegmark, Max; Zehavi, Idit

    2002-01-01

    We present measurements of parameters of the 3-dimensional power spectrum of galaxy clustering from 222 square degrees of early imaging data in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The projected galaxy distribution on the sky is expanded over a set of Karhunen-Loeve eigenfunctions, which optimize the signal-to-noise ratio in our analysis. A maximum likelihood analysis is used to estimate parameters that set the shape and amplitude of the 3-dimensional power spectrum. Our best estimates are Gamma=0.188 +/- 0.04 and sigma_8L = 0.915 +/- 0.06 (statistical errors only), for a flat Universe with a cosmological constant. We demonstrate that our measurements contain signal from scales at or beyond the peak of the 3D power spectrum. We discuss how the results scale with systematic uncertainties, like the radial selection function. We find that the central values satisfy the analytically estimated scaling relation. We have also explored the effects of evolutionary corrections, various truncations of the KL basis, seeing, sam...

  13. Non-linear corrections to the cosmological matter power spectrum and scale-dependent galaxy bias: implications for parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2008-01-01

    We explore and compare the performances of two non-linear correction and scale-dependent biasing models for the extraction of cosmological information from galaxy power spectrum data, especially in the context of beyond-ΛCDM (CDM: cold dark matter) cosmologies. The first model is the well known Q model, first applied in the analysis of Two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey data. The second, the P model, is inspired by the halo model, in which non-linear evolution and scale-dependent biasing are encapsulated in a single non-Poisson shot noise term. We find that while the two models perform equally well in providing adequate correction for a range of galaxy clustering data in standard ΛCDM cosmology and in extensions with massive neutrinos, the Q model can give unphysical results in cosmologies containing a subdominant free-streaming dark matter whose temperature depends on the particle mass, e.g., relic thermal axions, unless a suitable prior is imposed on the correction parameter. This last case also exposes the danger of analytic marginalization, a technique sometimes used in the marginalization of nuisance parameters. In contrast, the P model suffers no undesirable effects, and is the recommended non-linear correction model also because of its physical transparency

  14. Non-linear corrections to the cosmological matter power spectrum and scale-dependent galaxy bias: implications for parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2008-07-01

    We explore and compare the performances of two non-linear correction and scale-dependent biasing models for the extraction of cosmological information from galaxy power spectrum data, especially in the context of beyond-ΛCDM (CDM: cold dark matter) cosmologies. The first model is the well known Q model, first applied in the analysis of Two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey data. The second, the P model, is inspired by the halo model, in which non-linear evolution and scale-dependent biasing are encapsulated in a single non-Poisson shot noise term. We find that while the two models perform equally well in providing adequate correction for a range of galaxy clustering data in standard ΛCDM cosmology and in extensions with massive neutrinos, the Q model can give unphysical results in cosmologies containing a subdominant free-streaming dark matter whose temperature depends on the particle mass, e.g., relic thermal axions, unless a suitable prior is imposed on the correction parameter. This last case also exposes the danger of analytic marginalization, a technique sometimes used in the marginalization of nuisance parameters. In contrast, the P model suffers no undesirable effects, and is the recommended non-linear correction model also because of its physical transparency.

  15. Extending the modeling of the anisotropic galaxy power spectrum to k = 0.4 h Mpc{sup −1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, Nick; Seljak, Uroš [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Beutler, Florian [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Vlah, Zvonimir, E-mail: nhand@berkeley.edu, E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu, E-mail: florian.beutler@port.ac.uk, E-mail: zvlah@stanford.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We present a model for the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies and demonstrate its accuracy in describing the monopole, quadrupole, and hexadecapole of the galaxy density field down to scales of k = 0.4 h Mpc{sup −1}. The model describes the clustering of galaxies in the context of a halo model and the clustering of the underlying halos in redshift space using a combination of Eulerian perturbation theory and N -body simulations. The modeling of redshift-space distortions is done using the so-called distribution function approach. The final model has 13 free parameters, and each parameter is physically motivated rather than a nuisance parameter, which allows the use of well-motivated priors. We account for the Finger-of-God effect from centrals and both isolated and non-isolated satellites rather than using a single velocity dispersion to describe the combined effect. We test and validate the accuracy of the model on several sets of high-fidelity N -body simulations, as well as realistic mock catalogs designed to simulate the BOSS DR12 CMASS data set. The suite of simulations covers a range of cosmologies and galaxy bias models, providing a rigorous test of the level of theoretical systematics present in the model. The level of bias in the recovered values of f σ{sub 8} is found to be small. When including scales to k = 0.4 h Mpc{sup −1}, we find 15-30% gains in the statistical precision of f σ{sub 8} relative to k = 0.2 h Mpc{sup −1} and a roughly 10–15% improvement for the perpendicular Alcock-Paczynski parameter α{sub ⊥}. Using the BOSS DR12 CMASS mocks as a benchmark for comparison, we estimate an uncertainty on f σ{sub 8} that is ∼10–20% larger than other similar Fourier-space RSD models in the literature that use k ≤ 0.2 h Mpc{sup −1}, suggesting that these models likely have a too-limited parametrization.

  16. Extending the modeling of the anisotropic galaxy power spectrum to k = 0.4 hMpc-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Nick; Seljak, Uroš; Beutler, Florian; Vlah, Zvonimir

    2017-10-01

    We present a model for the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies and demonstrate its accuracy in describing the monopole, quadrupole, and hexadecapole of the galaxy density field down to scales of k = 0.4 hMpc-1. The model describes the clustering of galaxies in the context of a halo model and the clustering of the underlying halos in redshift space using a combination of Eulerian perturbation theory and N-body simulations. The modeling of redshift-space distortions is done using the so-called distribution function approach. The final model has 13 free parameters, and each parameter is physically motivated rather than a nuisance parameter, which allows the use of well-motivated priors. We account for the Finger-of-God effect from centrals and both isolated and non-isolated satellites rather than using a single velocity dispersion to describe the combined effect. We test and validate the accuracy of the model on several sets of high-fidelity N-body simulations, as well as realistic mock catalogs designed to simulate the BOSS DR12 CMASS data set. The suite of simulations covers a range of cosmologies and galaxy bias models, providing a rigorous test of the level of theoretical systematics present in the model. The level of bias in the recovered values of f σ8 is found to be small. When including scales to k = 0.4 hMpc-1, we find 15-30% gains in the statistical precision of f σ8 relative to k = 0.2 hMpc-1 and a roughly 10-15% improvement for the perpendicular Alcock-Paczynski parameter α⊥. Using the BOSS DR12 CMASS mocks as a benchmark for comparison, we estimate an uncertainty on f σ8 that is ~10-20% larger than other similar Fourier-space RSD models in the literature that use k <= 0.2 hMpc-1, suggesting that these models likely have a too-limited parametrization.

  17. Imitating intrinsic alignments: a bias to the CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-correlation power spectrum induced by the large-scale structure bispectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Philipp M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2017-10-01

    Cross-correlating the lensing signals of galaxies and comic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations is expected to provide valuable cosmological information. In particular, it may help tighten constraints on parameters describing the properties of intrinsically aligned galaxies at high redshift. To access the information conveyed by the cross-correlation signal, its accurate theoretical description is required. We compute the bias to CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-correlation measurements induced by non-linear structure growth. Using tree-level perturbation theory for the large-scale structure bispectrum, we find that the bias is negative on most angular scales, therefore mimicking the signal of intrinsic alignments. Combining Euclid-like galaxy lensing data with a CMB experiment comparable to the Planck satellite mission, the bias becomes significant only on smallest scales (ℓ ≳ 2500). For improved CMB observations, however, the corrections amount to 10-15 per cent of the CMB lensing-intrinsic alignment signal over a wide multipole range (10 ≲ ℓ ≲ 2000). Accordingly, the power spectrum bias, if uncorrected, translates into 2σ and 3σ errors in the determination of the intrinsic alignment amplitude in the case of CMB stage III and stage IV experiments, respectively.

  18. The full-sky relativistic correlation function and power spectrum of galaxy number counts. Part I: theoretical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansella, Vittorio; Bonvin, Camille; Durrer, Ruth; Ghosh, Basundhara; Sellentin, Elena

    2018-03-01

    We derive an exact expression for the correlation function in redshift shells including all the relativistic contributions. This expression, which does not rely on the distant-observer or flat-sky approximation, is valid at all scales and includes both local relativistic corrections and integrated contributions, like gravitational lensing. We present two methods to calculate this correlation function, one which makes use of the angular power spectrum Cl(z1,z2) and a second method which evades the costly calculations of the angular power spectra. The correlation function is then used to define the power spectrum as its Fourier transform. In this work theoretical aspects of this procedure are presented, together with quantitative examples. In particular, we show that gravitational lensing modifies the multipoles of the correlation function and of the power spectrum by a few percent at redshift z=1 and by up to 30% and more at z=2. We also point out that large-scale relativistic effects and wide-angle corrections generate contributions of the same order of magnitude and have consequently to be treated in conjunction. These corrections are particularly important at small redshift, z=0.1, where they can reach 10%. This means in particular that a flat-sky treatment of relativistic effects, using for example the power spectrum, is not consistent.

  19. Modelling the TSZ power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Suman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shaw, Laurie D [YALE; Nagai, Daisuke [YALE

    2010-01-01

    The structure formation in university is a hierarchical process. As universe evolves, tiny density fluctuations that existed in the early universe grows under gravitational instability to form massive large scale structures. The galaxy clusters are the massive viralized objects that forms by accreting smaller clumps of mass until they collapse under their self-gravity. As such galaxy clusters are the youngest objects in the universe which makes their abundance as a function of mass and redshift, very sensitive to dark energy. Galaxy clusters can be detected by measuring the richness in optical waveband, by measuring the X-ray flux, and in the microwave sky using Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect has long been recognized as a powerful tool for detecting clusters and probing the physics of the intra-cluster medium. Ongoing and future experiments like Atacama Cosmology Telescope, the South Pole Telescope and Planck survey are currently surveying the microwave sky to develop large catalogs of galaxy clusters that are uniformly selected by the SZ flux. However one major systematic uncertainties that cluster abundance is prone to is the connection between the cluster mass and the SZ flux. As shown by several simulation studies, the scatter and bias in the SZ flux-mass relation can be a potential source of systematic error to using clusters as a cosmology probe. In this study they take a semi-analytic approach for modeling the intra-cluster medium in order to predict the tSZ power spectrum. The advantage of this approach is, being analytic, one can vary the parameters describing gas physics and cosmology simultaneously. The model can be calibrated against X-ray observations of massive, low-z clusters, and using the SZ power spectrum which is sourced by high-z lower mass galaxy groups. This approach allows us to include the uncertainty in gas physics, as dictated by the current observational uncertainties, while measuring the

  20. The X-ray Power Density Spectrum of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 4945: Analysis and Application of the Method of Light Curve Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Martin; /SLAC

    2010-12-16

    The study of the power density spectrum (PDS) of fluctuations in the X-ray flux from active galactic nuclei (AGN) complements spectral studies in giving us a view into the processes operating in accreting compact objects. An important line of investigation is the comparison of the PDS from AGN with those from galactic black hole binaries; a related area of focus is the scaling relation between time scales for the variability and the black hole mass. The PDS of AGN is traditionally modeled using segments of power laws joined together at so-called break frequencies; associations of the break time scales, i.e., the inverses of the break frequencies, with time scales of physical processes thought to operate in these sources are then sought. I analyze the Method of Light Curve Simulations that is commonly used to characterize the PDS in AGN with a view to making the method as sensitive as possible to the shape of the PDS. I identify several weaknesses in the current implementation of the method and propose alternatives that can substitute for some of the key steps in the method. I focus on the complications introduced by uneven sampling in the light curve, the development of a fit statistic that is better matched to the distributions of power in the PDS, and the statistical evaluation of the fit between the observed data and the model for the PDS. Using archival data on one AGN, NGC 3516, I validate my changes against previously reported results. I also report new results on the PDS in NGC 4945, a Seyfert 2 galaxy with a well-determined black hole mass. This source provides an opportunity to investigate whether the PDS of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies differ. It is also an attractive object for placement on the black hole mass-break time scale relation. Unfortunately, with the available data on NGC 4945, significant uncertainties on the break frequency in its PDS remain.

  1. Relativistic jet feedback - II. Relationship to gigahertz peak spectrum and compact steep spectrum radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Wagner, Alexander Y.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.

    2018-04-01

    We propose that Gigahertz Peak Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) radio sources are the signposts of relativistic jet feedback in evolving galaxies. Our simulations of relativistic jets interacting with a warm, inhomogeneous medium, utilizing cloud densities and velocity dispersions in the range derived from optical observations, show that free-free absorption can account for the ˜ GHz peak frequencies and low-frequency power laws inferred from the radio observations. These new computational models replace a power-law model for the free-free optical depth a more fundamental model involving disrupted log-normal distributions of warm gas. One feature of our new models is that at early stages, the low-frequency spectrum is steep but progressively flattens as a result of a broader distribution of optical depths, suggesting that the steep low-frequency spectra discovered by Callingham et al. may possibly be attributed to young sources. We also investigate the inverse correlation between peak frequency and size and find that the initial location on this correlation is determined by the average density of the warm ISM. The simulated sources track this correlation initially but eventually fall below it, indicating the need for a more extended ISM than presently modelled. GPS and CSS sources can potentially provide new insights into the phenomenon of AGN feedback since their peak frequencies and spectra are indicative of the density, turbulent structure, and distribution of gas in the host galaxy.

  2. Supernovae anisotropy power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodsi, Hoda; Baghram, Shant [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Habibi, Farhang, E-mail: h.ghodsi@mehr.sharif.ir, E-mail: baghram@sharif.edu, E-mail: habibi@lal.in2p3.fr [LAL-IN2P3/CNRS, BP 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2017-10-01

    We contribute another anisotropy study to this field of research using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In this work, we utilise the power spectrum calculation method and apply it to both the current SNe Ia data and simulation. Using the Union2.1 data set at all redshifts, we compare the spectrum of the residuals of the observed distance moduli to that expected from an isotropic universe affected by the Union2.1 observational uncertainties at low multipoles. Through this comparison we find a dipolar anisotropy with tension of less that 2σ towards l = 171° ± 21° and b = −26° ± 28° which is mainly induced by anisotropic spatial distribution of the SNe with z > 0.2 rather than being a cosmic effect. Furthermore, we find a tension of ∼ 4σ at ℓ = 4 between the two spectra. Our simulations are constructed with the characteristics of the upcoming surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which shall bring us the largest SNe Ia collection to date. We make predictions for the amplitude of a possible dipolar anisotropy that would be detectable by future SNe Ia surveys.

  3. Formation of a superhigh energy electron spectrum in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaronyan, F.A.; Ambartsumyan, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    The formation of superhigh energy electron spectrum in the disk of the galaxy and halo is considered. A different behaviour of the electron spectrum within the framework of capture models in disk or halo, in the energy region E> or approximately 10 5 GeV is revealed due to the account of relativistic corrections ir the energy losses of electrons during the inverse Compton scattering. A comparison with the existing experimental data is carried out

  4. Power spectrum of dark matter substructure in strong gravitational lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Rivero, Ana; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Dvorkin, Cora

    2018-01-01

    Studying the smallest self-bound dark matter structure in our Universe can yield important clues about the fundamental particle nature of dark matter. Galaxy-scale strong gravitational lensing provides a unique way to detect and characterize dark matter substructures at cosmological distances from the Milky Way. Within the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm, the number of low-mass subhalos within lens galaxies is expected to be large, implying that their contribution to the lensing convergence field is approximately Gaussian and could thus be described by their power spectrum. We develop here a general formalism to compute from first principles the substructure convergence power spectrum for different populations of dark matter subhalos. As an example, we apply our framework to two distinct subhalo populations: a truncated Navarro-Frenk-White subhalo population motivated by standard CDM, and a truncated cored subhalo population motivated by self-interacting dark matter (SIDM). We study in detail how the subhalo abundance, mass function, internal density profile, and concentration affect the amplitude and shape of the substructure power spectrum. We determine that the power spectrum is mostly sensitive to a specific combination of the subhalo abundance and moments of the mass function, as well as to the average tidal truncation scale of the largest subhalos included in the analysis. Interestingly, we show that the asymptotic slope of the substructure power spectrum at large wave number reflects the internal density profile of the subhalos. In particular, the SIDM power spectrum exhibits a characteristic steepening at large wave number absent in the CDM power spectrum, opening the possibility of using this observable, if at all measurable, to discern between these two scenarios.

  5. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Onions, Julian; Reed, Darren S.; Smith, Robert E.; Springel, Volker; Pearce, Frazer R.; Scoccimarro, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day $N$-body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to...

  6. Power spectrum, correlation function, and tests for luminosity bias in the CfA redshift survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Vogeley, Michael S.; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1994-01-01

    We describe and apply a method for directly computing the power spectrum for the galaxy distribution in the extension of the Center for Astrophysics Redshift Survey. Tests show that our technique accurately reproduces the true power spectrum for k greater than 0.03 h Mpc(exp -1). The dense sampling and large spatial coverage of this survey allow accurate measurement of the redshift-space power spectrum on scales from 5 to approximately 200 h(exp -1) Mpc. The power spectrum has slope n approximately equal -2.1 on small scales (lambda less than or equal 25 h(exp -1) Mpc) and n approximately -1.1 on scales 30 less than lambda less than 120 h(exp -1) Mpc. On larger scales the power spectrum flattens somewhat, but we do not detect a turnover. Comparison with N-body simulations of cosmological models shows that an unbiased, open universe CDM model (OMEGA h = 0.2) and a nonzero cosmological constant (CDM) model (OMEGA h = 0.24, lambda(sub zero) = 0.6, b = 1.3) match the CfA power spectrum over the wavelength range we explore. The standard biased CDM model (OMEGA h = 0.5, b = 1.5) fails (99% significance level) because it has insufficient power on scales lambda greater than 30 h(exp -1) Mpc. Biased CDM with a normalization that matches the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy (OMEGA h = 0.5, b = 1.4, sigma(sub 8) (mass) = 1) has too much power on small scales to match the observed galaxy power spectrum. This model with b = 1 matches both Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) and the small-scale power spect rum but has insufficient power on scales lambda approximately 100 h(exp -1) Mpc. We derive a formula for the effect of small-scale peculiar velocities on the power spectrum and combine this formula with the linear-regime amplification described by Kaiser to compute an estimate of the real-space power spectrum. Two tests reveal luminosity bias in the galaxy distribution: First, the amplitude of the pwer spectrum is approximately 40% larger for the brightest

  7. Flat radio-spectrum galaxies and BL Lacs I. Core properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dennett-Thorpe, J; Marcha, MJ

    This paper concerns the relationship of BL Lacs and flat-spectrum weak emission-line galaxies. We compare the weak emission-line galaxies and the BL Lacs in a sample of 57 flat-spectrum objects (Marcha et al. 1996), using high-frequency radio and non-thermal optical flux densities, spectral indices

  8. Galactic densities, substructure and the initial power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, J.S.; Zentner, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Although the currently favored cold dark matter plus cosmological constant model for structure formation assumes an n = 1 scale-invariant initial power spectrum, most inflation models produce at least mild deviations from n = 1. Because the lever arm from the CMB normalization to galaxy scales is long, even a small 'tilt' can have important implications for galactic observations. Here we calculate the COBS-normalized power spectra for several well-motivated models of inflation and compute implications for the substructure content and central densities of galaxy halos. Using an analytic model, normalized against N-body simulations, we show that while halos in the standard (n = 1) model are overdense by a factor of ∼ 6 compared to observations, several of our example inflation+LCDM models predict halo densities well within the range of observations, which prefer models with n ∼ 0.85. We go on to use a semi-analytic model (also normalized against N-body simulations) to follow the merger histories of galaxy-sized halos and track the orbital decay, disruption, and evolution of the merging substructure. Models with n ∼ 0.85 predict a factor of ∼ 3 fewer subhalos at a fixed circular velocity than the standard n 1 case. Although this level of reduction does not resolve the 'dwarf satellite problem', it does imply that the level of feedback required to match the observed number of dwarfs is sensitive to the initial power spectrum. Finally, the fraction of galaxy-halo mass that is bound up in substructure is consistent with limits imposed by multiply imaged quasars for all models considered: f sat > 0.01 even for an effective tilt of n ∼ 0.8. We conclude that, at their current level, lensing constraints of this kind do not provide an interesting probe of the primordial power spectrum

  9. The cluster environments of powerful, high-redshift radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    We present deep imaging of a sample of 25 powerful radio galaxies in the redshift range 0.15 gr ) about each source, a measure of the richness of environment. The powerful radio galaxies in this sample at z>0.3 occupy environments nearly as rich on average as Abell class 0 clusters of galaxies, about three times richer than the environments of the z<0.3 radio galaxies. This trend in cluster environment is consistent with that seen in radio-loud quasars over the same redshift range. Our previous work on the 3CR sample suggested that the fundamental parameter which correlates with the richness of environment might be the radio luminosity of the galaxy, rather than its redshift. Our direct imaging confirms that the most powerful radio galaxies do inhabit rich environments. (author)

  10. DISCOVERY OF A PSEUDOBULGE GALAXY LAUNCHING POWERFUL RELATIVISTIC JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotilainen, Jari K.; Olguín-Iglesias, Alejandro [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); León-Tavares, Jonathan; Baes, Maarten [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281-S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Anórve, Christopher [Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Espacio de la Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Blvd. de la Americas y Av. Universitarios S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 80010, Culiacán Sinaloa, México (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram; Carrasco, Luis, E-mail: jarkot@utu.fi [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2016-12-01

    Supermassive black holes launching plasma jets at close to the speed of light, producing gamma-rays, have ubiquitously been found to be hosted by massive elliptical galaxies. Since elliptical galaxies are generally believed to be built through galaxy mergers, active galactic nuclei (AGN) launching relativistic jets are associated with the latest stages of galaxy evolution. We have discovered a pseudobulge morphology in the host galaxy of the gamma-ray AGN PKS 2004-447. This is the first gamma-ray emitter radio-loud AGN found to have been launched from a system where both the black hole and host galaxy have been actively growing via secular processes. This is evidence of an alternative black hole–galaxy co-evolutionary path to develop powerful relativistic jets, which is not merger driven.

  11. Powerful warm infrared sources in early-type galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressel, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    IRAS far-infrared sources have been identified with 129 S0, Sa, Sb, and Sc galaxies in a statistically complete sample of 738 galaxies brighter than 14.5 mag and smaller than 4.0 arcmin. In most cases, the far-IR colors and the ratios of far-IR flux to radio flux density are those of normal galactic disks and/or starbursts. The most powerful far-IR sources in S0 and Sa galaxies are just as powerful as the strongest far-IR sources in Sb and Sc galaxies. Bright-IR sources in S0 and Sa galaxies are warm; those in Sc galaxies are cool. Sb galaxies have both warm and cool IR sources. Bright warm IR sources occur much more frequently in barred galaxies than in galaxies without bars for types S0, Sa, and Sb. Bright, cool IR sources are found with increasing frequency along the Hubble sequence, regardless of the presence or absence of a bar. At least some S0 galaxies with warm, bright IR sources have peculiar morphologies and ambiguous classifications. 22 references

  12. Archaeology of active galaxies across the electromagnetic spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, Raffaella

    2017-01-01

    Analytical and numerical galaxy-formation models indicate that active galactic nuclei (AGNs) likely play a prominent role in the formation and evolution of galaxies. However, quantifying this effect requires knowledge of how the nuclear activity proceeds throughout the life of a galaxy, whether it

  13. The rest-frame submillimeter spectrum of high-redshift, dusty, star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aguirre, J. E. [University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Aravena, M. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001 Vitacura Santiago (Chile); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Béthermin, M. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bradford, C. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bothwell, M. S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thompson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Carlstrom, J. E.; Crawford, T. M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); De Breuck, C.; Gullberg, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fassnacht, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hezaveh, Y. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Holzapfel, W. L., E-mail: jspilker@as.arizona.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-04-20

    We present the average rest-frame spectrum of high-redshift dusty, star-forming galaxies from 250 to 770 GHz. This spectrum was constructed by stacking Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 3 mm spectra of 22 such sources discovered by the South Pole Telescope and spanning z = 2.0-5.7. In addition to multiple bright spectral features of {sup 12}CO, [C I], and H{sub 2}O, we also detect several faint transitions of {sup 13}CO, HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN, and use the observed line strengths to characterize the typical properties of the interstellar medium of these high-redshift starburst galaxies. We find that the {sup 13}CO brightness in these objects is comparable to that of the only other z > 2 star-forming galaxy in which {sup 13}CO has been observed. We show that the emission from the high-critical density molecules HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN is consistent with a warm, dense medium with T {sub kin} ∼ 55 K and n{sub H{sub 2}}≳10{sup 5.5} cm{sup –3}. High molecular hydrogen densities are required to reproduce the observed line ratios, and we demonstrate that alternatives to purely collisional excitation are unlikely to be significant for the bulk of these systems. We quantify the average emission from several species with no individually detected transitions, and find emission from the hydride CH and the linear molecule CCH for the first time at high redshift, indicating that these molecules may be powerful probes of interstellar chemistry in high-redshift systems. These observations represent the first constraints on many molecular species with rest-frame transitions from 0.4 to 1.2 mm in star-forming systems at high redshift, and will be invaluable in making effective use of ALMA in full science operations.

  14. Primordial power spectrum features and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, G.

    2014-03-01

    The present Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropy data is consistent with not only a power law scalar primordial power spectrum (PPS) with a small running but also with the scalar PPS having very sharp features. This has motivated inflationary models with such sharp features. Recently, even the possibility of having nulls in the power spectrum (at certain scales) has been considered. The existence of these nulls has been shown in linear perturbation theory. What shall be the effect of higher order corrections on such nulls? Inspired by this question, we have attempted to calculate quantum radiative corrections to the Fourier transform of the 2-point function in a toy field theory and address the issue of how these corrections to the power spectrum behave in models in which the tree-level power spectrum has a sharp dip (but not a null). In particular, we have considered the possibility of the relative enhancement of radiative corrections in a model in which the tree-level spectrum goes through a dip in power at a certain scale. The mode functions of the field (whose power spectrum is to be evaluated) are chosen such that they undergo the kind of dynamics that leads to a sharp dip in the tree level power spectrum. Next, we have considered the situation in which this field has quartic self interactions, and found one loop correction in a suitably chosen renormalization scheme. Thus, we have attempted to answer the following key question in the context of this toy model (which is as important in the realistic case): In the chosen renormalization scheme, can quantum radiative corrections be enhanced relative to tree-level power spectrum at scales, at which sharp dips appear in the tree-level spectrum?

  15. Subsampling for graph power spectrum estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar; Leus, Geert

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we focus on subsampling stationary random signals that reside on the vertices of undirected graphs. Second-order stationary graph signals are obtained by filtering white noise and they admit a well-defined power spectrum. Estimating the graph power spectrum forms a central component of stationary graph signal processing and related inference tasks. We show that by sampling a significantly smaller subset of vertices and using simple least squares, we can reconstruct the power spectrum of the graph signal from the subsampled observations, without any spectral priors. In addition, a near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme.

  16. Subsampling for graph power spectrum estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar

    2016-10-06

    In this paper we focus on subsampling stationary random signals that reside on the vertices of undirected graphs. Second-order stationary graph signals are obtained by filtering white noise and they admit a well-defined power spectrum. Estimating the graph power spectrum forms a central component of stationary graph signal processing and related inference tasks. We show that by sampling a significantly smaller subset of vertices and using simple least squares, we can reconstruct the power spectrum of the graph signal from the subsampled observations, without any spectral priors. In addition, a near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme.

  17. THE UNIFICATION OF POWERFUL QUASARS AND RADIO GALAXIES AND THEIR RELATION TO OTHER MASSIVE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podigachoski, Pece; Barthel, Peter [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Haas, Martin [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr Universität, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Leipski, Christian [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Wilkes, Belinda, E-mail: podigachoski@astro.rug.nl [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    The unification model for powerful radio galaxies (RGs) and radio-loud quasars postulates that these objects are intrinsically the same but viewed along different angles. Herschel Space Observatory data permit the assessment of that model in the far-infrared spectral window. We analyze photometry from Spitzer and Herschel for the distant 3CR hosts, and find that RGs and quasars have different mid-infrared, but indistinguishable far-infrared colors. Both these properties, the former being orientation dependent and the latter orientation invariant, are in line with expectations from the unification model. Adding powerful radio-quiet active galaxies and typical massive star-forming (SF) galaxies to the analysis, we demonstrate that infrared colors not only provide an orientation indicator, but can also distinguish active from SF galaxies.

  18. THE UNIFICATION OF POWERFUL QUASARS AND RADIO GALAXIES AND THEIR RELATION TO OTHER MASSIVE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podigachoski, Pece; Barthel, Peter; Haas, Martin; Leipski, Christian; Wilkes, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    The unification model for powerful radio galaxies (RGs) and radio-loud quasars postulates that these objects are intrinsically the same but viewed along different angles. Herschel Space Observatory data permit the assessment of that model in the far-infrared spectral window. We analyze photometry from Spitzer and Herschel for the distant 3CR hosts, and find that RGs and quasars have different mid-infrared, but indistinguishable far-infrared colors. Both these properties, the former being orientation dependent and the latter orientation invariant, are in line with expectations from the unification model. Adding powerful radio-quiet active galaxies and typical massive star-forming (SF) galaxies to the analysis, we demonstrate that infrared colors not only provide an orientation indicator, but can also distinguish active from SF galaxies

  19. The Spectrum of Wind Power Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Mahesh

    2016-11-01

    Wind is a variable energy source whose fluctuations threaten electrical grid stability and complicate dynamical load balancing. The power generated by a wind turbine fluctuates due to the variable wind speed that blows past the turbine. Indeed, the spectrum of wind power fluctuations is widely believed to reflect the Kolmogorov spectrum; both vary with frequency f as f - 5 / 3. This variability decreases when aggregate power fluctuations from geographically distributed wind farms are averaged at the grid via a mechanism known as geographic smoothing. Neither the f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum nor the mechanism of geographic smoothing are understood. In this work, we explain the wind power fluctuation spectrum from the turbine through grid scales. The f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum results from the largest length scales of atmospheric turbulence of order 200 km influencing the small scales where individual turbines operate. This long-range influence spatially couples geographically distributed wind farms and synchronizes farm outputs over a range of frequencies and decreases with increasing inter-farm distance. Consequently, aggregate grid-scale power fluctuations remain correlated, and are smoothed until they reach a limiting f - 7 / 3 spectrum. This work was funded by the Collective Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, Japan.

  20. An Empirical Ultraviolet Iron Spectrum Template Applicable to Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    Iron emission is often a severe contaminant in optical-ultraviolet spectra of active galaxies. Its presence complicates emission line studies. A viable solution, already successfully applied at optical wavelengths, is to use an empirical iron emission template. We have generated FeII and Fe......III templates for ultraviolet active galaxy spectra based on HST archival 1100 - 3100 A spectra of IZw1. Their application allows fitting and subtraction of the iron emission in active galaxy spectra. This work has shown that in particular CIII] lambda 1909 can be heavily contaminated by other line emission...

  1. Structure in the 3D Galaxy Distribution. III. Fourier Transforming the Universe: Phase and Power Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. R., E-mail: Jeffrey.D.Scargle@nasa.gov, E-mail: Michael.J.Way@nasa.gov, E-mail: PGazis@sbcglobal.net [NASA Ames Research Center, Astrobiology and Space Science Division, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of a relatively straightforward analysis of the complex 3D Fourier transform of galaxy coordinates derived from redshift surveys. Numerical demonstrations of this approach are carried out on a volume-limited sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey redshift survey. The direct unbinned transform yields a complex 3D data cube quite similar to that from the Fast Fourier Transform of finely binned galaxy positions. In both cases, deconvolution of the sampling window function yields estimates of the true transform. Simple power spectrum estimates from these transforms are roughly consistent with those using more elaborate methods. The complex Fourier transform characterizes spatial distributional properties beyond the power spectrum in a manner different from (and we argue is more easily interpreted than) the conventional multipoint hierarchy. We identify some threads of modern large-scale inference methodology that will presumably yield detections in new wider and deeper surveys.

  2. Structure in the 3D Galaxy Distribution. III. Fourier Transforming the Universe: Phase and Power Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. R.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of a relatively straightforward analysis of the complex 3D Fourier transform of galaxy coordinates derived from redshift surveys. Numerical demonstrations of this approach are carried out on a volume-limited sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey redshift survey. The direct unbinned transform yields a complex 3D data cube quite similar to that from the Fast Fourier Transform of finely binned galaxy positions. In both cases, deconvolution of the sampling window function yields estimates of the true transform. Simple power spectrum estimates from these transforms are roughly consistent with those using more elaborate methods. The complex Fourier transform characterizes spatial distributional properties beyond the power spectrum in a manner different from (and we argue is more easily interpreted than) the conventional multipoint hierarchy. We identify some threads of modern large-scale inference methodology that will presumably yield detections in new wider and deeper surveys.

  3. Long-slit optical spectroscopy of powerful far-infrared galaxies - The nature of the nuclear energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armus, Lee; Heckman, Timothy M.; Miley, George K.

    1989-01-01

    Optical spectroscopic data are presented for a sample of 47 powerful far-IR galaxies chosen for IR spectral shape, and for six other IR-bright galaxies. The stellar absorption lines expected from a population of old stars are generally very weak in the nuclei of the galaxies. Very weak Mg I absorption is found in regions well off the nucleus, implying that the visible spectrum is dominated by young stars and not by an AGN. At least one, and probably five, of the galaxies have detectable WR emission features, providing additional evidence for a young stellar population. About 20 percent of the galaxies have strong Balmer absorption lines, indicating the presence of a substantial intermediate-age stellar population. The equivalent width of the H-alpha emission line can be modeled as arising from a mixture of a large young population and an intermediate-age population of stars.

  4. The Far-Infrared Emission Line and Continuum Spectrum of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Smith, Howard A.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Fisher, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    We report on the analysis of the first complete far-infrared spectrum (43-197 microns) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 as observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to the 7 expected ionic fine structure emission lines, the OH rotational lines at 79, 119 and 163 microns were all detected in emission, which is unique among galaxies with full LWS spectra, where the 119 micron line, where detected, is always in absorption. The observed line intensities were modelled together with IS0 Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and optical and ultraviolet line intensities from the literature, considering two independent emission components: the AGN component and the starburst component in the circumnuclear ring of approximately 3kpc in size. Using the UV to mid-IR emission line spectrum to constrain the nuclear ionizing continuum, we have confirmed previous results: a canonical power-law ionizing spectrum is a poorer fit than one with a deep absorption trough, while the presence of a big blue bump is ruled out. Based on the instantaneous starburst age of 5 Myr constrained by the Br gamma equivalent width in the starburst ring, and starburst synthesis models of the mid- and far-infrared fine-structure line emission, a low ionization parameter (U=10(exp -3.5)) and low densities (n=100 cm (exp -3)) are derived. Combining the AGN and starburst components, we succeed in modeling the overall UV to far-IR atomic spectrum of SGC 1068, reproducing the line fluxes to within a factor 2.0 on average with a standard deviation of 1.4. The OH 119 micron emission indicates that the line is collisionally excited, and arises in a warm and dense region. The OH emission has been modeled using spherically symmetric, non-local, non-LTE radiative transfer models. The models indicate that the bulk of the emission arises from the nuclear region, although some extended contribution from the starburst is not ruled out. The OH abundance

  5. Shape of power spectrum of intermittent chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, B.C.; Mori, H.

    1984-01-01

    Power spectra of intermittent chaos are calculated analytically. It is found that the power spectrum near onset point consists of a large number of Lorentzian lines with two peaks around frequencies ω = 0 and ω = ω 0 , where ω 0 is a fundamental frequency of a periodic orbit before the onset point, and furthermore the envelope of lines around ω = 0 obeys the power law 1/ + ω +2 , whereas the envelope around ω 0 obeys 1/ + ω-ω 0 +4 . The universality of these power law dependence in a certain class of intermittent chaos are clarified from a phenomenological view point. (author)

  6. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: A Measurement of the Primordial Power Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlozek, Renee; Dunkley, Joanna; Addison, Graeme; Appel, John William; Bond, J. Richard; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present constraints on the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic fluctuations using data from the 2008 Southern Survey of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The angular resolution of ACT provides sensitivity to scales beyond l = 1000 for resolution of multiple peaks in the primordial temperature power spectrum, which enables us to probe the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations with wavenumbers up to k approx. = 0.2 Mp/c. We find no evidence for deviation from power-law fluctuations over two decades in scale. Matter fluctuations inferred from the primordial temperature power spectrum evolve over cosmic time and can be used to predict the matter power spectrum at late times; we illustrate the overlap of the matter power inferred from CMB measurements (which probe the power spectrum in thc linear regime) with existing probes of galaxy clustering, cluster abundances and weak lensing constraints on the primordial power. This highlights the range of scales probed by current measurement.s of the matter power spectrum.

  7. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: A MEASUREMENT OF THE PRIMORDIAL POWER SPECTRUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlozek, Renee; Dunkley, Joanna; Addison, Graeme [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Appel, John William; Das, Sudeep; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bond, J. Richard [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Carvalho, C. Sofia [IPFN, IST, Av. RoviscoPais, 1049-001Lisboa, Portugal and RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Soranou Efessiou 4, 11-527 Athens (Greece); Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Duenner, Rolando; Gallardo, Patricio [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hilton, Matt [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Irwin, Kent D. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); and others

    2012-04-10

    We present constraints on the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic fluctuations using data from the 2008 Southern Survey of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) in combination with measurements from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and a prior on the Hubble constant. The angular resolution of ACT provides sensitivity to scales beyond l = 1000 for resolution of multiple peaks in the primordial temperature power spectrum, which enables us to probe the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations with wavenumbers up to k {approx_equal} 0.2 Mpc{sup -1}. We find no evidence for deviation from power-law fluctuations over two decades in scale. Matter fluctuations inferred from the primordial temperature power spectrum evolve over cosmic time and can be used to predict the matter power spectrum at late times; we illustrate the overlap of the matter power inferred from cosmic microwave background measurements (which probe the power spectrum in the linear regime) with existing probes of galaxy clustering, cluster abundances, and weak-lensing constraints on the primordial power. This highlights the range of scales probed by current measurements of the matter power spectrum.

  8. Orientation identification of the power spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudnaya, M.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Maubach, J.M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The image Fourier transform is widely used for defocus and astigmatism correction in electron microscopy. The shape of a power spectrum (the square of a modulus of image Fourier transform) is directly related to the three microscope’s controls, namely defocus and two-fold (two-parameter)

  9. H-ATLAS: THE COSMIC ABUNDANCE OF DUST FROM THE FAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thacker, Cameron; Cooray, Asantha; Smidt, Joseph; De Bernardis, Francesco; Mitchell-Wynne, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Amblard, A. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Auld, R.; Eales, S.; Pascale, E. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M.; Michalowski, M. J. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, KrijgslAAn 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Clements, D. L.; Dariush, A.; Hopwood, R. [Physics Department, Imperial College London, South Kensington campus, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); De Zotti, G. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Maddox, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Hoyos, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Ibar, E. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, The Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Jarvis, M. [Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-05-01

    We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic far-infrared background (CFIRB) anisotropies in one of the extragalactic fields of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m bands. Consistent with recent measurements of the CFIRB power spectrum in Herschel-SPIRE maps, we confirm the existence of a clear one-halo term of galaxy clustering on arcminute angular scales with large-scale two-halo term of clustering at 30 arcmin to angular scales of a few degrees. The power spectrum at the largest angular scales, especially at 250 {mu}m, is contaminated by the Galactic cirrus. The angular power spectrum is modeled using a conditional luminosity function approach to describe the spatial distribution of unresolved galaxies that make up the bulk of the CFIRB. Integrating over the dusty galaxy population responsible for the background anisotropies, we find that the cosmic abundance of dust, relative to the critical density, to be between {Omega}{sub dust} = 10{sup -6} and 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} in the redshift range z {approx} 0-3. This dust abundance is consistent with estimates of the dust content in the universe using quasar reddening and magnification measurements in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  10. NuSTAR Observations of the Powerful Radio-Galaxy Cygnus A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.; Lohfink, Anne M.; Ogle, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    We present NuSTAR observations of the powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A,focusing on the central absorbed active galactic nucleus (AGN). Cygnus A is embedded in a cool-core galaxy cluster, and hence we also examine archival XMM-Newton data to facilitate the decomposition of the spectrum into the AGN...... and intracluster medium (ICM) components. NuSTAR gives a source-dominated spectrum of the AGN out to >70keV. In gross terms, the NuSTAR spectrum of the AGN has the form of a power law (Γ~1.6-1.7) absorbed by a neutral column density of NH~1.6x1023 cm-2. However, we also detect curvature in the hard (>10ke......V (90% confidence). Interestingly, the absorbed power-law plus reflection modelleaves residuals suggesting the absorption/emission from a fast(15,000-26,000km/s), high column-density (NW>3x1023 cm-2), highly ionized (ξ~2,500 erg cm/s-1) wind. A second, even faster ionized wind component is also...

  11. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented

  12. Cosmological leverage from the matter power spectrum in the presence of baryon and nonlinear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielefeld, Jannis; Huterer, Dragan; Linder, Eric V.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how the use of higher wavenumbers (smaller scales) in the galaxy clustering power spectrum influences cosmological constraints. We take into account uncertainties from nonlinear density fluctuations, (scale dependent) galaxy bias, and baryonic effects. Allowing for substantially model independent uncertainties through separate fit parameters in each wavenumber bin that also allow for the redshift evolution, we quantify strong gains in dark energy and neutrino mass leverage with increasing maximum wavenumber, despite marginalizing over numerous (up to 125) extra fit parameters. The leverage is due to not only an increased number of modes but, more significantly, breaking of degeneracies beyond the linear regime

  13. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Reed, Darren S.; Onions, Julian; Pearce, Frazer R.; Smith, Robert E.; Springel, Volker; Scoccimarro, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day N -body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to the measurement of the final power spectrum. We directly compare three widely used N -body codes, Ramses, Pkdgrav3, and Gadget3 which represent three main discretisation techniques: the particle-mesh method, the tree method, and a hybrid combination of the two. For standard run parameters, the codes agree to within one percent at k ≤1 h Mpc −1 and to within three percent at k ≤10 h Mpc −1 . We also consider the bispectrum and show that the reduced bispectra agree at the sub-percent level for k ≤ 2 h Mpc −1 . In a second step, we quantify potential errors due to initial conditions, box size, and resolution using an extended suite of simulations performed with our fastest code Pkdgrav3. We demonstrate that the simulation box size should not be smaller than L =0.5 h −1 Gpc to avoid systematic finite-volume effects (while much larger boxes are required to beat down the statistical sample variance). Furthermore, a maximum particle mass of M p =10 9 h −1 M ⊙ is required to conservatively obtain one percent precision of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, numerical simulations covering large survey volumes of upcoming missions such as DES, LSST, and Euclid will need more than a trillion particles to reproduce clustering properties at the targeted accuracy.

  14. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Reed, Darren S. [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Onions, Julian; Pearce, Frazer R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Smith, Robert E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Springel, Volker [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, 69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Scoccimarro, Roman, E-mail: aurel@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: teyssier@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: dpotter@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: stadel@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: julian.onions@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: reed@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: r.e.smith@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: volker.springel@h-its.org, E-mail: Frazer.Pearce@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: rs123@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, NY 10003, New York (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day N -body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to the measurement of the final power spectrum. We directly compare three widely used N -body codes, Ramses, Pkdgrav3, and Gadget3 which represent three main discretisation techniques: the particle-mesh method, the tree method, and a hybrid combination of the two. For standard run parameters, the codes agree to within one percent at k ≤1 h Mpc{sup −1} and to within three percent at k ≤10 h Mpc{sup −1}. We also consider the bispectrum and show that the reduced bispectra agree at the sub-percent level for k ≤ 2 h Mpc{sup −1}. In a second step, we quantify potential errors due to initial conditions, box size, and resolution using an extended suite of simulations performed with our fastest code Pkdgrav3. We demonstrate that the simulation box size should not be smaller than L =0.5 h {sup −1}Gpc to avoid systematic finite-volume effects (while much larger boxes are required to beat down the statistical sample variance). Furthermore, a maximum particle mass of M {sub p}=10{sup 9} h {sup −1}M{sub ⊙} is required to conservatively obtain one percent precision of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, numerical simulations covering large survey volumes of upcoming missions such as DES, LSST, and Euclid will need more than a trillion particles to reproduce clustering properties at the targeted accuracy.

  15. The power spectrum of inflationary attractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broy, Benedict J.; Westphal, Alexander; Roest, Diederik

    2014-08-01

    Inflationary attractors predict the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio to take specific values that are consistent with Planck. An example is the universal attractor for models with a generalised non-minimal coupling, leading to Starobinsky inflation. In this letter we demonstrate that it also predicts a specific relation between the amplitude of the power spectrum and the number of e-folds. The length and height of the inflationary plateau are related via the non-minimal coupling: in a wide variety of examples, the observed power normalisation leads to at least 55 flat e-foldings. Prior to this phase, the inflationary predictions vary and can account for the observational indications of power loss at large angular scales.

  16. Testing Rastall's theory using matter power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, C.E.M.; Fabris, J.C.; Daouda, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Rastall's theory is a modification of the General Relativity theory leading to a different expression for the conservation law in the matter sector compared with the usual one. It has been argued recently that such a theory may have applications to the dark energy problem, since a pressureless fluid may lead to an accelerated universe. In the present work we confront Rastall's theory with the power spectrum data. The results indicate a configuration that essentially reduces Rastall's theory to General Relativity, unless the non-usual conservation law refers to a scalar field, situation where other configurations are eventually possible.

  17. Observational constraints on the primordial curvature power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Razieh; Smoot, George F.

    2018-01-01

    CMB temperature fluctuation observations provide a precise measurement of the primordial power spectrum on large scales, corresponding to wavenumbers 10‑3 Mpc‑1 lesssim k lesssim 0.1 Mpc‑1, [1-7, 11]. Luminous red galaxies and galaxy clusters probe the matter power spectrum on overlapping scales (0.02 Mpc‑1 lesssim k lesssim 0.7 Mpc‑1 [10, 12-20]), while the Lyman-alpha forest reaches slightly smaller scales (0.3 Mpc‑1 lesssim k lesssim 3 Mpc‑1 [22]). These observations indicate that the primordial power spectrum is nearly scale-invariant with an amplitude close to 2 × 10‑9, [5, 23-28]. These observations strongly support Inflation and motivate us to obtain observations and constraints reaching to smaller scales on the primordial curvature power spectrum and by implication on Inflation. We are able to obtain limits to much higher values of k lesssim 105 Mpc‑1 and with less sensitivity even higher k lesssim 1019‑ 1023 Mpc‑1 using limits from CMB spectral distortions and other limits on ultracompact minihalo objects (UCMHs) and Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). PBHs are one of the known candidates for the Dark Matter (DM). Due to their very early formation, they could give us valuable information about the primordial curvature perturbations. These are complementary to other cosmological bounds on the amplitude of the primordial fluctuations. In this paper, we revisit and collect all the published constraints on both PBHs and UCMHs. We show that unless one uses the CMB spectral distortion, PBHs give us a very relaxed bounds on the primordial curvature perturbations. UCMHs, on the other hand, are very informative over a reasonable k range (3 lesssim k lesssim 106 Mpc‑1) and lead to significant upper-bounds on the curvature spectrum. We review the conditions under which the tighter constraints on the UCMHs could imply extremely strong bounds on the fraction of DM that could be PBHs in reasonable models. Failure to satisfy these conditions would

  18. The optical spectrum and morphology of the probable X-ray galaxy NGC 5506 (3U 1410-03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.S.; Penston, M.V.; Fosbury, R.A.E.; Boksenberg, A.

    1976-01-01

    Spectra of the nucleus and plates of the galaxy NGC 5506, suggested by Bahcall et al. as the identification of the X-ray source 3U 1410-03, have been obtained with the Isaac Newton and Anglo-Australian Telescopes. The photographs show it to be a highly elongated system, crossed by dust lanes and possessing a prominent nucleus. It appears to be of irregular Type II and superficially resembles M 82. The nuclear spectrum is dominated by intense emission lines of [O III], [O I], [N II], [S II] and the Balmer series. Lines of high ionized species (e.g. He II, [Ne V], [Fe VII]) are also found, implying that the object is active and greatly enhancing the probability of association with the X-ray source. Numerous weak lines of [Fe II] emission are observed. The strong lines are narrower than is characteristic of Seyfert galaxies, and have widths (FWHM) of about 400 km s -1 . The measured Balmer decrement indicates the nucleus is significantly reddened, from which a visual absorption Asub(v) approximately equal to 4.5 mag is deduced. The dereddened line intensities are remarkably similar to those derived for the radio galaxy Cyg A by Osterbrock and Miller. The forbidden lines from NGC 5506 are emitted in a region with log 10 Tsub(e) =4.2 and log 10 Nsub(e) = 3.4. The observed continuum may be described by a power law S varies as νsup(+α) with α = - 3.6 +- 0.5; after correction for reddening the spectral index becomes α = - 1.3 +- 0.6. If the X-ray source is associated with the nucleus, the high visual absorption implies a low energy cut-off in its spectrum near 0.9 keV. (author)

  19. Dark matter statistics for large galaxy catalogs: power spectra and covariance matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Prada, Francisco

    2018-06-01

    Large-scale surveys of galaxies require accurate theoretical predictions of the dark matter clustering for thousands of mock galaxy catalogs. We demonstrate that this goal can be achieve with the new Parallel Particle-Mesh (PM) N-body code GLAM at a very low computational cost. We run ˜22, 000 simulations with ˜2 billion particles that provide ˜1% accuracy of the dark matter power spectra P(k) for wave-numbers up to k ˜ 1hMpc-1. Using this large data-set we study the power spectrum covariance matrix. In contrast to many previous analytical and numerical results, we find that the covariance matrix normalised to the power spectrum C(k, k΄)/P(k)P(k΄) has a complex structure of non-diagonal components: an upturn at small k, followed by a minimum at k ≈ 0.1 - 0.2 hMpc-1, and a maximum at k ≈ 0.5 - 0.6 hMpc-1. The normalised covariance matrix strongly evolves with redshift: C(k, k΄)∝δα(t)P(k)P(k΄), where δ is the linear growth factor and α ≈ 1 - 1.25, which indicates that the covariance matrix depends on cosmological parameters. We also show that waves longer than 1h-1Gpc have very little impact on the power spectrum and covariance matrix. This significantly reduces the computational costs and complexity of theoretical predictions: relatively small volume ˜(1h-1Gpc)3 simulations capture the necessary properties of dark matter clustering statistics. As our results also indicate, achieving ˜1% errors in the covariance matrix for k < 0.50 hMpc-1 requires a resolution better than ɛ ˜ 0.5h-1Mpc.

  20. Power spectrum analysis for defect screening in integrated circuit devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole Jr., Edward I.; Stein, David J.

    2011-12-01

    A device sample is screened for defects using its power spectrum in response to a dynamic stimulus. The device sample receives a time-varying electrical signal. The power spectrum of the device sample is measured at one of the pins of the device sample. A defect in the device sample can be identified based on results of comparing the power spectrum with one or more power spectra of the device that have a known defect status.

  1. THE LIFETIME AND POWERS OF FR IIs IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antognini, Joe; Bird, Jonathan; Martini, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We have identified and studied a sample of 151 FR IIs found in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the MaxBCG cluster catalog with data from FIRST and NVSS. We have compared the radio luminosities and projected lengths of these FR IIs to the projected length distribution of a range of mock catalogs generated by an FR II model and estimate the FR II lifetime to be 1.9 × 10 8 yr. The uncertainty in the lifetime calculation is a factor of two, primarily due to uncertainties in the intracluster medium (ICM) density and the FR II axial ratio. We furthermore measure the jet power distribution of FR IIs in BCGs and find that it is well described by a log-normal distribution with a median power of 1.1 × 10 37 W and a coefficient of variation of 2.2. These jet powers are nearly linearly related to the observed luminosities, and this relation is steeper than many other estimates, although it is dependent on the jet model. We investigate correlations between FR II and cluster properties and find that galaxy luminosity is correlated with jet power. This implies that jet power is also correlated with black hole mass, as the stellar luminosity of a BCG should be a good proxy for its spheroid mass and therefore the black hole mass. Jet power, however, is not correlated with cluster richness, nor is FR II lifetime strongly correlated with any cluster properties. We calculate the enthalpy of the lobes to examine the impact of the FR IIs on the ICM and find that heating due to adiabatic expansion is too small to offset radiative cooling by a factor of at least six. In contrast, the jet power is approximately an order of magnitude larger than required to counteract cooling. We conclude that if feedback from FR IIs offsets cooling of the ICM, then heating must be primarily due to another mechanism associated with FR II expansion.

  2. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In studies of the large scale structure of the universe there is a continuing need for extensive galaxy redshift determinations. Optically selected redshift surveys are of particular importance, since flux-limited samples record much higher space densities of galaxies than samples of similar size selected in other wavebands. A considerable amount of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) observing time is currently being devoted to carrying out a large southern galaxy redshift survey. A recently completed study, the Durham-SAAO redshift survey suggests that the mean density of matter is well below the critical limit for a closed universe and also that the universe may be homogenous at very large scales. Other research conducted by the SAAO include studies on: the distribution of galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; starburst and IRAS galaxies; interacting and compact galaxies; a re-evaluation of the Cepheid distance to NGC 300, and a search for quasars behind galaxies. 1 fig

  3. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The size and nature of any large-scale anisotropy in the three-dimensional distribution of galaxies is still little understood. Recent studies have indicated that large fluctuations in the matter distribution on a scale from tens up to several hundreds of megaparsecs may exist. Work at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in recent years has made major contributions to studies of the large scale distribution of galaxies, as well as to solving the problems of the galactic and extragalactic distance scale. Other studies of galaxies undertaken at SAAO include: quasars in the fields of nearby galaxies; dwarf irregular galaxies; IRAS galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; 'hot spot' galaxies; supernovae in NGC 5128 and NGC 1559 and superclusters. 4 figs

  4. XMM-Newton observation of the NLS1 galaxy Ark 564. I. Spectral analysis of the time-average spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadakis, I.E.; Brinkmann, W.; Page, M.J.; McHardy, I.; Uttley, P.

    2007-01-01

    Context: .We present the results from the spectral analysis of the time-average spectrum of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy Ark 564 from a ~100 ks XMM-Newton observation. Aims: .Our aim is to characterize accurately the shape of the time-average, X-ray continuum spectrum of the source and

  5. On fitting the full spectrum of luminous red galaxies by using ULySS and STARLIGHT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Gao-Chao; Lu You-Jun; Chen Xue-Lei; Du Wei; Zhao Yong-Heng

    2013-01-01

    We select a sample of quiescent luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 with a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) to study the consistency of fitting the full spectrum by using different packages, mainly, ULySS and STARLIGHT. The spectrum of each galaxy in the sample is fitted by the full spectrum fitting packages ULySS and STARLIGHT. We find: (1) for spectra with higher S/Ns, the ages of stellar populations obtained from ULySS are slightly older than those from STARLIGHT, and metallicities derived from ULySS are slightly richer than those from STARLIGHT. In general, both packages can give roughly consistent fitting results. (2) For low S/N spectra, it is possible that the fitting by ULySS can become trapped at some local minimum in the parameter space during execution and thus may give unreliable results, but STARLIGHT can still give reliable results. Based on the fitting results of LRGs, we further analyze their star formation history and the relation between their age and velocity dispersion, and find that they agree well with conclusions from previous works

  6. Red, Straight, no bends: primordial power spectrum reconstruction from CMB and large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravenni, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Verde, Licia; Cuesta, Antonio J., E-mail: andrea.ravenni@pd.infn.it, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: ajcuesta@icc.ub.edu [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-08-01

    We present a minimally parametric, model independent reconstruction of the shape of the primordial power spectrum. Our smoothing spline technique is well-suited to search for smooth features such as deviations from scale invariance, and deviations from a power law such as running of the spectral index or small-scale power suppression. We use a comprehensive set of the state-of the art cosmological data: Planck observations of the temperature and polarisation anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, WiggleZ and Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 galaxy power spectra and the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey correlation function. This reconstruction strongly supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt and disfavours deviations from a power law power spectrum including small-scale power suppression such as that induced by significantly massive neutrinos. This offers a powerful confirmation of the inflationary paradigm, justifying the adoption of the inflationary prior in cosmological analyses.

  7. ACOUSTIC SCALE FROM THE ANGULAR POWER SPECTRA OF SDSS-III DR8 PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Reid, Beth; Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cuesta, Antonio J.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Nichol, Robert C. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Saito, Shun [Department of Astronomy, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); De Putter, Roland [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Xu Xiaoying; Skibba, Ramin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Verde, Licia [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Barcelona (Spain); Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J. [Apache Point Observatory, 2001 Apache Point Road, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); and others

    2012-12-10

    We measure the acoustic scale from the angular power spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) Data Release 8 imaging catalog that includes 872, 921 galaxies over {approx}10,000 deg{sup 2} between 0.45 < z < 0.65. The extensive spectroscopic training set of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey luminous galaxies allows precise estimates of the true redshift distributions of galaxies in our imaging catalog. Utilizing the redshift distribution information, we build templates and fit to the power spectra of the data, which are measured in our companion paper, to derive the location of Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) while marginalizing over many free parameters to exclude nearly all of the non-BAO signal. We derive the ratio of the angular diameter distance to the sound horizon scale D{sub A} (z)/r{sub s} = 9.212{sup +0.416}{sub -{sub 0.404}} at z = 0.54, and therefore D{sub A} (z) = 1411 {+-} 65 Mpc at z = 0.54; the result is fairly independent of assumptions on the underlying cosmology. Our measurement of angular diameter distance D{sub A} (z) is 1.4{sigma} higher than what is expected for the concordance {Lambda}CDM, in accordance to the trend of other spectroscopic BAO measurements for z {approx}> 0.35. We report constraints on cosmological parameters from our measurement in combination with the WMAP7 data and the previous spectroscopic BAO measurements of SDSS and WiggleZ. We refer to our companion papers (Ho et al.; de Putter et al.) for investigations on information of the full power spectrum.

  8. Wind speed power spectrum analysis for Bushland, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggleston, E.D. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Bushland, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Numerous papers and publications on wind turbulence have referenced the wind speed spectrum presented by Isaac Van der Hoven in his article entitled Power Spectrum of Horizontal Wind Speed Spectrum in the Frequency Range from 0.0007 to 900 Cycles per Hour. Van der Hoven used data measured at different heights between 91 and 125 meters above the ground, and represented the high frequency end of the spectrum with data from the peak hour of hurricane Connie. These facts suggest we should question the use of his power spectrum in the wind industry. During the USDA - Agricultural Research Service`s investigation of wind/diesel system power storage, using the appropriate wind speed power spectrum became a significant issue. We developed a power spectrum from 13 years of hourly average data, 1 year of 5 minute average data, and 2 particularly gusty day`s 1 second average data all collected at a height of 10 meters. While the general shape is similar to the Van der Hoven spectrum, few of his peaks were found in the Bushland spectrum. While higher average wind speeds tend to suggest higher amplitudes in the high frequency end of the spectrum, this is not always true. Also, the high frequency end of the spectrum is not accurately described by simple wind statistics such as standard deviation and turbulence intensity. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Constraining primordial non-Gaussianity with bispectrum and power spectrum from upcoming optical and radio surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Dionysios; Lazanu, Andrei; Liguori, Michele; Raccanelli, Alvise; Bartolo, Nicola; Verde, Licia

    2018-07-01

    We forecast constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) and bias parameters from measurements of galaxy power spectrum and bispectrum in future radio continuum and optical surveys. In the galaxy bispectrum, we consider a comprehensive list of effects, including the bias expansion for non-Gaussian initial conditions up to second order, redshift space distortions, redshift uncertainties and theoretical errors. These effects are all combined in a single PNG forecast for the first time. Moreover, we improve the bispectrum modelling over previous forecasts, by accounting for trispectrum contributions. All effects have an impact on final predicted bounds, which varies with the type of survey. We find that the bispectrum can lead to improvements up to a factor ˜5 over bounds based on the power spectrum alone, leading to significantly better constraints for local-type PNG, with respect to current limits from Planck. Future radio and photometric surveys could obtain a measurement error of σ (f_{NL}^{loc}) ≈ 0.2. In the case of equilateral PNG, galaxy bispectrum can improve upon present bounds only if significant improvements in the redshift determinations of future, large volume, photometric or radio surveys could be achieved. For orthogonal non-Gaussianity, expected constraints are generally comparable to current ones.

  10. THE LIFETIME AND POWERS OF FR IIs IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antognini, Joe; Bird, Jonathan; Martini, Paul, E-mail: antognini@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: bird@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: martini@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    We have identified and studied a sample of 151 FR IIs found in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the MaxBCG cluster catalog with data from FIRST and NVSS. We have compared the radio luminosities and projected lengths of these FR IIs to the projected length distribution of a range of mock catalogs generated by an FR II model and estimate the FR II lifetime to be 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} yr. The uncertainty in the lifetime calculation is a factor of two, primarily due to uncertainties in the intracluster medium (ICM) density and the FR II axial ratio. We furthermore measure the jet power distribution of FR IIs in BCGs and find that it is well described by a log-normal distribution with a median power of 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 37} W and a coefficient of variation of 2.2. These jet powers are nearly linearly related to the observed luminosities, and this relation is steeper than many other estimates, although it is dependent on the jet model. We investigate correlations between FR II and cluster properties and find that galaxy luminosity is correlated with jet power. This implies that jet power is also correlated with black hole mass, as the stellar luminosity of a BCG should be a good proxy for its spheroid mass and therefore the black hole mass. Jet power, however, is not correlated with cluster richness, nor is FR II lifetime strongly correlated with any cluster properties. We calculate the enthalpy of the lobes to examine the impact of the FR IIs on the ICM and find that heating due to adiabatic expansion is too small to offset radiative cooling by a factor of at least six. In contrast, the jet power is approximately an order of magnitude larger than required to counteract cooling. We conclude that if feedback from FR IIs offsets cooling of the ICM, then heating must be primarily due to another mechanism associated with FR II expansion.

  11. An optimal FFT-based anisotropic power spectrum estimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, Nick; Seljak, Uroš [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Li, Yin; Slepian, Zachary, E-mail: nhand@berkeley.edu, E-mail: yin.li@berkeley.edu, E-mail: zslepian@lbl.gov, E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Measurements of line-of-sight dependent clustering via the galaxy power spectrum's multipole moments constitute a powerful tool for testing theoretical models in large-scale structure. Recent work shows that this measurement, including a moving line-of-sight, can be accelerated using Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) by decomposing the Legendre polynomials into products of Cartesian vectors. Here, we present a faster, optimal means of using FFTs for this measurement. We avoid redundancy present in the Cartesian decomposition by using a spherical harmonic decomposition of the Legendre polynomials. With this method, a given multipole of order ℓ requires only 2ℓ+1 FFTs rather than the (ℓ+1)(ℓ+2)/2 FFTs of the Cartesian approach. For the hexadecapole (ℓ = 4), this translates to 40% fewer FFTs, with increased savings for higher ℓ. The reduction in wall-clock time enables the calculation of finely-binned wedges in P ( k ,μ), obtained by computing multipoles up to a large ℓ{sub max} and combining them. This transformation has a number of advantages. We demonstrate that by using non-uniform bins in μ, we can isolate plane-of-sky (angular) systematics to a narrow bin at 0μ ≅ while eliminating the contamination from all other bins. We also show that the covariance matrix of clustering wedges binned uniformly in μ becomes ill-conditioned when combining multipoles up to large values of ℓ{sub max}, but that the problem can be avoided with non-uniform binning. As an example, we present results using ℓ{sub max}=16, for which our procedure requires a factor of 3.4 fewer FFTs than the Cartesian method, while removing the first μ bin leads only to a 7% increase in statistical error on f σ{sub 8}, as compared to a 54% increase with ℓ{sub max}=4.

  12. An optimal FFT-based anisotropic power spectrum estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Nick; Li, Yin; Slepian, Zachary; Seljak, Uroš

    2017-07-01

    Measurements of line-of-sight dependent clustering via the galaxy power spectrum's multipole moments constitute a powerful tool for testing theoretical models in large-scale structure. Recent work shows that this measurement, including a moving line-of-sight, can be accelerated using Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) by decomposing the Legendre polynomials into products of Cartesian vectors. Here, we present a faster, optimal means of using FFTs for this measurement. We avoid redundancy present in the Cartesian decomposition by using a spherical harmonic decomposition of the Legendre polynomials. With this method, a given multipole of order l requires only 2l+1 FFTs rather than the (l+1)(l+2)/2 FFTs of the Cartesian approach. For the hexadecapole (l = 4), this translates to 40% fewer FFTs, with increased savings for higher l. The reduction in wall-clock time enables the calculation of finely-binned wedges in P(k,μ), obtained by computing multipoles up to a large lmax and combining them. This transformation has a number of advantages. We demonstrate that by using non-uniform bins in μ, we can isolate plane-of-sky (angular) systematics to a narrow bin at 0μ simeq while eliminating the contamination from all other bins. We also show that the covariance matrix of clustering wedges binned uniformly in μ becomes ill-conditioned when combining multipoles up to large values of lmax, but that the problem can be avoided with non-uniform binning. As an example, we present results using lmax=16, for which our procedure requires a factor of 3.4 fewer FFTs than the Cartesian method, while removing the first μ bin leads only to a 7% increase in statistical error on f σ8, as compared to a 54% increase with lmax=4.

  13. Probing dark energy using convergence power spectrum and bi-spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinda, Bikash R., E-mail: bikash@ctp-jamia.res.in [Centre for Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India)

    2017-09-01

    Weak lensing convergence statistics is a powerful tool to probe dark energy. Dark energy plays an important role to the structure formation and the effects can be detected through the convergence power spectrum, bi-spectrum etc. One of the most promising and simplest dark energy model is the ΛCDM . However, it is worth investigating different dark energy models with evolving equation of state of the dark energy. In this work, detectability of different dark energy models from ΛCDM model has been explored through convergence power spectrum and bi-spectrum.

  14. Estimating the Crustal Power Spectrum From Vector Magsat Data: Crustal Power Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, David A. J.; Parker, Robert L.; Purucker, Michael E.; Constable, Catherine G.

    2000-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field can be subdivided into core and crustal components and we seek to characterize the crustal part through its spatial power spectrum (R(sub l)). We process vector Magsat data to isolate the crustal field and then invert power spectral densities of flight-local components along-track for R(sub l) following O'Brien et al. [1999]. Our model (LPPC) is accurate up to approximately degree 45 (lambda=900 km) - this is the resolution limit of our data and suggests that global crustal anomaly maps constructed from vector Magsat data should not contain features with wavelengths less than 900 km. We find continental power spectra to be greater than oceanic ones and attribute this to the relative thicknesses of continental and oceanic crust.

  15. GASDRA: Galaxy Spectrum Dynamic Range Analysis for Photometric Redshift Filter Partition Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Sanchez, E.; Sevilla, I.; Castilla, J.; Ponce, R.; Sanchez, F. J.

    2012-04-11

    The photometric redshift is an active area of research. It is becoming the preferred method for redshift measurement above spectroscopy one for large surveys. In these surveys, the requirement in redshift precision is relaxed in benefit of obtaining the measurements of large number of galaxies. One of the more relevant decisions to be taken in the design of a photometric redshift experiment is the number of filters since it affects deeply to the precision and survey time. Currently, there is not a clear method for evaluating the impact in both precision and exposure time of a determined filter partition set and usually it is determined by detailed simulations on the behavior of photo-z algorithms. In this note we describe GASDRA, a new method for extracting the minimal signal to noise requirement, depending on the number of filters needed for preserving the filtered spectrum shape, and hence to make feasible the spectrum identification. The application of this requirement guaranties a determined precision in the spectrum measurement. Although it cannot be translated directly to absolute photometric redshift error, it does provide a method for comparing the relative precision achieved in the spectrum representation by different sets of filters. We foresee that this relative precision is close related to photo-z error. In addition, we can evaluate the impact in the exposure time of any filter partition set with respect to other. (Author) 11 refs.

  16. GASDRA: Galaxy Spectrum Dynamic Range Analysis for Photometric Redshift Filter Partition Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, J. de; Sanchez, E.; Sevilla, I.; Castilla, J.; Ponce, R.; Sanchez, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    The photometric redshift is an active area of research. It is becoming the preferred method for redshift measurement above spectroscopy one for large surveys. In these surveys, the requirement in redshift precision is relaxed in benefit of obtaining the measurements of large number of galaxies. One of the more relevant decisions to be taken in the design of a photometric redshift experiment is the number of filters since it affects deeply to the precision and survey time. Currently, there is not a clear method for evaluating the impact in both precision and exposure time of a determined filter partition set and usually it is determined by detailed simulations on the behavior of photo-z algorithms. In this note we describe GASDRA, a new method for extracting the minimal signal to noise requirement, depending on the number of filters needed for preserving the filtered spectrum shape, and hence to make feasible the spectrum identification. The application of this requirement guaranties a determined precision in the spectrum measurement. Although it cannot be translated directly to absolute photometric redshift error, it does provide a method for comparing the relative precision achieved in the spectrum representation by different sets of filters. We foresee that this relative precision is close related to photo-z error. In addition, we can evaluate the impact in the exposure time of any filter partition set with respect to other. (Author) 11 refs.

  17. Constraints on models with a break in the primordial power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hong, E-mail: hongli@mail.ihep.ac.c [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Xia Junqing [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Brandenberger, Robert [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang Xinmin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China)

    2010-07-05

    One of the characteristics of the 'Matter Bounce' scenario, an alternative to cosmological inflation for producing a scale-invariant spectrum of primordial adiabatic fluctuations on large scales, is a break in the power spectrum at a characteristic scale, below which the spectral index changes from n{sub s}=1 to n{sub s}=3. We study the constraints which current cosmological data place on the location of such a break, and more generally on the position of the break and the slope at length scales smaller than the break. The observational data we use include the WMAP five-year data set (WMAP5), other CMB data from BOOMERanG, CBI, VSA, and ACBAR, large-scale structure data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, their luminous red galaxies sample), Type Ia Supernovae data (the 'Union' compilation), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Lyman-{alpha} forest power spectrum (Ly{alpha}) data. We employ the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the features in the primordial power spectrum which are motivated by the matter bounce model. We give an upper limit on the length scale where the break in the spectrum occurs.

  18. Constraints on models with a break in the primordial power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Xia Junqing; Brandenberger, Robert; Zhang Xinmin

    2010-01-01

    One of the characteristics of the 'Matter Bounce' scenario, an alternative to cosmological inflation for producing a scale-invariant spectrum of primordial adiabatic fluctuations on large scales, is a break in the power spectrum at a characteristic scale, below which the spectral index changes from n s =1 to n s =3. We study the constraints which current cosmological data place on the location of such a break, and more generally on the position of the break and the slope at length scales smaller than the break. The observational data we use include the WMAP five-year data set (WMAP5), other CMB data from BOOMERanG, CBI, VSA, and ACBAR, large-scale structure data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, their luminous red galaxies sample), Type Ia Supernovae data (the 'Union' compilation), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Lyman-α forest power spectrum (Lyα) data. We employ the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the features in the primordial power spectrum which are motivated by the matter bounce model. We give an upper limit on the length scale where the break in the spectrum occurs.

  19. Diffusive propagation of cosmic rays from supernova remnants in the Galaxy. I: spectrum and chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasi, Pasquale; Amato, Elena

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of stochasticity in the spatial and temporal distribution of supernova remnants on the spectrum and chemical composition of cosmic rays observed at Earth. The calculations are carried out for different choices of the diffusion coefficient D(E) experienced by cosmic rays during propagation in the Galaxy. In particular, at high energies we assume that D(E)∝E δ , with δ = 1/3 and δ = 0.6 being the reference scenarios. The large scale distribution of supernova remnants in the Galaxy is modeled following the distribution of pulsars, with and without accounting for the spiral structure of the Galaxy. We find that the stochastic fluctuations induced by the spatial and temporal distribution of supernovae, together with the effect of spallation of nuclei, lead to mild but sensible violations of the simple, leaky-box-inspired rule that the spectrum observed at Earth is N(E)∝E −α with α = γ+δ, where γ is the slope of the cosmic ray injection spectrum at the sources. Spallation of nuclei, even with the small rates appropriate for He, may account for small differences in spectral slopes between different nuclei, possibly providing an explanation for the recent CREAM observations. For δ = 1/3 we find that the slope of the proton and helium spectra are ∼ 2.67 and ∼ 2.6 respectively (with fluctuations depending on the realization of source distribution) at energies around ∼ 1 TeV (to be compared with the measured values of 2.66±0.02 and 2.58±0.02). For δ = 0.6 the hardening of the He spectra is not observed. The stochastic effects discussed above cannot be found in ordinary propagation calculations, such as GALPROP, where these effects and the point like nature of the sources are not taken into account. We also comment on the effect of time dependence of the escape of cosmic rays from supernova remnants, and of a possible clustering of the sources in superbubbles. In a second paper we will discuss the implications of

  20. Diffusive propagation of cosmic rays from supernova remnants in the Galaxy. I: spectrum and chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasi, Pasquale; Amato, Elena, E-mail: blasi@arcetri.astro.it, E-mail: amato@arcetri.astro.it [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5 — 50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of stochasticity in the spatial and temporal distribution of supernova remnants on the spectrum and chemical composition of cosmic rays observed at Earth. The calculations are carried out for different choices of the diffusion coefficient D(E) experienced by cosmic rays during propagation in the Galaxy. In particular, at high energies we assume that D(E)∝E{sup δ}, with δ = 1/3 and δ = 0.6 being the reference scenarios. The large scale distribution of supernova remnants in the Galaxy is modeled following the distribution of pulsars, with and without accounting for the spiral structure of the Galaxy. We find that the stochastic fluctuations induced by the spatial and temporal distribution of supernovae, together with the effect of spallation of nuclei, lead to mild but sensible violations of the simple, leaky-box-inspired rule that the spectrum observed at Earth is N(E)∝E{sup −α} with α = γ+δ, where γ is the slope of the cosmic ray injection spectrum at the sources. Spallation of nuclei, even with the small rates appropriate for He, may account for small differences in spectral slopes between different nuclei, possibly providing an explanation for the recent CREAM observations. For δ = 1/3 we find that the slope of the proton and helium spectra are ∼ 2.67 and ∼ 2.6 respectively (with fluctuations depending on the realization of source distribution) at energies around ∼ 1 TeV (to be compared with the measured values of 2.66±0.02 and 2.58±0.02). For δ = 0.6 the hardening of the He spectra is not observed. The stochastic effects discussed above cannot be found in ordinary propagation calculations, such as GALPROP, where these effects and the point like nature of the sources are not taken into account. We also comment on the effect of time dependence of the escape of cosmic rays from supernova remnants, and of a possible clustering of the sources in superbubbles. In a second paper we will discuss the

  1. New 21 cm Power Spectrum Upper Limits From PAPER II: Constraints on IGM Properties at z = 7.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pober, Jonathan; Ali, Zaki; Parsons, Aaron; Paper Team

    2015-01-01

    Using a simulation-based framework, we interpret the power spectrum measurements from PAPER of Ali et al. in the context of IGM physics at z = 7.7. A cold IGM will result in strong 21 cm absorption relative to the CMB and leads to a 21 cm fluctuation power spectrum that can exceed 3000 mK^2. The new PAPER measurements allow us to rule out extreme cold IGM models, placing a lower limit on the physical temperature of the IGM. We also compare this limit with a calculation for the predicted heating from the currently observed galaxy population at z = 8.

  2. Planck 2013 results. XXI. All-sky Compton parameter power spectrum and high-order statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. These maps show an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched with blindly detected clusters in the Planck SZ catalogue. To characterize the signal in the tSZ map we have computed its angular power spectrum. At large angular scales ($\\ell 500$) the clustered Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) and residual point sources are the major contaminants. These foregrounds are carefully modelled and subtracted. We measure the tSZ power spectrum in angular scales, $0.17^{\\circ} \\lesssim \\theta \\lesssim 3.0^{\\circ}$, that were previously unexplored. The measured tSZ power spectrum is consistent with that expected from the Planck catalogue of SZ sources, with additional clear evidence of signal from unresolved clusters and, potentially, diffuse warm baryons. We use the tSZ power spectrum to ...

  3. AN ULTRA-DEEP NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRUM OF A COMPACT QUIESCENT GALAXY AT z = 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriek, Mariska; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Marchesini, Danilo; Labbe, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Quadri, Ryan F.; Illingworth, Garth D.

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that about half of the massive galaxies at z ∼ 2 are in a quiescent phase. Moreover, these galaxies are commonly found to be ultra-compact with half-light radii of ∼1 kpc. We have obtained a ∼29 hr spectrum of a typical quiescent, ultra-dense galaxy at z = 2.1865 with the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph. The spectrum exhibits a strong optical break and several absorption features, which have not previously been detected in z > 2 quiescent galaxies. Comparison of the spectral energy distribution with stellar population synthesis models implies a low star formation rate (SFR) of 1-3 M sun yr -1 , an age of 1.3-2.2 Gyr, and a stellar mass of ∼2 x 10 11 M sun . We detect several faint emission lines, with emission-line ratios of [N II]/Hα, [S II]/Hα, and [O II]/[O III] typical of low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions. Thus, neither the stellar continuum nor the nebular emission implies active star formation. The current SFR is <1% of the past average SFR. If this galaxy is representative of compact quiescent galaxies beyond z = 2, it implies that quenching of star formation is extremely efficient and also indicates that low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) could be common in these objects. Nuclear emission is a potential concern for the size measurement. However, we show that the AGN contributes ∼<8% to the rest-frame optical emission. A possible post-starburst population may affect size measurements more strongly; although a 0.5 Gyr old stellar population can make up ∼<10% of the total stellar mass, it could account for up to ∼40% of the optical light. Nevertheless, this spectrum shows that this compact galaxy is dominated by an evolved stellar population.

  4. THE MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY 21 cm POWER SPECTRUM ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Daniel C.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bowman, Judd D. [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Hazelton, B. J.; Sullivan, I. S.; Barry, N.; Carroll, P. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Trott, C. M.; Pindor, B.; Briggs, F.; Gaensler, B. M. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Dillon, Joshua S.; Oliveira-Costa, A. de; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pober, J. C. [Brown University, Department of Physics, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Bernardi, G. [Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E. [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Emrich, D., E-mail: daniel.c.jacobs@asu.edu [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); and others

    2016-07-10

    We present the 21 cm power spectrum analysis approach of the Murchison Widefield Array Epoch of Reionization project. In this paper, we compare the outputs of multiple pipelines for the purpose of validating statistical limits cosmological hydrogen at redshifts between 6 and 12. Multiple independent data calibration and reduction pipelines are used to make power spectrum limits on a fiducial night of data. Comparing the outputs of imaging and power spectrum stages highlights differences in calibration, foreground subtraction, and power spectrum calculation. The power spectra found using these different methods span a space defined by the various tradeoffs between speed, accuracy, and systematic control. Lessons learned from comparing the pipelines range from the algorithmic to the prosaically mundane; all demonstrate the many pitfalls of neglecting reproducibility. We briefly discuss the way these different methods attempt to handle the question of evaluating a significant detection in the presence of foregrounds.

  5. Imprint of spatial curvature on inflation power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masso, Eduard; Zsembinszki, Gabriel; Mohanty, Subhendra; Nautiyal, Akhilesh

    2008-01-01

    If the Universe had a large curvature before inflation there is a deviation from the scale invariant perturbations of the inflaton at the beginning of inflation. This may have some effect on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy at large angular scales. We calculate the density perturbations for both open and closed universe cases using the Bunch-Davies vacuum condition on the initial state. We use our power spectrum to calculate the temperature anisotropy spectrum and compare the results with the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy map five year data. We find that our power spectrum gives a lower quadrupole anisotropy when Ω-1>0, but matches the temperature anisotropy calculated from the standard Ratra-Peebles power spectrum at large l. The determination of spatial curvature from temperature anisotropy data is not much affected by the different power spectra which arise from the choice of different boundary conditions for the inflaton perturbation.

  6. 1/f noise in music and speech. [Power spectrum studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, R.F.; Clarke, J.

    1975-11-27

    The power spectrum, S(f), of many fluctuating physical variables, V(t), is approximately ''1/f-like.'' Loudness fluctuations in music and speech and pitch (melody) fluctuations in music were found to exhibit 1/f power spectra. This observation has implications for stochastic music composition. 3 figures. (RWR)

  7. Impact of large-scale tides on cosmological distortions via redshift-space power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akitsu, Kazuyuki; Takada, Masahiro

    2018-03-01

    Although large-scale perturbations beyond a finite-volume survey region are not direct observables, these affect measurements of clustering statistics of small-scale (subsurvey) perturbations in large-scale structure, compared with the ensemble average, via the mode-coupling effect. In this paper we show that a large-scale tide induced by scalar perturbations causes apparent anisotropic distortions in the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies in a way depending on an alignment between the tide, wave vector of small-scale modes and line-of-sight direction. Using the perturbation theory of structure formation, we derive a response function of the redshift-space power spectrum to large-scale tide. We then investigate the impact of large-scale tide on estimation of cosmological distances and the redshift-space distortion parameter via the measured redshift-space power spectrum for a hypothetical large-volume survey, based on the Fisher matrix formalism. To do this, we treat the large-scale tide as a signal, rather than an additional source of the statistical errors, and show that a degradation in the parameter is restored if we can employ the prior on the rms amplitude expected for the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model. We also discuss whether the large-scale tide can be constrained at an accuracy better than the CDM prediction, if the effects up to a larger wave number in the nonlinear regime can be included.

  8. ACOUSTIC SCALE FROM THE ANGULAR POWER SPECTRA OF SDSS-III DR8 PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hee-Jong; Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Reid, Beth; Schlegel, David J.; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Saito, Shun; De Putter, Roland; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Xu Xiaoying; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Donald P.; Verde, Licia; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J.

    2012-01-01

    We measure the acoustic scale from the angular power spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) Data Release 8 imaging catalog that includes 872, 921 galaxies over ∼10,000 deg 2 between 0.45 A (z)/r s = 9.212 +0.416 – 0 .404 at z = 0.54, and therefore D A (z) = 1411 ± 65 Mpc at z = 0.54; the result is fairly independent of assumptions on the underlying cosmology. Our measurement of angular diameter distance D A (z) is 1.4σ higher than what is expected for the concordance ΛCDM, in accordance to the trend of other spectroscopic BAO measurements for z ∼> 0.35. We report constraints on cosmological parameters from our measurement in combination with the WMAP7 data and the previous spectroscopic BAO measurements of SDSS and WiggleZ. We refer to our companion papers (Ho et al.; de Putter et al.) for investigations on information of the full power spectrum.

  9. DISCOVERY OF ULTRA-STEEP SPECTRUM GIANT RADIO GALAXY WITH RECURRENT RADIO JET ACTIVITY IN ABELL 449

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunik, Dominika; Jamrozy, Marek

    2016-01-01

    We report a discovery of a 1.3 Mpc diffuse radio source with extremely steep spectrum fading radio structures in the vicinity of the Abell 449 cluster of galaxies. Its extended diffuse lobes are bright only at low radio frequencies and their synchrotron age is about 160 Myr. The parent galaxy of the extended relic structure, which is the dominant galaxy within the cluster, is starting a new jet activity. There are three weak X-rays sources in the vicinity of the cluster as found in the ROSAT survey, however it is not known if they are connected with this cluster of galaxies. Just a few radio galaxy relics are currently known in the literature, as finding them requires sensitive and high angular resolution low-frequency radio observations. Objects of this kind, which also are starting a new jet activity, are important for understanding the life cycle and evolution of active galactic nuclei. A new 613 MHz map as well as the archival radio data pertaining to this object are presented and analyzed

  10. Detection of an unidentified emission line in the stacked X-ray spectrum of galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulbul, Esra; Foster, Adam; Smith, Randall K.; Randall, Scott W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Markevitch, Maxim [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Loewenstein, Michael, E-mail: ebulbul@cfa.harvard.edu [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We detect a weak unidentified emission line at E = (3.55-3.57) ± 0.03 keV in a stacked XMM-Newton spectrum of 73 galaxy clusters spanning a redshift range 0.01-0.35. When the full sample is divided into three subsamples (Perseus, Centaurus+Ophiuchus+Coma, and all others), the line is seen at >3σ statistical significance in all three independent MOS spectra and the PN 'all others' spectrum. It is also detected in the Chandra spectra of the Perseus Cluster. However, it is very weak and located within 50-110 eV of several known lines. The detection is at the limit of the current instrument capabilities. We argue that there should be no atomic transitions in thermal plasma at this energy. An intriguing possibility is the decay of sterile neutrino, a long-sought dark matter particle candidate. Assuming that all dark matter is in sterile neutrinos with m{sub s} = 2E = 7.1 keV, our detection corresponds to a neutrino decay rate consistent with previous upper limits. However, based on the cluster masses and distances, the line in Perseus is much brighter than expected in this model, significantly deviating from other subsamples. This appears to be because of an anomalously bright line at E = 3.62 keV in Perseus, which could be an Ar XVII dielectronic recombination line, although its emissivity would have to be 30 times the expected value and physically difficult to understand. Another alternative is the above anomaly in the Ar line combined with the nearby 3.51 keV K line also exceeding expectation by a factor of 10-20. Confirmation with Astro-H will be critical to determine the nature of this new line.

  11. Direct HST Dust Lane Detection in Powerful Narrow-Line Radio Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez, Edgar A.; Aretxaga, Itziar [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Puebla (Mexico); Tadhunter, Clive N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique [NASA Ames Research Center, SOFIA Science Center, SOFIA/USRA, Mountain View, CA (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Packham, Chris, E-mail: e.ramirez@inaoep.mx [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-11-22

    We present the analysis of near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope imaging of 10 Fanaroff Riley II powerful radio galaxies at low redshift (0.03 < z < 0.11) optically classified as narrow-line radio galaxies. The photometric properties of the host galaxy are measured using galfit, and compared with those from the literature. Our high resolution near-infrared observations provide new and direct information on the central kpc-scale dust lanes in our sample that could be connected to the pc-scale torus structure. Moreover, analyzing the infrared spectrograph Spitzer spectra of our sample, we suggest properties of the dust size of the torus.

  12. Power/response spectrum transformations in equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unruh, J.F.; Kana, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    Since its introduction a few years ago the use of the power/response spectrum transformation has gained considerable interest and acceptance, and a number of new applications of the transformation have been developed in the equipment qualification area. A brief review of the power/response spectrum transformation is given with a discussion of the input/output relationships for linear systems required for elevated power spectrum generation. Frequency content of earthquakelike signals is discussed with emphasis on the resolution given by the PSD. The problem of excessive ZPA due to inconsistent spectra enveloping and mechanical nonlinearities is also discussed. The PSD/RS transformation is applied to the problems of combining various dynamic load events, developing bounding spectra, and developing damping consistent test spectra. Development of elevated component spectra corrected for base overtest and generation from in-situ measurements is reviewed

  13. Powerful Radio Galaxies with Simbol-X: the Nuclear Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresi, E.; Grandi, P.; Malaguti, G.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Bianchin, V.

    2009-05-01

    Fanaroff & Riley type II radio galaxies (FRII) are complex objects. In particular FRII Narrow Line Radio Galaxies (NLRG), optically classified as High Excitation Galaxies (HEG) show X-ray spectra very similar to their radio-quiet counterparts, the Seyfert 2 galaxies. They show 2-10 keV continua heavily obscured (NH~1023-24 cm-2) and intense FeKα lines, typical cold matter reprocessing features. Moreover recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations suggest that the soft X-ray emission of HEG and Seyfert 2 have a common origin from photoionized gas, reinforcing the idea that not only their nuclear engine but also the circumnuclear gas (at least the warm phase) are similar. On the contrary, our knowledge of NLRG HEG above 10 keV is very poor when compared to brighter Seyfert 2. As a consequence, the physical properties of the cold phase of the circumnuclear gas (possibly linked to a dusty torus) are largely unknown. Thanks to its high sensitivity up to 80 keV, Simbol-X will provide very accurate spectra and will allow a direct comparison between the NLRG and Seyfert 2 cold environments.

  14. Weak lensing of the cosmic microwave background: Power spectrum covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooray, Asantha

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the non-Gaussian contribution to the power spectrum covariance of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies resulting through weak gravitational lensing angular deflections and the correlation of deflections with secondary sources of temperature fluctuations generated by the large scale structure, such as the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. This additional contribution to the covariance of binned angular power spectrum, beyond the well known cosmic variance and any associated instrumental noise, results from a trispectrum, or a four point correlation function, in temperature anisotropy data. With substantially wide bins in multipole space, the resulting non-Gaussian contribution from lensing to the binned power spectrum variance is insignificant out to multipoles of a few thousand and is not likely to affect the cosmological parameter estimation with acoustic peaks and the damping tail. The non-Gaussian contribution to covariance, however, should be considered when interpreting binned CMB power spectrum measurements at multipoles of a few thousand corresponding to angular scales of few arcminutes and less

  15. A robust power spectrum split cancellation-based spectrum sensing method for cognitive radio systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Pei-Han; Li Zan; Si Jiang-Bo; Gao Rui

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is an essential component to realize the cognitive radio, and the requirement for real-time spectrum sensing in the case of lacking prior information, fading channel, and noise uncertainty, indeed poses a major challenge to the classical spectrum sensing algorithms. Based on the stochastic properties of scalar transformation of power spectral density (PSD), a novel spectrum sensing algorithm, referred to as the power spectral density split cancellation method (PSC), is proposed in this paper. The PSC makes use of a scalar value as a test statistic, which is the ratio of each subband power to the full band power. Besides, by exploiting the asymptotic normality and independence of Fourier transform, the distribution of the ratio and the mathematical expressions for the probabilities of false alarm and detection in different channel models are derived. Further, the exact closed-form expression of decision threshold is calculated in accordance with Neyman—Pearson criterion. Analytical and simulation results show that the PSC is invulnerable to noise uncertainty, and can achive excellent detection performance without prior knowledge in additive white Gaussian noise and flat slow fading channels. In addition, the PSC benefits from a low computational cost, which can be completed in microseconds. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  16. A robust power spectrum split cancellation-based spectrum sensing method for cognitive radio systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pei-Han; Li, Zan; Si, Jiang-Bo; Gao, Rui

    2014-12-01

    Spectrum sensing is an essential component to realize the cognitive radio, and the requirement for real-time spectrum sensing in the case of lacking prior information, fading channel, and noise uncertainty, indeed poses a major challenge to the classical spectrum sensing algorithms. Based on the stochastic properties of scalar transformation of power spectral density (PSD), a novel spectrum sensing algorithm, referred to as the power spectral density split cancellation method (PSC), is proposed in this paper. The PSC makes use of a scalar value as a test statistic, which is the ratio of each subband power to the full band power. Besides, by exploiting the asymptotic normality and independence of Fourier transform, the distribution of the ratio and the mathematical expressions for the probabilities of false alarm and detection in different channel models are derived. Further, the exact closed-form expression of decision threshold is calculated in accordance with Neyman—Pearson criterion. Analytical and simulation results show that the PSC is invulnerable to noise uncertainty, and can achive excellent detection performance without prior knowledge in additive white Gaussian noise and flat slow fading channels. In addition, the PSC benefits from a low computational cost, which can be completed in microseconds.

  17. A spectrum of power plant simulators for effective training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulke, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the subject of training simulator fidelity and describes a spectrum of fidelity levels of power plant simulators to optimize training effectiveness. The body of knowledge about the relationship between power plant simulator fidelity and training effectiveness is reviewed, and a number of conjectures about this relationship are made based on the perspective of over 20 simulator-years of experience in training nuclear power plant operators. Developments are described for a new class of emerging simulator which utilize high resolution graphics to emphasize the visualization step of effective training

  18. Nonlinear evolution of f(R) cosmologies. II. Power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyaizu, Hiroaki; Hu, Wayne; Lima, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    We carry out a suite of cosmological simulations of modified action f(R) models where cosmic acceleration arises from an alteration of gravity instead of dark energy. These models introduce an extra scalar degree of freedom which enhances the force of gravity below the inverse mass or Compton scale of the scalar. The simulations exhibit the so-called chameleon mechanism, necessary for satisfying local constraints on gravity, where this scale depends on environment, in particular, the depth of the local gravitational potential. We find that the chameleon mechanism can substantially suppress the enhancement of power spectrum in the nonlinear regime if the background field value is comparable to or smaller than the depth of the gravitational potentials of typical structures. Nonetheless power spectrum enhancements at intermediate scales remain at a measurable level for models even when the expansion history is indistinguishable from a cosmological constant, cold dark matter model. Simple scaling relations that take the linear power spectrum into a nonlinear spectrum fail to capture the modifications of f(R) due to the change in collapsed structures, the chameleon mechanism, and the time evolution of the modifications.

  19. Constraining the primordial power spectrum from SNIa lensing dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kalaydzhyan, Tigran [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2013-09-15

    The (absence of detecting) lensing dispersion of Supernovae type Ia (SNIa) can be used as a novel and extremely efficient probe of cosmology. In this preliminary example we analyze its consequences for the primordial power spectrum. The main setback is the knowledge of the power spectrum in the non-linear regime, 1 Mpc{sup -1}power spectrum. The probe extends our handle on the spectrum to a total of 12-15 inflation e-folds. These constraints are so strong that they are already ruling out a large portion of the parameter space allowed by PLANCK for running {alpha}{identical_to}dn{sub s}/d ln k and running of running {beta}{identical_to}d{sup 2}n{sub s}/d ln k{sup 2}. The bounds follow a linear relation to a very good accuracy. A conservative bound disfavours any enhancement above the line {beta}(k{sub 0})=0.032-0.41{alpha}(k{sub 0}) and a realistic estimate disfavours any enhancement above the line {beta}(k{sub 0})=0.019-0.45{alpha}(k{sub 0}).

  20. Multifractal signal reconstruction based on singularity power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Gang; Yu, Wenxian; Xia, Wenxiang; Zhang, Shuning

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a novel multifractal reconstruction method based on singularity power spectrum analysis (MFR-SPS). • The proposed MFR-SPS method has better power characteristic than the algorithm in Fraclab. • Further, the SPS-ISE algorithm performs better than the SPS-MFS algorithm. • Based on the proposed MFR-SPS method, we can restructure singularity white fractal noise (SWFN) and linear singularity modulation (LSM) multifractal signal, in equivalent sense, similar with the linear frequency modulation(LFM) signal and WGN in the Fourier domain. - Abstract: Fractal reconstruction (FR) and multifractal reconstruction (MFR) can be considered as the inverse problem of singularity spectrum analysis, and it is challenging to reconstruct fractal signal in accord with multifractal spectrum (MFS). Due to the multiple solutions of fractal reconstruction, the traditional methods of FR/MFR, such as FBM based method, wavelet based method, random wavelet series, fail to reconstruct fractal signal deterministically, and besides, those methods neglect the power spectral distribution in the singular domain. In this paper, we propose a novel MFR method based singularity power spectrum (SPS). Supposing the consistent uniform covering of multifractal measurement, we control the traditional power law of each scale of wavelet coefficients based on the instantaneous singularity exponents (ISE) or MFS, simultaneously control the singularity power law based on the SPS, and deduce the principle and algorithm of MFR based on SPS. Reconstruction simulation and error analysis of estimated ISE, MFS and SPS show the effectiveness and the improvement of the proposed methods compared to those obtained by the Fraclab package.

  1. VLBA Observations of Low Luminosity Flat Spectrum Radio Galaxies and BL Lac Objects: Polarisation Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, M.; Dallacasa, D.; Stanghellini, C.; Marchã, M. J. M.

    We obtained two-epoch VLBA observations at 5 GHz of a list of radio galaxies drawn from the 200 mJy sample (Marcha et al. 1996). The objects selected for milli-arcsecond scale observations are classified, on the basis of their optical spectroscopic and polarimetric properties, as BL Lac objects, normal weak line radio galaxies, broad line radio galaxies, and transition objects (those with intermediate properties). We present preliminary results on the radio polarization properties, on the milli-arcsecond scale, of objects with different optical properties and discuss structural variations detected from the two epochs.

  2. Power spectrum of an injection-locked Josephson oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancampiano, C.V.; Shapiro, S.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments have shown that a Josephson oscillator, exposed to a weak narrow-band input signal, exhibits behavior characteristic of an injection-locked oscillator. When in lock, Adler's theory of injection locking describes the experimental observations reasonably well. The range of applicability of the theory is extended to the out-of-lock regime where a spectrum of output frequencies is observed. Obtaining the theoretical output power spectrum requires solving a differential equation having the same form as the equation describing the resistively shunted junction model of Stewart and of McCumber. Experimental measurements of the output spectrum of a nearly locked Josephson oscillator are shown to be in reasonable agreement with the theory. Additional results discussed briefly include the observation of a frequency dependence of the locked Josephson oscillator output and experiments in which a Josephson oscillator-mixer was injection locked by a weak signal at the rf

  3. Normalized noise power spectrum of full field digital mammography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norriza Mohd Isa; Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan

    2009-01-01

    A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through detrending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality. (Author)

  4. Normalized Noise Power Spectrum of Full Field Digital Mammography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isa, Norriza Mohd; Wan Hassan, Wan Muhamad Saridan

    2010-01-01

    A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through detrending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality.

  5. Charting the Parameter Space of the 21-cm Power Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aviad; Fialkov, Anastasia; Barkana, Rennan

    2018-05-01

    The high-redshift 21-cm signal of neutral hydrogen is expected to be observed within the next decade and will reveal epochs of cosmic evolution that have been previously inaccessible. Due to the lack of observations, many of the astrophysical processes that took place at early times are poorly constrained. In recent work we explored the astrophysical parameter space and the resulting large variety of possible global (sky-averaged) 21-cm signals. Here we extend our analysis to the fluctuations in the 21-cm signal, accounting for those introduced by density and velocity, Lyα radiation, X-ray heating, and ionization. While the radiation sources are usually highlighted, we find that in many cases the density fluctuations play a significant role at intermediate redshifts. Using both the power spectrum and its slope, we show that properties of high-redshift sources can be extracted from the observable features of the fluctuation pattern. For instance, the peak amplitude of ionization fluctuations can be used to estimate whether heating occurred early or late and, in the early case, to also deduce the cosmic mean ionized fraction at that time. The slope of the power spectrum has a more universal redshift evolution than the power spectrum itself and can thus be used more easily as a tracer of high-redshift astrophysics. Its peaks can be used, for example, to estimate the redshift of the Lyα coupling transition and the redshift of the heating transition (and the mean gas temperature at that time). We also show that a tight correlation is predicted between features of the power spectrum and of the global signal, potentially yielding important consistency checks.

  6. Dark Energy Constraints from the Thermal Sunyaev Zeldovich Power Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliet, Boris; Comis, Barbara; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Macías-Pérez, Juan Francisco

    2018-03-01

    We constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, using the power spectrum of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect. We improve upon previous analyses by taking into account the trispectrum in the covariance matrix and marginalising over the foreground parameters, the correlated noise, the mass bias B in the Planck universal pressure profile, and all the relevant cosmological parameters (i.e., not just Ωm and σ8). We find that the amplitude of the tSZ power spectrum at ℓ ≲ 103 depends primarily on F ≡ σ8(Ωm/B)0.40h-0.21, where B is related to more commonly used variable b by B = (1 - b)-1. We measure this parameter with 2.6% precision, F = 0.460 ± 0.012 (68% CL). By fixing the bias to B = 1.25 and adding the local determination of the Hubble constant H0 and the amplitude of the primordial power spectrum constrained by the Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data, we find w = -1.10 ± 0.12, σ8 = 0.802 ± 0.037, and Ωm = 0.265 ± 0.022 (68% CL). Our limit on w is consistent with and is as tight as that from the distance-alone constraint from the CMB and H0. Finally, by combining the tSZ power spectrum and the CMB data we find, in the Λ Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model, the mass bias of B = 1.71 ± 0.17, i.e., 1 - b = 0.58 ± 0.06 (68% CL).

  7. Some lemma on spectrum of eigen value regarding power method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, A. R. M. Jalal Uddin; Alam, Md. Sah

    2017-04-01

    Eigen value problems arise in almost all science and engineering fields. There exist some smart methods in literature in which most of them are able to find only Eigen values but could not find corresponding Eigen vectors. There exist many engineering as well as scientific fields in which both largest as well as smallest Eigen pairs are required. Power method is very simple but a powerful tool for finding largest Eigen value and corresponding Eigen vector (Eigen-pair). Again Inverse Power method is applied to find out smallest Eigen-pair and/or desire Eigen-pairs. But it is known that Inverse Power method is computationally very costly. On the other hand by using shifting property, Power method can find further Eigen-pairs. But the position of this Eigen value in the set of spectrum of the Eigen values is not identified. In this regard we proposed four lemma associate with Modified Power method. Each Lemma is proved ornately. The Modified Power method is implemented and illustrates an example for the verification of the Lemma. By using lemma the modified power algorithm is able to find out both largest and smallest Eigen-pairs successfully and efficiently in some cases. Moreover by the help of the Lemma, algorithm is able to detect the nature (positive and negative) of the Eigen values.

  8. Thinking outside the box: effects of modes larger than the survey on matter power spectrum covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putter, Roland de; Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia; Mena, Olga; Percival, Will J.

    2012-01-01

    geometry and confirming its validity using simulations. This may be useful as a stepping stone towards building an actual galaxy (or other tracer's) power spectrum covariance matrix

  9. Power spectrum model of visual masking: simulations and empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Sierra-Vázquez, Vicente; Derrington, Andrew M

    2013-06-01

    In the study of the spatial characteristics of the visual channels, the power spectrum model of visual masking is one of the most widely used. When the task is to detect a signal masked by visual noise, this classical model assumes that the signal and the noise are previously processed by a bank of linear channels and that the power of the signal at threshold is proportional to the power of the noise passing through the visual channel that mediates detection. The model also assumes that this visual channel will have the highest ratio of signal power to noise power at its output. According to this, there are masking conditions where the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) occurs in a channel centered in a spatial frequency different from the spatial frequency of the signal (off-frequency looking). Under these conditions the channel mediating detection could vary with the type of noise used in the masking experiment and this could affect the estimation of the shape and the bandwidth of the visual channels. It is generally believed that notched noise, white noise and double bandpass noise prevent off-frequency looking, and high-pass, low-pass and bandpass noises can promote it independently of the channel's shape. In this study, by means of a procedure that finds the channel that maximizes the SNR at its output, we performed numerical simulations using the power spectrum model to study the characteristics of masking caused by six types of one-dimensional noise (white, high-pass, low-pass, bandpass, notched, and double bandpass) for two types of channel's shape (symmetric and asymmetric). Our simulations confirm that (1) high-pass, low-pass, and bandpass noises do not prevent the off-frequency looking, (2) white noise satisfactorily prevents the off-frequency looking independently of the shape and bandwidth of the visual channel, and interestingly we proved for the first time that (3) notched and double bandpass noises prevent off-frequency looking only when the noise

  10. A Subaru galaxy redshift survey: WFMOS survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, M

    2008-01-01

    A planned galaxy redshift survey with the Subaru 8.2m telescope, the WFMOS survey, offers a unique opportunity for probing detailed properties of large-scale structure formation in the expanding universe by measuring clustering strength of galaxy distribution as a function of distance scale and redshift. In particular, the precise measurement of the galaxy power spectrum, combined with the cosmic microwave background experiments, allows us to obtain stringent constraints on or even determine absolute mass scales of the Big-Bang relic neutrinos as the neutrinos imprint characteristic scale- and redshift-dependent modifications onto the galaxy power spectrum shape. Here we describe the basic concept of how the galaxy clustering measurement can be used to explore the neutrino masses, with particular emphasis on advantages of the WFMOS survey over the existing low-redshift surveys such as SDSS

  11. Supercluster simulations: impact of baryons on the matter power spectrum and weak lensing forecasts for Super-CLASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Aaron; Brown, Michael L.; Kay, Scott T.; Barnes, David J.

    2018-03-01

    We use a combination of full hydrodynamic and dark matter only simulations to investigate the effect that supercluster environments and baryonic physics have on the matter power spectrum, by re-simulating a sample of supercluster sub-volumes. On large scales we find that the matter power spectrum measured from our supercluster sample has at least twice as much power as that measured from our random sample. Our investigation of the effect of baryonic physics on the matter power spectrum is found to be in agreement with previous studies and is weaker than the selection effect over the majority of scales. In addition, we investigate the effect of targeting a cosmologically non-representative, supercluster region of the sky on the weak lensing shear power spectrum. We do this by generating shear and convergence maps using a line-of-sight integration technique, which intercepts our random and supercluster sub-volumes. We find the convergence power spectrum measured from our supercluster sample has a larger amplitude than that measured from the random sample at all scales. We frame our results within the context of the Super-CLuster Assisted Shear Survey (Super-CLASS), which aims to measure the cosmic shear signal in the radio band by targeting a region of the sky that contains five Abell clusters. Assuming the Super-CLASS survey will have a source density of 1.5 galaxies arcmin-2, we forecast a detection significance of 2.7^{+1.5}_{-1.2}, which indicates that in the absence of systematics the Super-CLASS project could make a cosmic shear detection with radio data alone.

  12. Redshift space clustering of galaxies and cold dark matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A.; Cen, Renyue; Gramann, Mirt

    1993-01-01

    The distorting effect of peculiar velocities on the power speturm and correlation function of IRAS and optical galaxies is studied. The observed redshift space power spectra and correlation functions of IRAS and optical the galaxies over the entire range of scales are directly compared with the corresponding redshift space distributions using large-scale computer simulations of cold dark matter (CDM) models in order to study the distortion effect of peculiar velocities on the power spectrum and correlation function of the galaxies. It is found that the observed power spectrum of IRAS and optical galaxies is consistent with the spectrum of an Omega = 1 CDM model. The problems that such a model currently faces may be related more to the high value of Omega in the model than to the shape of the spectrum. A low-density CDM model is also investigated and found to be consistent with the data.

  13. Probing reionization with the cross-power spectrum of 21 cm and near-infrared radiation backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Xiao-Chun, E-mail: xcmao@bao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-08-01

    The cross-correlation between the 21 cm emission from the high-redshift intergalactic medium and the near-infrared (NIR) background light from high-redshift galaxies promises to be a powerful probe of cosmic reionization. In this paper, we investigate the cross-power spectrum during the epoch of reionization. We employ an improved halo approach to derive the distribution of the density field and consider two stellar populations in the star formation model: metal-free stars and metal-poor stars. The reionization history is further generated to be consistent with the electron-scattering optical depth from cosmic microwave background measurements. Then, the intensity of the NIR background is estimated by collecting emission from stars in first-light galaxies. On large scales, we find that the 21 cm and NIR radiation backgrounds are positively correlated during the very early stages of reionization. However, these two radiation backgrounds quickly become anti-correlated as reionization proceeds. The maximum absolute value of the cross-power spectrum is |Δ{sub 21,NIR}{sup 2}|∼10{sup −4} mK nW m{sup –2} sr{sup –1}, reached at ℓ ∼ 1000 when the mean fraction of ionized hydrogen is x-bar{sub i}∼0.9. We find that Square Kilometer Array can measure the 21 cm-NIR cross-power spectrum in conjunction with mild extensions to the existing CIBER survey, provided that the integration time independently adds up to 1000 and 1 hr for 21 cm and NIR observations, and that the sky coverage fraction of the CIBER survey is extended from 4 × 10{sup –4} to 0.1. Measuring the cross-correlation signal as a function of redshift provides valuable information on reionization and helps confirm the origin of the 'missing' NIR background.

  14. Large Scale Magnetic Fields: Density Power Spectrum in Redshift ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Rajesh Gopal & Shiv K. Sethi Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560 080, India. e-mail: rajesh@rri.res.in ... in galaxies and galaxy clusters with coherence lengths ≃ 10–100 kpc (for a recent review see Widrow 2002). Though there is also ...

  15. Theoretical parameters of powerful radio galaxies. II. Generation of MHD turbulence by collisionless shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshev, Yu.V.; Morozov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that MHD turbulence can be generated by collisionless shock waves due to anisotropy of the pressure behind the front of the reverse sock at the hot spot of a powerful radio galaxy. The energy density of the MHD turbulence generated behind the shock front is estimated. Analysis of the theoretical studies and experimental data on collisionless shock waves in the solar wind indicates that an important part is played by streams of ions reflected by the shock fronts, the streams generating plasma and MHD turbulence in the region ahead of the front. The extension of these ideas to shock waves in powerful radio galaxies must be made with care because of the great difference between the parameters of the shock waves in the two cases

  16. Effective Power-Law Dependence of Lyapunov Exponents on the Central Mass in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, N.; Efthymiopoulos, C.; Kalapotharakos, C.

    2015-01-01

    Using both numerical and analytical approaches, we demonstrate the existence of an effective power-law relation L alpha m(sup p) between themean Lyapunov exponent L of stellar orbits chaotically scattered by a supermassive black hole (BH) in the centre of a galaxy and the mass parameter m, i.e. ratio of the mass of the BH over the mass of the galaxy. The exponent p is found numerically to obtain values in the range p approximately equals 0.3-0.5. We propose a theoretical interpretation of these exponents, based on estimates of local 'stretching numbers', i.e. local Lyapunov exponents at successive transits of the orbits through the BH's sphere of influence. We thus predict p = 2/3 - q with q approximately equaling 0.1-0.2. Our basic model refers to elliptical galaxy models with a central core. However, we find numerically that an effective power-law scaling of L with m holds also in models with central cusp, beyond a mass scale up to which chaos is dominated by the influence of the cusp itself. We finally show numerically that an analogous law exists also in disc galaxies with rotating bars. In the latter case, chaotic scattering by the BH affects mainly populations of thick tube-like orbits surrounding some low-order branches of the x(sub 1) family of periodic orbits, as well as its bifurcations at low-order resonances, mainly the inner Lindblad resonance and the 4/1 resonance. Implications of the correlations between L and m to determining the rate of secular evolution of galaxies are discussed.

  17. Testing for new physics: neutrinos and the primordial power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canac, Nicolas; Abazajian, Kevork N. [Department of Physics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Aslanyan, Grigor [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Easther, Richard [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Price, Layne C., E-mail: ncanac@uci.edu, E-mail: aslanyan@berkeley.edu, E-mail: kevork@uci.edu, E-mail: r.easther@auckland.ac.nz, E-mail: laynep@andrew.cmu.edu [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We test the sensitivity of neutrino parameter constraints from combinations of CMB and LSS data sets to the assumed form of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) using Bayesian model selection. Significantly, none of the tested combinations, including recent high-precision local measurements of H{sub 0} and cluster abundances, indicate a signal for massive neutrinos or extra relativistic degrees of freedom. For PPS models with a large, but fixed number of degrees of freedom, neutrino parameter constraints do not change significantly if the location of any features in the PPS are allowed to vary, although neutrino constraints are more sensitive to PPS features if they are known a priori to exist at fixed intervals in log k . Although there is no support for a non-standard neutrino sector from constraints on both neutrino mass and relativistic energy density, we see surprisingly strong evidence for features in the PPS when it is constrained with data from Planck 2015, SZ cluster counts, and recent high-precision local measurements of H{sub 0}. Conversely combining Planck with matter power spectrum and BAO measurements yields a much weaker constraint. Given that this result is sensitive to the choice of data this tension between SZ cluster counts, Planck and H{sub 0} measurements is likely an indication of unmodeled systematic bias that mimics PPS features, rather than new physics in the PPS or neutrino sector.

  18. Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopy of powerful 2Jy and 3CRR radio galaxies. II. AGN power indicators and unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicken, D. [CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tadhunter, C. [University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Morganti, R. [ASTRON, P.O. Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Axon, D.; Robinson, A.; Magagnoli, M. [Rochester Institute of Technology, 84 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Kharb, P. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Ramos Almeida, C. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), C/V ia Lactea, s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Mingo, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Hardcastle, M. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Singh, V. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Université Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Kouwenhoven, M. B. N. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); Rose, M.; Spoon, H. [224 Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Inskip, K. J. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Holt, J., E-mail: daniel.dicken@cea.fr [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-06-20

    It remains uncertain which continuum and emission line diagnostics best indicate the bolometric powers of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), especially given the attenuation caused by the circumnuclear material and the possible contamination by components related to star formation. Here we use mid-IR spectra along with multiwavelength data to investigate the merit of various diagnostics of AGN radiative power, including the mid-IR [Ne III] λ25.89 μm and [O IV] λ25.89 μm fine-structure lines, the optical [O III] λ5007 forbidden line, and mid-IR 24 μm, 5 GHz radio, and X-ray continuum emission, for complete samples of 46 2Jy radio galaxies (0.05 < z < 0.7) and 17 3CRR FRII radio galaxies (z < 0.1). We find that the mid-IR [O IV] line is the most reliable indicator of AGN power for powerful radio-loud AGNs. By assuming that the [O IV] is emitted isotropically, and comparing the [O III] and 24 μm luminosities of the broad- and narrow-line AGNs in our samples at fixed [O IV] luminosity, we show that the [O III] and 24 μm emission are both mildly attenuated in the narrow-line compared to the broad-line objects by a factor of ≈2. However, despite this attenuation, the [O III] and 24 μm luminosities are better AGN power indicators for our sample than either the 5 GHz radio or the X-ray continuum luminosities. We also detect the mid-IR 9.7 μm silicate feature in the spectra of many objects but not ubiquitously: at least 40% of the sample shows no clear evidence for these features. We conclude that, for the majority of powerful radio galaxies, the mid-IR lines are powered by AGN photoionization.

  19. Just enough inflation. Power spectrum modifications at large scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Downes, Sean

    2014-07-01

    We show that models of 'just enough' inflation, where the slow-roll evolution lasted only 50-60 e-foldings, feature modifications of the CMB power spectrum at large angular scales. We perform a systematic and model-independent analysis of any possible non-slow-roll background evolution prior to the final stage of slow-roll inflation. We find a high degree of universality since most common backgrounds like fast-roll evolution, matter or radiation-dominance give rise to a power loss at large angular scales and a peak together with an oscillatory behaviour at scales around the value of the Hubble parameter at the beginning of slow-roll inflation. Depending on the value of the equation of state parameter, different pre-inflationary epochs lead instead to an enhancement of power at low-l, and so seem disfavoured by recent observational hints for a lack of CMB power at l< or similar 40. We also comment on the importance of initial conditions and the possibility to have multiple pre-inflationary stages.

  20. Power-law modulation of the scalar power spectrum from a heavy field with a monomial potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing-Guo; Pi, Shi

    2018-04-01

    The effects of heavy fields modulate the scalar power spectrum during inflation. We analytically calculate the modulations of the scalar power spectrum from a heavy field with a separable monomial potential, i.e. V(phi)~ phin. In general the modulation is characterized by a power-law oscillation which is reduced to the logarithmic oscillation in the case of n=2.

  1. THE POWER SPECTRUM OF THE MILKY WAY: VELOCITY FLUCTUATIONS IN THE GALACTIC DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovy, Jo [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Bird, Jonathan C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Pérez, Ana E. García; Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Nidever, David L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 (United States); Zasowski, Gail, E-mail: bovy@ias.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    We investigate the kinematics of stars in the mid-plane of the Milky Way (MW) on scales between 25 pc and 10 kpc with data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE), and the Geneva-Copenhagen survey (GCS). Using red-clump (RC) stars in APOGEE, we determine the large-scale line-of-sight velocity field out to 5 kpc from the Sun in (0.75 kpc){sup 2} bins. The solar motion V{sub ☉} {sub –} {sub c} with respect to the circular velocity V{sub c} is the largest contribution to the power on large scales after subtracting an axisymmetric rotation field; we determine the solar motion by minimizing the large-scale power to be V{sub ☉} {sub –} {sub c} = 24 ± 1 (ran.) ± 2 (syst. [V{sub c} ]) ± 5 (syst.[large-scale]) km s{sup –1}, where the systematic uncertainty is due to (1) a conservative 20 km s{sup –1} uncertainty in V{sub c} and (2) the estimated power on unobserved larger scales. Combining the APOGEE peculiar-velocity field with RC stars in RAVE out to 2 kpc from the Sun and with local GCS stars, we determine the power spectrum of residual velocity fluctuations in the MW's disk on scales between 0.2 kpc{sup –1} ≤ k ≤ 40 kpc{sup –1}. Most of the power is contained in a broad peak between 0.2 kpc{sup –1} < k < 0.9 kpc{sup –1}. We investigate the expected power spectrum for various non-axisymmetric perturbations and demonstrate that the central bar with commonly used parameters but of relatively high mass can explain the bulk of velocity fluctuations in the plane of the Galactic disk near the Sun. Streaming motions ≈10 km s{sup –1} on ≳ 3 kpc scales in the MW are in good agreement with observations of external galaxies and directly explain why local determinations of the solar motion are inconsistent with global measurements.

  2. The Power Spectrum of the Milky Way: Velocity Fluctuations in the Galactic Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovy, Jo; Bird, Jonathan C.; García Pérez, Ana E.; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.; Zasowski, Gail

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the kinematics of stars in the mid-plane of the Milky Way (MW) on scales between 25 pc and 10 kpc with data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE), and the Geneva-Copenhagen survey (GCS). Using red-clump (RC) stars in APOGEE, we determine the large-scale line-of-sight velocity field out to 5 kpc from the Sun in (0.75 kpc)2 bins. The solar motion V ⊙ - c with respect to the circular velocity Vc is the largest contribution to the power on large scales after subtracting an axisymmetric rotation field; we determine the solar motion by minimizing the large-scale power to be V ⊙ - c = 24 ± 1 (ran.) ± 2 (syst. [Vc ]) ± 5 (syst.[large-scale]) km s-1, where the systematic uncertainty is due to (1) a conservative 20 km s-1 uncertainty in Vc and (2) the estimated power on unobserved larger scales. Combining the APOGEE peculiar-velocity field with RC stars in RAVE out to 2 kpc from the Sun and with local GCS stars, we determine the power spectrum of residual velocity fluctuations in the MW's disk on scales between 0.2 kpc-1 plane of the Galactic disk near the Sun. Streaming motions ≈10 km s-1 on >~ 3 kpc scales in the MW are in good agreement with observations of external galaxies and directly explain why local determinations of the solar motion are inconsistent with global measurements.

  3. Galaxy formation from annihilation-generated supersonic turbulence in the baryon-symmetric big-bang cosmology and the gamma ray background spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; Puget, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Following the big-bang baryon symmetric cosmology of Omnes, the redshift was calculated to be on the order of 500-600. It is show that, at these redshifts, annihilation pressure at the boundaries between regions of matter and antimatter drives large scale supersonic turbulence which can trigger galaxy formation. This picture is consistent with the gamma-ray background observations discussed previously. Gravitational binding of galaxies then occurs at a redshift of about 70, at which time vortical turbulent velocities of about 3 x 10 to the 7th power cm/s lead to angular momenta for galaxies comparable with measured values.

  4. Angular power spectrum in publically released ALICE events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Muñoz Martinez, Jose L.

    2018-02-01

    We study the particles emitted in the fireball following a Relativistic Heavy Ion Collision with the traditional angular analysis employed in cosmology and earth sciences, producing Mollweide plots of the number and pt distribution of a few actual, publically released ALICE-collaboration events and calculating their angular power spectrum. We also examine the angular spectrum of a simple two-particle correlation. While this may not be the optimal way of analyzing heavy ion data, our intention is to provide a one to one comparison to analysis in cosmology. With the limited statistics at hand, we do not find evidence for acoustic peaks but a decrease of Cl that is reminiscent of viscous attenuation, but subject to a strong effect from the rapidity acceptance which probably dominates (so we also subtract the m = 0 component). As an exercise, we still extract a characteristic Silk damping length (proportional to the square root of the viscosity over entropy density ratio) to illustrate the method. The absence of acoustic-like peaks is also compatible with a crossover from the QGP to the hadron gas (because a surface tension at domain boundaries would effect a restoring force that could have driven acoustic oscillations). Presently we do not understand a depression of the l = 6 multipole strength; perhaps ALICE could reexamine it with full statistics.

  5. CMB power spectrum at l=30-200 from QMASK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yongzhong; Tegmark, Max; de Oliveira-Costa, Angelica

    2002-01-01

    We measure the cosmic microwave background power spectrum on angular scales l∼30-200 (1 deg. -6 deg.) from the QMASK map, which combines the data from the QMAP and Saskatoon experiments. Since the accuracy of recent measurements leftward of the first acoustic peak is limited by sample variance, the large area of the QMASK map (648 square degrees) allows us to place among the sharpest constraints to date in this range, in good agreement with BOOMERanG and (on the largest scales) COBE-DMR. By band-pass filtering the QMAP and Saskatoon maps, we are able to spatially compare them scale by scale to check for beam- and pointing-related systematic errors

  6. Contribution of domain wall networks to the CMB power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazanu, A.; Martins, C.J.A.P.; Shellard, E.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    We use three domain wall simulations from the radiation era to the late-time dark energy domination era based on the PRS algorithm to calculate the energy–momentum tensor components of domain wall networks in an expanding universe. Unequal time correlators in the radiation, matter and cosmological constant epochs are calculated using the scaling regime of each of the simulations. The CMB power spectrum of a network of domain walls is determined. The first ever quantitative constraint for the domain wall surface tension is obtained using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method; an energy scale of domain walls of 0.93 MeV, which is close but below the Zel'dovich bound, is determined

  7. Contribution of domain wall networks to the CMB power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazanu, A., E-mail: A.Lazanu@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Martins, C.J.A.P., E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Shellard, E.P.S., E-mail: E.P.S.Shellard@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-30

    We use three domain wall simulations from the radiation era to the late-time dark energy domination era based on the PRS algorithm to calculate the energy–momentum tensor components of domain wall networks in an expanding universe. Unequal time correlators in the radiation, matter and cosmological constant epochs are calculated using the scaling regime of each of the simulations. The CMB power spectrum of a network of domain walls is determined. The first ever quantitative constraint for the domain wall surface tension is obtained using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method; an energy scale of domain walls of 0.93 MeV, which is close but below the Zel'dovich bound, is determined.

  8. Contribution of domain wall networks to the CMB power spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lazanu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We use three domain wall simulations from the radiation era to the late-time dark energy domination era based on the PRS algorithm to calculate the energy–momentum tensor components of domain wall networks in an expanding universe. Unequal time correlators in the radiation, matter and cosmological constant epochs are calculated using the scaling regime of each of the simulations. The CMB power spectrum of a network of domain walls is determined. The first ever quantitative constraint for the domain wall surface tension is obtained using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method; an energy scale of domain walls of 0.93 MeV, which is close but below the Zel'dovich bound, is determined.

  9. ON THE CLUSTER PHYSICS OF SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH AND X-RAY SURVEYS. II. DECONSTRUCTING THE THERMAL SZ POWER SPECTRUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, N.; Bond, J. R.; Pfrommer, C.; Sievers, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are a treasure-trove of cosmological information. Interpreting current experiments probing them are limited by theoretical uncertainties rather than by measurement errors. Here we focus on the secondary anisotropies resulting from the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect; the amplitude of which depends critically on the average thermal pressure profile of galaxy groups and clusters. To this end, we use a suite of hydrodynamical TreePM-SPH simulations that include radiative cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, and energetic feedback from active galactic nuclei. We examine in detail how the pressure profile depends on cluster radius, mass, and redshift and provide an empirical fitting function. We employ three different approaches for calculating the tSZ power spectrum: an analytical approach that uses our pressure profile fit, a semianalytical method of pasting our pressure fit onto simulated clusters, and a direct numerical integration of our simulated volumes. We demonstrate that the detailed structure of the intracluster medium and cosmic web affect the tSZ power spectrum. In particular, the substructure and asphericity of clusters increase the tSZ power spectrum by 10%-20% at l ∼ 2000-8000, with most of the additional power being contributed by substructures. The contributions to the power spectrum from radii larger than R 500 is ∼20% at l = 3000, thus clusters interiors (r 500 ) dominate the power spectrum amplitude at these angular scales.

  10. ON THE CLUSTER PHYSICS OF SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH AND X-RAY SURVEYS. II. DECONSTRUCTING THE THERMAL SZ POWER SPECTRUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St George, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Bond, J. R.; Pfrommer, C.; Sievers, J. L. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St George, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2012-10-20

    Secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are a treasure-trove of cosmological information. Interpreting current experiments probing them are limited by theoretical uncertainties rather than by measurement errors. Here we focus on the secondary anisotropies resulting from the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect; the amplitude of which depends critically on the average thermal pressure profile of galaxy groups and clusters. To this end, we use a suite of hydrodynamical TreePM-SPH simulations that include radiative cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, and energetic feedback from active galactic nuclei. We examine in detail how the pressure profile depends on cluster radius, mass, and redshift and provide an empirical fitting function. We employ three different approaches for calculating the tSZ power spectrum: an analytical approach that uses our pressure profile fit, a semianalytical method of pasting our pressure fit onto simulated clusters, and a direct numerical integration of our simulated volumes. We demonstrate that the detailed structure of the intracluster medium and cosmic web affect the tSZ power spectrum. In particular, the substructure and asphericity of clusters increase the tSZ power spectrum by 10%-20% at l {approx} 2000-8000, with most of the additional power being contributed by substructures. The contributions to the power spectrum from radii larger than R {sub 500} is {approx}20% at l = 3000, thus clusters interiors (r < R {sub 500}) dominate the power spectrum amplitude at these angular scales.

  11. High-z objects and cold dark matter cosmogonies - Constraints on the primordial power spectrum on small scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    Modified cold dark matter (CDM) models were recently suggested to account for large-scale optical data, which fix the power spectrum on large scales, and the COBE results, which would then fix the bias parameter, b. We point out that all such models have deficit of small-scale power where density fluctuations are presently nonlinear, and should then lead to late epochs of collapse of scales M between 10 exp 9 - 10 exp 10 solar masses and (1-5) x 10 exp 14 solar masses. We compute the probabilities and comoving space densities of various scale objects at high redshifts according to the CDM models and compare these with observations of high-z QSOs, high-z galaxies and the protocluster-size object found recently by Uson et al. (1992) at z = 3.4. We show that the modified CDM models are inconsistent with the observational data on these objects. We thus suggest that in order to account for the high-z objects, as well as the large-scale and COBE data, one needs a power spectrum with more power on small scales than CDM models allow and an open universe.

  12. Reheating effects in the matter power spectrum and implications for substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Sigurdson, Kris

    2011-01-01

    The thermal and expansion history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis is unknown. We investigate the evolution of cosmological perturbations through the transition from an early matter era to radiation domination. We treat reheating as the perturbative decay of an oscillating scalar field into relativistic plasma and cold dark matter. After reheating, we find that subhorizon perturbations in the decay-produced dark matter density are significantly enhanced, while subhorizon radiation perturbations are instead suppressed. If dark matter originates in the radiation bath after reheating, this suppression may be the primary cutoff in the matter power spectrum. Conversely, for dark matter produced nonthermally from scalar decay, enhanced perturbations can drive structure formation during the cosmic dark ages and dramatically increase the abundance of compact substructures. For low reheat temperatures, we find that as much as 50% of all dark matter is in microhalos with M > or approx. 0.1M + at z≅100, compared to a fraction of ∼10 -10 in the standard case. In this scenario, ultradense substructures may constitute a large fraction of dark matter in galaxies today.

  13. What next-generation 21 cm power spectrum measurements can teach us about the epoch of reionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Morales, Miguel F.; Liu, Adrian; McQuinn, Matthew; Parsons, Aaron R.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Tegmark, Max; Aguirre, James E.; Bowman, Judd D.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; DeBoer, David R.; Werthimer, Dan J.

    2014-01-01

    A number of experiments are currently working toward a measurement of the 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization (EoR). Whether or not these experiments deliver a detection of cosmological emission, their limited sensitivity will prevent them from providing detailed information about the astrophysics of reionization. In this work, we consider what types of measurements will be enabled by the next generation of larger 21 cm EoR telescopes. To calculate the type of constraints that will be possible with such arrays, we use simple models for the instrument, foreground emission, and the reionization history. We focus primarily on an instrument modeled after the ∼0.1 km 2 collecting area Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array concept design and parameterize the uncertainties with regard to foreground emission by considering different limits to the recently described 'wedge' footprint in k space. Uncertainties in the reionization history are accounted for using a series of simulations that vary the ionizing efficiency and minimum virial temperature of the galaxies responsible for reionization, as well as the mean free path of ionizing photons through the intergalactic medium. Given various combinations of models, we consider the significance of the possible power spectrum detections, the ability to trace the power spectrum evolution versus redshift, the detectability of salient power spectrum features, and the achievable level of quantitative constraints on astrophysical parameters. Ultimately, we find that 0.1 km 2 of collecting area is enough to ensure a very high significance (≳ 30σ) detection of the reionization power spectrum in even the most pessimistic scenarios. This sensitivity should allow for meaningful constraints on the reionization history and astrophysical parameters, especially if foreground subtraction techniques can be improved and successfully implemented.

  14. Implementation of 252Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yong; Wei Biao; Feng Peng; Li Jiansheng; Ye Cenming

    2012-01-01

    The principle of 252 Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement method is introduced. A measurement system and platform is realized accordingly, which is a combination of hardware and software, for measuring nuclear parameters. The detection method of neutron pulses based on an ultra-high-speed data acquisition card (three channels, 1 GHz sampling rate, 1 ns synchronization) is described, and the data processing process and the power spectrum density algorithm on PC are designed. This 252 Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement system can effectively obtain the nuclear tag parameters of nuclear random processes, such as correlation function and power spectrum density. (authors)

  15. REJUVENATING THE MATTER POWER SPECTRUM: RESTORING INFORMATION WITH A LOGARITHMIC DENSITY MAPPING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, Istvan

    2009-01-01

    We find that nonlinearities in the dark matter power spectrum are dramatically smaller if the density field first undergoes a logarithmic mapping. In the Millennium simulation, this procedure gives a power spectrum with a shape hardly departing from the linear power spectrum for k ∼ -1 at all redshifts. Also, this procedure unveils pristine Fisher information on a range of scales reaching a factor of 2-3 smaller than in the standard power spectrum, yielding 10 times more cumulative signal to noise at z = 0.

  16. X-ray Emitting GHz-Peaked Spectrum Galaxies: Testing a Dynamical-Radiative Model with Broad-Band Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostorero, L.; Moderski, R.; Stawarz, L.; Diaferio, A.; Kowalska, I.; Cheung, C.C.; Kataoka, J.; Begelman, M.C.; Wagner, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    In a dynamical-radiative model we recently developed to describe the physics of compact, GHz-Peaked-Spectrum (GPS) sources, the relativistic jets propagate across the inner, kpc-sized region of the host galaxy, while the electron population of the expanding lobes evolves and emits synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiation. Interstellar-medium gas clouds engulfed by the expanding lobes, and photoionized by the active nucleus, are responsible for the radio spectral turnover through free-free absorption (FFA) of the synchrotron photons. The model provides a description of the evolution of the GPS spectral energy distribution (SED) with the source expansion, predicting significant and complex high-energy emission, from the X-ray to the γ-ray frequency domain. Here, we test this model with the broad-band SEDs of a sample of eleven X-ray emitting GPS galaxies with Compact-Symmetric-Object (CSO) morphology, and show that: (i) the shape of the radio continuum at frequencies lower than the spectral turnover is indeed well accounted for by the FFA mechanism; (ii) the observed X-ray spectra can be interpreted as non-thermal radiation produced via IC scattering of the local radiation fields off the lobe particles, providing a viable alternative to the thermal, accretion-disk dominated scenario. We also show that the relation between the hydrogen column densities derived from the X-ray (N H ) and radio (N HI ) data of the sources is suggestive of a positive correlation, which, if confirmed by future observations, would provide further support to our scenario of high-energy emitting lobes.

  17. Time-dependent spectrum analysis of high power gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an investigation of vacuum electronic oscillators capable of generating multi-megawatt continuous wave output power in the millimeter-wave range (so-called gyrotrons) through spectral measurements is presented. The centerpiece is the development of a measurement system with a high dynamic range (50-60 dB) for time-dependent spectrum analysis, covering the frequency range 100-170 GHz with instantaneous bandwidths of 6-12 GHz. Despite relying on heterodyne reception through harmonic mixers, the Pulse Spectrum Analysis (PSA) system maintains RF unambiguity in the spectrogram output through the application of a novel RF reconstruction technique. Using the new possibilities, a wide range of spectral phenomena in gyrotrons has been investigated, such as cavity mode jumps, lowfrequency modulation, frequency tuning in long pulses and the spectral behavior during the presence of an RF window arc. A dedicated investigation on parasitic RF oscillations in W7-X gyrotrons combining several analysis techniques led to the conclusion that after-cavity oscillations can be physical reality in high power gyrotrons, and are the probable cause for the undesired signals observed. Apart from systematic parameter sweeps using the PSA system, an analytical dispersion analysis in the Brillouin diagram was applied, and numerical gyrotron interaction simulations of unprecedented extent were conducted. Furthermore, the improved frequency measurement capabilities were employed to analyze the frequency tuning through thermal expansion and electrostatic neutralization caused by ionization inside the tube in long-pulse operation. By macroscopically modeling the gas dynamics and ionization processes in combination with a fitting process, the time dependences of the two processes could be investigated. In doing so, indication was found that the neutralization in W7-X gyrotrons amounts to only 60% of the electrostatic depression voltage, instead of 100% as widely believed for

  18. Time-dependent spectrum analysis of high power gyrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaich, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    In this work, an investigation of vacuum electronic oscillators capable of generating multi-megawatt continuous wave output power in the millimeter-wave range (so-called gyrotrons) through spectral measurements is presented. The centerpiece is the development of a measurement system with a high dynamic range (50-60 dB) for time-dependent spectrum analysis, covering the frequency range 100-170 GHz with instantaneous bandwidths of 6-12 GHz. Despite relying on heterodyne reception through harmonic mixers, the Pulse Spectrum Analysis (PSA) system maintains RF unambiguity in the spectrogram output through the application of a novel RF reconstruction technique. Using the new possibilities, a wide range of spectral phenomena in gyrotrons has been investigated, such as cavity mode jumps, lowfrequency modulation, frequency tuning in long pulses and the spectral behavior during the presence of an RF window arc. A dedicated investigation on parasitic RF oscillations in W7-X gyrotrons combining several analysis techniques led to the conclusion that after-cavity oscillations can be physical reality in high power gyrotrons, and are the probable cause for the undesired signals observed. Apart from systematic parameter sweeps using the PSA system, an analytical dispersion analysis in the Brillouin diagram was applied, and numerical gyrotron interaction simulations of unprecedented extent were conducted. Furthermore, the improved frequency measurement capabilities were employed to analyze the frequency tuning through thermal expansion and electrostatic neutralization caused by ionization inside the tube in long-pulse operation. By macroscopically modeling the gas dynamics and ionization processes in combination with a fitting process, the time dependences of the two processes could be investigated. In doing so, indication was found that the neutralization in W7-X gyrotrons amounts to only 60% of the electrostatic depression voltage, instead of 100% as widely believed for

  19. On minimally parametric primordial power spectrum reconstruction and the evidence for a red tilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, Licia; Peiris, Hiranya

    2008-01-01

    The latest cosmological data seem to indicate a significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum when parameterized either by a power law or by a spectral index with non-zero 'running'. This deviation, by itself, serves as a powerful tool for discriminating among theories for the origin of cosmological structures such as inflationary models. Here, we use a minimally parametric smoothing spline technique to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum. This technique is well suited to searching for smooth features in the primordial power spectrum such as deviations from scale invariance or a running spectral index, although it would recover sharp features of high statistical significance. We use the WMAP three-year results in combination with data from a suite of higher resolution cosmic microwave background experiments (including the latest ACBAR 2008 release), as well as large-scale structure data from SDSS and 2dFGRS. We employ cross-validation to assess, using the data themselves, the optimal amount of smoothness in the primordial power spectrum consistent with the data. This minimally parametric reconstruction supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt, but not for deviations from a power law power spectrum. Smooth variations in the primordial power spectrum are not significantly degenerate with the other cosmological parameters

  20. The Mira-Titan Universe. II. Matter Power Spectrum Emulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Earl; Heitmann, Katrin; Kwan, Juliana; Upadhye, Amol; Bingham, Derek; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David; Pope, Adrian; Finkel, Hal; Frontiere, Nicholas

    2017-09-20

    We introduce a new cosmic emulator for the matter power spectrum covering eight cosmological parameters. Targeted at optical surveys, the emulator provides accurate predictions out to a wavenumber k similar to 5 Mpc(-1) and redshift z <= 2. In addition to covering the standard set of Lambda CDM parameters, massive neutrinos and a dynamical dark energy of state are included. The emulator is built on a sample set of 36 cosmological models, carefully chosen to provide accurate predictions over the wide and large parameter space. For each model, we have performed a high-resolution simulation, augmented with 16 medium-resolution simulations and TimeRG perturbation theory results to provide accurate coverage over a wide k-range; the data set generated as part of this project is more than 1.2Pbytes. With the current set of simulated models, we achieve an accuracy of approximately 4%. Because the sampling approach used here has established convergence and error-control properties, follow-up results with more than a hundred cosmological models will soon achieve similar to 1% accuracy. We compare our approach with other prediction schemes that are based on halo model ideas and remapping approaches.

  1. Orbits in elementary, power-law galaxy bars - 1. Occurrence and role of single loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Curtis

    2018-05-01

    Orbits in galaxy bars are generally complex, but simple closed loop orbits play an important role in our conceptual understanding of bars. Such orbits are found in some well-studied potentials, provide a simple model of the bar in themselves, and may generate complex orbit families. The precessing, power ellipse (p-ellipse) orbit approximation provides accurate analytic orbit fits in symmetric galaxy potentials. It remains useful for finding and fitting simple loop orbits in the frame of a rotating bar with bar-like and symmetric power-law potentials. Second-order perturbation theory yields two or fewer simple loop solutions in these potentials. Numerical integrations in the parameter space neighbourhood of perturbation solutions reveal zero or one actual loops in a range of such potentials with rising rotation curves. These loops are embedded in a small parameter region of similar, but librating orbits, which have a subharmonic frequency superimposed on the basic loop. These loops and their librating companions support annular bars. Solid bars can be produced in more complex potentials, as shown by an example with power-law indices varying with radius. The power-law potentials can be viewed as the elementary constituents of more complex potentials. Numerical integrations also reveal interesting classes of orbits with multiple loops. In two-dimensional, self-gravitating bars, with power-law potentials, single-loop orbits are very rare. This result suggests that gas bars or oval distortions are unlikely to be long-lived, and that complex orbits or three-dimensional structure must support self-gravitating stellar bars.

  2. [Restoration filtering based on projection power spectrum for single-photon emission computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, N

    1995-04-01

    To improve the quality of single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images, a restoration filter has been developed. This filter was designed according to practical "least squares filter" theory. It is necessary to know the object power spectrum and the noise power spectrum. The power spectrum is estimated from the power spectrum of a projection, when the high-frequency power spectrum of a projection is adequately approximated as a polynomial exponential expression. A study of the restoration with the filter based on a projection power spectrum was conducted, and compared with that of the "Butterworth" filtering method (cut-off frequency of 0.15 cycles/pixel), and "Wiener" filtering (signal-to-noise power spectrum ratio was a constant). Normalized mean-squared errors (NMSE) of the phantom, two line sources located in a 99mTc filled cylinder, were used. NMSE of the "Butterworth" filter, "Wiener" filter, and filtering based on a power spectrum were 0.77, 0.83, and 0.76 respectively. Clinically, brain SPECT images utilizing this new restoration filter improved the contrast. Thus, this filter may be useful in diagnosis of SPECT images.

  3. Restoration filtering based on projection power spectrum for single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Naoki

    1995-01-01

    To improve the quality of single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images, a restoration filter has been developed. This filter was designed according to practical 'least squares filter' theory. It is necessary to know the object power spectrum and the noise power spectrum. The power spectrum is estimated from the power spectrum of a projection, when the high-frequency power spectrum of a projection is adequately approximated as a polynomial exponential expression. A study of the restoration with the filter based on a projection power spectrum was conducted, and compared with that of the 'Butterworth' filtering method (cut-off frequency of 0.15 cycles/pixel), and 'Wiener' filtering (signal-to-noise power spectrum ratio was a constant). Normalized mean-squared errors (NMSE) of the phantom, two line sources located in a 99m Tc filled cylinder, were used. NMSE of the 'Butterworth' filter, 'Wiener' filter, and filtering based on a power spectrum were 0.77, 0.83, and 0.76 respectively. Clinically, brain SPECT images utilizing this new restoration filter improved the contrast. Thus, this filter may be useful in diagnosis of SPECT images. (author)

  4. The Metal-Enriched Environments of Galaxies Near Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, George

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between galaxies and extended metal-enriched gas offers a powerful diagnostic of the feedback processes that shape galaxy growth. Over 0 6; to date, however, little work on the galaxy-absorber connection at these redshifts has been done due to the high cost of identifying the galaxies. To overcome this obstacle, we propose to obtain deep ACS and WFC3 imaging-building on archival data-in the field of a single z=7 quasar whose spectrum contains an unusually high number of intervening absorbers over 5.5 systems systems simultaneously, offering a high multiplexing advantage for follow-up spectroscopy. The extent to which z 6 galaxies are (or are not) associated with these metal lines, and the relationship between absorber and galaxy properties will deliver much needed insights into the mechanisms that drive galaxy growth and metal enrichment during the reionization epoch.

  5. The quick convolution of galaxy profiles, with application to power-law intensity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.E.; Sparks, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The two-dimensional convolution of a circularly symmetric galaxy model with a Gaussian point-spread function of dispersion σ reduces to a single integral. This is solved analytically for models with power-law intensity distributions and results are given which relate the apparent core radius to σ and the power-law index k. The convolution integral is also simplified for the case of a point-spread function corresponding to a circular aperture. Models of galactic nuclei with stellar density cusps can only be distinguished from alternatives with small core radii if both the brightness and seeing profiles are measured accurately. The results are applied to data on the light distribution at the Galactic Centre. (author)

  6. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: A Measurement of the 600 less than l less than 8000 Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum at 148 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, J. W.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Barrientos, L. F.; Bassistelli, E. S.; Bond, J. R.; Brown, B.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation observed at 148 GHz. The measurement uses maps with 1.4' angular resolution made with data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The observations cover 228 deg(sup 2) of the southern sky, in a 4 deg. 2-wide strip centered on declination 53 deg. South. The CMB at arc minute angular scales is particularly sensitive to the Silk damping scale, to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect from galaxy dusters, and to emission by radio sources and dusty galaxies. After masking the 108 brightest point sources in our maps, we estimate the power spectrum between 600 less than l less than 8000 using the adaptive multi-taper method to minimize spectral leakage and maximize use of the full data set. Our absolute calibration is based on observations of Uranus. To verify the calibration and test the fidelity of our map at large angular scales, we cross-correlate the ACT map to the WMAP map and recover the WMAP power spectrum from 250 less than l less than 1150. The power beyond the Silk damping tail of the CMB (l approximately 5000) is consistent with models of the emission from point sources. We quantify the contribution of SZ clusters to the power spectrum by fitting to a model normalized to sigma 8 = 0.8. We constrain the model's amplitude A(sub sz) less than 1.63 (95% CL). If interpreted as a measurement of as, this implies sigma (sup SZ) (sub 8) less than 0.86 (95% CL) given our SZ model. A fit of ACT and WMAP five-year data jointly to a 6-parameter ACDM model plus point sources and the SZ effect is consistent with these results.

  7. Power spectrum scale invariance identifies prefrontal dysregulation in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Anca R; Rubin, Denis; Strey, Helmut H; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2012-07-01

    Theory and experimental evidence suggest that complex living systems function close to the boundary of chaos, with erroneous organization to an improper dynamical range (too stiff or chaotic) underlying system-wide dysregulation and disease. We hypothesized that erroneous organization might therefore also characterize paranoid schizophrenia, via optimization abnormalities in the prefrontal-limbic circuit regulating emotion. To test this, we acquired fMRI scans from 35 subjects (N = 9 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and N = 26 healthy controls), while they viewed affect-valent stimuli. To quantify dynamic regulation, we analyzed the power spectrum scale invariance (PSSI) of fMRI time-courses and computed the geometry of time-delay (Poincaré) maps, a measure of variability. Patients and controls showed distinct PSSI in two clusters (k(1) : Z = 4.3215, P = 0.00002 and k(2) : Z = 3.9441, P = 0.00008), localized to the orbitofrontal/medial prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 10), represented by β close to white noise in patients (β ≈ 0) and in the pink noise range in controls (β ≈ -1). Interpreting the meaning of PSSI differences, the Poincaré maps indicated less variability in patients than controls (Z = -1.9437, P = 0.05 for k(1) ; Z = -2.5099, P = 0.01 for k(2) ). That the dynamics identified Brodmann Area 10 is consistent with previous schizophrenia research, which implicates this area in deficits of working memory, executive functioning, emotional regulation and underlying biological abnormalities in synaptic (glutamatergic) transmission. Our results additionally cohere with a large body of work finding pink noise to be the normal range of central function at the synaptic, cellular, and small network levels, and suggest that patients show less supple responsivity of this region. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Impacts of satellite galaxies on the redshift-space distortions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikage, Chiaki [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuhiro, E-mail: hikage@kmi.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kazuhiro@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-hiroshima, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, 739-8526 (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    We study the impacts of the satellite galaxies on the redshift-space distortions. In our multipole power spectrum analysis of the luminous red galaxies (LRGs) samples of the Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS), we have clearly detected the non-zero signature of the hexadecapole and tetrahexadecapole spectrum, which almost disappears in the power spectrum with the sample of the brightest LRGs only. We thus demonstrate that the satellite LRGs in multiple systems make a significant contribution to the multipole power spectrum though its fraction is small. The behavior can be understood by a simple halo model, in which the one-halo term, describing the Finger of God (FoG) effect from the satellite galaxies, makes the dominant contribution to the higher multipole spectra. We demonstrate that the small-scale information of higher multipole spectrum is useful for calibrating the satellite FoG effect and improves the measurement of the cosmic growth rate dramatically. We further demonstrate that the fiber collision in the galaxy survey influences the one-halo term and the higher multipole spectra, because the number of satellite galaxies in the halo occupation distribution (HOD) is changed. We also discuss about the impact of satellite galaxies on future high-redshift surveys targeting the H-alpha emitters.

  9. The coyote universe extended: Precision emulation of the matter power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitmann, Katrin; Kwan, Juliana; Habib, Salman; Lawrence, Earl; Higdon, David

    2014-01-01

    Modern sky surveys are returning precision measurements of cosmological statistics such as weak lensing shear correlations, the distribution of galaxies, and cluster abundance. To fully exploit these observations, theorists must provide predictions that are at least as accurate as the measurements, as well as robust estimates of systematic errors that are inherent to the modeling process. In the nonlinear regime of structure formation, this challenge can only be overcome by developing a large-scale, multi-physics simulation capability covering a range of cosmological models and astrophysical processes. As a first step to achieving this goal, we have recently developed a prediction scheme for the matter power spectrum (a so-called emulator), accurate at the 1% level out to k ∼ 1 Mpc –1 and z = 1 for wCDM cosmologies based on a set of high-accuracy N-body simulations. It is highly desirable to increase the range in both redshift and wavenumber and to extend the reach in cosmological parameter space. To make progress in this direction, while minimizing computational cost, we present a strategy that maximally reuses the original simulations. We demonstrate improvement over the original spatial dynamic range by an order of magnitude, reaching k ∼ 10 h Mpc –1 , a four-fold increase in redshift coverage, to z = 4, and now include the Hubble parameter as a new independent variable. To further the range in k and z, a new set of nested simulations run at modest cost is added to the original set. The extension in h is performed by including perturbation theory results within a multi-scale procedure for building the emulator. This economical methodology still gives excellent error control, ∼5% near the edges of the domain of applicability of the emulator. A public domain code for the new emulator is released as part of the work presented in this paper.

  10. Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum.......The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum....

  11. Application of power spectrum, cepstrum, higher order spectrum and neural network analyses for induction motor fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, B.; Iwnicki, S. D.; Zhao, Y.

    2013-08-01

    The power spectrum is defined as the square of the magnitude of the Fourier transform (FT) of a signal. The advantage of FT analysis is that it allows the decomposition of a signal into individual periodic frequency components and establishes the relative intensity of each component. It is the most commonly used signal processing technique today. If the same principle is applied for the detection of periodicity components in a Fourier spectrum, the process is called the cepstrum analysis. Cepstrum analysis is a very useful tool for detection families of harmonics with uniform spacing or the families of sidebands commonly found in gearbox, bearing and engine vibration fault spectra. Higher order spectra (HOS) (also known as polyspectra) consist of higher order moment of spectra which are able to detect non-linear interactions between frequency components. For HOS, the most commonly used is the bispectrum. The bispectrum is the third-order frequency domain measure, which contains information that standard power spectral analysis techniques cannot provide. It is well known that neural networks can represent complex non-linear relationships, and therefore they are extremely useful for fault identification and classification. This paper presents an application of power spectrum, cepstrum, bispectrum and neural network for fault pattern extraction of induction motors. The potential for using the power spectrum, cepstrum, bispectrum and neural network as a means for differentiating between healthy and faulty induction motor operation is examined. A series of experiments is done and the advantages and disadvantages between them are discussed. It has been found that a combination of power spectrum, cepstrum and bispectrum plus neural network analyses could be a very useful tool for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of induction motors.

  12. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    helium as "heavy elements". [2] By carefully splitting up the faint light coming from a galaxy into its component colours using powerful telescopes and spectrographs, astronomers can identify the fingerprints of different chemicals in remote galaxies, and measure the amounts of heavy elements present. With the SINFONI instrument on the VLT astronomers can go one better and get a separate spectrum for each part of an object. This allows them to make a map that shows the quantity of heavy elements present in different parts of a galaxy and also determine where in the galaxy star formation is occurring most vigorously. More information This research was presented in a paper, Gas accretion in distant galaxies as the origin of chemical abundance gradients, by Cresci et al., to appear in Nature on 14 October 2010. The team is composed of G. Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Italy), F. Mannucci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Italy), R. Maiolino (INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Italy), A. Marconi (Universitá di Firenze, Italy), A. Gnerucci (Universitá di Firenze, Italy) and L. Magrini (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Italy). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible

  13. A TWO-COMPONENT POWER LAW COVERING NEARLY FOUR ORDERS OF MAGNITUDE IN THE POWER SPECTRUM OF SPITZER FAR-INFRARED EMISSION FROM THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, David L.; Puerari, Ivanio; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Bournaud, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Power spectra of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) emission at 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope have a two-component power-law structure with a shallow slope of -1.6 at low wavenumber, k, and a steep slope of -2.9 at high k. The break occurs at k -1 ∼ 100-200 pc, which is interpreted as the line-of-sight thickness of the LMC disk. The slopes are slightly steeper for longer wavelengths, suggesting the cooler dust emission is smoother than the hot emission. The power spectrum (PS) covers ∼3.5 orders of magnitude, and the break in the slope is in the middle of this range on a logarithmic scale. Large-scale driving from galactic and extragalactic processes, including disk self-gravity, spiral waves, and bars, presumably causes the low-k structure in what is effectively a two-dimensional geometry. Small-scale driving from stellar processes and shocks causes the high-k structure in a three-dimensional geometry. This transition in dimensionality corresponds to the observed change in PS slope. A companion paper models the observed power law with a self-gravitating hydrodynamics simulation of a galaxy like the LMC.

  14. Contribution of parsec-scale material onto the polarized X-ray spectrum of type-1 Seyfert galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, F.; Dovčiak, M.; Kammoun, E. S.

    2018-04-01

    Type-1 radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN) are seen from the polar direction and offer a direct view of their central X-ray engine. If most of X-ray photons have traveled from the primary source to the observer with minimum light-matter interaction, a fraction of radiation is emitted at different directions and is reprocessed by the parsec-scale equatorial circumnuclear region or the polar outflows. It is still unclear how much the polarization expected from type-1 AGN is affected by radiation that have scattered on the distant AGN components. In this paper, we examine the contribution of remote material onto the polarized X-ray spectrum of type-1 Seyfert galaxies using radiative transfer Monte Carlo codes. We find that the observed X-ray polarization strongly depends on the initial polarization emerging from the disk-corona system. For unpolarized and parallelly polarized photons (parallel to the disk), the contribution is negligible below 3 keV and tends to increase the polarization degree by up to one percentage points at higher energies, smoothing out the energy-dependent variations of the polarization angle. For perpendicularly polarized corona photons, the addition of the circumnuclear scattered (parallel) component adds to the polarization above 10keV, decreases polarization below 10 keV and shifts the expected 90° rotation of the polarization angle to lower energies. In conclusion, we found that simulations of Seyfert-1s that do not account for reprocessing on the parsec-scale equatorial and polar material are under- or over-estimating the X-ray polarization by 0.1 - 1 percentage points.

  15. PROBING THE INFLATON: SMALL-SCALE POWER SPECTRUM CONSTRAINTS FROM MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ENERGY SPECTRUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chluba, Jens; Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Ben-Dayan, Ido

    2012-01-01

    In the early universe, energy stored in small-scale density perturbations is quickly dissipated by Silk damping, a process that inevitably generates μ- and y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These spectral distortions depend on the shape and amplitude of the primordial power spectrum at wavenumbers k ∼ 4 Mpc –1 . Here, we study constraints on the primordial power spectrum derived from COBE/FIRAS and forecasted for PIXIE. We show that measurements of μ and y impose strong bounds on the integrated small-scale power, and we demonstrate how to compute these constraints using k-space window functions that account for the effects of thermalization and dissipation physics. We show that COBE/FIRAS places a robust upper limit on the amplitude of the small-scale power spectrum. This limit is about three orders of magnitude stronger than the one derived from primordial black holes in the same scale range. Furthermore, this limit could be improved by another three orders of magnitude with PIXIE, potentially opening up a new window to early universe physics. To illustrate the power of these constraints, we consider several generic models for the small-scale power spectrum predicted by different inflation scenarios, including running-mass inflation models and inflation scenarios with episodes of particle production. PIXIE could place very tight constraints on these scenarios, potentially even ruling out running-mass inflation models if no distortion is detected. We also show that inflation models with sub-Planckian field excursion that generate detectable tensor perturbations should simultaneously produce a large CMB spectral distortion, a link that could potentially be established with PIXIE.

  16. Classical and modern power spectrum estimation for tune measurement in CSNS RCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoyu; Xu Taoguang; Fu Shinian; Zeng Lei; Bian Xiaojuan

    2013-01-01

    Precise measurement of betatron tune is required for good operating condition of CSNS RCS. The fractional part of betatron tune is important and it can be measured by analyzing the signals of beam position from the appointed BPM. Usually these signals are contaminated during the acquisition process, therefore several power spectrum methods are used to improve the frequency resolution. In this article classical and modern power spectrum methods are used. In order to compare their performance, the results of simulation data and IQT data from J-PARC RCS are discussed. It is shown that modern power spectrum estimation has better performance than the classical ones, though the calculation is more complex. (authors)

  17. Galaxy-galaxy weak gravitational lensing in f(R) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baojiu; Shirasaki, Masato

    2018-03-01

    We present an analysis of galaxy-galaxy weak gravitational lensing (GGL) in chameleon f(R) gravity - a leading candidate of non-standard gravity models. For the analysis, we have created mock galaxy catalogues based on dark matter haloes from two sets of numerical simulations, using a halo occupation distribution (HOD) prescription which allows a redshift dependence of galaxy number density. To make a fairer comparison between the f(R) and Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) models, their HOD parameters are tuned so that the galaxy two-point correlation functions in real space (and therefore the projected two-point correlation functions) match. While the f(R) model predicts an enhancement of the convergence power spectrum by up to ˜ 30 per cent compared to the standard ΛCDM model with the same parameters, the maximum enhancement of GGL is only half as large and less than 5 per cent on separations above ˜1-2 h-1 Mpc, because the latter is a cross-correlation of shear (or matter, which is more strongly affected by modified gravity) and galaxy (which is weakly affected given the good match between galaxy autocorrelations in the two models) fields. We also study the possibility of reconstructing the matter power spectrum by combination of GGL and galaxy clustering in f(R) gravity. We find that the galaxy-matter cross-correlation coefficient remains at unity down to ˜2-3 h-1 Mpc at relevant redshifts even in f(R) gravity, indicating joint analysis of GGL and galaxy clustering can be a powerful probe of matter density fluctuations in chameleon gravity. The scale dependence of the model differences in their predictions of GGL can potentially allows us to break the degeneracy between f(R) gravity and other cosmological parameters such as Ωm and σ8.

  18. The discovery of an O VII emission line in the ASCA spectrum of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3783

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, I. M.; Turner, T. J.; Netzer, H.

    1995-01-01

    We report the first observation of an O VII 0.57 keV emission line in a Seyfert 1 galaxy. NGC 3783 was observed by ASCA twice over a period of 4 days in 1993 December. The source exhibited a approximately 30% change in intensity between the two observations, with most of the variability taking place as a result of steepening of the continuum less than or approximately equal to 1 keV. Spectra from both observations show intense absorption features in the 0.5-1.5 keV band, which can be well fitted by an ionized absorber model of solar composition, column density of 10(exp 22.2)/sq cm and ionization parameter of approximately 7-8; the strongest absorption features being due to O VII and O VIII. Two emission features are also seen in the spectra which we identify as O VII 0.57 keV (equivalent width approximately equals 36 eV) and O VIII 0.65 keV (equivalent width approximately equals 11 eV). We also show that the 3-6 keV continuum of the source is well fitted by a Gamma = 1.3-1.4 power-law continuum, a narrow neutral iron K-shell fluorescence line and a strong iron K-shell absorption edge, possibly corresponding to highly ionized iron.

  19. Increased power of resting-state gamma oscillations in autism spectrum disorder detected by routine electroencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diessen, Eric; Senders, Joeky; Jansen, Floor E.; Boersma, Maria; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies suggest that increased resting-state power of gamma oscillations is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To extend the clinical applicability of this finding, we retrospectively investigated routine electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of 19 patients with ASD and

  20. Spatial correlation in 3D MIMO channels using fourier coefficients of power spectrums

    KAUST Repository

    Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain; Kammoun, Abla; Debbah, Mé rouane; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    for arbitrary angular distributions and antenna patterns. The resulting expression depends on the underlying angular distributions and antenna patterns through the Fourier Series (FS) coefficients of power azimuth and elevation spectrums. The novelty

  1. Adiabatic regularization of the power spectrum in nonminimally coupled general single-field inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinea, Allan L.; Kubota, Takahiro

    2018-03-01

    We perform adiabatic regularization of power spectrum in nonminimally coupled general single-field inflation with varying speed of sound. The subtraction is performed within the framework of earlier study by Urakawa and Starobinsky dealing with the canonical inflation. Inspired by Fakir and Unruh's model on nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation, we find upon imposing near scale-invariant condition, that the subtraction term exponentially decays with the number of e -folds. As in the result for the canonical inflation, the regularized power spectrum tends to the "bare" power spectrum as the Universe expands during (and even after) inflation. This work justifies the use of the "bare" power spectrum in standard calculation in the most general context of slow-roll single-field inflation involving nonminimal coupling and varying speed of sound.

  2. Wind tunnel study of the power output spectrum in a micro wind farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossuyt, Juliaan; Meyers, Johan; Howland, Michael F.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Instrumented small-scale porous disk models are used to study the spectrum of a surrogate for the power output in a micro wind farm with 100 models of wind turbines. The power spectra of individual porous disk models in the first row of the wind farm show the expected -5/3 power law at higher frequencies. Downstream models measure an increased variance due to wake effects. Conversely, the power spectrum of the sum of the power over the entire wind farm shows a peak at the turbine-to-turbine travel frequency between the model turbines, and a near -5/3 power law region at a much wider range of lower frequencies, confirming previous LES results. Comparison with the spectrum that would result when assuming that the signals are uncorrelated, highlights the strong effects of correlations and anti-correlations in the fluctuations at various frequencies. (paper)

  3. Discovery of a bright quasar without a massive host galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magain, Pierre; Letawe, Géraldine; Courbin, Frédéric; Jablonka, Pascale; Jahnke, Knud; Meylan, Georges; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2005-09-15

    A quasar is thought to be powered by the infall of matter onto a supermassive black hole at the centre of a massive galaxy. Because the optical luminosity of quasars exceeds that of their host galaxy, disentangling the two components can be difficult. This led in the 1990s to the controversial claim of the discovery of 'naked' quasars. Since then, the connection between quasars and galaxies has been well established. Here we report the discovery of a quasar lying at the edge of a gas cloud, whose size is comparable to that of a small galaxy, but whose spectrum shows no evidence for stars. The gas in the cloud is excited by the quasar itself. If a host galaxy is present, it is at least six times fainter than would normally be expected for such a bright quasar. The quasar is interacting dynamically with a neighbouring galaxy, whose gas might be feeding the black hole.

  4. Large-scale clustering of galaxies in the CfA Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeley, Michael S.; Park, Changbom; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1992-01-01

    The power spectrum of the galaxy distribution in the Center for Astrophysics Redshift Survey (de Lapparent et al., 1986; Geller and Huchra, 1989; and Huchra et al., 1992) is measured up to wavelengths of 200/h Mpc. Results are compared with several cosmological simulations with Gaussian initial conditions. It is shown that the power spectrum of the standard CDM model is inconsistent with the observed power spectrum at the 99 percent confidence level.

  5. SUBMILLIMETER LINE SPECTRUM OF THE SEYFERT GALAXY NGC 1068 FROM THE HERSCHEL-SPIRE FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROMETER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Busquet, Gemma; Schirm, Maximilien R. P.; Wilson, Christine D.; Parkin, Tara J.; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Maloney, Philip R.; Bendo, George J.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Wolfire, Mark G.; Boselli, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha; Page, Mathew J.

    2012-01-01

    The first complete submillimeter spectrum (190-670 μm) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 has been observed with the SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The sequence of CO lines (J up = 4-13), lines from H 2 O, the fundamental rotational transition of hydrogen fluoride, two o-H 2 O + lines, and one line each from CH + and OH + have been detected, together with the two [C I] lines and the [N II] 205 μm line. The observations in both single pointing mode with sparse image sampling and in mapping mode with full image sampling allow us to disentangle two molecular emission components, one due to the compact circumnuclear disk (CND) and one from the extended region encompassing the star-forming ring (SF-ring). Radiative transfer models show that the two CO components are characterized by densities of n(H 2 ) = 10 4.5 and 10 2.9 cm –3 and temperatures of T kin = 100 K and 127 K, respectively. A comparison of the CO line intensities with the photodissociation region (PDR) and X-ray-dominated region (XDR) models, together with the other observational constraints, such as the observed CO surface brightness and the radiation field, indicates that the best explanation for the CO excitation of the CND is an XDR with a density of n(H 2 ) ∼ 10 4 cm –3 and an X-ray flux of 9 erg s –1 cm –2 , consistent with illumination by the active galactic nucleus, while the CO lines in the SF-ring are better modeled by a PDR. The detected water transitions, together with those observed with the Herschel PACS spectrometer, can be modeled by a large velocity gradient model with low temperature (T kin ∼ 40 K) and high density (n(H 2 ) in the range 10 6.7 -10 7.9 cm –3 ). The emission of H 2 O + and OH + are in agreement with PDR models with cosmic-ray ionization. The diffuse ionized atomic component observed through the [N II] 205 μm line is consistent with previous photoionization models of the starburst.

  6. SUBMILLIMETER LINE SPECTRUM OF THE SEYFERT GALAXY NGC 1068 FROM THE HERSCHEL-SPIRE FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Busquet, Gemma [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Schirm, Maximilien R. P.; Wilson, Christine D.; Parkin, Tara J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Maloney, Philip R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Bendo, George J. [UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jordell Bank Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Madden, Suzanne C. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Wolfire, Mark G. [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Boselli, Alessandro [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Universite d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cooray, Asantha [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Page, Mathew J., E-mail: luigi.spinoglio@iaps.inaf.it [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-20

    The first complete submillimeter spectrum (190-670 {mu}m) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 has been observed with the SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The sequence of CO lines (J {sub up} = 4-13), lines from H{sub 2}O, the fundamental rotational transition of hydrogen fluoride, two o-H{sub 2}O{sup +} lines, and one line each from CH{sup +} and OH{sup +} have been detected, together with the two [C I] lines and the [N II] 205 {mu}m line. The observations in both single pointing mode with sparse image sampling and in mapping mode with full image sampling allow us to disentangle two molecular emission components, one due to the compact circumnuclear disk (CND) and one from the extended region encompassing the star-forming ring (SF-ring). Radiative transfer models show that the two CO components are characterized by densities of n(H{sub 2}) = 10{sup 4.5} and 10{sup 2.9} cm{sup -3} and temperatures of T {sub kin} = 100 K and 127 K, respectively. A comparison of the CO line intensities with the photodissociation region (PDR) and X-ray-dominated region (XDR) models, together with the other observational constraints, such as the observed CO surface brightness and the radiation field, indicates that the best explanation for the CO excitation of the CND is an XDR with a density of n(H{sub 2}) {approx} 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3} and an X-ray flux of 9 erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, consistent with illumination by the active galactic nucleus, while the CO lines in the SF-ring are better modeled by a PDR. The detected water transitions, together with those observed with the Herschel PACS spectrometer, can be modeled by a large velocity gradient model with low temperature (T {sub kin} {approx} 40 K) and high density (n(H{sub 2}) in the range 10{sup 6.7}-10{sup 7.9} cm{sup -3}). The emission of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and OH{sup +} are in agreement with PDR models with cosmic-ray ionization. The diffuse ionized atomic component observed through the [N

  7. The shape of the primordial power spectrum: A last stand before Planck data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiris, Hiranya V.; Verde, Licia

    2010-01-01

    We present a minimally parametric reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum using the most recent cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure data sets. Our goal is to constrain the shape of the power spectrum while simultaneously avoiding strong theoretical priors and over-fitting of the data. We find no evidence for any departure from a power-law spectral index. We also find that an exact scale-invariant power spectrum is disfavored by the data, but this conclusion is weaker than the corresponding result assuming a theoretically-motivated power-law spectral index prior. The reconstruction shows that better data are crucial to justify the adoption of such a strong theoretical prior observationally. These results can be used to determine the robustness of our present knowledge when compared with forthcoming precision data from Planck.

  8. Contribution of Strong Discontinuities to the Power Spectrum of the Solar Wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Eight and a half years of magnetic field measurements (2 22 samples) from the ACE spacecraft in the solar wind at 1 A.U. are analyzed. Strong (large-rotation-angle) discontinuities in the solar wind are collected and measured. An artificial time series is created that preserves the timing and amplitudes of the discontinuities. The power spectral density of the discontinuity series is calculated and compared with the power spectral density of the solar-wind magnetic field. The strong discontinuities produce a power-law spectrum in the ''inertial subrange'' with a spectral index near the Kolmogorov -5/3 index. The discontinuity spectrum contains about half of the power of the full solar-wind magnetic field over this ''inertial subrange.'' Warnings are issued about the significant contribution of discontinuities to the spectrum of the solar wind, complicating interpretation of spectral power and spectral indices.

  9. An automatic method to determine cutoff frequency based on image power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beis, J.S.; Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, British Columbia; Celler, A.; Barney, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    The authors present an algorithm for automatically choosing filter cutoff frequency (F c ) using the power spectrum of the projections. The method is based on the assumption that the expectation of the image power spectrum is the sum of the expectation of the blurred object power spectrum (dominant at low frequencies) plus a constant value due to Poisson noise. By considering the discrete components of the noise-dominated high-frequency spectrum as a Gaussian distribution N(μ,σ), the Student t-test determines F c as the highest frequency for which the image frequency components are unlikely to be drawn from N (μ,σ). The method is general and can be applied to any filter. In this work, the authors tested the approach using the Metz restoration filter on simulated, phantom, and patient data with good results. Quantitative performance of the technique was evaluated by plotting recovery coefficient (RC) versus NMSE of reconstructed images

  10. Features in the primordial power spectrum of double D-term inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesgourgues, Julien

    2000-01-01

    Recently, there has been some interest for building supersymmetric models of double inflation. These models, realistic from a particle physics point of view, predict a broken-scale-invariant power spectrum of primordial cosmological perturbations, that may explain eventual nontrivial features in the present matter power spectrum. In previous works, the primordial spectrum was calculated using analytic slow-roll approximations. However, these models involve a fast second-order phase transition during inflation, with a stage of spinodal instability, and an interruption of slow-roll. For our previous model of double D-term inflation, we simulate numerically the evolution of quantum fluctuations, taking into account the spinodal modes, and we show that the semiclassical approximation can be employed even during the transition, due to the presence of a second inflaton field. The primordial power spectrum possesses a rich structure, and possibly, a non-Gaussian spike on observable scales

  11. Siemens's spectrum of deliveries and services for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, Siemens and Framatome merged their nuclear activities in the present Areva NP joint venture. Siemens has since focused on the construction and further development of conventional power plants and on the so-called conventional island (CI), the non-nuclear part of a nuclear power plant, i.e. the steam turbine, generator, and plant I and C systems, and also on service for the conventional part of nuclear power plants. Its role as a minority shareholder in Areva NP constrained Siemens. For this reason, the company in January 2009 decided to terminate its interest in Areva NP effective January 30, 2012. By January 2012 at the latest, Siemens will transfer to the majority shareholder Areva, holding 66 percent of the shares, its interest in the joint venture. For the time being, the joint venture still entails certain limitations to Siemens's activities in the nuclear field. Its delivery of the conventional island for the Olkiluoto 3 (OL3) nuclear power plant in Finland confirms the company's know-how in power plant construction. When commissioned, its 1,720 MW power will make OL3 the world's largest nuclear generating unit. The turbo-generator of the CI comprises a double-flow HP turbine and a 6-flow LP turbine. The driven 4-pole generator with a power of up to 2,200 MVA consists of a water-cooled stator and a hydrogen-cooled rotor. (orig.)

  12. Studying The Effect of Window type On Power Spectrum Based On MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soad T. Abed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The representation that describes signal’s frequency behavior can be divided into two categories: linear representation such as the Fourier-transform and quadratic representation such as power spectrum. Power spectrum characterizes the signal’s energy distribution in the frequency domain, and can answer whether most of the power of the signal resides at low or high frequencies. By performing spectral analysis, some important features of signals can be discovered that are not obvious in the time waveform of the signal. One problem with spectrum analysis is that the duration of the signals is finite, although adjustable. Applying the FFT method to finite duration sequences can produce inadequate results because of “spectral leakage”, to reduce the spectral leakage FFT window function is applied. Power spectrum parameters are window size, window type, window over lap and number of FFT. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the effect of varying window type on the power spectrum using Mat Lab software. Five windows have been compared to study their effect on the spectrum of a typical data.

  13. Spectrum and power allocation in cognitive multi-beam satellite communications with flexible satellite payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Haitao; Dong, Tao; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Tingting; Guo, Hui; Li, Dequan

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the cognitive multi-beam satellite system, i.e., two satellite networks coexist through underlay spectrum sharing, is studied, and the power and spectrum allocation method is employed for interference control and throughput maximization. Specifically, the multi-beam satellite with flexible payload reuses the authorized spectrum of the primary satellite, adjusting its transmission band as well as power for each beam to limit its interference on the primary satellite below the prescribed threshold and maximize its own achievable rate. This power and spectrum allocation problem is formulated as a mixed nonconvex programming. For effective solving, we first introduce the concept of signal to leakage plus noise ratio (SLNR) to decouple multiple transmit power variables in the both objective and constraint, and then propose a heuristic algorithm to assign spectrum sub-bands. After that, a stepwise plus slice-wise algorithm is proposed to implement the discrete power allocation. Finally, simulation results show that adopting cognitive technology can improve spectrum efficiency of the satellite communication.

  14. Measuring neutrino masses with a future galaxy survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2012-01-01

    that the minimum mass sum of sum m_nu ~ 0.06 eV in the normal hierarchy can be detected at 1.5 sigma to 2.5 sigma significance, depending on the model complexity, using a combination of galaxy and cosmic shear power spectrum measurements in conjunction with CMB temperature and polarisation observations from Planck....... With better knowledge of the galaxy bias, the significance of the detection could potentially reach 5.4 sigma. Interestingly, neither Planck+shear nor Planck+galaxy alone can achieve this level of sensitivity; it is the combined effect of galaxy and cosmic shear power spectrum measurements that breaks......) in the parameter estimation is induced by fitting inaccurate models of the neutrino mass splittings to the mock data, nor does the goodness-of-fit of these models suffer any significant degradation relative to the true one (Delta chi_eff ^2

  15. Adaptive discrete rate and power transmission for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Salem, Ahmed H.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2012-01-01

    channels available at the secondary transmitter. We consider the problem under the constraints of maximum average interference power levels at the primary receiver. We develop a sub-optimal computationally efficient iterative algorithm for finding

  16. Model independent foreground power spectrum estimation using WMAP 5-year data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Tuhin; Souradeep, Tarun; Saha, Rajib; Jain, Pankaj

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and implement on WMAP 5 yr data a model independent approach of foreground power spectrum estimation for multifrequency observations of the CMB experiments. Recently, a model independent approach of CMB power spectrum estimation was proposed by Saha et al. 2006. This methodology demonstrates that the CMB power spectrum can be reliably estimated solely from WMAP data without assuming any template models for the foreground components. In the current paper, we extend this work to estimate the galactic foreground power spectrum using the WMAP 5 yr maps following a self-contained analysis. We apply the model independent method in harmonic basis to estimate the foreground power spectrum and frequency dependence of combined foregrounds. We also study the behavior of synchrotron spectral index variation over different regions of the sky. We use the full sky Haslam map as an external template to increase the degrees of freedom, while computing the synchrotron spectral index over the frequency range from 408 MHz to 94 GHz. We compare our results with those obtained from maximum entropy method foreground maps, which are formed in pixel space. We find that relative to our model independent estimates maximum entropy method maps overestimate the foreground power close to galactic plane and underestimates it at high latitudes.

  17. The Coyote Universe II: Cosmological Models and Precision Emulation of the Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitmann, Katrin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Habib, Salman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Higdon, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; White, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Christian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The power spectrum of density fluctuations is a foundational source of cosmological information. Precision cosmological probes targeted primarily at investigations of dark energy require accurate theoretical determinations of the power spectrum in the nonlinear regime. To exploit the observational power of future cosmological surveys, accuracy demands on the theory are at the one percent level or better. Numerical simulations are currently the only way to produce sufficiently error-controlled predictions for the power spectrum. The very high computational cost of (precision) N-body simulations is a major obstacle to obtaining predictions in the nonlinear regime, while scanning over cosmological parameters. Near-future observations, however, are likely to provide a meaningful constraint only on constant dark energy equation of state 'wCDM' cosmologies. In this paper we demonstrate that a limited set of only 37 cosmological models -- the 'Coyote Universe' suite -- can be used to predict the nonlinear matter power spectrum at the required accuracy over a prior parameter range set by cosmic microwave background observations. This paper is the second in a series of three, with the final aim to provide a high-accuracy prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum for wCDM cosmologies.

  18. Prediction of speech intelligibility based on a correlation metric in the envelope power spectrum domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Relano-Iborra, Helia; May, Tobias; Zaar, Johannes

    A powerful tool to investigate speech perception is the use of speech intelligibility prediction models. Recently, a model was presented, termed correlation-based speechbased envelope power spectrum model (sEPSMcorr) [1], based on the auditory processing of the multi-resolution speech-based Envel...

  19. Some implications of excess soft X-ray emission from Seyfert 1 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, A.C.; Guilbert, P.W.; Arnaud, K.A.; Shafer, R.A.; Tennant, A.F.; Ward, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The X-ray spectrum of Seyfert 1 galaxies is characterized by a hard power-law spectrum. It is often postulated that this maintains a Compton-heated two-phase Broad-Line Region (BLR) around the central source. It is shown here that the strong excess soft X-ray emission observed in MKN 841 and other Seyfert galaxies invalidates this model if the BLR is spherically symmetric. Alternatives are proposed. (author)

  20. Direction of Wolf-Rayet stars in a very powerful far-infrared galaxy - Direct evidence for a starburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armus, L.; Heckman, T.M.; Miley, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    Spectra covering the wavelength range 4476-7610 A are presented for the powerful far-infrared galaxy IRAS 01003-2238. The broad emission band centered at a rest wavelength of roughly 4660 A, and other broad weaker features are interpreted, as arising from the combined effect of approximately 100,000 late Wolf-Rayet stars of the WN subtype. This represents perhaps the most direct evidence to date for the presence of a large number of hot massive stars in the nucleus of a very powerful far-infrared galaxy. The high number of Wolf-Rayet stars in relation to the number of O-type stars may be interpreted as arguing against continuous steady state star formation in 01003-2238, in favor of a recent burst of star formation occurring approximately 100 million yrs ago. 24 references

  1. Spectrum Reorganization and Bundling for Power Efficient Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Mogensen, Preben; Scheck, Hans-Otto

    2012-01-01

    are still required for supporting legacy devices and providing wider network coverage. In order to facilitate and reduce the cost of rolling out a new network, mobile operators often reuse existing sites. Radio frequency modules in base station sites house power amplifiers, which are designed to operate...

  2. Modeling time delays in the X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6-30-15

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goosmann, René; Czerny, B.; Karas, Vladimír; Ponti, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 466, č. 3 (2007), s. 865-873 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014; GA AV ČR IAA300030510 Grant - others:GAUK(CZ) GAUK 299/2004; EU(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : accretion disks * galaxie s: Seyfert * active galaxie s * radiative transfer Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2007

  3. Particle acceleration by Alfven wave turbulence in radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilek, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radio galaxies show evidence for acceleration of relativistic electrons locally within the diffuse radio luminous plasma. One likely candidate for the reacceleration mechanism is acceleration by magnetohydrodynamic turbulence which exists within the plasma. If Alfven waves are generated by a fluid turbulent cascade described by a power law energy-wavenumber spectrum, the particle spectrum in the presence of synchrotron losses will evolve towards an asymptotic power law which agrees with the particle spectra observed in these sources

  4. Galaxy redshift surveys with sparse sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Chi-Ting; Wullstein, Philipp; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Jee, Inh; Jeong, Donghui; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Schneider, Donald P.; Drory, Niv; Fabricius, Maximilian; Landriau, Martin; Finkelstein, Steven; Jogee, Shardha; Cooper, Erin Mentuch; Tuttle, Sarah; Gebhardt, Karl; Hill, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Survey observations of the three-dimensional locations of galaxies are a powerful approach to measure the distribution of matter in the universe, which can be used to learn about the nature of dark energy, physics of inflation, neutrino masses, etc. A competitive survey, however, requires a large volume (e.g., V survey ∼ 10Gpc 3 ) to be covered, and thus tends to be expensive. A ''sparse sampling'' method offers a more affordable solution to this problem: within a survey footprint covering a given survey volume, V survey , we observe only a fraction of the volume. The distribution of observed regions should be chosen such that their separation is smaller than the length scale corresponding to the wavenumber of interest. Then one can recover the power spectrum of galaxies with precision expected for a survey covering a volume of V survey (rather than the volume of the sum of observed regions) with the number density of galaxies given by the total number of observed galaxies divided by V survey (rather than the number density of galaxies within an observed region). We find that regularly-spaced sampling yields an unbiased power spectrum with no window function effect, and deviations from regularly-spaced sampling, which are unavoidable in realistic surveys, introduce calculable window function effects and increase the uncertainties of the recovered power spectrum. On the other hand, we show that the two-point correlation function (pair counting) is not affected by sparse sampling. While we discuss the sparse sampling method within the context of the forthcoming Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment, the method is general and can be applied to other galaxy surveys

  5. Adaptive discrete rate and power transmission for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we develop a framework for optimizing the performance of the secondary link in terms of the average spectral efficiency assuming quantized channel state information (CSI) of the secondary and the secondary-to-primary interference channels available at the secondary transmitter. We consider the problem under the constraints of maximum average interference power levels at the primary receiver. We develop a sub-optimal computationally efficient iterative algorithm for finding the optimal CSI quantizers as well as the discrete power and rate employed at the cognitive transmitter for each quantized CSI level so as to maximize the average spectral efficiency. We show via analysis and simulations that the proposed algorithm converges for Rayleigh fading channels. Our numerical results give the number of bits required to sufficiently represent the CSI to achieve almost the maximum average spectral efficiency attained using full knowledge of the CSI. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Seismic analysis of a NPP reactor building using spectrum-compatible power spectral density functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venancio Filho, F.; DeCarvalho Santos, S.H.; Joia, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical methodology to obtain Power Spectral Density Functions (PSDF) of ground accelerations, compatible with a given design response spectrum is presented. The PSDF's are derived from the statistical analysis of the amplitudes of the frequency components in a set of artificially generated time-histories matching the given spectrum. A so obtained PSDF is then used in the stochastic analysis of a NPP Reactor Building. The main results of this analysis are compared with the ones obtained by deterministic methods

  7. Seismic analysis of a NPP reactor building using spectrum-compatible power spectral density functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venancio Filho, F.; Joia, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical methodology to obtain Power Spectral Density Functions (PSDF) of ground accelerations, compatible with a given design response spectrum is presented. The PSDF's are derived from the statistical analysis of the amplitudes of the frequency components in a set of artificially generated time-histories matching the given spectrum. A so obtained PSDF is then used in the stochastic analysis of a reactor building. The main results of this analysis are compared with the ones obtained by deterministic methods. (orig./HP)

  8. Measurement and analysis of noise power spectrum of computerized tomography in images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Tejero, P.; Garayoa Roca, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of the spectrum of powers of the noise, NPS, as metric to characterize the noise, both in magnitude and in texture, for CT scans. The NPS found show that you for convolution filters that assume a greater softening in the reconstructed image, spectrum is concentrated in the low frequencies, while for filters sharp, the spectrum extends to high frequencies. In the analyzed cases, there is a low frequency component, largely due to the structure-borne noise, which can be a potential negative effect on the detectability of injuries. (Author)

  9. On the dynamics of the power spectrum during lower hybrid current drive in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizarro, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation is provided on the propagation and absorption of the power spectrum during lower hybrid current drive in Tokamaks. A combined ray tracing and Fokker-Planck code is utilized and stochastic effects induced by toroidicity are correctly taken into account by using a large number of rays. It is shown that when strong wave damping prevails the absorbed spectrum is very similar in shape to the launched one, although some broadening and shifting in parallel wave index generally occur, and power deposition is localized. If the wave damping is weak and stochastic effects are important, rays end up sweeping the entire plasma cross-section, power deposition turns out to be extended, and the absorbed spectrum is much broader than the launched one

  10. Spatial power spectrum of the geomagnetic field since 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senanayake, W.E.

    1987-04-01

    The Geomagnetic field for the period 1945-1990 has been analyzed in terms of Spatial Power Spectra of the Main Field and its Secular Variation. It is observed that for the above interval, the magnetic energy density at the core-mantle boundary is almost conserved. This supports the idea that an exchange of energy between different spherical harmonic constituents could occur. The distinctive behaviour of the first two terms (Dipole and Quadrupole), as seen from the spectra of the main field and secular variation, probably indicates somewhat different feature associated with the field origin. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  11. Particle content, radio-galaxy morphology, and jet power: all radio-loud AGN are not equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croston, J. H.; Ineson, J.; Hardcastle, M. J.

    2018-05-01

    Ongoing and future radio surveys aim to trace the evolution of black hole growth and feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) throughout cosmic time; however, there remain major uncertainties in translating radio luminosity functions into a reliable assessment of the energy input as a function of galaxy and/or dark matter halo mass. A crucial and long-standing problem is the composition of the radio-lobe plasma that traces AGN jet activity. In this paper, we carry out a systematic comparison of the plasma conditions in Fanaroff & Riley class I and II radio galaxies to demonstrate conclusively that their internal composition is systematically different. This difference is best explained by the presence of an energetically dominant proton population in the FRI, but not the FRII radio galaxies. We show that, as expected from this systematic difference in particle content, radio morphology also affects the jet-power/radio-luminosity relationship, with FRII radio galaxies having a significantly lower ratio of jet power to radio luminosity than the FRI cluster radio sources used to derive jet-power scaling relations via X-ray cavity measurements. Finally, we also demonstrate conclusively that lobe composition is unconnected to accretion mode (optical excitation class): the internal conditions of low- and high-excitation FRII radio lobes are indistinguishable. We conclude that inferences of population-wide AGN impact require careful assessment of the contribution of different jet subclasses, particularly given the increased diversity of jet evolutionary states expected to be present in deep, low-frequency radio surveys such as the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey.

  12. Dynamics of the spectrum of a self-modulated powerful laser pulse in an underdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, N.E.; Kirsanov, V.I.; Sakharov, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of the spectrum of a powerful laser pulse during its self-modulation in an underdense plasma is studied analytically and numerically. It is shown that, in the early stages of the self-modulation instability, the linear theory gives a qualitatively correct description of the dynamics of the pulse spectrum in most cases. Depending on the parameters of the laser pulse and of the plasma, this spectrum contains either Stocks satellites (downshifted from the fundamental frequency to a value equal to the plasma frequency), or both Stocks and anti-Stocks satellites of the fundamental frequency. When the three-dimensional mechanism for the instability is dominant and the pulse power is close to the critical power for relativistic self-focusing, the numerical calculations show that the intensity of the blue satellite exceeds the intensity of the red one. This specific feature of the spectrum, which does not arise when the instability is one-dimensional, cannot be explained in terms of the linear para-axial theory, and can be used to identify the three-dimensional mechanism for the instability in experiments on the self-modulation of powerful laser pulses. It is shown that the transition to the nonlinear stage of the instability is accompanied by the occurrence of cascades (at frequencies separated from the laser carrier frequency by intervals equal to an integer number of plasma frequencies) in the spectrum of the laser pulse

  13. The non-linear power spectrum of the Lyman alpha forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Viel, Matteo; Cen, Renyue

    2015-01-01

    The Lyman alpha forest power spectrum has been measured on large scales by the BOSS survey in SDSS-III at z∼ 2.3, has been shown to agree well with linear theory predictions, and has provided the first measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations at this redshift. However, the power at small scales, affected by non-linearities, has not been well examined so far. We present results from a variety of hydrodynamic simulations to predict the redshift space non-linear power spectrum of the Lyα transmission for several models, testing the dependence on resolution and box size. A new fitting formula is introduced to facilitate the comparison of our simulation results with observations and other simulations. The non-linear power spectrum has a generic shape determined by a transition scale from linear to non-linear anisotropy, and a Jeans scale below which the power drops rapidly. In addition, we predict the two linear bias factors of the Lyα forest and provide a better physical interpretation of their values and redshift evolution. The dependence of these bias factors and the non-linear power on the amplitude and slope of the primordial fluctuations power spectrum, the temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium, and the mean Lyα transmission, as well as the redshift evolution, is investigated and discussed in detail. A preliminary comparison to the observations shows that the predicted redshift distortion parameter is in good agreement with the recent determination of Blomqvist et al., but the density bias factor is lower than observed. We make all our results publicly available in the form of tables of the non-linear power spectrum that is directly obtained from all our simulations, and parameters of our fitting formula

  14. POWER SPECTRUM DENSITY (PSD ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE PEDAL-PAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMED RITHAUDDEEN YUSOFF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vibration at the pedal-pad may contribute to discomfort of foot plantar fascia during driving. This is due to transmission of vibration to the mount, chassis, pedal, and then to the foot plantar fascia. This experimental study is conducted to determine the estimation of peak value using the power spectral density of the vertical vibration input at the foot. The power spectral density value is calculated based on the frequency range between 13 Hz to 18 Hz. This experiment was conducted using 12 subjects testing on three size of pedal-pads; small, medium and large. The result shows that peak value occurs at resonance frequency of 15 Hz. The PSD values at that resonance frequency are 0.251 (m/s2 2/Hz for small pedal-pad, followed by the medium pedal-pad is at 0.387 (m/s2 2/Hz and lastly for the large pedal-pad is at 0.483 (m/s22/Hz. The resultsindicate that during driving, the foot vibration when interact with the large pedal-pad contributed higher stimulus compared with the small and medium pedal-pad. The pedal-pad size plays an important role in the pedal element designs in terms of vibration-transfer from pedal-pads on the feet, particularly to provide comfort to the driver while driving.

  15. Extreme scenarios: the tightest possible constraints on the power spectrum due to primordial black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Philippa S.; Byrnes, Christian T.

    2018-02-01

    Observational constraints on the abundance of primordial black holes (PBHs) constrain the allowed amplitude of the primordial power spectrum on both the smallest and the largest ranges of scales, covering over 20 decades from 1‑1020/ Mpc. Despite tight constraints on the allowed fraction of PBHs at their time of formation near horizon entry in the early Universe, the corresponding constraints on the primordial power spectrum are quite weak, typically Script PRlesssim 10‑2 assuming Gaussian perturbations. Motivated by recent claims that the evaporation of just one PBH would destabilise the Higgs vacuum and collapse the Universe, we calculate the constraints which follow from assuming there are zero PBHs within the observable Universe. Even if evaporating PBHs do not collapse the Universe, this scenario represents the ultimate limit of observational constraints. Constraints can be extended on to smaller scales right down to the horizon scale at the end of inflation, but where power spectrum constraints already exist they do not tighten significantly, even though the constraint on PBH abundance can decrease by up to 46 orders of magnitude. This shows that no future improvement in observational constraints can ever lead to a significant tightening in constraints on inflation (via the power spectrum amplitude). The power spectrum constraints are weak because an order unity perturbation is required in order to overcome pressure forces. We therefore consider an early matter dominated era, during which exponentially more PBHs form for the same initial conditions. We show this leads to far tighter constraints, which approach Script PRlesssim10‑9, albeit over a smaller range of scales and are very sensitive to when the early matter dominated era ends. Finally, we show that an extended early matter era is incompatible with the argument that an evaporating PBH would destroy the Universe, unless the power spectrum amplitude decreases by up to ten orders of magnitude.

  16. Galaxy formation and physical bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1992-01-01

    We have supplemented our code, which computes the evolution of the physical state of a representative piece of the universe to include, not only the dynamics of dark matter (with a standard PM code), and the hydrodynamics of the gaseous component (including detailed collisional and radiative processes), but also galaxy formation on a heuristic but plausible basis. If, within a cell the gas is Jeans' unstable, collapsing, and cooling rapidly, it is transformed to galaxy subunits, which are then followed with a collisionless code. After grouping them into galaxies, we estimate the relative distributions of galaxies and dark matter and the relative velocities of galaxies and dark matter. In a large scale CDM run of 80/h Mpc size with 8 x 10 exp 6 cells and dark matter particles, we find that physical bias b is on the 8/h Mpc scale is about 1.6 and increases towards smaller scales, and that velocity bias is about 0.8 on the same scale. The comparable HDM simulation is highly biased with b = 2.7 on the 8/h Mpc scale. Implications of these results are discussed in the light of the COBE observations which provide an accurate normalization for the initial power spectrum. CDM can be ruled out on the basis of too large a predicted small scale velocity dispersion at greater than 95 percent confidence level.

  17. Scaling-law for the energy dependence of anatomic power spectrum in dedicated breast CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Glick, Stephen J.; Karellas, Andrew [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the x-ray photon energy dependence of the anatomic power spectrum of the breast when imaged with dedicated breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: A theoretical framework for scaling the empirically determined anatomic power spectrum at one x-ray photon energy to that at any given x-ray photon energy when imaged with dedicated breast CT was developed. Theory predicted that when the anatomic power spectrum is fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, where k and {beta} are fit coefficients and f is spatial frequency, the exponent {beta} would be independent of x-ray photon energy (E), and the amplitude k scales with the square of the difference in energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues. Twenty mastectomy specimens based numerical phantoms that were previously imaged with a benchtop flat-panel cone-beam CT system were converted to 3D distribution of glandular weight fraction (f{sub g}) and were used to verify the theoretical findings. The 3D power spectrum was computed in terms of f{sub g} and after converting to linear attenuation coefficients at monoenergetic x-ray photon energies of 20-80 keV in 5 keV intervals. The 1D power spectra along the axes were extracted and fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}. The energy dependence of k and {beta} were analyzed. Results: For the 20 mastectomy specimen based numerical phantoms used in the study, the exponent {beta} was found to be in the range of 2.34-2.42, depending on the axis of measurement. Numerical simulations agreed with the theoretical predictions that for a power-law anatomic spectrum of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, {beta} was independent of E and k(E) =k{sub 1}[{mu}{sub g}(E) -{mu}{sub a}(E)]{sup 2}, where k{sub 1} is a constant, and {mu}{sub g}(E) and {mu}{sub a}(E) represent the energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues, respectively. Conclusions: Numerical

  18. An Analysis Framework for Understanding the Origin of Nuclear Activity in Low-power Radio Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Huang, Hung-Jin; Chen, Yen-Chi

    2018-05-01

    Using large samples containing nearly 2300 active galaxies of low radio luminosity (1.4 GHz luminosity between 2 × 1023 and 3 × 1025 W Hz‑1, essentially low-excitation radio galaxies) at z ≲ 0.3, we present a self-contained analysis of the dependence of the nuclear radio activity on both intrinsic and extrinsic properties of galaxies, with the goal of identifying the best predictors of the nuclear radio activity. While confirming the established result that stellar mass must play a key role on the triggering of radio activities, we point out that for the central, most massive galaxies, the radio activity also shows a strong dependence on halo mass, which is not likely due to enhanced interaction rates in denser regions in massive, cluster-scale halos. We thus further investigate the effects of various properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) in massive clusters on the radio activities, employing two standard statistical tools, principle component analysis and logistic regression. It is found that ICM entropy, local cooling time, and pressure are the most effective in predicting the radio activity, pointing to the accretion of gas cooling out of a hot atmosphere to be the likely origin in triggering such activities in galaxies residing in massive dark matter halos. Our analysis framework enables us to logically discern the mechanisms responsible for the radio activity separately for central and satellite galaxies.

  19. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Temperature and Gravitational Lensing Power Spectrum Measurements from Three Seasons of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeep; Louis, Thibaut; Nolta, Michael R.; Addison, Graeme E.; Battisetti, Elia S.; Bond, J. Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present the temperature power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) derived from the three seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. We detect and correct for contamination due to the Galactic cirrus in our equatorial maps. We present the results of a number of tests for possible systematic error and conclude that any effects are not significant compared to the statistical errors we quote. Where they overlap, we cross-correlate the ACT and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) maps and show they are consistent. The measurements of higher-order peaks in the CMB power spectrum provide an additional test of the ?CDM cosmological model, and help constrain extensions beyond the standard model. The small angular scale power spectrum also provides constraining power on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects and extragalactic foregrounds. We also present a measurement of the CMB gravitational lensing convergence power spectrum at 4.6s detection significance.

  20. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: temperature and gravitational lensing power spectrum measurements from three seasons of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sudeep; Louis, Thibaut; Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Joanna; Nolta, Michael R.; Bond, J Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D.; Addison, Graeme E.; Halpern, Mark; Battistelli, Elia S.; Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Dünner, Rolando; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée; Hilton, Matt

    2014-01-01

    We present the temperature power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) derived from the three seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. We detect and correct for contamination due to the Galactic cirrus in our equatorial maps. We present the results of a number of tests for possible systematic error and conclude that any effects are not significant compared to the statistical errors we quote. Where they overlap, we cross-correlate the ACT and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) maps and show they are consistent. The measurements of higher-order peaks in the CMB power spectrum provide an additional test of the ΛCDM cosmological model, and help constrain extensions beyond the standard model. The small angular scale power spectrum also provides constraining power on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects and extragalactic foregrounds. We also present a measurement of the CMB gravitational lensing convergence power spectrum at 4.6σ detection significance

  1. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: temperature and gravitational lensing power spectrum measurements from three seasons of data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sudeep [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Louis, Thibaut; Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Joanna [Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Nolta, Michael R.; Bond, J Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 Canada (Canada); Addison, Graeme E.; Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 Canada (Canada); Battistelli, Elia S. [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19104 (United States); Dünner, Rolando [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificía Universidad Católica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Fowler, Joseph W. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO, 80305 (United States); Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Hilton, Matt, E-mail: sudeepphys@gmail.com [Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-04-01

    We present the temperature power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) derived from the three seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. We detect and correct for contamination due to the Galactic cirrus in our equatorial maps. We present the results of a number of tests for possible systematic error and conclude that any effects are not significant compared to the statistical errors we quote. Where they overlap, we cross-correlate the ACT and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) maps and show they are consistent. The measurements of higher-order peaks in the CMB power spectrum provide an additional test of the ΛCDM cosmological model, and help constrain extensions beyond the standard model. The small angular scale power spectrum also provides constraining power on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects and extragalactic foregrounds. We also present a measurement of the CMB gravitational lensing convergence power spectrum at 4.6σ detection significance.

  2. Signature of short distance physics on inflation power spectrum and CMB anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Suratna; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2009-01-01

    The inflaton field responsible for inflation may not be a canonical fundamental scalar. It is possible that the inflaton is a composite of fermions or it may have a decay width. In these cases the standard procedure for calculating the power spectrum is not applicable and a new formalism needs to be developed to determine the effect of short range interactions of the inflaton on the power spectrum and the CMB anisotropy. We develop a general formalism for computing the power spectrum of curvature perturbations for such non-canonical cases by using the flat space Källén-Lehmann spectral function in curved quasi-de Sitter space assuming implicitly that the Bunch-Davis boundary conditions enforces the inflaton mode functions to be plane wave in the short wavelength limit and a complete set of mode functions exists in quasi-de Sitter space. It is observed that the inflaton with a decay width suppresses the power at large scale while a composite inflaton's power spectrum oscillates at large scales. These observations may be vindicated in the WMAP data and confirmed by future observations with PLANCK

  3. Variability of the Magnetic Field Power Spectrum in the Solar Wind at Electron Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Owen Wyn; Alexandrova, O.; Kajdič, P.; Turc, L.; Perrone, D.; Escoubet, C. P.; Walsh, A.

    2017-12-01

    At electron scales, the power spectrum of solar-wind magnetic fluctuations can be highly variable and the dissipation mechanisms of the magnetic energy into the various particle species is under debate. In this paper, we investigate data from the Cluster mission’s STAFF Search Coil magnetometer when the level of turbulence is sufficiently high that the morphology of the power spectrum at electron scales can be investigated. The Cluster spacecraft sample a disturbed interval of plasma where two streams of solar wind interact. Meanwhile, several discontinuities (coherent structures) are seen in the large-scale magnetic field, while at small scales several intermittent bursts of wave activity (whistler waves) are present. Several different morphologies of the power spectrum can be identified: (1) two power laws separated by a break, (2) an exponential cutoff near the Taylor shifted electron scales, and (3) strong spectral knees at the Taylor shifted electron scales. These different morphologies are investigated by using wavelet coherence, showing that, in this interval, a clear break and strong spectral knees are features that are associated with sporadic quasi parallel propagating whistler waves, even for short times. On the other hand, when no signatures of whistler waves at ∼ 0.1{--}0.2{f}{ce} are present, a clear break is difficult to find and the spectrum is often more characteristic of a power law with an exponential cutoff.

  4. A new method to cluster genomes based on cumulative Fourier power spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Rui; Zhu, Ziyue; Yin, Changchuan; He, Rong L; Yau, Stephen S-T

    2018-06-20

    Analyzing phylogenetic relationships using mathematical methods has always been of importance in bioinformatics. Quantitative research may interpret the raw biological data in a precise way. Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) is used frequently to analyze biological evolutions, but is very time-consuming. When the scale of data is large, alignment methods cannot finish calculation in reasonable time. Therefore, we present a new method using moments of cumulative Fourier power spectrum in clustering the DNA sequences. Each sequence is translated into a vector in Euclidean space. Distances between the vectors can reflect the relationships between sequences. The mapping between the spectra and moment vector is one-to-one, which means that no information is lost in the power spectra during the calculation. We cluster and classify several datasets including Influenza A, primates, and human rhinovirus (HRV) datasets to build up the phylogenetic trees. Results show that the new proposed cumulative Fourier power spectrum is much faster and more accurately than MSA and another alignment-free method known as k-mer. The research provides us new insights in the study of phylogeny, evolution, and efficient DNA comparison algorithms for large genomes. The computer programs of the cumulative Fourier power spectrum are available at GitHub (https://github.com/YaulabTsinghua/cumulative-Fourier-power-spectrum). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. How to estimate the 3D power spectrum of the Lyman-α forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Ribera, Andreu; McDonald, Patrick; Slosar, Anže

    2018-01-01

    We derive and numerically implement an algorithm for estimating the 3D power spectrum of the Lyman-α (Lyα) forest flux fluctuations. The algorithm exploits the unique geometry of Lyα forest data to efficiently measure the cross-spectrum between lines of sight as a function of parallel wavenumber, transverse separation and redshift. We start by approximating the global covariance matrix as block-diagonal, where only pixels from the same spectrum are correlated. We then compute the eigenvectors of the derivative of the signal covariance with respect to cross-spectrum parameters, and project the inverse-covariance-weighted spectra onto them. This acts much like a radial Fourier transform over redshift windows. The resulting cross-spectrum inference is then converted into our final product, an approximation of the likelihood for the 3D power spectrum expressed as second order Taylor expansion around a fiducial model. We demonstrate the accuracy and scalability of the algorithm and comment on possible extensions. Our algorithm will allow efficient analysis of the upcoming Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument dataset.

  6. Anisotropic power spectrum of refractive-index fluctuation in hypersonic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangting; Yang, Shaofei; Guo, Lixin; Cheng, Mingjian

    2016-11-10

    An anisotropic power spectrum of the refractive-index fluctuation in hypersonic turbulence was obtained by processing the experimental image of the hypersonic plasma sheath and transforming the generalized anisotropic von Kármán spectrum. The power spectrum suggested here can provide as good a fit to measured spectrum data for hypersonic turbulence as that recorded from the nano-planar laser scattering image. Based on the newfound anisotropic hypersonic turbulence power spectrum, Rytov approximation was employed to establish the wave structure function and the spatial coherence radius model of electromagnetic beam propagation in hypersonic turbulence. Enhancing the anisotropy characteristics of the hypersonic turbulence led to a significant improvement in the propagation performance of electromagnetic beams in hypersonic plasma sheath. The influence of hypersonic turbulence on electromagnetic beams increases with the increase of variance of the refractive-index fluctuation and the decrease of turbulence outer scale and anisotropy parameters. The spatial coherence radius was much smaller than that in atmospheric turbulence. These results are fundamental to understanding electromagnetic wave propagation in hypersonic turbulence.

  7. Distance Dependent Model for the Delay Power Spectrum of In-room Radio Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinböck, Gerhard; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2013-01-01

    A model based on experimental observations of the delay power spectrum in closed rooms is proposed. The model includes the distance between the transmitter and the receiver as a parameter which makes it suitable for range based radio localization. The experimental observations motivate the proposed...... model of the delay power spectrum with a primary (early) component and a reverberant component (tail). The primary component is modeled as a Dirac delta function weighted according to an inverse distance power law (d-n). The reverberant component is an exponentially decaying function with onset equal...... to the propagation time between transmitter and receiver. Its power decays exponentially with distance. The proposed model allows for the prediction of e.g. the path loss, mean delay, root mean squared (rms) delay spread, and kurtosis versus the distance. The model predictions are validated by measurements...

  8. LUMINOUS RED GALAXY HALO DENSITY FIELD RECONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION TO LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Beth A.; Spergel, David N.; Bode, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The nontrivial relationship between observations of galaxy positions in redshift space and the underlying matter field complicates our ability to determine the linear theory power spectrum and extract cosmological information from galaxy surveys. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalog has the potential to place powerful constraints on cosmological parameters. LRGs are bright, highly biased tracers of large-scale structure. However, because they are highly biased, the nonlinear contribution of satellite galaxies to the galaxy power spectrum is large and fingers-of-God (FOGs) are significant. The combination of these effects leads to a ∼10% correction in the underlying power spectrum at k = 0.1 h Mpc -1 and ∼40% correction at k = 0.2 h Mpc -1 in the LRG P(k) analysis of Tegmark et al., thereby compromising the cosmological constraints when this potentially large correction is left as a free parameter. We propose an alternative approach to recovering the matter field from galaxy observations. Our approach is to use halos rather than galaxies to trace the underlying mass distribution. We identify FOGs and replace each FOG with a single halo object. This removes the nonlinear contribution of satellite galaxies, the one-halo term. We test our method on a large set of high-fidelity mock SDSS LRG catalogs and find that the power spectrum of the reconstructed halo density field deviates from the underlying matter power spectrum at the ≤1% level for k ≤ 0.1 h Mpc -1 and ≤4% at k = 0.2 h Mpc -1 . The reconstructed halo density field also removes the bias in the measurement of the redshift space distortion parameter β induced by the FOG smearing of the linear redshift space distortions.

  9. Spectra processing at tooth enamel dosimetry: Analytical description of EPR spectrum at different microwave power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tieliewuhan, E.; Ivannikov, A.; Zhumadilov, K.; Nalapko, M.; Tikunov, D.; Skvortsov, V.; Stepanenko, V.; Toyoda, S.; Tanaka, K.; Endo, S.; Hoshi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Variation of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of the human tooth enamel recorded at different microwave power is investigated. The analytical models describing the native and the radiation-induced signals in the enamel are proposed, which fit the experimental spectra in wide range of microwave power. These models are designed to use for processing the spectra of irradiated enamel at determination of the absorbed dose from the intensity of the radiation-induced signal

  10. Galaxy bias and primordial non-Gaussianity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel [DAMTP, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: assassi@ias.edu, E-mail: D.D.Baumann@uva.nl, E-mail: fabians@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    We present a systematic study of galaxy biasing in the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity. For a large class of non-Gaussian initial conditions, we define a general bias expansion and prove that it is closed under renormalization, thereby showing that the basis of operators in the expansion is complete. We then study the effects of primordial non-Gaussianity on the statistics of galaxies. We show that the equivalence principle enforces a relation between the scale-dependent bias in the galaxy power spectrum and that in the dipolar part of the bispectrum. This provides a powerful consistency check to confirm the primordial origin of any observed scale-dependent bias. Finally, we also discuss the imprints of anisotropic non-Gaussianity as motivated by recent studies of higher-spin fields during inflation.

  11. Galaxy bias and primordial non-Gaussianity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic study of galaxy biasing in the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity. For a large class of non-Gaussian initial conditions, we define a general bias expansion and prove that it is closed under renormalization, thereby showing that the basis of operators in the expansion is complete. We then study the effects of primordial non-Gaussianity on the statistics of galaxies. We show that the equivalence principle enforces a relation between the scale-dependent bias in the galaxy power spectrum and that in the dipolar part of the bispectrum. This provides a powerful consistency check to confirm the primordial origin of any observed scale-dependent bias. Finally, we also discuss the imprints of anisotropic non-Gaussianity as motivated by recent studies of higher-spin fields during inflation

  12. Visibility-based angular power spectrum estimation in low-frequency radio interferometric observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choudhuri, Samir; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Ghosh, Abhik; Ali, Sk. Saiyad

    2014-01-01

    We present two estimators to quantify the angular power spectrum of the sky signal directly from the visibilities measured in radio interferometric observations. This is relevant for both the foregrounds and the cosmological 21-cm signal buried therein. The discussion here is restricted to the

  13. Exponential decay rate of the power spectrum for solutions of the Navier--Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, C.R.; Titi, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Using a method developed by Foias and Temam [J. Funct. Anal. 87, 359 (1989)], exponential decay of the spatial Fourier power spectrum for solutions of the incompressible Navier--Stokes equations is established and explicit rigorous lower bounds on a small length scale defined by the exponential decay rate are obtained

  14. Predicting speech intelligibility based on a correlation metric in the envelope power spectrum domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Relaño-Iborra, Helia; May, Tobias; Zaar, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    A speech intelligibility prediction model is proposed that combines the auditory processing front end of the multi-resolution speech-based envelope power spectrum model [mr-sEPSM; Jørgensen, Ewert, and Dau (2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(1), 436–446] with a correlation back end inspired by the sh...

  15. The matter power spectrum from the Ly alpha forest : an optical depth estimate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaroubi, S; Nusser, A; Haehnelt, M; Kim, TS; Viel, M.

    2006-01-01

    We measure the matter power spectrum from 31 Ly alpha spectra spanning the redshift range of 1.6-3.6. The optical depth, tau, for Ly alpha absorption of the intergalactic medium is obtained from the flux using the inversion method of Nusser & Haehnelt. The optical depth is converted to density by

  16. Low power wide spectrum optical transmitter using avalanche mode LEDs in SOI CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, V.; Dutta, S; Annema, AJ; Hueting, RJE; Steeneken, P.G.; Nauta, B

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a low power monolithically integrated optical transmitter with avalanche mode light emitting diodes in a 140 nm silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. Avalanche mode LEDs in silicon exhibit wide-spectrum electroluminescence (400 nm < λ < 850 nm), which has a significant

  17. Slow-roll inflation and BB-mode angular power spectrum of CMB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malsawmtluangi, N.; Suresh, P.K. [University of Hyderabad, School of Physics, Hyderabad (India)

    2016-05-15

    The BB-mode correlation angular power spectrum of CMB is obtained by considering the primordial gravitational waves in the squeezed vacuum state for various inflationary models and results are compared with the joint analysis of the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck 353 GHz data. The present results may constrain several models of inflation. (orig.)

  18. The 2-79 keV X-ray spectrum of the Circinus galaxy with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Chandra: a fully Compton-thick active galactic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Puccetti, S.; Walton, D. J.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A.; Madsen, K. K.; Koss, M.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Madejski, G.; Marinucci, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Circinus galaxy is one of the closest obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), making it an ideal target for detailed study. Combining archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data with new NuSTAR observations, we model the 2-79 keV spectrum to constrain the primary AGN continuum and to derive physical parameters for the obscuring material. Chandra's high angular resolution allows a separation of nuclear and off-nuclear galactic emission. In the off-nuclear diffuse emission, we find signatures of strong cold reflection, including high equivalent-width neutral Fe lines. This Compton-scattered off-nuclear emission amounts to 18% of the nuclear flux in the Fe line region, but becomes comparable to the nuclear emission above 30 keV. The new analysis no longer supports a prominent transmitted AGN component in the observed band. We find that the nuclear spectrum is consistent with Compton scattering by an optically thick torus, where the intrinsic spectrum is a power law of photon index Γ = 2.2-2.4, the torus has an equatorial column density of N H = (6-10) × 10 24 cm –2 , and the intrinsic AGN 2-10 keV luminosity is (2.3-5.1) × 10 42 erg s –1 . These values place Circinus along the same relations as unobscured AGNs in accretion rate versus Γ and L X versus L IR phase space. NuSTAR's high sensitivity and low background allow us to study the short timescale variability of Circinus at X-ray energies above 10 keV for the first time. The lack of detected variability favors a Compton-thick absorber, in line with the spectral fitting results.

  19. Powerful Radio Galaxies with Simbol-X: Lobes and Hot Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, G.; Grandi, P.; Angelini, L.; Raimondi, L.; Torresi, E.; Palumbo, G. G. C.

    2009-05-01

    We present here the first Simbol-X simulations of the extended components, lobes and hot spots, of the radio galaxies. We use the paradigmatic case of Pictor A to test the capabilities of Simbol-X in this field of studies. Simulations demonstrate that Simbol-X will be able not only to perform spatially resolved studies on the lobes of radio galaxies below 10 keV but also to observe, for the first time, hard X-ray emission from the hot spots. These extremely promising results show the considerable potentiality of Simbol-X in studying interaction phenomena between relativistic plasma and surrounding environment.

  20. Powerful Radio Galaxies with Simbol-X: Lobes and Hot Spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliori, G.; Grandi, P.; Raimondi, L.; Torresi, E.; Angelini, L.; Palumbo, G. G. C.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the first Simbol-X simulations of the extended components, lobes and hot spots, of the radio galaxies. We use the paradigmatic case of Pictor A to test the capabilities of Simbol-X in this field of studies. Simulations demonstrate that Simbol-X will be able not only to perform spatially resolved studies on the lobes of radio galaxies below 10 keV but also to observe, for the first time, hard X-ray emission from the hot spots. These extremely promising results show the considerable potentiality of Simbol-X in studying interaction phenomena between relativistic plasma and surrounding environment.

  1. Local region power spectrum-based unfocused ship detection method in synthetic aperture radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangfei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Chong, Jinsong

    2018-01-01

    Ships on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images will be severely defocused and their energy will disperse into numerous resolution cells under long SAR integration time. Therefore, the image intensity of ships is weak and sometimes even overwhelmed by sea clutter on SAR image. Consequently, it is hard to detect the ships from SAR intensity images. A ship detection method based on local region power spectrum of SAR complex image is proposed. Although the energies of the ships are dispersed on SAR intensity images, their spectral energies are rather concentrated or will cause the power spectra of local areas of SAR images to deviate from that of sea surface background. Therefore, the key idea of the proposed method is to detect ships via the power spectra distortion of local areas of SAR images. The local region power spectrum of a moving target on SAR image is analyzed and the way to obtain the detection threshold through the probability density function (pdf) of the power spectrum is illustrated. Numerical P- and L-band airborne SAR ocean data are utilized and the detection results are also illustrated. Results show that the proposed method can well detect the unfocused ships, with a detection rate of 93.6% and a false-alarm rate of 8.6%. Moreover, by comparing with some other algorithms, it indicates that the proposed method performs better under long SAR integration time. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method and the way of parameters selection are also discussed.

  2. Power Spectrum of a Noisy System Close to a Heteroclinic Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner-Baldó, Jordi; Thomas, Peter J.; Lindner, Benjamin

    2017-07-01

    We consider a two-dimensional dynamical system that possesses a heteroclinic orbit connecting four saddle points. This system is not able to show self-sustained oscillations on its own. If endowed with white Gaussian noise it displays stochastic oscillations, the frequency and quality factor of which are controlled by the noise intensity. This stochastic oscillation of a nonlinear system with noise is conveniently characterized by the power spectrum of suitable observables. In this paper we explore different analytical and semianalytical ways to compute such power spectra. Besides a number of explicit expressions for the power spectrum, we find scaling relations for the frequency, spectral width, and quality factor of the stochastic heteroclinic oscillator in the limit of weak noise. In particular, the quality factor shows a slow logarithmic increase with decreasing noise of the form Q˜ [ln (1/D)]^2. Our results are compared to numerical simulations of the respective Langevin equations.

  3. Influence of pump power and modulation instability gain spectrum on seeded supercontinuum and rogue wave generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Møller, Uffe

    2012-01-01

    The noise properties of a supercontiuum can be significantly improved both in terms of coherence and intensity stability by modulating the input pulse with a seed. In this paper, we numerically investigate the influence of the seed wavelength, the pump power, and the modulation instability gain...... spectrum on the seeding process. The results can be clearly divided into a number of distinct dynamical regimes depending on the initial four-wave mixing process. We further demonstrate that seeding can be used to generate coherent and incoherent rogue waves, depending on the modulation instability gain...... spectrum. Finally, we show that the coherent pulse breakup afforded by seeding is washed out by turbulent solitonic dynamics when the pump power is increased to the kilowatt level. Thus our results show that seeding cannot improve the noise performance of a high power supercontinuum source....

  4. Inverse Compton X-Ray Halos Around High-z Radio Galaxies: A Feedback Mechanism Powered by Far-Infrared Starbursts or the Cosmic Microwave Background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Ian; Blundell, Katherine M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of extended X-ray emission around two powerful radio galaxies at z approx. 3.6 (4C 03.24 and 4C 19.71) and use these to investigate the origin of extended, inverse Compton (IC) powered X-ray halos at high redshifts. The halos have X-ray luminosities of L(sub X) approx. 3 x 10(exp 44) erg/s and sizes of approx.60 kpc. Their morphologies are broadly similar to the approx.60 kpc long radio lobes around these galaxies suggesting they are formed from IC scattering by relativistic electrons in the radio lobes, of either cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons or far-infrared photons from the dust-obscured starbursts in these galaxies. These observations double the number of z > 3 radio galaxies with X-ray-detected IC halos. We compare the IC X-ray-to-radio luminosity ratios for the two new detections to the two previously detected z approx. 3.8 radio galaxies. Given the similar redshifts, we would expect comparable X-ray IC luminosities if millimeter photons from the CMB are the dominant seed field for the IC emission (assuming all four galaxies have similar ages and jet powers). Instead we see that the two z approx. 3.6 radio galaxies, which are 4 fainter in the far-infrared than those at z 3.8, also have approx.4x fainter X-ray IC emission. Including data for a further six z > or approx. 2 radio sources with detected IC X-ray halos from the literature, we suggest that in the more compact, majority of radio sources, those with lobe sizes < or approx.100-200 kpc, the bulk of the IC emission may be driven by scattering of locally produced far-infrared photons from luminous, dust-obscured starbursts within these galaxies, rather than millimeter photons from the CMB. The resulting X-ray emission appears sufficient to ionize the gas on approx.100-200 kpc scales around these systems and thus helps form the extended, kinematically quiescent Ly(alpha) emission line halos found around some of these systems. The starburst and active galactic nucleus

  5. A DETAILED STUDY OF THE LOBES OF ELEVEN POWERFUL RADIO GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Ruth A.; Mory, Matthew P.; McKane, Justin; Altenderfer, Christopher; Beury, Michael; Kharb, Preeti; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.

    2010-01-01

    Radio lobes of a sample of 11 very powerful classical double radio galaxies were studied. Each source was rotated so that the symmetry axis of the source was horizontal, and vertical cross-sectional cuts were taken across the source at intervals of one beam size. These were used to study the cross-sectional surface brightness profiles, the width of each slice, radio emissivity as a function of position across each slice, the first and second moments, and the average surface brightness, minimum-energy magnetic field strength, and pressure of each slice. Typically, a Gaussian provides a good description of the surface brightness profile of cross-sectional slices. The Gaussian full width at half-maximum (FWHM) as a function of distance from the hot spot first increases and then decreases with increasing distance from the hot spot. The width as a function of distance from the hot spot is generally highly symmetric on each side of the source. The radio emissivity is often close to flat across a slice, indicating a roughly constant emissivity and pressure for that slice. Some slices show variations in radio emissivity that indicate an 'edge-peaked' pressure profile for that slice. When this occurs, it is generally found in slices near the local maxima of the bridge width. The emissivity does not exhibit any signature of emission from a jet. The first moment is generally quite close to zero indicating only small excursions of the ridgeline from the symmetry axis of the source. The second moment indicates the same source shape as is found using the Gaussian FWHM. The average surface brightness is peaked at the hot spot, and is fairly flat across most of the radio lobes. The average magnetic field strength and pressure peak at the hot spot and gradually decrease with increasing distance from the hot spot, reaching a roughly constant value at a location that is typically just before the location of a local maximum of the bridge width. These results are interpreted in terms

  6. Planck intermediate results LI. Features in the cosmic microwave background temperature power spectrum and shifts in cosmological parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Ashdown, M.

    2017-01-01

    The six parameters of the standard ΛCDM model have best-fit values derived from the Planck temperature power spectrum that are shifted somewhat from the best-fit values derived from WMAP data. These shifts are driven by features in the Planck temperature power spectrum at angular scales that had ...

  7. Investigations on the relationship between power spectrum and signal-to-noise ratio of frequency-swept pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhuhong; Fan Diayuan

    1993-01-01

    The criterion for obtaining compressed chirp pulses with high signal-to-noise ratio is the shape of the power spectrum, a chirp pulse of Gaussian shaped power spectrum without modulation is needed in CPA system to get the clean compressed pulses. 4 refs., 2 figs

  8. A power spectrum approach to tally convergence in Monte Carlo criticality calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Taro

    2017-01-01

    In Monte Carlo criticality calculation, confidence interval estimation is based on the central limit theorem (CLT) for a series of tallies from generations in equilibrium. A fundamental assertion resulting from CLT is the convergence in distribution (CID) of the interpolated standardized time series (ISTS) of tallies. In this work, the spectral analysis of ISTS has been conducted in order to assess the convergence of tallies in terms of CID. Numerical results obtained indicate that the power spectrum of ISTS is equal to the theoretically predicted power spectrum of Brownian motion for tallies of effective neutron multiplication factor; on the other hand, the power spectrum of ISTS of a strongly correlated series of tallies from local powers fluctuates wildly while maintaining the spectral form of fractional Brownian motion. The latter result is the evidence of a case where a series of tallies are away from CID, while the spectral form supports normality assumption on the sample mean. It is also demonstrated that one can make the unbiased estimation of the standard deviation of sample mean well before CID occurs. (author)

  9. Determination of the number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades based on power spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedak Waldemar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology of wind exploitation has been applied widely all over the world and has already reached the level in which manufacturers want to maximize the yield with the minimum investment outlays. The main objective of this paper is the determination of the optimal number of blades in the Cup-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Optimizing the size of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine allows the reduction of costs. The maximum power of the rotor is selected as the performance target. The optimum number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades evaluation is based on analysis of a single blade simulation and its superposition for the whole rotor. The simulation of working blade was done in MatLab environment. Power spectrum graphs were prepared and compared throughout superposition of individual blades in the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rotor. The major result of this research is the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine power characteristic. On the basis of the analysis of the power spectra, optimum number of the blades was specified for the analysed rotor. Power spectrum analysis of wind turbine enabled the specification of the optimal number of blades, and can be used regarding investment outlays and power output of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine.

  10. Determination of the number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades based on power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedak, Waldemar; Anweiler, Stanisław; Gancarski, Wojciech; Ulbrich, Roman

    2017-10-01

    Technology of wind exploitation has been applied widely all over the world and has already reached the level in which manufacturers want to maximize the yield with the minimum investment outlays. The main objective of this paper is the determination of the optimal number of blades in the Cup-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Optimizing the size of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine allows the reduction of costs. The maximum power of the rotor is selected as the performance target. The optimum number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades evaluation is based on analysis of a single blade simulation and its superposition for the whole rotor. The simulation of working blade was done in MatLab environment. Power spectrum graphs were prepared and compared throughout superposition of individual blades in the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rotor. The major result of this research is the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine power characteristic. On the basis of the analysis of the power spectra, optimum number of the blades was specified for the analysed rotor. Power spectrum analysis of wind turbine enabled the specification of the optimal number of blades, and can be used regarding investment outlays and power output of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine.

  11. Tidal interaction of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, N.N.; Syunyaev, R.A.; Ehneev, T.M.

    1974-01-01

    One of the hypotheses explaining the occurrence of anomalous details in interacting galaxies has been investigated. Pairs of galaxies with 'tails' oppositely directed or neighbouring galaxies with cofferdams 'bridges', as if connecting the galaxies, are called interacting galaxies. The hypothesis connects the origin of cofferdams and 'tails' of interacting galaxies with tidal effects ; the action of power gravitational forces in the intergalactic space. A source of such forces may be neighbouring stellar systems or invisible bodies, for instance, 'dead' quasars after a gravitational collapse. The effect of large masses of matter on the galaxy evolution has been investigated in the Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSSR in 1971-1972 by numerical simulation of the process on a digital computer with the subsequent data transmission on a display. Different versions of a massive body flight relative to a galaxy disk are considered. Photographs of a display screen at different moments of time are presented. As a result of mathematical simulation of galaxies gravitational interactions effects are discovered which resemble real structures in photographs of galaxies. It seems to be premature to state that namely these mechanisms cause the formation of 'tails' and cofferdams between galaxies. However, even now it is clear that the gravitational interaction strongly affects the dynamics of the stellar system evolution. Further studies should ascertain a true scale of this effect and its genuine role in galaxy evolution

  12. Imprint of inflation on galaxy shape correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Chisari, Nora Elisa [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Dvorkin, Cora, E-mail: fabians@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE, E-mail: elisa.chisari@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: cora.dvorkin@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We show that intrinsic (not lensing-induced) correlations between galaxy shapes offer a new probe of primordial non-Gaussianity and inflationary physics which is complementary to galaxy number counts. Specifically, intrinsic alignment correlations are sensitive to an anisotropic squeezed limit bispectrum of the primordial perturbations. Such a feature arises in solid inflation, as well as more broadly in the presence of light higher spin fields during inflation (as pointed out recently by Arkani-Hamed and Maldacena). We present a derivation of the all-sky two-point correlations of intrinsic shapes and number counts in the presence of non-Gaussianity with general angular dependence, and show that a quadrupolar (spin-2) anisotropy leads to the analog in galaxy shapes of the well-known scale-dependent bias induced in number counts by isotropic (spin-0) non-Gaussianity. Moreover, in the presence of non-zero anisotropic non-Gaussianity, the quadrupole of galaxy shapes becomes sensitive to far superhorizon modes. These effects come about because long-wavelength modes induce a local anisotropy in the initial power spectrum, with which galaxies will correlate. We forecast that future imaging surveys could provide constraints on the amplitude of anisotropic non-Gaussianity that are comparable to those from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). These are complementary as they probe different physical scales. The constraints, however, depend on the sensitivity of galaxy shapes to the initial conditions which we only roughly estimate from observed tidal alignments.

  13. A perturbative approach to the redshift space power spectrum: beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Benjamin; Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: benjamin.bose@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    We develop a code to produce the power spectrum in redshift space based on standard perturbation theory (SPT) at 1-loop order. The code can be applied to a wide range of modified gravity and dark energy models using a recently proposed numerical method by A.Taruya to find the SPT kernels. This includes Horndeski's theory with a general potential, which accommodates both chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms and provides a non-linear extension of the effective theory of dark energy up to the third order. Focus is on a recent non-linear model of the redshift space power spectrum which has been shown to model the anisotropy very well at relevant scales for the SPT framework, as well as capturing relevant non-linear effects typical of modified gravity theories. We provide consistency checks of the code against established results and elucidate its application within the light of upcoming high precision RSD data.

  14. EFFECTS OF THE NEUTRINO MASS SPLITTING ON THE NONLINEAR MATTER POWER SPECTRUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul

    2012-01-01

    We have performed cosmological N-body simulations which include the effect of the masses of the individual neutrino species. The simulations were aimed at studying the effect of different neutrino hierarchies on the matter power spectrum. Compared to the linear theory predictions, we find that nonlinearities enhance the effect of hierarchy on the matter power spectrum at mildly nonlinear scales. The maximum difference between the different hierarchies is about 0.5% for a sum of neutrino masses of 0.1 eV. Albeit this is a small effect, it is potentially measurable from upcoming surveys. In combination with neutrinoless double-β decay experiments, this opens up the possibility of using the sky to determine if neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac fermions.

  15. Normalized noise power spectrum of full field digital mammography detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norriza Mohd Isa; Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through de trending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality. (author)

  16. arXiv Neutrino masses and cosmology with Lyman-alpha forest power spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Baur, Julien; Magneville, Christophe; Rossi, Graziano; Lesgourgues, Julien; Borde, Arnaud; Burtin, Etienne; LeGoff, Jean-Marc; Rich, James; Viel, Matteo; Weinberg, David

    2015-11-06

    We present constraints on neutrino masses, the primordial fluctuation spectrum from inflation, and other parameters of the $\\Lambda$CDM model, using the one-dimensional Ly$\\alpha$-forest power spectrum measured by Palanque-Delabrouille et al. (2013) from SDSS-III/BOSS, complemented by Planck 2015 cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and other cosmological probes. This paper improves on the previous analysis by Palanque-Delabrouille et al. (2015) by using a more powerful set of calibrating hydrodynamical simulations that reduces uncertainties associated with resolution and box size, by adopting a more flexible set of nuisance parameters for describing the evolution of the intergalactic medium, by including additional freedom to account for systematic uncertainties, and by using Planck 2015 constraints in place of Planck 2013. Fitting Ly$\\alpha$ data alone leads to cosmological parameters in excellent agreement with the values derived independently from CMB data, except for a weak tension on the scalar index ...

  17. Detection of the power spectrum of cosmic microwave background lensing by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeep; Sherwin, Blake D; Aguirre, Paula; Appel, John W; Bond, J Richard; Carvalho, C Sofia; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Huffenberger, Kevin M; Hughes, John P; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Lupton, Robert H; Marriage, Tobias A; Marsden, Danica; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Parker, Lucas; Reese, Erik D; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Swetz, Daniel S; Switzer, Eric R; Thornton, Robert; Visnjic, Katerina; Wollack, Ed

    2011-07-08

    We report the first detection of the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background through a measurement of the four-point correlation function in the temperature maps made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. We verify our detection by calculating the levels of potential contaminants and performing a number of null tests. The resulting convergence power spectrum at 2° angular scales measures the amplitude of matter density fluctuations on comoving length scales of around 100 Mpc at redshifts around 0.5 to 3. The measured amplitude of the signal agrees with Lambda cold dark matter cosmology predictions. Since the amplitude of the convergence power spectrum scales as the square of the amplitude of the density fluctuations, the 4σ detection of the lensing signal measures the amplitude of density fluctuations to 12%.

  18. On the Soft Limit of the Large Scale Structure Power Spectrum: UV Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Garny, Mathias; Porto, Rafael A; Sagunski, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We derive a non-perturbative equation for the large scale structure power spectrum of long-wavelength modes. Thereby, we use an operator product expansion together with relations between the three-point function and power spectrum in the soft limit. The resulting equation encodes the coupling to ultraviolet (UV) modes in two time-dependent coefficients, which may be obtained from response functions to (anisotropic) parameters, such as spatial curvature, in a modified cosmology. We argue that both depend weakly on fluctuations deep in the UV. As a byproduct, this implies that the renormalized leading order coefficient(s) in the effective field theory (EFT) of large scale structures receive most of their contribution from modes close to the non-linear scale. Consequently, the UV dependence found in explicit computations within standard perturbation theory stems mostly from counter-term(s). We confront a simplified version of our non-perturbative equation against existent numerical simulations, and find good agr...

  19. On the effect of renormalization group improvement on the cosmological power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moti, R. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shojai, A. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Foundations of Physics Group, School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2018-01-15

    Asymptotically safe quantum gravity predicts running gravitational and cosmological constants, while it remains a meaningful quantum field theory because of the existence of a finite number of non-Gaussian ultraviolet fixed points. We have investigated the effect of such running couplings on the cosmological perturbations. We have obtained the improved Mukhanov-Sassaki equation and solved it for two models. The effect of such running of the coupling constants on the cosmological power spectrum is also studied. (orig.)

  20. Nonlinearities in modified gravity cosmology: Signatures of modified gravity in the nonlinear matter power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Weiguang; Zhang Pengjie; Yang Xiaohu

    2010-01-01

    A large fraction of cosmological information on dark energy and gravity is encoded in the nonlinear regime. Precision cosmology thus requires precision modeling of nonlinearities in general dark energy and modified gravity models. We modify the Gadget-2 code and run a series of N-body simulations on modified gravity cosmology to study the nonlinearities. The modified gravity model that we investigate in the present paper is characterized by a single parameter ζ, which determines the enhancement of particle acceleration with respect to general relativity (GR), given the identical mass distribution (ζ=1 in GR). The first nonlinear statistics we investigate is the nonlinear matter power spectrum at k < or approx. 3h/Mpc, which is the relevant range for robust weak lensing power spectrum modeling at l < or approx. 2000. In this study, we focus on the relative difference in the nonlinear power spectra at corresponding redshifts where different gravity models have the same linear power spectra. This particular statistics highlights the imprint of modified gravity in the nonlinear regime and the importance of including the nonlinear regime in testing GR. By design, it is less susceptible to the sample variance and numerical artifacts. We adopt a mass assignment method based on wavelet to improve the power spectrum measurement. We run a series of tests to determine the suitable simulation specifications (particle number, box size, and initial redshift). We find that, the nonlinear power spectra can differ by ∼30% for 10% deviation from GR (|ζ-1|=0.1) where the rms density fluctuations reach 10. This large difference, on one hand, shows the richness of information on gravity in the corresponding scales, and on the other hand, invalidates simple extrapolations of some existing fitting formulae to modified gravity cosmology.

  1. Nonlinear evolution of the matter power spectrum in modified theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Taruya, Atsushi; Hiramatsu, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    We present a formalism to calculate the nonlinear matter power spectrum in modified gravity models that explain the late-time acceleration of the Universe without dark energy. Any successful modified gravity models should contain a mechanism to recover general relativity (GR) on small scales in order to avoid the stringent constrains on deviations from GR at solar system scales. Based on our formalism, the quasi-nonlinear power spectrum in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porratti braneworld models and f(R) gravity models are derived by taking into account the mechanism to recover GR properly. We also extrapolate our predictions to fully nonlinear scales using the parametrized post-Friedmann framework. In the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porratti and f(R) gravity models, the predicted nonlinear power spectrum is shown to reproduce N-body results. We find that the mechanism to recover GR suppresses the difference between the modified gravity models and dark energy models with the same expansion history, but the difference remains large at the weakly nonlinear regime in these models. Our formalism is applicable to a wide variety of modified gravity models and it is ready to use once consistent models for modified gravity are developed.

  2. Turbulent Cloud Structure and Power Spectrum from 23 years of HST Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Richard; Simon, Amy; Morales-Juberias, Raul

    2018-01-01

    Images of Jupiter’s clouds show that turbulence is a ubiquitous phenomenon over many orders of scale size. According to Kolmogorov’s theory for turbulence, the frequency/distribution of clouds at various scales can be used to produce an energy power spectrum of a passive tracer. Kolmogorov theory predicts the spectral slopes for “shallow” and “deep” fluids in motion by following how energy is injected and dissipated in the fluid. We are quantifying the turbulent nature of Jupiter’s clouds over 23 years of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations using an algorithm first presented in Choi and Showman (2011, Icarus 216). We applied the power spectrum fitting algorithm to a variety of filters from available HST data and tested its sensitivity to free parameters and compare our results to Choi and Showman (2011). We will comment on the evidence for a 2D turbulent regime In Jupiter’s clouds and will report on empirical values found in the spectra and their physical interpretations, such as the Rhines scale. We also will report on the behavior of the passive tracer power spectrum and trends that exist over time for different latitudinal regions, primarily the belts and zones and the north and south equatorial belts.

  3. Measurement of Gamma Spectrum at domestic Nuclear Power Plant with CZT Semiconductor Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kon, Kang Seo; Yoon, Kang Hwa; Lee, Byoung Il; Kim, Jeong In [KHNP, Radiation Health Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study we monitored gamma spectrum for young S/G to see difference of the detected nuclides between old and young S/G. The detected source terms were the same for all measurement points. There is not comparison of quantity among the nuclides. The program which analyzes gamma spectrum to calculate activity and dose rate is under developing. We expect it will be done by end of this year. In this study we could see the difference of detected nuclides between old and new S/G for the first time whereas last measurement has significant meaning in that the measurement was taken for the first time all over country. Monitoring sources terms at Nuclear Power Plant(NPP) is important to aggressive ALARA activities and evaluation of exposure of workers. EDF (Electricite de France) and AEP (American Electric Power) conduct monitoring source terms using by CZT semiconductor detector. CZT is different from HPGe in that it does not need any cooling system at room temperature, it has good energy resolution and it can be made portable type easily. For these reason CZT is used in various fields commercially to measure gamma ray and therefore KHNP(Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD) RHRI(Radiation Health Research Institute) has been measuring gamma spectrum at domestic NPP last spring. We had have presented the first result through the last Transactions of the Korean Nuclear Society Spring Meeting for old S/G(Steam Generator)

  4. Achievable rate of spectrum sharing cognitive radio systems over fading channels at low-power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2014-11-01

    We study the achievable rate of cognitive radio (CR) spectrum sharing systems at the low-power regime for general fading channels and then for Nakagami fading. We formally define the low-power regime and present the corresponding closed-form expressions of the achievable rate lower bound under various types of interference and/or power constraints, depending on the available channel state information of the cross link (CL) between the secondary-user transmitter and the primary-user receiver. We explicitly characterize two regimes where either the interference constraint or the power constraint dictates the optimal power profile. Our framework also highlights the effects of different fading parameters on the secondary link (SL) ergodic achievable rate. We also study more realistic scenarios when there is either 1-bit quantized channel feedback from the CL alone or 2-bit feedback from both the CL and the SL and propose simple power control schemes and show that these schemes achieve the previously achieved rate at the low-power regime. Interestingly, we show that the low-power regime analysis provides a specific insight into the maximum achievable rate behavior of CR that has not been reported by previous studies.

  5. Spectrum resolving power of hearing: measurements, baselines, and influence of maskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ya. Supin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary methods of measurement of frequency tuning in the auditory system are reviewed. Most of them are based on the frequency-selective masking paradigm and require multi-point measurements (a number of masked thresholds should be measured to obtain a single frequency-tuning estimate. Therefore, they are rarely used for practical needs. As an alternative approach, frequency-selective properties of the auditory system may be investigated using probes with complex frequency spectrum patterns, in particular, rippled noise that is characterized by a spectrum with periodically alternating maxima and minima. The maximal ripple density discriminated by the auditory system is  a convenient measure of the spectrum resolving power (SRP. To find the highest resolvable ripple density, a phase-reversal test has been suggested. Using this technique, normal SRP, its dependence on probe center frequency, spectrum contrast, and probe level were measured. The results were not entirely predictable by frequency-tuning data obtained by masking methods. SRP is influenced by maskers, with on- and off-frequency maskers influencing SRP very differently. Dichotic separation of the probe and masker results in almost complete release of SRP from influence of maskers.

  6. Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer for spectrum sharing in cognitive radio communication systems

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2016-07-26

    In this paper, we consider the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer for the spectrum sharing (SS) in cognitive radio (CR) systems with a multi-antenna energy harvesting (EH) primary receiver (PR). The PR uses the antenna switching (AS) technique that assigns a subset of the PR\\'s antennas to harvest the energy from the radio frequency (RF) signals sent by the secondary transmitter (ST), and assigns the rest of the PR\\'s antennas to decode the information data. In this context, the primary network allows the secondary network to use the spectrum as long as the interference induced by the secondary transmitter (ST)\\'s signals is beneficial for the energy harvesting process at the PR side. The objective of this work is to show that the spectrum sharing is beneficial for both the SR and PR sides and leads to a win-win situation. To illustrate the incentive of the spectrum sharing cognitive system, we evaluate the mutual outage probability (MOP) introduced in [1] which declares an outage event if the PR or the secondary receiver (SR) is in an outage. Through the simulation results, we show that the performance of our system in terms of the MOP is always better than the performance of the system in the absence of ST and improves as the ST-PR interference increases. © 2016 IEEE.

  7. The SINS/zC-SINF survey of z ∼ 2 galaxy kinematics: Evidence for powerful active galactic nucleus-driven nuclear outflows in massive star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Kurk, J. D.; Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bandara, K.; Buschkamp, P.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Lang, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Newman, S. F. [Department of Astronomy, Hearst Field Annex, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Burkert, A. [Universitäts-Sternwarte, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Carollo, C. M.; Lilly, S. J. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, 8093-CH Zürich (Switzerland); Cresci, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Daddi, E. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hicks, E. K. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Mainieri, V. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Mancini, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2014-05-20

    We report the detection of ubiquitous powerful nuclear outflows in massive (≥10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}) z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs), which are plausibly driven by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The sample consists of the eight most massive SFGs from our SINS/zC-SINF survey of galaxy kinematics with the imaging spectrometer SINFONI, six of which have sensitive high-resolution adaptive optics-assisted observations. All of the objects are disks hosting a significant stellar bulge. The spectra in their central regions exhibit a broad component in Hα and forbidden [N II] and [S II] line emission, with typical velocity FWHM ∼ 1500 km s{sup –1}, [N II]/Hα ratio ≈ 0.6, and intrinsic extent of 2-3 kpc. These properties are consistent with warm ionized gas outflows associated with Type 2 AGN, the presence of which is confirmed via independent diagnostics in half the galaxies. The data imply a median ionized gas mass outflow rate of ∼60 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and mass loading of ∼3. At larger radii, a weaker broad component is detected but with lower FWHM ∼485 km s{sup –1} and [N II]/Hα ≈ 0.35, characteristic for star formation-driven outflows as found in the lower-mass SINS/zC-SINF galaxies. The high inferred mass outflow rates and frequent occurrence suggest that the nuclear outflows efficiently expel gas out of the centers of the galaxies with high duty cycles and may thus contribute to the process of star formation quenching in massive galaxies. Larger samples at high masses will be crucial in confirming the importance and energetics of the nuclear outflow phenomenon and its connection to AGN activity and bulge growth.

  8. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations using multiple data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunt, Paul; Sarkar, Subir

    2014-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism (`inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the cosmological parameters from observations of the cosmic microwave background and large-scale struc......Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism (`inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the cosmological parameters from observations of the cosmic microwave background and large...... content of the universe. Moreover the deconvolution problem is ill-conditioned so a regularisation scheme must be employed to control error propagation. We demonstrate that `Tikhonov regularisation' can robustly reconstruct the primordial spectrum from multiple cosmological data sets, a significant...... advantage being that both its uncertainty and resolution are then quantified. Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate several regularisation parameter selection methods and find that generalised cross-validation and Mallow's Cp method give optimal results. We apply our inversion procedure to data from...

  9. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cosmological Parameters from the 2008 Power Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, J.; Hlozek, R.; Sievers, J.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Barrientos, L. F.; Battistelli, E. S.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present cosmological parameters derived from the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation observed at 148 GHz and 218 GHz over 296 deg(exp 2) with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) during its 2008 season. ACT measures fluctuations at scales 500 cosmological parameters from the less contaminated 148 GHz spectrum, marginalizing over SZ and source power. The ACDM cosmological model is a good fit to the data (chi square/dof = 29/46), and ACDM parameters estimated from ACT+Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) are consistent with the seven-year WMAP limits, with scale invariant n(sub s) = 1 excluded at 99.7% confidence level (CL) (3 sigma). A model with no CMB lensing is disfavored at 2.8 sigma. By measuring the third to seventh acoustic peaks, and probing the Silk damping regime, the ACT data improve limits on cosmological parameters that affect the small-scale CMB power. The ACT data combined with WMAP give a 6 sigma detection of primordial helium, with Y(sub p) = 0.313 +/- 0.044, and a 4 sigma detection of relativistic species, assumed to be neutrinos, with N(sub eff) = 5.3 +/- 1.3 (4.6 +/- 0.8 with BAO+H(sub 0) data). From the CMB alone the running of the spectral index is constrained to be d(sub s) / d ln k = -0,034 +/- 0,018, the limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r < 0,25 (95% CL), and the possible contribution of Nambu cosmic strings to the power spectrum is constrained to string tension G(sub mu) < 1.6 x 10(exp -7) (95% CL),

  10. The matter power spectrum in redshift space using effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca de la Bella, Lucía; Regan, Donough; Seery, David; Hotchkiss, Shaun

    2017-11-01

    The use of Eulerian 'standard perturbation theory' to describe mass assembly in the early universe has traditionally been limited to modes with k lesssim 0.1 h/Mpc at z=0. At larger k the SPT power spectrum deviates from measurements made using N-body simulations. Recently, there has been progress in extending the reach of perturbation theory to larger k using ideas borrowed from effective field theory. We revisit the computation of the redshift-space matter power spectrum within this framework, including for the first time the full one-loop time dependence. We use a resummation scheme proposed by Vlah et al. to account for damping of baryonic acoustic oscillations due to large-scale random motions and show that this has a significant effect on the multipole power spectra. We renormalize by comparison to a suite of custom N-body simulations matching the MultiDark MDR1 cosmology. At z=0 and for scales k lesssim 0.4 h/Mpc we find that the EFT furnishes a description of the real-space power spectrum up to ~ 2%, for the l = 0 mode up to ~ 5%, and for the l = 2, 4 modes up to ~ 25%. We argue that, in the MDR1 cosmology, positivity of the l=0 mode gives a firm upper limit of k ≈ 0.74 h/Mpc for the validity of the one-loop EFT prediction in redshift space using only the lowest-order counterterm. We show that replacing the one-loop growth factors by their Einstein-de Sitter counterparts is a good approximation for the l=0 mode, but can induce deviations as large as 2% for the l=2, 4 modes. An accompanying software bundle, distributed under open source licenses, includes Mathematica notebooks describing the calculation, together with parallel pipelines capable of computing both the necessary one-loop SPT integrals and the effective field theory counterterms.

  11. Combining Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngsoo [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Krause, Elisabeth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Jain, Bhuvnesh [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Amara, Adam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Becker, Matt [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bridle, Sarah [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Clampitt, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Crocce, Martin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gaztanaga, Enrique [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sanchez, Carles [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wechsler, Risa [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Combining galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth rate of large scale structure, a quantity that will shed light on the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a prime candidate for such an analysis, with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies on the sky and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. By constructing an end-to-end analysis that combines large-scale galaxy clustering and small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing, we also forecast the potential of a combined probes analysis on DES datasets. In particular, we develop a practical approach to a DES combined probes analysis by jointly modeling the assumptions and systematics affecting the different components of the data vector, employing a shared halo model, HOD parametrization, photometric redshift errors, and shear measurement errors. Furthermore, we study the effect of external priors on different subsets of these parameters. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/ optimistically constraining the growth function to 8%/4.9% with its first-year data covering 1000 square degrees, and to 4%/2.3% with its full five-year data covering 5000 square degrees.

  12. A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netterfield, C. B.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; Coble, K.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Bernardis, P. de; hide

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background from l = 75 to l = 1025 (10' to 5 degrees) from a combined analysis of four 150 GHz channels in the BOOMERANG experiment. The spectrum contains multiple peaks and minima, as predicted by standard adiabatic-inflationary models in which the primordial plasma undergoes acoustic oscillations.

  13. Bayesian Analysis of the Power Spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Eriksen, H. K.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Wandelt, B. D.

    2005-01-01

    There is a wealth of cosmological information encoded in the spatial power spectrum of temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The sky, when viewed in the microwave, is very uniform, with a nearly perfect blackbody spectrum at 2.7 degrees. Very small amplitude brightness fluctuations (to one part in a million!!) trace small density perturbations in the early universe (roughly 300,000 years after the Big Bang), which later grow through gravitational instability to the large-scale structure seen in redshift surveys... In this talk, I will discuss a Bayesian formulation of this problem; discuss a Gibbs sampling approach to numerically sampling from the Bayesian posterior, and the application of this approach to the first-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. I will also comment on recent algorithmic developments for this approach to be tractable for the even more massive data set to be returned from the Planck satellite.

  14. The 2-79 keV X-ray spectrum of the circinus galaxy with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Chandra: a fully compton-thick active galactic nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Puccetti, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Circinus galaxy is one of the closest obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), making it an ideal target for detailed study. Combining archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data with new NuSTAR observations, we model the 2-79 keV spectrum to constrain the primary AGN continuum and to derive physical......-nuclear emission amounts to 18% of the nuclear flux in the Fe line region, but becomes comparable to the nuclear emission above 30 keV. The new analysis no longer supports a prominent transmitted AGN component in the observed band. We find that the nuclear spectrum is consistent with Compton scattering...

  15. LOW-POWER RADIO GALAXIES IN THE DISTANT UNIVERSE: A SEARCH FOR FR I AT 1 < z < 2 IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaberge, Marco; Tremblay, Grant; Macchetto, F. Duccio; Sparks, W. B.; Capetti, Alessandro; Tozzi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    We present a search for FR I radio galaxies between 1 < z < 2 in the COSMOS field. In absence of spectroscopic redshift measurements, the selection method is based on multiple steps which make use of both radio and optical constraints. The basic assumptions are that (1) the break in radio power between low-power FR Is and the more powerful FR IIs does not change with redshift, and (2) that the photometric properties of the host galaxies of low-power radio galaxies in the distant universe are similar to those of FR IIs in the same redshift bin, as is the case for nearby radio galaxies. We describe the results of our search, which yields 37 low-power radio galaxy candidates that are possibly FR Is. We show that a large fraction of these low-luminosity radio galaxies display a compact radio morphology that does not correspond to the FR I morphological classification. Furthermore, our objects are apparently associated with galaxies that show clear signs of interactions, at odds with the typical behavior observed in low-z FR I hosts. The compact radio morphology might imply that we are observing intrinsically small and possibly young objects that will eventually evolve into the giant FR Is we observe in the local universe. One of the objects appears as pointlike in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. This might belong to a population of FR I-QSOs, which however would represent a tiny minority of the overall population of high-z FR Is. As for the local FR Is, a large fraction of our objects are likely to be associated with groups or clusters, making them 'beacons' for high-redshift clusters of galaxies. Our search for candidate high-z FR Is we present in this paper constitutes a pilot study for objects to be observed with future high-resolution and high-sensitivity instruments such as the EVLA and ALMA in the radio band, HST/WFC3 in the optical and IR, James Webb Space Telescope in the IR, as well as future generation X-ray satellites.

  16. STarlight Absorption Reduction through a Survey of Multiple Occulting Galaxies (STARSMOG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, Benne

    2014-10-01

    Dust absorption remains the poorest constrained parameter in both Cosmological distances and multi-wavelength studies of galaxy populations. A galaxy's dust distribution can be measured to great accuracy in the case of an overlapping pair of galaxies, i.e., when a foreground spiral galaxy accidentally overlaps a more distant, preferably elliptical galaxy. We have identified over 300 bona-fide overlapping pairs --well separated in redshift but close on the sky-- in the GAMA spectroscopic survey, taking advantage of its high completeness (98%) on small scales. We propose to map the fine-scale (~50pc) dust structure in these occulting galaxies, using HST/WFC3 SNAP observations. The resulting dust maps will (1) serve as an extinction probability for supernova lightcurve fits in similar type host galaxies, (2) strongly constrain the role of ISM structure in Spectral Energy Distribution models of spiral galaxies, and (3) map the level of ISM turbulence (through the spatial power-spectrum). We ask for SNAP observations with a parent list of 355 targets to ensure a complete and comprehensive coverage of each foreground galaxy mass, radius and inclination. The resulting extinction maps will serve as a library for SNIa measurements, galaxy SED modelling and ISM turbulence measurements.

  17. A NEW TEST OF THE STATISTICAL NATURE OF THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    A novel statistic is proposed to examine the hypothesis that all cluster galaxies are drawn from the same luminosity distribution (LD). In such a 'statistical model' of galaxy LD, the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are simply the statistical extreme of the galaxy population. Using a large sample of nearby clusters, we show that BCGs in high luminosity clusters (e.g., L tot ∼> 4 x 10 11 h -2 70 L sun ) are unlikely (probability ≤3 x 10 -4 ) to be drawn from the LD defined by all red cluster galaxies more luminous than M r = -20. On the other hand, BCGs in less luminous clusters are consistent with being the statistical extreme. Applying our method to the second brightest galaxies, we show that they are consistent with being the statistical extreme, which implies that the BCGs are also distinct from non-BCG luminous, red, cluster galaxies. We point out some issues with the interpretation of the classical tests proposed by Tremaine and Richstone (TR) that are designed to examine the statistical nature of BCGs, investigate the robustness of both our statistical test and those of TR against difficulties in photometry of galaxies of large angular size, and discuss the implication of our findings on surveys that use the luminous red galaxies to measure the baryon acoustic oscillation features in the galaxy power spectrum.

  18. FE K EMISSION AND ABSORPTION FEATURES IN THE XMM-EPIC SPECTRUM OF THE SEYFERT GALAXY IC 4329A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, A.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2001-01-01

    We present a re-analysis of the XMM-Newton long-look of the X-ray bright Seyfert galaxy IC 4329a. The Fe K bandpass is dominated by two peaks, consistent with emission from neutral or near-neutral Fe Ka and KP. A relativistic diskline model whereby both peaks are the result of one doubly-peaked diskline profile is found to be a poor description of the data. Models using two relativistic disklines are found to describe the emission profile well. A low-inclination, moderately-relativistic dual-diskline model is possible if the contribution from narrow components, due to distant material, is small or absent. A high-inclination, moderately relativistic profile for each peak is possible if there are roughly equal contributions from both the broad and narrow components. Upper limits on Fe XXV and Fe XXVI emission and absorption at the systemic velocity of IC 4329a are obtained. We also present the results of RXTE monitoring of this source obtained so far; the combined XMM-Newton and RXTE data sets allow us to explore the time-resolved spectral behavior of this source on time scales ranging from hours to 2 years. We find no strong evidence for variability of the Fe Ka emission line on any time scale probed, likely due to the minimal level of continuum variability. We detect a narrow absorption line, at a energy of 7.68 keV in the rest frame of the source; its significance has been confirmed using Monte Carlo simulations. This feature is most likely due to absorption from Fe XXVI blueshifted to approximately 0.1c relative to the systemic velocity, making IC 4329a the lowest-redshift AGN known with a high-velocity, highly-ionized outflow component. As is often the case with similar outflows seen in high-luminosity quasars, the estimated mass outflow rate is larger than the inflow accretion rate, signaling that the outflow represents a substantial portion of the total energy budget of the AGN. The outflow could arise from a radiatively-driven disk wind, or it may be in the

  19. Using the CMB angular power spectrum to study Dark Matter-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, Ryan J.; Boehm, Céline; Lesgourgues, Julien

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the impact of Dark Matter-photon interactions on the CMB angular power spectrum. Using the one-year data release of the Planck satellite, we derive an upper bound on the Dark Matter-photon elastic scattering cross section of σ DM−γ ≤ 8 × 10 −31 (m DM /GeV) cm 2 (68% CL) if the cross section is constant and a present-day value of σ DM−γ ≤ 6 × 10 −40 (m DM /GeV) cm 2 (68% CL) if it scales as the temperature squared. For such a limiting cross section, both the B-modes and the TT angular power spectrum are suppressed with respect to ΛCDM predictions for ℓ∼>500 and ℓ∼>3000 respectively, indicating that forthcoming data from CMB polarisation experiments and Planck could help to constrain and characterise the physics of the dark sector. This essentially initiates a new type of dark matter search that is independent of whether dark matter is annihilating, decaying or asymmetric. Thus, any CMB experiment with the ability to measure the temperature and/or polarisation power spectra at high ℓ should be able to investigate the potential interactions of dark matter and contribute to our fundamental understanding of its nature

  20. Modelling redshift space distortion in the post-reionization H I 21-cm power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debanjan; Bharadwaj, Somnath

    2018-05-01

    The post-reionization H I 21-cm signal is an excellent candidate for precision cosmology, this however requires accurate modelling of the expected signal. Sarkar et al. have simulated the real space H I 21-cm signal and have modelled the H I power spectrum as P_{{H I}}(k)=b^2 P(k), where P(k) is the dark matter power spectrum and b(k) is a (possibly complex) scale-dependent bias for which fitting formulas have been provided. This paper extends these simulations to incorporate redshift space distortion and predicts the expected redshift space H I 21-cm power spectrum P^s_{{H I}}(k_{\\perp },k_{allel }) using two different prescriptions for the H I distributions and peculiar velocities. We model P^s_{{H I}}(k_{\\perp },k_{allel }), assuming that it is the product of P_{{H I}}(k)=b^2 P(k) with a Kaiser enhancement term and a Finger of God (FoG) damping which has σp the pair velocity dispersion as a free parameter. Considering several possibilities for the bias and the damping profile, we find that the models with a scale-dependent bias and a Lorentzian damping profile best fit the simulated P^s_{{H I}}(k_{\\perp },k_{allel }) over the entire range 1 ≤ z ≤ 6. The best-fitting value of σp falls approximately as (1 + z)-m with m = 2 and 1.2, respectively, for the two different prescriptions. The model predictions are consistent with the simulations for k models underpredict P^s_2(k) at large k, and the fit is restricted to k < 0.15 Mpc-1.

  1. Computation of the power spectrum in chaotic ¼λφ4 inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Clara; Villalba, Víctor M.

    2012-01-01

    The phase-integral approximation devised by Fröman and Fröman, is used for computing cosmological perturbations in the quartic chaotic inflationary model. The phase-integral formulas for the scalar power spectrum are explicitly obtained up to fifth order of the phase-integral approximation. As in previous reports (Rojas 2007b, 2007c and 2009), we point out that the accuracy of the phase-integral approximation compares favorably with the numerical results and those obtained using the slow-roll and uniform approximation methods

  2. Computation of the power spectrum in chaotic ¼λφ{sup 4} inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Clara [Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios de la Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Carretera Panamericana Km. 11, Caracas 1020A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Villalba, Víctor M., E-mail: clararoj@gmail.com, E-mail: Victor.Villalba@monash.edu [School of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia)

    2012-01-01

    The phase-integral approximation devised by Fröman and Fröman, is used for computing cosmological perturbations in the quartic chaotic inflationary model. The phase-integral formulas for the scalar power spectrum are explicitly obtained up to fifth order of the phase-integral approximation. As in previous reports (Rojas 2007b, 2007c and 2009), we point out that the accuracy of the phase-integral approximation compares favorably with the numerical results and those obtained using the slow-roll and uniform approximation methods.

  3. Exploring the Powerful Ionised Wind in the Seyfert Galaxy PG1211+143

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, Ken

    2013-10-01

    Highly-ionised high-speed winds in AGN (UFOs) were first detected with XMM-Newton a decade ago, and are now established as a key factor in the study of SMBH accretion, and in the growth and metal enrichment of their host galaxies. However, information on the ionisation and dynamical structure, and the ultimate fate of UFOs remains very limited. We request a 600ks extended XMM-Newton study of the prototype UFO PG1211+143 in AO-13, to obtain high quality EPIC and RGS spectra, to map the flow structure and variability, while seeking evidence for the anticipated interaction with the ISM and possible conversion of the energetic wind to a momentum-driven flow.

  4. One-dimensional power spectrum and neutrino mass in the spectra of BOSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borde, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    The framework of the studies presented in this thesis is the one-dimensional power spectrum of the transmitted flux in the Lyman-alpha forests. The Lyman-alpha forest is an absorption pattern seen in the spectra of high redshift quasars corresponding to the absorption of the quasar light by the hydrogen clouds along the line of sight. It is a powerful cosmological tool as it probes relatively small scales, of the order of a few Mpc. It is also sensible to small non-linear effects such as the one induced by massive neutrinos. First, we have developed two independent methods to measure the one-dimensional power spectrum of the transmitted flux in the Lyman-alpha forest. The first method is based on a Fourier transform, and the second on a maximum likelihood estimator. The two methods are independent and have different systematic uncertainties. The determination of the noise level in the data spectra was subject to a novel treatment, because of its significant impact on the derived power spectrum. We applied the two methods to 13,821 quasar spectra from SDSS-III/BOSS DR9 selected from a larger sample of over 60,000 spectra on the basis of their high quality, large signal-to-noise ratio, and good spectral resolution. The power spectra measured using either approach are in good agreement over all twelve redshift bins from =2.2 to =4.4, and scales from 0.001 (km/s)"-"1 to 0.02 (km/s)"-"1. We carefully determined the methodological and instrumental systematic uncertainties of our measurements. Then, we present a suite of cosmological N-body simulations with cold dark matter, baryons and neutrinos aiming at modeling the low-density regions of the IGM as probed by the Lyman-alpha forests at high redshift. The simulations are designed to match the requirements imposed by the quality of BOSS and eBOSS data. They are made using either 768"3 or 192"3 particles of each type, spanning volumes ranging from (25 Mpc/h)"3 for high-resolution simulations to (100 Mpc/h)"3 for large

  5. Instantaneous response spectrum in seismic testing of nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrone, A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of instantaneous response spectrum (IRS) as the response of single degree of freedom oscillators at a particular time. It demonstrates that a shake table random motion whose standard TRS envelops the RRS does not necessarily satisfy the enveloping requirement instantaneously. That is, any one (or more) instantaneous required response spectrum (IRRS) is not enveloped by any instantaneous test response spectrum (ITRS). Response spectra from different time histories, including single frequency sine beat motion used in resonance testing, are compared for enveloping with maximum response and with the actual response at particular times. These comparisons are given for the enveloping of RRS and IRRS derived with a time history response calculated at a particular building elevation of a nuclear power plant. For the test motion, several of the most severe ITRS derived with a modified EL Centro motion and with a sine beat motion with ten cycles per beat were used. It is shown that although the TRS with the modified EL Centro motion enveloped the given RRS, the selected modified EL Centro ITRS did not envelop the corresponding IRRS. With the sine beat motion, even though the TRS did not fully envelop the given RRS, the resulting sine beat ITRS did not require a larger factor for full IRRS enveloping than those of the modified EL Centro motion

  6. Developmental trajectories of resting EEG power: an endophenotype of autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L Tierney

    Full Text Available Current research suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD is characterized by asynchronous neural oscillations. However, it is unclear whether changes in neural oscillations represent an index of the disorder or are shared more broadly among both affected and unaffected family members. Additionally, it remains unclear how early these differences emerge in development and whether they remain constant or change over time. In this study we examined developmental trajectories in spectral power in infants at high- or low-risk for ASD. Spectral power was extracted from resting EEG recorded over frontal regions of the scalp when infants were 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. We used multilevel modeling to assess change over time between risk groups in the delta, theta, low alpha, high alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The results indicated that across all bands, spectral power was lower in high-risk infants as compared to low-risk infants at 6-months of age. Furthermore high-risk infants showed different trajectories of change in spectral power in the subsequent developmental window indicating that not only are the patterns of change different, but that group differences are dynamic within the first two years of life. These findings remained the same after removing data from a subset of participants who displayed ASD related behaviors at 24 or 36 months. These differences in the nature of the trajectories of EEG power represent important endophenotypes of ASD.

  7. KiDS-450: the tomographic weak lensing power spectrum and constraints on cosmological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhlinger, F.; Viola, M.; Joachimi, B.; Hoekstra, H.; van Uitert, E.; Hildebrandt, H.; Choi, A.; Erben, T.; Heymans, C.; Joudaki, S.; Klaes, D.; Kuijken, K.; Merten, J.; Miller, L.; Schneider, P.; Valentijn, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    We present measurements of the weak gravitational lensing shear power spectrum based on 450 ° ^2 of imaging data from the Kilo Degree Survey. We employ a quadratic estimator in two and three redshift bins and extract band powers of redshift autocorrelation and cross-correlation spectra in the multipole range 76 ≤ ℓ ≤ 1310. The cosmological interpretation of the measured shear power spectra is performed in a Bayesian framework assuming a ΛCDM model with spatially flat geometry, while accounting for small residual uncertainties in the shear calibration and redshift distributions as well as marginalizing over intrinsic alignments, baryon feedback and an excess-noise power model. Moreover, massive neutrinos are included in the modelling. The cosmological main result is expressed in terms of the parameter combination S_8 ≡ σ _8 √{Ω_m/0.3} yielding S8 = 0.651 ± 0.058 (three z-bins), confirming the recently reported tension in this parameter with constraints from Planck at 3.2σ (three z-bins). We cross-check the results of the three z-bin analysis with the weaker constraints from the two z-bin analysis and find them to be consistent. The high-level data products of this analysis, such as the band power measurements, covariance matrices, redshift distributions and likelihood evaluation chains are available at http://kids.strw.leidenuniv.nl.

  8. Constraints on neutrino masses from Lyman-alpha forest power spectrum with BOSS and XQ-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yèche, Christophe; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Baur, Julien; Bourboux, Hélion du Mas des, E-mail: christophe.yeche@cea.fr, E-mail: nathalie.palanque-delabrouille@cea.fr, E-mail: julien.baur@cea.fr, E-mail: helion.du-mas-des-bourboux@cea.fr [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-06-01

    We present constraints on masses of active and sterile neutrinos in the context of the ΛCDMν and ΛWDM models, respectively. We use the one-dimensional Lyα-forest power spectrum from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) measured by Palanque-Delabrouille et al. [1], and from the VLT/XSHOOTER legacy survey (XQ-100). In this paper, we present our own measurement of the publicly released XQ-100 quasar spectra, focusing in particular on an improved determination of the spectrograph resolution that allows us to push to smaller scales than the public release and reach k -modes of 0.070 s km{sup −1}. We compare the obtained 1D Lyα flux power spectrum to the one measured by Irsic et al. [2] to k -modes of 0.057 s km{sup −1}. Fitting Lyα data alone leads to cosmological parameters in excellent agreement with the values derived independently from Planck 2015 Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data. Combining BOSS and XQ-100 Lyα power spectra, we constrain the sum of neutrino masses to ∑ m {sub ν} < 0.8 eV (95% C.L.) including all identified sources of systematic uncertainties. With the addition of CMB data, this bound is tightened to ∑ m {sub ν} < 0.14 eV (95% C.L.). With their sensitivity to small scales, Lyα data are ideal to constrain ΛWDM models. Using XQ-100 alone, we issue lower bounds on pure dark matter particles: m {sub X} ∼> 2.08 : keV (95% C.L.) for early decoupled thermal relics, and m {sub s} ∼> 10.2 : keV (95% C.L.) for non-resonantly produced right-handed neutrinos. Combining the 1D Lyα-forest power spectrum measured by BOSS and XQ-100, we improve the two bounds to m {sub X} ∼> 4.17 : keV and m {sub s} ∼> 25.0 : keV (95% C.L.), slightly more constraining than what was achieved in Baur et al. 2015 [3] with BOSS data alone. The 3 σ bound shows a more significant improvement, increasing from m {sub X} ∼> 2.74 : keV for BOSS alone to m {sub X} ∼> 3.10 : keV for the combined BOSS

  9. Optical emission line spectra of Seyfert galaxies and radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Many radio galaxies have strong emission lines in their optical spectra, similar to the emission lines in the spectra of Seyfert galaxies. The range of ionization extends from [O I] and [N I] through [Ne V] and [Fe VII] to [Fe X]. The emission-line spectra of radio galaxies divide into two types, narrow-line radio galaxies whose spectra are indistinguishable from Seyfert 2 galaxies, and broad-line radio galaxies whose spectra are similar to Seyfert 1 galaxies. However on the average the broad-line radio galaxies have steeper Balmer decrements, stronger [O III] and weaker Fe II emission than the Seyfert 1 galaxies, though at least one Seyfert 1 galaxy not known to be a radio source has a spectrum very similar to typical broad-line radio galaxies. Intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies exist that show various mixtures of the Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 properties, and the narrow-line or Seyfert 2 property seems to be strongly correlated with radio emission. (Auth.)

  10. Elementary Theoretical Forms for the Spatial Power Spectrum of Earth's Crustal Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, C.

    1998-01-01

    The magnetic field produced by magnetization in Earth's crust and lithosphere can be distinguished from the field produced by electric currents in Earth's core because the spatial magnetic power spectrum of the crustal field differs from that of the core field. Theoretical forms for the spectrum of the crustal field are derived by treating each magnetic domain in the crust as the point source of a dipole field. The geologic null-hypothesis that such moments are uncorrelated is used to obtain the magnetic spectrum expected from a randomly magnetized, or unstructured, spherical crust of negligible thickness. This simplest spectral form is modified to allow for uniform crustal thickness, ellipsoidality, and the polarization of domains by an periodically reversing, geocentric axial dipole field from Earth's core. Such spectra are intended to describe the background crustal field. Magnetic anomalies due to correlated magnetization within coherent geologic structures may well be superimposed upon this background; yet representing each such anomaly with a single point dipole may lead to similar spectral forms. Results from attempts to fit these forms to observational spectra, determined via spherical harmonic analysis of MAGSAT data, are summarized in terms of amplitude, source depth, and misfit. Each theoretical spectrum reduces to a source factor multiplied by the usual exponential function of spherical harmonic degree n due to geometric attenuation with attitude above the source layer. The source factors always vary with n and are approximately proportional to n(exp 3) for degrees 12 through 120. The theoretical spectra are therefore not directly proportional to an exponential function of spherical harmonic degree n. There is no radius at which these spectra are flat, level, or otherwise independent of n.

  11. Anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum in the f(ϕ)F2 mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Peloso, Marco; Ricciardone, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    A suitable coupling of the inflaton φ to a vector kinetic term F2 gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations. We compute the cosmological perturbations ζ that result from such coupling by taking into account the classical vector field that unavoidably gets generated at large scales during inflation. This generically results in a too-anisotropic power spectrum of ζ. Specifically, the anisotropy exceeds the 1% level (10% level) if inflation lasts ˜5 e-folds (˜50 e-folds) more than the minimal amount required to produce the cosmic microwave background modes. This conclusion applies, among others, to the application of this mechanism for magnetogenesis, for anisotropic inflation, and for the generation of anisotropic perturbations at the end of inflation through a waterfall field coupled to the vector (in this case, the unavoidable contribution that we obtain is effective all throughout inflation, and it is independent of the waterfall field). For a tuned duration of inflation, a 1% (10%) anisotropy in the power spectrum corresponds to an anisotropic bispectrum which is enhanced like the local one in the squeezed limit, and with an effective local fNL˜3(˜30). More in general, a significant anisotropy of the perturbations may be a natural outcome of all models that sustain higher than 0 spin fields during inflation.

  12. On the soft limit of the large scale structure power spectrum. UV dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garny, Mathias

    2015-08-01

    We derive a non-perturbative equation for the large scale structure power spectrum of long-wavelength modes. Thereby, we use an operator product expansion together with relations between the three-point function and power spectrum in the soft limit. The resulting equation encodes the coupling to ultraviolet (UV) modes in two time-dependent coefficients, which may be obtained from response functions to (anisotropic) parameters, such as spatial curvature, in a modified cosmology. We argue that both depend weakly on fluctuations deep in the UV. As a byproduct, this implies that the renormalized leading order coefficient(s) in the effective field theory (EFT) of large scale structures receive most of their contribution from modes close to the non-linear scale. Consequently, the UV dependence found in explicit computations within standard perturbation theory stems mostly from counter-term(s). We confront a simplified version of our non-perturbative equation against existent numerical simulations, and find good agreement within the expected uncertainties. Our approach can in principle be used to precisely infer the relevance of the leading order EFT coefficient(s) using small volume simulations in an 'anisotropic separate universe' framework. Our results suggest that the importance of these coefficient(s) is a ∝ 10% effect, and plausibly smaller.

  13. Balance of excitation and inhibition determines 1/f power spectrum in neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, F; Herrmann, H J; de Arcangelis, L

    2017-04-01

    The 1/f-like decay observed in the power spectrum of electro-physiological signals, along with scale-free statistics of the so-called neuronal avalanches, constitutes evidence of criticality in neuronal systems. Recent in vitro studies have shown that avalanche dynamics at criticality corresponds to some specific balance of excitation and inhibition, thus suggesting that this is a basic feature of the critical state of neuronal networks. In particular, a lack of inhibition significantly alters the temporal structure of the spontaneous avalanche activity and leads to an anomalous abundance of large avalanches. Here, we study the relationship between network inhibition and the scaling exponent β of the power spectral density (PSD) of avalanche activity in a neuronal network model inspired in Self-Organized Criticality. We find that this scaling exponent depends on the percentage of inhibitory synapses and tends to the value β = 1 for a percentage of about 30%. More specifically, β is close to 2, namely, Brownian noise, for purely excitatory networks and decreases towards values in the interval [1, 1.4] as the percentage of inhibitory synapses ranges between 20% and 30%, in agreement with experimental findings. These results indicate that the level of inhibition affects the frequency spectrum of resting brain activity and suggest the analysis of the PSD scaling behavior as a possible tool to study pathological conditions.

  14. Power spectrum analysis of polarized emission from the Canadian galactic plane survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, R. A.; Rosolowsky, E. W. [University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC, V1V 1V7 (Canada); Kothes, R.; Landecker, T. L. [National Research Council Canada, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Box 248, Penticton, BC, V2A 6J9 (Canada)

    2014-05-20

    Angular power spectra are calculated and presented for the entirety of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey polarization data set at 1.4 GHz covering an area of 1060 deg{sup 2}. The data analyzed are a combination of data from the 100 m Effelsberg Telescope, the 26 m Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, and the Synthesis Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, allowing all scales to be sampled down to arcminute resolution. The resulting power spectra cover multipoles from ℓ ≈ 60 to ℓ ≈ 10{sup 4} and display both a power-law component at low multipoles and a flattening at high multipoles from point sources. We fit the power spectrum with a model that accounts for these components and instrumental effects. The resulting power-law indices are found to have a mode of 2.3, similar to previous results. However, there are significant regional variations in the index, defying attempts to characterize the emission with a single value. The power-law index is found to increase away from the Galactic plane. A transition from small-scale to large-scale structure is evident at b = 9°, associated with the disk-halo transition in a 15° region around l = 108°. Localized variations in the index are found toward H II regions and supernova remnants, but the interpretation of these variations is inconclusive. The power in the polarized emission is anticorrelated with bright thermal emission (traced by Hα emission) indicating that the thermal emission depolarizes background synchrotron emission.

  15. Dynamical aspects of galaxy clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fall, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    Some recent work on the origin and evolution of galaxy clustering is reviewed, particularly within the context of the gravitational instability theory and the hot big-bang cosmological model. Statistical measures of clustering, including correlation functions and multiplicity functions, are explained and discussed. The close connection between galaxy formation and clustering is emphasized. Additional topics include the dependence of galaxy clustering on the spectrum of primordial density fluctuations and the mean mass density of the Universe. (author)

  16. INVERSE COMPTON X-RAY HALOS AROUND HIGH-z RADIO GALAXIES: A FEEDBACK MECHANISM POWERED BY FAR-INFRARED STARBURSTS OR THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smail, Ian [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Blundell, Katherine M. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Lehmer, B. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Alexander, D. M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-01

    We report the detection of extended X-ray emission around two powerful radio galaxies at z {approx} 3.6 (4C 03.24 and 4C 19.71) and use these to investigate the origin of extended, inverse Compton (IC) powered X-ray halos at high redshifts. The halos have X-ray luminosities of L {sub X} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} and sizes of {approx}60 kpc. Their morphologies are broadly similar to the {approx}60 kpc long radio lobes around these galaxies suggesting they are formed from IC scattering by relativistic electrons in the radio lobes, of either cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons or far-infrared photons from the dust-obscured starbursts in these galaxies. These observations double the number of z > 3 radio galaxies with X-ray-detected IC halos. We compare the IC X-ray-to-radio luminosity ratios for the two new detections to the two previously detected z {approx} 3.8 radio galaxies. Given the similar redshifts, we would expect comparable X-ray IC luminosities if millimeter photons from the CMB are the dominant seed field for the IC emission (assuming all four galaxies have similar ages and jet powers). Instead we see that the two z {approx} 3.6 radio galaxies, which are {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign fainter in the far-infrared than those at z {approx} 3.8, also have {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign fainter X-ray IC emission. Including data for a further six z {approx}> 2 radio sources with detected IC X-ray halos from the literature, we suggest that in the more compact, majority of radio sources, those with lobe sizes {approx}<100-200 kpc, the bulk of the IC emission may be driven by scattering of locally produced far-infrared photons from luminous, dust-obscured starbursts within these galaxies, rather than millimeter photons from the CMB. The resulting X-ray emission appears sufficient to ionize the gas on {approx}100-200 kpc scales around these systems and thus helps form the extended, kinematically quiescent Ly{alpha} emission line

  17. INFLUENCE OF THE ORTHOGONALLY POLARIZED BACK REFLECTIONS ON THE POWER AND RADIATION SPECTRUM OF SUPERLUMINESCENT DIODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Mukhtubayev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the back reflections influence on the spectrum for optical radiation source of superluminescent diode type and have provided optimal operating conditions of the radiation source. The feature of the research method is the usage of a fiber polarization controller and an optical mirror coated on the end of an optical fiber. The studies were conducted with two sources of optical radiation: ThorLabs superluminescent diode series S5FC1005SXL and LED module ELED-1550-1-E-9-SM1-FA-CW. It was revealed that at the value of back reflections equal to -13 dB relative to the output power source, a negative impact on power and spectral characteristics of the source with an optical power of 2.3 µW is beginning to appear. It was also confirmed that at the increase of the radiation power by increasing the source pumping current, back reflection influence is exhibiting at a lower level of back reflections. The results obtained need to be considered when designing fiber optic sensors in order to eliminate the effect of back reflections on the sources of optical radiation having been studied in this paper.

  18. Reconstruction of real-space linear matter power spectrum from multipoles of BOSS DR12 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the power spectrum (PS) multipoles using the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 12 (DR12) sample are analyzed [1]. The based model for the analysis is the so-called TNS quasi-linear model and the analysis provides the multipoles up to the hexadecapole [2]. Thus, one might be able to recover the real-space linear matter PS by using the combinations of multipoles to investigate the cosmology [3]. We provide the analytic form of the ratio of quadrupole (hexadecapole) to monopole moments of the quasi-linear PS including the Fingers-of-God (FoG) effect to recover the real-space PS in the linear regime. One expects that observed values of the ratios of multipoles should be consistent with those of the linear theory at large scales. Thus, we compare the ratios of multipoles of the linear theory, including the FoG effect with the measured values. From these, we recover the linear matter power spectra in real-space. These recovered power spectra are consistent with the linear matter power spectra.

  19. Power noise spectrum classification in the problem of the IBR-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargel, M.; Kitowski, J.; Pepelyshev, Yu.N.

    1988-01-01

    The classification spectrum results of random fluctuations in the IBR-2 energy pulse are presented. The work is performed for the application of the obtained results to the reactor diagnostics and the study of its noise uncontrolled states. For classification of the spectra the method of pattern recognition based upon the ISODATA heuristic algorithm is used. It is shown that a set of noise uncontrolled reactor states, registered during the reactor operation period at power of 0.4-2 MVt with the first variant of moving reflector (1983-1986) is formed into 4(5) most typical states. Each of the states corresponds to the general conditions of the reactor core cooling and provides the normal work of the moving reflector. However, these states differ in coolant flow, power level and peculiarities of the moving reflector rotation regime. One type of anomal power noise, connected with some disorder in the moving reflctor work, is isolated. This work also presents the possibility of control over the state of moving reflectors according to the change in the amplitude of power oscillations at some frequences. The reactor noise classification results can be used as the data bank for the IBR-2 reactor diagnostic system

  20. Association between power law coefficients of the anatomical noise power spectrum and lesion detectability in breast imaging modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Abbey, Craig K.; Boone, John M.

    2013-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a parameter extracted from a power function fit to the anatomical noise power spectrum, β, may be predictive of breast mass lesion detectability in x-ray based medical images of the breast. In this investigation, the value of β was compared with a number of other more widely used parameters, in order to determine the relationship between β and these other parameters. This study made use of breast CT data sets, acquired on two breast CT systems developed in our laboratory. A total of 185 breast data sets in 183 women were used, and only the unaffected breast was used (where no lesion was suspected). The anatomical noise power spectrum computed from two-dimensional region of interests (ROIs), was fit to a power function (NPS(f) = α f-β), and the exponent parameter (β) was determined using log/log linear regression. Breast density for each of the volume data sets was characterized in previous work. The breast CT data sets analyzed in this study were part of a previous study which evaluated the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve performance using simulated spherical lesions and a pre-whitened matched filter computer observer. This ROC information was used to compute the detectability index as well as the sensitivity at 95% specificity. The fractal dimension was computed from the same ROIs which were used for the assessment of β. The value of β was compared to breast density, detectability index, sensitivity, and fractal dimension, and the slope of these relationships was investigated to assess statistical significance from zero slope. A statistically significant non-zero slope was considered to be a positive association in this investigation. All comparisons between β and breast density, detectability index, sensitivity at 95% specificity, and fractal dimension demonstrated statistically significant association with p performance. Specifically, lower values of β were associated with lower breast density

  1. Tunable high-power narrow-spectrum external-cavity diode laser based on tapered amplifier at 668 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Erbert, G.; Sumpf, B.

    2010-01-01

    A 668 nm tunable high-power narrow-spectrum diode laser system based on a tapered semiconductor optical amplifier in external cavity is demonstrated. The laser system is tunable from 659 to 675 nm. As high as 1.38 W output power is obtained at 668.35 nm. The emission spectral bandwidth is less than...

  2. Linear perturbation theory for tidal streams and the small-scale CDM power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovy, Jo; Erkal, Denis; Sanders, Jason L.

    2017-04-01

    Tidal streams in the Milky Way are sensitive probes of the population of low-mass dark matter subhaloes predicted in cold dark matter (CDM) simulations. We present a new calculus for computing the effect of subhalo fly-bys on cold streams based on the action-angle representation of streams. The heart of this calculus is a line-of-parallel-angle approach that calculates the perturbed distribution function of a stream segment by undoing the effect of all relevant impacts. This approach allows one to compute the perturbed stream density and track in any coordinate system in minutes for realizations of the subhalo distribution down to 105 M⊙, accounting for the stream's internal dispersion and overlapping impacts. We study the statistical properties of density and track fluctuations with large suites of simulations of the effect of subhalo fly-bys. The one-dimensional density and track power spectra along the stream trace the subhalo mass function, with higher mass subhaloes producing power only on large scales, while lower mass subhaloes cause structure on smaller scales. We also find significant density and track bispectra that are observationally accessible. We further demonstrate that different projections of the track all reflect the same pattern of perturbations, facilitating their observational measurement. We apply this formalism to data for the Pal 5 stream and make a first rigorous determination of 10^{+11}_{-6} dark matter subhaloes with masses between 106.5 and 109 M⊙ within 20 kpc from the Galactic centre [corresponding to 1.4^{+1.6}_{-0.9} times the number predicted by CDM-only simulations or to fsub(r matter is clumpy on the smallest scales relevant for galaxy formation.

  3. The Properties of Primordial Stars and Galaxies measured from the 21-cm Global Spectrum using the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Bowman, Judd D.; Bradley, Richard F.; Fialkov, Anastasia; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Jones, Dayton L.; Kasper, Justin; Loeb, Abraham; Mirocha, Jordan; Monsalve, Raul A.; Rapetti, David; Tauscher, Keith; Wollack, Edward

    2017-01-01

    DARE is a mission concept designed to observe the formation of primordial stars, black holes, and galaxies (z=11-35) by measuring their spectral effects on the redshifted 21-cm hydrogen line. The UV and X-ray radiation emitted by these first objects ionized and heated the intergalactic medium and imprinted characteristic features in the 21-cm spectrum. The 1.4 GHz signal is redshifted into the radio band 40-120 MHz. DARE will take advantage of the quietest RF environment in the inner solar system by using the Moon as a shield from human radio frequency interference and solar emissions via observations on the lunar farside. DARE’s science objectives are to determine: when the first stars turned on and their properties, when the first black holes began accreting and their masses, the reionization history of the early Universe, and if evidence exists for exotic physics in the Dark Ages such as Dark Matter decay. Wideband crossed-dipole antennas, pilot tone stablized radiometric receivers, a polarimeter, and a digital spectrometer constitute the science instrument. DARE’s radiometer is precisely calibrated with a featureless spectral response, controlled systematics, and heritage from CMB missions. Models for the instrument main beam and sidelobes, antenna reflection coefficient, gain variations, and calibrations will be validated with electromagnetic simulations, laboratory and anechoic chamber measurements, and verified on-orbit. The unique frequency structure of the 21-cm spectrum, its uniformity over large angular scales, and its unpolarized state are unlike the spectrally featureless, spatially-varying, polarized emission of the bright Galactic foreground, allowing the signal to be cleanly separated from the foreground. The 21-cm signal will be extracted in the presence of foregrounds using a Bayesian framework with a Markov Chain Monto Carlo (MCMC) numerical inference technique. The DARE data analysis pipeline enables efficient, simultaneous, and self

  4. Reconstruction of a direction-dependent primordial power spectrum from Planck CMB data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakovic, Amel; Hunt, Paul; Mukherjee, Suvodip; Sarkar, Subir; Souradeep, Tarun

    2018-02-01

    We consider the possibility that the primordial curvature perturbation is direction-dependent. To first order this is parameterised by a quadrupolar modulation of the power spectrum and results in statistical anisotropy of the CMB, which can be quantified using `bipolar spherical harmonics'. We compute these for the Planck DR2-2015 SMICA map and estimate the noise covariance from Planck Full Focal Plane 9 simulations. A constant quadrupolar modulation is detected with 2.2 σ significance, dropping to 2σ when the primordial power is assumed to scale with wave number k as a power law. Going beyond previous work we now allow the spectrum to have arbitrary scale-dependence. Our non-parametric reconstruction then suggests several spectral features, the most prominent at k ~ 0.006 Mpc‑1. When a constant quadrupolar modulation is fitted to data in the range 0.005 <= k/Mpc‑1 <= 0.008, its preferred directions are found to be related to the cosmic hemispherical asymmetry and the CMB dipole. To determine the significance we apply two test statistics to our reconstructions of the quadrupolar modulation from data, against reconstructions of realisations of noise only. With a test statistic sensitive only to the amplitude of the modulation, the reconstructions from the multipole range 30 <= l <= 1200 are unusual with 2.1σ significance. With the second test statistic, sensitive also to the direction, the significance rises to 6.9σ. Our approach is easily generalised to include other data sets such as polarisation, large-scale structure and forthcoming 21-cm line observations which will enable these anomalies to be investigated further.

  5. The effect of blood acceleration on the ultrasound power Doppler spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchenko, O. S.; Barannik, E. A.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study the influence of blood acceleration and time window length on the power Doppler spectrum for Gaussian ultrasound beams. The work has been carried out on the basis of continuum model of the ultrasound scattering from inhomogeneities in fluid flow. Correlation function of fluctuations has been considered for uniformly accelerated scatterers, and the resulting power Doppler spectra have been calculated. It is shown that within the initial phase of systole uniformly accelerated slow blood flow in pulmonary artery and aorta tends to make the correlation function about 4.89 and 7.83 times wider, respectively, than the sensitivity function of typical probing system. Given peak flow velocities, the sensitivity function becomes, vice versa, about 4.34 and 3.84 times wider, respectively, then the correlation function. In these limiting cases, the resulting spectra can be considered as Gaussian. The optimal time window duration decreases with increasing acceleration of blood flow and equals to 11.62 and 7.54 ms for pulmonary artery and aorta, respectively. The width of the resulting power Doppler spectrum is shown to be defined mostly by the wave vector of the incident field, the duration of signal and the acceleration of scatterers in the case of low flow velocities. In the opposite case geometrical properties of probing field and the average velocity itself are more essential. In the sense of signal-noise ratio, the optimal duration of time window can be found. Abovementioned results may contribute to the improved techniques of Doppler ultrasound diagnostics of cardiovascular system.

  6. Power spectrum analysis of the x-ray scatter signal in mammography and breast tomosynthesis projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Bliznakova, Kristina; Fei, Baowei

    2013-10-01

    To analyze the frequency domain characteristics of the signal in mammography images and breast tomosynthesis projections with patient tissue texture due to detected scattered x-rays. Acquisitions of x-ray projection images of 19 different patient breasts were simulated using previously acquired volumetric patient images. Acquisition of these images was performed with a dedicated breast CT prototype system, and the images were classified into voxels representing skin, adipose, and glandular tissue with a previously validated automated algorithm. The classified three dimensional images then underwent simulated mechanical compression representing that which is performed during acquisition of mammography and breast tomosynthesis images. The acquisition of projection images of each patient breast was simulated using Monte Carlo methods with each simulation resulting in two images: one of the primary (non-scattered) signal and one of the scatter signal. To analyze the scatter signal for both mammography and breast tomosynthesis, two projections images of each patient breast were simulated, one with the x-ray source positioned at 0° (mammography and central tomosynthesis projection) and at 30° (wide tomosynthesis projection). The noise power spectra (NPS) for both the scatter signal alone and the total signal (primary + scatter) for all images were obtained and the combined results of all patients analyzed. The total NPS was fit to the expected power-law relationship NPS(f) = k/f β and the results were compared with those previously published on the power spectrum characteristics of mammographic texture. The scatter signal alone was analyzed qualitatively and a power-law fit was also performed. The mammography and tomosynthesis projections of three patient breasts were too small to analyze, so a total of 16 patient breasts were analyzed. The values of β for the total signal of the 0° projections agreed well with previously published results. As expected, the scatter

  7. Testing a direction-dependent primordial power spectrum with observations of the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yinzhe; Efstathiou, George; Challinor, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Statistical isotropy is often assumed in cosmology and should be tested rigorously against observational data. We construct simple quadratic estimators to reconstruct asymmetry in the primordial power spectrum from CMB temperature and polarization data and verify their accuracy using simulations with quadrupole power asymmetry. We show that the Planck mission, with its millions of signal-dominated modes of the temperature anisotropy, should be able to constrain the amplitude of any spherical multipole of a scale-invariant quadrupole asymmetry at the 0.01 level (2σ). Almost independent constraints can be obtained from polarization at the 0.03 level after four full-sky surveys, providing an important consistency test. If the amplitude of the asymmetry is large enough, constraining its scale dependence should become possible. In scale-free quadrupole models with 1% asymmetry, consistent with the current limits from WMAP temperature data (after correction for beam asymmetries), Planck should constrain the spectral index q of power-law departures from asymmetry to Δq=0.3. Finally, we show how to constrain models with axisymmetry in the same framework. For scale-free quadrupole models, Planck should constrain the direction of the asymmetry to a 1σ accuracy of about 2 degrees using one year of temperature data.

  8. Delay analysis of a point-to-multipoint spectrum sharing network with CSI based power allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we analyse the delay performance of a point-to-multipoint cognitive radio network which is sharing the spectrum with a point-to-multipoint primary network. The channel is assumed to be independent but not identically distributed and has Nakagami-m fading. A constraint on the peak transmit power of the secondary user transmitter (SU-Tx) is also considered in addition to the peak interference power constraint. Based on the constraints, a power allocation scheme which requires knowledge of the instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of the interference links is derived. The SU-Tx is assumed to be equipped with a buffer and is modelled using the M/G/1 queueing model. Closed form expressions for the probability distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the packet transmission time is derived. Using the PDF, the expressions for the moments of transmission time are obtained. In addition, using the moments, the expressions for the performance measures such as the total average waiting time of packets and the average number of packets waiting in the buffer of the SU-Tx are also obtained. Numerical simulations corroborate the theoretical results. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Spacecraft radio scattering observations of the power spectrum of electron density fluctuations in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, R.; Armstrong, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Solar wind electron density power spectra in the solar equatorial region are inferred from observations of phase scintillations and spectral broadening made with the Viking, Helios, and Pioneer spacecraft. The heliocentric distance range covered is 2--215 R/sub S/, and for some observations close to the sun the spectra extend to fluctuation frequencies as high as 100 Hz. For heliocentric distances > or approx. =20 R/sub S/ the equivalent spacecraft-measured one-dimensional density spectrym V/sub n/e is well modeled by a single power law (f/sup -alpha/) in the frequency range 10 -4 -5 x 10 -2 Hz. The mean spectral index α is 1.65, very close to the Kolmogorov value of 5/3. Under the assumption of constant solar wind speed, V/sub n/e varies as R/sup -3.45/, where R is heliocentric distance. Within 20 R/sub S/, V/sub n/e can still be modeled by a single power law over the frequency range 10 -3 -10 1 Hz, but the spectral index becomes smaller, αapprox.1.1. The flattening of the density spectrum with 20 R/sub S/ is presumably associated with energy deposition in the near-sun region and acceleration of the solar wind

  10. Sinusoidal Parameter Estimation Using Quadratic Interpolation around Power-Scaled Magnitude Spectrum Peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt James Werner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT of a discrete-time signal has a limited frequency definition. Quadratic interpolation over the three DFT samples surrounding magnitude peaks improves the estimation of parameters (frequency and amplitude of resolved sinusoids beyond that limit. Interpolating on a rescaled magnitude spectrum using a logarithmic scale has been shown to improve those estimates. In this article, we show how to heuristically tune a power scaling parameter to outperform linear and logarithmic scaling at an equivalent computational cost. Although this power scaling factor is computed heuristically rather than analytically, it is shown to depend in a structured way on window parameters. Invariance properties of this family of estimators are studied and the existence of a bias due to noise is shown. Comparing to two state-of-the-art estimators, we show that an optimized power scaling has a lower systematic bias and lower mean-squared-error in noisy conditions for ten out of twelve common windowing functions.

  11. Fiber-distributed Ultra-wideband noise radar with steerable power spectrum and colorless base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianyu; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jianbin; Wei, Li; Pan, Shilong; Wang, Lixian; Liu, Jianguo; Zhu, Ninghua

    2014-03-10

    A fiber-distributed Ultra-wideband (UWB) noise radar was achieved, which consists of a chaotic UWB noise source based on optoelectronic oscillator (OEO), a fiber-distributed transmission link, a colorless base station (BS), and a cross-correlation processing module. Due to a polarization modulation based microwave photonic filter and an electrical UWB pass-band filter embedded in the feedback loop of the OEO, the power spectrum of chaotic UWB signal could be shaped and notch-filtered to avoid the spectrum-overlay-induced interference to the narrow band signals. Meanwhile, the wavelength-reusing could be implemented in the BS by means of the distributed polarization modulation-to-intensity modulation conversion. The experimental comparison for range finding was carried out as the chaotic UWB signal was notch-filtered at 5.2 GHz and 7.8 GHz or not. Measured results indicate that space resolution with cm-level could be realized after 3-km fiber transmission thanks to the excellent self-correlation property of the UWB noise signal provided by the OEO. The performance deterioration of the radar raised by the energy loss of the notch-filtered noise signal was negligible.

  12. Power spectrum oscillations from Planck-suppressed operators in effective field theory motivated monodromy inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Layne C.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a phenomenological model of inflation where the inflaton is the phase of a complex scalar field Φ . Planck-suppressed operators of O (f5/Mpl) modify the geometry of the vev ⟨Φ ⟩ at first order in the decay constant f , which adds a first-order periodic term to the definition of the canonically normalized inflaton ϕ . This correction to the inflaton induces a fixed number of extra oscillatory terms in the potential V ˜θp. We derive the same result in a toy scenario where the vacuum ⟨Φ ⟩ is an ellipse with an arbitrarily large eccentricity. These extra oscillations change the form of the power spectrum as a function of scale k and provide a possible mechanism for differentiating effective field theory motivated inflation from models where the angular shift symmetry is a gauge symmetry.

  13. Constraining models of f(R) gravity with Planck and WiggleZ power spectrum data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, Jason; Hu, Bin; Parkinson, David

    2014-03-01

    In order to explain cosmic acceleration without invoking ``dark'' physics, we consider f(R) modified gravity models, which replace the standard Einstein-Hilbert action in General Relativity with a higher derivative theory. We use data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy survey to probe the formation of structure on large scales which can place tight constraints on these models. We combine the large-scale structure data with measurements of the cosmic microwave background from the Planck surveyor. After parameterizing the modification of the action using the Compton wavelength parameter B0, we constrain this parameter using ISiTGR, assuming an initial non-informative log prior probability distribution of this cross-over scale. We find that the addition of the WiggleZ power spectrum provides the tightest constraints to date on B0 by an order of magnitude, giving log10(B0) explanation.

  14. Predicting speech intelligibility in adverse conditions: evaluation of the speech-based envelope power spectrum model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    conditions by comparing predictions to measured data from [Kjems et al. (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126 (3), 1415-1426] where speech is mixed with four different interferers, including speech-shaped noise, bottle noise, car noise, and cafe noise. The model accounts well for the differences in intelligibility......The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) [Jørgensen and Dau (2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 130 (3), 1475–1487] estimates the envelope signal-to-noise ratio (SNRenv) of distorted speech and accurately describes the speech recognition thresholds (SRT) for normal-hearing listeners...... observed for the different interferers. None of the standardized models successfully describe these data....

  15. Statistical measurement of power spectrum density of large aperture optical component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiancheng; Xu Qiao; Chai Liqun

    2010-01-01

    According to the requirement of ICF, a method based on statistical theory has been proposed to measure the power spectrum density (PSD) of large aperture optical components. The method breaks the large-aperture wavefront into small regions, and obtains the PSD of the large-aperture wavefront by weighted averaging of the PSDs of the regions, where the weight factor is each region's area. Simulation and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. They also show that, the obtained PSDs of the large-aperture wavefront by statistical method and sub-aperture stitching method fit well, when the number of small regions is no less than 8 x 8. The statistical method is not sensitive to translation stage's errors and environment instabilities, thus it is appropriate for PSD measurement during the process of optical fabrication. (authors)

  16. A power filter for the detection of burst events based on time-frequency spectrum estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidi, G M; Cuoco, E; Vicere, A

    2004-01-01

    We propose as a statistic for the detection of bursts in a gravitational wave interferometer the 'energy' of the events estimated with a time-dependent calculation of the spectrum. This statistic has an asymptotic Gaussian distribution with known statistical moments, which makes it possible to perform a uniformly most powerful test (McDonough R N and Whalen A D 1995 Detection of Signals in Noise (New York: Academic)) on the energy mean. We estimate the receiver operating characteristic (ROC, from the same book) of this statistic for different levels of the signal-to-noise ratio in the specific case of a simulated noise having the spectral density expected for Virgo, using test signals taken from a library of possible waveforms emitted during the collapse of the core of type II supernovae

  17. Counts and colors of faint galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kron, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The color distribution of faint galaxies is an observational dimension which has not yet been fully exploited, despite the important constraints obtainable for galaxy evolution and cosmology. Number-magnitude counts alone contain very diluted information about the state of things because galaxies from a wide range in redshift contribute to the counts at each magnitude. The most-frequently-seen type of galaxy depends on the luminosity function and the relative proportions of galaxies of different spectral classes. The addition of color as a measured quantity can thus considerably sharpen the interpretation of galaxy counts since the apparent color depends on the redshift and rest-frame spectrum. (Auth.)

  18. Galaxy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, F.

    1987-01-01

    Galaxies are not isolated systems of stars and gas, ''independent universes'' as believed by astronomers about ten years ago, but galaxies are formed and evolve by interaction with their environment, and in particular with their nearest neighbors. Gravitational interactions produce enormous tides in the disk of spiral galaxies, generate spiral arms and trigger bursts of star formation. Around elliptical galaxies, the collision with a small companion produces a series of waves, or shells. A galaxy interaction leads, in most cases, to the coalescence of the two coliders; therefore all galaxies are not formed just after the Big-Bang, when matter recombines: second generation galaxies are still forming now by galaxy mergers, essentially elliptical galaxies, but also compact dwarfs. Collisions between galaxies could also trigger activity in nuclei for radiogalaxies and quasars [fr

  19. Optimized Large-scale CMB Likelihood and Quadratic Maximum Likelihood Power Spectrum Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerløw, E.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Eriksen, H. K.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Jewell, J. B.; Plaszczynski, S.; Wehus, I. K.

    2015-11-01

    We revisit the problem of exact cosmic microwave background (CMB) likelihood and power spectrum estimation with the goal of minimizing computational costs through linear compression. This idea was originally proposed for CMB purposes by Tegmark et al., and here we develop it into a fully functioning computational framework for large-scale polarization analysis, adopting WMAP as a working example. We compare five different linear bases (pixel space, harmonic space, noise covariance eigenvectors, signal-to-noise covariance eigenvectors, and signal-plus-noise covariance eigenvectors) in terms of compression efficiency, and find that the computationally most efficient basis is the signal-to-noise eigenvector basis, which is closely related to the Karhunen-Loeve and Principal Component transforms, in agreement with previous suggestions. For this basis, the information in 6836 unmasked WMAP sky map pixels can be compressed into a smaller set of 3102 modes, with a maximum error increase of any single multipole of 3.8% at ℓ ≤ 32 and a maximum shift in the mean values of a joint distribution of an amplitude-tilt model of 0.006σ. This compression reduces the computational cost of a single likelihood evaluation by a factor of 5, from 38 to 7.5 CPU seconds, and it also results in a more robust likelihood by implicitly regularizing nearly degenerate modes. Finally, we use the same compression framework to formulate a numerically stable and computationally efficient variation of the Quadratic Maximum Likelihood implementation, which requires less than 3 GB of memory and 2 CPU minutes per iteration for ℓ ≤ 32, rendering low-ℓ QML CMB power spectrum analysis fully tractable on a standard laptop.

  20. Noise power spectrum of the fixed pattern noise in digital radiography detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sik, E-mail: dskim@hufs.ac.kr [Department of Electronics Engineering, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Gyeonggi-do 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun [R& D Center, DRTECH Co., Gyeonggi-do 13558 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The fixed pattern noise in radiography image detectors is caused by various sources. Multiple readout circuits with gate drivers and charge amplifiers are used to efficiently acquire the pixel voltage signals. However, the multiple circuits are not identical and thus yield nonuniform system gains. Nonuniform sensitivities are also produced from local variations in the charge collection elements. Furthermore, in phosphor-based detectors, the optical scattering at the top surface of the columnar CsI growth, the grain boundaries, and the disorder structure causes spatial sensitivity variations. These nonuniform gains or sensitivities cause fixed pattern noise and degrade the detector performance, even though the noise problem can be partially alleviated by using gain correction techniques. Hence, in order to develop good detectors, comparative analysis of the energy spectrum of the fixed pattern noise is important. Methods: In order to observe the energy spectrum of the fixed pattern noise, a normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) of the fixed pattern noise is considered in this paper. Since the fixed pattern noise is mainly caused by the nonuniform gains, we call the spectrum the gain NNPS. We first asymptotically observe the gain NNPS and then formulate two relationships to calculate the gain NNPS based on a nonuniform-gain model. Since the gain NNPS values are quite low compared to the usual NNPS, measuring such a low NNPS value is difficult. By using the average of the uniform exposure images, a robust measuring method for the gain NNPS is proposed in this paper. Results: By using the proposed measuring method, the gain NNPS curves of several prototypes of general radiography and mammography detectors were measured to analyze their fixed pattern noise properties. We notice that a direct detector, which is based on the a-Se photoconductor, showed lower gain NNPS than the indirect-detector case, which is based on the CsI scintillator. By comparing the gain

  1. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  2. On Asymmetries in Powerful Radio Sources and the Quasar/Galaxy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria,. Nsukka, Nigeria. ∗ e-mail: ... source orientation and relativistic beaming effects in a sample of powerful non-symmetric ..... shown with open circles in Fig. 6, which ...

  3. Third-Order Density Perturbation and One-Loop Power Spectrum in Dark-Energy-Dominated Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Ryuichi

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the third-order density perturbation and the one-loop correction to the linear power spectrum in the dark-energy cosmological model. Our main interest is to understand the dark-energy effect on baryon acoustic oscillations in a quasi-nonlinear regime ($k \\approx 0.1h$/Mpc). Analytical solutions and simple fitting formulae are presented for the dark-energy model with the general time-varying equation of state $w(a)$. It turns out that the power spectrum coincides with the approx...

  4. Halo Pressure Profile through the Skew Cross-power Spectrum of the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich Effect and CMB Lensing in Planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmons, Nicholas; Cooray, Asantha; Feng, Chang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, Brian [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2017-11-01

    We measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) skewness power spectrum in Planck , using frequency maps of the HFI instrument and the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) component map. The two-to-one skewness power spectrum measures the cross-correlation between CMB lensing and the thermal SZ effect. We also directly measure the same cross-correlation using the Planck CMB lensing map and the SZ map and compare it to the cross-correlation derived from the skewness power spectrum. We model fit the SZ power spectrum and CMB lensing–SZ cross-power spectrum via the skewness power spectrum to constrain the gas pressure profile of dark matter halos. The gas pressure profile is compared to existing measurements in the literature including a direct estimate based on the stacking of SZ clusters in Planck .

  5. Resource Allocation with Adaptive Spread Spectrum OFDM Using 2D Spreading for Power Line Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudais Jean-Yves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bit-loading techniques based on orthogonal frequency division mutiplexing (OFDM are frequently used over wireline channels. In the power line context, channel state information can reasonably be obtained at both transmitter and receiver sides, and adaptive loading can advantageously be carried out. In this paper, we propose to apply loading principles to an spread spectrum OFDM (SS-OFDM waveform which is a multicarrier system using 2D spreading in the time and frequency domains. The presented algorithm handles the subcarriers, spreading codes, bits and energies assignment in order to maximize the data rate and the range of the communication system. The optimization is realized at a target symbol error rate and under spectral mask constraint as usually imposed. The analytical study shows that the merging principle realized by the spreading code improves the rate and the range of the discrete multitone (DMT system in single and multiuser contexts. Simulations have been run over measured power line communication (PLC channel responses and highlight that the proposed system is all the more interesting than the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is low.

  6. Resource Allocation with Adaptive Spread Spectrum OFDM Using 2D Spreading for Power Line Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudais, Jean-Yves; Crussière, Matthieu

    2007-12-01

    Bit-loading techniques based on orthogonal frequency division mutiplexing (OFDM) are frequently used over wireline channels. In the power line context, channel state information can reasonably be obtained at both transmitter and receiver sides, and adaptive loading can advantageously be carried out. In this paper, we propose to apply loading principles to an spread spectrum OFDM (SS-OFDM) waveform which is a multicarrier system using 2D spreading in the time and frequency domains. The presented algorithm handles the subcarriers, spreading codes, bits and energies assignment in order to maximize the data rate and the range of the communication system. The optimization is realized at a target symbol error rate and under spectral mask constraint as usually imposed. The analytical study shows that the merging principle realized by the spreading code improves the rate and the range of the discrete multitone (DMT) system in single and multiuser contexts. Simulations have been run over measured power line communication (PLC) channel responses and highlight that the proposed system is all the more interesting than the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low.

  7. Statistical Analysis of Solar PV Power Frequency Spectrum for Optimal Employment of Building Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Sharma, Isha [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a statistical analysis of the frequency spectrum of solar photovoltaic (PV) power output is conducted. This analysis quantifies the frequency content that can be used for purposes such as developing optimal employment of building loads and distributed energy resources. One year of solar PV power output data was collected and analyzed using one-second resolution to find ideal bounds and levels for the different frequency components. The annual, seasonal, and monthly statistics of the PV frequency content are computed and illustrated in boxplot format. To examine the compatibility of building loads for PV consumption, a spectral analysis of building loads such as Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) units and water heaters was performed. This defined the bandwidth over which these devices can operate. Results show that nearly all of the PV output (about 98%) is contained within frequencies lower than 1 mHz (equivalent to ~15 min), which is compatible for consumption with local building loads such as HVAC units and water heaters. Medium frequencies in the range of ~15 min to ~1 min are likely to be suitable for consumption by fan equipment of variable air volume HVAC systems that have time constants in the range of few seconds to few minutes. This study indicates that most of the PV generation can be consumed by building loads with the help of proper control strategies, thereby reducing impact on the grid and the size of storage systems.

  8. Does power mobility training impact a child's mastery motivation and spectrum of EEG activity? An exploratory project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Farris, John P; Aldrich, Naomi J; Rhodes, Samhita

    2017-08-30

    The purposes of this exploratory project were: (1) to evaluate the impact of power mobility training with a child who has multiple, severe impairments and (2) to determine if the child's spectrum of electroencephalography (EEG) activity changed during power mobility training. A single-subject A-B-A-B research design was conducted with a four-week duration for each phase. Two target behaviours were explored: (1) mastery motivation assessed via the dimensions of mastery questionnaire (DMQ) and (2) EEG data collected under various conditions. Power mobility skills were also assessed. The participant was a three-year, two-month-old girl with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy, gross motor function classification system level V. Each target behaviour was measured weekly. During intervention phases, power mobility training was provided. Improvements were noted in subscale scores of the DMQ. Short-term and long-term EEG changes were also noted. Improvements were noted in power mobility skills. The participant in this exploratory project demonstrated improvements in power mobility skill and function. EEG data collection procedures and variability in an individual's EEG activity make it difficult to determine if the participant's spectrum of EEG activity actually changed in response to power mobility training. Additional studies are needed to investigate the impact of power mobility training on the spectrum of EEG activity in children who have multiple, severe impairments. Implications for Rehabilitation Power mobility training appeared to be beneficial for a child with multiple, severe impairments though the child may never become an independent, community-based power wheelchair user. Electroencephalography may be a valuable addition to the study of power mobility use in children with multiple, severe impairments. Power mobility training appeared to impact mastery motivation (the internal drive to solve complex problems and master new skills) in a child who has multiple

  9. Power spectrum of electrical discharges seen on Earth and at Saturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a method for deriving the radio spectrum of electrical discharges from the properties of the time series of charges crossing the discharge gap. This result is applied to the observed spectra of both terrestrial lightning and Saturn electrical discharge(s) (SED). SED occurrence and power density are shown to have subtle, yet important, differences from these observables as they have been described in the last 5 years. It is demonstrated that throughout the episode of Voyager 1's (V1) closest approach to Saturn, SED probably occurred continuously in frequency upward at least from the upper limit of Saturn kilometric radiation at about 800 kHz. This is so despite the fact that in the dynamic spectra a strip in time and frequency in which SED do not occur extends in frequency from 1.3 MHz up to the oft-discussed lower limit of SED in the leading edge of the episode of closest approach. The greater power in SED that occurred after V1 closest approach is emphasized: it is shown to be consistent with the lower frequency of the maximum in their power spectra. The variable gap length factor is also invoked to explain the variable frequency cutoff in the range 5-15 MHz of the episodes before closest approach. The SED source moved along a single arc defining both preencounter and postencounter events. The discharge gap lengths were a continuous function of position along this arc, with the shortest gaps lying about 5 degree west (as seen from the spacecraft) of the noon meridian of Saturn and the longest gaps lying on the nightside of the planet

  10. Fourier power spectrum characteristics of face photographs: attractiveness perception depends on low-level image properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Claudia; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U; Langner, Oliver; Wiese, Holger; Redies, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether low-level processed image properties that are shared by natural scenes and artworks - but not veridical face photographs - affect the perception of facial attractiveness and age. Specifically, we considered the slope of the radially averaged Fourier power spectrum in a log-log plot. This slope is a measure of the distribution of special frequency power in an image. Images of natural scenes and artworks possess - compared to face images - a relatively shallow slope (i.e., increased high spatial frequency power). Since aesthetic perception might be based on the efficient processing of images with natural scene statistics, we assumed that the perception of facial attractiveness might also be affected by these properties. We calculated Fourier slope and other beauty-associated measurements in face images and correlated them with ratings of attractiveness and age of the depicted persons (Study 1). We found that Fourier slope - in contrast to the other tested image properties - did not predict attractiveness ratings when we controlled for age. In Study 2A, we overlaid face images with random-phase patterns with different statistics. Patterns with a slope similar to those in natural scenes and artworks resulted in lower attractiveness and higher age ratings. In Studies 2B and 2C, we directly manipulated the Fourier slope of face images and found that images with shallower slopes were rated as more attractive. Additionally, attractiveness of unaltered faces was affected by the Fourier slope of a random-phase background (Study 3). Faces in front of backgrounds with statistics similar to natural scenes and faces were rated as more attractive. We conclude that facial attractiveness ratings are affected by specific image properties. An explanation might be the efficient coding hypothesis.

  11. Galaxy mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, N.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis contains a series of four papers dealing with the effects of interactions among galaxies during the epoch of cluster formation. Galaxy interactions are investigated and the results incorporated in numerical simulations of the formation of groups and clusters of galaxies. The role of galaxy interactions is analysed in the more general context of simulations of an expanding universe. The evolution of galaxies in rich clusters is discussed. The results of the investigations are presented and their relation to other work done in the field are briefly reviewed and an attempt is made to link galaxy mergers to the occurrence of activity in galactic nuclei. (Auth.)

  12. Will kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich measurements enhance the science return from galaxy redshift surveys?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Naonori S.; Okumura, Teppei [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Spergel, David N., E-mail: nao.s.sugiyama@gmail.com, E-mail: tokumura@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton NJ 08544-0010 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Yes. Future CMB experiments such as Advanced ACTPol and CMB-S4 should achieve measurements with S/N of > 0.1 for the typical host halo of galaxies in redshift surveys. These measurements will provide complementary measurements of the growth rate of large scale structure f and the expansion rate of the Universe H to galaxy clustering measurements. This paper emphasizes that there is significant information in the anisotropy of the relative pairwise kSZ measurements. We expand the relative pairwise kSZ power spectrum in Legendre polynomials and consider up to its octopole. Assuming that the noise in the filtered maps is uncorrelated between the positions of galaxies in the survey, we derive a simple analytic form for the power spectrum covariance of the relative pairwise kSZ temperature in redshift space. While many previous studies have assumed optimistically that the optical depth of the galaxies τ{sub T} in the survey is known, we marginalize over τ{sub T}, to compute constraints on the growth rate f and the expansion rate H . For realistic survey parameters, we find that combining kSZ and galaxy redshift survey data reduces the marginalized 1-σ errors on H and f to ∼50-70% compared to the galaxy-only analysis.

  13. Correlation between peak energy and Fourier power density spectrum slope in gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichiara, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Amati, L.; Frontera, F.; Margutti, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The origin of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission still defies explanation, in spite of recent progress made, for example, on the occasional presence of a thermal component in the spectrum along with the ubiquitous non-thermal component that is modelled with a Band function. The combination of finite duration and aperiodic modulations make GRBs hard to characterise temporally. Although correlations between GRB luminosity and spectral hardness on one side and time variability on the other side have long been known, the loose and often arbitrary definition of the latter makes the interpretation uncertain. Aims: We characterise the temporal variability in an objective way and search for a connection with rest-frame spectral properties for a number of well-observed GRBs. Methods: We studied the individual power density spectra (PDS) of 123 long GRBs with measured redshift, rest-frame peak energy Ep,I of the time-averaged ν Fν spectrum, and well-constrained PDS slope α detected with Swift, Fermi and past spacecraft. The PDS were modelled with a power law either with or without a break adopting a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. Results: We find a highly significant Ep,I-α anti-correlation. The null hypothesis probability is ~10-9. Conclusions: In the framework of the internal shock synchrotron model, the Ep,I-α anti-correlation can hardly be reconciled with the predicted Ep,I ∝ Γ-2, unless either variable microphysical parameters of the shocks or continual electron acceleration are assumed. Alternatively, in the context of models based on magnetic reconnection, the PDS slope and Ep,I are linked to the ejecta magnetisation at the dissipation site, so that more magnetised outflows would produce more variable GRB light curves at short timescales (≲1 s), shallower PDS, and higher values of Ep,I. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  14. Estimating local noise power spectrum from a few FBP-reconstructed CT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Rongping, E-mail: rongping.zeng@fda.hhs.gov; Gavrielides, Marios A.; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Li, Qin; Myers, Kyle J. [Division of Imaging, Diagnostics, and Software Reliability, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, CDRH, FDA, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Traditional ways to estimate 2D CT noise power spectrum (NPS) involve an ensemble average of the power spectrums of many noisy scans. When only a few scans are available, regions of interest are often extracted from different locations to obtain sufficient samples to estimate the NPS. Using image samples from different locations ignores the nonstationarity of CT noise and thus cannot accurately characterize its local properties. The purpose of this work is to develop a method to estimate local NPS using only a few fan-beam CT scans. Methods: As a result of FBP reconstruction, the CT NPS has the same radial profile shape for all projection angles, with the magnitude varying with the noise level in the raw data measurement. This allows a 2D CT NPS to be factored into products of a 1D angular and a 1D radial function in polar coordinates. The polar separability of CT NPS greatly reduces the data requirement for estimating the NPS. The authors use this property and derive a radial NPS estimation method: in brief, the radial profile shape is estimated from a traditional NPS based on image samples extracted at multiple locations. The amplitudes are estimated by fitting the traditional local NPS to the estimated radial profile shape. The estimated radial profile shape and amplitudes are then combined to form a final estimate of the local NPS. We evaluate the accuracy of the radial NPS method and compared it to traditional NPS methods in terms of normalized mean squared error (NMSE) and signal detectability index. Results: For both simulated and real CT data sets, the local NPS estimated with no more than six scans using the radial NPS method was very close to the reference NPS, according to the metrics of NMSE and detectability index. Even with only two scans, the radial NPS method was able to achieve a fairly good accuracy. Compared to those estimated using traditional NPS methods, the accuracy improvement was substantial when a few scans were available

  15. Power allocation and achievable data rate in spectrum-sharing channels under adaptive primary service outage constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    used, provides an interference-tolerable zone. Based on this gap, a secondary user (SU) has an increased opportunity to access the licensed spectrum and to determine the transmit power it should use to keep the PU's quality-of-service (QoS) unaffected

  16. Bulgeless galaxies at intermediate redshift: Sample selection, color properties, and the existence of powerful active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzocchi, Luca; Leonardo, Elvira; Grossi, Marco; Afonso, José; Fernandes, Cristina; Retrê, João [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa, Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisbon (Portugal); Filho, Mercedes E.; Lobo, Catarina [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Griffith, Roger L. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Anton, Sonia [Centro de Investigação em Ciências Geo-Espaciais, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Henriques, Bruno [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Messias, Hugo [Departamento de astronomía, Av. Esteban Iturra 6to piso, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción (Chile)

    2014-02-10

    We present a catalog of bulgeless galaxies, which includes 19,225 objects selected in four of the deepest, largest multi-wavelength data sets available—COSMOS, AEGIS, GEMS, and GOODS—at intermediate redshift (0.4 ≤ z ≤ 1.0). The morphological classification was provided by the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog (ACS-GC), which used publicly available data obtained with the ACS instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. Rest-frame photometric quantities were derived using kcorrect. We analyze the properties of the sample and the evolution of pure-disk systems with redshift. Very massive [log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) > 10.5] bulgeless galaxies contribute to ∼30% of the total galaxy population number density at z ≥ 0.7, but their number density drops substantially with decreasing redshift. We show that only a negligible fraction of pure disks appear to be quiescent systems, and red sequence bulgeless galaxies show indications of dust-obscured star formation. X-ray catalogs were used to search for X-ray emission within our sample. After visual inspection and detailed parametric morphological fitting we identify 30 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that reside in galaxies without a classical bulge. The finding of such peculiar objects at intermediate redshift shows that while AGN growth in merger-free systems is a rare event (0.2% AGN hosts in this sample of bulgeless galaxies), it can indeed happen relatively early in the history of the universe.

  17. Too Fast, Too Furious: A Galaxy's Fatal Plunge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    straight through the dense core of the colliding cluster. "This helps explain the weird X-ray and radio emissions we see," says Keel. "The galaxy is a laboratory for studying how gas can be stripped away when it flies through the hot cluster gas, shutting down star birth and transforming the galaxy." The first suggestion of galactic mayhem in this cluster came in 1994 when the Very Large Array radio telescope near Socorro, N.M., detected an unusual number of radio galaxies in the cluster, called Abell 2125. Radio sources trace both star formation and the feeding of central black holes in galaxy clusters. The radio observations also showed that C153 stood out from the other galaxies as an exceptionally powerful radio source. Keel's team began an extensive program of further observations to uncover details about the galaxies. "This was designed to see what the connection could possibly be between events on the 10-million-light-year scale of the cluster merger and what happens deep inside individual galaxies," says Keel. X-ray observations from the ROSAT satellite (an acronym for the Roentgen Satellite) demonstrated that the cluster contains vast amounts of 36-million-degree Fahrenheit (20-million-degree Kelvin) gas that envelops the galaxies. The gas is concentrated into two main lumps rather than smoothly distributed across the cluster, as is more commonly the case. This bolstered the suspicion that two galaxy clusters are actually colliding. In the mid-to-late 1990s astronomers turned the Mayall 4-meter telescope and the WIYN 3.5-meter telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory on the cluster to analyze the starlight via spectroscopy. They found many star-forming systems and even active galactic black holes fueled by the collision. The disintegrating galaxy C153 stood out dramatically when the KPNO telescopes were used to photomap the cluster in color. Astronomers then trained NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) onto C153 and resolved a bizarre shape. They found that

  18. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  19. Isolated galaxies, pairs, and groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuneva, I.; Kalinkov, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors searched for isolated galaxies, pairs and groups of galaxies in the CfA survey (Huchra et al. 1983). It was assumed that the distances to galaxies are given by R = V/H sub o, where H sub o = 100 km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1) and R greater than 6 Mpc. The searching procedure is close to those, applied to find superclusters of galaxies (Kalinkov and Kuneva 1985, 1986). A sphere with fixed radius r (asterisk) is described around each galaxy. The mean spatial density in the sphere is m. Let G 1 be any galaxy and G 2 be its nearest neighbor at a distance R 2 . If R sub 2 exceeds the 95 percent quintile in the distribution of the distances of the second neighbors, then G 1 is an isolated galaxy. Let the midpoint of G 1 and G 2 be O 2 and r 2 =R 2 2. For the volume V 2 , defined with the radius r 2 , the density D 2 less than k mu, the galaxy G 2 is a single one and the procedure for searching for pairs and groups, beginning with this object is over and we have to pass to another object. Here the authors present the groups - isolated and nonisolated - with n greater than 3, found in the CfA survey in the Northern galactic hemisphere. The parameters used are k = 10 and r (asterisk) = 5 Mpc. Table 1 contains: (1) the group number, (2) the galaxy, nearest to the multiplet center, (3) multiplicity n, (4) the brightest galaxy if it is not listed in (2); (5) and (6) are R.A. and Dec. (1950), (7) - mean distance D in Mpc. Further there are the mean density rho (8) of the multiplet (galaxies Mpc (exp -3)), (9) the density rho (asterisk) for r (asterisk) = 5 Mpc and (10) the density rho sub g for the group with its nearest neighbor. The parenthesized digits for densities in the last three columns are powers of ten

  20. Neural Spike-Train Analyses of the Speech-Based Envelope Power Spectrum Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallapalli, Varsha H.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating hearing impairment is challenging because people with similar degrees of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) often have different speech-recognition abilities. The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) has demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNRENV) from a modulation filter bank provides a robust speech-intelligibility measure across a wider range of degraded conditions than many long-standing models. In the sEPSM, noise (N) is assumed to: (a) reduce S + N envelope power by filling in dips within clean speech (S) and (b) introduce an envelope noise floor from intrinsic fluctuations in the noise itself. While the promise of SNRENV has been demonstrated for normal-hearing listeners, it has not been thoroughly extended to hearing-impaired listeners because of limited physiological knowledge of how SNHL affects speech-in-noise envelope coding relative to noise alone. Here, envelope coding to speech-in-noise stimuli was quantified from auditory-nerve model spike trains using shuffled correlograms, which were analyzed in the modulation-frequency domain to compute modulation-band estimates of neural SNRENV. Preliminary spike-train analyses show strong similarities to the sEPSM, demonstrating feasibility of neural SNRENV computations. Results suggest that individual differences can occur based on differential degrees of outer- and inner-hair-cell dysfunction in listeners currently diagnosed into the single audiological SNHL category. The predicted acoustic-SNR dependence in individual differences suggests that the SNR-dependent rate of susceptibility could be an important metric in diagnosing individual differences. Future measurements of the neural SNRENV in animal studies with various forms of SNHL will provide valuable insight for understanding individual differences in speech-in-noise intelligibility.

  1. Gas density fluctuations in the Perseus Cluster: clumping factor and velocity power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravleva, I.; Churazov, E.; Arevalo, P.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Allen, S. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Forman, W. R.; Sanders, J. S.; Simionescu, A.; Sunyaev, R.; Vikhlinin, A.; Werner, N.

    2015-05-20

    X-ray surface brightness fluctuations in the core of the Perseus Cluster are analysed, using deep observations with the Chandra observatory. The amplitude of gas density fluctuations on different scales is measured in a set of radial annuli. It varies from 7 to 12 per cent on scales of ~10–30 kpc within radii of 30–220 kpc from the cluster centre. Using a statistical linear relation between the observed amplitude of density fluctuations and predicted velocity, the characteristic velocity of gas motions on each scale is calculated. The typical amplitudes of the velocity outside the central 30 kpc region are 90–140 km s-1 on ~20–30 kpc scales and 70–100 km s-1 on smaller scales ~7–10 kpc. The velocity power spectrum (PS) is consistent with cascade of turbulence and its slope is in a broad agreement with the slope for canonical Kolmogorov turbulence. The gas clumping factor estimated from the PS of the density fluctuations is lower than 7–8 per cent for radii ~30–220 kpc from the centre, leading to a density bias of less than 3–4 per cent in the cluster core. Uncertainties of the analysis are examined and discussed. Future measurements of the gas velocities with the Astro-H, Athena and Smart-X observatories will directly measure the gas density–velocity perturbation relation and further reduce systematic uncertainties in this analysis.

  2. FOREGROUND CONTAMINATION IN INTERFEROMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF THE REDSHIFTED 21 cm POWER SPECTRUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, Judd D.; Morales, Miguel F.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.

    2009-01-01

    Subtraction of astrophysical foreground contamination from 'dirty' sky maps produced by simulated measurements of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) has been performed by fitting a third-order polynomial along the spectral dimension of each pixel in the data cubes. The simulations are the first to include the unavoidable instrumental effects of the frequency-dependent primary antenna beams and synthesized array beams. They recover the one-dimensional spherically binned input redshifted 21 cm power spectrum within ∼1% over the scales probed most sensitively by the MWA (0.01 ∼ -1 ) and demonstrate that realistic instrumental effects will not mask the epoch of reionization signal. We find that the weighting function used to produce the dirty sky maps from the gridded visibility measurements is important to the success of the technique. Uniform weighting of the visibility measurements produces the best results, whereas natural weighting significantly worsens the foreground subtraction by coupling structure in the density of the visibility measurements to spectral structure in the dirty sky map data cube. The extremely dense uv-coverage of the MWA was found to be advantageous for this technique and produced very good results on scales corresponding to |u| ∼< 500λ in the uv-plane without any selective editing of the uv-coverage.

  3. Quantitative Diagnosis of Rotor Vibration Fault Using Process Power Spectrum Entropy and Support Vector Machine Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Fei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the diagnosis capacity of rotor vibration fault in stochastic process, an effective fault diagnosis method (named Process Power Spectrum Entropy (PPSE and Support Vector Machine (SVM (PPSE-SVM, for short method was proposed. The fault diagnosis model of PPSE-SVM was established by fusing PPSE method and SVM theory. Based on the simulation experiment of rotor vibration fault, process data for four typical vibration faults (rotor imbalance, shaft misalignment, rotor-stator rubbing, and pedestal looseness were collected under multipoint (multiple channels and multispeed. By using PPSE method, the PPSE values of these data were extracted as fault feature vectors to establish the SVM model of rotor vibration fault diagnosis. From rotor vibration fault diagnosis, the results demonstrate that the proposed method possesses high precision, good learning ability, good generalization ability, and strong fault-tolerant ability (robustness in four aspects of distinguishing fault types, fault severity, fault location, and noise immunity of rotor stochastic vibration. This paper presents a novel method (PPSE-SVM for rotor vibration fault diagnosis and real-time vibration monitoring. The presented effort is promising to improve the fault diagnosis precision of rotating machinery like gas turbine.

  4. Spatial correlation in 3D MIMO channels using fourier coefficients of power spectrums

    KAUST Repository

    Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, an exact closed-form expression for the Spatial Correlation Function (SCF) is derived for the standardized three-dimensional (3D) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel. This novel SCF is developed for a uniform linear array of antennas with non-isotropic antenna patterns. The proposed method resorts to the spherical harmonic expansion (SHE) of plane waves and the trigonometric expansion of Legendre and associated Legendre polynomials to obtain a closed-form expression for the SCF for arbitrary angular distributions and antenna patterns. The resulting expression depends on the underlying angular distributions and antenna patterns through the Fourier Series (FS) coefficients of power azimuth and elevation spectrums. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the SCF being valid for any 3D propagation environment. Numerical results validate the proposed analytical expression and study the impact of angular spreads on the correlation. The derived SCF will help evaluate the performance of correlated 3D MIMO channels in the future. © 2015 IEEE.

  5. The noise power spectrum in CT with direct fan beam reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jongduk; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2010-01-01

    The noise power spectrum (NPS) is a useful metric for understanding the noise content in images. To examine some unique properties of the NPS of fan beam CT, the authors derived an analytical expression for the NPS of fan beam CT and validated it with computer simulations. The nonstationary noise behavior of fan beam CT was examined by analyzing local regions and the entire field-of-view (FOV). This was performed for cases with uniform as well as nonuniform noise across the detector cells and across views. The simulated NPS from the entire FOV and local regions showed good agreement with the analytically derived NPS. The analysis shows that whereas the NPS of a large FOV in parallel beam CT (using a ramp filter) is proportional to frequency, the NPS with direct fan beam FBP reconstruction shows a high frequency roll off. Even in small regions, the fan beam NPS can show a sharp transition (discontinuity) at high frequencies. These effects are due to the variable magnification and therefore are more pronounced as the fan angle increases. For cases with nonuniform noise, the NPS can show the directional dependence and additional effects.

  6. Power spectrum constraints from spectral distortions in the cosmic microwave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wayne; Scott, Douglas; Silk, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Using recent experimental limits on chemical potential distortions from Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Far Infrared Astronomy Satellite (FIRAS), and the large lever-arm spanning the damping of sub-Jeans scale fluctuations to the COBE DMR fluctuations, we set a constraint on the slope of the primordial power spectrum n. It is possible to analytically calculate the contribution over the full range of scales and redshifts, correctly taking into account fluctuation growth and damping as well as thermalization processes. Assuming conservatively that mu is less than 1.76 x 10(exp -4), we find that the 95% upper limit on n is only weakly dependent on other cosmological parameters, e.g., n is less than 1.60 (h=0.5) and n is less than 1.63 (h=1.0) for Omega(sub 0) = 1, with marginally weaker constraints for Omega(sub 0) is less than 1 in a flat model with a cosmological constant.

  7. Nonlinear power spectrum from resummed perturbation theory: a leap beyond the BAO scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmi, Stefano; Pietroni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    A new computational scheme for the nonlinear cosmological matter power spectrum (PS) is presented. Our method is based on evolution equations in time, which can be cast in a form extremely convenient for fast numerical evaluations. A nonlinear PS is obtained in a time comparable to that needed for a simple 1-loop computation, and the numerical implementation is very simple. Our results agree with N-body simulations at the percent level in the BAO range of scales, and at the few-percent level up to k ≅ 1 h/Mpc at z∼>0.5, thereby opening the possibility of applying this tool to scales interesting for weak lensing. We clarify the approximations inherent to this approach as well as its relations to previous ones, such as the Time Renormalization Group, and the multi-point propagator expansion. We discuss possible lines of improvements of the method and its intrinsic limitations by multi streaming at small scales and low redshifts

  8. On the performance of the noise power spectrum from the gain-corrected radiography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Sik; Lee, Eunae

    2018-01-01

    Fixed pattern noise due to nonuniform amplifier gains and scintillator sensitivity should be alleviated in radiography imaging to acquire low-noise x-ray images from detectors. Here, the noise property of the detector is usually evaluated observing the noise power spectrum (NPS). A gain-correction scheme, in which uniformly illuminated images are averaged to design a gain map, can be applied to alleviate the fixed pattern noise problem. The normalized NPS (NNPS) of the gain-corrected image decreases as the number of images for the average increases and converges to an infimum, which can be achieved if the fixed pattern noise is completely removed. If we know the NNPS infimum of the detector, then we can determine the performance of the gain-corrected images compared with the achievable lower bound. We first construct an image-formation model considering the nonuniform gain and then consider two measurement methods based on subtraction and division to estimate the NNPS infimum of the detector. In order to obtain a high-precision NNPS infimum estimate, we consider a time-averaging method. For several flat-panel radiography detectors, we constructed the NNPS infimum measurements and compared them with NNPS values of the gain-corrected images. We observed that the NNPS values of the gain-corrected images approached the NNPS infimum as the number of images for the average increased.

  9. Numerical Study of Tire Hydroplaning Based on Power Spectrum of Asphalt Pavement and Kinetic Friction Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengze Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroplaning is a driving phenomenon threating vehicle’s control stability and safety. It happens when tire rolls on wet pavement with high speed that hydrodynamic force uplifts the tire. Accurate numerical simulation to reveal the mechanism of hydroplaning and evaluate the function of relevant factors in this process is significant. In order to describe the friction behaviors of tire-pavement interaction, kinetic friction coefficient curve of tire rubber and asphalt pavement was obtained by combining pavement surface power spectrum and complex modulus of tread rubber through Persson’s friction theory. Finite element model of tire-fluid-pavement was established in ABAQUS, which was composed of a 225-40-R18 radial tire and three types of asphalt pavement covered with water film. Mechanical responses and physical behaviors of tire-pavement interaction were observed and compared with NASA equation to validate the applicability and accuracy of this model. Then contact force at tire-pavement interface and critical hydroplaning speed influenced by tire inflation pressure, water film thickness, and pavement types were investigated. The results show higher tire inflation pressure, thinner water film, and more abundant macrotexture enhancing hydroplaning speed. The results could be applied to predict hydroplaning speed on different asphalt pavement and improve pavement skid resistance design.

  10. Constraining models of f(R) gravity with Planck and WiggleZ power spectrum data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossett, Jason; Parkinson, David; Hu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    In order to explain cosmic acceleration without invoking ''dark'' physics, we consider f(R) modified gravity models, which replace the standard Einstein-Hilbert action in General Relativity with a higher derivative theory. We use data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy survey to probe the formation of structure on large scales which can place tight constraints on these models. We combine the large-scale structure data with measurements of the cosmic microwave background from the Planck surveyor. After parameterizing the modification of the action using the Compton wavelength parameter B 0 , we constrain this parameter using ISiTGR, assuming an initial non-informative log prior probability distribution of this cross-over scale. We find that the addition of the WiggleZ power spectrum provides the tightest constraints to date on B 0 by an order of magnitude, giving log 10 (B 0 ) < −4.07 at 95% confidence limit. Finally, we test whether the effect of adding the lensing amplitude A Lens and the sum of the neutrino mass ∑m ν is able to reconcile current tensions present in these parameters, but find f(R) gravity an inadequate explanation

  11. Running of featureful primordial power spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, Stefano; Mena, Olga; Miralles, Victor; Ramírez, Héctor; Boubekeur, Lotfi

    2017-06-01

    Current measurements of the temperature and polarization anisotropy power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) seem to indicate that the naive expectation for the slow-roll hierarchy within the most simple inflationary paradigm may not be respected in nature. We show that a primordial power spectrum with localized features could in principle give rise to the observed slow-roll anarchy when fitted to a featureless power spectrum. From a model comparison perspective, and assuming that nature has chosen a featureless primordial power spectrum, we find that, while with mock Planck data there is only weak evidence against a model with localized features, upcoming CMB missions may provide compelling evidence against such a nonstandard primordial power spectrum. This evidence could be reinforced if a featureless primordial power spectrum is independently confirmed from bispectrum and/or galaxy clustering measurements.

  12. Hepatic hemangiomas: spectrum of US appearances on gray-scale, power doppler, and contrast-enhanced US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Won; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Han Joon Koo; Kim, Ah Young; Lee, Hyun Ju; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Young Hoon; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2000-01-01

    Because US plays a key role in the initial evaluation of hepatic hemangiomas, knowledge of the entire spectrum of US appearances of these tumors is important. Most hemangiomas have a distinctive US appearance, and even with those with atypical appearances on conventional gray-scale US, specific diagnoses can be made using pulse-inversion harmonic US with contrast agents. In this essay, we review the spectrum of US appearances of hepatic hemangiomas on conventional gray-scale, power Doppler, and pulse-inversion harmonic US with contrast agents. (author)

  13. Extracting cosmological information from the angular power spectrum of the 2MASS Photometric Redshift catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguera-Antolínez, A.; Bilicki, M.; Branchini, E.; Postiglione, A.

    2018-05-01

    Using the almost all-sky 2MASS Photometric Redshift catalogue (2MPZ) we perform for the first time a tomographic analysis of galaxy angular clustering in the local Universe (z baryon fraction fb=0.14^{+0.09}_{-0.06}, the total matter density parameter Ωm = 0.30 ± 0.06, and the effective linear bias of 2MPZ galaxies beff, which grows from 1.1^{+0.3}_{-0.4} at = 0.05 up to 2.1^{+0.3}_{-0.5} at = 0.2, largely because of the flux-limited nature of the data set. The results obtained here for the local Universe agree with those derived with the same methodology at higher redshifts, and confirm the importance of the tomographic technique for next-generation photometric surveys such as Euclid or Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  14. Enormous Disc of Cool Gas Surrounding the Nearby Powerful Radio Galaxy NGC 612 (PKS 0131-36)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    galaxies in clus- ters appear to be much more devoid of H I gas, as sug- gested by a recent H I survey of the VIRGO cluster by di Serego Alighieri et...120th Street, New York, N.Y. 10027, USA 2Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo, the Netherlands 3Kapteyn...NGC 612. This paper is part of an ongoing study to map the large-scale neutral hydrogen properties of nearby radio galaxies and it presents the first

  15. A study on the spectrum analyzing of internal leak in valve for power plant using acoustic emission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Guk; Lee, Sun Ki; Lee, Jun Shin; Sohn, Seok Man

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the availability of acoustic emission method to the internal leak of the valves at nuclear power plants. The acoustic emission method was applied to the valves at the site, and the background noise was measured for the abnormal plant condition. From the comparison of the background noise data with the experimental results as to relation between leak flow and acoustic signal, the minimum leak flow rates that can be detected by acoustic signal was suggested. When the background levels are higher than the acoustic signal, the method described below was considered that the analysis the remainder among the background noise frequency spectrum and the acoustic signal spectrum become a very useful leak detection method. A few experimental examples of the spectrum analysis that varied the background noise characteristic were given

  16. Effect of focused ultrasound stimulation at different ultrasonic power levels on the local field potential power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yi; Lu Cheng-Biao; Li Xiao-Li

    2015-01-01

    Local field potential (LFP) signals of the rat hippocampus were recorded under noninvasive focused ultrasound stimulation (FUS) with different ultrasonic powers. The LFP mean absolute power was calculated with the Welch algorithm at the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The experimental results demonstrate that the LFP mean absolute power at different frequency bands increases as the ultrasound power increases. (paper)

  17. High-energy gamma-ray and neutrino production in star-forming galaxies across cosmic time: Difficulties in explaining the IceCube data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudoh, Takahiro; Totani, Tomonori; Kawanaka, Norita

    2018-04-01

    We present new theoretical modeling to predict the luminosity and spectrum of gamma-ray and neutrino emission of a star-forming galaxy, from the star formation rate (ψ), gas mass (Mgas), stellar mass, and disk size, taking into account production, propagation, and interactions of cosmic rays. The model reproduces the observed gamma-ray luminosities of nearby galaxies detected by Fermi better than the simple power-law models as a function of ψ or ψMgas. This model is then used to predict the cosmic background flux of gamma-rays and neutrinos from star-forming galaxies, by using a semi-analytical model of cosmological galaxy formation that reproduces many observed quantities of local and high-redshift galaxies. Calibration of the model using gamma-ray luminosities of nearby galaxies allows us to make a more reliable prediction than previous studies. In our baseline model, star-forming galaxies produce about 20% of the isotropic gamma-ray background unresolved by Fermi, and only 0.5% of IceCube neutrinos. Even with an extreme model assuming a hard injection cosmic-ray spectral index of 2.0 for all galaxies, at most 22% of IceCube neutrinos can be accounted for. These results indicate that it is difficult to explain most of the IceCube neutrinos by star-forming galaxies, without violating the gamma-ray constraints from nearby galaxies.

  18. Use of local noise power spectrum and wavelet analysis in quantitative image quality assurance for EPIDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case and Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Yan, Guanghua; Bassett, Philip; Samant, Sanjiv, E-mail: samant@ufl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32608 (United States); Gopal, Arun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate the use of local noise power spectrum (NPS) to characterize image noise and wavelet analysis to isolate defective pixels and inter-subpanel flat-fielding artifacts for quantitative quality assurance (QA) of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs). Methods: A total of 93 image sets including custom-made bar-pattern images and open exposure images were collected from four iViewGT a-Si EPID systems over three years. Global quantitative metrics such as modulation transform function (MTF), NPS, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were computed for each image set. Local NPS was also calculated for individual subpanels by sampling region of interests within each subpanel of the EPID. The 1D NPS, obtained by radially averaging the 2D NPS, was fitted to a power-law function. The r-square value of the linear regression analysis was used as a singular metric to characterize the noise properties of individual subpanels of the EPID. The sensitivity of the local NPS was first compared with the global quantitative metrics using historical image sets. It was then compared with two commonly used commercial QA systems with images collected after applying two different EPID calibration methods (single-level gain and multilevel gain). To detect isolated defective pixels and inter-subpanel flat-fielding artifacts, Haar wavelet transform was applied on the images. Results: Global quantitative metrics including MTF, NPS, and DQE showed little change over the period of data collection. On the contrary, a strong correlation between the local NPS (r-square values) and the variation of the EPID noise condition was observed. The local NPS analysis indicated image quality improvement with the r-square values increased from 0.80 ± 0.03 (before calibration) to 0.85 ± 0.03 (after single-level gain calibration) and to 0.96 ± 0.03 (after multilevel gain calibration), while the commercial QA systems failed to distinguish the image quality improvement between the two

  19. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Rosenfeld, Rogerio, E-mail: fabien@ift.unesp.br, E-mail: rosenfel@ift.unesp.br [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research, Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    The abundance of clusters and the clustering of galaxies are two of the important cosmological probes for current and future large scale surveys of galaxies, such as the Dark Energy Survey. In order to combine them one has to account for the fact that they are not independent quantities, since they probe the same density field. It is important to develop a good understanding of their correlation in order to extract parameter constraints. We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. We employ the framework of the halo model complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions. Indeed, we show that the non-Gaussian covariance becomes dominant at small scales, low redshifts or high cluster masses. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias. We demonstrate that the SSC obeys mathematical inequalities and positivity. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeably better constraints, with improvements of order 20% on cosmological parameters compared to the best single probe, and even greater improvement on HOD parameters, with reduction of error bars by a factor 1.4-4.8. This happens in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales. We conclude that accounting for non-Gaussian effects is required for the joint analysis of these observables in galaxy surveys.

  20. Seeing Baby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible/DSS Click on image for larger version Ultraviolet/GALEX Click on image for larger version Poster Version Click on image for larger version The unique ultraviolet vision of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveals, for the first time, dwarf galaxies forming out of nothing more than pristine gas likely leftover from the early universe. Dwarf galaxies are relatively small collections of stars that often orbit around larger galaxies like our Milky Way. The forming dwarf galaxies shine in the far ultraviolet spectrum, rendered as blue in the call-out on the right hand side of this image. Near ultraviolet light, also obtained by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, is displayed in green, and visible light from the blue part of the spectrum here is represented by red. The clumps (in circles) are distinctively blue, indicating they are primarily detected in far ultraviolet light. The faint blue overlay traces the outline of the Leo Ring, a huge cloud of hydrogen and helium that orbits around two massive galaxies in the constellation Leo (left panel). The cloud is thought likely to be a primordial object, an ancient remnant of material that has remained relatively unchanged since the very earliest days of the universe. Identified about 25 years ago by radio waves, the ring cannot be seen in visible light. Only a portion of the Leo Ring has been imaged in the ultraviolet, but this section contains the telltale ultraviolet signature of recent massive star formation within this ring of pristine gas. Astronomers have previously only seen dwarf galaxies form out of gas that has already been cycled through a galaxy and enriched with metals elements heavier than helium produced as stars evolve. The visible data come from the Digitized Sky Survey of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md. The Leo Ring visible image (left

  1. A Novel Wireless Power Transfer-Based Weighed Clustering Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Method for Cognitive Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin

    2015-10-30

    In a cognitive sensor network (CSN), the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs) becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT)-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF) energy of the primary node (PN) to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability.

  2. A Novel Wireless Power Transfer-Based Weighed Clustering Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Method for Cognitive Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a cognitive sensor network (CSN, the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF energy of the primary node (PN to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability.

  3. A novel power harmonic analysis method based on Nuttall-Kaiser combination window double spectrum interpolated FFT algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Chen, Yiyang; Flesch, Rodolfo C. C.

    2017-11-01

    Harmonics pose a great threat to safe and economical operation of power grids. Therefore, it is critical to detect harmonic parameters accurately to design harmonic compensation equipment. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) is widely used for electrical popular power harmonics analysis. However, the barrier effect produced by the algorithm itself and spectrum leakage caused by asynchronous sampling often affects the harmonic analysis accuracy. This paper examines a new approach for harmonic analysis based on deducing the modifier formulas of frequency, phase angle, and amplitude, utilizing the Nuttall-Kaiser window double spectrum line interpolation method, which overcomes the shortcomings in traditional FFT harmonic calculations. The proposed approach is verified numerically and experimentally to be accurate and reliable.

  4. Measurement of a Peak in the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum from the North American test flight of BOOMERANG

    CERN Document Server

    Mauskopf, P D; De Bernardis, P; Bock, J J; Borrill, J; Boscaleri, A; Crill, B P; De Gasperis, G; De Troia, G; Farese, P; Ferreira, P G; Ganga, K; Giacometti, M; Hanany, S; Hristov, V V; Iacoangeli, A; Jaffe, A H; Lange, A E; Lee, A T; Masi, S; Melchiorri, A; Melchiorri, F; Miglio, L; Montroy, T; Netterfield, C B; Pascale, E; Piacentini, F; Richards, P L; Romeo, G; Ruhl, J E; Scannapieco, E S; Scaramuzzi, F; Stompor, R; Vittorio, N

    2000-01-01

    We describe a measurement of the angular power spectrum of anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from 0.3 degrees to ~10 degrees from the North American test flight of the BOOMERANG experiment. BOOMERANG is a balloon-borne telescope with a bolometric receiver designed to map CMB anisotropies on a Long Duration Balloon flight. During a 6-hour test flight of a prototype system in 1997, we mapped > 200 square degrees at high galactic latitudes in two bands centered at 90 and 150 GHz with a resolution of 26 and 16.6 arcmin FWHM respectively. Analysis of the maps gives a power spectrum with a peak at angular scales of ~1 degree with an amplitude ~70 uK.

  5. Measurement of a peak in the cosmic microwave background power spectrum from the North American test flight of Boomerang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauskopf, P.D.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; Crill, B.P.; Bernardis, P. de; DeGasperis, G.; De Troia, G.; Farese, P.; Ferreira, P.G.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V.V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lange, A.E.; Lee, A.T.; Masi, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melchiorri, F.; Miglio, L.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield, C.B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Richards, P.L.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J.E.; Scannapieco, E.; Scaramuzzi, F.; Stompor, R.; Vittorio, N.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a measurement of the angular power spectrum of anisotrophies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from 0.2 deg to approx. 10 deg. from the test flight of the BOOMERANG experiment. BOOMERANG is a balloon-borne telescope with a bolometric receiver designed to map CMB anisotrophies on a Long Duration Balloon flight. During a 6-hour test flight of a prototype system in 1997, we mapped > 200 square degrees at high galactic latitudes in two bands centered at 90 and 150 GHz with a resolution of 26 and 16.6 arcmin FWHM respectively. Analysis of the maps gives a power spectrum with a peak at angular scales of approx. 1 deg. with an amplitude of approx. 70-muKcmb

  6. Planck intermediate results LI. Features in the cosmic microwave background temperature power spectrum and shifts in cosmological parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Ashdown, M.

    2017-01-01

    never before been measured to cosmic-variance level precision. We have investigated these shifts to determine whether they are within the range of expectation and to understand their origin in the data. Taking our parameter set to be the optical depth of the reionized intergalactic medium τ, the baryon...... density ωb, the matter density ωm, the angular size of the sound horizon θ∗, the spectral index of the primordial power spectrum, ns, and Ase- 2τ (where As is the amplitude of the primordial power spectrum), we have examined the change in best-fit values between a WMAP-like large angular-scale data set...

  7. A Measurement of the Angular Power Spectrum of the CMB from l = 100 to 400

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. D.; Caldwell, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Dorwart, W. B.; Herbig, T.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L. A.; Puchalla, J.; Torbet, E.; Tran, H. T.

    2000-05-01

    We report on a measurement of the angular spectrum of the CMB between l 100 and l 400 made at 144 GHz from Cerro Toco in the Chilean altiplano. When the new data are combined with previous data at 30 and 40 GHz, taken with the same instrument observing the same section of sky, we find: 1) a rise in the angular spectrum to a maximum with δ Tl 85 μ K at l 200 and a fall at l>300, thereby localizing the peak near l 200; and 2) that the anisotropy at l 200 has the spectrum of the CMB. Cosmological implications are discussed.

  8. A computer program for estimating the power-density spectrum of advanced continuous simulation language generated time histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program for performing frequency analysis of time history data is presented. The program uses circular convolution and the fast Fourier transform to calculate power density spectrum (PDS) of time history data. The program interfaces with the advanced continuous simulation language (ACSL) so that a frequency analysis may be performed on ACSL generated simulation variables. An example of the calculation of the PDS of a Van de Pol oscillator is presented.

  9. The cosmic microwave background radiation power spectrum as a random bit generator for symmetric- and asymmetric-key cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeffrey S; Cleaver, Gerald B

    2017-10-01

    In this note, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Radiation is shown to be capable of functioning as a Random Bit Generator, and constitutes an effectively infinite supply of truly random one-time pad values of arbitrary length. It is further argued that the CMB power spectrum potentially conforms to the FIPS 140-2 standard. Additionally, its applicability to the generation of a (n × n) random key matrix for a Vernam cipher is established.

  10. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum at 148 AND 218 GHz from the 2008 Southern Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeep; Marriage, Tobias A.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Battistelli, Elia A.; Bond, J. Richard; Brown, Ben; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. Our results dearly show the second through the seventh acoustic peaks in the CMB power spectrum. The measurements of these higher-order peaks provide an additional test of the ACDM cosmological model. At l > 3000, we detect power in excess of the primary anisotropy spectrum of the CMB. At lower multipoles 500 < l < 3000, we find evidence for gravitational lensing of the CMB in the power spectrum at the 2.8(sigma) level. We also detect a low level of Galactic dust in our maps, which demonstrates that we can recover known faint, diffuse signals.

  11. The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) family: Development, achievements, and current challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Relano-Iborra, Helia; Chabot-Leclerc, Alexandre; Scheidiger, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    have extended the predictive power of the original model to a broad range of conditions. This contribution presents the most recent developments within the sEPSM “family:” (i) A binaural extension, the B-sEPSM [Chabot-Leclerc et al. (2016). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 140(1), 192-205] which combines better......Intelligibility models provide insights regarding the effects of target speech characteristics, transmission channels and/or auditory processing on the speech perception performance of listeners. In 2011, Jørgensen and Dau proposed the speech-based envelope power spectrum model [sEPSM, Jørgensen...

  12. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, J.

    1979-01-01

    The current debate on the origin and evolution of galaxies is reviewed and evidence to support the so-called 'isothermal' and 'adiabatic' fluctuation models considered. It is shown that new theories have to explain the formation of both spiral and elliptical galaxies and the reason for their differences. It is stated that of the most recent models the best indicates that rotating spiral galaxies are formed naturally when gas concentrates in the centre of a great halo and forms stars while ellipticals are explained by later interactions between spiral galaxies and merging, which can cancel out the rotation while producing an elliptical galaxy in which the stars, coming from two original galaxies, follow very elliptical, anisotropic orbits. (UK)

  13. Instantaneous response spectrum in seismic testing of nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrone, A.

    1977-01-01

    Seismic response spectra, as used in seismic analyses, give the maximum responses of single degree of freedom oscillators without consideration of the different time in the seismic time history at which each of the maximum responses occur. For response spectrum seismic analysis, the use of time-independent maximum responses is appropriate. The time dependece is considered in a statistical manner, for multi-degree of freedom systems, usually by combining the modal effects by the square root of the sum of the squares. For seismic testing of electrical equipment. IEEE Std. 344-1975 makes use of the response spectrum to define the input motion of the shake table. One of the basic requirements is that the test response spectrum (TRS) that is, the response spectrum produced by the shake table motion, should envelop the required response spectrum (RRS) calculated from the building analysis at the support point of the equipment being tested. This paper presents the concept of instantaneous response spectrum (IRS) as the response of single degree of freedom oscillators at a particular time. It demonstrates that a shake table random motion whose standard TRS envelops the RRS does not necessarily satisfy the enveloping requirement instantaneously. (Auth.)

  14. Starbursts in Blue compact dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuan, T.X.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize all the arguments for a bursting mode of star formation in blue compact dwarf galaxies. We show in particular how spectral synthesis of far ultraviolet spectra of Blue compact dwarf galaxy constitutes a powerful way for studying the star formation history in these galaxies. Blue compact dwarf galaxy luminosity functions show jumps and discontinuities. These jumps act like fossil records of the star-forming bursts, helping us to count and date the bursts

  15. A framework for noise-power spectrum analysis of multidimensional images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siewerdsen, J.H.; Cunningham, I.A.; Jaffray, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    A methodological framework for experimental analysis of the noise-power spectrum (NPS) of multidimensional images is presented that employs well-known properties of the n-dimensional (nD) Fourier transform. The approach is generalized to n dimensions, reducing to familiar cases for n=1 (e.g., time series) and n=2 (e.g., projection radiography) and demonstrated experimentally for two cases in which n=3 (viz., using an active matrix flat-panel imager for x-ray fluoroscopy and cone-beam CT to form three-dimensional (3D) images in spatiotemporal and volumetric domains, respectively). The relationship between fully nD NPS analysis and various techniques for analyzing a 'central slice' of the NPS is formulated in a manner that is directly applicable to measured nD data, highlights the effects of correlation, and renders issues of NPS normalization transparent. The spatiotemporal NPS of fluoroscopic images is analyzed under varying conditions of temporal correlation (image lag) to investigate the degree to which the NPS is reduced by such correlation. For first-frame image lag of ∼5-8 %, the NPS is reduced by ∼20% compared to the lag-free case. A simple model is presented that results in an approximate rule of thumb for computing the effect of image lag on NPS under conditions of spatiotemporal separability. The volumetric NPS of cone-beam CT images is analyzed under varying conditions of spatial correlation, controlled by adjustment of the reconstruction filter. The volumetric NPS is found to be highly asymmetric, exhibiting a ramp characteristic in transverse planes (typical of filtered back-projection) and a band-limited characteristic in the longitudinal direction (resulting from low-pass characteristics of the imager). Such asymmetry could have implications regarding the detectability of structures visualized in transverse versus sagittal or coronal planes. In all cases, appreciation of the full dimensionality of the image data is essential to obtaining

  16. A general relativistic signature in the galaxy bispectrum: the local effects of observing on the lightcone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeh, Obinna; Jolicoeur, Sheean; Maartens, Roy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Clarkson, Chris, E-mail: umeobinna@gmail.com, E-mail: beautifulheart369@gmail.com, E-mail: roy.maartens@gmail.com, E-mail: chris.clarkson@gmail.com [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-01

    Next-generation galaxy surveys will increasingly rely on the galaxy bispectrum to improve cosmological constraints, especially on primordial non-Gaussianity. A key theoretical requirement that remains to be developed is the analysis of general relativistic effects on the bispectrum, which arise from observing galaxies on the past lightcone, as well as from relativistic corrections to the dynamics. As an initial step towards a fully relativistic analysis of the galaxy bispectrum, we compute for the first time the local relativistic lightcone effects on the bispectrum, which come from Doppler and gravitational potential contributions. For the galaxy bispectrum, the problem is much more complex than for the power spectrum, since we need the lightcone corrections at second order. Mode-coupling contributions at second order mean that relativistic corrections can be non-negligible at smaller scales than in the case of the power spectrum. In a primordial Gaussian universe, we show that the local lightcone projection effects for squeezed shapes at z ∼ 1 mean that the bispectrum can differ from the Newtonian prediction by ∼> 10% when the short modes are k ∼< (50 Mpc){sup −1}. These relativistic projection effects, if ignored in the analysis of observations, could be mistaken for primordial non-Gaussianity. For upcoming surveys which probe equality scales and beyond, all relativistic lightcone effects and relativistic dynamical corrections should be included for an accurate measurement of primordial non-Gaussianity.

  17. Relative Power of Specific EEG Bands and Their Ratios during Neurofeedback Training in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao eWang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback is a mode of treatment that is potentially useful for improving self-regulation skills in persons with autism spectrum disorder. We proposed that operant conditioning of EEG in neurofeedback mode can be accompanied by changes in the relative power of EEG bands. However, the details on the change of the relative power of EEG bands during neurofeedback training course in autism are not yet well explored. In this study, we analyzed the EEG recordings of children diagnosed with autism and enrolled in a prefrontal neurofeedback treatment course. The protocol used in this training was aimed at increasing the ability to focus attention, and the procedure represented the wide band EEG amplitude suppression training along with upregulation of the relative power of gamma activity. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed for each session of neurofeedback using wavelet transform to determine the relative power of gamma and theta/beta ratio, and further to detect the statistical changes within and between sessions. We found a linear decrease of theta/beta ratio and a liner increase of relative power of gamma activity over 18 weekly sessions of neurofeedback in 18 high functioning children with autism. The study indicates that neurofeedback is an effective method for altering EEG characteristics associated with the autism spectrum disorder. Also, it provides information about specific changes of EEG activities and details the correlation between changes of EEG and neurofeedback indexes during the course of neurofeedback. This pilot study contributes to the development of more effective approaches to EEG data analysis during prefrontal neurofeedback training in autism.Key word: Electroencephalography, Neurofeedback, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Gamma activity, EEG bands’ ratios

  18. Chandra Survey of Nearby Galaxies: The Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, Rui; Feng, Hua [Department of Engineering Physics and Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100087 (China)

    2017-02-01

    We searched the public archive of the Chandra X-ray Observatory as of 2016 March and assembled a sample of 719 galaxies within 50 Mpc with available Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observations. By cross-correlation with the optical or near-infrared nuclei of these galaxies, 314 of them are identified to have an X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN). The majority of them are low-luminosity AGNs and are unlikely X-ray binaries based upon their spatial distribution and luminosity functions. The AGN fraction is around 60% for elliptical galaxies and early-type spirals, but drops to roughly 20% for Sc and later types, consistent with previous findings in the optical. However, the X-ray survey is more powerful in finding weak AGNs, especially from regions with active star formation that may mask the optical AGN signature. For example, 31% of the H ii nuclei are found to harbor an X-ray AGN. For most objects, a single power-law model subject to interstellar absorption is adequate to fit the spectrum, and the typical photon index is found to be around 1.8. For galaxies with a non-detection, their stacked Chandra image shows an X-ray excess with a luminosity of a few times 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1} on average around the nuclear region, possibly composed of faint X-ray binaries. This paper reports on the technique and results of the survey; in-depth analysis and discussion of the results will be reported in forthcoming papers.

  19. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  20. Stellar populations in distant radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilly, S.J.; Longair, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    A homogeneous data set of infrared observations of 83 3CR galaxies with redshifts 0< z<1.6, selected from a statistically complete sample of 90 radio sources, is used to study the colours and magnitudes of these galaxies as a function of their redshifts. New infrared observations are presented for 66 radio galaxies, in addition to new optical results obtained from a re-analysis of existing CCD images. It is shown that the infrared colours do not deviate from the predicted relations with redshift for a standard giant elliptical galaxy spectrum. The optical to infrared colours, however, show substantial deviations at high redshift. No galaxies have been found that are significantly redder than a passively evolving galaxy, and there is a significant scatter of colours bluewards from this model. The excess of ultraviolet light responsible for these colours is not concentrated at the nucleus, and is interpreted as resulting from bursts of star formation, throughout the galaxy. (author)

  1. Integrated radio continuum spectra of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvil, Joshua; Owen, Frazer [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Rd, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Eilek, Jean, E-mail: josh.marvil@csiro.au [New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spectral shape of the total continuum radiation, between 74 MHz and 5 GHz (400-6 cm in wavelength), for a large sample of bright galaxies. We take advantage of the overlapping survey coverage of the VLA Low-Frequency Sky Survey, the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey, the NRAO VLA Sky Survey, and the Green Bank 6 cm Survey to achieve significantly better resolution, sensitivity, and sample size compared to prior efforts of this nature. For our sample of 250 bright galaxies we measure a mean spectral index, α, of –0.69 between 1.4 and 4.85 GHz, –0.55 between 325 MHz and 1.4 GHz, and –0.45 between 74 and 325 MHz, which amounts to a detection of curvature in the mean spectrum. The magnitude of this curvature is approximately Δα = –0.2 per logarithmic frequency decade when fit with a generalized function having constant curvature. No trend in low-frequency spectral flattening versus galaxy inclination is evident in our data, suggesting that free-free absorption is not a satisfying explanation for the observed curvature. The ratio of thermal to non-thermal emission is estimated through two independent methods: (1) using the IRAS far-IR fluxes and (2) with the value of the total spectral index. Method (1) results in a distribution of 1.4 GHz thermal fractions of 9% ± 3%, which is consistent with previous studies, while method (2) produces a mean 1.4 GHz thermal fraction of 51% with dispersion 26%. The highly implausible values produced by method (2) indicate that the sum of typical power-law thermal and non-thermal components is not a viable model for the total spectral index between 325 and 1.4 GHz. An investigation into relationships between spectral index, infrared-derived quantities, and additional source properties reveals that galaxies with high radio luminosity in our sample are found to have, on average, a flatter radio spectral index, and early types tend to have excess radio emission when compared to the radio-infrared ratio of later

  2. 3C 220.3: A radio galaxy lensing a submillimeter galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Martin; Westhues, Christian; Chini, Rolf [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr Universität, Bochum (Germany); Leipski, Christian; Klaas, Ulrich; Meisenheimer, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Barthel, Peter; Koopmans, Léon V. E. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Wilkes, Belinda J.; Bussmann, R. Shane; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Vegetti, Simona [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Garching (Germany); Clements, David L. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Fassnacht, Christopher D. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Horesh, Assaf [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Lagattuta, David J. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn (Australia); Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika, E-mail: haas@astro.rub.de [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-07-20

    Herschel Space Observatory photometry and extensive multiwavelength follow-up have revealed that the powerful radio galaxy (PRG) 3C 220.3 at z = 0.685 acts as a gravitational lens for a background submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 2.221. At an observed wavelength of 1 mm, the SMG is lensed into three distinct images. In the observed near infrared, these images are connected by an arc of ∼1''.8 radius forming an Einstein half-ring centered near the radio galaxy. In visible light, only the arc is apparent. 3C 220.3 is the only known instance of strong galaxy-scale lensing by a PRG not located in a galaxy cluster and therefore it offers the potential to probe the dark matter content of the radio galaxy host. Lens modeling rejects a single lens, but two lenses centered on the radio galaxy host A and a companion B, separated by 1''.5, provide a fit consistent with all data and reveal faint candidates for the predicted fourth and fifth images. The model does not require an extended common dark matter halo, consistent with the absence of extended bright X-ray emission on our Chandra image. The projected dark matter fractions within the Einstein radii of A (1''.02) and B (0''.61) are about 0.4 ± 0.3 and 0.55 ± 0.3. The mass to i-band light ratios of A and B, M/L{sub i}∼8±4 M{sub ⊙} L{sub ⊙}{sup −1}, appear comparable to those of radio-quiet lensing galaxies at the same redshift in the CfA-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey, Lenses Structure and Dynamics, and Strong Lenses in the Legacy Survey samples. The lensed SMG is extremely bright with observed f(250 μm) = 440 mJy owing to a magnification factor μ ∼ 10. The SMG spectrum shows luminous, narrow C IV λ1549 Å emission, revealing that the SMG houses a hidden quasar in addition to a violent starburst. Multicolor image reconstruction of the SMG indicates a bipolar morphology of the emitted ultraviolet (UV) light suggestive of cones through which UV light escapes a

  3. Inflation with primordial broken power law spectrum as an alternative to the concordance cosmological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandolfi, Stefania; Giusarma, Elena; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    We consider cosmological models with a non-scale-invariant spectrum of primordial perturbations and assess whether they represent a viable alternative to the concordance ΛCDM model. We find that in the framework of a model selection analysis, the WMAP and 2dF data do not provide any conclusive evidence in favor of one or the other kind of model. However, when a marginalization over the entire space of nuisance parameters is performed, models with a modified primordial spectrum and Ω Λ =0 are strongly disfavored.

  4. Achievable rate of spectrum sharing cognitive radio systems over fading channels at low-power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    the previously achieved rate at the low-power regime. Interestingly, we show that the low-power regime analysis provides a specific insight into the maximum achievable rate behavior of CR that has not been reported by previous studies.

  5. Jets in Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which are rapidly rotating neutron stars emitting narrow beams of radiation. Images of ... rized into starburst galaxies and AGN powered by SMBHs. The ..... swer lies in the relativistic motion of the jets which boosts the flux density of .... radio cores, detection of ... to as synchrotron self-Compton or SSC, or those of the cosmic.

  6. Upper limits on the 21 cm power spectrum at z = 5.9 from quasar absorption line spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Greig, Bradley; Mesinger, Andrei

    2016-11-01

    We present upper limits on the 21 cm power spectrum at z = 5.9 calculated from the model-independent limit on the neutral fraction of the intergalactic medium of x_{H I} chain Monte Carlo Epoch of Reionization analysis code, we explore the probability distribution of 21 cm power spectra consistent with this constraint on the neutral fraction. We present 99 per cent confidence upper limits of Δ2(k) limit dependent on the sampled k mode. This limit can be used as a null test for 21 cm experiments: a detection of power at z = 5.9 in excess of this value is highly suggestive of residual foreground contamination or other systematic errors affecting the analysis.

  7. Black Hole Caught Zapping Galaxy into Existence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    across the whole electromagnetic spectrum; particularly spectacular is the case of quasars, where the active core is so overwhelmingly bright that it outshines the luminosity of the host galaxy. [2] This part of the study is based on observations performed at mid-infrared wavelengths, with the powerful VLT spectrometer and imager for the mid-infrared (VISIR) instrument at the VLT, combined with additional data including: spectra acquired using VLT-FORS, optical and infrared images from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, and radio observations from the Australia Telescope National Facility. [3] Most galaxies in the local Universe contain a supermassive black hole with a mass about 1/700th the mass of the stellar bulge. The origin of this black hole mass versus stellar mass relation is one of the most debated subjects in modern astrophysics. More information This research was presented in papers published in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics: "Quasar induced galaxy formation: a new paradigm?" by Elbaz et al., and in the Astrophysical Journal "The QSO HE0450-2958: Scantily dressed or heavily robed? A normal quasar as part of an unusual ULIRG" by Jahnke et al. The team is composed of David Elbaz (Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, France), Knud Jahnke (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany), Eric Pantin (Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, France), Damien Le Borgne (Paris University 6 and CNRS, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, France) and Géraldine Letawe (Institut d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, Belgium). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design

  8. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Di Cintio, A.; Dvorkin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  9. Delay analysis of a point-to-multipoint spectrum sharing network with CSI based power allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed; Tourki, Kamel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2012-01-01

    and has Nakagami-m fading. A constraint on the peak transmit power of the secondary user transmitter (SU-Tx) is also considered in addition to the peak interference power constraint. Based on the constraints, a power allocation scheme which requires

  10. Harnessing the Power of Play: Opportunities for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Play is a complex phenomenon that occurs naturally for most children; they move through the various stages of play development and are able to add complexity, imagination, and creativity to their thought processes and actions. However, for many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the various stages of play never truly develop, or occur…

  11. The Power of Positivity: Predictors of Relationship Satisfaction for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Timmons, Lisa; Pruitt, Megan; Ghilain, Christine; Alessandri, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current study uses the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the predictors of relationship satisfaction for mothers and fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder. Sixty-seven couples completed measures of optimism, benefit finding, coping strategies, social support, and relationship satisfaction. Results indicated that…

  12. KiDS+GAMA: cosmology constraints from a joint analysis of cosmic shear, galaxy-galaxy lensing, and angular clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uitert, Edo; Joachimi, Benjamin; Joudaki, Shahab; Amon, Alexandra; Heymans, Catherine; Köhlinger, Fabian; Asgari, Marika; Blake, Chris; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Farrow, Daniel J.; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Kitching, Thomas D.; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Merten, Julian; Miller, Lance; Nakajima, Reiko; Schneider, Peter; Valentijn, Edwin; Viola, Massimo

    2018-06-01

    We present cosmological parameter constraints from a joint analysis of three cosmological probes: the tomographic cosmic shear signal in ˜450 deg2 of data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS), the galaxy-matter cross-correlation signal of galaxies from the Galaxies And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey determined with KiDS weak lensing, and the angular correlation function of the same GAMA galaxies. We use fast power spectrum estimators that are based on simple integrals over the real-space correlation functions, and show that they are practically unbiased over relevant angular frequency ranges. We test our full pipeline on numerical simulations that are tailored to KiDS and retrieve the input cosmology. By fitting different combinations of power spectra, we demonstrate that the three probes are internally consistent. For all probes combined, we obtain S_8≡ σ _8 √{Ω _m/0.3}=0.800_{-0.027}^{+0.029}, consistent with Planck and the fiducial KiDS-450 cosmic shear correlation function results. Marginalizing over wide priors on the mean of the tomographic redshift distributions yields consistent results for S8 with an increase of 28 {per cent} in the error. The combination of probes results in a 26 per cent reduction in uncertainties of S8 over using the cosmic shear power spectra alone. The main gain from these additional probes comes through their constraining power on nuisance parameters, such as the galaxy intrinsic alignment amplitude or potential shifts in the redshift distributions, which are up to a factor of 2 better constrained compared to using cosmic shear alone, demonstrating the value of large-scale structure probe combination.

  13. Optimal Power Allocation for Downstream xDSL With Per-Modem Total Power Constraints: Broadcast Channel Optimal Spectrum Balancing (BC-OSB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Nir, Vincent; Moonen, Marc; Verlinden, Jan; Guenach, Mamoun

    2009-02-01

    Recently, the duality between Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Multiple Access Channels (MAC) and MIMO Broadcast Channels (BC) has been established under a total power constraint. The same set of rates for MAC can be achieved in BC exploiting the MAC-BC duality formulas while preserving the total power constraint. In this paper, we describe the BC optimal power allo- cation applying this duality in a downstream x-Digital Subscriber Lines (xDSL) context under a total power constraint for all modems over all tones. Then, a new algorithm called BC-Optimal Spectrum Balancing (BC-OSB) is devised for a more realistic power allocation under per-modem total power constraints. The capacity region of the primal BC problem under per-modem total power constraints is found by the dual optimization problem for the BC under per-modem total power constraints which can be rewritten as a dual optimization problem in the MAC by means of a precoder matrix based on the Lagrange multipliers. We show that the duality gap between the two problems is zero. The multi-user power allocation problem has been solved for interference channels and MAC using the OSB algorithm. In this paper we solve the problem of multi-user power allocation for the BC case using the OSB algorithm as well and we derive a computational efficient algorithm that will be referred to as BC-OSB. Simulation results are provided for two VDSL2 scenarios: the first one with Differential-Mode (DM) transmission only and the second one with both DM and Phantom- Mode (PM) transmissions.

  14. Deconstructing the neutrino mass constraint from galaxy redshift surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Aoife; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2018-03-01

    The total mass of neutrinos can be constrained in a number of ways using galaxy redshift surveys. Massive neutrinos modify the expansion rate of the Universe, which can be measured using baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) or the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test. Massive neutrinos also change the structure growth rate and the amplitude of the matter power spectrum, which can be measured using redshift-space distortions (RSD). We use the Fisher matrix formalism to disentangle these information sources, to provide projected neutrino mass constraints from each of these probes alone and to determine how sensitive each is to the assumed cosmological model. We isolate the distinctive effect of neutrino free-streaming on the matter power spectrum and structure growth rate as a signal unique to massive neutrinos that can provide the most robust constraints, which are relatively insensitive to extensions to the cosmological model beyond ΛCDM . We also provide forecasted constraints using all of the information contained in the observed galaxy power spectrum combined, and show that these maximally optimistic constraints are primarily limited by the accuracy to which the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background, τ, is known.

  15. Cooperative AF Relaying in Spectrum-Sharing Systems: Performance Analysis under Average Interference Power Constraints and Nakagami-m Fading

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua

    2012-06-01

    Since the electromagnetic spectrum resource becomes more and more scarce, improving spectral efficiency is extremely important for the sustainable development of wireless communication systems and services. Integrating cooperative relaying techniques into spectrum-sharing cognitive radio systems sheds new light on higher spectral efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the end-to-end performance of cooperative amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in spectrum-sharing systems. In order to achieve the optimal end-to-end performance, the transmit powers of the secondary source and the relays are optimized with respect to average interference power constraints at primary users and Nakagami-$m$ fading parameters of interference channels (for mathematical tractability, the desired channels from secondary source to relay and from relay to secondary destination are assumed to be subject to Rayleigh fading). Also, both partial and opportunistic relay-selection strategies are exploited to further enhance system performance. Based on the exact distribution functions of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained herein, the outage probability, average symbol error probability, diversity order, and ergodic capacity of the system under study are analytically investigated. Our results show that system performance is dominated by the resource constraints and it improves slowly with increasing average SNR. Furthermore, larger Nakagami-m fading parameter on interference channels deteriorates system performance slightly. On the other hand, when interference power constraints are stringent, opportunistic relay selection can be exploited to improve system performance significantly. All analytical results are corroborated by simulation results and they are shown to be efficient tools for exact evaluation of system performance.

  16. Fourier transform power spectrum is a potential measure of tissue alignment in standard MRI: A multiple sclerosis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shrushrita; Zhang, Yunyan

    2017-01-01

    Loss of tissue coherency in brain white matter is found in many neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). While several approaches have been proposed to evaluate white matter coherency including fractional anisotropy and fiber tracking in diffusion-weighted imaging, few are available for standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we present an image post-processing method for this purpose based on Fourier transform (FT) power spectrum. T2-weighted images were collected from 19 patients (10 relapsing-remitting and 9 secondary progressive MS) and 19 age- and gender-matched controls. Image processing steps included: computation, normalization, and thresholding of FT power spectrum; determination of tissue alignment profile and dominant alignment direction; and calculation of alignment complexity using a new measure named angular entropy. To test the validity of this method, we used a highly organized brain white matter structure, corpus callosum. Six regions of interest were examined from the left, central and right aspects of both genu and splenium. We found that the dominant orientation of each ROI derived from our method was significantly correlated with the predicted directions based on anatomy. There was greater angular entropy in patients than controls, and a trend to be greater in secondary progressive MS patients. These findings suggest that it is possible to detect tissue alignment and anisotropy using traditional MRI, which are routinely acquired in clinical practice. Analysis of FT power spectrum may become a new approach for advancing the evaluation and management of patients with MS and similar disorders. Further confirmation is warranted.

  17. Fourier transform power spectrum is a potential measure of tissue alignment in standard MRI: A multiple sclerosis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrushrita Sharma

    Full Text Available Loss of tissue coherency in brain white matter is found in many neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS. While several approaches have been proposed to evaluate white matter coherency including fractional anisotropy and fiber tracking in diffusion-weighted imaging, few are available for standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Here we present an image post-processing method for this purpose based on Fourier transform (FT power spectrum. T2-weighted images were collected from 19 patients (10 relapsing-remitting and 9 secondary progressive MS and 19 age- and gender-matched controls. Image processing steps included: computation, normalization, and thresholding of FT power spectrum; determination of tissue alignment profile and dominant alignment direction; and calculation of alignment complexity using a new measure named angular entropy. To test the validity of this method, we used a highly organized brain white matter structure, corpus callosum. Six regions of interest were examined from the left, central and right aspects of both genu and splenium. We found that the dominant orientation of each ROI derived from our method was significantly correlated with the predicted directions based on anatomy. There was greater angular entropy in patients than controls, and a trend to be greater in secondary progressive MS patients. These findings suggest that it is possible to detect tissue alignment and anisotropy using traditional MRI, which are routinely acquired in clinical practice. Analysis of FT power spectrum may become a new approach for advancing the evaluation and management of patients with MS and similar disorders. Further confirmation is warranted.

  18. Relative Power of Specific EEG Bands and Their Ratios during Neurofeedback Training in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Li, Xiaoli; Sears, Lonnie; Casanova, Manuel F.; Tasman, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback is a mode of treatment that is potentially useful for improving self-regulation skills in persons with autism spectrum disorder. We proposed that operant conditioning of EEG in neurofeedback mode can be accompanied by changes in the relative power of EEG bands. However, the details on the change of the relative power of EEG bands during neurofeedback training course in autism are not yet well explored. In this study, we analyzed the EEG recordings of children diagnosed with autism and enrolled in a prefrontal neurofeedback treatment course. The protocol used in this training was aimed at increasing the ability to focus attention, and the procedure represented the wide band EEG amplitude suppression training along with upregulation of the relative power of gamma activity. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed for each session of neurofeedback using wavelet transform to determine the relative power of gamma and theta/beta ratio, and further to detect the statistical changes within and between sessions. We found a linear decrease of theta/beta ratio and a liner increase of relative power of gamma activity over 18 weekly sessions of neurofeedback in 18 high functioning children with autism. The study indicates that neurofeedback is an effective method for altering EEG characteristics associated with the autism spectrum disorder. Also, it provides information about specific changes of EEG activities and details the correlation between changes of EEG and neurofeedback indexes during the course of neurofeedback. This pilot study contributes to the development of more effective approaches to EEG data analysis during prefrontal neurofeedback training in autism. PMID:26834615

  19. Adaptive estimation of a time-varying phase with a power-law spectrum via continuous squeezed states

    OpenAIRE

    Dinani, Hossein T.; Berry, Dominic W.

    2016-01-01

    When measuring a time-varying phase, the standard quantum limit and Heisenberg limit as usually defined, for a constant phase, do not apply. If the phase has Gaussian statistics and a power-law spectrum $1/|\\omega|^p$ with $p>1$, then the generalized standard quantum limit and Heisenberg limit have recently been found to have scalings of $1/{\\cal N}^{(p-1)/p}$ and $1/{\\cal N}^{2(p-1)/(p+1)}$, respectively, where ${\\cal N}$ is the mean photon flux. We show that this Heisenberg scaling can be a...

  20. The cosmic microwave background radiation power spectrum as a random bit generator for symmetric- and asymmetric-key cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this note, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB Radiation is shown to be capable of functioning as a Random Bit Generator, and constitutes an effectively infinite supply of truly random one-time pad values of arbitrary length. It is further argued that the CMB power spectrum potentially conforms to the FIPS 140-2 standard. Additionally, its applicability to the generation of a (n × n random key matrix for a Vernam cipher is established. Keywords: Particle physics, Computer science, Mathematics, Astrophysics

  1. Cosmological parameter analysis including SDSS Lyα forest and galaxy bias: Constraints on the primordial spectrum of fluctuations, neutrino mass, and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljak, Uros; Makarov, Alexey; McDonald, Patrick; Anderson, Scott F.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Cen, Renyue; Gunn, James E.; Lupton, Robert H.; Schlegel, David J.; Brinkmann, J.; Burles, Scott; Doi, Mamoru; Ivezic, Zeljko; Kent, Stephen; Loveday, Jon; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Nichol, Robert C.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden

    2005-01-01

    We combine the constraints from the recent Lyα forest analysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the SDSS galaxy bias analysis with previous constraints from SDSS galaxy clustering, the latest supernovae, and 1st year WMAP cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We find significant improvements on all of the cosmological parameters compared to previous constraints, which highlights the importance of combining Lyα forest constraints with other probes. Combining WMAP and the Lyα forest we find for the primordial slope n s =0.98±0.02. We see no evidence of running, dn/dlnk=-0.003±0.010, a factor of 3 improvement over previous constraints. We also find no evidence of tensors, r 2 model is within the 2-sigma contour, V∝φ 4 is outside the 3-sigma contour. For the amplitude we find σ 8 =0.90±0.03 from the Lyα forest and WMAP alone. We find no evidence of neutrino mass: for the case of 3 massive neutrino families with an inflationary prior, eV and the mass of lightest neutrino is m 1 ν λ =0.72±0.02, w(z=0.3)=-0.98 -0.12 +0.10 , the latter changing to w(z=0.3)=-0.92 -0.10 +0.09 if tensors are allowed. We find no evidence for variation of the equation of state with redshift, w(z=1)=-1.03 -0.28 +0.21 . These results rely on the current understanding of the Lyα forest and other probes, which need to be explored further both observationally and theoretically, but extensive tests reveal no evidence of inconsistency among different data sets used here

  2. Imprint of thawing scalar fields on the large scale galaxy overdensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinda, Bikash R.; Sen, Anjan A.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the observed galaxy power spectrum for the thawing class of scalar field models taking into account various general relativistic corrections that occur on very large scales. We consider the full general relativistic perturbation equations for the matter as well as the dark energy fluid. We form a single autonomous system of equations containing both the background and the perturbed equations of motion which we subsequently solve for different scalar field potentials. First we study the percentage deviation from the Λ CDM model for different cosmological parameters as well as in the observed galaxy power spectra on different scales in scalar field models for various choices of scalar field potentials. Interestingly the difference in background expansion results from the enhancement of power from Λ CDM on small scales, whereas the inclusion of general relativistic (GR) corrections results in the suppression of power from Λ CDM on large scales. This can be useful to distinguish scalar field models from Λ CDM with future optical/radio surveys. We also compare the observed galaxy power spectra for tracking and thawing types of scalar field using some particular choices for the scalar field potentials. We show that thawing and tracking models can have large differences in observed galaxy power spectra on large scales and for smaller redshifts due to different GR effects. But on smaller scales and for larger redshifts, the difference is small and is mainly due to the difference in background expansion.

  3. Signatures of modified gravity on the 21 cm power spectrum at reionisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Clesse, Sébastien; Davis, Anne-Christine, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr, E-mail: s.clesse@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: a.c.davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    Scalar modifications of gravity have an impact on the growth of structure. Baryon and Cold Dark Matter (CDM) perturbations grow anomalously for scales within the Compton wavelength of the scalar field. In the late time Universe when reionisation occurs, the spectrum of the 21 cm brightness temperature is thus affected. We study this effect for chameleon-f(R) models, dilatons and symmetrons. Although the f(R) models are more tightly constrained by solar system bounds, and effects on dilaton models are negligible, we find that symmetrons where the phase transition occurs before z{sub *} ∼ 12 could be detectable for a scalar field range as low as 5kpc. For all these models, the detection prospects of modified gravity effects are higher when considering modes parallel to the line of sight where very small scales can be probed. The study of the 21 cm spectrum thus offers a complementary approach to testing modified gravity with large scale structure surveys. Short scales, which would be highly non-linear in the very late time Universe when structure forms and where modified gravity effects are screened, appear in the linear spectrum of 21 cm physics, hence deviating from General Relativity in a maximal way.

  4. IRAS low-resolution spectra of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Volk, K.

    1989-01-01

    The spectra of external galaxies are selected and extracted from the IRAS LRS database. Twenty-one objects present viable spectra. One is a peculiar star-forming E-S0 galaxy. The remainder are all starburst or H II region galaxies. Their average spectrum demonstrates the importance of the PAH emission bands in the 8-23-micron region and reinforces the conclusion reached from ground-based spectra, that there is a strong correlation between the PAH bands and the starburst or H II region character of a galaxy. 32 refs

  5. First results from the IllustrisTNG simulations: matter and galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Pillepich, Annalisa; Weinberger, Rainer; Nelson, Dylan; Hernquist, Lars; Vogelsberger, Mark; Genel, Shy; Torrey, Paul; Marinacci, Federico; Naiman, Jill

    2018-03-01

    Hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation have now reached sufficient volume to make precision predictions for clustering on cosmologically relevant scales. Here, we use our new IllustrisTNG simulations to study the non-linear correlation functions and power spectra of baryons, dark matter, galaxies, and haloes over an exceptionally large range of scales. We find that baryonic effects increase the clustering of dark matter on small scales and damp the total matter power spectrum on scales up to k ˜ 10 h Mpc-1 by 20 per cent. The non-linear two-point correlation function of the stellar mass is close to a power-law over a wide range of scales and approximately invariant in time from very high redshift to the present. The two-point correlation function of the simulated galaxies agrees well with Sloan Digital Sky Survey at its mean redshift z ≃ 0.1, both as a function of stellar mass and when split according to galaxy colour, apart from a mild excess in the clustering of red galaxies in the stellar mass range of109-1010 h-2 M⊙. Given this agreement, the TNG simulations can make valuable theoretical predictions for the clustering bias of different galaxy samples. We find that the clustering length of the galaxy autocorrelation function depends strongly on stellar mass and redshift. Its power-law slope γ is nearly invariant with stellar mass, but declines from γ ˜ 1.8 at redshift z = 0 to γ ˜ 1.6 at redshift z ˜ 1, beyond which the slope steepens again. We detect significant scale dependences in the bias of different observational tracers of large-scale structure, extending well into the range of the baryonic acoustic oscillations and causing nominal (yet fortunately correctable) shifts of the acoustic peaks of around ˜ 5 per cent.

  6. Cosmic shear as a probe of galaxy formation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, Simon; Becker, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we evaluate the potential for current and future cosmic shear measurements from large galaxy surveys to constrain the impact of baryonic physics on the matter power spectrum. We do so using a model-independent parametrization that describes deviations of the matter power spectrum from the dark-matter-only case as a set of principal components that are localized in wavenumber and redshift. We perform forecasts for a variety of current and future data sets, and find that at least ~90 per cent of the constraining power of these data sets is contained in no more than nine principal components. The constraining power of different surveys can be quantified using a figure of merit defined relative to currently available surveys. With this metric, we find that the final Dark Energy Survey data set (DES Y5) and the Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey will be roughly an order of magnitude more powerful than existing data in constraining baryonic effects. Upcoming Stage IV surveys (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Euclid, and Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope) will improve upon this by a further factor of a few. We show that this conclusion is robust to marginalization over several key systematics. The ultimate power of cosmic shear to constrain galaxy formation is dependent on understanding systematics in the shear measurements at small (sub-arcminute) scales. Lastly, if these systematics can be sufficiently controlled, cosmic shear measurements from DES Y5 and other future surveys have the potential to provide a very clean probe of galaxy formation and to strongly constrain a wide range of predictions from modern hydrodynamical simulations.

  7. Anisotropic magnification distortion of the 3D galaxy correlation. I. Real space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Lam; LoVerde, Marilena; Gaztanaga, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    It has long been known that gravitational lensing, primarily via magnification bias, modifies the observed galaxy (or quasar) clustering. Such discussions have largely focused on the 2D angular correlation function. Here and in paper II [L. Hui, E. Gaztanaga, and M. LoVerde, arXiv:0710.4191] we explore how magnification bias distorts the 3D correlation function and power spectrum, as first considered by Matsubara [Astrophys. J. Lett. 537, L77 (2000).]. The interesting point is that the distortion is anisotropic. Magnification bias in general preferentially enhances the observed correlation in the line-of-sight (LOS) orientation, especially on large scales. For instance, at a LOS separation of ∼100 Mpc/h, where the intrinsic galaxy-galaxy correlation is rather weak, the observed correlation can be enhanced by lensing by a factor of a few, even at a modest redshift of z∼0.35. This effect presents an interesting opportunity as well as a challenge. The opportunity: this lensing anisotropy is distinctive, making it possible to separately measure the galaxy-galaxy, galaxy-magnification, and magnification-magnification correlations, without measuring galaxy shapes. The anisotropy is distinguishable from the well-known distortion due to peculiar motions, as will be discussed in paper II. The challenge: the magnification distortion of the galaxy correlation must be accounted for in interpreting data as precision improves. For instance, the ∼100 Mpc/h baryon acoustic oscillation scale in the correlation function is shifted by up to ∼3% in the LOS orientation, and up to ∼0.6% in the monopole, depending on the galaxy bias, redshift, and number count slope. The corresponding shifts in the inferred Hubble parameter and angular diameter distance, if ignored, could significantly bias measurements of the dark energy equation of state. Lastly, magnification distortion offers a plausible explanation for the well-known excess correlations seen in pencil beam surveys

  8. Young and Old X-ray Binary and IXO Populations in Spiral and Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Heckman, T.; Ptak, A.; Strickland, D.; Weaver, K.

    2003-03-01

    We have analyzed Chandra ACIS observations of 32 nearby spiral and elliptical galaxies and present the results of 1441 X-ray point sources, which are presumed to be mostly X-ray binaries (XRBs) and Intermediate-luminosity X-ray Objects (IXOs, a.k.a. ULXs). The X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) of the point sources show that the slope of the elliptical galaxy XLFs are significantly steeper than the spiral galaxy XLFs, indicating grossly different types of point sources, or different stages in their evolution. Since the spiral galaxy XLF is so shallow, the most luminous points sources (usually the IXOs) dominate the total X-ray point source luminosity LXP. We show that the galaxy total B-band and K-band light (proxies for the stellar mass) are well correlated with LXP for both spirals and ellipticals, but the FIR and UV emission is only correlated for the spirals. We deconvolve LXP into two components, one that is proportional to the galaxy stellar mass (pop II), and another that is proportional to the galaxy SFR (pop I). We also note that IXOs (and nearly all of the other point sources) in both spirals and ellipticals have X-ray colors that are most consistent with power-law slopes of Gamma ˜ 1.5--3.0, which is inconsistent with high-mass XRBS (HMXBs). Thus, HMXBs are not important contributors to LXP. We have also found that IXOs in spiral galaxies may have a slightly harder X-ray spectrum than those in elliptical galaxies. The implications of these findings will be discussed.

  9. Uniformity measure for power-law mass spectrum in nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wislicki, W.

    1992-11-01

    Description is given in terms of the Renyi entropy and the uniformity for the canonical ensemble, the grand canonical ensemble and the power-law probability measures. The study is presented of the power-law spectra of cluster masses observed in nuclear interactions in the vicinity of the liquid-gas transition point. 6 figs., 1 tab., 15 refs. (author)

  10. Samsung Galaxy S5 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Explore Samsung's next generation Galaxy smartphone Do you want an easy-to-follow guide to everything your new Galaxy S5 smartphone can do? From the basics of texting and accessing the Internet to the most advanced features and new software apps, Samsung Galaxy S5 For Dummies makes the need for tech support obsolete. The Galaxy S5 is designed to be faster and more powerful than ever. This latest release in the market-leading line of smartphones is full of new features for you to explore with the help of Samsung Galaxy S5 For Dummies. With over 1 million apps available for the Google Android o

  11. New indices for quantification of the power spectrum of heart rate variability time series without the need of any frequency band definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-González, M A; Fernández-Chimeno, M; Benítez, A; Ramos-Castro, J; Ferrer, J; Escorihuela, R M; Parrado, E; Capdevila, L; Angulo, R; Rodríguez, F A; Iglesias, X; Bescós, R; Marina, M; Padullés, J M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new family of indices for the frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability time series that do not need any frequency band definition. After proper detrending of the time series, a cumulated power spectrum is obtained and frequencies that contain a certain percentage of the power below them are identified, so median frequency, bandwidth and a measure of the power spectrum asymmetry are proposed to complement or improve the classical spectral indices as the ratio of the powers of LF and HF bands (LF/HF). In normal conditions the median frequency provides similar information as the classical indices, while the bandwidth and asymmetry can be complementary measures of the physiological state of the tested subject. The proposed indices seem to be a good choice for tracking changes in the power spectrum in exercise stress, and they can guide in the determination of frequency band limits in other animal species

  12. The Subaru FMOS galaxy redshift survey (FastSound). V. Intrinsic alignments of emission-line galaxies at z ˜ 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonegawa, Motonari; Okumura, Teppei; Totani, Tomonori; Dalton, Gavin; Glazebrook, Karl; Yabe, Kiyoto

    2018-04-01

    Intrinsic alignments (IA), the coherent alignment of intrinsic galaxy orientations, can be a source of a systematic error of weak lensing surveys. The redshift evolution of IA also contains information about the physics of galaxy formation and evolution. This paper presents the first measurement of IA at high redshift, z ˜ 1.4, using the spectroscopic catalog of blue star-forming galaxies of the FastSound redshift survey, with the galaxy shape information from the Canada-Hawaii-France telescope lensing survey. The IA signal is consistent with zero with power-law amplitudes fitted to the projected correlation functions for density-shape and shape-shape correlation components, Aδ+ = -0.0071 ± 0.1340 and A++ = -0.0505 ± 0.0848, respectively. These results are consistent with those obtained from blue galaxies at lower redshifts (e.g., A _{δ +}=0.0035_{-0.0389}^{+0.0387} and A_{++}=0.0045_{-0.0168}^{+0.0166} at z = 0.51 from the WiggleZ survey). The upper limit of the constrained IA amplitude corresponds to a few percent contamination to the weak-lensing shear power spectrum, resulting in systematic uncertainties on the cosmological parameter estimations by -0.052 < Δσ8 < 0.039 and -0.039 < ΔΩm < 0.030.

  13. Deficiency of normal galaxies among Markaryan galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyeveer, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Comparison of the morphological types of Markaryan galaxies and other galaxies in the Uppsala catalog indicates a strong deficiency of normal ellipticals among the Markaryan galaxies, for which the fraction of type E galaxies is ≤ 1% against 10% among the remaining galaxies. Among the Markaryan galaxies, an excess of barred galaxies is observed - among the Markaryan galaxies with types Sa-Scd, approximately half or more have bars, whereas among the remaining galaxies of the same types bars are found in about 1/3

  14. Self-organized perturbations enhance class IV behavior and 1/f power spectrum in elementary cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kohei; Haruna, Taichi

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new class of cellular automata based on the modification of its state space. It is introduced to model a computation which is exposed to an environment. We formalized the computation as extension and projection processes of its state space and resulting misidentifications of the state. This is motivated to embed the role of an environment into the system itself, which naturally induces self-organized internal perturbations rather than the usual external perturbations. Implementing this structure into the elementary cellular automata, we characterized its effect by means of input entropy and power spectral analysis. As a result, the cellular automata with this structure showed robust class IV behavior and a 1/f power spectrum in a wide range of rule space comparative to the notion of the edge of chaos. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  16. Generating log-normal mock catalog of galaxies in redshift space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Aniket; Makiya, Ryu; Saito, Shun; Komatsu, Eiichiro [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Chiang, Chi-Ting [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Jeong, Donghui, E-mail: aniket@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: makiya@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: chi-ting.chiang@stonybrook.edu, E-mail: djeong@psu.edu, E-mail: ssaito@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: komatsu@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We present a public code to generate a mock galaxy catalog in redshift space assuming a log-normal probability density function (PDF) of galaxy and matter density fields. We draw galaxies by Poisson-sampling the log-normal field, and calculate the velocity field from the linearised continuity equation of matter fields, assuming zero vorticity. This procedure yields a PDF of the pairwise velocity fields that is qualitatively similar to that of N-body simulations. We check fidelity of the catalog, showing that the measured two-point correlation function and power spectrum in real space agree with the input precisely. We find that a linear bias relation in the power spectrum does not guarantee a linear bias relation in the density contrasts, leading to a cross-correlation coefficient of matter and galaxies deviating from unity on small scales. We also find that linearising the Jacobian of the real-to-redshift space mapping provides a poor model for the two-point statistics in redshift space. That is, non-linear redshift-space distortion is dominated by non-linearity in the Jacobian. The power spectrum in redshift space shows a damping on small scales that is qualitatively similar to that of the well-known Fingers-of-God (FoG) effect due to random velocities, except that the log-normal mock does not include random velocities. This damping is a consequence of non-linearity in the Jacobian, and thus attributing the damping of the power spectrum solely to FoG, as commonly done in the literature, is misleading.

  17. New Constraints on Spatial Variations of the Fine Structure Constant from Clusters of Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan De Martino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have constrained the spatial variation of the fine structure constant using multi-frequency measurements of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect of 618 X-ray selected clusters. Although our results are not competitive with the ones from quasar absorption lines, we improved by a factor 10 and ∼2.5 previous results from Cosmic Microwave Background power spectrum and from galaxy clusters, respectively.

  18. Characterizing the Peak in the Cosmic Microwave Background Angular Power Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Lloyd; Page, Lyman

    2000-08-01

    A peak has been unambiguously detected in the cosmic microwave background angular spectrum. Here we characterize its properties with fits to phenomenological models. We find that the TOCO and BOOM/NA data determine the peak location to be in the range 175-243 and 151-259, respectively (at 95% confidence) and determine the peak amplitude to be between ~70 and 90 μK. The peak shape is consistent with inflation-inspired flat, cold dark matter plus cosmological constant models of structure formation with adiabatic, nearly scale invariant initial conditions. It is inconsistent with open models and presents a great challenge to defect models.

  19. Tapering the sky response for angular power spectrum estimation from low-frequency radio-interferometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, Samir; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Roy, Nirupam; Ghosh, Abhik; Ali, Sk Saiyad

    2016-06-11

    It is important to correctly subtract point sources from radio-interferometric data in order to measure the power spectrum of diffuse radiation like the Galactic synchrotron or the Epoch of Reionization 21-cm signal. It is computationally very expensive and challenging to image a very large area and accurately subtract all the point sources from the image. The problem is particularly severe at the sidelobes and the outer parts of the main lobe where the antenna response is highly frequency dependent and the calibration also differs from that of the phase centre. Here, we show that it is possible to overcome this problem by tapering the sky response. Using simulated 150 MHz observations, we demonstrate that it is possible to suppress the contribution due to point sources from the outer parts by using the Tapered Gridded Estimator to measure the angular power spectrum C ℓ of the sky signal. We also show from the simulation that this method can self-consistently compute the noise bias and accurately subtract it to provide an unbiased estimation of C ℓ .

  20. Structure in radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breugel, W. van.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that radio jets are a rather common phenomenon in radio galaxies. Jets can be disguised as trails in head-tail sources, bridges in double sources or simply remain undetected because of lack of resolution and sensitivity. It is natural to associate these jets with the channels which had previously been suggested to supply energy to the extended radio lobes. The observations of optical emission suggest that a continuous non-thermal spectrum extending from 10 9 to 10 15 Hz is a common property of jets. Because significant amounts of interstellar matter are also observed in each of the galaxies surveyed it seems that models for jets which involve an interaction with this medium may be most appropriate. New information about the overall structure of extended radio sources has been obtained from the detailed multifrequency study with the WSRT. (Auth.)

  1. Hierarchical structure in the distribution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, L.S.; Seiden, P.E.; Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa; IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of galaxies has a hierarchical structure with power-law correlations. This is usually thought to arise from gravity alone acting on an originally uniform distributioon. If, however, the original process of galaxy formation occurs through the stimulated birth of one galaxy due to a nearby recently formed galaxy, and if this process occurs near its percolation threshold, then a hierarchical structure with power-law correlations arises at the time of galaxy formation. If subsequent gravitational evolution within an expanding cosmology is such as to retain power-law correlations, the initial r exp -1 dropoff can steepen to the observed r exp -1.8. The distribution of galaxies obtained by this process produces clustering and voids, as observed. 23 references

  2. POX 4 and Tol 35: Two Peculiar Wolf-Rayet Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, David I.; Esteban, César

    1999-12-01

    We present results of narrowband (Hα and adjacent continuum) and broadband (U, B, and V) optical CCD imaging together with high-resolution Hα spectroscopy of the blue compact Wolf-Rayet dwarf galaxies POX 4 and Tol 35. POX 4 has a fainter, irregular, and diffuse companion located 20.5" (4.7 kpc) along the minor axis of the galaxy, which is visible also in the Hα emission. The difference in recession velocity between the galaxy and the companion is about 130 km s-1. The observational results lead us to propose that POX 4 could be interpreted as a low-mass ring galaxy, produced by a head-on intrusion of the fainter companion. Regarding the other object, a spectrum taken along the major axis of Tol 35 shows the coexistence of systems of motion with a velocity difference of about 50 km s-1. Moreover, the deep continuum-subtracted Hα image of the galaxy shows very faint features that resemble the beginning of crossed tidal tails or gaseous filaments powered by the mechanical action of the young stellar population. In this sense, Tol 35 could be interpreted either as an object in an intermediate-stage merging process between two gas-rich dwarf galaxies or as an object suffering the effect of a galactic wind.

  3. X-ray observations of the starburst galaxy M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, R.; Pietsch, W.; Biermann, P.L.; Kronberg, P.P.; Schmutzler, T.

    1989-01-01

    Long X-ray observations of the starburst galaxy M82 with the European X-ray satellite EXOSAT are reported. The observations with the low-energy imaging instrument confirm that there is extended X-ray emission from above and below the disk, with an overall extent perpendicular to the disk of almost 6 arcmin corresponding to 6 kpc. One of the best defined X-ray spectra yet of a starburst galaxy is presented. The medium energy instrument measurements can be fitted with a power-law spectrum, consistent with inverse Compton emission, or with thermal emission from optically thin hot gas of a temperature of 9 + 9 or -4 keV. Using, in addition, the earlier Einstein HRI and MPC observations, the possible origin of the X-ray emission is discussed. 31 references

  4. EAS spectrum in the primary energy region above 10 to the 15th power eV by the Akeno and Yakutsk array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, D. D.; Knurenko, S. P.; Krasilnikov, A. D.; Pavlov, V. N.; Sleptsov, I. Y.; Yegorova, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The extensive air showers spectrum on scintillation desity Rko in primary energy region E sub approx. 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 20th power eV on the Yakutsk array data and recent results of the Akeno is given.

  5. A high-significance measurement of correlation between unresolved IRAS sources and optically-selected galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hincks, Adam D.; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Addison, Graeme E., E-mail: hincks@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: ahajian@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: gaddison@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2013-05-01

    We cross-correlate the 100 μm Improved Reprocessing of the IRAS Survey (IRIS) map and galaxy clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.3 in the maxBCG catalogue taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, measuring an angular cross-power spectrum over multipole moments 150 < l < 3000 at a total significance of over 40σ. The cross-spectrum, which arises from the spatial correlation between unresolved dusty galaxies that make up the cosmic infrared background (CIB) in the IRIS map and the galaxy clusters, is well-fit by a single power law with an index of −1.28±0.12, similar to the clustering of unresolved galaxies from cross-correlating far-infrared and submillimetre maps at longer wavelengths. Using a recent, phenomenological model for the spectral and clustering properties of the IRIS galaxies, we constrain the large-scale bias of the maxBCG clusters to be 2.6±1.4, consistent with existing analyses of the real-space cluster correlation function. The success of our method suggests that future CIB-optical cross-correlations using Planck and Herschel data will significantly improve our understanding of the clustering and redshift distribution of the faint CIB sources.

  6. Power spectrum, growth velocities and cross-correlations of longitudinal and transverse oscillations of individual Nicotiana tabacum pollen tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haduch-Sendecka, Aleksandra; Pietruszka, Mariusz; Zajdel, Paweł

    2014-08-01

    We report on our results concerning growth rate and oscillation modes of the individual pollen tube apex. The observed volumetric growth and growth rate periodicity in the longitudinal (axial) direction are accompanied by transverse oscillations with similar frequencies but higher energies than the axial modes. Examination of the time-domain coherence between oscillations in mutually perpendicular directions revealed minimal energy dissipation in the unperturbed (isotonic) case, opposite to the two remaining cases (hypertonic, hypotonic) with notable correlations. We conjecture that the minimal energy loss is therefore optimal in the natural growth conditions. The longitudinal growth velocity is also found to be the fastest in the unperturbed case. As a result, the isolated system (pollen tube tip) is conserving energy by transforming it from elastic potential energy of extending apical wall to the kinetic energy of periodical motion. The energy dissipation is found to be about 20 % smaller in axial direction than in lateral one, indicating that the main energy consumption is dedicated to the elongation. We further observe that the hypertonic spectrum is shifted towards lower and the hypotonic towards higher frequencies with respect to the isotonic spectrum. In consequence, the turgor pressure inside the growing cell influences monotonically the frequency of both modes of oscillations. The calculated power spectrum seen as a measure of the overall energy efficiency of tip growth under hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic conditions implies that the biochemistry has been fine tuned to be optimal under normal growth conditions, which is the developmental implication of this work. A simple theoretical extension of the Ortega equation is derived and analysed with respect to its contribution to power spectrum. We show that the plastic term, related to the effective turgor pressure, with maximum contribution at frequency f = 0 is responsible for the steady growth. In turn

  7. Characterizing the Peak in the Cosmic Microwave Background Angular Power Spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, Lloyd; Page, Lyman

    2000-01-01

    A peak has been unambiguously detected in the cosmic microwave background angular spectrum. Here we characterize its properties with fits to phenomenological models. We find that the TOCO and BOOM/NA data determine the peak location to be in the range 175-243 and 151-259, respectively (at 95% confidence) and determine the peak amplitude to be between ≅70 and 90 μK . The peak shape is consistent with inflation-inspired flat, cold dark matter plus cosmological constant models of structure formation with adiabatic, nearly scale invariant initial conditions. It is inconsistent with open models and presents a great challenge to defect models. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  8. Measurements of the power spectrum and dispersion relation of self-excited dust acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, V.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Kim, S.-H.; Heinrich, J.; Merlino, R. L.; Morfill, G. E.

    2009-12-01

    The spectrum of spontaneously excited dust acoustic waves was measured. The waves were observed with high temporal resolution using a fast video camera operating at 1000 frames per second. The experimental system was a suspension of micron-size kaolin particles in the anode region of a dc discharge in argon. Wave activity was found at frequencies as high as 450 Hz. At high wave numbers, the wave dispersion relation was acoustic-like (frequency proportional to wave number). At low wave numbers, the wave frequency did not tend to zero, but reached a cutoff frequency instead. The cutoff value declined with distance from the anode. We ascribe the observed cutoff to the particle confinement in this region.

  9. High-power fiber-coupled 100W visible spectrum diode lasers for display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Andreas; Küster, Matthias; Köhler, Bernd; Biesenbach, Jens

    2013-02-01

    Diode lasers in the blue and red spectral range are the most promising light sources for upcoming high-brightness digital projectors in cinemas and large venue displays. They combine improved efficiency, longer lifetime and a greatly improved color space compared to traditional xenon light sources. In this paper we report on high-power visible diode laser sources to serve the demands of this emerging market. A unique electro-optical platform enables scalable fiber coupled sources at 638 nm with an output power of up to 100 W from a 400 μm NA0.22 fiber. For the blue diode laser we demonstrate scalable sources from 5 W to 100 W from a 400 μm NA0.22 fiber.

  10. Response approach to the squeezed-limit bispectrum: application to the correlation of quasar and Lyman-α forest power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Chi-Ting [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Cieplak, Agnieszka M.; Slosar, Anže [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Blgd 510, Upton, NY 11375 (United States); Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: chi-ting.chiang@stonybrook.edu, E-mail: acieplak@bnl.gov, E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: anze@bnl.gov [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The squeezed-limit bispectrum, which is generated by nonlinear gravitational evolution as well as inflationary physics, measures the correlation of three wavenumbers, in the configuration where one wavenumber is much smaller than the other two. Since the squeezed-limit bispectrum encodes the impact of a large-scale fluctuation on the small-scale power spectrum, it can be understood as how the small-scale power spectrum ''responds'' to the large-scale fluctuation. Viewed in this way, the squeezed-limit bispectrum can be calculated using the response approach even in the cases which do not submit to perturbative treatment. To illustrate this point, we apply this approach to the cross-correlation between the large-scale quasar density field and small-scale Lyman-α forest flux power spectrum. In particular, using separate universe simulations which implement changes in the large-scale density, velocity gradient, and primordial power spectrum amplitude, we measure how the Lyman-α forest flux power spectrum responds to the local, long-wavelength quasar overdensity, and equivalently their squeezed-limit bispectrum. We perform a Fisher forecast for the ability of future experiments to constrain local non-Gaussianity using the bispectrum of quasars and the Lyman-α forest. Combining with quasar and Lyman-α forest power spectra to constrain the biases, we find that for DESI the expected 1−σ constraint is err[ f {sub NL}]∼60. Ability for DESI to measure f {sub NL} through this channel is limited primarily by the aliasing and instrumental noise of the Lyman-α forest flux power spectrum. The combination of response approach and separate universe simulations provides a novel technique to explore the constraints from the squeezed-limit bispectrum between different observables.

  11. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations in the Inner Heliosphere: A Wind and MESSENGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Adam; Koval, A.

    2011-01-01

    The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the similar observations made by the MESSENGER spacecraft in the inner heliosphere affords an opportunity to compare magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of radial distance from the Sun under different solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the approx.2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The powe'r spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions. Wind and MESSENGER magnetic fluctuations are compared for times when the two spacecraft are close to radial and Parker field alignment. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed.

  12. A nanogenerator as a self-powered sensor for measuring the vibration spectrum of a drum membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Aifang; Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-02-01

    A nanogenerator (NG) is a device that converts vibration energy into electricity. Here, a flexible, small size and lightweight NG is successfully demonstrated as an active sensor for detecting the vibration spectrum of a drum membrane without the use of an external power source. The output current/voltage signal of the NG is a direct measure of the strain of the local vibrating drum membrane that contains rich informational content, such as, notably, the vibration frequency, vibration speed and vibration amplitude. In comparison to the laser vibrometer, which is excessively complex and expensive, this kind of small and low cost sensor based on an NG is also capable of detecting the local vibration frequency of a drum membrane accurately. A spatial arrangement of the NGs on the membrane can provide position-dependent vibration information on the surface. The measured frequency spectrum can be understood on the basis of the theoretically calculated vibration modes. This work expands the application of NGs and reveals the potential for developing sound wave detection, environmental/infrastructure monitoring and many more applications.

  13. Power Difference in Spectrum of Sound Radiation before and after Break of Phantom by Piezoelectric Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Hiroshi; Jang, Yun-Seok; Chubachi, Noriyoshi; Tanahashi, Yoshikatsu

    1994-05-01

    This paper investigates the difference in the spectrum of sound radiated before and after the break of a phantom at a focal point of the piezoelectric extracorporeal shock wave lithotriptor (ESWL) in order to identify the break time or to examine whether a calculus exists exactly at the focal point or not. From the preliminary experiments using a piece of chalk as a phantom of a calculus to measure the sound radiated when impact is applied to the chalk by an impact hammer, it is found that the bending vibration component of the vibration is exhibited in the spectrum of sound. However, for small-sized chalk shorter than 3 cm, the peak frequency of the bending vibration is higher than 20 kHz. From the experiments using a piezoeletric ESWL, it is found that there is clear difference in the power spectra among the sound radiated before the break, that radiated just after the break in the breaking process, and that radiated when the chalk does not exist at the focal point of the ESWL. These characteristics will be effective for the examination of the existence of the calculus at the focal point.

  14. The AGN Population in Nearby Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, Mercedes; Barthel, Peter; Ho, Luis

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the incidence of black hole accretion-driven nuclear activity in nearby galaxies, we have compiled radio data for the LINERs, composite LINER,/Hn and Seyfert galaxies from a complete magnitude-limited sample of bright nearby galaxies (Palomar sample). Our results show an overall radio detection rate of 54% (22% of all bright nearby galaxies) and we estimate that at least ∼50% (∼20% of all bright nearby galaxies) are true AGN. By comparing the radio luminosity function of the LINERs, composite LINER/Hll and Seyferts galaxies in the Palomar sample with those of selected moderate-redshift AGN, we fhd that our sources naturally extend the radio luminosity function of powerful AGN down to powers of about 10 times that of Sgr A*

  15. The influence of methylphenidate on the power spectrum of ADHD children – an MEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Susanne

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was dedicated to investigate the influence of Methylphenidate (MPH on cortical processing of children who were diagnosed with different subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. As all of the previous studies investigating power differences in different frequency bands have been using EEG, mostly with a relatively small number of electrodes our aim was to obtain new aspects using high density magnetoencephalography (MEG. Methods 35 children (6 female, 29 male participated in this study. Mean age was 11.7 years (± 1.92 years. 17 children were diagnosed of having an Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder of the combined type (ADHDcom, DSM IV code 314.01; the other 18 were diagnosed for ADHD of the predominantly inattentive type (ADHDin, DSM IV code 314.0. We measured the MEG during a 5 minute resting period with a 148-channel magnetometer system (MAGNES™ 2500 WH, 4D Neuroimaging, San Diego, USA. Power values were averaged for 5 bands: Delta (D, 1.5–3.5 Hz, Theta (T, 3.5–7.5 Hz, Alpha (A, 7.5–12.5 Hz, Beta (B, 12.5–25 Hz and Global (GL, 1.5–25 Hz.. Additionally, attention was measured behaviourally using the D2 test of attention with and without medication. Results The global power of the frequency band from 1.5 to 25 Hz increased with MPH. Relative Theta was found to be higher in the left hemisphere after administration of MPH than before. A positive correlation was found between D2 test improvement and MPH-induced power changes in the Theta band over the left frontal region. A linear regression was computed and confirmed that the larger the improvement in D2 test performance, the larger the increase in Theta after MPH application. Conclusion Main effects induced by medication were found in frontal regions. Theta band activity increased over the left hemisphere after MPH application. This finding contradicts EEG results of several groups who found lower levels of Theta power

  16. Effects of space-dependent cross sections on core physics parameters for compact fast spectrum space power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lell, R.M.; Hanan, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    Effects of multigroup neutron cross section generation procedures on core physics parameters for compact fast spectrum reactors have been examined. Homogeneous and space-dependent multigroup cross section sets were generated in 11 and 27 groups for a representative fast reactor core. These cross sections were used to compute various reactor physics parameters for the reference core. Coarse group structure and neglect of space-dependence in the generation procedure resulted in inaccurate computations of reactor flux and power distributions and in significant errors regarding estimates of core reactivity and control system worth. Delayed neutron fraction was insensitive to cross section treatment, and computed reactivity coefficients were only slightly sensitive. However, neutron lifetime was found to be very sensitive to cross section treatment. Deficiencies in multigroup cross sections are reflected in core nuclear design and, consequently, in system mechanical design

  17. Adaptive estimation of a time-varying phase with a power-law spectrum via continuous squeezed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinani, Hossein T.; Berry, Dominic W.

    2017-06-01

    When measuring a time-varying phase, the standard quantum limit and Heisenberg limit as usually defined, for a constant phase, do not apply. If the phase has Gaussian statistics and a power-law spectrum 1 /|ω| p with p >1 , then the generalized standard quantum limit and Heisenberg limit have recently been found to have scalings of 1 /N(p -1 )/p and 1 /N2 (p -1 )/(p +1 ) , respectively, where N is the mean photon flux. We show that this Heisenberg scaling can be achieved via adaptive measurements on squeezed states. We predict the experimental parameters analytically, and test them with numerical simulations. Previous work had considered the special case of p =2 .

  18. Detection of Atrial Fibrillation Using Artifical Neural Network with Power Spectrum Density of RR Interval of Electrocardiogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afdala, Adfal; Nuryani, Nuryani; Satrio Nugroho, Anto

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a disorder of the heart with fairly high mortality in adults. AF is a common heart arrythmia which is characterized by a missing or irregular contraction of atria. Therefore, finding a method to detect atrial fibrillation is necessary. In this article a system to detect atrial fibrillation has been proposed. Detection system utilized backpropagation artifical neural network. Data input in this method includes power spectrum density of R-peaks interval of electrocardiogram which is selected by wrapping method. This research uses parameter learning rate, momentum, epoch and hidden layer. System produces good performance with accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.55%, 86.72 % and 81.47 %, respectively.

  19. Constraining Reionization with the z ˜ 5-6 Lyα Forest Power Spectrum: The Outlook after Planck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñorbe, J.; Hennawi, J. F.; Lukić, Z.; Walther, M.

    2017-09-01

    The latest measurements of cosmic microwave background electron-scattering optical depth reported by Planck significantly reduces the allowed space of {{H}} {{I}} reionization models, pointing toward a later ending and/or less extended phase transition than previously believed. Reionization impulsively heats the intergalactic medium (IGM) to ˜ {10}4 {{K}}, and owing to long cooling and dynamical times in the diffuse gas that are comparable to the Hubble time, memory of reionization heating is retained. Therefore, a late-ending reionization has significant implications for the structure of the z˜ 5{--}6 Lyα forest. Using state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations that allow us to vary the timing of reionization and its associated heat injection, we argue that extant thermal signatures from reionization can be detected via the Lyα forest power spectrum at 5noise ratio will allow distinguishing between different reionization scenarios.

  20. Development and application of programs to measure modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum and detective quantum efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, R; Kotre, C J

    2005-01-01

    This project aimed to produce programs to calculate the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of digital X-ray systems, given a suitable digital image. The MTF was calculated using the edge technique and the NPS was calculated from a flat field image. Both programs require a suitably edited DICOM image as input. The DQE was then calculated from the output of MTF and NPS programs. This required data external to the DQE program to estimate the number of quanta per mm2 in the beam which formed the NPS image. All three programs run independent of each other on a PC and require no special software to be installed. Results for MTF, NPS and DQE for a Philips AC3 CR system are presented. In addition, the results for MTF from a Siemens Duo CT scanner with a specially designed PTFE edge are also shown.

  1. Measurement and analysis of noise power spectrum of computerized tomography in images; Medida y analysis del espectro de potencias del ruido en imagenes de tomografia computarizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Tejero, P.; Garayoa Roca, J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper examines the implementation of the spectrum of powers of the noise, NPS, as metric to characterize the noise, both in magnitude and in texture, for CT scans. The NPS found show that you for convolution filters that assume a greater softening in the reconstructed image, spectrum is concentrated in the low frequencies, while for filters sharp, the spectrum extends to high frequencies. In the analyzed cases, there is a low frequency component, largely due to the structure-borne noise, which can be a potential negative effect on the detectability of injuries. (Author)

  2. Superclusters and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Joeveer, M.; Saar, E.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial distribution of Galaxies and Galaxy congestions in the southern galactic hemisphere is studied. The rich galaxy congestions, containing many elliptic Galaxies and radiogalaxies, are linked with each other by chains of scanty congestions with moderate content of elliptic Galaxies and radiogalaxies. The flat formation, linking the density pikes and the intermediate chains, can reasonably be called supercongestion. In the central region of supercongestions there is a thin layer of Galaxies consisting of only spiral Galaxies. The neighbouring supercongestions touch each other, while the intersupercongestion space contains no Galaxy congestions and almost no Galaxies. It is shown that such a structure was, apparently, formed before the formation of Galaxies

  3. Self-consistent determination of the spike-train power spectrum in a neural network with sparse connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eDummer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A major source of random variability in cortical networks is the quasi-random arrival of presynaptic action potentials from many other cells. In network studies as well as in the study of the response properties of single cells embedded in a network, synaptic background input is often approximated by Poissonian spike trains. However, the output statistics of the cells is in most cases far from being Poisson. This is inconsistent with the assumption of similar spike-train statistics for pre- and postsynaptic cells in a recurrent network. Here we tackle this problem for the popular class of integrate-and-fire neurons and study a self-consistent statistics of input and output spectra of neural spike trains. Instead of actually using a large network, we use an iterative scheme, in which we simulate a single neuron over several generations. In each of these generations, the neuron is stimulated with surrogate stochastic input that has a similar statistics as the output of the previous generation. For the surrogate input, we employ two distinct approximations: (i a superposition of renewal spike trains with the same interspike interval density as observed in the previous generation and (ii a Gaussian current with a power spectrum proportional to that observed in the previous generation. For input parameters that correspond to balanced input in the network, both the renewal and the Gaussian iteration procedure converge quickly and yield comparable results for the self-consistent spike-train power spectrum. We compare our results to large-scale simulations of a random sparsely connected network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons (Brunel, J. Comp. Neurosci. 2000 and show that in the asynchronous regime close to a state of balanced synaptic input from the network, our iterative schemes provide excellent approximations to the autocorrelation of spike trains in the recurrent network.

  4. The effects of the small-scale behaviour of dark matter power spectrum on CMB spectral distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abir; Sethi, Shiv. K.; Das, Subinoy

    2017-07-01

    After numerous astronomical and experimental searches, the precise particle nature of dark matter is still unknown. The standard Weakly Interacting Massive Particle(WIMP) dark matter, despite successfully explaining the large-scale features of the universe, has long-standing small-scale issues. The spectral distortion in the Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB) caused by Silk damping in the pre-recombination era allows one to access information on a range of small scales 0.3 Mpc Light Axion (ULA) dark matter and Charged Decaying Dark Matter (CHDM); the matter power in all these models deviate significantly from the ΛCDM model at small scales. We compute the spectral distortion of CMB for these alternative models and compare our results with the ΛCDM model. We show that the main impact of alternative models is to alter the sub-horizon evolution of the Newtonian potential which affects the late-time behaviour of spectral distortion of CMB. The y-parameter diminishes by a few percent as compared to the ΛCDM model for a range of parameters of these models: LFDM for formation redshift zf = 105 (7%); WDM for mass mwdm = 1 keV (2%); CHDM for decay redshift zdecay = 105 (5%); ULA for mass ma = 10-24 eV (3%). This effect from the pre-recombination era can be masked by orders of magnitude higher y-distortions generated by late-time sources, e.g. the Epoch of Reionization and tSZ from the cluster of galaxies. We also briefly discuss the detectability of this deviation in light of the upcoming CMB experiment PIXIE, which might have the sensitivity to detect this signal from the pre-recombination phase.

  5. Planck early results. XVIII. The power spectrum of cosmic infrared background anisotropies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    Using Planck maps of six regions of low Galactic dust emission with a total area of about 140 deg2, we determine the angular power spectra of cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies from multipole = 200 to = 2000 at 217, 353, 545 and 857 GHz. We use 21-cm observations of Hi as a tracer...... of thermal dust emission to reduce the already low level of Galactic dust emission and use the 143 GHz Planck maps in these fields to clean out cosmic microwave background anisotropies. Both of these cleaning processes are necessary to avoid significant contamination of the CIB signal. We measure correlated...

  6. Observing trans-Planckian ripples in the primordial power spectrum with future large scale structure probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the issue of ripples in the primordial power spectra caused by trans-Planckian physics, and the potential for their detection by future cosmological probes. We find that for reasonably large values of the first slow-roll parameter epsilon (> 0.001), a positive detection of trans......-Planckian ripples can be made even if the amplitude is as low as 10^-4. Data from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the proposed future 21 cm survey with the Fast Fourier Transform Telescope (FFTT) will be particularly useful in this regard. If the scale of inflation is close to its present upper bound...

  7. S0 galaxies in Formax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedregal...[], A. G.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Merrifield, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1......Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1...

  8. Optical Spectra of Candidate International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Flat-spectrum Radio Sources. III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M. [Geoscience Australia, P.O. Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Pursimo, T. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope Apartado 474E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Jauncey, David L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF and Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Zenere, Katrina A., E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2017-04-01

    In extending our spectroscopic program, which targets sources drawn from the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Catalog, we have obtained spectra for ∼160 compact, flat-spectrum radio sources and determined redshifts for 112 quasars and radio galaxies. A further 14 sources with featureless spectra have been classified as BL Lac objects. Spectra were obtained at three telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, and the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile. While most of the sources are powerful quasars, a significant fraction of radio galaxies is also included from the list of non-defining ICRF radio sources.

  9. Power adaptation for joint switched diversity and adaptive modulation schemes in spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2012-09-01

    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper an adaptive scheme using transmit power adaptation, switched transmit diversity, and adaptive modulation in order to improve the performance of existing switching efficient schemes (SES) and bandwidth efficient schemes (BES). Taking advantage of the channel reciprocity principle, we assume that the channel state information (CSI) of the interference link is available to the secondary transmitter. This information is then used by the secondary transmitter to adapt its transmit power, modulation constellation size, and used transmit branch. The goal of this joint adaptation is to minimize the average number of switched branches and the average system delay given the fading channel conditions, the required error rate performance, and a peak interference constraint to the primary receiver. We analyze the proposed scheme in terms of the average number of branch switching, average delay, and we provide a closed-form expression of the average bit error rate (BER). We demonstrate through numerical examples that the proposed scheme provides a compromise between the SES and the BES schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Power adaptation for joint switched diversity and adaptive modulation schemes in spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied; Tourki, Kamel; Ghrayeb, Ali A.; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper an adaptive scheme using transmit power adaptation, switched transmit diversity, and adaptive modulation in order to improve the performance of existing switching efficient schemes (SES) and bandwidth efficient schemes (BES). Taking advantage of the channel reciprocity principle, we assume that the channel state information (CSI) of the interference link is available to the secondary transmitter. This information is then used by the secondary transmitter to adapt its transmit power, modulation constellation size, and used transmit branch. The goal of this joint adaptation is to minimize the average number of switched branches and the average system delay given the fading channel conditions, the required error rate performance, and a peak interference constraint to the primary receiver. We analyze the proposed scheme in terms of the average number of branch switching, average delay, and we provide a closed-form expression of the average bit error rate (BER). We demonstrate through numerical examples that the proposed scheme provides a compromise between the SES and the BES schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. A measurement of the cosmic microwave background B-mode polarization power spectrum at sub-degree scales with POLARBEAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, P. A. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3XQ (United Kingdom); Akiba, Y.; Hasegawa, M. [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Miura District, Kanagawa 240-0115 (Japan); Anthony, A. E.; Halverson, N. W. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Elleflot, T.; Feng, C. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Borrill, J.; Errard, J. [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Chinone, Y.; Flanigan, D. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada); Fabbian, G. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Grainger, W. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, STFC, Swindon, SN2 1SZ (United Kingdom); Collaboration: Polarbear Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-20

    We report a measurement of the B-mode polarization power spectrum in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the POLARBEAR experiment in Chile. The faint B-mode polarization signature carries information about the universe's entire history of gravitational structure formation, and the cosmic inflation that may have occurred in the very early universe. Our measurement covers the angular multipole range 500 < ℓ < 2100 and is based on observations of an effective sky area of 25 deg{sup 2} with 3.'5 resolution at 150 GHz. On these angular scales, gravitational lensing of the CMB by intervening structure in the universe is expected to be the dominant source of B-mode polarization. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, the hypothesis of no B-mode polarization power from gravitational lensing is rejected at 97.2% confidence. The band powers are consistent with the standard cosmological model. Fitting a single lensing amplitude parameter A{sub BB} to the measured band powers, A{sub BB}=1.12±0.61(stat){sub −0.12}{sup +0.04}(sys)±0.07(multi), where A{sub BB} = 1 is the fiducial WMAP-9 ΛCDM value. In this expression, 'stat' refers to the statistical uncertainty, 'sys' to the systematic uncertainty associated with possible biases from the instrument and astrophysical foregrounds, and 'multi' to the calibration uncertainties that have a multiplicative effect on the measured amplitude A{sub BB}.

  12. Third-Order Density Perturbation and One-Loop Power Spectrum in Dark-Energy-Dominated Universe(Astrophysics and Cosmology)

    OpenAIRE

    Ryuichi, TAKAHASHI; Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the third-order density perturbation and the one-loop correction to the linear power spectrum in the dark-energy cosmological model. Our main interest is to understand the dark-energy effect on baryon acoustic oscillations in a quasi-nonlinear regime (k≈0.1h/Mpc). Analytical solutions and simple fitting formulae are presented for the dark-energy model with the general time-varying equation of state w(a). It turns out that the power spectrum coincides with the approximate res...

  13. Application of Bayesian model averaging to measurements of the primordial power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, David; Liddle, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Cosmological parameter uncertainties are often stated assuming a particular model, neglecting the model uncertainty, even when Bayesian model selection is unable to identify a conclusive best model. Bayesian model averaging is a method for assessing parameter uncertainties in situations where there is also uncertainty in the underlying model. We apply model averaging to the estimation of the parameters associated with the primordial power spectra of curvature and tensor perturbations. We use CosmoNest and MultiNest to compute the model evidences and posteriors, using cosmic microwave data from WMAP, ACBAR, BOOMERanG, and CBI, plus large-scale structure data from the SDSS DR7. We find that the model-averaged 95% credible interval for the spectral index using all of the data is 0.940 s s is specified at a pivot scale 0.015 Mpc -1 . For the tensors model averaging can tighten the credible upper limit, depending on prior assumptions.

  14. Performance Analysis of a Power Limited Spectrum Sharing System with TAS/MRC

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2014-02-01

    Capacity of the cognitive radio network degrades due to the interference constraint from the primary network. The secondary network capacity can be enhanced in a cost effective way by means of spatial diversity, that can be achieved by adding multiple antennas on the secondary network terminals and performing antenna selection. In this paper, the performance of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) secondary link with transmit antenna selection (TAS) at the transmitter and maximum ratio combining (MRC) at the receiver is analyzed. A peak transmit power constraint at the secondary transmitter is considered in addition to the interference power constraint and two scenarios are considered; 1) the MIMO cognitive system with TAS/MRC (MCS-TM) does not experience interference from the primary network (denote by MCS-TM-NI), and 2) MCS-TM does experience interference from the primary network (denote by MCS-TM-WI). The performance of both MCS-TM-NI and MCS-TM-WI is analyzed and, for a Rayleigh faded channel, closed-form expression for the outage probability is derived. In addition, closed-form expressions of the moment generating function, the symbol error rate and the ergodic capacity are obtained for the MCS-TM-NI. Asymptotic performance analysis of the MCS-TM-NI reveals that TAS/MRC in a MIMO cognitive system achieves a generalized diversity gain equal to the product of the number of transmit and receive antennas. Numerical results are also presented to corroborate the derived analytical results. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

  15. The effects of the small-scale behaviour of dark matter power spectrum on CMB spectral distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Abir; Sethi, Shiv K. [Raman Research Institute, CV Raman Ave Sadashivnagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560080 (India); Das, Subinoy, E-mail: abir@rri.res.in, E-mail: sethi@rri.res.in, E-mail: subinoy@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 100 Feet Rd, Madiwala, 2nd Block, Koramangala, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560034 (India)

    2017-07-01

    After numerous astronomical and experimental searches, the precise particle nature of dark matter is still unknown. The standard Weakly Interacting Massive Particle(WIMP) dark matter, despite successfully explaining the large-scale features of the universe, has long-standing small-scale issues. The spectral distortion in the Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB) caused by Silk damping in the pre-recombination era allows one to access information on a range of small scales 0.3 Mpc < k < 10{sup 4} Mpc{sup −1}, whose dynamics can be precisely described using linear theory. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using the Silk damping induced CMB spectral distortion as a probe of the small-scale power. We consider four suggested alternative dark matter candidates—Warm Dark Matter (WDM), Late Forming Dark Matter (LFDM), Ultra Light Axion (ULA) dark matter and Charged Decaying Dark Matter (CHDM); the matter power in all these models deviate significantly from the ΛCDM model at small scales. We compute the spectral distortion of CMB for these alternative models and compare our results with the ΛCDM model. We show that the main impact of alternative models is to alter the sub-horizon evolution of the Newtonian potential which affects the late-time behaviour of spectral distortion of CMB. The y -parameter diminishes by a few percent as compared to the ΛCDM model for a range of parameters of these models: LFDM for formation redshift z {sub f} = 10{sup 5} (7%); WDM for mass m {sub wdm} = 1 keV (2%); CHDM for decay redshift z {sub decay} = 10{sup 5} (5%); ULA for mass m {sub a} = 10{sup −24} eV (3%). This effect from the pre-recombination era can be masked by orders of magnitude higher y -distortions generated by late-time sources, e.g. the Epoch of Reionization and tSZ from the cluster of galaxies. We also briefly discuss the detectability of this deviation in light of the upcoming CMB experiment PIXIE, which might have the sensitivity to detect this signal from

  16. CORES AND THE KINEMATICS OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, Tod R.

    2012-01-01

    I have combined the Emsellem et al. ATLAS 3D rotation measures of a large sample of early-type galaxies with Hubble Space Telescope based classifications of their central structure to characterize the rotation velocities of galaxies with cores. 'Core galaxies' rotate slowly, while 'power-law galaxies' (galaxies that lack cores) rotate rapidly, confirming the analysis of Faber et al. Significantly, the amplitude of rotation sharply discriminates between the two types in the –19 > M V > –22 domain over which the two types coexist. The slow rotation in the small set of core galaxies with M V > –20, in particular, brings them into concordance with the more massive core galaxies. The ATLAS 3D 'fast-rotating' and 'slow-rotating' early-type galaxies are essentially the same as power-law and core galaxies, respectively, or the Kormendy and Bender two families of elliptical galaxies based on rotation, isophote shape, and central structure. The ATLAS 3D fast rotators do include roughly half of the core galaxies, but their rotation amplitudes are always at the lower boundary of that subset. Essentially, all core galaxies have ATLAS 3D rotation amplitudes λ R e /2 ≤0.25, while all galaxies with λ R e /2 >0.25 and figure eccentricity >0.2 lack cores. Both figure rotation and the central structure of early-type galaxies should be used together to separate systems that appear to have formed from 'wet' versus 'dry' mergers.

  17. Analysis of the phase control of the ITER ICRH antenna array. Influence on the load resilience and radiated power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messiaen, A., E-mail: a.messiaen@fz-juelich.de; Ongena, J.; Vervier, M. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM-KMS, TEC partner, Cycle, B1000-Brussels (Belgium); Swain, D. [US ITER Team, ORNL (United States)

    2015-12-10

    The paper analyses how the phasing of the ITER ICRH 24 strap array evolves from the power sources up to the strap currents of the antenna. The study of the phasing control and coherence through the feeding circuits with prematching and automatic matching and decoupling network is made by modeling starting from the TOPICA matrix of the antenna array for a low coupling plasma profile and for current drive phasing (worst case for mutual coupling effects). The main results of the analysis are: (i) the strap current amplitude is well controlled by the antinode V{sub max} amplitude of the feeding lines, (ii) the best toroidal phasing control is done by the adjustment of the mean phase of V{sub max} of each poloidal straps column, (iii) with well adjusted system the largest strap current phasing error is ±20°, (iv) the effect on load resilience remains well below the maximum affordable VSWR of the generators, (v) the effect on the radiated power spectrum versus k{sub //} computed by means of the coupling code ANTITER II remains small for the considered cases.

  18. Assessment of quasi-linear effect of RF power spectrum for enabling lower hybrid current drive in reactor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, Roberto; Cardinali, Alessandro; Castaldo, Carmine; Amicucci, Luca; Ceccuzzi, Silvio; Galli, Alessandro; Napoli, Francesco; Panaccione, Luigi; Santini, Franco; Schettini, Giuseppe; Tuccillo, Angelo Antonio

    2017-10-01

    The main research on the energy from thermonuclear fusion uses deuterium plasmas magnetically trapped in toroidal devices. To suppress the turbulent eddies that impair thermal insulation and pressure tight of the plasma, current drive (CD) is necessary, but tools envisaged so far are unable accomplishing this task while efficiently and flexibly matching the natural current profiles self-generated at large radii of the plasma column [1-5]. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) [6] can satisfy this important need of a reactor [1], but the LHCD system has been unexpectedly mothballed on JET. The problematic extrapolation of the LHCD tool at reactor graded high values of, respectively, density and temperatures of plasma has been now solved. The high density problem is solved by the FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) method [7], and solution of the high temperature one is presented here. Model results based on quasi-linear (QL) theory evidence the capability, w.r.t linear theory, of suitable operating parameters of reducing the wave damping in hot reactor plasmas. Namely, using higher RF power densities [8], or a narrower antenna power spectrum in refractive index [9,10], the obstacle for LHCD represented by too high temperature of reactor plasmas should be overcome. The former method cannot be used for routinely, safe antenna operations, Thus, only the latter key is really exploitable in a reactor. The proposed solutions are ultimately necessary for viability of an economic reactor.

  19. The 0.3-30 Kev Spectra Of Powerful Starburst Galaxies: Nustar And Chandra Observations Of Ngc 3256 And Ngc 3310

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Tyler, J. B.; Hornschemeier, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    observations therefore constrain the average spectral shape of galaxy-wide populations of luminous accreting binaries (i.e., ULXs). Interestingly, despite a completely different galaxy sample selection, emphasizing here a range of SFRs and stellar masses, these properties are similar to those of super...

  20. Emulating galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing into the deeply nonlinear regime: methodology, information, and forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Wibking, Benjamin D.; Salcedo, Andrés N.; Weinberg, David H.; Garrison, Lehman H.; Ferrer, Douglas; Tinker, Jeremy; Eisenstein, Daniel; Metchnik, Marc; Pinto, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The combination of galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) with galaxy clustering is one of the most promising routes to determining the amplitude of matter clustering at low redshifts. We show that extending clustering+GGL analyses from the linear regime down to $\\sim 0.5 \\, h^{-1}$ Mpc scales increases their constraining power considerably, even after marginalizing over a flexible model of non-linear galaxy bias. Using a grid of cosmological N-body simulations, we construct a Taylor-expansion emulator ...

  1. Upper Limits on the 21 cm Epoch of Reionization Power Spectrum from One Night with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, A. H.; Yatawatta, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Brentjens, M. A.; Zaroubi, S.; Asad, K. M. B.; Hatef, M.; Jelić, V.; Mevius, M.; Offringa, A. R.; Pandey, V. N.; Vedantham, H.; Abdalla, F. B.; Brouw, W. N.; Chapman, E.; Ciardi, B.; Gehlot, B. K.; Ghosh, A.; Harker, G.; Iliev, I. T.; Kakiichi, K.; Majumdar, S.; Mellema, G.; Silva, M. B.; Schaye, J.; Vrbanec, D.; Wijnholds, S. J.

    2017-03-01

    We present the first limits on the Epoch of Reionization 21 cm H I power spectra, in the redshift range z = 7.9-10.6, using the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) High-Band Antenna (HBA). In total, 13.0 hr of data were used from observations centered on the North Celestial Pole. After subtraction of the sky model and the noise bias, we detect a non-zero {{{Δ }}}{{I}}2={(56+/- 13{mK})}2 (1-σ) excess variance and a best 2-σ upper limit of {{{Δ }}}212< {(79.6{mK})}2 at k = 0.053 h cMpc-1 in the range z = 9.6-10.6. The excess variance decreases when optimizing the smoothness of the direction- and frequency-dependent gain calibration, and with increasing the completeness of the sky model. It is likely caused by (I) residual side-lobe noise on calibration baselines, (II) leverage due to nonlinear effects, (III) noise and ionosphere-induced gain errors, or a combination thereof. Further analyses of the excess variance will be discussed in forthcoming publications.

  2. Earth power spectrum and its potential as a usable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    The aurora is a natural, visible manifestation of a large electrical-current system that is continually pumping millions of megawatts of electromagnetic power into the upper polar atmospheres, exceeding the total electrical generating capacity of the United States. Auroras begin on the sun, where the energy spirals away into interplanetary space at hundreds of miles per second; four days after it leaves the sun, this high speed stream of solar wind reaches the vicinity of the earth where the plasma collides with and moves around the planet's magnetic field. The high-speed solar wind reshapes the field into a comet-shaped cavity called the magnetosphere. The sunward shock front extends some 10-15 earth radii into space, while the night-side magnetotail stretches out beyond 60 earth radii (Re), reaching beyond the Moon's orbit. As the solar wind blows downstream along the edges of this magnetic cavity, the energies leak in and become part of an immense reservoir called the plasmasheet, which runs down the length of the magnetotail. The plasma that leaks in is carried back toward the Earth by the flow of the plasmasheet and down the funnels over the two polar regions, causing a constant ring-shaped glow. The path of the auroral energy streaming in along the Earth's magnetic field lines appears as a thin, glowing curtain hanging from 60 to hundreds of miles above the Earth. The magnetosphere is a big container of energy storage

  3. Power allocation and achievable data rate in spectrum-sharing channels under adaptive primary service outage constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we focus on a cognitive radio network where adaptive modulation is adopted in primary links. The gap between the primary user (PU)\\'s received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the lower SNR boundary of the modulation mode that is being used, provides an interference-tolerable zone. Based on this gap, a secondary user (SU) has an increased opportunity to access the licensed spectrum and to determine the transmit power it should use to keep the PU\\'s quality-of-service (QoS) unaffected. However, since the SU cannot obtain perfect information on the PU\\'s received SNR, it has to choose an SNR point between the lower and upper boundaries of the PU\\'s current modulation mode as if this point were the real SNR received by the PU. Considering this issue, in order to quantify the effect of the SU\\'s transmissions on the PU\\'s QoS, we define the PU\\'s service outage probability and obtain its closed-form expressions by taking into account whether the peak transmit power constraint is imposed on the secondary\\'s transmission or not. Subsequently, we derive the SU\\'s achievable data rate in closed form for counterpart scenarios. Numerical results provided here quantify the relation between the PU\\'s service outage probability and the SU\\'s achievable data rate, which further demonstrate that the higher the peak transmit power a secondary transmitter can support, the better performance the cognitive radio network can achieve. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Power spectrum weighted edge analysis for straight edge detection in images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvir, Hrishikesh V.; Skipper, Julie A.

    2007-04-01

    Most man-made objects provide characteristic straight line edges and, therefore, edge extraction is a commonly used target detection tool. However, noisy images often yield broken edges that lead to missed detections, and extraneous edges that may contribute to false target detections. We present a sliding-block approach for target detection using weighted power spectral analysis. In general, straight line edges appearing at a given frequency are represented as a peak in the Fourier domain at a radius corresponding to that frequency, and a direction corresponding to the orientation of the edges in the spatial domain. Knowing the edge width and spacing between the edges, a band-pass filter is designed to extract the Fourier peaks corresponding to the target edges and suppress image noise. These peaks are then detected by amplitude thresholding. The frequency band width and the subsequent spatial filter mask size are variable parameters to facilitate detection of target objects of different sizes under known imaging geometries. Many military objects, such as trucks, tanks and missile launchers, produce definite signatures with parallel lines and the algorithm proves to be ideal for detecting such objects. Moreover, shadow-casting objects generally provide sharp edges and are readily detected. The block operation procedure offers advantages of significant reduction in noise influence, improved edge detection, faster processing speed and versatility to detect diverse objects of different sizes in the image. With Scud missile launcher replicas as target objects, the method has been successfully tested on terrain board test images under different backgrounds, illumination and imaging geometries with cameras of differing spatial resolution and bit-depth.

  5. Perceptually Salient Regions of the Modulation Power Spectrum for Musical Instrument Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoret, Etienne; Depalle, Philippe; McAdams, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The ability of a listener to recognize sound sources, and in particular musical instruments from the sounds they produce, raises the question of determining the acoustical information used to achieve such a task. It is now well known that the shapes of the temporal and spectral envelopes are crucial to the recognition of a musical instrument. More recently, Modulation Power Spectra (MPS) have been shown to be a representation that potentially explains the perception of musical instrument sounds. Nevertheless, the question of which specific regions of this representation characterize a musical instrument is still open. An identification task was applied to two subsets of musical instruments: tuba, trombone, cello, saxophone, and clarinet on the one hand, and marimba, vibraphone, guitar, harp, and viola pizzicato on the other. The sounds were processed with filtered spectrotemporal modulations with 2D Gaussian windows. The most relevant regions of this representation for instrument identification were determined for each instrument and reveal the regions essential for their identification. The method used here is based on a "molecular approach," the so-called bubbles method. Globally, the instruments were correctly identified and the lower values of spectrotemporal modulations are the most important regions of the MPS for recognizing instruments. Interestingly, instruments that were confused with each other led to non-overlapping regions and were confused when they were filtered in the most salient region of the other instrument. These results suggest that musical instrument timbres are characterized by specific spectrotemporal modulations, information which could contribute to music information retrieval tasks such as automatic source recognition.

  6. Crashing galaxies, cosmic fireworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The study of binary systems is reviewed. The history of the study of interacting galaxies, the behavior of gas in binary systems, studies to identify the processes that occur when galaxies interact, and the relationship of Seyfert galaxies and quasars to binary systems are discussed. The development of an atlas of peculiar galaxies (Arp, 1966) and methods for modeling galaxy interactions are examined

  7. Theoretical galactic cosmic ray electron spectrum obtained for sources of varying geometry; Spectre theorique des electrons du rayonnement cosmique dans la galaxie obtenu pour des sources a geometrie variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, M E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Jokipii and Meyer have recently obtained an electron density energy spectrum of the cosmic rays, originating in the Galaxy, using integral solutions of the steady state transfer equations, by considering a circular cylindric galactic disc as source and approximating the resulting fourth order integral. In this report, we present general results, obtained by using an arbitrary circular cylindric source, without restricting ourselves to the galactic disc. The integrals are treated exactly. The conclusions of Jokipii and Meyer form special cases of these results. We also obtain an exponential energy variation which, at the moment, is not observed experimentally. The second part of this work deals with more complicated, but perhaps more realistic models of elliptic cylindric and ellipsoidal galactic disc sources. One may also note that a very large source concentrated in a very small region gives a spectrum not unlike that for a small source distributed throughout a large volume. Finally, it may be remarked that the model adopted is much less restrictive than the artificial conception of 'leakage time' followed by other workers. (author) [French] Jokipii et Meyer ont dernierement obtenu un spectre d'energie pour les electrons galactiques dans le rayonnement cosmique, en utilisant les solutions des equations de transfert, a l'etat stationnaire, ces dernieres etant sous forme d'integrales, en prenant une source completement diffusee dans le disque galactique, celui-ci etant hypothetiquement choisi comme circulaire et cylindrique et en faisant une approximation sur l'integrale du quatrieme degre. Dans ce rapport, nous presentons des resultats generaux obtenus en faisant appel a une source, diffusee dans un cylindre circulaire, arbitrairement choisi, c'est-a-dire sans nous restreindre au disque galactique comme source. Les integrales sont traitees d'une maniere exacte. Les conclusions de Jokipii et Meyer constituent des cas speciaux des resultats precedents. Nous obtenons

  8. Fast Neutron Spectrum Potassium Worth for Space Power Reactor Design Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bess, John D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Marshall, Margaret A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Briggs, J. Blair [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tsiboulia, Anatoli [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rozhikhin, Yevgeniy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mihalczo, John T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    A variety of critical experiments were constructed of enriched uranium metal (oralloy ) during the 1960s and 1970s at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) in support of criticality safety operations at the Y-12 Plant. The purposes of these experiments included the evaluation of storage, casting, and handling limits for the Y-12 Plant and providing data for verification of calculation methods and cross-sections for nuclear criticality safety applications. These included solid cylinders of various diameters, annuli of various inner and outer diameters, two and three interacting cylinders of various diameters, and graphite and polyethylene reflected cylinders and annuli. Of the hundreds of delayed critical experiments, one was performed that consisted of uranium metal annuli surrounding a potassium-filled, stainless steel can. The outer diameter of the annuli was approximately 13 inches (33.02 cm) with an inner diameter of 7 inches (17.78 cm). The diameter of the stainless steel can was 7 inches (17.78 cm). The critical height of the configurations was approximately 5.6 inches (14.224 cm). The uranium annulus consisted of multiple stacked rings, each with radial thicknesses of 1 inch (2.54 cm) and varying heights. A companion measurement was performed using empty stainless steel cans; the primary purpose of these experiments was to test the fast neutron cross sections of potassium as it was a candidate for coolant in some early space power reactor designs.The experimental measurements were performed on July 11, 1963, by J. T. Mihalczo and M. S. Wyatt (Ref. 1) with additional information in its corresponding logbook. Unreflected and unmoderated experiments with the same set of highly enriched uranium metal parts were performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility in the 1960s and are evaluated in the International Handbook for Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (ICSBEP Handbook) with the identifier HEU MET FAST 051. Thin

  9. An intermediate-mass black hole in the darf galaxy Pox 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    Do dwarf elliptical and dwarf spiral galaxies contain central black holes with masses below 106 solar masses? Beyond the Local Group dynamical searches for black holes in this mass range are very difficult but the detection of accretion-powered nuclear activity could be used to infer the presence of a black hole. The nearby dwarf spiral galaxy NGC 4395 hosts a faint Seyfert 1 nucleus with a likely black hole mass in the range 104-105 solar masses and for more than a decade it has been the only known example of a Seyfert 1 nucleus in a dwarf galaxy. I will present new Keck spectra of the dwarf galaxy POX 52 which demonstrate that it has a Seyfert 1 spectrum nearly identical to that of NGC 4395. Its velocity dispersion is 37 km/s suggesting a possible black hole mass of order 105 solar masses. I will discuss the prospects for systematic searches for nuclear activity in dwarf galaxies and the implications for black hole demographics.

  10. An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Dwarf Galaxy Pox 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron

    Do dwarf elliptical and dwarf spiral galaxies contain central black holes with masses below 106 solar masses? Beyond the Local Group dynamical searches for black holes in this mass range are very difficult but the detection of accretion-powered nuclear activity could be used to infer the presence of a black hole. The nearby dwarf spiral galaxy NGC 4395 hosts a faint Seyfert 1 nucleus with a likely black hole mass in the range 104-105 solar masses and for more than a decade it has been the only known example of a Seyfert 1 nucleus in a dwarf galaxy. I will present new Keck spectra of the dwarf galaxy POX 52 which demonstrate that it has a Seyfert 1 spectrum nearly identical to that of NGC 4395. Its velocity dispersion is 37 km/s suggesting a possible black hole mass of order 105 solar masses. I will discuss the prospects for systematic searches for nuclear activity in dwarf galaxies and the implications for black hole demographics.

  11. Spherical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, J. E.; de Souza, R. E.; Penereiro, J. C.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Presentamos fotometria fotografica de 8 objetos y espectrosco- pla para 3 galaxias, las cuales son buenos candidatos para galaxias esfericas. Los resultados fotometricos se presentan en la forma de iso- fotas y de perfiles radiales promedlo, de los cuales se derivan para- metros estructurales. Estas observaciones combinadas con parametros di- namicos obtenidos de observaciones espectrosc6picas, son consistentes con el plano fundamental derivado por Djorgovski y Davis (1987). ABSTRACT. We present photographic surface photometry for 8 objects and spectroscopy for 3 galaxies which are good candidates for spherical galaxies. Photometric results are presented in the form of isophotes and mean radial profiles from which we derived structural parameters. These observations combined with dynamical parameters obtained from spectroscopic observations are consistent with the fundamental plane derived by Djorgovski and Davis (1987). Keq wo : CALAXIES-ELLIPTICAL

  12. DISSECTING THE POWER SOURCES OF LOW-LUMINOSITY EMISSION-LINE GALAXY NUCLEI VIA COMPARISON OF HST-STIS AND GROUND-BASED SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, Anca; Castillo, Christopher A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807 (United States); Shields, Joseph C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Using a sample of ∼100 nearby line-emitting galaxy nuclei, we have built the currently definitive atlas of spectroscopic measurements of Hα and neighboring emission lines at subarcsecond scales. We employ these data in a quantitative comparison of the nebular emission in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based apertures, which offer an order-of-magnitude difference in contrast, and provide new statistical constraints on the degree to which transition objects and low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are powered by an accreting black hole at ≲10 pc. We show that while the small-aperture observations clearly resolve the nebular emission, the aperture dependence in the line ratios is generally weak, and this can be explained by gradients in the density of the line-emitting gas: the higher densities in the more nuclear regions potentially flatten the excitation gradients, suppressing the forbidden emission. The transition objects show a threefold increase in the incidence of broad Hα emission in the high-resolution data, as well as the strongest density gradients, supporting the composite model for these systems as accreting sources surrounded by star-forming activity. The narrow-line LINERs appear to be the weaker counterparts of the Type 1 LINERs, where the low accretion rates cause the disappearance of the broad-line component. The enhanced sensitivity of the HST observations reveals a 30% increase in the incidence of accretion-powered systems at z ≈ 0. A comparison of the strength of the broad-line emission detected at different epochs implies potential broad-line variability on a decade-long timescale, with at least a factor of three in amplitude.

  13. On the frequency of star-forming galaxies in the vicinity of powerful AGNs: The case of SMM J04135+10277

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogasy, J.; Knudsen, K. K.; Lagos, C. D. P.; Drouart, G.; Gonzalez-Perez, V.

    2017-01-01

    Context. In the last decade several massive molecular gas reservoirs were found SMM J04135+10277 (z = 2.84) and investigate the expected frequency of quasar-starburst galaxy pairs at high redshift using a cosmological galaxy formation model. Methods: We use archive data and new APEX ArTeMiS data to construct and model the spectral energy distribution of SMM J04135+10277 in order to determine its properties. We also carry out a comprehensive analysis of the cosmological galaxy formation model galform with the aim of characterising how typical the system of SMM J04135+10277 is and whether quasar-star-forming galaxy pairs may constitute an important stage in galaxy evolution. Finally, we compare our results to observations found in the literature at both large and small scales (1 Mpc-100 kpc). Results: The companion galaxy of SMM J04135+10277 is a heavily dust-obscured starburst galaxy with a median star formation rate (SFR) of 700 M⊙ yr-1, median dust mass of 5.1 × 109M⊙ and median dust luminosity of 9.3 × 1012L⊙. Our simulations, performed at z = 2.8, suggest that SMM J04135+10277 is not unique. In fact, at a distance of 108M⊙, and 0.3% have at least one highly star-forming companion (SFR> 100 M⊙ yr-1). Conclusions: Our results suggest that quasar-gas-rich companion galaxy systems are common phenomena in the early Universe and the high incidence of companions makes the study of such systems crucial to understand the growth and hierarchical build-up of galaxies and black holes.

  14. Planck 2013 results. XXI. Power spectrum and high-order statistics of the Planck all-sky Compton parameter map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. This map shows an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched w...

  15. Further simulations of merging galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.D.M.

    1979-01-01

    Galaxy collisions and the structure of the resulting merger remnants are studied using a large number of numerical simulations. These experiments extend earlier calculations of mergers between pairs of similar 'galaxies'. The tidal coupling in collisions is found to depend strongly on the rotational properties of the 'galaxies' involved. It is greatly enhanced if their spin vectors are aligned with that of their orbit, and it is suppressed if this alignment is reversed. The structure of a merger product depends only weakly on that of its progenitors. Such remnants are typically axisymmetric oblate systems with radially decreasing velocity dispersions and density profiles which have near power-law form over two decades in radius. This density structure is reasonably well described by de Vaucouleurs' empirical formula for the surface brightness distribution of elliptical galaxies. The flattening of merger remnants may be partly supported by an anisotropic pressure distribution, but the systems studied here nevertheless rotate considerably more rapidly than most observed elliptical galaxies, and a natural preference for nearly head-on collisions must be invoked if all ellipticals are to be identified as merger remnants. Mass and energy losses are found to be very small for mergers between bound or marginally unbound 'galaxies'. Escapers can, however, carry away a significant amount of angular momentum. (author)

  16. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark-matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  17. Potentialities of the molten salt reactor concept for a sustainable nuclear power production based on thorium cycle in epithermal spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttin, Alexis

    2002-01-01

    In the case of a significant nuclear contribution to world energy needs, the problem of present nuclear waste management pose the sustainability of the PWR fuel cycle back into question. Studies on storage and incineration of these wastes should therefore go hand in hand with studies on innovative systems dedicated to a durable nuclear energy production, as reliable, clean and safe as possible. We are here interested in the concept of molten salt reactor, whose fuel is liquid. This particularity allows an online pyrochemical reprocessing which gives the possibility to overcome some neutronic limits. In the late sixties, the MSBR (Molten Salt Breeder Reactor) project of a graphite-moderated fluoride molten salt reactor proved thus that breeding is attainable with thorium in a thermal spectrum, provided that the online reprocessing is appropriate. By means of simulation tools developed around the Monte Carlo code MCNP, we first re-evaluate the performance of a reference system, which is inspired by the MSBR project. The complete study of the pre-equilibrium transient of this 2,500 MWth reactor, started with 232 Th/ 233 U fuel, allows us to validate our reference choices. The obtained equilibrium shows an important reduction of inventories and induced radio-toxicities in comparison with the other possible fuel cycles. The online reprocessing is efficient enough to make the system breed, with a doubling time of about thirty years at equilibrium. From the reference system, we then test different options in terms of neutron economy, transmutation and control of reactivity. We find that the online reprocessing brings most of its flexibility to this system, which is particularly well adapted to power generation with thorium. The study of transition scenarios to this fuel cycle quantifies the limits of a possible deployment from the present French power stock, and finally shows that a rational management of the available plutonium would be necessary in any case. (author)

  18. IRAS observations of starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, K.

    1987-01-01

    Far infrared properties of Starburst galaxies were analyzed using IRAS observations at 25, 60, and 100 micrometers. Seventy-nine of 102 Starburst galaxies from the list of Balzano were detected. These galaxies have high IR luminosities of up to a few 10 to the 12th power L sub 0 and concentrate in a small area of the IR color - color diagram. The IR power law spectral indices, alpha, lie within the ranges -2.5 < alpha(60,25)< -1.5 and -1.5 < alpha(100,60)< 0. These observed indices can be interpreted in terms of a cold disk component and a warm component. More than 80% of the 60 micrometer emission comes from the warm component. The fraction of the 60 micrometer emission attributable to the warm component can be used as an activity indicator

  19. Matter power spectrum in hidden neutrino interacting dark matter models: a closer look at the collision term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Tobias; Covi, Laura [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Georg-August University Göttingen,Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, Göttingen, D-37077 (Germany); Kamada, Ayuki [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California,Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Murayama, Hitoshi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Takahashi, Tomo [Department of Physics, Saga University,Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Yoshida, Naoki [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo,Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency,4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama, 332-0012 (Japan)

    2016-11-21

    Dark Matter (DM) models providing possible alternative solutions to the small-scale crisis of the standard cosmology are nowadays of growing interest. We consider DM interacting with light hidden fermions via well-motivated fundamental operators showing the resultant matter power spectrum is suppressed on subgalactic scales within a plausible parameter region. Our basic description of the evolution of cosmological perturbations relies on a fully consistent first principles derivation of a perturbed Fokker-Planck type equation, generalizing existing literature. The cosmological perturbation of the Fokker-Planck equation is presented for the first time in two different gauges, where the results transform into each other according to the rules of gauge transformation. Furthermore, our focus lies on a derivation of a broadly applicable and easily computable collision term showing important phenomenological differences to other existing approximations. As one of the main results and concerning the small-scale crisis, we show the equal importance of vector and scalar boson mediated interactions between the DM and the light fermions.

  20. Multigroup calculation of criticality and power distribution in a two-pass fast spectrum cermet-fueled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghaie, S.; Feller, G.J.; Peery, S.D.; Parsley, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The advanced propulsion group at Pratt ampersand Whitney has developed a nuclear thermal rocket concept, the XNR2000, for use on lunear, Mars, and deep-space planetary missions. The XNR2000 engine is powered by a fast spectrum cermet-fueled nuclear reactor that heats up hydrogen propellant to a maximum of 2850 K. An expander cycle is used to deliver 12 kg/s hydrogen to the core, producing 25,000 lb f thrust at 944 s of specific impulse. The reactor comprises a beryllium-reflected outer annulus core and an inner core with the hydrogen propellant entering from the bottom of the outer core and exiting from the bottom part of the inner core to the thrust chamber. Both the outer and inner cores are loaded with prismatic cermet fuel elements. The baseline XNR2000 reactor core consists of 90 fuel elements in the outer core and 61 in the inner core, arranged in the pattern. This paper focuses on the neutronic analysis of the baseline XNR2000 reactor

  1. CHAM: a fast algorithm of modelling non-linear matter power spectrum in the sCreened HAlo Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Liu, Xue-Wen; Cai, Rong-Gen

    2018-05-01

    We present a fast numerical screened halo model algorithm (CHAM, which stands for the sCreened HAlo Model) for modelling non-linear power spectrum for the alternative models to Λ cold dark matter. This method has three obvious advantages. First of all, it is not being restricted to a specific dark energy/modified gravity model. In principle, all of the screened scalar-tensor theories can be applied. Secondly, the least assumptions are made in the calculation. Hence, the physical picture is very easily understandable. Thirdly, it is very predictable and does not rely on the calibration from N-body simulation. As an example, we show the case of the Hu-Sawicki f(R) gravity. In this case, the typical CPU time with the current parallel PYTHON script (eight threads) is roughly within 10 min. The resulting spectra are in a good agreement with N-body data within a few percentage accuracy up to k ˜ 1 h Mpc-1.

  2. Unusual developmental pattern of brain lateralization in young boys with autism spectrum disorder: Power analysis with child-sized magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Yuko; Kitagawa, Sachiko; Hasegawa, Chiaki; Munesue, Toshio; Takesaki, Natsumi; Ono, Yasuki; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Michio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Asada, Minoru; Minabe, Yoshio

    2015-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often described as comprising an unusual brain growth pattern and aberrant brain lateralization. Although it is important to study the pathophysiology of the developing ASD cortex, examples of physiological brain lateralization in young children with ASD have yet to be well examined. Thirty-eight boys with ASD (aged 3-7 years) and 38 typically developing (TD) boys (aged 3-8 years) concentrated on video programs and their brain activities were measured non-invasively. We employed a customized child-sized magnetoencephalography system in which the sensors were located as close to the brain as possible for optimal recording in young children. To produce a credible laterality index of the brain oscillations, we defined two clusters of sensors corresponding to the right and left hemispheres. We focused on the laterality index ([left - right]/[left+right]) of the relative power band in seven frequency bands. The TD group displayed significantly rightward lateralized brain oscillations in the theta-1 frequency bands compared to the ASD group. This is the first study to demonstrate unusual brain lateralization of brain oscillations measured by magnetoencephalography in young children with ASD. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  3. Comparison of noise power spectrum methodologies in measurements by using various electronic portal imaging devices in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Soon Yong [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Baekseok Culture University College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kyung Tae [Dep. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ah; Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan [Shingu University College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The noise power spectrum (NPS) is one of the most general methods for measuring the noise amplitude and the quality of an image acquired from a uniform radiation field. The purpose of this study was to compare different NPS methodologies by using megavoltage X-ray energies. The NPS evaluation methods in diagnostic radiation were applied to therapy using the International Electro-technical Commission standard (IEC 62220-1). Various radiation therapy (RT) devices such as TrueBeamTM(Varian), BEAMVIEWPLUS(Siemens), iViewGT(Elekta) and ClinacR iX (Varian) were used. In order to measure the region of interest (ROI) of the NPS, we used the following four factors: the overlapping impact, the non-overlapping impact, the flatness and penumbra. As for NPS results, iViewGT(Elekta) had the higher amplitude of noise, compared to BEAMVIEWPLUS (Siemens), TrueBeamTM(Varian) flattening filter, ClinacRiXaS1000(Varian) and TrueBeamTM(Varian) flattening filter free. The present study revealed that various factors could be employed to produce megavoltage imaging (MVI) of the NPS and as a baseline standard for NPS methodologies control in MVI.

  4. Gear Tooth Failure Detection by the Resonance Demodulation Technique and the Instantaneous Power Spectrum Method – A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghasemloonia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of gears in industry for speed and torque variation purposes is obvious. The gearbox diagnostic methods have been improved quickly in recent years. In this paper, two of the newest methods, the resonance demodulation technique (R.D, and the instantaneous power spectrum technique (IPS are applied to gearbox vibration signals and their capabilities in fault detection are compared. Yet, the important role of time averaging should not be dispensed with, as it is the primary step for both techniques. In the present study, the mathematical method of these techniques, according to the mathematical vibration model of gears, is introduced, these techniques are applied to the test rig data, and finally the results of both methods are compared. The results indicate that in each method, the location of fault can be estimated and it is located in the same angular position in both methods. The IPS method is applicable to severe faults, whereas the resonance demodulation technique is a simple tool to recognize the fault at each severity and at the early stages of fault generation.

  5. A noise power spectrum study of a new model-based iterative reconstruction system: Veo 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Liu, Xinming; Dodge, Cristina T; Jensen, Corey T; Rong, X John

    2016-09-08

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance of the third generation of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) system, Veo 3.0, based on noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis with various clinical presets over a wide range of clinically applicable dose levels. A CatPhan 600 surrounded by an oval, fat-equivalent ring to mimic patient size/shape was scanned 10 times at each of six dose levels on a GE HD 750 scanner. NPS analysis was performed on images reconstructed with various Veo 3.0 preset combinations for comparisons of those images reconstructed using Veo 2.0, filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruc-tion (ASiR). The new Target Thickness setting resulted in higher noise in thicker axial images. The new Texture Enhancement function achieved a more isotropic noise behavior with less image artifacts. Veo 3.0 provides additional reconstruction options designed to allow the user choice of balance between spatial resolution and image noise, relative to Veo 2.0. Veo 3.0 provides more user selectable options and in general improved isotropic noise behavior in comparison to Veo 2.0. The overall noise reduction performance of both versions of MBIR was improved in comparison to FBP and ASiR, especially at low-dose levels. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. A noise power spectrum study of a new model‐based iterative reconstruction system: Veo 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Liu, Xinming; Dodge, Cristina T.; Jensen, Corey T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance of the third generation of model‐based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) system, Veo 3.0, based on noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis with various clinical presets over a wide range of clinically applicable dose levels. A CatPhan 600 surrounded by an oval, fat‐equivalent ring to mimic patient size/shape was scanned 10 times at each of six dose levels on a GE HD 750 scanner. NPS analysis was performed on images reconstructed with various Veo 3.0 preset combinations for comparisons of those images reconstructed using Veo 2.0, filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR). The new Target Thickness setting resulted in higher noise in thicker axial images. The new Texture Enhancement function achieved a more isotropic noise behavior with less image artifacts. Veo 3.0 provides additional reconstruction options designed to allow the user choice of balance between spatial resolution and image noise, relative to Veo 2.0. Veo 3.0 provides more user selectable options and in general improved isotropic noise behavior in comparison to Veo 2.0. The overall noise reduction performance of both versions of MBIR was improved in comparison to FBP and ASiR, especially at low‐dose levels. PACS number(s): 87.57.‐s, 87.57.Q‐, 87.57.C‐, 87.57.nf, 87.57.C‐, 87.57.cm PMID:27685118

  7. Radio emission in peculiar galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demellorabaca, Dulia F.; Abraham, Zulema

    1990-01-01

    During the last decades a number of surveys of peculiar galaxies have been carried out and accurate positions become available. Since peculiarities are a possible evidence of radio emission (Wright, 1974; Sulentic, 1976; Stocke et al., 1978), the authors selected a sample of 24 peculiar galaxies with optical jet-like features or extensions in different optical catalogues, mainly the Catalogue of Southern Peculiar Galaxies and Associations (Arp and Madore, 1987) and the ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO(B) Atlas (Lauberts, 1982) for observation at the radio continuum frequency of 22 GHz. The sample is listed in a table. Sol (1987) studied this sample and concluded that the majority of the jet-like features seem to admit an explanation in terms of interactive galaxies with bridges and/or tails due to tidal effects. Only in a few cases do the jets seem to be possibly linked to some nuclear activity of the host galaxy. The observations were made with the 13.7m-radome enclosed Itapetinga Radiotelescope (HPBW of 4.3 arcmin), in Brazil. The receiver was a 1 GHz d.s.b. super-heterodine mixer operated in total-power mode, with a system temperature of approximately 800 K. The observational technique consisted in scans in right ascention, centralized in the optical position of the galaxy. The amplitude of one scan was 43 arcmin, and its duration time was 20 seconds. The integration time was at least 2 hours (12 ten-minute observations) and the sensibility limit adopted was an antenna temperature greater than 3 times the r.m.s. error of the baseline determination. Virgo A was used as the calibrator source. Three galaxies were detected for the first time as radio sources and four other known galaxies at low frequencies had their flux densities measured at 22 GHz. The results for these sources are presented.

  8. Spectrum of the extragalactic background light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzual A, G [Centro de Investigacion de Astronomia, Merida (Venezuela)

    1981-01-01

    The observed spectrum of the extragalactic background light in the range from ultraviolet to optical wavelengths is compared with a model prediction. The model uses the locally observed luminosity function of galaxies as well as evolutionary models for galaxy spectral energy distributions. The predicition is too faint by a factor of about 10.

  9. Galaxies and gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bignami, G.F.; Fichtel, C.E.; Hartman, R.C.; Thompson, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between the recently measured X-ray spectra of active galaxies, the intensity upper limits to the γ-ray emission above 35 MeV from the same objects obtained from data from SAS 2, and other γ-ray data are used to address the nature of the high-energy spectra of several types of active galaxies, their contribution to the measured diffuse γ-ray emission between 1 and 150 MeV, and constraints which may be placed on cosmological evolutionary factors. It is found that a substantial increase in slope of the photon energy spectrum must occur in the low-energy γ-ray region for Seyfert galaxies, BL Lac objects, and emission line galaxies. A spectral steepening is also seen for 3C 273 and Cen A, the only quasar and radio galaxy for which accurate X-ray spectra are presently available above 20 keV. A cosmological integration shows that Seyfert galaxies, BL Lac objects, and quasars may account for most of the 1--150 MeV diffuse background, even without significant evolution. Sharp emission line galaxies and radio galaxies made a much smaller contribution under the same assumptions. The observed isotropic γ-radiation limits the γ-ray evolution possible for Seyfert galaxies, BL Lac objects, and quasars. The high-latitude galactic radiation limits the γ-ray evolution of normal field galaxies. The integrated emission of normal field galaxies with evolution back to z=4 cannot exceed about 10 times the integrated emission assuming no evolution

  10. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, Laurent

    1979-01-01

    This research thesis addresses theories on the chemical evolution of galaxies which aim at explaining abundances of different elements in galaxies, and more particularly aims at improving the model by modifying hypotheses. After a description of the simple model and of its uncertainties, the author shows how it is possible to understand the evolution of the main elements. Predictions obtained with this model are then compared with the present knowledge on galaxies by considering them according to an increasing complexity: Sun's neighbourhood, our galaxy, other spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies, and finally galaxy clusters. A specific attention is given to irregular galaxies which are the simplest systems [fr

  11. Accurate halo-galaxy mocks from automatic bias estimation and particle mesh gravity solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Mohammadjavad; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Feng, Yu; Yepes, Gustavo; Zhao, Cheng; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Hahn, ChangHoon

    2017-12-01

    Reliable extraction of cosmological information from clustering measurements of galaxy surveys requires estimation of the error covariance matrices of observables. The accuracy of covariance matrices is limited by our ability to generate sufficiently large number of independent mock catalogues that can describe the physics of galaxy clustering across a wide range of scales. Furthermore, galaxy mock catalogues are required to study systematics in galaxy surveys and to test analysis tools. In this investigation, we present a fast and accurate approach for generation of mock catalogues for the upcoming galaxy surveys. Our method relies on low-resolution approximate gravity solvers to simulate the large-scale dark matter field, which we then populate with haloes according to a flexible non-linear and stochastic bias model. In particular, we extend the PATCHY code with an efficient particle mesh algorithm to simulate the dark matter field (the FASTPM code), and with a robust MCMC method relying on the EMCEE code for constraining the parameters of the bias model. Using the haloes in the BigMultiDark high-resolution N-body simulation as a reference catalogue, we demonstrate that our technique can model the bivariate probability distribution function (counts-in-cells), power spectrum and bispectrum of haloes in the reference catalogue. Specifically, we show that the new ingredients permit us to reach percentage accuracy in the power spectrum up to k ∼ 0.4 h Mpc-1 (within 5 per cent up to k ∼ 0.6 h Mpc-1) with accurate bispectra improving previous results based on Lagrangian perturbation theory.

  12. Growth problems of stellar black holes in early galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orofino, M. C.; Ferrara, A.; Gallerani, S.

    2018-06-01

    The nature of the seeds of the observed high-z super-massive black holes (SMBH) is unknown. Although different options have been proposed, involving e.g. intermediate mass direct collapse black holes, BH remnants of massive stars remain the most natural explanation. To identify the most favorable conditions (if any) for their rapid growth, we study the accretion rate of a M• = 100M⊙ BH formed in a typical z = 10 galaxy under different conditions (e.g. galaxy structure, BH initial position and velocity). We model the galaxy baryonic content and follow the BH orbit and accretion history for 300 Myr (the time span in 10 > z > 7), assuming the radiation-regulated accretion model by Park & Ricotti (2013). We find that, within the limits of our model, BH seeds cannot grow by more than 30%, suggesting that accretion on light-seed models are inadequate to explain high-z SMBH. We also compute the X-ray emission from such accreting stellar BH population in the [0.5 - 8] keV band and find it comparable to the one produced by high-mass X-ray binaries. This study suggests that early BHs, by X-ray pre-heating of the intergalactic medium at cosmic dawn, might leave a specific signature on the HI 21 cm line power spectrum potentially detectable with SKA.

  13. JET PROPERTIES OF GeV-SELECTED RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES AND POSSIBLE CONNECTION TO THEIR DISK AND CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiao-Na; Lin, Da-Bin; Liang, En-Wei [Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Zhang, Jin [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Xue, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Nan, E-mail: zhang.jin@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2015-01-01

    The observed spectral energy distributions of five GeV-selected narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies are fitted with a model including the radiation ingredients from the relativistic jet, the accretion disk, and the corona. We compare the properties of these GeV NLS1 galaxies with flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs), and radio-quiet (RQ) Seyfert galaxies, and explore possible hints for jet-disk/corona connection. Our results show that the radiation physics and the jet properties of the GeV NLS1 galaxies resemble that of FSRQs. The luminosity variations of PMN J0948+0022 and 1H 0323+342 at the GeV band is tightly correlated with the beaming factor (δ), similar to that observed in FSRQ 3C 279. The accretion disk luminosities and the jet powers of the GeV NLS1 galaxies cover both the ranges of FSRQs and BL Lacs. With the detection of bright corona emission in 1H 0323+342, we show that the ratio of the corona luminosity (L {sub corona}) to the accretion disk luminosity (L {sub d}) is marginally within the high end of this ratio distribution for an RQ Seyfert galaxy sample, and the variation of jet luminosity may connect with L {sub corona}. However, it is still unclear whether a system with a high L {sub corona}/L {sub d} ratio prefers to power a jet.

  14. Instantaneous Power Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Jon s (n)e-"’ z(121) SA+ -jO where N-1 Ck = s(n)s (n - k) k > 0 (122) n=z+k and + =ck = -c~k) (123) Now, to get the digital equivalents of (2),(4) we...Paulo NI. D. M6nica de Oliveira 2 Direcpto do Servi(;o de Instru~ao e Treino Edificjo da Adniinistraqdo Central de Marinha Praoa do Comercio I I...Lisboa Portugal 89 12. Lt. Paulo M. D. NM6nica de Oliveira2 Direc Ao do Servi~o de 1nstruqao e Treino Edificio da Adnistraqo Central de Marinha Praoa do Comercio 1 100 Lisboa Portuoal 89

  15. Estimation of Scatterer Diameter by Normalized Power Spectrum of High-Frequency Ultrasonic RF Echo for Assessment of Red Blood Cell Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Taku; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, as one of the determinants of blood viscosity, plays an important role in blood rheology, including the condition of blood. RBC aggregation is induced by the adhesion of RBCs when the electrostatic repulsion between RBCs weakens owing to increases in protein and saturated fatty acid levels in blood, excessive RBC aggregation leads to various circulatory diseases. This study was conducted to establish a noninvasive quantitative method for assessment of RBC aggregation. The power spectrum of ultrasonic RF echoes from nonaggregating RBCs, which shows the frequency property of scattering, exhibits Rayleigh behavior. On the other hand, ultrasonic RF echoes from aggregating RBCs contain the components of reflection, which have no frequency dependence. By dividing the measured power spectrum of echoes from RBCs in the lumen by that of echoes from a posterior wall of the vein in the dorsum manus, the attenuation property of the propagating medium and the frequency responses of transmitting and receiving transducers are removed from the former spectrum. RBC aggregation was assessed by the diameter of a scatterer, which was estimated by minimizing the square difference between the measured normalized power spectrum and the theoretical power spectrum. In this study, spherical scatterers with diameters of 5, 11, 15, and 30 µm were measured in basic experiments. The estimated scatterer diameters were close to the actual diameters. Furthermore, the transient change of the scatterer diameters were measured in an in vivo experiment with respect to a 24-year-old healthy male during the avascularization using a cuff. The estimated diameters (12-22 µm) of RBCs during avascularization were larger than the diameters (4-8 µm) at rest and after recirculation. These results show the possibility of the use of the proposed method for noninvasive assessment of RBC aggregation.

  16. Galaxy Mergers from the Largest to the Smallest Scales: Introduction and Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Galaxy mergers encompass a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, including cosmological considerations, gas and stellar dynamics, AGN evolution, and mergers of the central SMBHs. Astrophysical signatures of galaxy mergers can be observed across most of the electromagnetic spectrum and through gravitational radiation. This talk provides an introduction and overview of the meeting, highlighting the key aspects of galaxy mergers from large to small scales.

  17. Properties of Narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Suvendu; Stalin, Chelliah Subramonian; Chand, Hum; Zhang, Xue-Guang

    2018-04-01

    Narrow line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies constitute a class of active galactic nuclei characterized by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the Hα broad emission line 10 pixel-1. A strong correlation between the Hα and Hα emission lines is found both in the FWHM and flux. The nuclear continuum lum